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Sample records for absorption band shifts

  1. Would the solvent effect be the main cause of band shift in the theoretical absorption spectrum of large lanthanide complexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Gimenez, Iara F.; da Costa Junior, Nivan B.

    2011-06-01

    As most reactions take place in solution, the study of solvent effects on relevant molecular properties - either by experimental or theoretical methods - is crucial for the design of new processes and prediction of technological properties. In spite of this, only few works focusing the influence of the solvent nature specifically on the spectroscopic properties of lanthanide complexes can be found in the literature. The present work describes a theoretical study of the solvent effect on the prediction of the absorption spectra for lanthanide complexes, but other possible relevant factors have been also considered such as the molecular geometry and the excitation window used for interaction configuration (CI) calculations. The [Eu(ETA) 2· nH 2O] +1 complex has been chosen as an ideal candidate for this type of study due to its small number of atoms (only 49) and also because the absorption spectrum exhibits a single band. Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, the first one considering the [Eu(ETA) 2] +1 complex in 400 water molecules, evidencing that the complex presents four coordinated water molecules. The second simulation considered the [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex in 400 ethanol molecules, in order to evaluate the solvent effect on the shift of the maximum absorption in calculated spectra, compared to the experimental one. Quantum chemical studies were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of calculated ground state geometry on the prediction of absorption spectra. The influence of the excitation window used for CI calculations on the spectral shift was also evaluated. No significant solvent effect was found on the prediction of the absorption spectrum for [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex. A small but significant effect of the ground state geometry on the transition energy and oscillator strength was also observed. Finally it must be emphasized that the absorption spectra of lanthanide complexes can be predicted with great accuracy

  2. Temperature-Induced Large Broadening and Blue Shift in the Electronic Band Structure and Optical Absorption of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Hu, Ming

    2017-08-17

    The power conversion efficiency of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells is profoundly influenced by the operating temperature. Here we investigate the temperature influence on the electronic band structure and optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 from first-principles by accounting for both the electron-phonon interaction and thermal expansion. Within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, the electron-phonon coupling induces slightly enlarged band gap and strongly broadened electronic relaxation time as temperature increases. The large broadening effect is mainly due to the presence of cation organic atoms. Consequently, the temperature-dependent absorption peak exhibits blue-shift position, decreased amplitude, and broadened width. This work uncovers the atomistic origin of temperature influence on the optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and can provide guidance to design high-performance hybrid halide perovskite solar cells at different operating temperatures.

  3. Sub-band-gap absorption in Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, Hartwin; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2017-10-01

    β-Ga2O3 is a transparent conducting oxide that, due to its large bandgap of 4.8 eV, exhibits transparency into the UV. However, the free carriers that enable the conductivity can absorb light. We study the effect of free carriers on the properties of Ga2O3 using hybrid density functional theory. The presence of free carriers leads to sub-band-gap absorption and a Burstein-Moss shift in the onset of absorption. We find that for a concentration of 1020 carriers, the Fermi level is located 0.23 eV above the conduction-band minimum. This leads to an increase in the electron effective mass from 0.27-0.28 me to 0.35-0.37 me and a sub-band-gap absorption band with a peak value of 0.6 × 103 cm-1 at 3.37 eV for light polarized along the x or z direction. Both across-the-gap and free-carrier absorption depend strongly on the polarization of the incoming light. We also provide parametrizations of the conduction-band shape and the effective mass as a function of the Fermi level.

  4. Absorption band Q model for the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Given, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Attenuation in solids and liquids, as measured by the quality factor Q, is typically frequency dependent. In seismology, however, Q is usually assumed to be independent of frequency. Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. Specific features of the absorption band model are: low-Q in the seismic band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low-Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q sub s that increases with period, and low Q sub p/Q sub s at short periods in the middle mantle.

  5. Varied absorption peaks of dual-band metamaterial absorber analysis by using reflection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Han; Yu, Yan-Tao; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Shi-Yong; Liu, Dan-Ping; Ou, Xiang; Zeng, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Cross-resonator metamaterial absorbers (MMA) have been widely investigated from microwave to optical frequencies. However, only part of the factors influencing the absorption properties were analyzed in previous works at the same time. In order to completely understand how the spacer thickness, dielectric parameter and incidence angle affect the absorption properties of the dual-band MMA, two sets of simulation were performed. It was found that with increasing incident angles, the low-frequency absorption peak showed a blue shift, while the high-frequency absorption peaks showed a red shift. However, with the increase in spacer thickness, both of the absorption peaks showed a red shift. By using the reflection theory expressions, the physical mechanism of the cross-resonator MMA was well explained. This method provides an effective way to analyze multi-band absorber in technology.

  6. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-01-01

    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  7. Optical absorption spectra and energy band gap in manganese containing sodium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardarpasha, K. R.; Hanumantharaju, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Optical band gap energy in the system 25Na2O-(75-x)[0.6P2O5-0.4ZnO]-xMnO2 (where x = 0.5,1,5,10 and 20 mol.%) have been studied. The intensity of the absorption band found to increase with increase of MnO2 content. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in MnO2 content in the investigated glasses is attributed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The obtained results were discussed in view of the structure of phosphate glass network.

  8. Temperature shift of intraband absorption peak in tunnel-coupled QW structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, V.; Firsov, D. A.; Duque, C. A.; Tulupenko, V.; Balagula, R. M.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Vorobjev, L. E.

    2017-04-01

    An experimental study of the intersubband light absorption by the 100-period GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As double quantum well heterostructure doped with silicon is reported and interpreted. Small temperature redshift of the 1-3 intersubband absorption peak is detected. Numerical calculations of the absorption coefficient including self-consistent Hartree calculations of the bottom of the conduction band show good agreement with the observed phenomena. The temperature dependence of energy gap of the material and the depolarization shift should be accounted for to explain the shift.

  9. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  10. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina V A; Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-09-01

    A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development.

  11. Anisotropy of band gap absorption in TlGaSe2 semiconductor by ferroelectric phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbinas, Karolis; Grivickas, Vytautas; Gavryushin, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    The depth-resolved free-carrier absorption and the photo-acoustic response are used to examine the band-gap absorption in 2D-TlGaSe2 layered semiconductor after its transformation into the ferroelectric F-phase below 107 K. The absorption exhibits unusual behavior with a biaxial character in respect to the light polarization on the layer plane. A spectral analysis shows that the anisotropy is associated to the lowest Γ-direct optical transition. The Γ-absorption and the localized exciton at 2.11 eV are dipole-prohibited or partially allowed in two nearly perpendicular polarization directions. The shift of anisotropy axis in respect to crystallographic a- and b-directions demonstrates the non-equivalent zigzag rearrangement of the interlayer connecting Tl+ ions, which is responsible for occurrence of the F-phase.

  12. Detection of metal stress in boreal forest species using the 0.67-micron chlorophyll absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhroy, Vernon H.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that a shift of the red-edge inflection near 0.70 micron in vegetation reflectance spectra is an indicator of metal stress, partially attributable to changes in chlorophyll concentration. This 'red-edge shift', however, is difficult to detect and has been reported both toward longer (red) and shorter (blue) wavelengths. Our work demonstrates that direct measurement of the depth and width of the chlorophyll absorption band at 0.67 micron using digital feature extraction and absorption band characterization procedures developed for the analysis of mineral spectra is a more consistent indicator of metal stress. Additionally, the magnitude of these parameters is generally greater than that of the red edge shift and thus should be more amenable to detection and mapping using field and aircraft spectrometers.

  13. Electronic absorption band broadening and surface roughening of phthalocyanine double layers by saturated solvent vapor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinhyun; Yim, Sanggyu, E-mail: sgyim@kookmin.ac.kr

    2012-10-15

    Variations in the electronic absorption (EA) and surface morphology of three types of phthalocyanine (Pc) thin film systems, i.e. copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) single layer, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) single layer, and ZnPc on CuPc (CuPc/ZnPc) double layer film, treated with saturated acetone vapor were investigated. For the treated CuPc single layer film, the surface roughness slightly increased and bundles of nanorods were formed, while the EA varied little. In contrast, for the ZnPc single layer film, the relatively high solubility of ZnPc led to a considerable shift in the absorption bands as well as a large increase in the surface roughnessmore » and formation of long and wide nano-beams, indicating a part of the ZnPc molecules dissolved in acetone, which altered their molecular stacking. For the CuPc/ZnPc film, the saturated acetone vapor treatment resulted in morphological changes in mainly the upper ZnPc layer due to the significantly low solubility of the underlying CuPc layer. The treatment also broadened the EA band, which involved a combination of unchanged CuPc and changed ZnPc absorption.« less

  14. A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.

  15. Temperature-dependence laws of absorption line shape parameters of the CO2 ν3 band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilzewski, J. S.; Birk, M.; Loos, J.; Wagner, G.

    2018-02-01

    To improve the understanding of temperature-dependence laws of spectral line shape parameters, spectra of the ν3 rovibrational band of CO2 perturbed by 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 mbar of N2 were recorded at nine temperatures between 190 K and 330 K using a 22 cm long single-pass absorption cell in a Bruker IFS125 HR Fourier Transform spectrometer. The spectra were fitted employing a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation by means of a multispectrum fitting approach developed at DLR. This enables high accuracy parameter retrievals to reproduce the spectra down to noise level and we present the behavior of line widths, shifts, speed-dependence-, collisional narrowing- and line mixing-parameters over this 140 K temperature range.

  16. Temperature Dependences of Air-Broadening and Shift Parameters in the ν_3 Band of Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    2015-06-01

    Line parameter errors can contribute significantly to the total errors in retrievals of terrestrial atmospheric ozone concentration profiles using the strong 9.6-μm band, particularly for nadir-viewing experiments Detailed knowledge of the interfering ozone signal is also needed for retrievals of other atmospheric species in this spectral region. We have determined Lorentz air-broadening and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with their temperature dependences for a number of transitions in the ν_3 fundamental band of 16O_3. These results were obtained by applying the multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique to a set of 31 high-resolution infrared absorption spectra of O_3 recorded at temperatures between 160 and 300 K with several different room-temperature and coolable sample cells at the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. We compare our results with other available measurements and with the ozone line parameters in the HITRAN database. J.~Worden et al., J.~Geophys.~Res. 109 (2004) 9308-9319. R.~Beer et al., Geophys.~Res.~Lett. 35 (2008) L09801. D.~Chris Benner et al., JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. Rothman et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130 (2013) 4. JQSRT 130 (2013) 4-50.

  17. Precise Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Karl-Hugo; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A precise method of determining absorption maxima where Gaussian functions occur is described. The method is based on a logarithmic transformation of the Gaussian equation and is suited for a mini-computer. (MR)

  18. Band gap of corundumlike α -Ga2O3 determined by absorption and ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, A.; Artús, L.; Cuscó, R.; Goldhahn, R.; Feneberg, M.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic structure near the band gap of the corundumlike α phase of Ga2O3 has been investigated by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the ultraviolet (UV) range (400-190 nm). The absorption coefficient in the UV region and the imaginary part of the dielectric function exhibit two prominent absorption thresholds with wide but well-defined structures at 5.6 and 6.3 eV which have been ascribed to allowed direct transitions from crystal-field split valence bands to the conduction band. Excitonic effects with large Gaussian broadening are taken into account through the Elliott-Toyozawa model, which yields an exciton binding energy of 110 meV and direct band gaps of 5.61 and 6.44 eV. The large broadening of the absorption onset is related to the slightly indirect character of the material.

  19. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  20. Band shift of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys: size and composition effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Band engineering of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs) is a vital task for their applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. In this study, we investigate the joint effect from size and composition contributions on the band shift of 2D-TMD alloys in terms of atomic bond relaxation consideration. A theoretical model is proposed to pursue the underlying mechanism, which can connect the band offset with the atomic bonding identities in the 2D-TMD alloys. We reveal that the bandgap of 2D-TMD alloys presents a bowing shape owing to the size-dependent interaction among atoms and shows blue shift or red shift due to different intermixing of components. It is demonstrated that both size and composition can be performed as the useful methods to modulate the band shift, which suggests an effective way to realize the desirable properties of 2D-TMD alloys.

  1. Predicting the Shifts of Absorption Maxima of Azulene Derivatives Using Molecular Modeling and ZINDO CI Calculations of UV-Vis Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patalinghug, Wyona C.; Chang, Maharlika; Solis, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    The deep blue color of azulene is drastically changed by the addition of substituents such as CH[subscript 3], F, or CHO. Computational semiempirical methods using ZINDO CI are used to model azulene and azulene derivatives and to calculate their UV-vis spectra. The calculated spectra are used to show the trends in absorption band shifts upon…

  2. Atmospheric absorption of high frequency noise and application to fractional-octave bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.

  3. Lifetime enhancement for multiphoton absorption in intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Anibal T.; Studart, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    A semiconductor structure consisting of two coupled quantum wells embedded into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n junction is proposed as an intermediate band solar cell with a photon ratchet state, which would lead to increasing the cell efficiency. The conduction subband of the right-hand side quantum well works as the intermediated band, whereas the excited conduction subband of the left-hand side quantum well operates as the ratchet state. The photoelectrons in the intermediate band are scattered through the thin wells barrier and accumulated into the ratchet subband. A rate equation model for describing the charge transport properties is presented. The efficiency of the current generation is analyzed by studying the occupation of the wells subbands, taking into account the charge dynamic behavior provided by the electrical contacts connected to the cell. The current generation efficiency depends essentially from the relations between the generation, recombination rates and the scattering rate to the ratchet state. The inclusion of the ratchet states led to both an increase and a decrease in the cell current depending on the transition rates. This suggests that the coupling between the intermediate band and the ratchet state is a key point in developing an efficient solar cell.

  4. Broad band solar EUV absorption in the earth's upper atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, K. H.; Rense, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Observation data on solar radiation intensity, based on measurements performed as a function of time for three broad wavelength bands between 280 and 1030 A by a wheel spectrometer on Oso 5 during sunrise and sunset, are compared with predicted intensity variations based on Cira models. The differences between sunrise and sunset data, as well as those between observed and predicted data are discussed.

  5. Evidence for sulphur implantation in Europa's UV absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; Nelson, R. M.; Matson, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The UV spectral characteristics of the Galilean satellites are investigated (using data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft) as a function of the orbital position, large-scale areal variability, and temporal dynamics. The discovery of an absorption feature at 280 nm in Europa's reflection spectrum is reported and observations show that the absorption is strongest on the trailing hemisphere (central longitude 270 degrees). The feature resembles SO2 and seems to result from S-O bond formation between deeply implanted sulphur atoms and the adjacent damaged water-ice-lattice. The sulphur supposedly comes from energetic (hundreds of keV) sulphur ions that are present in the Jovian magnetosphere. An appropriate equilibrium condition can be found to match the observed spectral data if sputtering erosion occurs at no greater than approximately 20 meters per one billion years.

  6. ASSIGNMENT OF 5069 A DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BAND TO HC{sub 4}H{sup +}: DISAGREEMENT WITH LABORATORY ABSORPTION BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, J. P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Mazzotti, F. J.

    2011-03-10

    Krelowski et al. have reported a weak, diffuse interstellar band (DIB) at 5069 A which appears to match in both mid-wavelength and width the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}-X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} gas-phase origin absorption band of HC{sub 4}H{sup +}. Here, we present laboratory rotational profiles at low temperatures which are then compared with the 5069 A DIB using {approx}0.1 and 0.3 A line widths based on a realistic line-of-sight interstellar velocity dispersion. Neither the band shape nor the wavelength of the maximum absorption match, which makes the association of the 5069 A DIB with HC{sub 4}H{sup +} unlikely. The magneticmore » dipole transition X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} {Omega} = 1/2{yields}X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} {Omega} = 3/2 within the ground electronic state which competes with collisional excitation is also considered. In addition, we present the laboratory gas-phase spectrum of the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}-X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} transition of HC{sub 4}H{sup +} measured at 25 K in an ion trap and identify further absorption bands at shorter wavelengths for comparison with future DIB data.« less

  7. Valence-band-edge shift due to doping in p + GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, J. A.; de Lyon, T. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1991-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of the shifts in valence- and conduction-band edges due to heavy doping effects is crucial in modeling GaAs device structures that utilize heavily doped layers. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to deduce the shift in the valence-band-edge induced by carbon (p type) doping to a carrier density of 1×1020 cm-3 based on a determination of the bulk binding energy of the Ga and As core levels in this material. Analysis of the data indicates that the shift of the valence-band maximum into the gap and the penetration of the Fermi level into the valence bands exactly compensate at this degenerate carrier concentration, to give ΔEv =0.12±0.05 eV.

  8. Origin of the blue shift of the CH stretching band for 2-butoxyethanol in water.

    PubMed

    Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Keiichi

    2006-07-26

    The blue shift of the isolated CD stretching band of 2-butoxyethanol (C4E1), which is observed for the aqueous solution during the dilution process, has been investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Mono-deuterium-labeled C4E1's were employed to remove the severe overlapping among the CH stretching bands. The isolated CD stretching mode of the alpha-methylene in the butoxy group shows a large blue shift, while those of the beta-methylene and methyl groups are not largely shifted. The spectral simulation results for the C4E1/H2O complexes indicate that the large blue shift of the CD stretching band of the butoxy group arises mainly from the hydration of the ether oxygen atom.

  9. Determination of shift in energy of band edges and band gap of ZnSe spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboh, Dutem; Kalita, Pradip Kumar; Sarma, Jayanta Kumar; Nath, Nayan Mani

    2018-04-01

    We have determined the quantum confinement induced shifts in energy of band edges and band gap with respect to size of ZnSe spherical quantum dot employing an effective confinement potential model developed in our earlier communication "arXiv:1705.10343". We have also performed phenomenological analysis of our theoretical results in comparison with available experimental data and observe a very good agreement in this regard. Phenomenological success achieved in this regard confirms validity of the confining potential model as well as signifies the capability and applicability of the ansatz for the effective confining potential to have reasonable information in the study of real nano-structured spherical systems.

  10. Temperature-Dependence of Air-Broadened Line Widths and Shifts in the nu3 Band of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mary A. H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Cox, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The 9.6-micron bands of O3 are used by many remote-sensing experiments for retrievals of terrestrial atmospheric ozone concentration profiles. Line parameter errors can contribute significantly to the total errors in these retrievals, particularly for nadir-viewing. The McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak was used to record numerous high-resolution infrared absorption spectra of O3 broadened by various gases at temperatures between 160 and 300 K. Over 30 spectra were analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique to determine Lorentz air-broadening and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with their temperature dependences for selected transitions in the 3 fundamental band of (16)O3. We compare the present results with other measurements reported in the literature and with the ozone parameters on the 2000 and 2004 editions of the HITRAN database.

  11. Nitrogen-Pressure Shifts in the v3 Band of Methane Measured at Several Temperatures between 300 and 90 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumuhimbise, Anthony T.; Hurtmans, Daniel; Mantz, Arlan W.; Mondelain, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere requires accurate knowledge of spectroscopic line parameters for the molecules investigated. Knowledge of the temperature dependence of these parameters is also essential if agreement, at the noise level, between calculated and experimental data is to be achieved. The authors recently published results of nitrogen broadening measurements in the v3 band of 12CH4 using the 5.37 m long absorption path length all-copper Herriott cell. The temperature dependent line parameters determined in the laboratory were applied to fit a portion of the atmospheric spectrum recorded with a balloon-borne remote sensing FTIR instrument, called the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere, and operating in absorption against the sun. Since the authors had a relatively complete series of data for the P(9) transition in the v3 band of 12CH4, the A2 1 as well as the F2 1, F1 1 and A1 1 lines recorded at different pressures and at four temperatures between 300 and 90 K, we reanalyzed the data to derive pressure shift information at different temperatures. The temperatures for which data were collected and analyzed are 298, 140 and 90K. The high precision pressure shift data obtained here over a large range of temperature demonstrate the ability of our experimental arrangement to address specific questions on a given spectral window like in the balloon experiment or in a satellite project, for example.

  12. Multijunction solar cell design revisited: disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands: Disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands

    DOE PAGES

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2017-05-23

    This paper re-examines the impact of atmospheric absorption bands on series-connected multijunction cell design, motivated by the numerous local efficiency maxima that appear as the number of junctions is increased. Some of the local maxima are related to the bottom subcell bandgap and are already well understood: As the bottom subcell bandgap is varied, a local efficiency maximum is produced wherever the bottom cell bandgap crosses an atmospheric absorption band. The optimal cell designs at these local maxima are generally current matched, such that all subcells have nearly the same short-circuit current. We systematically describe additional local maxima that occurmore » wherever an upper subcell bandgap encounters an atmospheric absorption band. Moreover, these local maxima are not current matched and become more prevalent as the number of junctions increases, complicating the solution space for five-junction and six-junction designs. A systematic framework for describing this complexity is developed, and implications for numerical convergence are discussed.« less

  13. Multijunction solar cell design revisited: disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands: Disruption of current matching by atmospheric absorption bands

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    This paper re-examines the impact of atmospheric absorption bands on series-connected multijunction cell design, motivated by the numerous local efficiency maxima that appear as the number of junctions is increased. Some of the local maxima are related to the bottom subcell bandgap and are already well understood: As the bottom subcell bandgap is varied, a local efficiency maximum is produced wherever the bottom cell bandgap crosses an atmospheric absorption band. The optimal cell designs at these local maxima are generally current matched, such that all subcells have nearly the same short-circuit current. We systematically describe additional local maxima that occurmore » wherever an upper subcell bandgap encounters an atmospheric absorption band. Moreover, these local maxima are not current matched and become more prevalent as the number of junctions increases, complicating the solution space for five-junction and six-junction designs. A systematic framework for describing this complexity is developed, and implications for numerical convergence are discussed.« less

  14. Tunable dual-band nearly perfect absorption based on a compound metallic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Feng, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Traditional metallic gratings and novel metamaterials are two basic kinds of candidates for perfect absorption. Comparatively speaking, metallic grating is the preferred choice for the same absorption effect because it is structurally simpler and more convenient to fabricate. However, to date, most of the perfect absorption effects achieved based on metamaterials are also available using an metallic grating except the tunable dual(multi)-band perfect absorption. To fill this gap, in this paper, by adding subgrooves on the rear surface as well as inside the grating slits to a free-standing metallic grating, tunable dual-band perfect absorption is also obtained for the first time. The grooves inside the slits is to tune the frequency of the Cavity Mode(CM) resonance which enhances the transmission and suppresses the reflectance simultaneously. The grooves on the rear surface give rise to the phase resonance which not only suppresses the transmission but also reinforces the reflectance depression effect. Thus, when the phase resonance and the frequency tunable CM resonance occur together, transmission and reflection can be suppressed simultaneously, dual-band nearly perfect absorption with tunable frequencies is obtained. To our knowledge, this perfect absorption phenomenon is achieved for the first time in a designed metallic grating structure.

  15. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue

    2014-12-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  16. Pressure-Induced Structural Evolution and Band Gap Shifts of Organometal Halide Perovskite-Based Methylammonium Lead Chloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingrui; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Guanjun; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Zou, Bo

    2016-12-15

    Organometal halide perovskites are promising materials for optoelectronic devices. Further development of these devices requires a deep understanding of their fundamental structure-property relationships. The effect of pressure on the structural evolution and band gap shifts of methylammonium lead chloride (MAPbCl 3 ) was investigated systematically. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman experiments provided structural information on the shrinkage, tilting distortion, and amorphization of the primitive cubic unit cell. In situ high pressure optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra manifested that the band gap of MAPbCl 3 could be fine-tuned to the ultraviolet region by pressure. The optical changes are correlated with pressure-induced structural evolution of MAPbCl 3 , as evidenced by band gap shifts. Comparisons between Pb-hybrid perovskites and inorganic octahedra provided insights on the effects of halogens on pressure-induced transition sequences of these compounds. Our results improve the understanding of the structural and optical properties of organometal halide perovskites.

  17. Emergence of Very Broad Infrared Absorption Band By Hyperdoping of Silicon with Chalcogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-03

    measured by Hall effect in Ref. 9 (crosses) as functions of implanted sulfur dose. (c) Calculated reflectivity by Kramers- Kronig transformation of the...MIR band is small enough, this assumption is reasonable according to the Kramers- Kronig relationship between optical absorption and reflectivity...calculated by a Kramers- Kronig transformation of the absorption spectrum shown in Fig. 1(a) and the results are shown in Fig. 1(c). However, the a value

  18. Robust indirect band gap and anisotropy of optical absorption in B-doped phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Guo, Lei; Kang, Jun; Fang, Dang-Qi; Zhang, Yang; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2017-12-06

    A traditional doping technique plays an important role in the band structure engineering of two-dimensional nanostructures. Since electron interaction is changed by doping, the optical and electrochemical properties could also be significantly tuned. In this study, density functional theory calculations have been employed to explore the structural stability, and electronic and optical properties of B-doped phosphorene. The results show that all B-doped phosphorenes are stable with a relatively low binding energy. Of particular interest is that these B-doped systems exhibit an indirect band gap, which is distinct from the direct one of pure phosphorene. Despite the different concentrations and configurations of B dopants, such indirect band gaps are robust. The screened hybrid density functional HSE06 predicts that the band gap of B-doped phosphorene is slightly smaller than that of pure phosphorene. Spatial charge distributions at the valence band maximum (VBM) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) are analyzed to understand the features of an indirect band gap. By comparison with pure phosphorene, B-doped phosphorenes exhibit strong anisotropy and intensity of optical absorption. Moreover, B dopants could enhance the stability of Li adsorption on phosphorene with less sacrifice of the Li diffusion rate. Our results suggest that B-doping is an effective way of tuning the band gap, enhancing the intensity of optical absorption and improving the performances of Li adsorption, which could promote potential applications in novel optical devices and lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Diversity in the Visible-NIR Absorption Band Characteristics of Lunar and Asteroidal Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Misawa, K.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Studying the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral properties of plagioclase has been challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining good plagioclase separates from pristine planetary materials such as meteorites and returned lunar samples. After an early study indicated that the 1.25 m band position of plagioclase spectrum might be correlated with the molar percentage of anorthite (An#) [1], there have been few studies which dealt with the band center behavior. In this study, the VNIR absorption band parameters of plagioclase samples have been derived using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) [2] following a pioneering study by [3].

  20. Diaryl-substituted norbornadienes with red-shifted absorption for molecular solar thermal energy storage.

    PubMed

    Gray, Victor; Lennartson, Anders; Ratanalert, Phasin; Börjesson, Karl; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2014-05-25

    Red-shifting the absorption of norbornadienes (NBDs), into the visible region, enables the photo-isomerization of NBDs to quadricyclanes (QCs) to be driven by sunlight. This is necessary in order to utilize the NBD-QC system for molecular solar thermal (MOST) energy storage. Reported here is a study on five diaryl-substituted norbornadienes. The introduced aryl-groups induce a significant red-shift of the UV/vis absorption spectrum of the norbornadienes, and device experiments using a solar-simulator set-up demonstrate the potential use of these compounds for MOST energy storage.

  1. Atomic scale origins of sub-band gap optical absorption in gold-hyperdoped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Naheed; Ertekin, Elif

    2018-05-01

    Gold hyperdoped silicon exhibits room temperature sub band gap optical absorption, with potential applications as infrared absorbers/detectors and impurity band photovoltaics. We use first-principles density functional theory to establish the origins of the sub band gap response. Substitutional gold AuSi and substitutional dimers AuSi - AuSi are found to be the energetically preferred defect configurations, and AuSi gives rise to partially filled mid-gap defect bands well offset from the band edges. AuSi is predicted to offer substantial sub-band gap absorption, exceeding that measured in prior experiments by two orders of magnitude for similar Au concentration. This suggests that in experimentally realized systems, in addition to AuSi, the implanted gold is accommodated by the lattice in other ways, including other defect complexes and gold precipitates. We further identify that it is energetically favorable for isolated AuSi to form AuSi - AuSi, which by contrast do not exhibit mid-gap states. The formation of dimers and other complexes could serve as nuclei in the earliest stages of Au precipitation, which may be responsible for the observed rapid deactivation of sub-band gap response upon annealing.

  2. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  3. Effect of Atmospheric Absorption Bands on the Optimal Design of Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, William E.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    Designing terrestrial multijunction (MJ) cells with 5+ junctions is challenging, in part because the presence of atmospheric absorption bands creates a design space with numerous local maxima. Here we introduce a new taxonomical structure which facilitates both numerical convergence and the visualization of the resulting designs.

  4. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  5. Jet-cooled infrared absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of HCOOH and HCOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Wenguang; Duan, Chuanxi

    2017-04-01

    The jet-cooled absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of normal formic acid (HCOOH) and deuterated formic acid (HCOOD) was recorded in the frequency range of 1370-1392 cm-1 with distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs) as the tunable infrared radiations. A segmented rapid-scan data acquisition scheme was developed for pulsed supersonic jet infrared laser absorption spectroscopy based on DFB-QCLs with a moderate vacuum pumping capacity. The unperturbed band-origin and rotational constants in the excited vibrational state were determined for both HCOOH and HCOOD. The unperturbed band-origin locates at 1379.05447(11) cm-1 for HCOOH, and 1366.48430(39) cm-1 for HCOOD, respectively.

  6. Intermediate Band Material of Titanium-Doped Tin Disulfide for Wide Spectrum Solar Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Keyan; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Gu, Yuhao; Bu, Kejun; Pan, Jie; Qin, Peng; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2018-04-02

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are of great significance due to their superior solar absorption properties. Here, two IBs peaking at 0.88 and 1.33 eV are reported to be present in the forbidden gap of semiconducting SnS 2 ( E g = 2.21 eV) by doping titanium up to 6 atom % into the Sn site via a solid-state reaction at 923 K. The solid solution of Sn 1- x Ti x S 2 is able to be formed, which is attributed to the isostructural structure of SnS 2 and TiS 2 . These two IBs were detected in the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra with the appearance of two additional absorption responses at the respective regions, which in good agreement with the conclusion of first-principles calculations. The valence band maximum (VBM) consists mostly of the S 3p state, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is the hybrid state composing of Ti 3d (e g ), S 3p, and Sn 5s, and the IBs are mainly the nondegenerate t 2g states of Ti 3d orbitals. The electronic states of Ti 3d reveal a good ability to transfer electrons between metal and S atoms. These wide-spectrum absorption IBs bring about more solar energy utilization to enhance solar thermal collection and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange.

  7. Influence of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Effective Absorption Bandwidth Shift of Hybrid Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Shahid; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic nanoparticle composite NiFe2O4 has traditionally been studied for high-frequency microwave absorption with marginal performance towards low-frequency radar bands (particularly L and S bands). Here, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and nanohybrids using large-diameter graphene oxide (GO) sheets are prepared via solvothermal synthesis for low-frequency wide bandwidth shielding (L and S radar bands). The synthesized materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR and microwave magneto dielectric spectroscopy. The dimension of these solvothermally synthesized pristine particles and hybrids lies within 30-58 nm. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy was performed in the low-frequency region in the 1 MHz-3 GHz spectrum. The as-synthesized pristine nanoparticles and hybrids were found to be highly absorbing for microwaves throughout the L and S radar bands (< -10 dB from 1 MHz to 3 GHz). This excellent microwave absorbing property induced by graphene sheet coupling shows application of these materials with absorption bandwidth which is tailored such that these could be used for low frequency. Previously, these were used for high frequency absorptions (typically > 4 GHz) with limited selective bandwidth.

  8. Analysis of wavelength-dependent photoisomerization quantum yields in bilirubins by fitting two exciton absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Troup, G. J.; Pratesi, R.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption spectra of bilirubins were deconvoluted by two Gaussian curves of equal width representing the exciton bands of the non-degenerate molecular system. The two bands were used to study the wavelength dependence of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) configurational photoisomerization quantum yield of the bichromophoric bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IX), the intrinsically asymmetric bile pigment associated with jaundice and the symmetrically substituted bilirubins (bilirubin-IIIalpha and mesobilirubin-XIIIalpha), when they are irradiated in aqueous solution bound to human serum albumin (HSA). The same study was performed for BR-IX in ammoniacal methanol solution (NH4OH/MeOH). The quantum yields of the configurational photoprocesses were fitted with a combination function of the two Gaussian bands normalized to the total absorption, using the proportionality coefficients and a scaling factor as parameters. The decrease of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) quantum yield with increasing wavelength, which occurs for wavelengths longer than the most probable Franck-Condon transition of the molecule, did not result in a unique function of the exciton absorptions. In particular we found two ranges corresponding to different exciton interactions with different proportionality coefficients and scaling factors. The wavelength-dependent photoisomerization of bilirubins was described as an abrupt change in quantum yield as soon as the resulting excitation was strongly localized in each chromophore. The change was correlated to a variation of the interaction between the two chromophores when the short-wavelength exciton absorption became vanishingly small. With the help of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BR-IX in HSA, a small band was resolved in the bilirubin absorption spectrum, delivering part of the energy required for the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) photoisomerization of the molecule.

  9. Tunable multi-band absorption in metasurface of graphene ribbons based on composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Renxia; Jiao, Zheng; Bao, Jie

    2017-05-01

    A tunable multiband absorption based on a graphene metasurface of composite structure at mid-infrared frequency was investigated by the finite difference time domain method. The composite structure were composed of graphene ribbons and a gold-MgF2 layer which was sandwiched in between two dielectric slabs. The permittivity of graphene is discussed with different chemical potential to obtain tunable absorption. And the absorption of the composite structure can be tuned by the chemical potential of graphene at certain frequencies. The impedance matching was used to study the perfect absorption of the structure in our paper. The results show that multi-band absorption can be obtained and some absorption peaks of the composite structure can be tuned through the changing not only of the width of graphene ribbons and gaps, but also the dielectric and the chemical potential of graphene. However, another peak was hardly changed by parameters due to a different resonant mechanism in proposed structure. This flexibily tunable multiband absorption may be applied to optical communications such as optical absorbers, mid infrared stealth devices and filters.

  10. First-principles C band absorption spectra of SO2 and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Kumar, Praveen; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Poirier, Bill; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The low-energy wing of the C ˜ B12 ←X˜ 1A1 absorption spectra for SO2 in the ultraviolet region is computed for the 32S,33S,34S and 36S isotopes, using the recently developed ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the two electronic states and the corresponding transition dipole surface. The state-resolved absorption spectra from various ro-vibrational states of SO2(X˜ 1A1 ) are computed. When contributions of these excited ro-vibrational states are included, the thermally averaged spectra are broadened but maintain their key characters. Excellent agreement with experimental absorption spectra is found, validating the accuracy of the PESs. The isotope shifts of the absorption peaks are found to increase linearly with energy, in good agreement with experiment.

  11. A sextuple-band ultra-thin metamaterial absorber with perfect absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dingwang; Liu, Peiguo; Dong, Yanfei; Zhou, Dongming; Zhou, Qihui

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation and measurement of a sextuple-band ultra-thin metamaterial absorber (MA). The unit cell of this proposed structure is composed of triangular spiral-shaped complementary structures imprinted on the dielectric substrate backed by a metal ground. The measured results are in good agreement with simulations with high absorptivities of more than 90% at all six absorption frequencies. In addition, this proposed absorber has good performances of ultra-thin, polarization insensitivity and a wide-angle oblique incidence, which can easily be used in many potential applications such as detection, imaging and sensing.

  12. Dual-band absorption of mid-infrared metamaterial absorber based on distinct dielectric spacing layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Peiheng; Cheng, Dengmu; Weng, Xiaolong; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2013-04-01

    We present the simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a dual-band metamaterial absorber in the mid-infrared regime. Two pairs of circular-patterned metal-dielectric stacks are employed to excite the dual-band absorption peaks. Dielectric characteristics of the dielectric spacing layer determine energy dissipation in each resonant stack, i.e., dielectric or ohmic loss. By controlling material parameters, both two mechanisms are introduced into our structure. Up to 98% absorption is obtained at 9.03 and 13.32 μm in the simulation, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The proposed structure holds promise for various applications, e.g., thermal radiation modulators and multicolor infrared focal plane arrays.

  13. Electromagnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of the Flake-Shaped Pr-Ho-Fe Alloys in the C-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jialiang; Pan, Shunkang; Qiao, Ziqiang; Cheng, Lichun; Wang, Zhenzhong; Lin, Peihao; Chang, Junqing

    2018-01-01

    The polycrystalline samples Pr x Ho2- x Fe17 ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by arc melting and high-energy ball milling method. The influences of Pr substitution on phase structure, morphology, saturation magnetization and electromagnetic parameters were investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometry and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the particle size increased and the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing Pr content. The minimum absorption peak frequency shifted towards a lower-frequency region with increasing Pr concentration. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was -41.03 dB at 6.88 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.0 mm. With different thickness of 1.8-2.8 mm, the minimum reflection loss (RL) of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was less than -20 dB in the whole C-band (4-8 GHz). The microwave-absorbing properties of the composite with different weight ratios of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co were researched. The microwave-absorbing peaks of the composites shifted to a lower frequency with increasing Co content. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co(10%) was -42.51 dB at 4.72 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.6 mm. This suggests that the Pr-Ho-Fe will be a promising microwave absorption material in higher-gigahertz frequency, especially in the C-band.

  14. On the bathochromic shift of the absorption by astaxanthin in crustacyanin: a quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbeej, Bo; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2003-06-01

    The structural origin of the bathochromic shift assumed by the electronic absorption spectrum of protein-bound astaxanthin, the carotenoid that upon binding to crustacyanin is responsible for the blue colouration of lobster shell, is investigated by means of quantum chemical methods. The calculations suggest that the bathochromic shift is largely due to one of the astaxanthin C4 keto groups being hydrogen-bonded to a histidine residue of the surrounding protein, and that the effect of this histidine is directly dependent on its protonation state. Out of the different methodologies (CIS, TD-DFT, and ZINDO/S) employed to calculate wavelengths of maximum absorption, the best agreement with experimental data is obtained using the semiempirical ZINDO/S method.

  15. Point-Defect Nature of the Ultraviolet Absorption Band in AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, D.; Harris, J. S.; Bryan, Z.; Baker, J. N.; Reddy, P.; Mita, S.; Callsen, G.; Hoffmann, A.; Irving, D. L.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach where point defects and defect complexes are identified using power-dependent photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, impurity data from SIMS, and density-functional-theory (DFT)-based calculations accounting for the total charge balance in the crystal. Employing the capabilities of such an experimental computational approach, in this work, the ultraviolet-C absorption band at 4.7 eV, as well as the 2.7- and 3.9-eV luminescence bands in AlN single crystals grown via physical vapor transport (PVT) are studied in detail. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the relationship between the defect luminescent bands centered at 3.9 and 2.7 eV to the commonly observed absorption band centered at 4.7 eV. Accordingly, the thermodynamic transition energy for the absorption band at 4.7 eV and the luminescence band at 3.9 eV is estimated at 4.2 eV, in agreement with the thermodynamic transition energy for the CN- point defect. Finally, the 2.7-eV PL band is the result of a donor-acceptor pair transition between the VN and CN point defects since nitrogen vacancies are predicted to be present in the crystal in concentrations similar to carbon-employing charge-balance-constrained DFT calculations. Power-dependent photoluminescence measurements reveal the presence of the deep donor state with a thermodynamic transition energy of 5.0 eV, which we hypothesize to be nitrogen vacancies in agreement with predictions based on theory. The charge state, concentration, and type of impurities in the crystal are calculated considering a fixed amount of impurities and using a DFT-based defect solver, which considers their respective formation energies and the total charge balance in the crystal. The presented results show that nitrogen vacancies are the most likely candidate for the deep donor state involved in the donor-acceptor pair transition with peak emission at 2.7 eV for the conditions relevant to PVT growth.

  16. Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

    2013-02-01

    We used near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800-7500 cm(-1)). Here we introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we were able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may offer a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water-soluble materials. We also observed red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from the contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift gets larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compared.

  17. CO2-broadening and shift coefficients in the ν3 and ν2 + (ν4 +ν5)+0 bands of acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulin, O. M.; Petrova, T. M.; Solodov, A. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The absorption spectra of the mixture of C2H2 and CO2 at different partial pressures of both gases have been recorded at room temperature in the 3 μm region using the Bruker IFS 125 HR FTIR spectrometer. The multispectrum fitting procedure has been applied to these spectra to recover the broadening and shift parameters of the acetylene spectral lines. The CO2 broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for 119 lines of the ν3 and ν2 + (ν4 +ν5)+0 bands of acetylene have been derived. The rotational dependence of the values of these coefficients is discussed. The comparison of the obtained coefficients to those published by other authors for the ν1 + ν3 and (ν4 +ν5)+0 bands is performed.

  18. Understanding of sub-band gap absorption of femtosecond-laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon using synchrotron-based techniques

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Chen, S. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Chen, L. Y.; Singh, Shashi B.; Shao, Y. C.; Wang, Y. F.; Hsieh, S. H.; Hsueh, H. C.; Chiou, J. W.; Chen, C. H.; Jang, L. Y.; Cheng, C. L.; Pong, W. F.; Hu, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between sub-band gap absorption and the chemical states and electronic and atomic structures of S-hyperdoped Si have been extensively studied, using synchrotron-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) and first-principles calculation. S 2p XPS spectra reveal that the S-hyperdoped Si with the greatest (~87%) sub-band gap absorption contains the highest concentration of S2− (monosulfide) species. Annealing S-hyperdoped Si reduces the sub-band gap absorptance and the concentration of S2− species, but significantly increases the concentration of larger S clusters [polysulfides (Sn2−, n > 2)]. The Si K-edge XANES spectra show that S hyperdoping in Si increases (decreased) the occupied (unoccupied) electronic density of states at/above the conduction-band-minimum. VB-PES spectra evidently reveal that the S-dopants not only form an impurity band deep within the band gap, giving rise to the sub-band gap absorption, but also cause the insulator-to-metal transition in S-hyperdoped Si samples. Based on the experimental results and the calculations by density functional theory, the chemical state of the S species and the formation of the S-dopant states in the band gap of Si are critical in determining the sub-band gap absorptance of hyperdoped Si samples. PMID:26098075

  19. Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm 3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Taiju; Tanigawa, Masayuki; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2000-12-01

    Absorption spectra of Tm 3+ ions in Ca 3Nb 1.6875Ga 3.1875O 12 (CNGG) crystal have been investigated at various temperatures between 15 and 296 K. Luminescence spectra in a spectral region of 400-1750 nm are investigated under excitation into various excited states of Tm 3+ and the conduction band of CNGG at room temperature. The absorption and emission bands of Tm 3+ in CNGG are observed to be broader than those observed in other Tm 3+-doped crystals such as LiNbO 3. This is due to the disordered structure of CNGG. From the temperature dependence of absorption spectra, five Stark levels are derived for the 3H 6 ground state. The highest Stark level is found to be 351 cm -1 above the ground level. It is suggested that the low efficiency of the 2.02 μm lasing at room temperature is due to the narrow splitting of the Stark levels.

  20. Computational study of the shift of the G band of double-walled carbon nanotubes due to interlayer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Valentin N.; Levshov, Dmitry I.; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Paillet, Matthieu

    2018-04-01

    The interactions between the layers of double-walled carbon nanotubes induce a measurable shift of the G bands relative to the isolated layers. While experimental data on this shift in freestanding double-walled carbon nanotubes has been reported in the past several years, a comprehensive theoretical description of the observed shift is still lacking. The prediction of this shift is important for supporting the assignment of the measured double-walled nanotubes to particular nanotube types. Here, we report a computational study of the G-band shift as a function of the semiconducting inner layer radius and interlayer separation. We find that with increasing interlayer separation, the G band shift decreases, passes through zero and becomes negative, and further increases in absolute value for the wide range of considered inner layer radii. The theoretical predictions are shown to agree with the available experimental data within the experimental uncertainty.

  1. Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2Absorption Band.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jin; Zhu, Zhen; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Following up on our previous work, we have developed one more non-contact method to measure human breathing rate. We have retrofitted our Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO2absorption band (4.3 µm). This improves the contrast between the foreground (i.e., expired air) and background (e.g., wall). Based on the radiation information within the breath flow region, we get the mean dynamic thermal signal. This signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then determine the breathing frequency through Fourier analysis. We have performed experiments on 9 subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 ft. We compared the breathing rate computed by our novel method with ground-truth measurements obtained via a traditional contact device (PowerLab/4SP from ADInstruments with an abdominal transducer). The results show high correlation between the two modalities. For the first time, we report a Fourier based breathing rate computation method on a MWIR signal in the CO2absorption band. The method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of an important vital sign, that is, breathing rate. It may find widespread applications in preventive medicine as well as sustained physiological monitoring of subjects suffering from chronic ailments.

  2. Infrared absorption band in deformed qtz crystals analyzed by combining different microstructural methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, Holger; Thust, Anja; Behrens, Harald; Heilbronner, Renee; Kilian, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FÍs decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FÍs form, increasing the number of FÍs drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FÍs is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FÍs. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FÍs, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FÍs during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  3. Concentration measurement of NO using self-absorption spectroscopy of the γ band system in a pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaodong; Ding, Yanjun; Peng, Zhimin; Luo, Rui

    2012-07-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured using the γ band system spectrum based on the strong self-absorption effect of NO in pulsed corona discharges. The radiative transitional intensities of the NO γ band were simulated based on the theory of molecular spectroscopy. The intensities of some bands, especially γ(0,0) and γ(1,0), are weakened by the self-absorption. The correlations between the spectral self-absorption intensities and NO concentration were validated using a modified Beer-Lambert law with a combined factor K relating the branching ratio and the NO concentration, and a nonlinear index α that is applicable to the broadband system. Optical emissive spectra in pulsed corona discharges in NO and N2/He mixtures were used to evaluate the two parameters for various conditions. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results verifies the self-absorption behavior seen in the UV spectra of the NO γ bands.

  4. Reassignment of the Iron (3) Absorption Bands in the Spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption features in the near-infrared and visible region reflectance spectra of Mars have been assigned to specific Fe (3+) crystal-field and o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge transfer transitions. Recently, near-ultraviolet absorption spectra of iron oxides were obtained and the energies of o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge-transfer (LMCT) transitions were determined from accurate SCF-X # alpha-SW molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)(9-) and (FeO4)(5-) clusters. Both the theoretical and experimental results, together with existing data in the literature, show that some of the previous Fe(3+) band assignments in the spectra of Mars need to be revised. The theory of Fe(3+) spectra in minerals is discussed and applied to the spectrum of Mars.

  5. Theoretical modeling of low-energy electronic absorption bands in reduced cobaloximes

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Here, we report that the reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we have analyzed the low energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and using a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task.

  6. Band gap opening and optical absorption enhancement in graphene using ZnO nanocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monshi, M. M.; Aghaei, S. M.; Calizo, I.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic, optical and transport properties of the graphene/ZnO heterostructure have been explored using first-principles density functional theory. The results show that Zn12O12 can open a band gap of 14.5 meV in graphene, increase its optical absorption by 1.67 times covering the visible spectrum which extends to the infra-red (IR) range, and exhibits a slight non-linear I-V characteristic depending on the applied bias. These findings envisage that a graphene/Zn12O12 heterostructure can be appropriate for energy harvesting, photodetection, and photochemical devices.

  7. Optimal Reflectance, Transmittance, and Absorptance Wavebands and Band Ratios for the Estimation of Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Spiering, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study utilized regression analysis to identify: wavebands and band ratios within the 400-850 nm range that could be used to estimate total chlorophyll concentration with minimal error; and simple regression models that were most effective in estimating chlorophyll concentrations were measured for two broadleaved species, a broadleaved vine, a needle-leaved conifer, and a representative of the grass family.Overall, reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance corresponded most precisely with chlorophyll concentration at wavelengths near 700 nm, although regressions were strong as well in the 550-625 nm range.

  8. High-resolution Fourier transform measurements of air-induced broadening and shift coefficients in the 0002-0000 main isotopologue band of nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werwein, Viktor; Li, Gang; Serdyukov, Anton; Brunzendorf, Jens; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, we report highly accurate air-induced broadening and shift coefficients for the nitrous oxide (N2O) 0002-0000 band at 2.26 μm of the main isotopologue retrieved from high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements with metrologically determined pressure, temperature, absorption path length and chemical composition. Most of our retrieved air-broadening coefficients agree with previously generated datasets within the expanded (confidence interval of 95%) uncertainties. For the air-shift coefficients our results suggest a different rotational dependence compared to literature. The present study benefits from improved measurement conditions and a detailed metrological uncertainty description. Comparing to literature, the uncertainties of the previous broadening and shift coefficients are improved by a factor of up to 39 and up to 22, respectively.

  9. Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients in the Fundamental Band of 12C 16O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, Malathy V.; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1998-01-01

    High quality and precise measurements of self-broadened and self-shift coefficients in the fundamental band of C-12O-16 were made using spectra recorded at room temperature with the high-resolution (0.0027 cm(exp -1)) McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. The spectral region under investigation (2008-2247 cm(exp -1)) contains the P(31) to R(31) transitions. The data were obtained using a high-purity natural isotopic sample ofcarbon monoxide and two absorption cells with pathlengths of 4.08 and 9.98 cm, respectively. Various pressures of CO were used, ranging between 0.25 and 201.2 Torr. The results were obtained by analyzing five spectra simultaneously, using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique. The self-broadened coefficients ranged from 0.0426(2) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K to 0.0924(2) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K, while the pressure-induced shift coefficients varied between -0.0042(3) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K and +0.0005(l) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K. The value in parentheses is the estimated uncertainty in units of the last digit. The self-broadened coefficients of lines with same values of m in the P and R branches agree close to within experimental uncertainties while the self-shift coefficients showed considerable variation within and between the two branches. The mean value of the ratios of P branch to R branch self-broadened coefficients was found to be 1.01 with a standard deviation of + or - 0.01. Comparisons of the results with other published data were made.

  10. Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave-band noise in three species of pinniped.

    PubMed

    Kastak, D; Schusterman, R J; Southall, B L; Reichmuth, C J

    1999-08-01

    Pure-tone sound detection thresholds were obtained in water for one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and one northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) before and immediately following exposure to octave-band noise. Additional thresholds were obtained following a 24-h recovery period. Test frequencies ranged from 100 Hz to 2000 Hz and octave-band exposure levels were approximately 60-75 dB SL (sensation level at center frequency). Each subject was trained to dive into a noise field and remain stationed underwater during a noise-exposure period that lasted a total of 20-22 min. Following exposure, three of the subjects showed threshold shifts averaging 4.8 dB (Phoca), 4.9 dB (Zalophus), and 4.6 dB (Mirounga). Recovery to baseline threshold levels was observed in test sessions conducted within 24 h of noise exposure. Control sessions in which the subjects completed a simulated noise exposure produced shifts that were significantly smaller than those observed following noise exposure. These results indicate that noise of moderate intensity and duration is sufficient to induce TTS under water in these pinniped species.

  11. Air- and N2-Broadening Coefficients and Pressure-Shift Coefficients in the C-12(O2-16) Laser Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we report the pressure broadening and the pressure-induced line shift coefficients for 46 individual rovibrational lines in both the (12)C(16)O2, 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)I, and 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)II, laser bands (laser band I centered at 960.959/cm and laser band II centered at 1063.735/cm) determined from spectra recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer. The results were obtained from analysis of 10 long-path laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares technique. Pressure effects caused by both air and nitrogen have been investigated. The air-broadening coefficients determined in this study agree well with the values in the 1996 HITRAN database; ratios and standard deviations of the ratios of the present air-broadening measurements to the 1996 HITRAN values for the two laser bands are: 1.005(15) for laser band I and 1.005(14) for laser band II. Broadening by nitrogen is 3 to 4% larger than that of air. The pressure-induced line shift coefficients are found to be transition dependent and different for the P- and R-branch lines with same J" value. No noticeable differences in the shift coefficients caused by air and nitrogen were found. The results obtained are compared with available values previously reported in the literature.

  12. On the origin of the water vapor continuum absorption within rotational and fundamental vibrational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, E. A.; Odintsova, T. A.; Tretyakov, M. Yu.; Semenov, V. E.

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of the continuum absorption in water vapor at room temperature within the purely rotational and fundamental ro-vibrational bands shows that a significant part (up to a half) of the observed absorption cannot be explained within the framework of the existing concepts of the continuum. Neither of the two most prominent mechanisms of continuum originating, namely, the far wings of monomer lines and the dimers, cannot reproduce the currently available experimental data adequately. We propose a new approach to developing a physically based model of the continuum. It is demonstrated that water dimers and wings of monomer lines may contribute equally to the continuum within the bands, and their contribution should be taken into account in the continuum model. We propose a physical mechanism giving missing justification for the super-Lorentzian behavior of the intermediate line wing. The qualitative validation of the proposed approach is given on the basis of a simple empirical model. The obtained results are directly indicative of the necessity to reconsider the existing line wing theory and can guide this consideration.

  13. Thermally induced effect on sub-band gap absorption in Ag doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Sharma, Kriti; Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    Thin films of Ag doped CdSe have been prepared by thermal evaporation using inert gas condensation (IGC) method taking Argon as inert gas. The prepared thin films are annealed at 363 K for one hour. The sub-band gap absorption spectra in the as deposited and annealed thin films have been studied using constant photocurrent method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region is described by an Urbach tail in both as deposited and annealed thin films. The value of Urbach energy and number density of trap states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region which have been found to increase after annealing treatment indicating increase in disorderness in the lattice. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has also been studied using derivative procedure of absorption coefficient.

  14. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-10-19

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies.

  15. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M.; Specht, Christian G.; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling. PMID:26711992

  16. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M; Specht, Christian G; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-19

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling.

  17. Temperature-induced band shift in bulk γ-InSe by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huanfeng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Feng, Yue; Tu, Jian; Gu, Chenyi; Sun, Yizhe; Liu, Chang; Nie, Yuefeng; Edmond Turcu, Ion C.; Xu, Yongbing; He, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Indium selenide (InSe) has recently become popular research topics because of its unique layered crystal structure, direct band gap and high electron mobilities. In this work, we have acquired the electronic structure of bulk γ-InSe at various temperatures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We have also found that as the temperature decreases, the valence bands of γ-InSe exhibit a monotonic shift to lower binding energies. This band shift is attributed to the change of lattice parameters and has been validated by variable temperature X-ray diffraction measurements and theoretical calculations.

  18. Experimental observation of the shift and width of the aluminium K absorption edge in laser shock-compressed plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, T. A.; Al-Kuzee, J.; Benuzzi, A.; Koenig, M.; Krishnan, J.; Grandjouan, N.; Batani, D.; Bossi, S.; Nicolella, S.

    1998-03-01

    Experimental measurements of the shift and width of the aluminium K-absorption edge in laser shock-compressed plasma is presented. The spectrometer used in these experiments allows an accurate wavelength calibration and fiduciary and hence provides precise measurements of both the shift and the width of the absorption edge. Results have been obtained for compressions up to approximately ×2 and temperatures up to about 1.5 eV. The values of shift and width are compared with a new model with which there is very good agreement.

  19. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038

  20. Constructing Repairable Meta-Structures of Ultra-Broad-Band Electromagnetic Absorption from Three-Dimensional Printed Patterned Shells.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Li; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Mingji; He, Rujie; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Yazheng; Fang, Daining

    2017-12-13

    Ultra-broad-band electromagnetic absorption materials and structures are increasingly attractive for their critical role in competing with the advanced broad-band electromagnetic detection systems. Mechanically soft and weak wax-based materials composites are known to be insufficient to serve in practical electromagnetic absorption applications. To break through such barriers, here we developed an innovative strategy to enable the wax-based composites to be robust and repairable meta-structures by employing a three-dimensional (3D) printed polymeric patterned shell. Because of the integrated merits from both the dielectric loss wax-based composites and mechanically robust 3D printed shells, the as-fabricated meta-structures enable bear mechanical collision and compression, coupled with ultra-broad-band absorption (7-40 and 75-110 GHz, reflection loss  smaller than -10 dB) approaching state-of-the-art electromagnetic absorption materials. With the assistance of experiment and simulation methods, the design advantages and mechanism of employing such 3D printed shells for substantially promoting the electromagnetic absorption performance have been demonstrated. Therefore, such universal strategy that could be widely extended to other categories of wax-based composites highlights a smart stage on which high-performance practical multifunction meta-structures with ultra-broad-band electromagnetic absorption could be envisaged.

  1. Direct Observation of Two-Step Photon Absorption in an InAs/GaAs Single Quantum Dot for the Operation of Intermediate-Band Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-08

    We present the first direct observation of two-step photon absorption in an InAs/GaAs single quantum dot (QD) using photocurrent spectroscopy with two lasers. The sharp peaks of the photocurrent are shifted due to the quantum confined Stark effect, indicating that the photocurrent from a single QD is obtained. In addition, the intensity of the peaks depends on the power of the secondary laser. These results reveal the direct demonstration of the two-step photon absorption in a single QD. This is an essential result for both the fundamental operation and the realization of ultrahigh solar-electricity energy conversion in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  2. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  3. Properties of the 4.45 eV optical absorption band in LiF:Mg,Ti.

    PubMed

    Nail, I; Oster, L; Horowitz, Y S; Biderman, S; Belaish, Y

    2006-01-01

    The optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of dosimetric LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) as well as nominally pure LiF single crystal have been studied as a function of irradiation dose, thermal and optical bleaching in order to investigate the role of the 4.45 eV OA band in low temperature TL. Computerised deconvolution was used to resolve the absorption spectrum into individual gaussian bands and the TL glow curve into glow peaks. Although the 4.45 eV OA band shows thermal decay characteristics similar to the 4.0 eV band its dose filling constant and optical bleaching properties suggest that it cannot be associated with the TL of composite peaks 4 or 5. Its presence in optical grade single crystal LiF further suggests that it is an intrinsic defect or possibly associated with chance impurities other than Mg, Ti.

  4. Resonantly enhanced multiple exciton generation through below-band-gap multi-photon absorption in perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Aurora; Tong, Yu; Feucht, Julius; Yao, En-Ping; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S; Feldmann, Jochen

    2018-04-17

    Multi-photon absorption and multiple exciton generation represent two separate strategies for enhancing the conversion efficiency of light into usable electric power. Targeting below-band-gap and above-band-gap energies, respectively, to date these processes have only been demonstrated independently. Here we report the combined interaction of both nonlinear processes in CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals. We demonstrate nonlinear absorption over a wide range of below-band-gap excitation energies (0.5-0.8 E g ). Interestingly, we discover high-order absorption processes, deviating from the typical two-photon absorption, at specific energetic positions. These energies are associated with a strong enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity by up to 10 5 . The analysis of the corresponding energy levels reveals that the observed phenomena can be ascribed to the resonant creation of multiple excitons via the absorption of multiple below-band-gap photons. This effect may open new pathways for the efficient conversion of optical energy, potentially also in other semiconducting materials.

  5. Absorption band oscillator strengths of N2 transitions between 95.8 and 99.4 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Smith, Peter L.; Huber, K. P.; Yoshino, K.; Stevens, M. H.; Ito, K.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen plays a central role in the energetics of the earth's upper atmosphere and is the major constituent of the atmospheres of the planetary satellites Titan and Triton. This paper reports a new set of absorption oscillator strengths measured at higher resolution for seven bands in the 95.8-99.4 nm region. The results are compared with earlier, lower resolution absorption measurements, electron scattering measurements, and calculations based on a deperturbation analysis of the excited states.

  6. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of La3+-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes with Full Wave-Band Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Minghao; Huang, Lingling; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yongqian

    2018-06-01

    TiO2 nanotubes doped with La3+ were synthesized by anodic oxidation method and the photocatalytic activity was detected by photodegrading methylene blue. As-prepared samples improved the absorption of both ultraviolet light and visible light and have a great enhancement on the photocatalytic activity while contrasting with the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. A tentative mechanism for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity with full wave-band absorption is proposed.

  7. Continuum definition for Ceres absorption bands at 3.1, 3.4 and 4.0 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiano, A.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zinzi, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Raponi, A.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Dirri, F.

    2017-09-01

    The images and hyperspectral data acquired during various Dawn mission phases (e.g. Survey, HAMO and LAMO) allowed identifying regions of different albedo on Ceres surface, where absorption bands located at 3.4 and 4.0 μm can assume different shapes. The 3.1 μm feature is observed on the entire Ceres surface except on Cerealia Facula, the brightest spot located on the dome of Occator crater. To perform a mineralogical investigation, absorption bands in reflectance spectra should be properly isolated by removing spectral continuum; hence, parameters as band centers and band depths must be estimated. The problem in the defining the continuum is in the VIR spectral range, which ends at 5.1 μm even though the reliable data, where the thermal contribution is properly removed, stops at 4.2 μm. Band shoulders located at longer wavelengths cannot be estimated. We defined different continua, with the aim to find the most appropriate to isolate the three spectral bands, whatever the region and the spatial resolution of hyperspectral images. The linear continuum seems to be the most suitable definition for our goals. Then, we performed an error evaluation on band depths and band centers introduced by this continuum definition.

  8. Design of an ultra-thin absorption layer with magnetic materials based on genetic algorithm at the S band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoning; Liu, Xiaoning; Niu, Tiaoming; Wang, Jing; Mei, Zhonglei; Jian, Yabin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we design an ultra-thin absorption coating at the S band, and the total thickness is less than 2 mm. For incident angle less than 30 degree and the whole S band, the reflection is less than -5 dB. The coating is constructed with 4/3 layers of magnetic material with different thicknesses, which are optimized by using genetic algorithm. Analytic and simulation results confirm the correctness of the design.

  9. The impact of different multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the X-band microwave absorption of their epoxy nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Che, Bien Dong; Nguyen, Bao Quoc; Nguyen, Le-Thu T; Nguyen, Ha Tran; Nguyen, Viet Quoc; Van Le, Thang; Nguyen, Nieu Huu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) characteristics, besides the processing conditions, can change significantly the microwave absorption behavior of CNT/polymer composites. In this study, we investigated the influence of three commercial multi-walled CNT materials with various diameters and length-to-diameter aspect ratios on the X-band microwave absorption of epoxy nanocomposites with CNT contents from 0.125 to 2 wt%, prepared by two dispersion methods, i.e. in solution with surfactant-aiding and via ball-milling. The laser diffraction particle size and TEM analysis showed that both methods produced good dispersions at the microscopic level of CNTs. Both a high aspect ratio resulting in nanotube alignment trend and good infiltration of the matrix in the individual nanotubes, which was indicated by high Brookfield viscosities at low CNT contents of CNT/epoxy dispersions, are important factors to achieve composites with high microwave absorption characteristics. The multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with the largest aspect ratio resulted in composites with the best X-band microwave absorption performance, which is considerably better than that of reported pristine CNT/polymer composites with similar or lower thicknesses and CNT loadings below 4 wt%. A high aspect ratio of CNTs resulting in microscopic alignment trend of nanotubes as well as a good level of micro-scale CNT dispersion resulting from good CNT-matrix interactions are crucial to obtain effective microwave absorption performance. This study demonstrated that effective radar absorbing MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites having small matching thicknesses of 2-3 mm and very low filler contents of 0.25-0.5 wt%, with microwave energy absorption in the X-band region above 90% and maximum absorption peak values above 97%, could be obtained via simple processing methods, which is promising for mass production in industrial applications. Graphical AbstractComparison of the X-band microwave reflection loss of epoxy composites of

  10. The flaky porous Fe3O4 with tunable dimensions for enhanced microwave absorption performance in X and C bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huanqin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Zhihong; Zhang, Baoshan; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2018-07-01

    Special electric and magnetic characteristics make Fe3O4 widely applied in the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption region. However, for pure Fe3O4, it is still a challenge to simultaneously obtain high absorption intensity and broadband absorption at a low thickness, owing to its low dielectric property. As we realized, flake configuration and the porous structure have obviously promote the EM wave absorption property. Because the former can lead to multi-reflection between flakes and the latter is conductive to interface polarization, flaky Fe3O4 with a porous and coarse surface was designed to overcome the deficiency of traditional Fe3O4 particles. The experimental results demonstrate that the flaky configuration is conductive to enhancing the dielectric coefficient and optimizing impedance matching. Moreover, the complex permittivity rises with the aspect ratio of the sheet. Under a suitable dimension, the flaky Fe3O4 could acquire targeted EM wave absorption capacity in the X band (8–12 GHz). In detail, the maximum reflection loss (RL) could reach a strong intensity of ‑49 dB at 2.05 mm. The effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) with RL below ‑10 dB is 4.32 (7.52–11.84) GHz, which is almost equivalent to the whole X band (8–12 GHz). Even more exciting, when regulating the thickness between 2.05 and 3.05 mm, the EAB could cover the entire C and X bands (4–12 GHz). This study provides a good reference for the future development of other ferromagnetic materials toward specific microwave bands.

  11. The flaky porous Fe3O4 with tunable dimensions for enhanced microwave absorption performance in X and C bands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanqin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Zhihong; Zhang, Baoshan; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2018-07-20

    Special electric and magnetic characteristics make Fe 3 O 4 widely applied in the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption region. However, for pure Fe 3 O 4 , it is still a challenge to simultaneously obtain high absorption intensity and broadband absorption at a low thickness, owing to its low dielectric property. As we realized, flake configuration and the porous structure have obviously promote the EM wave absorption property. Because the former can lead to multi-reflection between flakes and the latter is conductive to interface polarization, flaky Fe 3 O 4 with a porous and coarse surface was designed to overcome the deficiency of traditional Fe 3 O 4 particles. The experimental results demonstrate that the flaky configuration is conductive to enhancing the dielectric coefficient and optimizing impedance matching. Moreover, the complex permittivity rises with the aspect ratio of the sheet. Under a suitable dimension, the flaky Fe 3 O 4 could acquire targeted EM wave absorption capacity in the X band (8-12 GHz). In detail, the maximum reflection loss (RL) could reach a strong intensity of -49 dB at 2.05 mm. The effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) with RL below -10 dB is 4.32 (7.52-11.84) GHz, which is almost equivalent to the whole X band (8-12 GHz). Even more exciting, when regulating the thickness between 2.05 and 3.05 mm, the EAB could cover the entire C and X bands (4-12 GHz). This study provides a good reference for the future development of other ferromagnetic materials toward specific microwave bands.

  12. Band gap tuning and optical absorption in type-II InAs/GaSb mid infrared short period superlattices: 14 bands K Dot-Operator p study

    SciTech Connect

    AbuEl-Rub, Khaled M.

    2012-09-06

    The MBE growth of short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures, varied around 20.5 A InAs/24 A GaSb were [J. Applied physics, 96, 2580 (2004)] carried out by Haugan et al. These SLs were designed to produce devices with an optimum mid-infrared photoresponse and a sharpest photoresponse cutoff. We have used a realistic and reliable 14-band k.p formalism description of the superlattice electronic band structure to calculate the absorption coefficient in such short-period InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices. The parameters for this formalism are known from fitting to independent experiments for the bulk materials. The band-gap energies are obtained without any fitting parameters, andmore » are in good agreement with experimental data.« less

  13. Measurements of air-broadened and nitrogen-broadened Lorentz width coefficients and pressure shift coefficients in the nu4 and nu2 bands of C-12H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    1988-01-01

    Air-broadened and N2-broadened halfwidth and pressure shift coefficients of 294 transitions in the nu4 and nu2 bands of C-12H4 have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope facility of the National Solar Observatory. Total pressures of up to 551 Torr were employed with absorption paths of 5-150 cm, CH4 volume mixing ratios of 2.6 percent or less, and resolutions of 0.005 and 0.01/cm. A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting technique has been utilized in the analysis of the twenty-five measured spectra. Lines up to J double-prime = 18 in the nu4 band and J double-prime = 15 in the nu2 band have been analyzed.

  14. Air- and Self-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, and Line Mixing in the Nu(sub 2) Band of (12)CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Benner, D. Chris; Pedroi-Cross, A.; Devi, V. Malathy

    2013-01-01

    Lorentz self- and air-broadened half width and pressure-induced shift coefficients and their dependences on temperature have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra for nearly 130 transitions in the nu(sub 2) band of (12)CH4. In addition line mixing coefficients (using the relaxation matrix element formalism) for both self- and airbroadening were experimentally determined for the first time for a small number of transitions in this band. Accurate line positions and absolute line intensities were also determined. These parameters were obtained by analyzing high-resolution (approx. 0.003 to 0.01 per cm) laboratory spectra of high-purity natural CH4 and air-broadened CH4 recorded at temperatures between 226 and 297 K using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique was used to fit short (5-15 per cm) spectral intervals in 24-29 spectra simultaneously. Parameters were determined for nu(sub 2) transitions up to J" = 16. The variations of the measured broadening and shift parameters with the rotational quantum number index and tetrahedral symmetry species are examined. The present results are also compared with previous measurements available in the literature.

  15. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  16. Influence of defects on the absorption edge of InN thin films: The band gap value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, J. S.; Danylyuk, Y. V.; Haddad, D.; Naik, V. M.; Naik, R.; Auner, G. W.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the optical-absorption spectra of InN thin films whose electron density varies from ˜1017tõ1021cm-3 . The low-density films are grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy deposition while highly degenerate films are grown by plasma-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The optical-absorption edge is found to increase from 0.61to1.90eV as the carrier density of the films is increased from low to high density. Since films are polycrystalline and contain various types of defects, we discuss the band gap values by studying the influence of electron degeneracy, electron-electron, electron-ionized impurities, and electron-LO-phonon interaction self-energies on the spectral absorption coefficients of these films. The quasiparticle self-energies of the valence and conduction bands are calculated using dielectric screening within the random-phase approximation. Using one-particle Green’s function analysis, we self-consistently determine the chemical potential for films by coupling equations for the chemical potential and the single-particle scattering rate calculated within the effective-mass approximation for the electron scatterings from ionized impurities and LO phonons. By subtracting the influence of self-energies and chemical potential from the optical-absorption edge energy, we estimate the intrinsic band gap values for the films. We also determine the variations in the calculated band gap values due to the variations in the electron effective mass and static dielectric constant. For the lowest-density film, the estimated band gap energy is ˜0.59eV , while for the highest-density film, it varies from ˜0.60tõ0.68eV depending on the values of electron effective mass and dielectric constant.

  17. Photodissociation dynamics of bromoiodomethane from the first and second absorption bands. A combined velocity map and slice imaging study.

    PubMed

    Marggi Poullain, Sonia; Chicharro, David V; Navarro, Eduardo; Rubio-Lago, Luis; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Bañares, Luis

    2018-01-31

    The photodissociation dynamics of bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI) have been investigated at the maximum of the first A and second A' absorption bands, at 266 and 210 nm excitation wavelengths, respectively, using velocity map and slice imaging techniques in combination with a probe detection of both iodine and bromine fragments, I( 2 P 3/2 ), I*( 2 P 1/2 ), Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) via (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. Experimental results, i.e. translational energy and angular distributions, are reported and discussed in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations of potential energy curves and absorption spectra. The results indicate that in the A-band, direct dissociation through the 5A' excited state leads to the I( 2 P 3/2 ) channel while I*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms are produced via the 5A' → 4A'/4A'' nonadiabatic crossing. The presence of Br and Br* fragments upon excitation to the A-band is attributed to indirect dissociation via a curve crossing between the 5A' with upper excited states such as the 9A'. The A'-band is characterized by a strong photoselectivity leading exclusively to the Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) channels, which are likely produced by dissociation through the 9A' excited state. Avoided crossings between several excited states from both the A and A' bands entangle however the possible reaction pathways.

  18. X-ray absorption and reflection as probes of the GaN conduction bands: Theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Segall, B.

    1997-04-01

    X-ray absorption measurements are a well-known probe of the unoccupied states in a material. The same information can be obtained by using glancing angle X-ray reflectivity. In spite of several existing band structure calculations of the group III nitrides and previous optical studies in UV range, a direct probe of their conduction band densities of states is of interest. The authors performed a joint experimental and theoretical investigation using both of these experimental techniques for wurtzite GaN.

  19. Application of MCD spectroscopy and TD-DFT to a highly non-planar porphyrinoid ring system. New insights on red-shifted porphyrinoid spectral bands.

    PubMed

    Mack, John; Asano, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Stillman, Martin J

    2005-12-21

    The first magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra are reported for tetraphenyltetraacenaphthoporphyrin (TPTANP). The impact on the electronic structure of steric interactions between the fused acenaphthalene rings and the meso-tetraphenyl substituents is explored based on an analysis of the optical spectra of the Zn(II) complex (ZnTPTANP) and the free base dication species ([H4TPTANP]2+). In the case of ZnTPTANP, significant folding of the porphyrinoid ligand induces a highly unusual MCD-sign reversal providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence of ligand nonplanarity. Density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimizations for a wide range of Zn(II) porphyrinoids based on the B3LYP functional and TD-DFT calculations of the associated UV-visible absorption spectra are reported, allowing a complete assessment of the MCD data. TPTANP complexes are found to fall into a class of cyclic polyenes, termed as soft MCD chromophores by Michl (J. Pure Appl. Chem. 1980, 52, 1549.), since the signs of the Faraday A1 terms observed in the MCD spectrum are highly sensitive to slight structural changes. The origin of an unusually large red shift of the main B (or Soret) band of MTPTANP (the most red shifted ever reported for fused-ring-expanded metal porphines) and of similar red shifts observed in the spectra of other peripherally crowded porphyrinoid complexes is also explored and explained on this basis.

  20. Microwave absorption properties of flake-shaped Co particles composites at elevated temperature (293-673 K) in X band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guowu; Li, Xiling; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Junming; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2018-06-01

    The complex permeability and permittivity of the easy-plane anisotropic Co/polyimide composite at high temperature (293-673 K) in X band were measured. The results show that both the complex permeability and permittivity increase with the increase of temperature in the measured temperature range. The calculated absorption properties display that the intensity of the reflection loss (RL) peak first increases and then decreases with the increase of temperature, and reaches the maximum (-52 dB) at 523 K. At each temperature, the composite can achieve the RL exceeding -10 dB in the whole X band. The composite can even work stably for more than 20 min with the excellent absorption performance under 673 K. In addition, the RL performance of the composite at high temperature is better than that at room temperature.

  1. Collision-induced absorption in the region of the ν2 + ν3 band of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu. I.

    2018-03-01

    The IR absorption spectra of pure carbon dioxide in the region of the forbidden ν2 + ν3 vibrational transition at 3004 cm-1 have been recorded using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. A multipass-optical cell with the path length of 100 m was used in the study. The data were taken at room temperature of 294.8 K with a resolution of 0.02 cm-1 over the spectral region 2500-3500 cm-1. A sample pressures varied from 207 to 463 kPa (2.04-4.57 atm). The measured binary absorption coefficients provide the band integrated intensity value of (2.39 ± 0.04) ∗ 10-4 cm-2 amagat-2. The result is compared with those from previous works. The observed band profile features are discussed.

  2. Blue shift in optical absorption, magnetism and light-induced superparamagnetism in γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles formed in dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domracheva, Natalia E.; Vorobeva, Valerya E.; Gruzdev, Matvey S.; Pyataev, Andrew V.

    2015-02-01

    We are presenting the investigation of the optical, magnetic, and photoinduced superparamagnetic properties of single-domain γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of about 2.5 nm formed in second-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimer. The optical absorption studies indicated direct allowed transition with the band gap (4.5 eV), which is blue shift with respect to the value of the bulk material. Low-temperature blocking of the NPs magnetic moments at 18 K is determined by SQUID measurements. The influence of pulsed laser irradiation on the superparamagnetic properties of γ-Fe2O3 NPs was studied by EPR spectroscopy. It has been shown that irradiation of the sample held in vacuo and cooled in zero magnetic field to 6.9 K leads to the appearance of a new EPR signal, which decays immediately after the irradiation is stopped. The appearance and disappearance of this new signal can be repeated many times at 6.9 K when we turn on/turn off the laser. We suppose that the generation of conduction band electrons by irradiation into the band gap of the γ-Fe2O3 changes the superparamagnetic properties of NPs.

  3. Frequency Hopping, Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying, Coding, and Optimal Partial-Band Jamming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    receivers appropriate for these two strategies. Each receiver is noncoherent (a coherent receiver is generally impractical) and implements hard...Advances in Coding and Modulation for Noncoherent Channels Affected by Fading, Partial Band, and Multiple- . Access Interference, in A. J. Viterbi...Modulation for Noncoherent Channels Affected by Fading, Partial Band, and Multiple-Access interference, in A. J. Viterbi, ed., Advances in Coumunication

  4. Precise ro-vibrational analysis of molecular bands forbidden in absorption: The ν8 +ν10 band of the 12C2H4 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Kashirina, N. V.; Bauerecker, S.; Horneman, V.-M.

    2015-07-01

    The highly accurate (experimental accuracy in line positions ∼ (1 - 2) ×10-4 cm-1) ro-vibrational spectrum of the ν8 +ν10 band of the 12C2H4 molecule was recorded for the first time with high resolution Fourier transform spectrometry and analyzed in the region of 1650-1950 cm-1 using the Hamiltonian model which takes into account Coriolis resonance interactions between the studied ν8 +ν10 band, which is forbidden in absorption, and the bands ν4 +ν8 and ν7 +ν8 . About 1570 transitions belonging to the ν8 +ν10 band were assigned in the experimental spectra with the maximum values of quantum numbers Jmax. = 35 and Kamax . = 18 . On that basis, a set of 38 vibrational, rotational, centrifugal distortion, and resonance interaction parameters was obtained from the fit. They reproduce values of 598 initial "experimental" ro-vibrational energy levels (positions of about 1570 experimentally recorded and assigned transitions) with the rms error drms = 0.00045 cm-1 (drms = 0.00028 cm-1 when upper ro-vibrational energies obtained from blended and very weak transitions were deleted from the fit).

  5. Oscillatory Alpha-Band Suppression Mechanisms during the Rapid Attentional Shifts Required to Perform an Anti-Saccade Task

    PubMed Central

    Belyusar, Daniel; Snyder, Adam C.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Harwood, Mark R.; Wallman, Josh; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has demonstrated anatomical overlap between covert and overt attention systems, although behavioral and electrophysiological studies have suggested that the two systems do not rely on entirely identical circuits or mechanisms. In a parallel line of research, topographically-specific modulations of alpha-band power (~8-14Hz) have been consistently correlated with anticipatory states during tasks requiring covert attention shifts. These tasks, however, typically employ cue-target-interval paradigms where attentional processes are examined across relatively protracted periods of time and not at the rapid timescales implicated during overt attention tasks. The anti-saccade task, where one must first covertly attend for a peripheral target, before executing a rapid overt attention shift (i.e. a saccade) to the opposite side of space, is particularly well-suited for examining the rapid dynamics of overt attentional deployments. Here, we asked whether alpha-band oscillatory mechanisms would also be associated with these very rapid overt shifts, potentially representing a common neural mechanism across overt and covert attention systems. High-density electroencephalography in conjunction with infra-red eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in both pro- and anti- saccade task blocks. Alpha power, time-locked to saccade onset, showed three distinct phases of significantly lateralized topographic shifts, all occurring within a period of less than one second, closely reflecting the temporal dynamics of anti-saccade performance. Only two such phases were observed during the pro-saccade task. These data point to substantially more rapid temporal dynamics of alpha-band suppressive mechanisms than previously established, and implicate oscillatory alpha-band activity as a common mechanism across both overt and covert attentional deployments. PMID:23041338

  6. Easily Dispersible NiFe2O4/RGO Composite for Microwave Absorption Properties in the X-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateer, Buhe; Zhang, Jianjao; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Haiqun

    2018-01-01

    Composites with good dispersion and excellent microwave absorption properties have important applications. Therefore, an easily dispersible NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite has been prepared conveniently through a simple hydrothermal method. Highly crystalline, small size (about 7 nm) monodispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are evenly distributed on the surface of RGO. The microwave absorbability revealed that the NiFe2O4/RGO composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption properties in the X-band (8-12 GHz), and the minimum reflection loss of the NiFe2O4/RGO composite is -27.7 dB at 9.2 GHz. The NiFe2O4/RGO composite has good dispersibility in nonpolar solvent, which facilitates the preparation of stable commercial microwave absorbing coatings. It can be a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials in many application fields.

  7. Wide angle and narrow-band asymmetric absorption in visible and near-infrared regime through lossy Bragg stacks

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shiwei; Zhan, Yawen; Lee, Chris; Lu, Jian; Li, Yang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Absorber is an important component in various optical devices. Here we report a novel type of asymmetric absorber in the visible and near-infrared spectrum which is based on lossy Bragg stacks. The lossy Bragg stacks can achieve near-perfect absorption at one side and high reflection at the other within the narrow bands (several nm) of resonance wavelengths, whereas display almost identical absorption/reflection responses for the rest of the spectrum. Meanwhile, this interesting wavelength-selective asymmetric absorption behavior persists for wide angles, does not depend on polarization, and can be ascribed to the lossy characteristics of the Bragg stacks. Moreover, interesting Fano resonance with easily tailorable peak profiles can be realized using the lossy Bragg stacks. PMID:27251768

  8. High-resolution spectroscopy and global analysis of CF4 rovibrational bands to model its atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, M.; Gruson, O.; Richard, C.; Boudon, V.; Rotger, M.; Thomas, X.; Maul, C.; Sydow, C.; Domanskaya, A.; Georges, R.; Soulard, P.; Pirali, O.; Goubet, M.; Asselin, P.; Huet, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    CF4, or tetrafluoromethane, is a chemically inert and strongly absorbing greenhouse gas, mainly of anthropogenic origin. In order to monitor and reduce its atmospheric emissions and concentration, it is thus necessary to obtain an accurate model of its infrared absorption. Such models allow opacity calculations for radiative transfer atmospheric models. In the present work, we perform a global analysis (divided into two distinct fitting schemes) of 17 rovibrational bands of CF4. This gives a reliable model of many of its lower rovibrational levels and allows the calculation of the infrared absorption in the strongly absorbing ν3 region (1283 cm-1 / 7.8 μm), including the main hot band, namely ν3 +ν2 -ν2 as well as ν3 +ν1 -ν1 ; we could also extrapolate the ν3 +ν4 -ν4 absorption. This represents almost 92% of the absorption at room temperature in this spectral region. A new accurate value of the C-F bond length is evaluated to re = 1.314860(21) Å. The present results have been used to update the HITRAN, GEISA and TFMeCaSDa (VAMDC) databases.

  9. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  10. [Acoustic detection of absorption of millimeter-band electromagnetic waves in biological objects].

    PubMed

    Polnikov, I G; Putvinskiĭ, A V

    1988-01-01

    Principles of photoacoustic spectroscopy were applied to elaborate a new method for controlling millimeter electromagnetic waves absorption in biological objects. The method was used in investigations of frequency dependence of millimeter wave power absorption in vitro and in vivo in the commonly used experimental irradiation systems.

  11. Mechanism of Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions, Amorphization, and Absorption-Edge Shift in Photovoltaic Methylammonium Lead Iodide.

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Marek; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Our single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of methylammonium lead triiodide, MAPbI3, provides the first comprehensive structural information on the tetragonal phase II in the pressure range to 0.35 GPa, on the cubic phase IV stable between 0.35 and 2.5 GPa, and on the isostructural cubic phase V observed above 2.5 GPa, which undergoes a gradual amorphization. The optical absorption study confirms that up to 0.35 GPa, the absorption edge of MAPbI3 is red-shifted, allowing an extension of spectral absorption. The transitions to phases IV and V are associated with the abrupt blue shifts of the absorption edge. The strong increase of the energy gap in phase V result in a spectacular color change of the crystal from black to red around 3.5 GPa. The optical changes have been correlated with the pressure-induced strain of the MAPbI3 inorganic framework and its frustration, triggered by methylammonium cations trapped at random orientations in the squeezed voids.

  12. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  13. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2009-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  14. Band-edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, Alan; Zou, Yao; Dapkus, P. D.; Garmire, Elsa; Lee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    A novel approach to determining absorption coefficients in thin films using luminescence is described. The technique avoids many of the difficulties typically encountered in measurements of thin samples, Fabry-Perot effects, for example, and can be applied to a variety of materials. The absorption edge for GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures, with quantum well widths ranging from 54 to 193 A is examined. Urbach (1953) parameters and excitonic linewidths are tabulated.

  15. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  16. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  17. Fab MOR03268 triggers absorption shift of a diagnostic dye via packaging in a solvent-shielded Fab dimer interface.

    PubMed

    Hillig, Roman C; Urlinger, Stefanie; Fanghänel, Jörg; Brocks, Bodo; Haenel, Cornelia; Stark, Yvonne; Sülzle, Detlev; Svergun, Dmitri I; Baesler, Siegfried; Malawski, Guido; Moosmayer, Dieter; Menrad, Andreas; Schirner, Michael; Licha, Kai

    2008-03-14

    Molecular interactions between near-IR fluorescent probes and specific antibodies may be exploited to generate novel smart probes for diagnostic imaging. Using a new phage display technology, we developed such antibody Fab fragments with subnanomolar binding affinity for tetrasulfocyanine, a near-IR in vivo imaging agent. Unexpectedly, some Fabs induced redshifts of the dye absorption peak of up to 44 nm. This is the largest shift reported for a biological system so far. Crystal structure determination and absorption spectroscopy in the crystal in combination with microcalorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering in solution revealed that the redshift is triggered by formation of a Fab dimer, with tetrasulfocyanine being buried in a fully closed protein cavity within the dimer interface. The derived principle of shifting the absorption peak of a symmetric dye via packaging within a Fab dimer interface may be transferred to other diagnostic fluorophores, opening the way towards smart imaging probes that change their wavelength upon interaction with an antibody.

  18. The shift of optical band gap in W-doped ZnO with oxygen pressure and doping level

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, J.; Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chongqing 400714; Peng, X.Y.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • CVD–PLD co-deposition technique was used. • Better crystalline of the ZnO samples causes the redshift of the optical band gap. • Higher W concentration induces blueshift of the optical band gap. - Abstract: Tungsten-doped (W-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were synthesized on quartz substrates by pulsed laser and hot filament chemical vapor co-deposition technique under different oxygen pressures and doping levels. We studied in detail the morphological, structural and optical properties of W-doped ZnO by SEM, XPS, Raman scattering, and optical transmission spectra. A close correlation among the oxygen pressure, morphology, W concentrations and the variation of bandmore » gaps were investigated. XPS and Raman measurements show that the sample grown under the oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa has the maximum tungsten concentration and best crystalline structure, which induces the redshift of the optical band gap. The effect of W concentration on the change of morphology and shift of optical band gap was also studied for the samples grown under the fixed oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa.« less

  19. Voigt deconvolution method and its applications to pure oxygen absorption spectrum at 1270 nm band.

    PubMed

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A; Aljghami, Issam F; Mahzia, Yahia M

    2016-03-15

    Experimental spectral lines of pure oxygen at 1270 nm band were analyzed by Voigt deconvolution method. The method gave a total Voigt profile, which arises from two overlapping bands. Deconvolution of total Voigt profile leads to two Voigt profiles, the first as a result of O2 dimol at 1264 nm band envelope, and the second from O2 monomer at 1268 nm band envelope. In addition, Voigt profile itself is the convolution of Lorentzian and Gaussian distributions. Competition between thermal and collisional effects was clearly observed through competition between Gaussian and Lorentzian width for each band envelope. Voigt full width at half-maximum height (Voigt FWHM) for each line, and the width ratio between Lorentzian and Gaussian width (ΓLΓG(-1)) have been investigated. The following applied pressures were at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 bar, while the temperatures were at 298 K, 323 K, 348 K, and 373 K range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadeningmore » of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.« less

  1. Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liu Hao; Lau, Lok Yin; Ren, Wei

    2017-03-01

    We report in situ measurements of non-uniform temperature, H2O and CO2 concentration distributions in a premixed methane-air laminar flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A mid-infrared, continuous-wave, room-temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) at 4183 nm was used for the sensitive detection of CO2 at high temperature.The H2O absorption lines were exploited by one distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1343 nm and one ICL at 2482 nm to achieve multi-band absorption measurements with high species concentration sensitivity, high temperature sensitivity, and immunity to variations in ambient conditions. A novel profile-fitting function was proposed to characterize the non-uniform temperature and species concentrations along the line-of-sight in the flame by detecting six absorption lines of CO2 and H2O simultaneously. The flame temperature distribution was measured at different heights above the burner (5-20 mm), and compared with the thermocouple measurement with heat-transfer correction. Our TDLAS measured temperature of the central flame was in excellent agreement (<1.5% difference) with the thermocouple data.The TDLAS results were also compared with the CFD simulations using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism (GRI 3.0) and considering the heat loss to the surroundings.The current CFD simulation overpredicted the flame temperature in the gradient region, but was in excellent agreement with the measured temperature and species concentration in the core of the flame.

  2. The ÖX˜ absorption of vinoxy radical revisited: Normal and Herzberg-Teller bands observed via cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Phillip S.; Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Kline, Neal D.; Miller, Terry A.

    2010-03-01

    The ÖX˜ electronic absorption spectrum of vinoxy radical has been investigated using room temperature cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Analysis of the observed bands on the basis of computed vibrational frequencies and rotational envelopes reveals that two distinct types of features are present with comparable intensities. The first type corresponds to "normal" allowed electronic transitions to the origin and symmetric vibrations in the à state. The second type is interpreted in terms of excitations to asymmetric à state vibrations, which are only vibronically allowed by Herzberg-Teller coupling to the B˜ state. Results of electronic structure calculations indicate that the magnitude of the Herzberg-Teller coupling is appropriate to produce vibronically induced transitions with intensities comparable to those of the normal bands.

  3. Gold Nanoparticles with Externally Controlled, Reversible Shifts of Local Surface Plasmon Resonance Bands

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Mustafa S.; Jensen, Gary C.; Penaloza, David P.; Seery, Thomas A. P.; Pendergraph, Samuel A.; Rusling, James F.; Sotzing, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    We have achieved reversible tunability of local surface plasmon resonance in conjugated polymer functionalized gold nanoparticles. This property was facilitated by the preparation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) containing polynorbornene brushes on gold nanoparticles via surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Reversible tuning of the surface plasmon band was achieved by electrochemically switching the EDOT polymer between its reduced and oxidized states. PMID:19839619

  4. Band-offset-induced lateral shift of valley electrons in ferromagnetic MoS2/WS2 planar heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Hassan; Saffarzadeh, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    Low-energy coherent transport and a Goos-Hänchen (GH) lateral shift of valley electrons in planar heterojunctions composed of normal MoS2 and ferromagnetic WS2 monolayers are theoretically investigated. Two types of heterojunctions in the forms of WS2/MoS2/WS2 (type-A) and MoS2/WS2/MoS2 (type-B) with incident electrons in the MoS2 region are considered in which the lateral shift of electrons is induced by band alignments of the two constituent semiconductors. It is shown that the type-A heterojunction can act as an electron waveguide due to electron confinement between the two WS2/MoS2 interfaces which cause the incident electrons with an appropriate incidence angle to propagate along the interfaces. In this case, the spin- and valley-dependent GH shifts of totally reflected electrons from the interface lead to separated electrons with distinct spin-valley indexes after traveling a sufficiently long distance. In the type-B heterojunction, however, transmission resonances occur for incident electron beams passing through the structure, and large spin- and valley-dependent lateral shift values in propagating states can be achieved. Consequently, the transmitted electrons are spatially well-separated into electrons with distinct spin-valley indexes. Our findings reveal that the planar heterojunctions of transition metal dichalcogenides can be utilized as spin-valley beam filters and/or splitters without external gating.

  5. A Blue Spectral Shift of the Hemoglobin Soret Band Correlates with the Age (Time Since Deposition) of Dried Bloodstains

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erin K.; Ballantyne, Jack

    2010-01-01

    The ability to determine the time since deposition of a bloodstain found at a crime scene could prove invaluable to law enforcement investigators, defining the time frame in which the individual depositing the evidence was present. Although various methods of accomplishing this have been proposed, none has gained widespread use due to poor time resolution and weak age correlation. We have developed a method for the estimation of the time since deposition (TSD) of dried bloodstains using UV-VIS spectrophotometric analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) that is based upon its characteristic oxidation chemistry. A detailed study of the Hb Soret band (λmax = 412 nm) in aged bloodstains revealed a blue shift (shift to shorter wavelength) as the age of the stain increases. The extent of this shift permits, for the first time, a distinction to be made between bloodstains that were deposited minutes, hours, days and weeks prior to recovery and analysis. The extent of the blue shift was found to be a function of ambient relative humidity and temperature. The method is extremely sensitive, requiring as little as a 1 µl dried bloodstain for analysis. We demonstrate that it might be possible to perform TSD measurements at the crime scene using a portable low-sample-volume spectrophotometer. PMID:20877468

  6. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicatemore » the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. Finally, an intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.« less

  7. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  8. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; ...

    2016-01-18

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicatemore » the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. Finally, an intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.« less

  9. Decomposition of mineral absorption bands using nonlinear least squares curve fitting: Application to Martian meteorites and CRISM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Mario; Makarewicz, Heather D.; Bishop, Janice L.

    2011-04-01

    This study advances curve-fitting modeling of absorption bands of reflectance spectra and applies this new model to spectra of Martian meteorites ALH 84001 and EETA 79001 and data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). This study also details a recently introduced automated parameter initialization technique. We assess the performance of this automated procedure by comparing it to the currently available initialization method and perform a sensitivity analysis of the fit results to variation in initial guesses. We explore the issues related to the removal of the continuum, offer guidelines for continuum removal when modeling the absorptions and explore different continuum-removal techniques. We further evaluate the suitability of curve fitting techniques using Gaussians/Modified Gaussians to decompose spectra into individual end-member bands. We show that nonlinear least squares techniques such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieve comparable results to the MGM model ( Sunshine and Pieters, 1993; Sunshine et al., 1990) for meteorite spectra. Finally we use Gaussian modeling to fit CRISM spectra of pyroxene and olivine-rich terrains on Mars. Analysis of CRISM spectra of two regions show that the pyroxene-dominated rock spectra measured at Juventae Chasma were modeled well with low Ca pyroxene, while the pyroxene-rich spectra acquired at Libya Montes required both low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxene for a good fit.

  10. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  11. Inter-Layer Coupling Induced Valence Band Edge Shift in Mono- to Few-Layer MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Daniel J.; Putilov, Aleksei V.; Di Giorgio, Cinzia; Saari, Timo; Wang, Baokai; Wolak, Mattheus; Chandrasena, Ravini U.; Lane, Christopher; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Kronast, Florian; Gray, Alexander X.; Xi, Xiaoxing X.; Nieminen, Jouko; Bansil, Arun; Iavarone, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of monolayer MoS2, a two-dimensional direct band-gap semiconductor, is paving new pathways toward atomically thin electronics. Despite the large amount of literature, fundamental gaps remain in understanding electronic properties at the nanoscale. Here, we report a study of highly crystalline islands of MoS2 grown via a refined chemical vapor deposition synthesis technique. Using high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS), photoemission electron microscopy/spectroscopy (PEEM) and μ-ARPES we investigate the electronic properties of MoS2 as a function of the number of layers at the nanoscale and show in-depth how the band gap is affected by a shift of the valence band edge as a function of the layer number. Green’s function based electronic structure calculations were carried out in order to shed light on the mechanism underlying the observed bandgap reduction with increasing thickness, and the role of the interfacial Sulphur atoms is clarified. Our study, which gives new insight into the variation of electronic properties of MoS2 films with thickness bears directly on junction properties of MoS2, and thus impacts electronics application of MoS2. PMID:28084465

  12. Inter-layer coupling induced valence band edge shift in mono- to few-layer MoS 2

    DOE PAGES

    Trainer, Daniel J.; Putilov, Aleksei V.; Di Giorgio, Cinzia; ...

    2017-01-13

    In this study, recent progress in the synthesis of monolayer MoS 2, a two-dimensional direct band-gap semiconductor, is paving new pathways toward atomically thin electronics. Despite the large amount of literature, fundamental gaps remain in understanding electronic properties at the nanoscale. Here,we report a study of highly crystalline islands of MoS 2 grown via a refined chemical vapor deposition synthesis technique. Using high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS), photoemission electron microscopy/spectroscopy (PEEM) and μ-ARPES we investigate the electronic properties of MoS 2 as a function of the number of layers at the nanoscale and show in-depth how themore » band gap is affected by a shift of the valence band edge as a function of the layer number. Green’s function based electronic structure calculations were carried out in order to shed light on the mechanism underlying the observed bandgap reduction with increasing thickness, and the role of the interfacial Sulphur atoms is clarified. Our study, which gives new insight into the variation of electronic properties of MoS 2 films with thickness bears directly on junction properties of MoS2, and thus impacts electronics application of MoS 2.« less

  13. The nu sub 9 fundamental of ethane - Integrated intensity and band absorption measurements with application to the atmospheres of the major planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Cess, R. D.; Bangaru, B. R. P.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of the absolute intensity and integrated band absorption have been performed for the nu sub 9 fundamental band of ethane. The intensity is found to be about 34 per sq cm per atm at STP, and this is significantly higher than previous estimates. It is shown that a Gaussian profile provides an empirical representation of the apparent spectral absorption coefficient. Employing this empirical profile, a simple expression is derived for the integrated band absorption, which is in excellent agreement with experimental values. The band model is then employed to investigate the possible role of ethane as a source of thermal infrared opacity within the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and to interpret qualitatively observed brightness temperatures for Saturn.

  14. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  15. The Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapor Absorption on Infrared Laser Propagation in the 5 Micrometer Band.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    which allows for thermal linedr expansion of the structure. 32 1 I 2. Second Harmonic Generation The second harmonic generation was achieved by mounting a...filter unit and then to the reference channel lock-in amplifier. C. TESTS 1 . DC Amplifier and A/D Calibration The Ectron DC amplifiers and the Altair A/D...AD-A130 788 THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR ABSORPTION ON 1 / INFRARED LASER PRUPA..(U) OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS ELECTROSCIENCE LAB L G WALTER

  16. Fluorinated graphene oxide for enhanced S and X-band microwave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sudeep, P. M.; TIFR-Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Hyderabad 500075; Vinayasree, S.

    2015-06-01

    Here we report the microwave absorbing properties of three graphene derivatives, namely, graphene oxide (GO), fluorinated GO (FGO, containing 5.6 at. % Fluorine (F)), and highly FGO (HFGO, containing 23 at. % F). FGO is known to be exhibiting improved electrochemical and electronic properties when compared to GO. Fluorination modifies the dielectric properties of GO and hence thought of as a good microwave absorber. The dielectric permittivities of GO, FGO, and HFGO were estimated in the S (2 GHz to 4 GHz) and X (8 GHz to 12 GHz) bands by employing cavity perturbation technique. For this, suspensions containing GO/FGO/HFGO were made in N-Methylmore » Pyrrolidone (NMP) and were subjected to cavity perturbation. The reflection loss was then estimated and it was found that −37 dB (at 3.2 GHz with 6.5 mm thickness) and −31 dB (at 2.8 GHz with 6 mm thickness) in the S band and a reflection loss of −18 dB (at 8.4 GHz with 2.5 mm thickness) and −10 dB (at 11 GHz with 2 mm thickness) in the X band were achieved for 0.01 wt. % of FGO and HFGO in NMP, respectively, suggesting that these materials can serve as efficient microwave absorbers even at low concentrations.« less

  17. Observation of shift in band gap with annealing in hydrothermally synthesized TiO2-thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Vani; Jha, Pardeep K.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2018-05-01

    Anatase TiO2 thin films were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The films were fabricated on a glass substrate by spin coating unit and annealed at 500 °C for 2 hours in ambient atmosphere. The effect of annealing on microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films namely, just deposited and annealed thin film were investigated. The XRD data confirms the tetragonal crystalline structure of the films with space group I41/amd. The surface morphology suggests that TiO2 particles are almost homogeneous in size and annealing of the film affect the grain growth of the particles. The band gap energy increases from 2.81 to 3.34 eV. On the basis of our observation, it can be concluded that the annealing of TiO2 thin films enhances the absorption range and it may find potential application in the field of solar cells.

  18. Interferometric Control of Dual-Band Terahertz Perfect Absorption Using a Designed Metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ming; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xueqian; Yang, Quanlong; Zhang, Weili; Han, Jiaguang

    2018-05-01

    The coherent perfect absorber (CPA), a time-reversed counterpart to the laser emission, could cause all energy fed to the system to be absorbed. It can also be used as an absorptive interferometer, which could provide applications in controllable optical energy transfer. Here, in order to achieve a terahertz CPA, we propose a designed metasurface and experimentally demonstrate that it can serve as a polarization-insensitive CPA at a one-frequency channel under normal symmetric excitation, while a transverse-electric CPA at two-frequency channels around oblique 40° symmetric incidence. Such phenomena in this system can be attributed to Fano resonance consisting of interacting one bright and one dark mode under normal incidence and an additional operative dark mode under oblique symmetric excitation. The experimental results find good agreement with the fitted coupled-mode theory. Moreover, we show that the output amplitude can be effectively tuned from 0 to 1 only by varying the relative phase between the two input waves. The designed CPA could find potential application in effectively controlling absorption for terahertz imaging and terahertz switches.

  19. Very high S-band microwave absorption of carbon nanotube buckypapers with Mn nanoparticle interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaowei; Bai, Yaoyao; Wang, Jijie; Zhang, Lu; Tian, Caijiao; Ma, Keming; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    Flexible and high-performance electromagnetic absorbing materials of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) buckypapers with Mn nanoparticles (NPSs) interlayer were fabricated via monodisperse solutions through layer by layer vacuum filtration method. The morphology and element composition of buckypapers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. The formation of flexible MWCNT buckypapers with Mn NPS (0-30 wt. %) interlayer was attributed to nanostructure and morphology of the samples. When the blended Mn NPS content in buckypapers is 20 wt. %, there are evidently two larger absorption peaks (-13.2 dB at 3.41 GHz, -15.6 dB at 3.52 GHz) of the buckypaper with an absorbing thickness of 0.1 mm. The fundamental microwave absorption mechanism of the buckypapers is discussed. This work opens a new pathway towards tuning microwave absorbers performance and this method can be extended to exploit other excellent microwave absorbers with interlayer.

  20. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Arno; Dickenson, Gareth D.; Salumbides, Edcel J.; Ubachs, Wim; de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Nahon, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    An extensive survey of the D2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm-1 covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, B^' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, and C 1Πu electronic states up to the D(1s) + D(2ℓ) dissociation limit. Improved level energies of rovibrational levels have been determined up to respectively v = 51, v = 13, and v = 20. Highest resolution is achieved by probing absorption in a molecular gas jet with slit geometry, as well as in a liquid helium cooled static gas cell, resulting in line widths of ≈0.35 cm-1. Extended calibration methods are employed to extract line positions of D2 lines at absolute accuracies of 0.03 cm-1. The D 1Πu and B^' ' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ} electronic states correlate with the D(1s) + D(3ℓ) dissociation limit, but support a few vibrational levels below the second dissociation limit, respectively, v = 0-3 and v = 0-1, and are also included in the presented study. The complete set of resulting level energies is the most comprehensive and accurate data set for D2. The observations are compared with previous studies, both experimental and theoretical.

  1. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  2. Gold nanoparticles generated through "green route" bind Hg2+ with a concomitant blue shift in plasmon absorption peak.

    PubMed

    Radhakumary, C; Sreenivasan, K

    2011-07-21

    We discuss here a quick, simple, economic and ecofriendly method through a completely green route for the selective detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous samples. Here we exploited the ability of chitosan to generate gold nanoparticles and subsequently to act as a stabilizer for the formed nanoparticles. When chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-Au NPs) are interacted with Hg(2+) a blue shift for its localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance (LSPR) band is observed. The blue shift is reasoned to be due to the formation of a thin layer of mercury over gold. A concentration as low as 0.01 ppm to a maximum of 100 ppm Hg(2+) can be detected based on this blue shift of the CH-Au NPs. While all other reported methods demand complex reaction steps and costly chemicals, the method we reported here is a simple, rapid and selective approach for the detection of Hg(2+). Our results also show that the CH-Au NPs have excellent selectivity to Hg(2+) over common cations namely, Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Ag(1+), Ce(4+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+).

  3. An Unusual Strong Visible-Light Absorption Band in Red Anatase TiO2 Photocatalyst Induced by Atomic Hydrogen-Occupied Oxygen Vacancies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Yin, Li-Chang; Gong, Yue; Niu, Ping; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xingqiu; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Increasing visible light absorption of classic wide-bandgap photocatalysts like TiO 2 has long been pursued in order to promote solar energy conversion. Modulating the composition and/or stoichiometry of these photocatalysts is essential to narrow their bandgap for a strong visible-light absorption band. However, the bands obtained so far normally suffer from a low absorbance and/or narrow range. Herein, in contrast to the common tail-like absorption band in hydrogen-free oxygen-deficient TiO 2 , an unusual strong absorption band spanning the full spectrum of visible light is achieved in anatase TiO 2 by intentionally introducing atomic hydrogen-mediated oxygen vacancies. Combining experimental characterizations with theoretical calculations reveals the excitation of a new subvalence band associated with atomic hydrogen filled oxygen vacancies as the origin of such band, which subsequently leads to active photo-electrochemical water oxidation under visible light. These findings could provide a powerful way of tailoring wide-bandgap semiconductors to fully capture solar light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Depolarisation of light scattered by disperse systems of low-dimensional potassium polytitanate nanoparticles in the fundamental absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Yuvchenko, S A; Pravdin, A B

    2014-07-31

    The results of experimental studies of depolarising properties of disperse systems on the basis of potassium polytitanate nanoplatelets and nanoribbons in the visible and near-UV spectral regions are presented. It is shown that in the fundamental absorption band of the nanoparticle material the increase in the depolarisation factor takes place for the radiation scattered perpendicularly to the direction of the probing beam. For nanoribbons a pronounced peak of depolarisation is observed, which is caused by the essential anisotropy of the particles shape and the peculiarities of the behaviour of the material dielectric function. The empirical data are compared with themore » theoretical results for 'nanodiscs' and 'nanoneedles' with the model dielectric function, corresponding to that obtained from optical constants of the titanium dioxide dielectric function. (laser biophotonics)« less

  5. Performance of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells with Nanostructures of Relief Formed by Soft Imprint Lithography for Broad Band Absorption Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Shir, Daniel J.; Yoon, Jongseung; Chanda, Debashis

    2010-08-11

    Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells can be assembled into modules with characteristics (i.e., mechanically flexible forms, compact concentrator designs, and high-voltage outputs) that would be impossible to achieve using conventional, wafer-based approaches. This paper presents experimental and computational studies of the optics of light absorption in ultrathin microcells that include nanoscale features of relief on their surfaces, formed by soft imprint lithography. Measurements on working devices with designs optimized for broad band trapping of incident light indicate good efficiencies in energy production even at thicknesses of just a few micrometers. These outcomes are relevant not only tomore » the microcell technology described here but also to other photovoltaic systems that benefit from thin construction and efficient materials utilization.« less

  6. Reduction of cross-polarized reflection to enhance dual-band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Debidas; Mohan, Akhilesh; Chakrabarty, Ajay

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, cross-polarized reflection from a periodic array of metal-dielectric-metal resonator units is reduced to improve its absorbing performance. Through this simple and typical example, it is shown that some reported absorbers are actually poor absorbers but efficient polarization converters, when the cross-polarized reflection is considered. Using a frequency selective surface, sandwiched between the top layer and the ground plane, the cross-polarized reflection is reduced by 7.2 dB at 5.672 GHz and 8.5 dB at 9.56 GHz, while negligibly affecting the co-polarized reflection reduction performance. The polarization conversion ratio is reduced from 90. 74% to 34.12% and 98.51% to 27.2% and total absorption is improved up to 80% from 26% and 21% around the two resonant frequencies. The reflection characteristics of the proposed absorber are quantitatively analyzed using interference theory, where the near field coupling of the resonant geometries and ground is taken into account. Measurement results show good agreement with both the numerically simulated and theoretical results.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Using Urea as Reduction Agent: Excellent X-band Electromagnetic Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusu, L.; Ahmad, L. O.; Alimin; Nurdin, M.; Herdianto; Mitsudo, S.; Kikuchi, H.

    2018-05-01

    We report a strong absorption of microwave energy at X-band (8 GHz to 12 GHz) by N-doped graphene. Attachment of nitrogen on the layered structure of GO improves the reflection loss of GO slab (2.0 mm, thickness) from –10 dB to –25.0 dB with a sharp bandwidth ∼0.3 GHz. As for the broader bandwidth of about 1.4 GHz, reflection loss is –10.5 dB. This significant absorption may take place by improvement of magnetic property of NG through high magnetic coupling of localized spins induced by a defect on the surface of graphene. N atoms play as the electron trapper, easily influenced by self-magnetic moments and incoming electromagnetic fields to produce electric and/or magnetic losses. Here, urea acts as the reducing agent and N atoms donor for graphene oxide in hydrothermal process at a temperature of 190 °C.

  8. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  9. Transition state region in the A-Band photodissociation of allyl iodide—A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacherjee, Aditi, E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu; Attar, Andrew R., E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

    2016-03-28

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-harmonic generation source is used to study the 266 nm induced A-band photodissociation dynamics of allyl iodide (CH{sub 2} =CHCH{sub 2}I). The photolysis of the C—I bond at this wavelength produces iodine atoms both in the ground ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}, I) and spin-orbit excited ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, I*) states, with the latter as the predominant channel. Using XUV absorption at the iodine N{sub 4/5} edge (45–60 eV), the experiments constitute a direct probe of not only the long-lived atomic iodine reaction products but also the fleeting transition state region ofmore » the repulsive n{sub I}σ{sup ∗}{sub C—I} excited states. Specifically, three distinct features are identified in the XUV transient absorption spectrum at 45.3 eV, 47.4 eV, and 48.4 eV (denoted transients A, B, and C, respectively), which arise from the repulsive valence-excited nσ{sup ∗} states and project onto the high-lying core-excited states of the dissociating molecule via excitation of 4d(I) core electrons. Transients A and B originate from 4d(I) → n(I) core-to-valence transitions, whereas transient C is best assigned to a 4d(I) →σ{sup ∗}(C—I) transition. The measured differential absorbance of these new features along with the I/I* branching ratios known from the literature is used to suggest a more definitive assignment, albeit provisional, of the transients to specific dissociative states within the A-band manifold. The transients are found to peak around 55 fs–65 fs and decay completely by 145 fs–185 fs, demonstrating the ability of XUV spectroscopy to map the evolution of reactants into products in real time. The similarity in the energies of transients A and B with analogous features observed in methyl iodide [Attar et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 5072, (2015)] together with the new observation of transient C in the present work provides a more complete picture of the valence

  10. Highly specific spectroscopic photoacoustic molecular imaging of dynamic optical absorption shifts of an antibody-ICG contrast agent (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Jensen, Kristen C.; Machtaler, Steven; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Juergen K.

    2017-03-01

    Improved techniques for breast cancer screening are critically needed as current methods lack diagnostic accuracy. Using spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) molecular imaging with a priori knowledge of optical absorption spectra allows suppression of endogenous background signal, increasing the overall sensitivity and specificity of the modality to exogenous contrast agents. Here, sPA imaging was used to monitor antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates as they undergo optical absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation to allow differentiation between normal murine mammary glands from breast cancer by enhancing molecular imaging signal from target (B7-H3)-bound antibody-ICG. First, B7-H3 was shown to have highly specific (AUC of 0.93) expression on both vascular endothelium and tumor stroma in malignant lesions through quantitative immunohistochemical staining of B7-H3 on 279 human samples (normal (n=53), benign lesions (11 subtypes, n=182), breast cancers (4 subtypes, n=97)), making B7-H3 a promising target for sPA imaging. Second, absorption spectra of intracellular and degraded B7-H3-ICG and Isotype control (Iso-ICG) were characterized through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Finally, a transgenic murine breast cancer model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTVPyMT)634Mul) was imaged, and sPA imaging in found a 3.01 (IQR 2.63, 3.38, P<0.001) fold increase in molecular B7-H3-ICG signal in tumors (n=80) compared to control conditions (B7-H3-ICG in tumor negative animals (n=60), Iso-ICG (n=30), blocking B7-H3+B7-H3-ICG (n=20), and free ICG (n=20)) despite significant tumor accumulation of Iso-ICG, confirmed through ex vivo histology. Overall, leveraging anti-B7-H3 antibody-ICG contrast agents, which have dynamic optical absorption spectra representative of molecular interactions, allows for highly specific sPA imaging of murine breast cancer.

  11. High resolution absorption cross sections in the transmission window region of the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements, conducted in the wavelength region 180-195 nm, and at different pressures of oxygen (between 2.5-760 torr) in order to separate the pressure-dependent absorption from the main cross sections, of the absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands in the window region between the rotational lines of S-R bands of O2. The present cross sections supersede the earlier published cross sections (Yoshino et al., 1983). The combined cross sections are presented graphically; they are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm from the National Space Science Data Center. The Herzberg continuum cross sections are derived after subtracting calculated contributions from the Schumann-Runge bands. These are significantly smaller than any previous measurements.

  12. Defect-induced band-edge reconstruction of a bismuth-halide double perovskite for visible-light absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Slavney, Adam H.; Leppert, Linn; Bartesaghi, Davide; ...

    2017-03-29

    In this study, halide double perovskites have recently been developed as less toxic analogs of the lead perovskite solar-cell absorbers APbX 3 (A = monovalent cation; X = Br or I). However, all known halide double perovskites have large bandgaps that afford weak visible-light absorption. The first halide double perovskite evaluated as an absorber, Cs 2AgBiBr 6 (1), has a bandgap of 1.95 eV. Here, we show that dilute alloying decreases 1’s bandgap by ca. 0.5 eV. Importantly, time-resolved photoconductivity measurements reveal long-lived carriers with microsecond lifetimes in the alloyed material, which is very promising for photovoltaic applications. The alloyedmore » perovskite described herein is the first double perovskite to show comparable bandgap energy and carrier lifetime to those of (CH 3NH 3)PbI 3. By describing how energy- and symmetry-matched impurity orbitals, at low concentrations, dramatically alter 1’s band edges, we open a potential pathway for the large and diverse family of halide double perovskites to compete with APbX 3 absorbers.« less

  13. Red shift of the SF6 vibration spectrum induced by the electron absorption: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Long-Fei; Han, Fang-Yuan; Luo, Zong-Chang; Liang, Qin-Qin; Liu, Chen-Yao; Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Jie-Ming

    2018-01-01

    As a widely used gas insulator, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a large cross section for electron absorption, which may make the molecule ionized to the -1 charge state in the high-voltage environment. Using ab initio calculations, we show that the absorbed electron is located averagely on the six F atoms, occupying the antibonding level of the s-p σ bonds and increasing the S-F bond length. The ionized SF6- molecule decreases its decomposition energy to only 1.5 eV, much lower than that of the neutral molecule (4.8 eV), which can be understood according to the occupying of the antibonding orbital and thus weakening of the s-p σ bonds. The weakening of the bonds results in an obvious red shift in the vibrational modes of the ionized SF6- molecule by 120-270 cm-1, compared to those of the neutral molecule. The detailed origin of these vibrational modes is analyzed. Since the appearance of the ionized SF6- molecules is before the decomposition reaction of the SF6- molecule into low-fluoride sulfides, this method may improve the sensitivity of the defection of the partial discharge and save more time for the prevention of the insulation failure in advance.

  14. Laser-based measurements of pressure broadening and pressure shift coefficients of combustion-relevant absorption lines in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Sebastian; Walter, Nicole; Wagner, Steven

    2018-06-01

    A set of high-resolution absorption spectrometers based on TDLAS was used to determine the impact of combustion-relevant gases on the pressure shift and broadening of H2O, CO2, C2H2 and CH4 absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. In particular, self- and foreign-broadening coefficients induced by CO2, N2, O2, air, C2H2 and CH4 were measured. The absorption lines under investigation are suitable to measure the respective species in typical combustion environments via laser absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, species-dependent self- and foreign-induced pressure shift coefficients were measured and compared to the literature. The experiments were performed in two specifically designed absorption cells over a wide pressure range from 5 to 180 kPa. Different sources of uncertainty were identified and quantified to achieve relative measurement uncertainties of 0.7-1.5% for broadening coefficients and 0.6-1.6% for pressure shift coefficients.

  15. Doping dependent blue shift and linewidth broadening of intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Teruhisa, E-mail: tkotani@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505; Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Sharp Corporation, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567

    2015-09-14

    Blue shift and broadening of the absorption spectra of mid-infrared intersubband transition in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN 10 quantum wells were observed with increasing doping density. As the doping density was increased from 6.6 × 10{sup 11} to 6.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} per a quantum well, the intersubband absorption peak energy shifted from 274.0 meV to 302.9 meV, and the full width at half maximum increased from 56.4 meV to 112.4 meV. Theoretical calculations reveal that the blue shift is due to many body effects, and the intersubband linewidth in doped AlGaN/GaN QW is mainly determined by scattering due to interface roughness, LO phonons, and ionized impurities.

  16. Analysis of Mars surface hydration through the MEx/OMEGA observation of the 3 μm absorption band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouglet, D.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    The near infrared Mars surface global mapping done by OMEGA gives the first opportunity to study the global and detailed characteristics of the 3µm hydration absorption band on Mars surface. This feature is indistinctly due to bending and stretching vibrations of water bound in minerals or adsorbed at their surface, and of hydroxyl groups (for a review, see e.g. [1] or [2]). Its study may give new elements to determine the geologic and climatic past of Mars, and may put new constrain about the current water cycle of Mars. OMEGA data are processed in a pipeline that converts raw data to radiance, removes atmospheric effects and gets I/F. Specific data reduction scheme has been developed to assess temperature of OMEGA spectra at 5 µm and to remove their thermal part so as to get the albedo from 1.µm to 5.1µm ([2]). Two methods, the Integrated Band Depth and the water content based on comparison with laboratory measures of Yen et al. ([3]), have been used to assess the 3µm band depth. These two methods where applied to OMEGA spectra acquired at a nominal calibration level and not exhibiting water ice features. This corresponds to approximately 35 million spectra ([2]). The data processed show the presence of this absorption feature overall the Martian surface, which could be explained by the presence of adsorbed water up to 1% water mass percentage ([4]) and by rinds or coating resulting from weathering (see e.g. [5] or [6]). A possible increase of hydration with albedo is discussed so as to discriminate between the albedo-dependence of the method and hydration variations. Terrains enriched in phyllosilicates ([7]), sulfates ([8]) or hydroxides exhibit an increased hydration at 3 µm. This terrains show that the 3 µm band can bring additional information about composition, for example by observing a variation in the shape of the band. A decrease of hydration with elevation is observed on the processed data independently of the value of albedo. This correlation

  17. Highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules in low-pressure inductively-coupled plasmas detected by high sensitivity ultra-broad-band optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Carbone, Emile; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5-80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200-450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to vʺ = 18) by Schumann-Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities indicates a vibrational temperature up to 10,000 K, but these hot molecules only represent a fraction of the total O2 density. By analysing the (11-0) band at higher spectral resolution the O2 rotational temperature was also determined, and was found to increase with both pressure and power, reaching 900 K at 80 mTorr 500 W. These measurements were achieved using a new high-sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy setup, based on a laser-plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration-corrected spectrograph. This setup allows the measurement of weak broadband absorbances due to a baseline variability lower than 2   ×   10-5 across a spectral range of 250 nm.

  18. Core-shifts and proper-motion constraints in the S5 polar cap sample at the 15 and 43 GHz bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, F. J.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Marcaide, J. M.; Guirado, J. C.

    2018-06-01

    We have studied a complete radio sample of active galactic nuclei with the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) technique and for the first time successfully obtained high-precision phase-delay astrometry at Q band (43 GHz) from observations acquired in 2010. We have compared our astrometric results with those obtained with the same technique at U band (15 GHz) from data collected in 2000. The differences in source separations among all the source pairs observed in common at the two epochs are compatible at the 1σ level between U and Q bands. With the benefit of quasi-simultaneous U and Q band observations in 2010, we have studied chromatic effects (core-shift) at the radio source cores with three different methods. The magnitudes of the core-shifts are of the same order (about 0.1 mas) for all methods. However, some discrepancies arise in the orientation of the core-shifts determined through the different methods. In some cases these discrepancies are due to insufficient signal for the method used. In others, the discrepancies reflect assumptions of the methods and could be explained by curvatures in the jets and departures from conical jets.

  19. Dynamic metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]pyruvate using spiral chemical shift imaging with alternating spectral band excitation.

    PubMed

    Josan, Sonal; Hurd, Ralph; Park, Jae Mo; Yen, Yi-Fen; Watkins, Ron; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Spielman, Daniel; Mayer, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    In contrast to [1-(13) C]pyruvate, hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]pyruvate permits the ability to follow the (13) C label beyond flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and investigate the incorporation of acetyl-coenzyme A into different metabolic pathways. However, chemical shift imaging (CSI) with [2-(13) C]pyruvate is challenging owing to the large spectral dispersion of the resonances, which also leads to severe chemical shift displacement artifacts for slice-selective acquisitions. This study introduces a sequence for three-dimensional CSI of [2-(13) C]pyruvate using spectrally selective excitation of limited frequency bands containing a subset of metabolites. Dynamic CSI data were acquired alternately from multiple frequency bands in phantoms for sequence testing and in vivo in rat heart. Phantom experiments verified the radiofrequency pulse design and demonstrated that the signal behavior of each group of resonances was unaffected by excitation of the other frequency bands. Dynamic three-dimensional (13) C CSI data demonstrated the sequence capability to image pyruvate, lactate, acetylcarnitine, glutamate, and acetoacetate, enabling the analysis of organ-specific spectra and metabolite time courses. The presented method allows CSI of widely separated resonances without chemical shift displacement artifact, acquiring multiple frequency bands alternately to obtain dynamic time-course information. This approach enables robust imaging of downstream metabolic products of acetyl-coenzyme A with hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]pyruvate. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Extreme absorption enhancement in ZnTe:O/ZnO intermediate band core-shell nanowires by interplay of dielectric resonance and plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kui-Ying; Li, Jing; Chen, Xuanhu; Xu, Yang; Tu, Xuecou; Ren, Fang-Fang; Du, Qingguo; Fu, Lan; Kang, Lin; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhang, Rong; Wu, Peiheng; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-08-08

    Intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are conceptual and promising for next generation high efficiency photovoltaic devices, whereas, IB impact on the cell performance is still marginal due to the weak absorption of IB states. Here a rational design of a hybrid structure composed of ZnTe:O/ZnO core-shell nanowires (NWs) with Al bowtie nanoantennas is demonstrated to exhibit strong ability in tuning and enhancing broadband light response. The optimized nanowire dimensions enable absorption enhancement by engineering leaky-mode dielectric resonances. It maximizes the overlap of the absorption spectrum and the optical transitions in ZnTe:O intermediate-band (IB) photovoltaic materials, as verified by the enhanced photoresponse especially for IB states in an individual nanowire device. Furthermore, by integrating Al bowtie antennas, the enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling enables the notable improvement in the absorption of ZnTe:O/ZnO core-shell single NW, which was demonstrated by the profound enhancement of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering. The marriage of dielectric and metallic resonance effects in subwavelength-scale nanowires opens up new avenues for overcoming the poor absorption of sub-gap photons by IB states in ZnTe:O to achieve high-efficiency IBSCs.

  1. Air-broadened Lorentz halfwidths and pressure-induced line shifts in the nu(4) band of C-13H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    1988-01-01

    Air-broadened halfwidths and pressure-induced line shifts in the nu(4) fundamental of C-13H4 were determined from spectra recorded at room temperature and at 0.01/cm resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. Halfwidths and pressure shifts were determined for over 180 transitions belonging to J-double prime values of less than or = to 16. Comparisons of air-broadened halfwidths and pressure-induced line shifts made for identical transitions in the nu(4) bands of C-12H4 and C-13H4 have shown that C-13H4 air-broadened halfwidths are about 5 percent smaller than the corresponding C-12H4 halfwidths, and the pressure shifts for C-13H4 lines are about 5-15 percent larger than those for C-12H4.

  2. Modulating the band structure and sub-bandgap absorption of Co-hyperdoped silicon by co-doping with shallow-level elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Fang, Xiuxiu; Wang, Yongyong; Song, Xiaohui; Lu, Zhansheng

    2018-06-01

    Hyperdoped group-III elements can lower the Fermi energy in the band structures of Co-hyperdoped silicon. When the Co-to-X (X = B, Al, Ga) ratio is 2:1, the intermediate band (IB) in the bandgap includes the Fermi energy and is partially filled by electrons, which is in accordance with the requirement of an IB material. The hyperdoped X atoms can cause the blueshift of the sub-bandgap absorption of the compound compared with the material with no shallow-level elements, which is due to the enlargement of the electronic excitation energy of the Co,X-co-doped silicon.

  3. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  4. Extrapolation of earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, John A.; Pilewskie, Peter A.; Scott-Fleming, Ian C.; Herman, Benjamin M.; Ben-David, Avishai

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  5. Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Pilewskie, P. A.; Scott-Fleming, I. C.; Hermann, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for extrapolating Earth-based spectral band measurements of directly transmitted solar irradiance to equivalent exoatmospheric signal levels were used to aid in determining system gain settings of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) sunsensor system being developed for the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) 2 instrument on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. A band transmittance approach was employed for the HALOE sunsensor which has a broad-band channel determined by the spectral responsivity of a silicon detector. A modified Langley plot approach, assuming a square-root law behavior for the water vapor transmittance, was used for the SAGE-2 940 nm water vapor channel.

  6. Measurements and calculations of H2-broadening and shift parameters of water vapour transitions of the ν1 + ν2 + ν3 band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. M.; Solodov, A. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Deichuli, V. M.; Starikov, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The water vapour line broadening and shifting for 97 lines in the ν1 + ν2 + ν3 band induced by hydrogen pressure are measured with Bruker IFS 125 HR FTIR spectrometer. The measurements were performed at room temperature, at the spectral resolution of 0.01 cm-1 and in a wide pressure range of H2. The calculations of the broadening γ and shift δ coefficients were performed in the semi-classical method framework with use of an effective vibrationally depended interaction potential. Two potential parameters were optimised to improve the quality of calculations. Good agreements with measured broadening coefficients were achieved. The comparison of calculated broadening coefficients γ with the previous measurements is discussed. The analytical expressions that reproduce these coefficients for rotational, ν2, ν1, and ν3 vibrational bands are presented.

  7. Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng

    2012-07-01

    A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.

  8. Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8-mum room-temperature diode laser.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfroh, D M; Allen, M G

    1997-10-20

    We describe the development of a room-temperature diode sensor for in situ monitoring of combustion-generated NO. The sensor is based on a near-IR diode laser operating near 1.8 mum, which probes isolated transitions in the second overtone (3, 0) absorption band of NO. Based on absorption cell data, the sensitivity for ambient atmospheric pressure conditions is of the order of 30 parts in 10(6) by volume for a meter path (ppmv-m), assuming a minimum measurable absorbance of 10(-5). Initial H(2) -air flame measurements are complicated by strong water vapor absorption features that constrain the available gain and dynamic range of the present detection system. Preliminary results suggest that detection limits in this environment of the order of 140 ppmv-m could be achieved with optimum baseline correction.

  9. Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8- m room-temperature diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfroh, David M.; Allen, Mark G.

    1997-10-01

    We describe the development of a room-temperature diode sensor for in situ monitoring of combustion-generated NO. The sensor is based on a near-IR diode laser operating near 1.8 m, which probes isolated transitions in the second overtone (3,0) absorption band of NO. Based on absorption cell data, the sensitivity for ambient atmospheric pressure conditions is of the order of 30 parts in 10 6 by volume for a meter path (ppmv m), assuming a minimum measurable absorbance of 10 5 . Initial H 2 air flame measurements are complicated by strong water vapor absorption features that constrain the available gain and dynamic range of the present detection system. Preliminary results suggest that detection limits in this environment of the order of 140 ppmv m could be achieved with optimum baseline correction.

  10. A study of the structure of the ν1(HF) absorption band of the СH3СN…HF complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromova, E. I.; Glazachev, E. V.; Bulychev, V. P.; Koshevarnikov, A. M.; Tokhadze, K. G.

    2015-09-01

    The ν1(HF) absorption band shape of the CH3CN…HF complex is studied in the gas phase at a temperature of 293 K. The spectra of gas mixtures CH3CN/HF are recorded in the region of 4000-3400 cm-1 at a resolution from 0.1 to 0.005 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS-120 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer in a cell 10 cm in length with wedge-shaped sapphire windows. The procedure used to separate the residual water absorption allows more than ten fine-structure bands to be recorded on the low-frequency wing of the ν1(HF) band. It is shown that the fine structure of the band is formed primarily due to hot transitions from excited states of the low-frequency ν7 librational vibration. Geometrical parameters of the equilibrium nuclear configuration, the binding energy, and the dipole moment of the complex are determined from a sufficiently accurate quantum-chemical calculation. The frequencies and intensities for a number of spectral transitions of this complex are obtained in the harmonic approximation and from variational solutions of anharmonic vibrational problems.

  11. Complexities in pyroxene compositions derived from absorption band centers: Examples from Apollo samples, HED meteorites, synthetic pure pyroxenes, and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    We reexamine the relationship between pyroxene composition and near-infrared absorption bands, integrating measurements of diverse natural and synthetic samples. We test an algorithm (PLC) involving a two-part linear continuum removal and parabolic fits to the 1 and 2 μm bands—a computationally simple approach which can easily be automated and applied to remote sensing data. Employing a suite of synthetic pure pyroxenes, the PLC technique is shown to derive similar band centers to the modified Gaussian model. PLC analyses are extended to natural pyroxene-bearing materials, including (1) bulk lunar basalts and pyroxene separates, (2) diverse lunar soils, and (3) HED meteorites. For natural pyroxenes, the relationship between composition and absorption band center differs from that of synthetic pyroxenes. These differences arise from complexities inherent in natural materials such as exsolution, zoning, mixing, and space weathering. For these reasons, band center measurements of natural pyroxene-bearing materials are compositionally nonunique and could represent three distinct scenarios (1) pyroxene with a narrow compositional range, (2) complexly zoned pyroxene grains, or (3) a mixture of multiple pyroxene (or nonpyroxene) components. Therefore, a universal quantitative relationship between band centers and pyroxene composition cannot be uniquely derived for natural pyroxene-bearing materials without additional geologic context. Nevertheless, useful relative relationships between composition and band center persist in most cases. These relationships are used to interpret M3 data from the Humboldtianum Basin. Four distinct compositional units are identified (1) Mare Humboldtianum basalts, (2) distinct outer basalts, (3) low-Ca pyroxene-bearing materials, and (4) feldspathic materials.

  12. Origin of the Absorption Band of Bromophenol Blue in Acidic and Basic pH: Insight from a Combined Molecular Dynamics and TD-DFT/MM Study.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyaya, M; Murugan, N Arul; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas

    2016-09-15

    We study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a well-known acid-base indicator, bromophenol blue (BPB), in aqueous solution by employing static and integrated approaches. In the static approach, optical properties have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) on the fully relaxed geometries of the neutral and different unprotonated forms of BPB. Moreover, both closed and open forms of BPB were considered. In the integrated approach, the optical properties have been computed over many snapshots extracted from molecular dynamics simulation using a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/molecular mechanics approach. The static approach suggests closed neutral ⇒ anionic interconversion as the dominant mechanism for the red shift in the absorption spectra of BPB due to a change from acidic to basic pH. It is found by employing an integrated approach that the two interconversions, namely open neutral ⇒ anionic and open neutral ⇒ dianionic, can contribute to the pH-dependent shift in the absorption spectra of BPB. Even though both static and integrated approaches reproduce the pH-dependent red shift in the absorption spectra of BPB, the latter one is suitable to determine both the spectra and spectral broadening. Finally, the computed static first hyperpolarizability for various protonated and deprotonated forms of BPB reveals that this molecule can be used as a nonlinear optical probe for pH sensing in addition to its highly exploited use as an optical probe.

  13. A new photometric ozone reference in the Huggins bands: the absolute ozone absorption cross section at the 325 nm HeCd laser wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Christof; Elandaloussi, Hadj; Gröbner, Julian

    2018-03-01

    The room temperature (294.09 K) absorption cross section of ozone at the 325 nm HeCd wavelength has been determined under careful consideration of possible biases. At the vacuum wavelength of 325.126 nm, thus in a region used by a variety of ozone remote sensing techniques, an absorption cross-section value of σ = 16.470×10-21 cm2 was measured. The measurement provides the currently most accurate direct photometric absorption value of ozone in the UV with an expanded (coverage factor k = 2) standard uncertainty u(σ) = 31×10-24 cm2, corresponding to a relative level of 2 ‰. The measurements are most compatible with a relative temperature coefficient cT = σ-1 ∂ Tσ = 0.0031 K-1 at 294 K. The cross section and its uncertainty value were obtained using generalised linear regression with correlated uncertainties. It will serve as a reference for ozone absorption spectra required for the long-term remote sensing of atmospheric ozone in the Huggins bands. The comparison with commonly used absorption cross-section data sets for remote sensing reveals a possible bias of about 2 %. This could partly explain a 4 % discrepancy between UV and IR remote sensing data and indicates that further studies will be required to reach the accuracy goal of 1 % in atmospheric reference spectra.

  14. Type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum-dot intermediate band with extended optical absorption range for efficient solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustanji, Hela; Jaziri, Sihem

    2018-02-01

    GaSb/GaAs type-II quantum-dot solar cells (QD SCs) have attracted attention as highly efficient intermediate band SCs due to their infrared absorption. Type-II QDs exhibited a staggered confinement potential, where only holes are strongly confined within the dots. Long wavelength light absorption of the QDSCs is enhanced through the improved carriers number in the IB. The absorption of dots depends on their shape, material quality, and composition. Therefore, the optical properties of the GaSbGaAs QDs before and after thermal treatment are studied. Our intraband studies have shown an extended absorption into the long wavelength region 1.77 μ {m}. The annealed QDs have shown significantly more infrared response of 7.2 μ {m} compared to as-grown sample. The photon absorption and hole extraction depend strongly on the thermal annealing process. In this context, emission of holes from localized states in GaSb QDs has been studied using conductance-voltage ( G- V ) characteristics.

  15. The Rovibrational Intensities of Five Absorption Bands of (12)C(16)O2 Between 5218 and 5349/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Brown, Linda R.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, Richard S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Absolute line intensities, band intensities, and Herman-Wallis parameters were measured for the (01(sup 1)2)(sub I) from (00(sup 0)0)(sub I) perpendicular band of (12)C(16)O2 centered at 5315/cm, along with the three nearby associated hot bands: (10(sup 0)2)(sub II) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5248/cm, (02(sup 2))(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5291/cm, and (10(sup 0)2)(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5349/cm. The nearby parallel hot band (30(sup 0))(sub I) from (10(sup 0)0)(sub II) at 5218/cm was also included in this study.

  16. H2-broadening, shifting and mixing coefficients of the doublets in the ν2 and ν4 bands of PH3 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jamel; Blanquet, Ghislain; Lepère, Muriel; Younes, Rached ben

    2018-05-01

    The broadening, shifting and mixing coefficients of the doublet spectral lines in the ν2 and ν4 bands of PH3 perturbed by H2 have been determined at room temperature. Indeed, the collisional spectroscopic parameters: intensities, line widths, line shifts and line mixing parameters, are all grouped together in the collisional relaxation matrix. To analyse the collisional process and physical effects on spectra of phosphine (PH3), we have used the measurements carried out using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer in the ν2 and ν4 bands of PH3 perturbed by hydrogen (H2) at room temperature. The recorded spectra are fitted by the Voigt profile and the speed-dependent uncorrelated hard collision model of Rautian and Sobelman. These profiles are developed in the studies of isolated lines and are modified to account for the line mixing effects in the overlapping lines. The line widths, line shifts and line mixing parameters are given for six A1 and A2 doublet lines with quantum numbers K = 3n, (n = 1, 2, …) and overlapped by collisional broadening at pressures of less than 50 mbar.

  17. Broad band nonlinear optical absorption measurements of the laser dye IR26 using white light continuum Z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumyodeep; Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem Ballabh

    2017-03-01

    We study the nonlinear optical response of a standard dye IR26 using the Z-scan technique, but with the white light continuum. The continuum source of wavelength from 450 nm to 1650 nm has been generated from the photonic crystal fiber on pumping with 772 nm of Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The use of broadband incident pulse enables us to probe saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) over the large spectral range with a single Z-scan measurement. The system shows SA in the resonant region while it turns to RSA in the non-resonant regions. The low saturation intensity of the dye can be explained based on the simultaneous excitation from ground states to various higher energy levels with the help of composite energy level diagram. The cumulative effects of excited state absorption and thermal induced nonlinear optical effects are responsible for the observed RSA.

  18. Evaluation of quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal characteristics in W-band radio-over-fiber transmission using direct in-phase/quadrature-phase conversion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Meisaku; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sotobayashi, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    The effects of in-phase/quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalances are evaluated with a direct IQ down-converter in the W-band (75-110 GHz). The IQ imbalance of the converter is measured within a range of +/-10 degrees in an intermediate frequency of DC-26.5 GHz. 1-8-G-baud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are transmitted successfully with observed bit error rates within a forward error correction limit of 2×10-3 using radio over fiber (RoF) techniques. The direct down-conversion technique is applicable to next-generation high-speed wireless access communication systems in the millimeter-wave band.

  19. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN 1-xSb x from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; ...

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sb x)N 1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sb x)N 1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sb x)N 1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting watermore » under visible light irradiation.« less

  20. CMOS image sensor with organic photoconductive layer having narrow absorption band and proposal of stack type solid-state image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Shunji; Ihama, Mikio; Inuiya, Masafumi

    2006-02-01

    Digital still cameras overtook film cameras in Japanese market in 2000 in terms of sales volume owing to their versatile functions. However, the image-capturing capabilities such as sensitivity and latitude of color films are still superior to those of digital image sensors. In this paper, we attribute the cause for the high performance of color films to their multi-layered structure, and propose the solid-state image sensors with stacked organic photoconductive layers having narrow absorption bands on CMOS read-out circuits.

  1. Chemoselectivity-induced multiple interfaces in MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers for whole X-band microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijiang; Wu, Lina; Zhou, Jigang; Jiang, Zhaohua; Shen, Baozhong

    2014-11-07

    A chemoselective route to induce Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles decorating carbon nanotubes to form MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers has been developed. Charges are redistributed in the heterotrimers through C-O-Zn, C-O-Fe and Fe-O-Zn bondings, giving rise to multiple electronic phases. The generated significant interfacial polarization and synergetic interaction between dielectric and magnetic absorbers result in the MWCNT/Fe3O4@ZnO heterotrimers with high-performance microwave absorption in an entire X band.

  2. Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO thin films with thermal annealing: effect of band gap expansion and free-electron absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Chen, T P; Liu, Y; Leong, K C

    2014-09-22

    Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with annealing temperature is observed. It is shown that the evolution is due to the changes in both the band gap and the free-electron absorption as a result of the change of free-electron concentration of the AZO thin films. The change of the electron concentration could be attributed to the activation of Al dopant and the creation/annihilation of the donor-like defects like oxygen vacancy in the thin films caused by annealing.

  3. Re-investigation of the (3, 0) band in the b4Σ- - a4Π system for nitric oxide by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanliang; Shao, Ligang; Wang, Hailing; Zhou, Qinghong; Qiu, Xuanbing; Wei, Jilin; Deng, Lunhua; Chen, Yangqin

    2018-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals in the a4Π state were produced by discharging the mixture of NO gas and helium at the audio frequency. In the near infrared region, the spectra of the b4Σ- - a4Π system of the NO radical were studied by optical heterodyne - concentration modulation laser absorption spectroscopy. More than one hundred and thirty lines and eleven branches were recorded for the first time and assigned to the (3, 0) band. A global fitting was carried out to extract the molecular constants. In particular, the parameters D, p, γ and AD were precisely determined.

  4. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  5. Photo-induced intersubband absorption in {Si}/{SiGe} quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucaud, P.; Gao, L.; Visocekas, F.; Moussa, Z.; Lourtioz, J.-M.; Julien, F. H.; Sagnes, I.; Campidelli, Y.; Badoz, P.-A.; Vagos, P.

    1995-12-01

    We have investigated photo-induced intersubband absorption in the valence band of {Si}/{SiGe} quantum wells. Carriers are optically generated in the quantum wells using an argon ion laser. The resulting infrared absorption is probed with a step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The photo-induced infrared absorption in SiGe quantum wells is dominated by two contributions: the free carrier absorption, which is similar to bulk absorption in a uniformly doped SiGe layer, and the valence subband absorption in the quantum wells. Both p- and s-polarized intersubband absorptions are measured. We have observed that the photo-induced intersubband absorption in doped samples is shifted to lower energy as compared to direct intersubband absorption. This absorption process is attributed to carriers away from the Brillouin zone center. We show that the photo-induced technique is appropriate to study valence band mixing effects and their influence on intersubband absorption.

  6. Investigation of broadening and shift of vapour absorption lines of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O in the frequency range 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdinskii, A I; Pereslavtseva, A A; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2014-10-31

    We present the results of investigation of water vapour absorption spectra in the 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1} range that is of particular interest from the viewpoint of possible application of the data obtained for monitoring water vapour in the Earth's stratosphere. The doublet of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O near ν = 7185.596 cm{sup -1} is analysed. The coefficients of broadening and shift of water vapour lines are found in the selected range in mixtures with buffer gases and compared to those obtained by other authors. (laser spectroscopy)

  7. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  8. HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF INTERSTELLAR CARBONACEOUS DUST ANALOGS: COSMIC-RAY EFFECTS ON THE CARRIERS OF THE 3.4 μ m ABSORPTION BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Maté, Belén; Molpeceres, Germán; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μ m absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2} in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2} by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons. The decay of the band intensity versus electron fluence reflectsmore » a-C:H dehydrogenation, which is well described by a model assuming that H{sub 2} molecules, formed by the recombination of H atoms liberated through CH bond breaking, diffuse out of the sample. The CH bond destruction rates derived from the present experiments are in good accordance with those from previous ion irradiation experiments of HAC. The experimental simplicity of electron bombardment has allowed the use of higher-energy doses than in the ion experiments. The effects of cosmic rays on the aliphatic components of cosmic dust are found to be small. The estimated cosmic-ray destruction times for the 3.4 μ m band carriers lie in the 10{sup 8} yr range and cannot account for the disappearance of this band in dense clouds, which have characteristic lifetimes of 3 × 10{sup 7} yr. The results invite a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms of CH bond formation and breaking in the intermediate region between diffuse and dense clouds.« less

  9. Polarization signatures and brightness temperatures caused by horizontally oriented snow particles at microwave bands: Effects of atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinxin; Crewell, Susanne; Löhnert, Ulrich; Simmer, Clemens; Miao, Jungang

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission on the polarization difference (PD) and brightness temperature (TB) generated by horizontally oriented snow particles. A three-layer plane-parallel atmosphere model is used in conjunction with a simplified radiative transfer (RT) scheme to illustrate the combined effects of dichroic and nondichroic media on microwave signatures observed by ground-based and spaceborne sensors. Based on idealized scenarios which encompass a dichroic snow layer and adjacent nondichroic layers composed of supercooled liquid water (SCLW) droplets and water vapor, we demonstrate that the presence of atmospheric absorption/emission enhances TB and damps PD when observed from the ground. From a spaceborne perspective, however, TB can be reduced or enhanced by an absorbing/emitting layer above the snow layer, while a strong absorbing/emitting layer below the dichroic snow layer may even enhance PD. The induced PD and TB, which rely on snow microphysical assumptions, can vary up to 2 K and 10 K, respectively, due to the temperature-dependent absorption of SCLW. RT calculations based on 223 snowfall profiles selected from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data sets indicate that the existence of SCLW has a noticeable impact on PD and TB at three window frequencies (150 GHz, 243 GHz, and 664 GHz) during snowfall. Our results imply that while polarimetric channels at the three window channels have the potential for snowfall characterization, accurate information on liquid water is required to correctly interpret the polarimetric observations.

  10. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  11. Soluble Corn Fiber Increases Calcium Absorption Associated with Shifts in the Gut Microbiome: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial in Free-Living Pubertal Females.

    PubMed

    Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Story, Jon A; MacDonald-Clarke, Claire J; McCabe, Linda D; McCabe, George P; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-07-01

    Soluble corn fiber (SCF; 12 g fiber/d) is shown to increase calcium absorption efficiency, associated with shifts in the gut microbiota in adolescent males and females who participated in a controlled feeding study. We evaluated the dose response of 0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d delivered by PROMITOR SCF 85 (85% fiber) on calcium absorption, biochemical bone properties, and the fecal microbiome in free-living adolescents. Healthy adolescent females (n = 28; aged 11-14 y) randomly assigned into a 3-phase, double-blind, crossover study consumed SCF for 4 wk at each dose (0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d from SCF) alongside their habitual diet and were followed by 3-d clinical visits and 3-wk washout periods. Stable isotope ((44)Ca and (43)Ca) enrichment in pooled urine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fecal microbial community composition was assessed by high-throughput sequencing (Illumina) of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Mixed model ANOVA and Friedman analysis were used to determine effects of SCF on calcium absorption and to compare mean microbial proportions, respectively. Calcium absorption increased significantly with 10 (13.3% ± 5.3%; P = 0.042) and 20 g fiber/d (12.9% ± 3.6%; P = 0.026) from SCF relative to control. Significant differences in fecal microbial community diversity were found after consuming SCF (operational taxonomic unit measures of 601.4 ± 83.5, 634.5 ± 83.8, and 649.6 ± 75.5 for 0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d, respectively; P < 0.05). Proportions of the genus Parabacteroides significantly increased with SCF dose (1.1% ± 0.8%, 2.1% ± 1.6%, and 3.0% ± 2.0% for 0, 10, and 20 g fiber/d from SCF, respectively; P < 0.05). Increases in calcium absorption positively correlated with increases in Clostridium (r = 0.44, P = 0.023) and unclassified Clostridiaceae (r = 0.40, P = 0.040). SCF, a nondigestible carbohydrate, increased calcium absorption in free-living adolescent females. Two groups of bacteria may be

  12. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  13. Wearable slot antenna at 2.45 GHz for off-body radiation: Analysis of efficiency, frequency shift, and body absorption.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Marta; Espinosa, Hugo G; Thiel, David V; Arrinda, Amaia

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of body-worn antennas with the human body causes a significant decrease in antenna efficiency and a shift in resonant frequency. A resonant slot in a small conductive box placed on the body has been shown to reduce these effects. The specific absorption rate is less than international health standards for most wearable antennas due to small transmitter power. This paper reports the linear relationship between power absorbed by biological tissues at different locations on the body and radiation efficiency based on numerical modeling (r = 0.99). While the -10 dB bandwidth of the antenna remained constant and equal to 12.5%, the maximum frequency shift occurred when the antenna was close to the elbow (6.61%) and on the thigh (5.86%). The smallest change was found on the torso (4.21%). Participants with body-mass index (BMI) between 17 and 29 kg/m 2 took part in experimental measurements, where the maximum frequency shift was 2.51%. Measurements showed better agreement with simulations on the upper arm. These experimental results demonstrate that the BMI for each individual had little effect on the performance of the antenna. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:25-34, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. First laboratory detection of an absorption line of the first overtone electric quadrupolar band of N2 by CRDS near 2.2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, P.; Vasilchenko, S.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The extremely weak 2-0 O(14) electric quadrupole transition of N2 has been detected by very high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy near 4518 cm-1. It is the first N2 absorption line in the first overtone band reported so far from laboratory experiments. By combining a feedback narrowed Distributed Feedback laser diode with a passive cell tracking technique, a limit of detection of αmin ∼ 1.2 × 10-11 cm-1 was achieved after one day of spectra averaging. The N2 2-0 O(14) line position and line intensity (about 1.5 × 10-30 cm/molecule) agree with calculated values provided in the HITRAN2012 database.

  15. Dust and Diffuse Interstellar Bands in the za = 0.524 Absorption System toward AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Cohen, Ross D.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Lyons, R. W.; Madejski, G.

    2004-10-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) NUV-MAMA and STIS CCD observations of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 and the intervening damped Lyα (DLA) line at za=0.524. The line profile gives N(HI)=(5+/-1)×1021 cm-2 and, combined with the H I 21 cm absorption data, leads to a spin temperature of Ts=220+/-60 K. Those spectra also show a strong, broad feature at the expected position of the 2175 Å graphitic dust feature at za=0.524. Assuming a Galactic-type dust extinction curve at za=0.524 gives a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 times the Galactic value, but the fit, assuming that the underlying, unreddened spectrum is a single power law, is poor in the far-UV. A dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 times the Galactic value is similar to the LMC, but the AO 0235+164 spectrum does not fit either the LMC extinction curve or the SMC extinction curve (which has practically no 2175 Å feature). A possible interpretation includes dust similar to that in the Galaxy, but with fewer of the small particles that produce the far-UV extinction. The metallicity of the za=0.524 absorber, estimated from the observed N(HI) and excess X-ray absorption (beyond Galactic) derived from contemporaneous and archival ASCA and ROSAT X-ray data, is Z=0.72+/-0.28 Zsolar, implying in turn a dust-to-metals ratio of 0.27 times the Galactic value. If the dust mass density is the same in the za=0.524 DLA system as in our Galaxy, only 14% (+/-6%) of the metals (by mass) are in dust, compared to 51%, 36%, and 46% for the Galaxy, LMC, and SMC, respectively. Such a dusty za=0.524 AO 0235+164 absorption system is a good example of the kind of DLA system that will be missed because of selection effects, which in turn can bias the measurement of the comoving density of interstellar gas (in units of the closure density), Ωg, as a function of z. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by

  16. Optimization of absorption bands of dye-sensitized and perovskite tandem solar cells based on loss-in-potential values.

    PubMed

    Sobuś, Jan; Ziółek, Marcin

    2014-07-21

    A numerical study of optimal bandgaps of light absorbers in tandem solar cell configurations is presented with the main focus on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The limits in efficiency and the expected improvements of tandem structures are investigated as a function of total loss-in-potential (V(L)), incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and fill factor (FF) of individual components. It is shown that the optimal absorption onsets are significantly smaller than those derived for multi-junction devices. For example, for double-cell devices the onsets are at around 660 nm and 930 nm for DSSCs with iodide based electrolytes and at around 720 nm and 1100 nm for both DSSCs with cobalt based electrolytes and PSCs. Such configurations can increase the total sunlight conversion efficiency by about 35% in comparison to single-cell devices of the same VL, IPCE and FF. The relevance of such studies for tandem n-p DSSCs and for a proposed new configuration for PSCs is discussed. In particular, it is shown that maximum total losses of 1.7 V for DSSCs and 1.4 V for tandem PSCs are necessary to give any efficiency improvement with respect to the single bandgap device. This means, for example, a tandem n-p DSSC with TiO2 and NiO porous electrodes will hardly work better than the champion single DSSC. A source code of the program used for calculations is also provided.

  17. High-efficiency, broad-band and wide-angle optical absorption in ultra-thin organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyan; Hao, Yuying; Cui, Yanxia; Tian, Ximin; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Hua; Shi, Fang; Wei, Bin; Huang, Wei

    2014-03-10

    Metal nanogratings as one of the promising architectures for effective light trapping in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been actively studied over the past decade. Here we designed a novel metal nanowall grating with ultra-small period and ultra-high aspect-ratio as the back electrode of the OPV device. Such grating results in the strong hot spot effect in-between the neighboring nanowalls and the localized surface plasmon effect at the corners of nanowalls. These combined effects make the integrated absorption efficiency of light over the wavelength range from 400 to 650 nm in the active layer for the proposed structure, with respect to the equivalent planar structure, increases by 102% at TM polarization and by 36.5% at the TM/TE hybrid polarization, respectively. Moreover, it is noted that the hot spot effect in the proposed structure is more effective for ultra-thin active layers, which is very favorable for the exciton dissociation and charge collection. Therefore such a nanowall grating is expected to improve the overall performance of OPV devices.

  18. Measurements and modeling of absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures in the spectral region beyond the CO2 ν3-band head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H.; Turbet, M.; Chelin, P.; Landsheere, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we measured the absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures from 2400 to 2600 cm-1 which corresponds to the spectral region beyond the ν3 band head of CO2. Transmission spectra of CO2 mixed with water vapor were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for various pressure, temperature and concentration conditions. The continuum absorption by CO2 due to the presence of water vapor was determined by subtracting from measured spectra the contribution of local lines of both species, that of the continuum of pure CO2 as well as of the self- and CO2-continua of water vapor induced by the H2O-H2O and H2O-CO2 interactions. The obtained results are in very good agreement with the unique previous measurement (in a narrower spectral range). They confirm that the H2O-continuum of CO2 is significantly larger than that observed for pure CO2. This continuum thus must be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations for media involving CO2+ H2O mixture. An empirical model, using sub-Lorentzian line shapes based on some temperature-dependent correction factors χ is proposed which enables an accurate description of the experimental results.

  19. Frequency up-shift in the stimulated thermal scattering under two-photon absorption in liquids and colloids of metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanin, I. V.; Erokhin, A. I.; Baranov, A. N.

    2018-07-01

    We report the results of the experimental and theoretical study of stimulated temperature scattering in toluene and hexane solutions of Ag-nanoparticles, as well as in pure toluene in the two-photon absorption regime. A four-wave mixing scheme with two counter-propagating pump waves of the same frequency is utilised to demonstrate the lasing effect and the amplification of the backscattered anti-Stokes signal. For the first time, we have measured anti-Stokes spectral shifts which turn out to appreciably exceed the Rayleigh line widths in those liquids. It is shown that the amplification effect is provided predominantly by thermally induced coherent polarisation oscillations, while the dynamic interference temperature grating causes the formation of a self-induced optical cavity inside the interaction region.

  20. In Situ Solid-State Reactions Monitored by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Temperature-Induced Proton Transfer Leads to Chemical Shifts.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joanna S; Walczak, Monika; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A

    2016-10-24

    The dramatic colour and phase alteration with the solid-state, temperature-dependent reaction between squaric acid and 4,4'-bipyridine has been probed in situ with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The electronic and chemical sensitivity to the local atomic environment through chemical shifts in the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) revealed proton transfer from the acid to the bipyridine base through the change in nitrogen protonation state in the high-temperature form. Direct detection of proton transfer coupled with structural analysis elucidates the nature of the solid-state process, with intermolecular proton transfer occurring along an acid-base chain followed by a domino effect to the subsequent acid-base chains, leading to the rapid migration along the length of the crystal. NEXAFS thereby conveys the ability to monitor the nature of solid-state chemical reactions in situ, without the need for a priori information or long-range order. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Studies of nitride- and oxide-based materials as absorptive shifters for embedded attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-ming; Chang, Keh-wen; Lee, Ming-der; Loong, Wen-An

    1999-07-01

    Abstract-Five materials which are PdSixOy, CrAlxOy, SiNx, TiSixNy, and TiSixOyNz as absorptive shifters for attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm wavelength lithography are presented. PdSixOy films were deposited by dual e-gun evaporation. CrAlxOy, TiSixNy and TiSixOyNz films were formed by plasma sputtering and SiNx films were formed with LPCVD. All of these materials are shown to be capable of achieving 4 percent - 15 percent transmittance in 193 nm with thickness that produce a 180 degrees phase shift. Under BCl3:Cl2 equals 14:70 sccm; chamber pressure 5 mtorr and RF power 1900W, the dry etching selectivity of TiSixNy over DQN positive resist and fused silica, were found to be 2:1 and 4,8:1 respectively. An embedded layer TiSixNy with 0.5 micrometers line/space was successfully patterned.

  2. Solvatochromic Effects on the Absorption Spectrum of 2-Thiocytosine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The solvatochromic effects of six different solvents on the UV absorption spectrum of 2-thiocytosine have been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The steady-state absorption spectra show significant shifts of the absorption bands, where in more polar solvents the first absorption maximum shifts to higher transition energies and the second maximum to lower energies. The observed solvatochromic shifts have been rationalized using three popular solvatochromic scales and with high-level multireference quantum chemistry calculations including implicit and explicit solvent effects. It has been found that the dipole moments of the excited states account for some general shifts in the excitation energies, whereas the explicit solvent interactions explain the differences in the spectra recorded in the different solvents. PMID:28452483

  3. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  4. Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.72, 0.82, and 0.94 Micrometer Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingold, T.; Schmid, B.; Maetzler, C.; Demoulin, P.; Kaempfer, N.

    2000-01-01

    A Sun photometer (18 channels between 300 and 1024 nm) has been used for measuring the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor (CWV) by solar transmittance measurements in absorption bands with channels centered at 719, 817, and 946 nm. The observable is the band-weighted transmittance function defined by the spectral absorption of water vapor and the spectral features of solar irradiance and system response. The transmittance function is approximated by a three-parameter model. Its parameters are determined from MODTRAN and LBLRTM simulations or empirical approaches using CWV data of a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) or a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Data acquired over a 2-year period during 1996-1998 at two different sites in Switzerland, Bern (560 m above sea level (asl)) and Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl) were compared to MWR, radiosonde (RS), and FTS retrievals. At the low-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 15 mm the LBLRTM approach (based on recently corrected line intensities) leads to negligible biases at 719 and 946 nm if compared to an average of MWR, RS, and GPS retrievals. However, at 817 nm an overestimate of 2.7 to 4.3 mm (18-29%) remains. At the high-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 1.4 mm the LBLRTM approaches overestimate the CWV by 1.0, 1.4. and 0.1 mm (58, 76, and 3%) at 719, 817, and 946 nm, compared to the ITS instrument. At the low-altitude station, CWV estimates, based on empirical approaches, agree with the MWR within 0.4 mm (2.5% of the mean); at the high-altitude site with a factor of 10 less water vapor the agreement of the sun photometers (SPM) with the ITS is 0.0 to 0.2 mm (1 to 9% of the mean CWV there). Sensitivity analyses show that for the conditions met at the two stations with CWV ranging from 0.2 to 30 mm, the retrieval errors are smallest if the 946 nm channel is used.

  5. Mapping sound intensities by seating position in a university concert band: A risk of hearing loss, temporary threshold shifts, and comparisons with standards of OSHA and NIOSH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Nicholas Vedder, III

    Exposure to loud sounds is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in the United States. The purpose of the current research was to measure the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and determine if those levels exceeded permissible sound limits for exposure according to criteria set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Time-weighted averages (TWA) were obtained via a dosimeter during six rehearsals for nine members of the ensemble (plus the conductor), who were seated in frontal proximity to "instruments of power" (trumpets, trombones, and percussion; (Backus, 1977). Subjects received audiometer tests prior to and after each rehearsal to determine any temporary threshold shifts (TTS). Single sample t tests were calculated to compare TWA means and the maximum sound intensity exposures set by OSHA and NIOSH. Correlations were calculated between TWAs and TTSs, as well as TTSs and the number of semesters subjects reported being seated in proximity to instruments of power. The TWA-OSHA mean of 90.2 dBA was not significantly greater than the specified OSHA maximum standard of 90.0 dBA (p > .05). The TWA-NIOSH mean of 93.1 dBA was, however, significantly greater than the NIOSH specified maximum standard of 85.0 dBA (p < .05). The correlation between TWAs and TTSs was considered weak (r = .21 for OSHA, r = .20 for NIOSH); the correlation between TTSs and semesters of proximity to instruments of power was also considered weak (r = .13). TWAs cumulatively exceeded both association's sound exposure limits at 11 specified locations (nine subjects and both ears of the conductor) throughout the concert band's rehearsals. In addition, hearing acuity, as determined by TTSs, was substantially affected negatively by the intensities produced in the concert band. The researcher concluded that conductors, as well as their performers, must be aware of possible

  6. Infrared absorption spectra of molecular crystals: Possible evidence for small-polaron formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Željko; Čevizović, Dalibor; Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the position of the so-called anomalous band peaked at 1650cm in the IR-absorption spectrum of crystalline acetanilide (ACN) is theoretically investigated within the small-polaron theory. Its pronounced shift towards the position of the normal band is predicted with the rise of temperature. Interpretation of the IR-absorption spectra in terms of small-polaron model has been critically assessed on the basis of these results.

  7. Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO{sub 2} from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkar, Kamalesh; Jie, Xingming; Chau, John

    Using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]) as the absorbent on the shell side of a membrane module containing either a porous hydrophobized ceramic tubule or porous hydrophobized polyether ether ketone (PEEK) hollow fiber membranes, studies for CO{sub 2} removal from hot simulated pre-combustion shifted syngas were carried out by a novel pressure swing membrane absorption (PSMAB) process. Helium was used as a surrogate for H{sub 2} in a simulated shifted syngas with CO{sub 2} around 40% (dry gas basis). In this cyclic separation process, the membrane module was used to achieve non-dispersive gas absorption from a high-pressure feedmore » gas (689-1724 kPag; 100-250 psig) at temperatures between 25-1000C into a stationary absorbent liquid on the module shell side during a certain part of the cycle followed by among other cycle steps controlled desorption of the absorbed gases from the liquid in the rest of the cycle. Two product streams were obtained, one He-rich and the other CO{sub 2}-rich. Addition of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer of generation 0 to IL [bmim][DCA] improved the system performance at higher temperatures. The solubilities of CO{sub 2} and He were determined in the ionic liquid with or without the dendrimer in solution as well as in the presence or absence of moisture; polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was also studied as a replacement for the IL. The solubility selectivity of the ionic liquid containing the dendrimer for CO{sub 2} over helium was considerably larger than that for the pure ionic liquid. The solubility of CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-He solubility selectivity of PEG 400 and a solution of the dendrimer in PEG 400 were higher than the corresponding ones in the IL, [bmim][DCA]. A mathematical model was developed to describe the PSMAB process; a numerical solution of the governing equations described successfully the observed performance of the PSMAB process for the pure ionic liquid-based system.« less

  8. Temperature dependence of the intensity of the vibration-rotational absorption band ν2 of H2O trapped in an argon matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsevich, G.; Doroshenko, I.; Malevich, A..; Shalamberidze, E.; Sapeshko, V.; Pogorelov, V.; Pettersson, L. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    Using two sets of effective rotational constants for the ground (000) and the excited bending (010) vibrational states the calculation of frequencies and intensities of vibration-rotational transitions for J″ = 0 - 2; and J‧ = 0 - 3; was carried out in frame of the model of a rigid asymmetric top for temperatures from 0 to 40 K. The calculation of the intensities of vibration-rotational absorption bands of H2O in an Ar matrix was carried out both for thermodynamic equilibrium and for the case of non-equilibrium population of para- and ortho-states. For the analysis of possible interaction of vibration-rotational and translational motions of a water molecule in an Ar matrix by 3D Schrödinger equation solving using discrete variable representation (DVR) method, calculations of translational frequencies of H2O in a cage formed after one argon atom deleting were carried out. The results of theoretical calculations were compared to experimental data taken from literature.

  9. Is actinometry reliable for monitoring Si and silicone halides produced in silicon etching plasmas? A comparison with their absolute densities measured by UV broad band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogelschatz, M.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2006-03-01

    SiCl{x} radicals, the silicon etching by-products, are playing a major role in silicon gate etching processes because their redeposition on the wafer leads to the formation of a SiOCl{x} passivation layer on the feature sidewalls, which controls the final shape of the etching profile. These radicals are also the precursors to the formation of a similar layer on the reactor walls, leading to process drifts. As a result, the understanding and modelling of these processes rely on the knowledge of their densities in the plasma. Actinometry technique, based on optical emission, is often used to measure relative variations of the density of the above mentioned radicals, even if it is well known that the results obtained with this technique might not always be reliable. To determine the validity domain of actinometry in industrial silicon-etching high density plasmas, we measure the RF source power and pressure dependences of the absolute densities of SiCl{x} (x=0{-}2), SiF and SiBr radicals, deduced from UV broad band absorption spectroscopy. These results are compared to the evolution of the corresponding actinometry signals from these radicals. It is shown that actinometry predicts the global trends of the species density variations when the RF power is changed at constant pressure (that is to say when only the electron density changes) but it completely fails if the gas pressure, hence the electron temperature, changes.

  10. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-10-07

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor' deltaT/SAR. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur.

  11. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moment of laser dyes C504T and C521T using solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Basavaraja, Jana; Suresh Kumar, H M; Inamdar, S R; Wari, M N

    2016-02-05

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of laser dyes: coumarin 504T (C504T) and coumarin 521T (C521T) have been recorded at room temperature in a series of non-polar and polar solvents. The spectra of these dyes showed bathochromic shift with increasing in solvent polarity indicating the involvement of π→π⁎ transition. Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent parameters were used to analyze the effect of solvents on C504T and C521T molecules. The study reveals that both general solute-solvent interactions and specific interactions are operative in these two systems. The ground state dipole moment was estimated using Guggenheim's method and also by quantum mechanical calculations. The solvatochromic data were used to determine the excited state dipole moment (μ(e)). It is observed that dipole moment value of excited state (μ(e)) is higher than that of the ground state in both the laser dyes indicating that these dyes are more polar in nature in the excited state than in the ground state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nanoclay gelation approach toward improved dye-sensitized solar cell efficiencies: an investigation of charge transport and shift in the TiO2 conduction band.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Ito, Bruno Ieiri; Batabyal, Sudip K; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Wong, Chee Cheong; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Uchida, Satoshi

    2013-01-23

    Nanoclay minerals play a promising role as additives in the liquid electrolyte to form a gel electrolyte for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, because of the high chemical stability, unique swelling capability, ion exchange capacity, and rheological properties of nanoclays. Here, we report the improved performance of a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte that is made from a liquid electrolyte and synthetic nitrate-hydrotalcite nanoclay. Charge transport mechanisms in the gel electrolyte and nanoclay interactions with TiO(2)/electrolyte interface are discussed in detail. The electrochemical analysis reveals that the charge transport is solely based on physical diffusion at the ratio of [PMII]:[I(2)] = 10:1 (where PMII is 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide). The calculated physical diffusion coefficient shows that the diffusion of redox ions is not affected much by the viscosity of nanoclay gel. The addition of nitrate-hydrotalcite clay in the electrolyte has the effect of buffering the protonation process at the TiO(2)/electrolyte interface, resulting in an upward shift in the conduction band and a boost in open-circuit voltage (V(OC)). Higher V(OC) values with undiminished photocurrent is achieved with nitrate-hydrotalcite nanoclay gel electrolyte for organic as well as for inorganic dye (D35 and N719) systems. The efficiency for hydrotalcite clay gel electrolyte solar cells is increased by 10%, compared to that of the liquid electrolyte. The power conversion efficiency can reach 10.1% under 0.25 sun and 9.6% under full sun. This study demonstrates that nitrate-hydrotalcite nanoclay in the electrolyte not only solidifies the liquid electrolyte to prevent solvent leakage, but also facilitates the improvement in cell efficiency.

  13. Temperature Dependences for Air-broadened Widths and Shift Coefficients in the 30013 - 00001 and 30012 - 00001 Bands of Carbon Dioxide near 1600 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, M.; Predoi-Cross, A.; McKellar, R.; Benner, C.; Miller, C. E.; Toth, R. A.; Brown, L. R.

    2008-12-01

    Nearly 40 high resolution spectra of air-broadened CO2 recorded at temperatures between 215 and 294 K were analyzed using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique to determine temperature dependences of air-broadened half width and air-induced pressure shift coefficients in the 30013-00001 and 30012-00001 bands of 12CO2. Data were recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers (Kitt Peak FTS at the National Solar Observatory in Arizona and the Bomem FTS at NRC, Ottawa) with optical path lengths ranging between 25 m and 121 m. The sample pressures varied between 11 torr (pure CO2) and 924 torr (CO2-air) with volume mixing ratios of CO2 in air between ~ 0.015 and 0.11. To minimize systematic errors and increase the accuracy of the retrieved parameters, we constrained the multispectrum nonlinear least squares fittings to use quantum mechanical expressions for the rovibrational energies and intensities rather than retrieving the individual positions and intensities line-by-line. The results suggest minimal vibrational dependence for the temperature dependence coefficients.1 1 A. Predoi-Cross and R. Mckellar are grateful for financial support from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The research at the Jet Propulsion laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, was performed under contract with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The support received from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ATM-0338475 to the College of William and Mary is greatly appreciated. The authors thank Mike Dulick of the National Solar Observatory for his assistance in obtaining the data recorded at Kitt Peak.

  14. Molecular design of TiO2 for gigantic red shift via sublattice substitution.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guosheng; Deng, Quanrong; Wan, Lin; Guo, Meilan; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2010-11-01

    The effects of 3d transition metal doping in TiO2 phases have been simulated in detail. The results of modelling indicate that Mn has the biggest potential among 3d transition metals, for the reduction of energy gap and the introduction of effective intermediate bands to allow multi-band optical absorption. On the basis of theoretical formulation, we have incorporated considerable amount of Mn in nano-crystalline TiO2 materials. Mn doped samples demonstrate significant red shift in the optical absorption edge, with a secondary absorption edge corresponding to theoretically predicted intermediate bands/states. The gigantic red shift achievable in Mn-doped TiO2 is expected to extend the useful TiO2 functionalities well beyond the UV threshold via the optical absorption of both visible and infrared photon irradiance.

  15. The Rovibrational Intensities of the (40 deg 1) and (00 deg 0) Pentad Absorption Bands of 12C16O2 Between 7284 and 7921 cm(exp-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Spencer, N.; Brown, L. R.; Wattson, R. B.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the major constituent of the atmospheres of both Mars and Venus. Correct interpretations of spectra of these atmospheres require accurate knowledge of a substantial number of absorption bands of this gas. This is especially true for Venus; many weak CO2 bands that are insignificant in the earth's atmosphere are prominent absorbers in Venus' hot, dense lower atmosphere. Yet, recent near-infrared spectra of Venus' nightside have discovered emission windows, which occur between CO2 absorption bands, at 4040-4550 cm(exp-1), 5700-5900 cm(exp-1), and several smaller ones between 7500 and 9400 cm(exp-1). This radiation is due to thermal emission from Venus' lower atmosphere, diminished by scattering and absorption within the sulfuric acid clouds on its way to space. Simulations of these data with radiative transfer models can provide improved information on the abundances of a number of constituents of the lower atmosphere (e.g. H2O, CO, HDO, HCl, HF, and OCS) and the optical properties of the clouds, whose spatial variation modulates the brightness of the emissions. However, the accuracy of these retrievals has been limited by insufficient knowledge of the opacity of some of the gas species, including CO2, at the large pathlengths and high temperatures and pressures that exist on Venus. In particular, modeling the emission spectrum did not produce a good fit for the emission window centered at 7830 cm(exp-1). In an ongoing effort to assist analyses of these Venus spectra, we have been making laboratory intensity measurements of several weak bands of CO2 which are significant absorbers in these Venus emission windows. The CO2 bands that are prominent in the 7830 cm(exp-1) region belong to the vibrational sequence 4v1+v3 and associated hot bands. Only 2 of the 5 bands of this sequence have been previously measured. Modeling Venus' emission spectrum in the 7830 cm(exp-1) region had to rely on calculated intensity values for the weak ground state band at

  16. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities, Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients for the X(sup 1) Sigma(+) V=3 (left arrow) V=0 Band (C-12)(O-16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, R.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    The rotationless transition moment squared for the x(sup 1) sigma (sup +) v=3 (left arrow) v=0 band of CO is measured to be the absolute value of R (sub 3-0) squared = 1.7127(25)x 10(exp -7) Debye squared. This value is about 8.6 percent smaller than the value assumed for HITRAN 2000. The Herman-Wallis intensity factor of this band is F=1+0.01168(11)m+0.0001065(79)m squared. The determination of self-broadening coefficients is improved with the inclusion of line narrowing; self-shifts are also reported.

  17. Ionic species produced on gamma radiolysis: Studies by matrix isolation technique—I. Electronic absorption spectra of perfluorosubstituted aromatic radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou-te, Lian C. T.; Mittal, Jai P.

    The absorption spectra of several perfluorosubstituted aromatic radical anions are compared with the corresponding perhydro compounds in which the various transitions involved have been assigned to those predicted theoretically. The electronic absorption spectra were obtained for pentafluorostyrene, pentafluorobenzaldehyde, pentafluorobenzoic acid, pentafluorobenzonitride, tetrafluorophthalic acid and pentafluoroaniline, by gamma radiolysis in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran at 77 K. A general similarity in the absorption spectra between the perfluorinated and the corresponding perhydro radical anion is observed except for a shift in the absorption band.

  18. Absorption coefficients and frequency shifts measurement in the spectral range of 1071.88-1084.62 cm-1 vs. pressure for chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) using tunable CW CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hawat, Sharif

    2013-02-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption in the spectral range of (1071.88-1084.62 cm-1) vs. pressure in chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22, F-22, and CHClF2) was studied using a tunable continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser radiation on 9R branch lines with a maximum output power of about 2.12 W, provided with an absorber cell located outside the laser cavity. The absorption coefficients were determined vs. the gas pressure between 0.2 mbar and 170 mbar at lines from 9R branch for CFC-22. The frequency shifts of the absorption lines of CFC-22 in relative to the central frequencies of laser lines were calculated vs. the pressure on the basis of these absorption coefficients. The chosen lines were selected according to IR spectrum of the studied gas given by HITRAN cross section database. So the absorption was achieved for CFC-22 at the spectral lines of 9R branch situated from 9R (10) to 9R (30) emitted by a tunable CW CO2 laser. The absorption cross sections of CFC-22 determined in this work were compared with the relevant data given by HITRAN cross section database and a reasonable agreement was observed.

  19. Absorption spectrum and absorption cross sections of the 2ν1 band of HO2 between 20 and 760 Torr air in the range 6636 and 6639 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Liu, Lu; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2018-05-01

    The absorption spectrum of HO2 radicals has been measured in the range 6636-6639 cm-1 at several pressures between 20 and 760 Torr of air. Absolute absorption cross sections of the strongest line at around 6638.2 cm-1 have been determined from kinetic measurements, taking advantage of the well known rate constant of the self-reaction. Peak absorption cross sections of 22.6, 19.5, 14.4, 7.88, 5.12 and 3.23 × 10-20 cm2 were obtained at 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 760 Torr, respectively. By fitting these data, an empirical expression has been obtained for the absorption cross section of HO2 in the range 20-760 Torr air: σ6638.2cm-1 = 1.18 × 10-20 + (2.64 × 10-19 × (1-exp (-63.1/p (Torr))) cm2.

  20. The solvent dependent shift of the amide I band of a fully solvated peptide in methanol/water mixtures as a local probe for the solvent composition in the peptide/solvent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanakaran, S

    2008-01-01

    We determine the shift and line-shape of the amide I band of a model AK-peptide from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the peptide dissolved in methanol/water mixtures with varying composition. The IR-spectra are determined from a transition dipole coupling exciton model. A simplified empirical model Hamiltonian is employed, taking both the effect of hydrogen bonding, as well as intramolecular vibrational coupling into account. We consider a single isolated AK-peptide in a mostly helical conformation, while the solvent is represented by 2600 methanol or water molecules, simulated for a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 300 K. Over themore » course of the simulations minor reversible conformational changes at the termini are observed, which are found to only slightly affect the calculated spectral properties. Over the entire composition range, varying from pure water to the pure methanol solvent, a monotonous blue-shift of the IR amide I band of about 8 wavenumbers is observed. The shift is found to be caused by two counter-compensating effects: An intramolecular red-shift of about 1.2 wavenumbers, due to stronger intramolecular hydrogen-bonding in a methanol-rich environment. Dominating, however, is the intermolecular solvent-dependent blue-shift of about 10 wavenumbers, being attributed to the less effective hydrogen bond donor capabilities of methanol compared to water. The importance of solvent-contribution to the IR-shift, as well as the significantly different hydrogen formation capabilities of water and methanol make the amide I band sensitive to composition changes in the local environment close the peptide/solvent interface. This allows, in principle, an experimental determination of the composition of the solvent in close proximity to the peptide surface. For the AK-peptide case they observe at low methanol concentrations a significantly enhanced methanol concentration at the peptide/solvent-interface, supposedly promoted by the partially

  1. The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2 Sigma hyperon + (v prime = O) - X-2 pion (v prime prime = O) gamma band of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A predominantly single-mode pulsed dye laser system giving a well characterized spatial and temporal output suitable for absolute two-photon absorptivity measurements was used to study the NO gamma(0,0) S11 + R21 (J double prime = 7-1/2) transition. Using a calibrated induced-fluorescence technique, an absorptivity parameter of 2.8 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the minus 51st power cm to the 6th power was obtained. Relative strengths of other rotational transitions in the gamma(0,0) band were also measured and shown to compare well with predicted values in all cases except the O12 (J double prime = 10-1/2) transition.

  2. Wideband absorption in one dimensional photonic crystal with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongqiang; Liu, Hongmei

    2018-02-01

    A broadband absorber which was proposed by one dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) containing graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials (GHMM) is theoretically investigated. For TM mode, it was demonstrated to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves at a 14 THz absorption bandwidth at normal incidence. The absorption bandwidth was affected by Fermi energy and thickness of dielectric layer. When the incident angle was increased, the absorption value decreased, and the absorption band had a gradual blue shift. These findings have potential applications for designing broadband optoelectronic devices at mid-infrared and THz frequency range.

  3. Rotational level-dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi (1,0) band of OH in hydrogen-air combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the collisional broadening and line shift of the (1,0) band of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi system of OH are reported in atmospheric pressure hydrogen-air combustion gases. The measurements were made using a single-mode, narrow linewidth, frequency-doubled ring dye laser operating near 283 nm. The OH was generated in the combustion gases of a flat flame H2-air burner. Collisional broadening parameters for equilibrium mixtures of H2, O2, H2O, and N2 were obtained spanning a range of fuel/air equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.6 and temperatures from 1500 to 2050 K. Measurements were obtained spanning rotational quantum numbers from 4.5 to 16.5. The collision induced frequency shift was determined to be 0.1 that of the collisional broadening.

  4. Electronic transitions and heterogeneity of the bacteriophytochrome Pr absorption band: An angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe study

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Martin; Yang, Yang; Zienicke, Benjamin; Hammam, Mostafa A.S.; von Haimberger, Theodore; Zacarias, Angelica; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Heyne, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Photoisomerization of biliverdin (BV) chromophore triggers the photoresponse in native Agp1 bacteriophytochrome. We discuss heterogeneity in phytochrome Pr form to account for the shape of the absorption profile. We investigated different regions of the absorption profile by angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe spectroscopy. We studied the Pr form of Agp1 with its natural chromophore and with a sterically locked 18Et-BV (locked Agp1). We followed the dynamics and orientations of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of ring D and ring A in their ground and electronically excited states. Photoisomerization of ring D is reflected by strong signals of the ring D carbonyl vibration. In contrast, orientational data on ring A show no rotation of ring A upon photoexcitation. Orientational data allow excluding a ZZZasa geometry and corroborates a nontwisted ZZZssa geometry of the chromophore. We found no proof for heterogeneity but identified a new, to our knowledge, electronic transition in the absorption profile at 644 nm (S0→S2). Excitation of the S0→S2 transition will introduce a more complex photodynamics compared with S0→S1 transition. Our approach provides fundamental information on disentanglement of absorption profiles, identification of chromophore structures, and determination of molecular groups involved in the photoisomerization process of photoreceptors. PMID:24138851

  5. Negligible shift of 3Ag- potential in longer-chain carotenoids as revealed by a single persistent peak of 3Ag-→1Ag- stimulated emission followed by 3Ag-←1Ag- transient-absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyong; Miki, Takeshi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Upon excitation of lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin or spirilloxanthin to the 1Bu+(0) state, stimulated emission followed by transient-absorption was observed as a single peak with the 3Ag-(0) energy that had been determined by measurement of resonance-Raman excitation profiles. This observation was explained in terms of negligible shift of the 3Ag- potential, in reference to the 1Ag- potential, where only the 3Ag-(υ)→1Ag-(υ) emission and the 3Ag-(υ)←1Ag-(υ) absorption become allowed during the vibrational relaxation of υ = 2 → 1 → 0, starting from the 3Ag-(2) level generated by diabatic internal conversion from the 1Bu+(0) level, in anhydrorhodovibrin, for example.

  6. Comparison of Trajectory Models in Calculations of N2-broadened Half-widths and N2-induced Line Shifts for the Rotational Band of H2O-16 and Comparison with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamouroux, J.; Gamache, R. R.; Laraia, A. L.; Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, Complex Robert-Bonamy calculations of half-widths and line shifts were done for N2-broadening of water for 1639 transitions in the rotational band using two models for the trajectories. The first is a model correct to second order in time, the Robert-Bonamy parabolic approximation. The second is the solution of Hamilton's equations. Both models use the isotropic part of the atom-atom potential to determine the trajectories. The present calculations used an intermolecular potential expanded to 20th order to assure the convergence of the half-widths and line shifts. The aim of the study is to assess if the difference in the half-widths and line shifts determined from the two trajectory models is greater than the accuracy requirements of the spectroscopic and remote sensing communities. The results of the calculations are compared with measurements of the half-widths and line shifts. It is shown that the effects of the trajectory model greatly exceed the needs of current remote sensing measurements and that line shape parameters calculated using trajectories determined by solving Hamilton's equations agree better with measurement.

  7. On the state of the emitter of the 3.3 micron unidentified infrared band - Absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flickinger, Gregory C.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Gomez, Percy L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of absorption measurements indicate that the PAH species responsible for the UIR (unidentified infrared) emission probably exist in a condensed form rather than as isolated molecules. It is shown that the peak absorption of the C-H stretch feature of vapor-phase PAHs occurs at a higher frequency than that of the condensed-phase PAHs and does not match the 3.289-micron interstellar feature. The vapor-phase experiments duplicate the phenomenon of the 3.3-micron profile simplification of PAH in KBr at elevated temperature. This confirms that the change of the profile with temperature is an intrinsic molecular effect, and is not a consequence of matrix (KBr) or condensed state interactions.

  8. High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nanometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Yoshino, K.; Smith, Peter L.; Ito, K.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of the abundance and excitation of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds require accurate data on the vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the molecule. The 6.65 m spectrometer at the Photon Factory synchrotron light source was used to measure photoabsorption cross sections of CO features between 91.2 and 100.4 nm. These data were recorded at a resolving power of 170,000, more than 20 times greater than that used in previous work.

  9. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  10. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  11. Photodissociation dynamics in the first absorption band of pyrrole. I. Molecular Hamiltonian and the Herzberg-Teller absorption spectrum for the A12(π σ* ) ←X˜ 1 A1(π π ) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2018-03-01

    This paper opens a series in which the photochemistry of the two lowest πσ* states of pyrrole and their interaction with each other and with the ground electronic state X ˜ are studied using ab initio quantum mechanics. New 24-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the photodissociation of the N-H bond and the formation of the pyrrolyl radical are calculated using the multiconfigurational perturbation theory (CASPT2) for the electronic states X ˜ (π π ) , 11A2(πσ*), and 11B1(πσ*) and locally diabatized. In this paper, the ab initio calculations are described and the photodissociation in the state 11A2(πσ*) is analyzed. The excitation 11 A2←X ˜ is mediated by the coordinate dependent transition dipole moment functions constructed using the Herzberg-Teller expansion. Nuclear dynamics, including 6, 11, and 15 active degrees of freedom, are studied using the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. The focus is on the frequency resolved absorption spectrum as well as on the dissociation time scales and the resonance lifetimes. Calculations are compared with available experimental data. An approximate convolution method is developed and validated, with which absorption spectra can be calculated and assigned in terms of vibrational quantum numbers. The method represents the total absorption spectrum as a convolution of the diffuse spectrum of the detaching H-atom and the Franck-Condon spectrum of the heteroaromatic ring. Convolution calculation requires a minimal quantum chemical input and is a promising tool for studying the πσ* photodissociation in model biochromophores.

  12. High resolution absorption spectrum of CO2between 1750 and 2000 Å. 2. Rotational analysis of two parallel-type bands assigned to the lowest electronic transition 13B2←

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossart-Magos, Claudina; Launay, Françoise; Parkin, James E.

    The absorption spectrum of CO2 gas between 175 and 200 nm was photographed at high resolution some years ago. This very weak spectral region proved to be extremely rich in bands showing rotational fine structure. In Part 1 [C. Cossart-Magos, F. Launay, J. E. Parkin, Mol. Phys., 75, 835 (1992), nine perpendicular-type bands were assigned to the lowest singlet-singlet transition, 11A2 ← ν'3 (b2) vibration. Here, the parallel-type bands observed at 185.7 and 175.6 nm are assigned to the lowest triplet-singlet transition, 13B2 ← TMPH0629math005 ν'2 (a1) vibration. The assignment and the rotational and spin constant values obtained are discussed in relation to previous experimental data and ab initio calculation results on the lowest excited states of CO2. The actual role of the 13B2 state in CO2 photodissociation, O(3P)+CO(X1Σ+) recombination, and O(1D) emission quenching by CO(X) molecules is reviewed.

  13. Pressure shift coefficient measurements in an RF discharge for Ar 4s[3/2]2—5p[3/2]3 transition with the help of diodelaser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. K.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Lunev, N. N.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) with unique properties were recently proposed with a possibility to obtain the laser power on the order of hundreds of Watts from a cubic centimeter. To provide high laser efficiency, the pumping radiation has to match the absorption spectrum of the rare gas metastables. To meet this condition a reliable diagnostics of the key parameters of the active medium is required and knowledge of the broadening and shift coefficients for corresponding transitions of rare gases is necessary. In this paper, the diode-laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the pressure shift coefficient for 811.5 nm Ar line. The value of obtained coefficient in pure argon reduced to 300 K is -(2.1 ± 0.1) × 10-10 s-1cm3. In the course of the study the pressure broadening coefficient was also evaluated and found to be (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-10 s-1cm3.

  14. Microwave absorption properties of planar-anisotropy Ce2Fe17N3-δ powders/Silicone composite in X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xisheng; Tan, Guoguo; Chen, Shuwen; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei; Che, Shenglei; Jiang, Liqiang

    2017-02-01

    The soft-magnetic properties of planar-anisotropy Ce2Fe17N3-δ powders were reported, and reflection loss (RL) of the powders/Silicone composites with various volume concentrations have been studied in 0.1-18 GHz frequency range. It was found that the optimal RL of this composite absorber with a thickness of 1.72 mm is -60.5 dB at 9.97 GHz and the RL is less than -10 dB in the whole X-band (8-12 GHz). The bandwidth with RL exceeding -10 dB and -20 dB are 5.24 GHz and 1.32 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, all the optimal RL value of the composite with the thickness less than 2.13 mm can reach -20 dB in the range of 8-17 GHz, which indicates that the Ce2Fe17N3-δ/Silicone composite absorber will be a promising candidate in higher gigahertz frequency especially in X-band.

  15. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μm IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ˜15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ˜15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  16. Robust time-shifted spoke pulse design in the presence of large B0 variations with simultaneous reduction of through-plane dephasing, B1+ effects, and the specific absorption rate using parallel transmission.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Bastien; Stockmann, Jason P; Baboli, Mehran; Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Stenger, Andrew V; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    To design parallel transmission spokes pulses with time-shifted profiles for joint mitigation of intensity variations due to B1+ effects, signal loss due to through-plane dephasing, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7T. We derived a slice-averaged small tip angle (SA-STA) approximation of the magnetization signal at echo time that depends on the B1+ transmit profiles, the through-slice B0 gradient and the amplitude and time-shifts of the spoke waveforms. We minimize a magnitude least-squares objective based on this signal equation using a fast interior-point approach with analytical expressions of the Jacobian and Hessian. Our algorithm runs in less than three minutes for the design of two-spoke pulses subject to hundreds of local SAR constraints. On a B0/B1+ head phantom, joint optimization of the channel-dependent time-shifts and spoke amplitudes allowed signal recovery in high-B0 regions at no increase of SAR. Although the method creates uniform magnetization profiles (ie, uniform intensity), the flip angle varies across the image, which makes it ill-suited to T1-weighted applications. The SA-STA approach presented in this study is best suited to T2*-weighted applications with long echo times that require signal recovery around high B0 regions. Magn Reson Med 76:540-554, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Florescu, Marian; Stimpson, Andrew J.; Lee, Hwang

    We study theoretically the optical properties of a finite inverted-opal photonic crystal. The light-matter interaction is strongly affected by the presence of the three-dimensional photonic crystal and the alterations of the light emission and absorption processes can be used to suppress or enhance the thermal emissivity and absorptivity of the dielectric structure. We investigate the influence of the absorption present in the system on the relevant band edge frequencies that control the optical response of the photonic crystal. Our study reveals that the absorption processes cause spectral broadening and shifting of the band edge optical resonances, and determine a strongmore » reduction of the photonic band gap spectral range. Using the angular and spectral dependence of the band edge frequencies for stop bands along different directions, we argue that by matching the blackbody emission spectrum peak with a prescribed maximum of the absorption coefficient, it is possible to achieve an angle-sensitive enhancement of the thermal emission/absorption of radiation. This result opens a way to realize a frequency-sensitive and angle-sensitive photonic crystal absorbers/emitters.« less

  18. Broad-band and polarization-independent perfect absorption in graphene-gold cylinder arrays at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, P.; Zheng, G. G.; Xu, L. H.; Xian, F. L.; Lai, M.

    2018-07-01

    A wavelength tunable perfect absorber with graphene-hexagonal gold (Au) cylinder array on a ground plate is investigated theoretically. The interactions between electromagnetic (EM) waves and monolayer graphene are analyzed through the field distributions and spectral responses in detail. The finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method is used to investigate the tunable properties of the absorber. It is demonstrated that in an optimized configuration, monolayer graphene can interact with light via critical coupling, and the absorptance can be greatly enhanced and reach to 100% for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electronic (TE) polarizations. Furthermore, the influence of geometrical parameters of the structure on the response of the hybrid structure is studied. It is expected that the proposed graphene perfect absorbers can be applied for many applications in the visible (VIS) and the near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges such as wavelength selective infrared photodetectors and plasmonic sensors.

  19. Induced changes in refractive index, optical band gap, and absorption edge of polycarbonate-SiO2 thin films by Vis-IR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, Hassan; Akhoondi, Somaieh

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental work, we have studied induced changes in refractive index, extinction coefficient, and optical band-gap of Bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) coated with a uniform and thin, anti-scratch SiO2 film irradiated by visible to near-infrared lasers at 532 nm (green),650 nm(red), and 980 nm (IR)wavelength lasers with different energy densities. Our lasers sources are indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide, second harmonic of neodymium-YAG-solid state lasers and gallium-aluminum-arsenide-semiconductor laser. The energy densities of our sources have been changed by changing the spot size of incident laser. samples transmission spectra were monitored by carry500 spectrophotometer and induced changes in optical properties are evaluated by using, extrapolation of the transmission spectrum through Swanepoel method and computer application

  20. Photodissociation dynamics in the first absorption band of pyrrole. II. Photofragment distributions for the 1A2(π σ* ) ←X˜ 1A1(π π ) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) of the photofragments pyrrolyl + H-atom formed in the photodissociation of pyrrole in the low-lying state 1A2(πσ*) is presented. The TKER distributions contain complementary and often more precise information on the fragmentation process than the broad diffuse absorption spectra. The distributions are calculated quantum mechanically for the diabatic state 1A2(πσ*) either isolated or coupled to the ground electronic state at an exit channel conical intersection. The calculations use the novel ab initio quasi-diabatic potential energy matrix constructed in the work of Picconi and Grebenshchikov [J. Chem. Phys. 148, 104103 (2018)]. The approximate overlap integral-based adiabatic mapping approach is introduced with which the quantum mechanical TKER distributions can be efficiently and accurately reproduced. Finally, the calculated TKERs are compared with the experimental results. The main features of the measured vibrationally resolved distributions are reproduced, and the spectral peaks are assigned and interpreted in detail.

  1. Low-temperature high-resolution absorption spectrum of 14NH3 in the ν1+ν3 band region (1.51 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földes, T.; Golebiowski, D.; Herman, M.; Softley, T. P.; Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L.

    2014-09-01

    Jet-cooled spectra of 14NH3 and 15NH3 in natural abundance were recorded using cavity ring-down (CRDS, 6584-6670 cm-1) and cavity enhanced absorption (CEAS, 6530-6700 cm-1) spectroscopy. Line broadening effects in the CRDS spectrum allowed lines with J″-values between 0 and 3 to be identified. Intensity ratios in 14NH3 between the jet-cooled CRDS and literature room-temperature data from Sung et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1066) further assisted the line assignments. Ground state combination differences were extensively used to support the assignments, providing reliable values for J, K and inversion symmetry of the ground state vibrational levels. CEAS data helped in this respect for the lowest J lines, some of which are saturated in the CRDS spectrum. Further information on a/s doublets arose from the observed spectral structures. Thirty-two transitions of 14NH3 were assigned in this way and a limited but significant number (19) of changes in the assignments results, compared to Sung et al. or to Cacciani et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1084). Sixteen known and 25 new low-J transitions were identified for 15NH3 in the CRDS spectrum but the much scarcer literature information did not allow for any more refined assignment. The present line position measurements improve on literature values published for 15NH3 and on some line positions for 14NH3.

  2. Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation.

    PubMed

    Passarella, Salvatore; Karu, Tiina

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the major functions performed by in the cell, mitochondria play a major role in cell-light interaction. Accordingly it is generally accepted that mitochondria are crucial in cell photobiomodulation; however a variety of biomolecules themselves proved to be targets of light irradiation. We describe whether and how mitochondria can interact with monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the red and near IR optical regions with dissection of both structural and functional effects likely leading to photobiostimulation. Moreover we also report that a variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including cytochrome c oxidase, some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry. All together the reported investigations show that the elucidation of the mechanism of the light interaction with biological targets still remains to be completed, this needing further research, however the light sensitivity of a variety of molecules strongly suggests that photobiomodulation could be used in both in photomedicine and in biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. LINE ABSORPTION OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR THE c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) BANDS IN N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, C.; Velasco, A. M., E-mail: clavin@qf.uva.es

    Theoretical absorption oscillator strengths and emission branching ratios for rotational lines of the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The calculations have been performed with the molecular quantum defect orbital method, which has proved to be reliable in previous studies of rovibronic transitions in diatomic molecules. The strong interaction between c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) and b' {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(10) states has been analyzed through an interaction matrix that includes rotational terms. Owing to the perturbation, the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0), c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{supmore » +}{sub g}(1), and c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(5) bands are not weak, in contrast to what would be expected on the basis of the Franck-Condon principle. Moreover, the intensity distribution of the rotational lines within each of the vibronic bands deviates from considerations based on Hoenl-London factors. In this work, we provide data that may be useful to interpret spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, in which transitions from the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) level have been detected.« less

  4. Direct optical band gap measurement in polycrystalline semiconductors: A critical look at the Tauc method

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgonos, Alex; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R., E-mail: krp@northwestern.edu

    2016-08-15

    The direct optical band gap of semiconductors is traditionally measured by extrapolating the linear region of the square of the absorption curve to the x-axis, and a variation of this method, developed by Tauc, has also been widely used. The application of the Tauc method to crystalline materials is rooted in misconception–and traditional linear extrapolation methods are inappropriate for use on degenerate semiconductors, where the occupation of conduction band energy states cannot be ignored. A new method is proposed for extracting a direct optical band gap from absorption spectra of degenerately-doped bulk semiconductors. This method was applied to pseudo-absorption spectramore » of Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO)—converted from diffuse-reflectance measurements on bulk specimens. The results of this analysis were corroborated by room-temperature photoluminescence excitation measurements, which yielded values of optical band gap and Burstein–Moss shift that are consistent with previous studies on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals and thin films. - Highlights: • The Tauc method of band gap measurement is re-evaluated for crystalline materials. • Graphical method proposed for extracting optical band gaps from absorption spectra. • The proposed method incorporates an energy broadening term for energy transitions. • Values for ITO were self-consistent between two different measurement methods.« less

  5. Anomalous absorption of isolated silver nanoparticulate films in visible region of electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Hui, Bang Jae; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2008-02-01

    Anomalous absorption of isolated silver nanoparticulate films with different morphological patterns prepared by the wet colloidal route and followed by thermal treatment were investigated. A polymer embedded silver nanoparticulate film thermally treated at 200 degrees C showed maximum absorbance at approximately 412 nm. The peak position of the surface plasmon band was slightly different but still consistent with theoretical prediction derived by the Mie theory. An isolated nanopariculate film thermally treated at 300 degrees C showed anomalous absorption. Its maximum absorption band was shifted to green regime of 506.9 nm and the bandwidth at half-maximum absorbance of the surface plasmon band was greatly broadened. The plasmon band and its bandwidth were much deviated compared to the theoretical prediction calculated for the silver nanoparticles in the surrounding medium of air and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) or soda-lime-silica glass. Even though there was no significant growth of silver nanoparticles during thermal treatment at 300 degrees C, the anomalous absorption was observed. The anomalous absorption was not attributed to effects of particle shape and size but to effects of pores induced by development of a great number of pores in the nanoparticulate film. The anomalous absorption greatly decreased with increase in heating temperature from 400 degrees C to 500 degrees C. The extraordinary plasmon damping of the isolated film decreased and the plasmon absorption band was re-shifted to violet regime of 416 nm because of large decrease in size of particles with dramatic change of pore morphology from circular pores with rim to small continuous pores induced by spontaneous formation of new silver nanoparticles.

  6. Optical absorption properties of Ge 2–44 and P-doped Ge nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhao, Li-Zhen

    The optical absorption properties of non-crystalline and crystalline Ge nanoparticles with the sizes from ~ 2.5 to 15 Å have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31G level using time-dependent density functional theory. Hydrogen passivation and phosphorus doping on some selected Ge nanoparticles were also calculated. With the increase of cluster size, the optical absorption spectra of the non-crystalline Ge nanoparticles change from many peaks to a continuous broad band and at the same time exhibit a systematic red-shift. Doping phosphorus also causes the absorption spectra to shift toward the lower energy region for both non-crystalline and crystalline Ge nanoparticles. The non-crystallinemore » Ge nanoparticles are found to have stronger absorption in the visible region in comparison with the crystalline ones, regardless phosphorus doping.« less

  7. Optical absorption properties of Ge 2–44 and P-doped Ge nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhao, Li-Zhen; ...

    2017-09-15

    The optical absorption properties of non-crystalline and crystalline Ge nanoparticles with the sizes from ~ 2.5 to 15 Å have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31G level using time-dependent density functional theory. Hydrogen passivation and phosphorus doping on some selected Ge nanoparticles were also calculated. With the increase of cluster size, the optical absorption spectra of the non-crystalline Ge nanoparticles change from many peaks to a continuous broad band and at the same time exhibit a systematic red-shift. Doping phosphorus also causes the absorption spectra to shift toward the lower energy region for both non-crystalline and crystalline Ge nanoparticles. The non-crystallinemore » Ge nanoparticles are found to have stronger absorption in the visible region in comparison with the crystalline ones, regardless phosphorus doping.« less

  8. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorptionmore » and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.« less

  9. Omnidirectional polarization insensitive tunable absorption in graphene metamaterial of nanodisk structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Renxia; Bao, Jie; Jiao, Zheng; Xu, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Tunable absorption based on graphene metamaterial with nanodisk structure at near-infrared frequency was investigated using the finite difference time domain method. The absorption of the nanodisk structure which consisting of Au-MgF2-graphene-Au-polyimide (from bottom to top) can be tuned by the chemical potential of graphene at certain diameter of nanodisk. The permittivity of graphene is discussed with different chemical potential to obtain tunable absorption. It is shown that the increased value of the chemical potential of graphene can lead to blue-shifted of the absorption peaks and the values decreased. Moreover, dual-band and triple-band absorption can be achieved for resonance frequencies at normal incidence. Compared with diameter of nanodisks, the multilayer structure shows multi-band absorber, and an omnidirectional absorption at 195.25 THz is insensitive to TE/TM polarization. This omnidirectional polarization insensitive absorption may be applied by optical communications such as optical absorber, near infrared stealth, and filter.

  10. Optical evidence of strong coupling between valence-band holes and d -localized spins in Zn1-xMnxO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Druzhinin, A. V.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Dejneka, A.; Churpita, O.; Hubicka, Z.; Jastrabik, L.; Trepakov, V.

    2010-04-01

    We report on optical-absorption study of Zn1-xMnxO (x=0-0.06) films on fused silica substrates taking special attention to the spectral range of the fundamental absorption edge (3.1-4 eV). Well-pronounced excitonic lines observed in the region 3.40-3.45 eV were found to shift to higher energies with increasing Mn concentration. The optical band-gap energy increases with x too, reliably evidencing strong coupling between oxygen holes and localized spins of manganese ions. In the 3.1-3.3 eV region the optical-absorption curve in the manganese-contained films was found to shift to lower energies with respect to that for undoped ZnO. The additional absorption observed in this range is interpreted as a result of splitting of a localized Zhang-Rice-type state into the band gap.

  11. Full Spectral Resolution Data Generation from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on S-NPP at NOAA and its Use to Investigate Uncertainty in Methane Absorption Band Near 7.66 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sasakawa, M.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D.; Jin, X.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Q.; Weng, F.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding. CrIS on S-NPP started to provide measurements in 1305 channels in its normal mode since its launch on November 2011 to December 4, 2014, and after that it was switched to the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the spectral resolutions are 0.625 cm-1 in all the MWIR (1210-1750 cm-1), SWIR (2155-2550 cm-1) and the LWIR bands (650-1095 cm-1) with a total of 2211 channels. While the NOAA operational Sensor Data Record (SDR) processing (IDPS) continues to produce the normal resolution SDRs by truncating full spectrum RDR data, NOAA STAR started to process the FSR SDRs data since December 4, 2014 to present, and the data is being delivered through NOAA STAR website (ftp://ftp2.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/xxiong/). The current FSR processing algorithm was developed on basis of the CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), and is the baseline of J-1 CrIS SDR algorithm. One major benefit to use the FSR data is to improve the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases, such as CH4, CO and CO2 . From our previous studies to retrieve CH4 using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), it was found the uncertainty in the CH4 absorption band is up to 1-2%. So, in this study we computed the radiance using the community radiative transfer model (CRTM) and line-by-line model, with the inputs of "truth" of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from ECMWF model (and/or RAOB sounding) and CH4 profiles from in-situ aircraft measurements, then convoluted with the response function of CrIS. The difference between the simultaed radiance and the collocated CrIS FSR data is used to exam the uncertainty in these strong absorption channels.Through the improved fitting to the transmittance in these channels, it is expected to improve the retrieval of CH4 using CrIS on S

  12. L(alpha)-induced two-photon absorption of visible light emitted from an O-type star by H2(+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere surrounding the star: A possible explanation for the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glownia, James H.; Sorokin, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is proposed to account for the DIB's (Diffuse Interstellar Bands). In this model, the DIB's result from a non-linear effect: resonantly-enhanced two-photon absorption of H(2+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere that surrounds an O- or B- type star. The strong light that is required to 'drive' the two-photon transition is provided by L(alpha) light emerging from the Stromgren sphere that bounds the H II region surrounding the star. A value of approximately 100 micro W/sq cm is estimated for the L(alpha) flux at the Stromgren radius, R(s), of a strong (O5) star. It is shown that a c.w. L(alpha) flux of this intensity should be sufficient to induce a few percent absorption for visible light radiated by the same star at a frequency (omega2) that completes an allowed two-photon transition, provided (1) the L(alpha) radiation happens to be nearly resonant with the frequency of a fully-allowed absorber transition that effectively represents the first step in the two-photon transition, and (2) an effective column density approximately 10(sup18)/sq cm of the absorber is present near the Stromgren sphere radius, R(sub s).

  13. Improved detection sensitivity of D-mannitol crystalline phase content using differential spectral phase shift terahertz spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Allard, Jean-François; Cornet, Alain; Debacq, Christophe; Meurens, Marc; Houde, Daniel; Morris, Denis

    2011-02-28

    We report quantitative measurement of the relative proportion of δ- and β-D-mannitol crystalline phases inserted into polyethylene powder pellets, obtained by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Nine absorption bands have been identified from 0.2 THz to 2.2 THz. The best quantification of the δ-phase proportion is made using the 1.01 THz absorption band. Coherent detection allows using the spectral phase shift of the transmitted THz waveform to improve the detection sensitivity of the relative δ-phase proportion. We argue that differential phase shift measurements are less sensitive to samples' defects. Using a linear phase shift compensation for pellets of slightly different thicknesses, we were able to distinguish a 0.5% variation in δ-phase proportion.

  14. Nonlinearity-aware 200  Gbit/s DMT transmission for C-band short-reach optical interconnects with a single packaged electro-absorption modulated laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Hong, Xuezhi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Udalcovs, Aleksejs; Schatz, Richard; Guo, Changjian; Zhang, Junwei; Nordwall, Fredrik; Engenhardt, Klaus M; Westergren, Urban; Popov, Sergei; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xiao, Shilin; Hu, Weisheng; Chen, Jiajia

    2018-01-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the transmission of a 200 Gbit/s discrete multitone (DMT) at the soft forward error correction limit in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a single C-band packaged distributed feedback laser and traveling-wave electro absorption modulator (DFB-TWEAM), digital-to-analog converter and photodiode. The bit-power loaded DMT signal is transmitted over 1.6 km standard single-mode fiber with a net rate of 166.7 Gbit/s, achieving an effective electrical spectrum efficiency of 4.93 bit/s/Hz. Meanwhile, net rates of 174.2 Gbit/s and 179.5 Gbit/s are also demonstrated over 0.8 km SSMF and in an optical back-to-back case, respectively. The feature of the packaged DFB-TWEAM is presented. The nonlinearity-aware digital signal processing algorithm for channel equalization is mathematically described, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio up to 3.5 dB.

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Spherical Quantum Dots: Effects of Hydrogenic Impurity and Conduction Band Non-Parabolicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, G.; Vaseghi, B.; Doostimotlagh, N. A.

    2012-03-01

    Simultaneous effects of an on-center hydrogenic impurity and band edge non-parabolicity on intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a typical GaAs/AlxGa1-x As spherical quantum dot are theoretically investigated, using the Luttinger—Kohn effective mass equation. So, electronic structure and optical properties of the system are studied by means of the matrix diagonalization technique and compact density matrix approach, respectively. Finally, effects of an impurity, band edge non-parabolicity, incident light intensity and the dot size on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are investigated. Our results indicate that, the magnitudes of these optical quantities increase and their peaks shift to higher energies as the influences of the impurity and the band edge non-parabolicity are considered. Moreover, incident light intensity and the dot size have considerable effects on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes.

  16. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  17. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of 8-amino-riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.; Mack, M.; Ghisla, S.

    2009-10-01

    The flavin dye 8-amino-8-demethyl- D-riboflavin (AF) in the solvents water, DMSO, methanol, and chloroform/DMSO was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The first absorption band is red-shifted compared to riboflavin, and blue-shifted compared to roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin). The fluorescence quantum yield of AF in the studied solvents varies between 20% and 50%. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be in the 2-5 ns range. AF is well soluble in DMSO, weakly soluble in water and methanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform. The limited solubility causes AF aggregation, which was seen in differences between measured absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra. Light scattering in the dye absorption region is discussed and approximate absorption cross-section spectra are determined from the combined measurement of transmission and fluorescence excitation spectra. The photo-stability of AF was studied by prolonged light exposure. The photo-degradation routes of AF are discussed.

  18. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "molecules".

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric "molecules" with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric "molecule" consists of four "atoms" of two different sizes corresponding to two absorption bands with near unity absorptivity. Numerical and experimental absorptivity verify that the dual-band metamaterial absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide-angle incidence.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of changes induced by solvent and substituent in electronic absorption spectra of some azo disperse dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Farahnak, Lahya

    2012-04-01

    Five azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4'-aminoacetophenone and p-anisidine and coupling with varies N-alkylated aromatic amines. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of dyes are determined at room temperature in fifteen solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent maximum absorption band shifts, were investigated using dielectric constant (ɛ), refractive index (n) and Kamlet-Taft polarity parameters (hydrogen bond donating ability (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability (β) and dipolarity/polarizability polarity scale (π*)). Acceptable agreement was found between the maximum absorption band of dyes and solvent polarity parameters especially with π*. The effect of substituents of coupler and/or diazo component on the color of dyes was investigated. The effects of acid and base on the visible absorption maxima of the dyes are also reported.

  20. Retrieval Analysis of the CO2 1.6 μm Band in Solar Absorption Spectra Measured by a Ground-Based High-Resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Tsukuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Morino, I.; Nagahama, T.; Suto, H.; Oguma, H.; Machida, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Nakane, H.; Nakagawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    The global measurements of greenhouse gases from space are being planned, such as GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory). Satellite remote sensing needs validations with other measurement techniques, for example, in-situ or sampling measurement by aircraft or ground station, or remote sensing measurement by ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The ground-based FTS measurement can provide the column amounts of atmospheric composition by a retrieval analysis with relatively high precision. In 2001, we started a project to observe the atmospheric compositions in solar absorption spectra by a ground- based high-resolution FTS (Bruker IFS 120 HR) located at Tsukuba, Japan. Three years ago, optical components of the FTS were replaced for measuring greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the near-infrared region: a CaF2 beam splitter, an InSb detector, and a 1.4-2.4 μm optical filter. The measurements were carried out once a day for ~100 days per year. We also made simultaneous FTS and aircraft in-situ measurements on August 10, 2004 and March 30, 2005. The retrieval analysis was performed for the measured spectra in the CO2 1.6 μm band. We used SEASCRAPE PLUS (Sequential Evaluation Algorithm for Simultaneous and Concurrent Retrieval of Atmospheric Parameter Estimates PLUS, Remote Sensing Analysis Systems, Inc.) as a retrieval analysis program. The column amounts were compared with those derived from in-situ measurements complemented by model data; differences are less than 1%. We have derived the diurnal variations of CO2 on the same days as in-situ measurements, and they showed tendencies similar to the tower measurements at the Meteorological Research Institute in Tsukuba.

  1. Energy band gap and optical transition of metal ion modified double crossover DNA lattices.

    PubMed

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Ha, Taewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Choi, Kyujin; Lee, Junwye; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Sung Ha

    2014-10-22

    We report on the energy band gap and optical transition of a series of divalent metal ion (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) modified DNA (M-DNA) double crossover (DX) lattices fabricated on fused silica by the substrate-assisted growth (SAG) method. We demonstrate how the degree of coverage of the DX lattices is influenced by the DX monomer concentration and also analyze the band gaps of the M-DNA lattices. The energy band gap of the M-DNA, between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), ranges from 4.67 to 4.98 eV as judged by optical transitions. Relative to the band gap of a pristine DNA molecule (4.69 eV), the band gap of the M-DNA lattices increases with metal ion doping up to a critical concentration and then decreases with further doping. Interestingly, except for the case of Ni(2+), the onset of the second absorption band shifts to a lower energy until a critical concentration and then shifts to a higher energy with further increasing the metal ion concentration, which is consistent with the evolution of electrical transport characteristics. Our results show that controllable metal ion doping is an effective method to tune the band gap energy of DNA-based nanostructures.

  2. Intersubband absorption in GaN nanowire heterostructures at mid-infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Akhil; Blasco, Rodrigo; Polaczynski, Jakub; Spies, Maria; den Hertog, Martien; Monroy, Eva

    2018-06-27

    In this paper, we study intersubband characteristics of GaN/AlN and GaN/Al0.4Ga0.6N heterostructures in GaN nanowires structurally designed to absorb in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Increasing the GaN well width from 1.5 to 5.7 nm leads to a red shift of the intersubband absorption from 1.4 to 3.4 µm. The red shift in larger quantum wells is amplified by the fact that one of the GaN/AlN heterointerfaces (corresponding to the growth of GaN on AlN) is not sharp but rather a graded alloy extending around 1.5-2 nm. Using AlGaN instead of AlN for the same barrier dimensions, we observe the effects of reduced polarization, which blue shifts the band-to-band transitions and red shifts the intersubband transitions. In heavily doped GaN/AlGaN nanowires, a broad absorption band is observed in the 4.5-6.4 µm spectral region. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Duque, Carlos A.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Ilyasov, Victor V.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Dinh, Le; Quang, Quach K.; Tung, Luong V.; Phuc, Huynh V.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we study the magneto-optical absorption coefficients (MOACs) and refractive index changes (RICs) in monolayer graphene under a perpendicular magnetic field using the compact density matrix approach. The results are presented as functions of photon energy and external magnetic field. Our results show that there are three groups of the possible transitions: the intra-band, the mixed, and the inter-band transitions; in which the MOACs and the RICs appear as a series of peaks in both intra-band and inter-band transitions between the Landau levels. With an increase magnetic field, the resonant peaks give a blue-shift and reduce in their amplitudes. These results suggest a potential application of monolayer graphene in nanoscale electronic and magneto-optical devices.

  4. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  5. Oxygen detection using the laser diode absorption technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Fox, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the concentration and flow rate of gaseous oxygen is becoming of greater importance. The detection technique presented is based on the principal of light absorption by the Oxygen A-Band. Oxygen molecules have characteristics which attenuate radiation in the 759-770 nm wavelength range. With an ability to measure changes in the relative light transmission to less than 0.01 percent, a sensitive optical gas detection system was configured. This system is smaller in size and light in weight, has low energy requirements and has a rapid response time. In this research program, the application of temperature tuning laser diodes and their ability to be wavelength shifted to a selected absorption spectral peak has allowed concentrations as low as 1300 ppm to be detected.

  6. Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broersma, S.; Walls, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the concentration, pressure, and temperature dependence of the spectral absorptance of a vibrational absorption band. A smooth thermodynamic dependence was found for wavelength intervals where the average absorptance is less than 0.65. Individual rotational lines, whose parameters are often well known, were used as bases in the calculation of medium resolution spectra. Two modes of calculation were combined: well-separated rotational lines plus interaction terms, or strongly overlapping lines that were represented by a compound line of similar shape plus corrections. The 1.9- and 6.3-micron bands of H2O and the 4.3-micron band of CO2 were examined in detail and compared with experiment.

  7. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral radiometer makes it susceptible to band-to-band misregistration. To estimate band-to-band misregistration a block correlation method is employed. This method is chosen over other possible techniques (band differencing and flickering) because quantitative results are produced. The method correlates rectangular blocks of pixels from one band against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band. The block pairs are shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient for each shift position is computed. The displacement corresponding to the maximum correlation is taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. Subpixel shifts are estimated by a bi-quadratic interpolation of the correlation values surrounding the maximum correlation. To obtain statistical summaries for each band combination post processing of the block correlation results performed. The method results in estimates of registration error that are consistent with expectations.

  8. How does the plasmonic enhancement of molecular absorption depend on the energy gap between molecular excitation and plasmon modes: a mixed TDDFT/FDTD investigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Li, Guang; Liang, WanZhen

    2015-07-14

    A real-time time-dependent density functional theory coupled with the classical electrodynamics finite difference time domain technique is employed to systematically investigate the optical properties of hybrid systems composed of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and organic adsorbates. The results demonstrate that the molecular absorption spectra throughout the whole energy range can be enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance of Ag NPs; however, the absorption enhancement ratio (AER) for each absorption band differs significantly from the others, leading to the quite different spectral profiles of the hybrid complexes in contrast to those of isolated molecules or sole NPs. Detailed investigations reveal that the AER is sensitive to the energy gap between the molecular excitation and plasmon modes. As anticipated, two separate absorption bands, corresponding to the isolated molecules and sole NPs, have been observed at a large energy gap. When the energy gap approaches zero, the molecular excitation strongly couples with the plasmon mode to form the hybrid exciton band, which possesses the significantly enhanced absorption intensity, a red-shifted peak position, a surprising strongly asymmetric shape of the absorption band, and the nonlinear Fano effect. Furthermore, the dependence of surface localized fields and the scattering response functions (SRFs) on the geometrical parameters of NPs, the NP-molecule separation distance, and the external-field polarizations has also been depicted.

  9. Measurement of the Band-to-Band Registration of the SNPP VIIRS Imaging System from On-Orbit Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing; Tan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched 28 October 2011 onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The VIIRS instrument is a whiskbroom system with 22 spectral and thermal bands split between 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), five imagery resolution bands (I-bands) and a day-night band. In this study we measure the along-scan and along-track band-to-band registration between the I-bands and M-bands from on-orbit data. This measurement is performed by computing the Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) between shifted image band pairs and finding the amount of shift required (if any) to produce the peak in NMI value. Subpixel accuracy is obtained by utilizing bicubic interpolation. Registration shifts are found to be similar to pre-launch measurements and stable (within measurement error) over the instruments first four years in orbit.

  10. Compositional dependence of optical band gap and refractive index in lead and bismuth borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mallur, Saisudha B.; Czarnecki, Tyler; Adhikari, Ashish

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Refractive indices increase with increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. • Optical band gap arises due to direct forbidden transition. • Optical band gaps decrease with increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. • New empirical relation between the optical band gap and the refractive index. - Abstract: We prepared a series of lead and bismuth borate glasses by varying PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and studied refractive index and optical band gap as a function of glass composition. Refractive indices were measured very accurately using a Brewster’s angle set up while the optical band gaps were determined by analyzing the opticalmore » absorption edge using the Mott–Davis model. Using the Lorentz–Lorentz method and the effective medium theory, we calculated the refractive indices and then compared them with the measured values. Bismuth borate glasses show better agreement between the calculated values of the refractive index and experimental values. We used a differential method based on Mott–Davis model to obtain the type of transition and optical band gap (E{sub opt}) which in turn was compared with the value of E{sub opt} obtained using the extinction coefficient. Our analysis shows that in both lead and bismuth borate glasses, the optical band gap arises due to direct forbidden transition. With increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, the absorption edge shifts toward longer wavelengths and the optical band gap decreases. This behavior can be explained in terms of changes to the Pb−O/Bi−O chemical bonds with glass composition. We obtained a new empirical relation between the optical band gap and the refractive index which can be used to accurately determine the electronic oxide polarizability in lead and bismuth oxide glasses.« less

  11. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W−1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells. PMID:28120823

  12. Tunable metamaterial dual-band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C. Y.; Li, Z. Z.; Guo, Z. H.; Yue, J.; Luo, Q.; Yao, G.; Ji, J.; Rao, Y. K.; Li, R. K.; Li, D.; Wang, H. X.; Yao, J. Q.; Ling, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report a design of a temperature controlled tunable dual band terahertz absorber. The compact single unit cell consists of two nested closed square ring resonators and a layer metallic separated by a substrate strontium titanate (STO) dielectric layer. It is found that the absorber has two distinctive absorption peaks at frequencies 0.096 THz and 0.137 THz, whose peaks are attained 97% and 75%. Cooling the absorber from 400 K to 250 K causes about 25% and 27% shift compared to the resonance frequency of room temperature, when we cooling the temperature to 150 K, we could attained both the two tunabilities exceeding 53%. The frequency tunability is owing to the variation of the dielectric constant of the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. The mechanism of the dual band absorber is attributed to the overlapping of dual resonance frequencies, and could be demonstrated by the distributions of the electric field. The method opens up avenues for designing tunable terahertz devices in detection, imaging, and stealth technology.

  13. An analytic formula for heating due to ozone absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, R. S.; Will, D. I.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to devise a simple expression or formula to describe radiative heating in the atmosphere by ozone absorption. Such absorption occurs in the Hartley, Huggins, and Chappuis bands and is only slightly temperature and pressure dependent.

  14. Photoionization bands of rubidium molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, M.; Pichler, G.

    2018-03-01

    We studied the absorption spectrum of dense rubidium vapor generated in a T-type sapphire cell with a special emphasis on the structured photoionization continuum observed in the 200-300 nm spectral region. The photoionization spectrum has a continuous atomic contribution with a pronounced Seaton-Cooper minimum at about 250 nm and a molecular photoionization contribution with many broad bands. We discuss the possible origin of the photoionization bands as stemming from the absorption from the ground state of the Rb2 molecule to excited states of Rb2+* and to doubly excited autoionizing states of Rb2** molecule. All these photoionization bands are located above the Rb+ and Rb2+ ionization limits.

  15. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electronic structure of merocyanines in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Kulinich, Andrii V.; Bondarev, Stanislav L.; Raichenok, Tamara F.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-phase absorption spectra of a merocyanine vinylogous series have been studied for the first time. In vapour, their long-wavelength absorption bands were found to be considerably shifted hypsochromically, broader, more symmetrical, less intense, and their vinylene shift much smaller than even in low-polarity n-hexane. This indicates that in the gas phase their electronic structure closely approaches the nonpolar polyene limiting structure. The TDDFT calculations of the long-wavelength electronic transitions in the studied merocyanines in vacuo demonstrated good-to-excellent correlation - depending on the functional used - with the obtained experimental data. For comparison, the solvent effects was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) with n-hexane and ethanol as low-polarity and high-polarity media, and compared with the UV-Vis spectral data in these solvents. In this case, the discrepancy between theory and experiment was much greater, increasing at that with the polymethine chain length.

  16. The Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectra of Neutral PAHs in Dense Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe and are expected to be present in dense interstellar clouds. In these environments, some P.4Hs may be present in the gas phase, but most should be frozen into ice mantles or adsorbed onto dust grains and their spectral features are expected to be seen in absorption. Here we extend our previous work on the infrared spectral properties of the small PAH naphthalene (C10H8) in several media to include the full mid-infrared laboratory spectra of 11 other PAHs and related aromatic species frozen in H2O ices. These include the molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, anthracene, 9,1O-dihydroanthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, pentacene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene. These results demonstrate that PAHs and related molecules, as a class, show the same spectral behaviors as naphthalene when incorporated into H2O-rich matrices. When compared to the spectra of these same molecules isolated in inert matrices (e.g., Ar or N2), the absorption bands produced when they are frozen in H2O matrices are broader (factors of 3-10), show small position shifts in either direction (usually < 4/cm, always < 10/cm), and show variable changes in relative band strengths (typically factors of 1-3). There is no evidence of systematic increases or decreases in the absolute strengths of the bands of these molecules when they are incorporated in H2O matrices. In H2O-rich ices, their absorption bands are relatively insensitive to concentration over the range of 10 < H2O/PAH < 200): The absorption bands of these molecules are also insensitive to temperature over the 10 K < T < 125 K range, although the spectra can show dramatic changes as the ices are warmed through the temperature range in which amorphous H2O ice converts to its cubic and hexagonal crystalline forms (T > 125 Kj. Given the small observed band shifts cause by H2O, the current database of spectra from Ar matrix

  17. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  18. Effect of Pressure on Absorption Spectra of Lycopene in n-Hexane and CS2 Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Wei-Long; Zheng, Zhi-Ren; Huo, Ming-Ming; Li, Ai-Hua; Yang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    The absorption spectra of lycopene in n-hexane and CS2 are measured under high pressure and the results are compared with β-carotene. In the lower pressure range, the deviation from the linear dependence on the Bayliss parameter (BP) for β-carotene is more visible than that for lycopene. With the further increase of the solvent BP, the 0-0 bands of lycopene and β-carotene red shift at almost the same rate in n-hexane; however, the 0-0 band of lycopene red shifts slower than that of β-carotene in CS2. The origins of these diversities are discussed taking into account the dispersion interactions and structures of solute and solvent molecules.

  19. Band-filling of solution-synthesized CdS nanowires.

    PubMed

    Puthussery, James; Lan, Aidong; Kosel, Thomas H; Kuno, Masaru

    2008-02-01

    The band edge optical characterization of solution-synthesized CdS nanowires (NWs) is described. Investigated wires are made through a solution-liquid-solid approach that entails the use of low-melting bimetallic catalyst particles to seed NW growth. Resulting diameters are approximately 14 nm, and lengths exceed 1 microm. Ensemble diameter distributions are approximately 13%, with corresponding intrawire diameter variations of approximately 5%. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs show that the wires are highly crystalline and have the wurtzite structure with growth along at least two directions: [0001] and [1010]. Band edge emission is observed with estimated quantum yields between approximately 0.05% and 1%. Complementary photoluminescence excitation spectra show structure consistent with the linear absorption. Carrier cooling dynamics are subsequently examined through ensemble lifetime and transient differential absorption measurements. The former reveals unexpectedly long band edge decays that extend beyond tens of nanoseconds. The latter indicates rapid intraband carrier cooling on time scales of 300-400 fs. Subsequent recovery at the band edge contains significant Auger contributions at high intensities which are usurped by other, possibly surface-related, carrier relaxation pathways at lower intensities. Furthermore, an unusual intensity-dependent transient broadening is seen, connected with these long decays. The effect likely stems from band-filling on the basis of an analysis of observed spectral shifts and line widths.

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  1. Tunable terahertz reflection spectrum based on band gaps of GaP materials excited by ultrasonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhang, X. B.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, G. Q.

    2018-02-01

    Tunable terahertz (THz) reflection spectrum, ranged from 0.2 to 8 THz, in band gaps of gallium phosphide (GaP) materials excited by ultrasonic is investigated in the present paper, in which tunable ultrasonic and terahertz wave collinear transmission in the same direction is postulated. Numerical simulation results show that, under the acousto-optic interaction, band gaps of transverse optical phonon polariton dispersion curves are turned on, this leads to a dis-propagation of polariton in GaP bulk. On the other side, GaP material has less absorption to THz wave according to experimental studies, as indicates that THz wave could be reflected by the band gaps spontaneously. The band gaps width and acousto-optic coupling strength are proportional with ultrasonic frequency and its intensity in ultrasonic frequency range of 0-250 MHz, in which low-frequency branch of transverse optical phonon polariton dispersion curves demonstrate periodicity and folding as well as. With the increase of ultrasonic frequency, frequency of band gap is blue-shifted, and total reflectivity decreased with -1-order and -2-order reflectivity decrease. The band gaps converge to the restrahlen band infinitely with frequency of ultrasonic exceeding over 250 MHz, total reflectivity of which is attenuated. As is show above, reflection of THz wave can be accommodated by regulating the frequency and its intensity of ultrasonic frequency. Relevant technology may be available in tunable THz frequency selection and filtering.

  2. Shift Colors

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to main content Navigate Up This page location is: Navy Personnel Command Reference Library Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Enlisted Support & Services Expand Support & Services Organization Expand Organization Reference

  3. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  4. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  5. Nonrigid band shift and nonmonotonic electronic structure changes upon doping in the normal state of the pnictide high-temperature superconductor Ba ( F e 1 - x C o x ) 2 A s 2

    DOE PAGES

    Vilmercati, Paolo; Mo, Sung -Kwan; Fedorov, Alexei; ...

    2016-11-28

    Here, we report systematic angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments using different photon polarizations and experimental geometries and find that the doping evolution of the normal state of Ba(Fe 1–xCo x) 2As 2 deviates significantly from the predictions of a rigid band model. The data reveal a nonmonotonic dependence upon doping of key quantities such as band filling, bandwidth of the electron pocket, and quasiparticle coherence. Our analysis suggests that the observed phenomenology and the inapplicability of the rigid band model in Co-doped Ba122 are due to electronic correlations, and not to the either the strength of the impurity potential, or self-energymore » effects due to impurity scattering. Our findings indicate that the effects of doping in pnictides are much more complicated than currently believed. More generally, they indicate that a deep understanding of the evolution of the electronic properties of the normal state, which requires an understanding of the doping process, remains elusive even for the 122 iron-pnictides, which are viewed as the least correlated of the high-T C unconventional superconductors.« less

  6. Ultrafast X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Isochorically Heated Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhorn, Kyle Craig

    This dissertation will present a series of new tools, together with new techniques, focused on the understanding of warm and dense matter. We report on the development of a high time resolution and high detection efficiency x-ray camera. The camera is integrated with a short pulse laser and an x-ray beamline at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. This provides an instrument for single shot, broadband x-ray absorption spectroscopy of warm and dense matter with 2 picosecond time resolution. Warm and dense matter is created by isochorically heating samples of known density with an ultrafast optical laser pulse, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy probes the unoccupied electronic density of states before the onset of hydrodynamic expansion and electron-ion equilibrium is reached. Measured spectra from a variety of materials are compared with first principle molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. In heated silicon dioxide spectra, two novel pre-edge features are observed, a peak below the band gap and absorption within the band gap, while a reduction was observed in the features above the edge. From consideration of the calculated spectra, the peak below the gap is attributed to valence electrons that have been promoted to the conduction band, the absorption within the gap is attributed to broken Si-O bonds, and the reduction above the edge is attributed to an elevated ionic temperature. In heated copper spectra, a time-dependent shift and broadening of the absorption edge are observed, consistent with and elevated electron temperature. The temporal evolution of the electronic temperature is accurately determined by fitting the measured spectra with calculated spectra. The electron-ion equilibration is studied with a two-temperature model. In heated nickel spectra, a shift of the absorption edge is observed. This shift is found to be inconsistent with calculated spectra and independent of incident laser fluence. A shift of the chemical potential

  7. Dynamical resonance shift and unification of resonances in short-pulse laser-cluster interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Pronounced maximum absorption of laser light irradiating a rare-gas or metal cluster is widely expected during the linear resonance (LR) when Mie-plasma wavelength λM of electrons equals the laser wavelength λ . On the contrary, by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an argon cluster irradiated by short 5-fs (FWHM) laser pulses it is revealed that, for a given laser pulse energy and a cluster, at each peak intensity there exists a λ —shifted from the expected λM—that corresponds to a unified dynamical LR at which evolution of the cluster happens through very efficient unification of possible resonances in various stages, including (i) the LR in the initial time of plasma creation, (ii) the LR in the Coulomb expanding phase in the later time, and (iii) anharmonic resonance in the marginally overdense regime for a relatively longer pulse duration, leading to maximum laser absorption accompanied by maximum removal of electrons from cluster and also maximum allowed average charge states for the argon cluster. Increasing the laser intensity, the absorption maxima is found to shift to a higher wavelength in the band of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM than permanently staying at the expected λM. A naive rigid sphere model also corroborates the wavelength shift of the absorption peak as found in MD and unequivocally proves that maximum laser absorption in a cluster happens at a shifted λ in the marginally overdense regime of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM instead of λM of LR. The present study is important for guiding an optimal condition laser-cluster interaction experiment in the short-pulse regime.

  8. Band gap enhancement of glancing angle deposited TiO2 nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, A.; Singh, N. K.; Dhar, J. C.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Bhattacharya, Sekhar

    2012-09-01

    Vertically oriented TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated by glancing angle deposition technique. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of two different diameters ˜80 nm and ˜40 nm TiO2 NW for 120 and 460 rpm azimuthal rotation of the substrate. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering depicted the presence of rutile and anatase phase TiO2. The overall Raman scattering intensity decreased with nanowire diameter. The role of phonon confinement in anatase and rutile peaks has been discussed. The red (7.9 cm-1 of anatase Eg) and blue (7.4 cm-1 of rutile Eg, 7.8 cm-1 of rutile A1g) shifts of Raman frequencies were observed. UV-vis absorption measurements show the main band absorption at 3.42 eV, 3.48 eV, and ˜3.51 eV for thin film and NW prepared at 120 and 460 rpm, respectively. Three fold enhance photon absorption and intense light emission were observed for NW assembly. The photoluminescence emission from the NW assembly revealed blue shift in main band transition due to quantum confinement in NW structures.

  9. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  10. Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the nu4 (sigma u) fundamental and associated nu11(pi u) hot band of C7 - Evidence for alternating rigidity in linear carbon clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, J. R.; Saykally, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The first characterization of the bending potential of the C7 cluster is reported via the observation of the v = 1(1) and v = 2 deg levels of the nu11 (pi u) bend as hot bands associated with the nu4 (sigma u) antisymmetric stretch fundamental. The lower state hot band rotational constants are measured to be 1004.4(1.3) and 1123.6(9.0) MHz, constituting a 9.3 and 22 percent increase over the ground state rotational constant, 918.89 (41) MHz. These large increases are strong quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants determined for the ground and nu 4 = 1 states are found to be anomalously large and negative, evidencing strong perturbations between stretching and bending modes.

  11. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  12. Optical absorption and photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline Zn0.92M0.08O (M: Li & Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punia, Khushboo; Lal, Ganesh; Kumar, Sudhish

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline samples of Zn0.92Li0.08O and Zn0.92Gd0.08O have been synthesized using citrate sol-gel route without post synthesis annealing and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR and Photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements. Analysis of XRD pattern and PL spectra revealed single phase formation of the nanocrystalline Zn0.92Li0.08O and Zn0.92Gd0.08O in the wurtzite type hexagonal structure with intrinsic crystal and surface defects. UV-Vis-NIR optical absorption measurements show that the maximum photo absorption occurs below 600nm in the UV& visible band. The estimated values of band gap energy were found to be 2.53eV and 2.73eV for Zn0.92Li0.08O and Zn0.92Gd0.08O respectively. The photoluminescence spectra excited at the wavelength 325nm displays two broad peaks in the UV and visible bands centered at ˜416 nm & ˜602 nm for Zn0.92Gd0.08O and ˜406nm & ˜598nm for Zn0.92Li0.08O. Both Gd and Li doping in ZnO leads to considerable decrease in the optical band gap energy and red shifting of the UV emission band towards the visible band.

  13. Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng

    2014-11-17

    We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.

  14. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  15. Shifting Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Strands of plasma at the sun edge shifted and twisted back and forth over a 22-hour period, May 2-3, 2017. In this close-up from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory, the strands are being manipulated by strong magnetic forces associated with active region. This kind of activity is not at all uncommon, but best viewed in profile. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. To give a sense of scale, the strands hover above the sun more than several times the size of Earth. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21632

  16. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  17. Band Anticrossing in Highly Mismatched Compound Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys in which metallic anions are partially replaced with more electronegative isoelectronic atoms have recently attracted significant attention. Group IIIN(sub x)V(sub 1-x) alloys with a small amount of the electronegative N substituting more metallic column V elements has been the most extensively studied class of such Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). We have shown that many of the unusual properties of the IIIN(sub x)V(sub 1-x) alloys can be well explained by the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model that describes the electronic structure in terms of an interaction between highly localized levels of substitutional N and the extended states of the host semiconductor matrix. Most recently the BAC model has been also used to explain similar modifications of the electronic band structure observed in Te-rich ZnS(sub x)Te(sub 1-x) and ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) alloys. To date studies of HMAs have been limited to materials with relatively small concentrations of highly electronegative atoms. Here we report investigations of the electronic structure of ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) alloys in the entire composition range, y between 0 and 1. The samples used in this study are bulk ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) crystals grown by either a modified Bridgman method or by physical vapor transport. Photomodulated reflection (PR) spectroscopy was used to measure the composition dependence of optical transitions from the valence band edge and from the spin-orbit split off band to the conduction band. The pressure dependence of the band gap was measured using optical absorption in a diamond anvil cell. We find that the energy of the spin-orbit split off valence band edge does not depend on composition and is located at about 3 eV below the conduction band edge of ZnSe. On the Te-rich side the pressure and the composition dependence of the optical transitions are well explained by the BAC model which describes the downward shift of the conduction band edge in terms of the

  18. Band Anticrossing in Highly Mismatched Compound Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A.; Su, Ching-Hua; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys in which metallic anions are partially replaced with more electronegative isoelectronic atoms have recently attracted significant attention. Group IIIN(x)V(1-x), alloys with a small amount of the electronegative N substituting more metallic column V elements has been the most extensively studied class of such Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). We have shown that many of the unusual properties of the IIIN(x),V(1-x) alloys can be well explained by the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model that describes the electronic structure in terms of an interaction between highly localized levels of substitutional N and the extended states of the host semiconductor matrix. Most recently the BAC model has been also used to explain similar modifications of the electronic band structure observed in Te-rich ZnS(x)Te(l-x) and ZnSe(Y)Te(1-y) alloys. To date studies of HMAs have been limited to materials with relatively small concentrations of highly electronegative atoms. Here we report investigations of the electronic structure of ZnSe(y)Te(1-y) alloys in the entire composition range, 0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 1. The samples used in this study are bulk ZnSe(y)Te(1-y) crystals grown by either a modified Bridgman method or by physical vapor transport. Photomodulated reflection (PR) spectroscopy was used to measure the composition dependence of optical transitions from the valence band edge and from the spin-orbit split off band to the conduction band. The pressure dependence of the band gap was measured using optical absorption in a diamond anvil cell. We find that the energy of the spin-orbit split off valence band edge does not depend on composition and is located at about 3 eV below the conduction band edge of ZnSe. On the Te-rich side the pressure and the composition dependence of the optical transitions are well explained by the BAC model which describes the downward shift of the conduction band edge in terms of the interaction between

  19. Predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumann-Runge absorption bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18 in the wavelength region 180-196 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, S. S.-L.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Yoshino et al. (1988) measurements of absolute cross sections and those of Cheung et al. (1988) for spectroscopic constants are presently used to derive the predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumman-Runge bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18, in the 180-196 nm wavelength region. Linewidths are determined as parameters in the nonlinear, least-squares fitting of calculated cross-sections to measured ones. The predissociation linewidths obtained are noted to often be greater than previously obtained experimental values for both isotopic molecules.

  20. Optical absorption and thermal transport of individual suspended carbon nanotube bundles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, I-Kai; Pettes, Michael T; Bushmaker, Adam; Aykol, Mehmet; Shi, Li; Cronin, Stephen B

    2009-02-01

    A focused laser beam is used to heat individual single-walled carbon nanotube bundles bridging two suspended microthermometers. By measurement of the temperature rise of the two thermometers, the optical absorption of 7.4-10.3 nm diameter bundles is found to be between 0.03 and 0.44% of the incident photons in the 0.4 microm diameter laser spot. The thermal conductance of the bundle is obtained with the additional measurement of the temperature rise of the nanotubes in the laser spot from shifts in the Raman G band frequency. According to the nanotube bundle diameter determined by transmission electron microscopy, the thermal conductivity is obtained.

  1. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  2. Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  3. Visible absorption properties of radiation exposed XR type-T radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-10-07

    The visible absorption spectra of Gafchromic XR type-T radiochromic film have been investigated to analyse the dosimetry characteristics of the film with visible light densitometers. Common densitometers can use photospectrometry, fluorescent light (broad-band visible), helium neon (632 nm), light emitting diode (LED) or other specific bandwidth spectra. The visible absorption spectra of this film when exposed to photon radiation show peaks at 676 nm and 618 nm at 2 Gy absorbed doses which shift to slightly lower wavelengths (662 nm and 612 nm at 8 Gy absorbed dose) at higher doses. This is similar to previous models of Gafchromic film such as MD-55-2 and HS but XR type-T also includes a large absorption at lower visible wavelengths due to 'yellow' dyes placed within the film to aid with visible recognition of the film exposure level. The yellow dye band pass is produced at approximately 520 nm to 550 nm and absorbs wavelengths lower than this value within the visible spectrum. This accounts for the colour change from yellow to brown through the added absorption in the red wavelengths with radiation exposure. The film produces a relatively high dose sensitivity with up to 0.25 OD units per Gy change at 672 nm at 100 kVp x-ray energy. Variations in dose sensitivity can be achieved by varying wavelength analysis.

  4. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation enhanced by band gap narrowing and improved charge carrier mobility in AgTaO3 by compensated co-doping.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Junying; Dang, Wenqiang; Cushing, Scott K; Guo, Dong; Wu, Nianqiang; Yin, Penggang

    2013-10-14

    The correlation of the electronic band structure with the photocatalytic activity of AgTaO3 has been studied by simulation and experiments. Doping wide band gap oxide semiconductors usually introduces discrete mid-gap states, which extends the light absorption but has limited benefit for photocatalytic activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that compensated co-doping in AgTaO3 can overcome this problem by increasing the light absorption and simultaneously improving the charge carrier mobility. N/H and N/F co-doping can delocalize the discrete mid-gap states created by sole N doping in AgTaO3, which increases the band curvature and the electron-to-hole effective mass ratio. In particular, N/F co-doping creates a continuum of states that extend the valence band of AgTaO3. N/F co-doping thus improves the light absorption without creating the mid-gap states, maintaining the necessary redox potentials for water splitting and preventing from charge carrier trapping. The experimental results have confirmed that the N/F-codoped AgTaO3 exhibits a red-shift of the absorption edge in comparison with the undoped AgTaO3, leading to remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen generation from water.

  5. Effect of doping on the intersubband absorption in Si- and Ge-doped GaN/AlN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay, A.; Lim, C. B.; Browne, D. A.; Polaczyński, J.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bleuse, J.; den Hertog, M. I.; Monroy, E.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we study band-to-band and intersubband (ISB) characteristics of Si- and Ge-doped GaN/AlN heterostructures (planar and nanowires) structurally designed to absorb in the short-wavelength infrared region, particularly at 1.55 μm. Regarding the band-to-band properties, we discuss the variation of the screening of the internal electric field by free carriers, as a function of the doping density and well/nanodisk size. We observe that nanowire heterostructures consistently present longer photoluminescence decay times than their planar counterparts, which supports the existence of an in-plane piezoelectric field associated to the shear component of the strain tensor in the nanowire geometry. Regarding the ISB characteristics, we report absorption covering 1.45-1.75 μm using Ge-doped quantum wells, with comparable performance to Si-doped planar heterostructures. We also report similar ISB absorption in Si- and Ge-doped nanowire heterostructures indicating that the choice of dopant is not an intrinsic barrier for observing ISB phenomena. The spectral shift of the ISB absorption as a function of the doping concentration due to many body effects confirms that Si and Ge efficiently dope GaN/AlN nanowire heterostructures.

  6. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  7. Hybrid silicon–carbon nanostructures for broadband optical absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Wen -Hua; Lu, Wen -Cai; Ho, K. M.; ...

    2017-01-25

    Proper design of nanomaterials for broadband light absorption is a key factor for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. Here we present a hybrid design of silicon–carbon nanostructures with silicon clusters coated by carbon cages, i.e., Si m@C 2n for potential solar cell application. The optical properties of these hybrid nanostructures were calculated based on time dependent density function theory (TDDFT). The results show that the optical spectra of Si m@C 2n are very different from those of pure Si m and C 2n clusters. While the absorption spectra of pure carbon cages and Si m clusters exhibit peaksmore » in the UV region, those of the Si m@C 2n nanostructures exhibit a significant red shift. Superposition of the optical spectra of various Si m@C 2n nanostructures forms a broad-band absorption, which extends to the visible light and infrared regions. As a result, the broadband adsorption of the assembled Si m@C 2n nanoclusters may provide a new approach for the design of high efficiency solar cell nanomaterials.« less

  8. Electronic structure modifications and band gap narrowing in Zn0.95V0.05O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Abdul; Majid, S. S.; Rahman, F.; Shukla, D. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present here, structural, optical and electronic structure studies on Zn0.95V0.05O, synthesized using solid state method. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction pattern indicates no considerable change in the lattice of doped ZnO. The band gap of doped sample, as calculated by Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra, has been found reduced compared to pure ZnO. Considerable changes in absorbance in UV-Vis range is observed in doped sample. V doping induced decrease in band gap is supported by x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. It is experimentally confirmed that conduction band edge in Zn0.95V0.05O has shifted towards Fermi level than in pure ZnO.

  9. Shifting Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Strands of solar material at the sun's edge shifted and twisted back and forth over a 22-hour period in this footage captured May 2-3, 2017, by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. In this close-up, the strands are being manipulated by strong magnetic forces associated with active regions. To give a sense of scale, the strands that hover above the sun are more than several times the size of Earth. These images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, which is typically invisible to our eyes, but was colorized here in red. go.nasa.gov/2qJzPD2 Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Enhanced optical band-gap of ZnO thin films by sol-gel technique

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, P., E-mail: dpr3270@gmail.com; Naveen, C. S.; Shailaja, J.

    2016-05-06

    Transparent ZnO thin films were prepared using different molar concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.8 M) of zinc acetate on soda lime glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The optical properties revealed that the transmittance found to decrease with increase in molar concentration. Absorption edge showed that the higher concentration film has increasingly red shifted. An increased band gap energy of the thin films was found to be direct allowed transition of ∼3.9 eV exhibiting their relevance for photovoltaic applications. The extinction coefficient analysis revealed maximum transmittance with negligible absorption coefficient in the respective wavelengths. The resultsmore » of ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel technique reveal its suitability for optoelectronics and as a window layer in solar cell applications.« less

  11. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  12. Very low band gap thiadiazoloquinoxaline donor-acceptor polymers as multi-tool conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Steckler, Timothy T; Henriksson, Patrik; Mollinger, Sonya; Lundin, Angelica; Salleo, Alberto; Andersson, Mats R

    2014-01-29

    Here we report on the synthesis of two novel very low band gap (VLG) donor-acceptor polymers (Eg ≤ 1 eV) and an oligomer based on the thiadiazoloquinoxaline acceptor. Both polymers demonstrate decent ambipolar mobilities, with P1 showing the best performance of ∼10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for p- and n-type operation. These polymers are among the lowest band gap polymers (≲0.7 eV) reported, with a neutral λmax = 1476 nm (P2), which is the farthest red-shifted λmax reported to date for a soluble processable polymer. Very little has been done to characterize the electrochromic aspects of VLG polymers; interestingly, these polymers actually show a bleaching of their neutral absorptions in the near-infrared region and have an electrochromic contrast up to 30% at a switching speed of 3 s.

  13. Direct observation of mode-specific phonon-band gap coupling in methylammonium lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejae; Hunger, Johannes; Cánovas, Enrique; Karakus, Melike; Mics, Zoltán; Grechko, Maksim; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Parekh, Sapun H; Bonn, Mischa

    2017-09-25

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite is an outstanding semiconductor for photovoltaics. One of its intriguing peculiarities is that the band gap of this perovskite increases with increasing lattice temperature. Despite the presence of various thermally accessible phonon modes in this soft material, the understanding of how precisely these phonons affect macroscopic material properties and lead to the peculiar temperature dependence of the band gap has remained elusive. Here, we report a strong coupling of a single phonon mode at the frequency of ~ 1 THz to the optical band gap by monitoring the transient band edge absorption after ultrafast resonant THz phonon excitation. Excitation of the 1 THz phonon causes a blue shift of the band gap over the temperature range of 185 ~ 300 K. Our results uncover the mode-specific coupling between one phonon and the optical properties, which contributes to the temperature dependence of the gap in the tetragonal phase.Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite, a promising material for efficient photovoltaics, shows a unique temperature dependence of its optical properties. Kim et al. quantify the coupling between the optical gap and a lattice phonon at 1 THz, which favorably contributes to the thermal variation of the gap.

  14. Resolving the ambiguity in the relation between Stokes shift and Huang-Rhys parameter.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T

    2015-07-14

    Electronic transitions in luminescent molecules or centers in crystals couple to vibrations. This results in broadening of absorption and emission bands, as well as in the occurence of a Stokes shift EStokes. In principle, one can derive from EStokes the Huang-Rhys parameter S, which describes the microscopic details of the vibrational coupling and can be related to the equilibrium position offset ΔQe between the ground state and excited state. The commonly used textbook relations EStokes = (2S - 1)ℏω and EStokes = 2Sℏω are only approximately valid. In this paper we investigate how EStokes is related to S, taking into account the effects of a finite temperature. We show that in different ranges of temperature, different approximate relations between EStokes and S are appropriate. Moreover, we demonstrate that the difference between the barycenters of absorption and emission bands can be used to determine S in an unambiguous way. The position of the barycenter is, contrary to the Stokes shift, unaffected by temperature.

  15. Observation of confinement effects through liner and nonlinear absorption spectroscopy in cuprous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Cuprous oxide nano clusters, micro cubes and micro particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper (II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of pure single phase cubic. Raman spectrum shows the inevitable presence of CuO on the surface of the Cu2O powders which may have an impact on the stability of the phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro cubes and micro particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show that the absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nano clusters to micro cubes and micro particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Samples exhibited saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA is ascribed to excited-state absorption (ESA) induced by two-photon absorption (TPA) process. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap) we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) in the case of nano-clusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  16. Electronic Band Structure Tuning of Highly-Mismatched-Alloys for Energy Conversion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Min

    Highly-mismatched alloys: ZnO1-xTe x and GaN1-xSb x are discussed within the context of finding the suitable material for a cost-effective Si-based tandem solar cell (SBTSC). SBTSC is an attractive concept for breaking through the energy conversion efficiency theoretical limit of a single junction solar cell. Combining with a material of 1.8 eV band gap, SBTSC can theoretically achieve energy conversion efficiency > 45%. ZnO and GaN are wide band gap semiconductors. Alloying Te in ZnO and alloying Sb in GaN result in large band gap reduction to < 2 eV from 3.3 eV and 3.4 eV respectively. The band gap reduction is majorly achieved by the upward shift of valence band (VB). Incorporating Te in ZnO modifies the VB of ZnO through the valence-band anticrossing (VBAC) interaction between localized Te states and ZnO VB delocalized states, which forms a Te-derived VB at 1 eV above the host VB. Similar band structure modification is resulted from alloying Sb in GaN. Zn1-xTex and GaN 1-xSbx thin films are synthesized across the whole composition range by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and low temperature molecular beam epitaxy (LT-MBE) respectively. The electronic band edges of these alloys are measured by synchrotron X-ray absorption, emission, and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Modeling the optical absorption coefficient with the band anticrossing (BAC) model revealed that the Te and Sb defect levels to be at 0.99 eV and 1.2 eV above the VB of ZnO and GaN respectively. Electrically, Zn1-xTex is readily n-type conductive and GaN1-xSbx is strongly p-type conductive. A heterojunction device of p-type GaN 0.93Sb0.07 with n-type ZnO0.77Te0.93 upper cell (band gap at 1.8 eV) on Si bottom cell is proposed as a promising SBTSC device.

  17. Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.

  18. Multitemporal spectroscopy for crop stress detection using band selection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Thorsten; Franke, Jonas; Menz, Gunter

    2008-08-01

    A fast and precise sensor-based identification of pathogen infestations in wheat stands is essential for the implementation of site-specific fungicide applications. Several works have shown possibilities and limitations for the detection of plant stress using spectral sensor data. Hyperspectral data provide the opportunity to collect spectral reflectance in contiguous bands over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Individual phenomena like the light absorption of leaf pigments can be examined in detail. The precise knowledge of stress-dependent shifting in certain spectral wavelengths provides great advantages in detecting fungal infections. This study focuses on band selection techniques for hyperspectral data to identify relevant and redundant information in spectra regarding a detection of plant stress caused by pathogens. In a laboratory experiment, five 1 sqm boxes with wheat were multitemporarily measured by a ASD Fieldspec® 3 FR spectroradiometer. Two stands were inoculated with Blumeria graminis - the pathogen causing powdery mildew - and one stand was used to simulate the effect of water deficiency. Two stands were kept healthy as control stands. Daily measurements of the spectral reflectance were taken over a 14-day period. Three ASD Pro Lamps were used to illuminate the plots with constant light. By applying band selection techniques, the three types of different wheat vitality could be accurately differentiated at certain stages. Hyperspectral data can provide precise information about pathogen infestations. The reduction of the spectral dimension of sensor data by means of band selection procedures is an appropriate method to speed up the data supply for precision agriculture.

  19. Absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of mass-selected flavin adenine dinucleotide mono-anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomozzi, L.; Kjær, C.; Langeland Knudsen, J.; Andersen, L. H.; Brøndsted Nielsen, S.; Stockett, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    We report the absorption profile of isolated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) mono-anions recorded using photo-induced dissociation action spectroscopy. In this charge state, one of the phosphoric acid groups is deprotonated and the chromophore itself is in its neutral oxidized state. These measurements cover the first four optical transitions of FAD with excitation energies from 2.3 to 6.0 eV (210-550 nm). The S0 → S2 transition is strongly blue shifted relative to aqueous solution, supporting the view that this transition has a significant charge-transfer character. The remaining bands are close to their solution-phase positions. This confirms that the large discrepancy between quantum chemical calculations of vertical transition energies and solution-phase band maxima cannot be explained by solvent effects. We also report the luminescence spectrum of FAD mono-anions in vacuo. The gas-phase Stokes shift for S1 is 3000 cm-1, which is considerably larger than any previously reported for other molecular ions and consistent with a significant displacement of the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces. Consideration of the vibronic structure is thus essential for simulating the absorption and luminescence spectra of flavins.

  20. A Simple Band for Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-08-01

    The author has noted that flexible gastric bands have occasionally stenosed the gastric stoma or allowed it to dilate. A band was developed using a soft outer silicone rubber tube over a holding mechanism made out of a nylon cable tie passed within the silicone tube. This simple, easily applied band is rigid, resisting scar contracture and dilatation.

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigation of optical absorption anisotropy in β-Ga2O3.

    PubMed

    Ricci, F; Boschi, F; Baraldi, A; Filippetti, A; Higashiwaki, M; Kuramata, A; Fiorentini, V; Fornari, R

    2016-06-08

    The question of optical bandgap anisotropy in the monoclinic semiconductor β-Ga2O3 was revisited by combining accurate optical absorption measurements with theoretical analysis, performed using different advanced computation methods. As expected, the bandgap edge of bulk β-Ga2O3 was found to be a function of light polarization and crystal orientation, with the lowest onset occurring at polarization in the ac crystal plane around 4.5-4.6 eV; polarization along b unambiguously shifts the onset up by 0.2 eV. The theoretical analysis clearly indicates that the shift in the b onset is due to a suppression of the transition matrix elements of the three top valence bands at Γ point.

  2. Photothermal effects from Au-Cu2O core-shell nanocubes, octahedra, and nanobars with broad near-infrared absorption tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Ju; Yang, Kung-Hsun; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Huang, Michael H.

    2015-12-01

    Other than the display of purely optical phenomenon, the recently-discovered facet-dependent optical properties of metal-Cu2O nanocrystals have become useful by illuminating Au-Cu2O nanocubes and octahedra having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the near-infrared (NIR) region from octahedral Au cores with 808 nm light for heat generation. After 5 min of light irradiation, a solution of Au-Cu2O nanocubes can reach 65 °C with their Au SPR band matching the illuminating light wavelength. Photothermal efficiency has been found to be facet-dependent. In addition, short gold nanorods were employed to synthesize {100}-bound rectangular Au-Cu2O nanobars with a tunable longitudinal Au SPR absorption band covering a broad NIR range from ~1050 to 1400 nm. Because the Au SPR bands can become fixed with relatively thin Cu2O shells of less than 15 nm, ultrasmall nanobars having a size of 61 nm directly red-shift the Au SPR band to 1047 nm. And 73 nm nanobars can give a Au SPR band at 1390 nm. Truncated nanobars exposing {100}, {110}, and {111} facets give a very blue-shifted Au SPR band. The nanobars also exhibit photothermal activity when illuminated by 1064 nm light. These small Au-Cu2O nanocrystals represent the simplest nanostructure design to absorb light covering the entire NIR wavelengths.Other than the display of purely optical phenomenon, the recently-discovered facet-dependent optical properties of metal-Cu2O nanocrystals have become useful by illuminating Au-Cu2O nanocubes and octahedra having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the near-infrared (NIR) region from octahedral Au cores with 808 nm light for heat generation. After 5 min of light irradiation, a solution of Au-Cu2O nanocubes can reach 65 °C with their Au SPR band matching the illuminating light wavelength. Photothermal efficiency has been found to be facet-dependent. In addition, short gold nanorods were employed to synthesize {100}-bound rectangular Au-Cu2O nanobars

  3. Optical band gap of thermally deposited Ge-S-Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Anjli; Heera, Pawan; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Raman

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of Ge20S80-xGax glassy alloy, obtained from melt quenching technique, were deposited on the glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique under a high vacuum conditions (˜ 10-5 Torr). Absorption spectrum fitting method (ASF) is employed to obtain the optical band gap from absorption spectra. This method requires only the measurement of the absorption spectrum of the sample. The width of the band tail was also determined. Optical band gap computed from absorption spectra is found to decrease with an increase in Ga content. The evaluated optical band gap (Eg) is in well agreement with the theoretically predicted Eg and obtained from transmission spectra.

  4. Cluster size resolving analysis of CH3F-(ortho-H2)n in solid para-hydrogen using FTIR absorption spectroscopy at 3 μm region.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Momose, Takamasa; Kanamori, Hideto

    2012-11-21

    Infrared absorption spectra of methyl fluoride with ortho-hydrogen (ortho-H(2)) clusters in a solid para-hydrogen (para-H(2)) crystal at 3.6 K were studied in the C-H stretching fundamental region (~3000 cm(-1)) using an FTIR spectrometer. As shown previously, the ν(3) C-F stretching fundamental band of CH(3)F-(ortho-H(2))(n) (n = 0, 1, 2, ...) clusters at 1040 cm(-1) shows a series of n discrete absorption lines, which correspond to different-sized clusters. We observed three unresolved broad peaks in the C-H stretching region and applied this cluster model to them assuming the same intensity distribution function as the ν(3) band. A fitting analysis successfully gave us the linewidth and lineshift of the components in each vibrational band. It was found that the separately determined linewidth, matrix shift of the band origin, and cluster shift are dependent on the vibrational mode. From the transition intensities of the monomer component derived from the fitting analysis, we discuss the mixing ratio of the vibrational modes due to Fermi resonance.

  5. Absorption by DNA single strands of adenine isolated in vacuo: The role of multiple chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Pedersen, Sara Øvad; Kirketerp, Maj-Britt Suhr; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-02-01

    The degree of electronic coupling between DNA bases is a topic being up for much debate. Here we report on the intrinsic electronic properties of isolated DNA strands in vacuo free of solvent, which is a good starting point for high-level excited states calculations. Action spectra of DNA single strands of adenine reveal sign of exciton coupling between stacked bases from blueshifted absorption bands (˜3 nm) relative to that of the dAMP mononucleotide (one adenine base). The bands are blueshifted by about 10 nm compared to those of solvated strands, which is a shift similar to that for the adenine molecule and the dAMP mononucleotide. Desolvation has little effect on the bandwidth, which implies that inhomogenous broadening of the absorption bands in aqueous solution is of minor importance compared to, e.g., conformational disorder. Finally, at high photon energies, internal conversion competes with electron detachment since dissociation of the bare photoexcited ions on the microsecond time scale is measured.

  6. Concentration and size dependence of peak wavelength shift on quantum dots in colloidal suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Benjamin S.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that have significant advantages over organic fluorophores, including their extremely narrow Gaussian emission bands and broad absorption bands. Thus, QDs have a wide range of potential applications, such as in quantum computing, photovoltaic cells, biological sensing, and electronics. For these applications, aliasing provides a detrimental effect on signal identification efficiency. This can be avoided through characterization of the QD fluorescence signals. Characterization of the emissivity of CdTe QDs as a function of concentration (1 to 10 mg/ml aqueous) was conducted on 12 commercially available CdTe QDs (emission peaks 550 to 730 nm). The samples were excited by a 50-mW 405-nm laser with emission collected via a free-space CCD spectrometer. All QDs showed a redshift effect as concentration increased. On average, the CdTe QDs exhibited a maximum shift of +35.6 nm at 10 mg/ml and a minimum shift of +27.24 nm at 1 mg/ml, indicating a concentration dependence for shift magnitude. The concentration-dependent redshift function can be used to predict emission response as QD concentration is changed in a complex system.

  7. Using parallel banded linear system solvers in generalized eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong; Moss, William F.

    1993-01-01

    Subspace iteration is a reliable and cost effective method for solving positive definite banded symmetric generalized eigenproblems, especially in the case of large scale problems. This paper discusses an algorithm that makes use of two parallel banded solvers in subspace iteration. A shift is introduced to decompose the banded linear systems into relatively independent subsystems and to accelerate the iterations. With this shift, an eigenproblem is mapped efficiently into the memories of a multiprocessor and a high speed-up is obtained for parallel implementations. An optimal shift is a shift that balances total computation and communication costs. Under certain conditions, we show how to estimate an optimal shift analytically using the decay rate for the inverse of a banded matrix, and how to improve this estimate. Computational results on iPSC/2 and iPSC/860 multiprocessors are presented.

  8. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  9. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  10. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  11. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; ...

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. Furthermore, by analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. This method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenidesmore » such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W -1 . Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.« less

  12. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. Furthermore, by analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. This method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenidesmore » such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W -1 . Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.« less

  13. Band gap narrowing in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles facilitated by multiple mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth, S.; James Raju, K. C., E-mail: kcjrsp@uohyd.ernet.in; School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046

    2014-05-07

    In the present work, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles of four different size ranges were prepared by sol-gel method. The optical band gap of these particles at some size ranges has come down to 2.53 eV from 3.2 eV, resulting in substantial increase in optical absorption by these ferroelectric nanoparticles making them potential candidates for light energy harvesting. XRD results show the presence of higher compressive strain in 23 nm and 54 nm size particles, they exhibit a higher band gap narrowing, whereas tensile strain is observed in 31 nm and 34 nm particles, and they do not show the marginal band gap narrowing. The 23 nm and 54 nmmore » particles also show a coupling of free carriers to phonons by increasing the intensity of LO phonon mode at 715 cm{sup −1}. The higher surface charge density is expected in case of enhanced surface optical Raman modes (638 cm{sup −1}) contained in 31 and 34 nm size particles. In addition to this, the red shift in an LO mode Raman spectral line at 305 cm{sup −1} with decrease in particle size depicts the presence of phonon confinement in it. The enhanced optical absorption in 23 nm and 54 nm size particles with a narrowed band gap of 3 eV and 2.53 eV is due to exchange correlation interactions between the carriers present in these particles. In 31 nm and 34 nm range particles, the absorption got bleached exhibiting increased band gaps of 3.08 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively. It is due to filling up of conduction band resulting from weakening of exchange correlation interactions between the charge carriers. Hence, it is concluded that the band gap narrowing in the nanoparticles of average size 23 nm/54 nm is a consequence of multiple effects like strain, electron-phonon interaction, and exchange correlation interactions between the carriers which is subdued in some other size ranges like 31 nm/34 nm.« less

  14. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anup; Maiti, Biswajit; Chanda Sarkar, Debasree

    2014-04-01

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k→) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg1-xCdxTe, and In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, as example of III-V compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  15. Exploring function activated chlorins using MCD spectroscopy and DFT methods: design of a chlorin with a remarkably intense, red Q band.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Angel; Stillman, Martin J

    2018-05-09

    The electronic structures of three previously synthesized Ni-coordinated chlorins with β-substituents of thioketone, fluorene, and ketone were investigated using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (MCD) and density functional theory (DFT) for potential application as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Computational studies on modeled Zn-coordinated chlorins allowed identification of charge transfer and d-d transitions of the Ni2+ coordinated chlorins. Two fictive Zn chlorins, M1 and M2, were designed with thiophene units based on the fluorene substituted chlorin. Substitution with thiophene altered the typical arrangement of the four Gouterman molecular orbitals (MOs) and red-shifted and greatly intensified the lowest energy absorption band (the Q band). The introduction of the thiophene-based MO as the LUMO below the usual Gouterman LUMO is predicted to increase the efficiency of electron transfer from the dye to the conduction band of the semiconductor in DSSCs. The addition of a donor group on the opposite pyrrole (M2) red-shifted the Q band further and introduced a donor-based MO between the typical Gouterman HOMO and HOMO-1. Despite the relatively small ΔHOMO, M1 and M2 exhibited remarkably intense Q bands. M2 would be a possible candidate for application in DSSCs due to its panchromatic absorption, intense and red-shifted Q band, and the presence of the substituent based MO properties. Another indicator of a successful dye is the alignment of the ground state and excited state oxidation potentials (GSOP and ESOP, respectively) with respect to the conduction band of the semiconductor. The GSOP for M2 lies 0.55 eV below the I-/I3- redox potential and the ESOP lies 0.48 eV above the TiO2 conduction band. The impact of the thiophene dominance in the LUMO also supports the prediction of efficient sensitization properties. The remarkably intense Q band of M2 predicted to be at 777 nm with a ΔHOMO of just 1.04 eV provides a synthetic route

  16. False Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    In a gray scale image, the suble variations seen in this false color image are almost impossible to identify. Note the orange band in the center of the frame, and the bluer bands to either side of it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 87, Longitude 65.5 East (294.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Spectroscopic study of hafnium silicate alloys prepared by RPECVD: Comparisons between conduction/valence band offset energies and optical band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Joon Goo

    Aggressive scaling of devices has continued to improve MOSFET transistor performance. As lateral device dimensions continue to decrease, gate oxide thickness must be scaled down. As one of the promising high k alternative gate oxide materials, HfO2 and its silicates were investigated to understand their direct tunneling behavior by studying band offset energies with spectroscopy and electrical characterization. Local bonding change of remote plasma deposited (HfO2)x(SiO 2)1-x alloys were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) as a function of alloy composition, x. Two different precursors with Hf Nitrato and Hf-tert-butoxide were tested to have amorphous deposition. Film composition was determined off-line by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and these results were calibrated with on-line AES. As deposited Hf-silicate alloys were characterized by off-line XPS and AES for their chemical shifts interpreting with a partial charge transfer model as well as coordination changes. Sigmoidal dependence of valence band offset energies was observed. Hf 5d* state is fixed at the bottom of the conduction band and located at 1.3 +/- 0.2 eV above the top of the Si conduction band as a conduction band offset by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Optical band gap energy changes were observed with vacuum ultra violet spectroscopic ellipsometry (VUVSE) to verify compositional dependence of conduction and valence band offset energy changes. 1 nm EOT normalized tunneling current with Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) simulation based on the band offset study and Franz two band model showed the minimum at the intermediate composition matching with the experimental data. Non-linear trend in tunneling current was observed because the increases in physical thickness were mitigated by reductions in band offset energies and effective mass for tunneling. C-V curves were compared

  18. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kady, Ihab Fathy

    In this work, the authors have undertaken a theoretical approach to the complex problem of modeling the flow of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. The focus is to address the feasibility of using the exciting phenomena of photonic gaps (PBG) in actual applications. The authors start by providing analytical derivations of the computational electromagnetic methods used in their work. They also present a detailed explanation of the physics underlying each approach, as well as a comparative study of the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Plane Wave expansion, Transfer Matrix, and Finite Difference time Domain Methods are addressed. Theymore » also introduce a new theoretical approach, the Modal Expansion Method. They then shift the attention to actual applications. They begin with a discussion of 2D photonic crystal wave guides. The structure addressed consists of a 2D hexagonal structure of air cylinders in a layered dielectric background. Comparison with the performance of a conventional guide is made, as well as suggestions for enhancing it. The studies provide an upper theoretical limit on the performance of such guides, as they assumed no crystal imperfections and non-absorbing media. Next, they study 3D metallic PBG materials at near infrared and optical wavelengths. The main objective is to study the importance of absorption in the metal and the suitability of observing photonic band gaps in such structures. They study simple cubic structures where the metallic scatters are either cubes or interconnected metallic rods. Several metals are studied (aluminum, gold, copper, and silver). The effect of topology is addressed and isolated metallic cubes are found to be less lossy than the connected rod structures. The results reveal that the best performance is obtained by choosing metals with a large negative real part of the dielectric function, together with a relatively small imaginary part. Finally, they point out a new direction in photonic

  19. Perfect narrow band absorber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shiwen; Zhao, Jun; Zuo, Duluo; Wang, Xinbing

    2016-05-02

    We design and numerically investigate a perfect narrow band absorber based on a metal-metal-dielectric-metal structure which consists of periodic metallic nanoribbon arrays. The absorber presents an ultra narrow absorption band of 1.11 nm with a nearly perfect absorption of over 99.9% in the infrared region. For oblique incidence, the absorber shows an absorption more than 95% for a wide range of incident angles from 0 to 50°. Structure parameters to the influence of the performance are investigated. The structure shows high sensing performance with a high sensitivity of 1170 nm/RIU and a large figure of merit of 1054. The proposed structure has great potential as a biosensor.

  20. A systematic approach to determining the properties of an iodine absorption cell for high-precision radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdelwitz, V.; Huke, P.

    2018-06-01

    Absorption cells filled with diatomic iodine are frequently employed as wavelength reference for high-precision stellar radial velocity determination due their long-term stability and low cost. Despite their wide-spread usage in the community, there is little documentation on how to determine the ideal operating temperature of an individual cell. We have developed a new approach to measuring the effective molecular temperature inside a gas absorption cell and searching for effects detrimental to a high precision wavelength reference, utilizing the Boltzmann distribution of relative line depths within absorption bands of single vibrational transitions. With a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer, we took a series of 632 spectra at temperatures between 23 °C and 66 °C. These spectra provide a sufficient basis to test the algorithm and demonstrate the stability and repeatability of the temperature determination via molecular lines on a single iodine absorption cell. The achievable radial velocity precision σRV is found to be independent of the cell temperature and a detailed analysis shows a wavelength dependency, which originates in the resolving power of the spectrometer in use and the signal-to-noise ratio. Two effects were found to cause apparent absolute shifts in radial velocity, a temperature-induced shift of the order of ˜1 ms-1K-1 and a more significant effect resulting in abrupt jumps of ≥50 ms-1 is determined to be caused by the temperature crossing the dew point of the molecular iodine.

  1. Elucidating ultrafast electron dynamics at surfaces using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) reflection-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Somnath; Husek, Jakub; Baker, L Robert

    2018-04-24

    Here we review the recent development of extreme ultraviolet reflection-absorption (XUV-RA) spectroscopy. This method combines the benefits of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, such as element, oxidation, and spin state specificity, with surface sensitivity and ultrafast time resolution, having a probe depth of only a few nm and an instrument response less than 100 fs. Using this technique we investigated the ultrafast electron dynamics at a hematite (α-Fe2O3) surface. Surface electron trapping and small polaron formation both occur in 660 fs following photoexcitation. These kinetics are independent of surface morphology indicating that electron trapping is not mediated by defects. Instead, small polaron formation is proposed as the likely driving force for surface electron trapping. We also show that in Fe2O3, Co3O4, and NiO, band gap excitation promotes electron transfer from O 2p valence band states to metal 3d conduction band states. In addition to detecting the photoexcited electron at the metal M2,3-edge, the valence band hole is directly observed as transient signal at the O L1-edge. The size of the resulting charge transfer exciton is on the order of a single metal-oxygen bond length. Spectral shifts at the O L1-edge correlate with metal-oxygen bond covalency, confirming the relationship between valence band hybridization and the overpotential for water oxidation. These examples demonstrate the unique ability to measure ultrafast electron dynamics with element and chemical state resolution using XUV-RA spectroscopy. Accordingly, this method is poised to play an important role to reveal chemical details of previously unseen surface electron dynamics.

  2. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  3. H i Absorption in the Steep-Spectrum Superluminal Quasar 3C 216.

    PubMed

    Pihlström; Vermeulen; Taylor; Conway

    1999-11-01

    The search for H i absorption in strong compact steep-spectrum sources is a natural way to probe the neutral gas contents in young radio sources. In turn, this may provide information about the evolution of powerful radio sources. The recently improved capabilities of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have made it possible to detect a 0.31% (19 mJy) deep neutral atomic hydrogen absorption line associated with the steep-spectrum superluminal quasar 3C 216. The redshift (z=0.67) of the source shifts the frequency of the 21 cm line down to the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) band (850 MHz). The exact location of the H i-absorbing gas remains to be determined by spectral line VLBI observations at 850 MHz. We cannot exclude that the gas might be extended on galactic scales, but we think it is more likely to be located in the central kiloparsec. Constraints from the lack of X-ray absorption probably rule out obscuration of the core region, and we argue that the most plausible site for the H i absorption is in the jet-cloud interaction observed in this source.

  4. Experimental Air-Broadened Line Parameters in the nu2 Band of CH3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Adriana Predoi; Brawley-Tremblay, Shannon; Povey, Chad; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we report the first experimental measurements of air-broadening and air-induced pressure-shift coefficients for approximately 378 transitions in the nu2 fundamental band of CH3D. These results were obtained from analysis of 17 room temperature laboratory absorption spectra recorded at 0.0056 cm(exp -1) resolution using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Three absorption cells with path lengths of 10.2, 25 and 150 cm were used to record the spectra. The total sample pressures ranged from 0.129x10(exp -2) to 52.855x10(exp -2) atm with CH3D volume mixing ratios of approximately 0.0109 in air. The spectra were analyzed using a multispectrum non-linear least-squares fitting technique. We report measurements for air pressure-broadening coefficients for transitions with quantum numbers as high as J" = 20 and K = 15, where K" = K' equivalent to K (for a parallel band). The measured air broadening coefficients range from 0.0205 to 0.0835 cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K. All the measured pressure-shift coefficients are negative and are found to vary from about -0.0005 to -0.0080 cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at the temperature of the spectra. We have examined the dependence of the measured broadening and shift parameters on the J" and K quantum numbers and also developed empirical expressions to describe the broadening coefficients in terms of m (m = -J", J" and J" + 1 in the (sup Q)P- (sup Q)Q-, and (sup Q)R-branch, respectively) and K. On average, the empirical expressions reproduce the measured broadening coefficients to within 4.4%.

  5. Measurements of air-broadened and nitrogen-broadened half-widths and shifts of ozone lines near 9 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, C. P.; Devi, Malathy V.; Benner, D. Chris; Thakur, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    Air- and nitrogen-broadened half-widths and line shifts at room temperature for more than 60 individual vibration-rotation transitions in the nu1 fundamental band of (O-16)3 and several transitions in the nu3 band were determined from infrared absorption spectra. These spectra were recorded at 0.005/cm resolution with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. A tunable-diode-laser spectrometer operating in the 1090-1150/cm region was also used to record data on oxygen-, nitrogen-, and air-broadened half-widths for selected individual transitions. The nitrogen- and air-broadened half-widths determined by these two different measurement techniques are consistent to within 4 percent. The results are in good agreement with other published measurements and calculations.

  6. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD{sub 2}OO

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A., E-mail: hwitek@mail.nctu.edu.tw, E-mail: yplee@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD{sub 2}OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD{sub 2}OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD{sub 2}I{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH{sub 2}OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinctmore » in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD{sub 2}OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations. The CO-stretching mode of CD{sub 2}OO at 1318 cm{sup −1} is blue shifted from the corresponding band of CH{sub 2}OO at 1286 cm{sup −1}; this can be explained by a mechanism based on mode mixing and isotope substitution. A band near 936 cm{sup −1}, observed only at higher pressure (87 Torr), is tentatively assigned to the CD{sub 2} wagging mode of CD{sub 2}IOO.« less

  7. Electrochemical and optical study of carotenoids in TX 100 micelles: Electron transfer and a large blue shift

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Kispert, L.D.

    1999-10-21

    The first oxidation waves of 8{prime}-apo-{beta}-caroten-8{prime}-al (I) and 8{prime}-apo-{beta}-caroten-8{prime}nitrile (II) in TX100 micelles are clearly observed in their cyclic voltammograms (CVs). The CV of {beta}-carotene (III) in TX100 micelles shows that III is not oxidized. It is proposed that the hydrophobic barrier of the micelle is an important reason for the failure to oxidize III, which is totally located in the hydrophobic center of the micelle. The oxidation of I and II demonstrates that electrons can be transferred through the terminal groups over a distance of ca. 22 {angstrom}. An unusually large blue band shift (100 nm, relative to thatmore » in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) is observed in the optical absorption spectrum of 7{prime}-apo-7{prime},7{prime}-dicyano-{beta}-carotene (IV) in TX100 micelles. This phenomenon is not observed in the absorption spectra of other studied carotenoids. A change in the ground-state electronic structure of IV, due to the influence of water near the terminal dicyanomethylidene group, is proposed to be the major reason for this large band shift.« less

  8. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  9. Effect of electrolytes and temperature on dications and radical cations of carotenoids: Electrochemical, optical absorption, and high-performance liquid chromatography studies

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Kispert, L.D.

    1999-11-25

    The effect of supporting electrolytes and temperature on the behavior of dications and radical cations of carotenoids is studied. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of canthaxanthin (I) at 23 and {minus}25 C show that Car{sup sm{underscore}bullet+} of I has similar stability during the time of the CV scan, when using tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAPC), tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBATFB), or tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAHFP) as supporting electrolyte. However, the stability of Car{sup 2+} decreases when using TBAPC or TBATFB; {beta}-carotene (II) shows similar behavior. The CV of I at {minus}25 C shows a strong cathodic wave (wave 6) near {minus}0.15 V (vs Ag) with an intensitymore » about half that of the neutral oxidation wave when TBAPC or TBATFB is the supporting electrolyte. When TBAHFP is used, wave 6 (ca. {minus}0.05 V vs Ag) is ca. 8 times weaker than when TBAPC or TBATFB is used. This wave results from the reduction of a species that may be a decay product of Car{sup 2+} of I. Results show that these electrolytes commonly used in electrochemical studies may affect the studied systems to different extents. In simultaneous bulk electrolysis (BE) and optical absorption spectroscopic measurements, the absorption band of Car{sup 2+} of I in the presence of 0.1 M TBAHFP can be observed by lowering the BE temperature to {minus}20 C. In the presence of 0.1 M TBAPC or TBATFB, this band is not observed, even at {minus}50 C. Isomerization of neutral I (as shown by HPLC and its blue absorption band shift) is observed only when the Car{sup 2+} absorption band is absent during BE. This observation, along with an increase of the neutral absorption band after stopping BE, suggests that the equilibrium Car + Car{sup 2+} {r{underscore}equilibrium} 2Car{sup {sm{underscore}bullet}+} is shifted to the left because Car{sup 2+} decays more quickly than Car{sup {sm{underscore}bullet}+} in the presence of electrolyte and this is a major path for formation of

  10. Red and blue shift of liquid water’s excited states: A many body perturbation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ziaei, Vafa, E-mail: ziaei@thch.uni-bonn.de; Bredow, Thomas, E-mail: bredow@thch.uni-bonn.de

    In the present paper, accurate optical absorption spectrum of liquid H{sub 2}O is calculated in the energy range of 5–20 eV to probe the nature of water’s excited states by means of many body perturbation approach. Main features of recent inelastic X-ray measurements are well reproduced, such as a bound excitonic peak at 7.9 eV with a shoulder at 9.4 eV as well as the absorption maximum at 13.9 eV, followed by a broad shoulder at 18.4 eV. The spectrum is dominated by excitonic effects impacting the structures of the spectrum at low and higher energy regimes mixed by singlemore » particle effects at high energies. The exciton distribution of the low-energy states, in particular of S{sub 1}, is highly anisotropic and localized mostly on one water molecule. The S{sub 1} state is essentially a HOCO-LUCO (highest occupied crystal orbital - lowest unoccupied crystal orbital) transition and of intra-molecular type, showing a localized valence character. Once the excitation energy is increased, a significant change in the character of the electronically excited states occurs, characterized through emergence of multiple quasi-particle peaks at 7.9 eV in the quasi-particle (QP) transition profile and in the occurring delocalized exciton density distribution, spread over many more water molecules. The exciton delocalization following a change of the character of excited states at around 7.9 eV causes the blue shift of the first absorption band with respect to water monomer S{sub 1}. However, due to reduction of the electronic band gap from gas to liquid phase, following enhanced screening upon condensation, the localized S{sub 1} state of liquid water is red-shifted with respect to S{sub 1} state of water monomer. For higher excitations, near vertical ionization energy (11 eV), quasi-free electrons emerge, in agreement with the conduction band electron picture. Furthermore, the occurring red and blue shift of the excited states are independent of the coupling of

  11. Red and blue shift of liquid water's excited states: A many body perturbation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, accurate optical absorption spectrum of liquid H2O is calculated in the energy range of 5-20 eV to probe the nature of water's excited states by means of many body perturbation approach. Main features of recent inelastic X-ray measurements are well reproduced, such as a bound excitonic peak at 7.9 eV with a shoulder at 9.4 eV as well as the absorption maximum at 13.9 eV, followed by a broad shoulder at 18.4 eV. The spectrum is dominated by excitonic effects impacting the structures of the spectrum at low and higher energy regimes mixed by single particle effects at high energies. The exciton distribution of the low-energy states, in particular of S1, is highly anisotropic and localized mostly on one water molecule. The S1 state is essentially a HOCO-LUCO (highest occupied crystal orbital - lowest unoccupied crystal orbital) transition and of intra-molecular type, showing a localized valence character. Once the excitation energy is increased, a significant change in the character of the electronically excited states occurs, characterized through emergence of multiple quasi-particle peaks at 7.9 eV in the quasi-particle (QP) transition profile and in the occurring delocalized exciton density distribution, spread over many more water molecules. The exciton delocalization following a change of the character of excited states at around 7.9 eV causes the blue shift of the first absorption band with respect to water monomer S1. However, due to reduction of the electronic band gap from gas to liquid phase, following enhanced screening upon condensation, the localized S1 state of liquid water is red-shifted with respect to S1 state of water monomer. For higher excitations, near vertical ionization energy (11 eV), quasi-free electrons emerge, in agreement with the conduction band electron picture. Furthermore, the occurring red and blue shift of the excited states are independent of the coupling of resonant and anti-resonant contributions to the

  12. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    PubMed

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  13. Shuttle S-band communications technical concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyl, J. W.; Seibert, W. W.; Porter, J. A.; Eggers, D. S.; Novosad, S. W.; Vang, H. A.; Lenett, S. D.; Lewton, W. A.; Pawlowski, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the S-band communications system, shuttle orbiter can communicate directly with the Earth via the Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN) or via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The S-band frequencies provide the primary links for direct Earth and TDRSS communications during all launch and entry/landing phases of shuttle missions. On orbit, S-band links are used when TDRSS Ku-band is not available, when conditions require orbiter attitudes unfavorable to Ku-band communications, or when the payload bay doors are closed. the S-band communications functional requirements, the orbiter hardware configuration, and the NASA S-band communications network are described. The requirements and implementation concepts which resulted in techniques for shuttle S-band hardware development discussed include: (1) digital voice delta modulation; (2) convolutional coding/Viterbi decoding; (3) critical modulation index for phase modulation using a Costas loop (phase-shift keying) receiver; (4) optimum digital data modulation parameters for continuous-wave frequency modulation; (5) intermodulation effects of subcarrier ranging and time-division multiplexing data channels; (6) radiofrequency coverage; and (7) despreading techniques under poor signal-to-noise conditions. Channel performance is reviewed.

  14. Target-specific nanoparticles containing a broad band emissive NIR dye for the sensitive detection and characterization of tumor development.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Thomas; Mathejczyk, Julia E; Brehm, Robert; Würth, Christian; Gomes, Fernanda Ramos; Dullin, Christian; Napp, Joanna; Alves, Frauke; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Current optical probes including engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are constructed from near infrared (NIR)-emissive organic dyes with narrow absorption and emission bands and small Stokes shifts prone to aggregation-induced self-quenching. Here, we present the new asymmetric cyanine Itrybe with broad, almost environment-insensitive absorption and emission bands in the diagnostic window, offering a unique flexibility of the choice of excitation and detection wavelengths compared to common NIR dyes. This strongly emissive dye was spectroscopically studied in different solvents and encapsulated into differently sized (15, 25, 100 nm) amino-modified polystyrene NPs (PSNPs) via a one-step staining procedure. As proof-of-concept for its potential for pre-/clinical imaging applications, Itrybe-loaded NPs were surface-functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the tumor-targeting antibody Herceptin and their binding specificity to the tumor-specific biomarker HER2 was systematically assessed. Itrybe-loaded NPs display strong fluorescence signals in vitro and in vivo and Herceptin-conjugated NPs bind specifically to HER2 as demonstrated in immunoassays as well as on tumor cells and sections from mouse tumor xenografts in vitro. This demonstrates that our design strategy exploiting broad band-absorbing and -emitting dyes yields versatile and bright NIR probes with a high potential for e.g. the sensitive detection and characterization of tumor development and progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical increase in Na-doping facilitates acceptor band movements that yields ~180 meV shallow hole conduction in ZnO bulk crystals

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Narendra S.; Yim, Haena; Choi, Ji-Won

    2017-01-01

    Stable p-type conduction in ZnO has been a long time obstacle in utilizing its full potential such as in opto-electronic devices. We designed a unique experimental set-up in the laboratory for high Na-doping by thermal diffusion in the bulk ZnO single crystals. SIMS measurement shows that Na concentration increases by 3 orders of magnitude, to ~3 × 1020 cm−3 as doping temperature increases to 1200 °C. Electronic infrared absorption was measured for Na-acceptors. Absorption bands were observed near (0.20–0.24) eV. Absorption bands blue shifted by 0.04 eV when doped at 1200 °C giving rise to shallow acceptor level. NaZn band movements as a function of doping temperature are also seen in Photoluminescence emission (PL), Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and UV-Vis transmission measurements. Variable temperature Hall measurements show stable p-type conduction with hole binding energy ~0.18 eV in ZnO samples that were Na-doped at 1200 °C. PMID:28272444

  16. Cermet based metamaterials for multi band absorbers over NIR to LWIR frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Jitendra K.; Behera, Gangadhar; Agarwal, Amit K.; Ghosh, Amitava; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2017-06-01

    Cermets or ceramic-metals are known for their use in solar thermal technologies for their absorption across the solar band. Use of cermet layers in a metamaterial perfect absorber allows for flexible control of infra-red absorption over the short wave infra-red, to long wave infra-red bands, while keeping the visible/near infra-red absorption properties constant. We design multilayered metamaterials consisting of a conducting ground plane, a low metal volume fraction cermet/ZnS as dielectric spacer layers, and a top structured layer of an array of circular discs of metal/high volume metal fraction cermet that give rise to specified absorption bands in the near-infra-red (NIR) frequencies, as well as any specified band at SWIR-LWIR frequencies. Thus, a complete decoupling of the absorption at optical/NIR frequencies and the infra-red absorption behaviour of a structured metamaterial is demonstrated.

  17. Effect of solvent on the electronic absorption spectral properties of some mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-tetraphenylporphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhyrappa, P.; Sankar, M.

    2018-01-01

    A series of mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-porphyrins, 2,3,12,13-tetra(chloro/cyano/methyl)-5,7,8,10,15,17,18,20-octaphenylporphinato zinc(II), ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = CN, Cl and CH3) have been examined by electronic absorption spectroscopy in various solvents. These Zn(II)-porphyrins exhibited varying degree of red-shift of absorption bands as high as 20-30 nm in 'B' band and 50-60 nm in longest wavelength band, 'Q(0,0)' band in polar solvents relative to that found in nonpolar solvents. The red-shift of B and Q(0,0) bands showed an unusual trend, ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 but fails to follow an anticipated anodic shift in first porphyrin ring oxidation (vs Ag/AgCl) potential: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 (0.74 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 (0.38 V). Such a trend suggests the combined effect of non-planarity of the macrocycle and electronic effect of the peripheral substituents. The equilibrium constants for the binding of nitrogenous bases with the Zn(II)-porphyrins showed as high as twenty fold increase for ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = Br and CN) relative to ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 and follow the order: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 ≤ ZnTPP which is approximately in line with an increase in anodic shift of their first ring redox potentials (ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 (0.72 V) > ZnTPP (0.84 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4) (0.38 V).

  18. Probing Lewis Acid-Base Interactions with Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics: The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of p-Nitroaniline in Supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Benedito J Costa; Rivelino, Roberto; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2015-07-02

    The structure and dynamics of p-nitroaniline (PNA) in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at T = 315 K and ρ = 0.81 g cm(-3) are investigated by carrying out Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, and the electronic absorption spectrum in scCO2 is determined by time dependent density functional theory. The structure of the PNA-scCO2 solution illustrates the role played by Lewis acid-base (LA-LB) interactions. In comparison with isolated PNA, the ν(N-O) symmetric and asymmetric stretching modes of PNA in scCO2 are red-shifted by -17 and -29 cm(-1), respectively. The maximum of the charge transfer (CT) absorption band of PNA in scSCO2 is at 3.9 eV, and the predicted red-shift of the π → π* electronic transition relative to the isolated gas-phase PNA molecule reproduces the experimental value of -0.35 eV. An analysis of the relationship between geometry distortions and excitation energies of PNA in scCO2 shows that the π → π* CT transition is very sensitive to changes of the N-O bond distance, strongly indicating a correlation between vibrational and electronic solvatochromism driven by LA-LB interactions. Despite the importance of LA-LB interactions to explain the solvation of PNA in scCO2, the red-shift of the CT band is mainly determined by electrostatic interactions.

  19. Absorption of light dark matter in semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Hochberg, Yonit; Lin, Tongyan; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors are by now well-established targets for direct detection of MeV to GeV dark matter via scattering off electrons. We show that semiconductor targets can also detect significantly lighter dark matter via an absorption process. When the dark matter mass is above the band gap of the semiconductor (around an eV), absorption proceeds by excitation of an electron into the conduction band. Below the band gap, multiphonon excitations enable absorption of dark matter in the 0.01 eV to eV mass range. Energetic dark matter particles emitted from the sun can also be probed for masses below an eV. We derivemore » the reach for absorption of a relic kinetically mixed dark photon or pseudoscalar in germanium and silicon, and show that existing direct detection results already probe new parameter space. Finally, with only a moderate exposure, low-threshold semiconductor target experiments can exceed current astrophysical and terrestrial constraints on sub-keV bosonic dark matter.« less

  20. Modification of the band offset in boronitrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obodo, K. O.; Andrew, R. C.; Chetty, N.

    2011-10-01

    Using density functional methods within the generalized gradient approximation implemented in the Quantum Espresso codes, we modify the band offset in a single layer of boronitrene by substituting a double line of carbon atoms. This effectively introduces a line of dipoles at the interface. We considered various junctions of this system within the zigzag and armchair orientations. Our results show that the “zigzag-short” structure is energetically most stable, with a formation energy of 0.502 eV and with a band offset of 1.51 eV. The “zigzag-long” structure has a band offset of 1.99 eV. The armchair structures are nonpolar, while the zigzag-single structures show a charge accumulation for the C-substituted B and charge depletion for the C-substituted N at the junction. Consequently there is no shifting of the bands.

  1. Production of photocurrent due to intermediate-to-conduction-band transitions: a demonstration of a key operating principle of the intermediate-band solar cell.

    PubMed

    Martí, A; Antolín, E; Stanley, C R; Farmer, C D; López, N; Díaz, P; Cánovas, E; Linares, P G; Luque, A

    2006-12-15

    We present intermediate-band solar cells manufactured using quantum dot technology that show for the first time the production of photocurrent when two sub-band-gap energy photons are absorbed simultaneously. One photon produces an optical transition from the intermediate-band to the conduction band while the second pumps an electron from the valence band to the intermediate-band. The detection of this two-photon absorption process is essential to verify the principles of operation of the intermediate-band solar cell. The phenomenon is the cornerstone physical principle that ultimately allows the production of photocurrent in a solar cell by below band gap photon absorption, without degradation of its output voltage.

  2. A B-C-N hybrid porous sheet: an efficient metal-free visible-light absorption material.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruifeng; Li, Feng; Salafranca, Juan; Kan, Erjun; Xiao, Chuanyun; Deng, Kaiming

    2014-03-07

    The polyphenylene network, known as porous graphene, is one of the most important and widely studied two-dimensional materials. As a potential candidate for photocatalysis and photovoltaic energy generation, its application has been limited by the low photocatalytic activity in the visible-light region. State-of-the-art hybrid density functional theory investigations are presented to show that an analogous B-C-N porous sheet outperforms the pristine polyphenylene network with significantly enhanced visible-light absorption. Compared with porous graphene, the calculated energy gap of the B-C-N hybrid crystal shrinks to 2.7 eV and the optical absorption peak remarkably shifts to the visible light region. The redox potentials of water splitting are well positioned in the middle of the band gap. Hybridizations among B_p, N_p and C_p orbitals are responsible for these findings. Valence and conduction band calculations indicate that the electrons and holes can be effectively separated, reducing charge recombination and improving the photoconversion efficiency. Moreover, the band gap and optical properties of the B-C-N hybrid porous sheet can be further finely engineered by external strain.

  3. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  4. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  5. Comparison of band model calculations of upper atmospheric cooling rates for the 15-micrometer carbon dioxide band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Within the atmosphere of the earth, absorption and emission of thermal radiation by the 15-micron CO2 bands are the largest contributors to infrared cooling rates in the stratosphere. Various techniques for calculating cooling rates due to these bands have been described. These techniques can be classified into one of two categories, including 'exact' or line-by-line calculations and other methods. The latter methods are based on broad band emissivity and band absorptance formulations. The present paper has the objective to present comparisons of the considered computational approaches. It was found that the best agreement with the exact line-by-line calculations of Fels and Schwarzkopf (1981) could be obtained by making use of a new Doppler band model which is described in the appendix of the paper.

  6. Dynamic Optoelectronic Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films Measured with Ultrafast Transient Absorption & Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Sergey Y.

    -dependent, variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and time-resolved ultrafast optical spectroscopy on a type I heterostructure, we clarify thermal and electronic contributions to spectral transients in LaFeO3. Upon comparison to thermally-derived static spectra of LaFeO3, we find that thermal contributions dominate the transient absorption and reflectance spectra above the band gap. A transient photoinduced absorption feature below the band gap at 1.9 eV is not reproduced in the thermally derived spectra and has significantly longer decay kinetics from the thermallyinduced features; therefore, this long lived photoinduced absorption is likely derived, at least partially, from photoexcited carriers with lifetimes much longer than 3 nanoseconds. LaFeO3 has a wide band gap of 2.4 eV but its absorption can be decreased with chemical substitution of Sr for Fe to make it more suitable for various applications. This type of A-site substitution is a common route to change static optical absorption in perovskite oxides, but there are no systematic studies looking at how A-site substitution changes dynamic optoelectronic properties. To understand the relationship between composition and static and dynamic optical properties we worked with the model system of La1-xSrxFeO 3-delta epitaxial films grown on LSAT, uncovering the effects of A-site cation substitution and oxygen stoichiometry. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to measure static optical properties, revealing a linear increase in absorption coefficient at 1.25 eV and a red-shifting of the optical absorption edge with increasing Sr fraction. The absorption spectra can be similarly tuned through the introduction of oxygen vacancies, indicating the critical role that nominal Fe valence plays in optical absorption. Dynamic optoelectronic properties were studied with ultrafast transient reflectance spectroscopy with broadband visible (1.6 eV to 4 eV) and near-infrared (0.9 eV to 1.5 eV) probes. The sign of the reflectance

  7. Absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in rare gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. J.; Balling, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    Pulsed-dye-laser excitation has been used to investigate the optical absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices at 10 °K. Attempts to stabilize Li atoms in a Ne matrix at 2 °K were unsuccessful. Results for all three rare gases were qualitatively the same. White light absorption scans showed a single absorption with three peaks centered near the free-atom 2s→2p transition wavelength. The intensity of fluorescence produced by dye-laser excitation within this absorption band was measured as a function of emission wavelength. Excitation of the longest- and shortest-wavelength absorption peaks produced identical emission profiles, but no distinct fluorescence signal was detected when the laser was tuned to the central absorption peaks, indicating that the apparent absorption triplet is actually the superposition of a singlet and a doublet absorption originating from two different trapping sites. No additional absorption bands were detected.

  8. Modeling the absorption spectrum of the permanganate ion in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    The absorption spectrum of the MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ ion has been a test-bed for quantum-chemical methods over the last decades. Its correct description requires highly-correlated multiconfigurational methods, which are incompatible with the inclusion of finite-temperature and solvent effects due to their high computational demands. Therefore, implicit solvent models are usually employed. Here we show that implicit solvent models are not sufficiently accurate to model the solvent shift of MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$, and we analyze the origins of their failure. We obtain the correct solvent shift for MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ in aqueous solution by employing the polarizable embedding (PE) model combined with a range-separated complete active space short-range density functional theory method (CAS-srDFT). Finite-temperature effects are taken into account by averaging over structures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The explicit treatment of finite-temperature and solvent effects facilitates the interpretation of the bands in the low-energy region of the MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ absorption spectrum, whose assignment has been elusive.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation and TDDFT study of the structures and UV-vis absorption spectra of MCT-β-CD and its inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijuan; Wang, Yujiao; Xie, Xiaomei; Chen, Feifei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the inclusion ratios and inclusion constants of MCT-β-CD/PERM and MCT-β-CD/CYPERM inclusion complexes were measured by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The inclusion ratios are both 1:1, and the inclusion constants are 60 and 342.5 for MCT-β-CD/PERM and MCT-β-CD/CYPERM, respectively. The stabilities of inclusion complexes were investigated by MD simulation. MD shows that VDW energy plays a vital role in the stability of inclusion complex, and the destruction of inclusion complex is due to the increasing temperature. The UV-vis absorption spectra of MCT-β-CD and its inclusion complexes were studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method employing BLYP-D3, B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X-D3 functionals. BLYP-D3 well reproduces the UV-vis absorption spectrum and reveals that the absorption bands of MCT-β-CD mainly arise from n→π(∗) and n→σ(∗) transition, and those of inclusion complexes mainly arise from intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). ICT results in the shift of main absorption bands of MCT-β-CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. XANES: observation of quantum confinement in the conduction band of colloidal PbS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, I. N.; Chernyshova, M.; He, X.; Minikayev, R.; Syryanyy, Y.; Derkachova, A.; Derkachov, G.; Stolte, W. C.; Piskorska-Hommel, E.; Reszka, A.; Liang, H.

    2013-04-01

    The presented investigations aimed at development of inexpensive method for synthesized materials suitable for utilization of solar energy. This important issue was addressed by focusing, mainly, on electronic local structure studies with supporting x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of colloidal galena nano-particles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using wet chemistry under microwave irradiation. Performed x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed an evidence of quantum confinement for the sample with QDs, where the bottom of the conduction band was shifted to higher energy. The QDs were found to be passivated with oxides at the surface. Existence of sulfate/sulfite and thiosulfate species in pure PbS and QDs, respectively, was identified.

  11. Structural and optical band gap of PEO/PVP polymer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basappa, M.; Yesappa, L.; Niranjana, M.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Vandana, M.; Vijeth, H.; Devendrappa, H.

    2018-05-01

    The PEO/PVP polymers blend film at different wt % of PVP is prepared by solution casting method using methanol as a solvent. The blend was characterized by FT-IR to confirm the blend and the peak observed in the region 1230-980 cm-1 corresponds to C-O-C symmetric and asymmetric stretching. The UV-visible absorption shows red shift from 190 to 220 nm in the ultra violet region is attributed to π→π* transition. The direct and indirect optical band gaps were determined and found decreases from 4.99 to 4.62 eV with increased PVP wt % to 50:50.

  12. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  13. Foliar spray banding characteristics

    Treesearch

    A.R. Womac; C.W. Smith; Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2004-01-01

    Foliar spray banding was explored as a means of reducing peticide use compared to broadcast applications. Barious geometric spray patterns and delivery angles of foliar spray bands were investigated to increase spray deposits in a crop row at a constant spray rate of 94 L/ha. Wind-free laboratory results indicated that a banded application using three 65° hollow-cone...

  14. Surface electrochemistry of CO on reconstructed gold single crystal surfaces studied by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and rotating disk electrode.

    PubMed

    Blizanac, Berislav B; Arenz, Matthias; Ross, Philip N; Marković, Nenad M

    2004-08-18

    The electrooxidation of CO has been studied on reconstructed gold single-crystal surfaces by a combination of electrochemical (EC) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) measurements. Emphasis is placed on relating the vibrational properties of the CO adlayer to the voltammetric and other macroscopic electrochemical responses, including rotating disk electrode measurements of the catalytic activity. The IRAS data show that the C-O stretching frequencies are strongly dependent on the surface orientation and can be observed in the range 1940-1990 cm(-1) for the 3-fold bridging, 2005-2070 cm(-1) for the 2-fold bridging, and 2115-2140 for the terminal position. The most complex CO spectra are found for the Au(110)-(1 x 2) surface, i.e., a band near 1965 cm(-1), with the second, weaker band shifted positively by about 45 cm(-1) and, finally, a weak band near 2115 cm(-1). While the C-O stretching frequencies for a CO adlayer adsorbed on Au(111)-(1 x 23) show nu(CO) bands at 2029-2069 cm(-1) and at 1944-1986 cm(-1), on the Au(100)-"hex" surface a single CO band is observed at 2004-2029 cm(-1). In the "argon-purged" solution, the terminal nu(CO) band on Au(110)-(1 x 2) and the 3-fold bridging band on the Au(111)-(1 x 23) disappear entirely. The IRAS/EC data show that the kinetics of CO oxidation are structure sensitive; i.e., the onset of CO oxidation increases in the order Au(110)-(1 x 2) > or = Au(100)-"hex" > Au(111)-(1 x 23). Possible explanations for the structure sensitivity are discussed.

  15. Ultra-violet and visible absorption characterization of explosives by differential reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Dubroca, Thierry; Moyant, Kyle; Hummel, Rolf E

    2013-03-15

    This study presents some optical properties of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX, HMX and tetryl, specifically their absorption spectra as a function of concentration in various solvents in the ultraviolet and visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. We utilize a standoff explosives detection method, called differential reflectometry (DR). TNT was diluted in six different solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, and toluene), which allowed for a direct comparison of absorption features over a wide range of concentrations. A line-shape analysis was adopted with great accuracy (R(2)>0.99) to model the absorption features of TNT in differential reflectivity spectra. We observed a blue shift in the pertinent absorption band with decreasing TNT concentration for all solvents. Moreover, using this technique, it was found that for all utilized solvents the concentration of TNT as well as of RDX, HMX, and tetryl, measured as a function of the transition wavelength of the ultra-violet absorption edge in differential reflectivity spectra shows three distinct regions. A model is presented to explain this behavior which is based on intermolecular hydrogen bonding of explosives molecules with themselves (or lack thereof) at different concentrations. Other intermolecular forces such as dipole-dipole interactions, London dispersion forces and π-stacking contribute to slight variations in the resulting spectra, which were determined to be rather insignificant in comparison to hydrogen bonding. The results are aimed towards a better understanding of the DR spectra of explosives energetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Longwave Band-by-band Cloud Radiative Effect and its Application in GCM Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xianglei; Cole, Jason N. S.; He, Fei; Potter, Gerald L.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Suarez, Max; Loeb, Norman G.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud radiative effect (CRE) of each longwave (LW) absorption band of a GCM fs radiation code is uniquely valuable for GCM evaluation because (1) comparing band-by-band CRE avoids the compensating biases in the broadband CRE comparison and (2) the fractional contribution of each band to the LW broadband CRE (f(sub CRE)) is sensitive to cloud top height but largely insensitive to cloud fraction, presenting thus a diagnostic metric to separate the two macroscopic properties of clouds. Recent studies led by the first author have established methods to derive such band ]by ]band quantities from collocated AIRS and CERES observations. We present here a study that compares the observed band-by-band CRE over the tropical oceans with those simulated by three different atmospheric GCMs (GFDL AM2, NASA GEOS-5, and CCCma CanAM4) forced by observed SST. The models agree with observation on the annual ]mean LW broadband CRE over the tropical oceans within +/-1W/sq m. However, the differences among these three GCMs in some bands can be as large as or even larger than +/-1W/sq m. Observed seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) in major bands are shown to be consistent with the seasonal cycle of cloud top pressure for both the amplitude and the phase. However, while the three simulated seasonal cycles of f(sub CRE) agree with observations on the phase, the amplitudes are underestimated. Simulated interannual anomalies from GFDL AM2 and CCCma CanAM4 are in phase with observed anomalies. The spatial distribution of f(sub CRE) highlights the discrepancies between models and observation over the low-cloud regions and the compensating biases from different bands.

  17. Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorber by coupling three dipole resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Dinh Qui; Le, Dinh Hai; Dinh, Hong Tiep; Trinh, Thi Giang; Yue, Liyang; Le, Dac Tuyen; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2018-03-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigated the metamaterial absorber (MMA) based on ring and dish structures in GHz region. It found that the combined structure of ring and dish (RD) exhibit dual-band absorption peaks at 8.6 and 15.6 GHz. By replacing the ring to the structure of split-ring and dish (SRD), the first magnetic resonance peak is shifted from 8.6 to 14.0 GHz. The physical mechanism of magnetic resonance frequencies was elucidated using simple LC circuit model. We achieved a broadband MMA with bandwidth of 3.7 GHz by arranging four SRD structures into a super unit-cell. The experimental results are good agreement with both the numerical simulation and calculation.

  18. [The photoluminescence and absorption properties of Co/AAO nano-array composites].

    PubMed

    Li, Shou-Yi; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Li, Yan; Wang, Jian; Ma, Bao-Hong

    2008-03-01

    Ordered Co/AAO nano-array structures were fabricated by alternating current (AC) electrodeposition method within the cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template prepared in oxalic acid electrolyte. The photoluminescence (PL) emission and photoabsorption of AAO templates and Co/AAO nano-array structures were investigated respectively. The results show that a marked photoluminescence band of AAO membranes occurs in the wavelength range of 350-550 nm and their PL peak position is at 395 nm. And with the increase in the deposition amount of Co nanoparticles, the PL intensity of Co/AAO nano-array structures decreases gradually, and their peak positions of the PL are invariable (395 nm). Meanwhile the absorption edges of Co/AAO show a larger redshift, and the largest shift from the near ultraviolet to the infrared exceeds 380 nm. The above phenomena caused by Co nano-particles in Co/AAO composite were analyzed.

  19. What band rocks the MTB? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, J.; García-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria that have been found in marine and lacustrine environments and soils [e.g. 1]. The hallmark of MTB is their intracellular formation of magnetosomes, single-domain ferrimagnetic particles that are aligned in chains. The chain configuration generates a strong magnetic dipole, which is used as magnetic compass to move the MTB into their favorable habit. The term band corresponds to a frequency window of microwaves in the gigahertz (GHz) range. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy uses the microwave absorption in a magnetic field to analyze the anisotropy properties and the domain state of magnetic materials. Specific microwave frequency causes absorption in a characteristic magnetic field range. For the investigation of MTB we use S-band (4.02 GHz), X-band (9.47 GHz), and Q-band (34.16 GHz). Experiments on cultured MTB and on sediment samples of Holocene age showed that absorption in X- and Q-band occurs when the sample is in a saturated or nearly saturated state [2, 3]. By contrast, absorption in the S-band appears in lower magnetic fields, where the sample is far from saturation. All FMR spectra show two distinct low-field features that can be assigned to magnetite particles in chains, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The detailed separation of the parallel and perpendicular components in the bulk samples is hampered, because of the random orientation of the chains in the sample. The comparison of S-, X-, and Q-band shows that the lower the frequency the better the separation of the components. In the S-band FMR spectroscopy, the separation of chains parallel to the external magnetic field is supported by the internal field of the sample. This field is caused by the remanence that contributes to the external magnetic field to fulfill the resonance condition [3,4]. Considering the different FMR responses, it can be postulated that a lower microwave frequency

  20. Z-scan measurement for nonlinear absorption property of rGO/ZnO:Al thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide integrated aluminium doped zinc oxide (rGO/ZnO:Al) composite thin film on a glass substrate by spin coating technique. The effect of rGO on structural and linear optical properties of rGO/ZnO:Al composite thin film was explored with the help of X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Structural studies reveals that the composite film has hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong bonding between rGO and ZnO:Al material. The band gap energy of ZnO:Al thin film was red shifted by the addition of rGO. The Nonlinear absorption property was investigated by open aperture Z-scan technique by using Q switched Nd-YAG laser at 532nm. The Z-scan results showed that the composite film demonstrates reverse saturable absorption property with a nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, of 12.75×10-7m/w. The results showed that investigated rGO/ZnO:Al thin film is a promising material suitable for the applications in absorbing type optical devices such as optical limiters, optical switches and protection of the optical sensors in the field of nonlinear optics.

  1. Infrared absorption of methanethiol clusters (CH3SH)n, n = 2-5, recorded with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using IR depletion and VUV ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lung; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2012-12-01

    We investigated IR spectra in the CH- and SH-stretching regions of size-selected methanethiol clusters, (CH3SH)n with n = 2-5, in a pulsed supersonic jet using infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization. VUV emission at 132.50 nm served as the source of ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Clusters were dissociated with light from a tunable IR laser before ionization. The variations in intensity of methanethiol cluster ions (CH3SH)n+ were monitored as the IR laser light was tuned across the range 2470-3100 cm-1. In the SH-stretching region, the spectrum of (CH3SH)2 shows a weak band near 2601 cm-1, red-shifted only 7 cm-1 from that of the monomer. In contrast, all spectra of (CH3SH)n, n = 3-5, show a broad band near 2567 cm-1 with much greater intensity. In the CH-stretching region, absorption bands of (CH3SH)2 are located near 2865, 2890, 2944, and 3010 cm-1, red-shifted by 3-5 cm-1 from those of CH3SH. These red shifts increase slightly for larger clusters and bands near 2856, 2884, 2938, and 3005 cm-1 were observed for (CH3SH)5. These spectral results indicate that the S-H...S hydrogen bond plays an important role in clusters with n = 3-5, but not in (CH3SH)2, in agreement with theoretical predictions. The absence of a band near 2608 cm-1 that corresponds to absorption of the non-hydrogen-bonded SH moiety and the large width of observed feature near 2567 cm-1 indicate that the dominant stable structures of (CH3SH)n, n = 3-5, have a cyclic hydrogen-bonded framework.

  2. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  3. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; U-Yen, K.; Rostem, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50 Omega and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  4. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match 50O and its response has been validated from 0-to-50GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20GHz design band is greater than 20 dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  5. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1986-01-01

    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  6. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  7. Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapour transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of water-vapour overtone and combination bands at high pressures is complicated by pressure broadening and shifting of individual lines and the blending of neighbouring transitions. An experimental and computational methodology is developed to determine accurate high-pressure absorption spectra. This case study investigates two water-vapour transitions, one near 1388 nm (7203.9 cm-1) and the other near 1345 nm (7435.6 cm-1), for potential two-line absorption measurements of temperature in the range of 400-1050 K with a pressure varying from 5-25 atm. The required quantitative spectroscopy data (line strength, collisional broadening, and pressure-induced frequency shift) of the target transitions and their neighbours (a total of four H2O vapour transitions near 1388 nm and six transitions near 1345 nm) are measured in neat H2O vapour, H2O-air and H2O-CO2 mixtures as a function of temperature (296-1000 K) at low pressures (<800 Torr). Precise values of the line strength S(T), pressure-broadening coefficients γair(T) and \\gamma _{CO_2 } (T), and pressure-shift coefficients δair(T) and \\delta _{CO_2 } (T) for the ten transitions were inferred from the measured spectra and compared with data from HITRAN 2004. A hybrid spectroscopic database was constructed by modifying HITRAN 2004 to incorporate these values for simulation of water-vapour-absorption spectra at high pressures. Simulations using this hybrid database are in good agreement with high pressure experiments and demonstrate that data collected at modest pressures can be used to simulate high-pressure absorption spectra.

  8. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  9. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  10. Amniotic constriction bands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Amniotic band sequence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... birth. The baby should be delivered in a medical center that has specialists experienced in caring for babies ... or partial loss of function of a body part. Congenital bands affecting large parts of the body cause the ...

  11. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  12. Optical absorption in disordered monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, C. E.; Gunlycke, D.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the combined impact of sulfur vacancies and electronic interactions on the optical properties of monolayer MoS2. First, we present a generalized Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian that accounts for both randomly distributed sulfur vacancies and the presence of dielectric screening within the material. Second, we parametrize this energy-dependent Hamiltonian from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Green's function and screened Coulomb (GW) method. Third, we apply a first-principles-based many-body typical medium method to determine the single-particle electronic structure. Fourth, we solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation to obtain the charge susceptibility χ with its imaginary part being related to the absorbance A . Our results show that an increased vacancy concentration leads to decreased absorption both in the band continuum and from exciton states within the band gap. We also observe increased absorption below the band-gap threshold and present an expression, which describes Lifshitz tails, in excellent qualitative agreement with our numerical calculations. This latter increased absorption in the 1.0 -2.5 eV range makes defect engineering of potential interest for solar cell applications.

  13. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  14. Insomnia in shift work.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. V-band integrated quadriphase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1983-01-01

    A V-band integrated circuit quadriphase shift keyed modulator/exciter for space communications systems was developed. Intersatellite communications systems require direct modulation at 60 GHz to enhance signal processing capability. For most systems, particularly space applications, small and lightweight components are essential to alleviate severe system design constraints. Thus to achieve wideband, high data rate systems, direct modulation techniques at millimeter waves using solid state integrated circuit technology are an integral part of the overall technology developments.

  16. Design of a dual band metamaterial absorber for Wi-Fi bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurt, Fatih Özkan; Baǧmancı, Mehmet; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bakır, Mehmet; Altıntaş, Olcay; Karadaǧ, Faruk; Akgöl, Oǧuzhan; Ünal, Emin

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this work is to design and fabrication of a dual band metamaterial based absorber for Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) bands. Wi-Fi has two different operating frequencies such as 2.45 GHz and 5 GHz. A dual band absorber is proposed and the proposed structure consists of two layered unit cells, and different sized square split ring (SSR) resonators located on each layers. Copper is used for metal layer and resonator structure, FR-4 is used as substrate layer in the proposed structure. This designed dual band metamaterial absorber is used in the wireless frequency bands which has two center frequencies such as 2.45 GHz and 5 GHz. Finite Integration Technique (FIT) based simulation software used and according to FIT based simulation results, the absorption peak in the 2.45 GHz is about 90% and the another frequency 5 GHz has absorption peak near 99%. In addition, this proposed structure has a potential for energy harvesting applications in future works.

  17. Design of Quad-Band Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber Using a Perforated Rectangular Resonator for Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Wang, Ben-Xin; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-05-08

    Quad-band terahertz absorber with single-sized metamaterial design formed by a perforated rectangular resonator on a gold substrate with a dielectric gap in between is investigated. The designed metamaterial structure enables four absorption peaks, of which the first three peaks have large absorption coefficient while the last peak possesses a high Q (quality factor) value of 98.33. The underlying physical mechanisms of these peaks are explored; it is found that their near-field distributions are different. Moreover, the figure of merit (FOM) of the last absorption peak can reach 101.67, which is much higher than that of the first three absorption modes and even absorption bands of other works operated in the terahertz frequency. The designed device with multiple-band absorption and high FOM could provide numerous potential applications in terahertz technology-related fields.

  18. Design of Quad-Band Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber Using a Perforated Rectangular Resonator for Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Wang, Ben-Xin; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Quad-band terahertz absorber with single-sized metamaterial design formed by a perforated rectangular resonator on a gold substrate with a dielectric gap in between is investigated. The designed metamaterial structure enables four absorption peaks, of which the first three peaks have large absorption coefficient while the last peak possesses a high Q (quality factor) value of 98.33. The underlying physical mechanisms of these peaks are explored; it is found that their near-field distributions are different. Moreover, the figure of merit (FOM) of the last absorption peak can reach 101.67, which is much higher than that of the first three absorption modes and even absorption bands of other works operated in the terahertz frequency. The designed device with multiple-band absorption and high FOM could provide numerous potential applications in terahertz technology-related fields.

  19. Red shifts of the Eg(1) Raman mode of nanocrystalline TiO2:Er monoliths grown by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino-Merino, R.; Trejo-Garcia, P.; Portillo-Moreno, O.; Jiménez-Sandoval, S.; Tomás, S. A.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Nanocrystalline monoliths of Er doped TiO2 were prepared by the sol-gel technique, by controlling the Er-doping levels into the TiO2 precursor solution. As-prepared and annealed in air samples showed the anatase TiO2 phase. The average diameter of the nanoparticles ranged from 19 to 2.6 nm as the nominal concentration of Er varies from 0% to 7%, as revealed by EDS analysis in an electron microscope. Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) allowed calculate the forbidden band gap, evidencing an absorption edge at around 300 nm, attributed to TiO2 and evidence of electronic transitions or Er3+. The Raman spectra, corresponding to the anatase phase, show the main phonon mode Eg(1) band position at 144 cm-1 with a red shift for the annealing samples.

  20. Tunable electromagnetically induced absorption based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Maoyong; Wang, Tongling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an electronically induced absorption (EIA) structure based on graphene at the infrared frequency is proposed. A pair of nanorods is coupled to a ring resonator, resulting in electronically induced transparency (EIT), and then, Babinet's principle is applied to transform the EIT structure into an EIA structure. Based on the bright and dark modes of the coupling schemes, the adjustment of the coupling strength between the dark and bright modes can be achieved by changing the asymmetry degree. In addition, the transparency window and the absorption peak can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. This graphene-based EIA structure can develop the path in narrow-band filtering and, absorptive switching in the future.

  1. Resonant indirect optical absorption in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, José; Noël, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Lockwood, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of pure Ge has been determined from high-accuracy, high-precision optical measurements at photon energies covering the spectral range between the indirect and direct gaps. The results are compared with a theoretical model that fully accounts for the resonant nature of the energy denominators that appear in perturbation-theory expansions of the absorption coefficient. The model generalizes the classic Elliott approach to indirect excitons, and leads to a predicted optical absorption that is in excellent agreement with the experimental values using just a single adjustable parameter: the average deformation potential DΓ L coupling electrons at the bottom of the direct and indirect valleys in the conduction band. Remarkably, the fitted value, DΓ L=4.3 ×108eV /cm , is in nearly perfect agreement with independent measurements and ab initio predictions of this parameter, confirming the validity of the proposed theory, which has general applicability.

  2. Dual-band quantum well infrared photodetector with metallic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Hongmei; Li, Pingzhou

    2018-02-01

    The quantum efficiency of the dual bands quantum well infrared photodetectors(QWIP) has been widely concerned in recent years. A novel structure for the dual-band quantum well infrared detectors which is based on GaAs/AlGaAs designed in this paper is aimed to improve the absorption efficiency. The structure replaces the conventional grating with a metallic grating based on surface plasmon polaritons(SPPS), and we further insert a metal structure in the periodic quantum well layer. The simulation result shows that the use of the different shapes of the metal holes can remarkably improve the optical coupling efficiency due to the surface plasmon effect. By optimizing parameters of the structure, it can work in the dual infrared bands of 3-5um and 8-12um. Moreover, the absorption rate increased by 20% compared with traditional structure of Dual-band QWIP.

  3. Single-junction solar cells with the optimum band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    A single-junction solar cell having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of "pinning" the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14.+-.0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal band gap.

  4. Optical Absorption and Visible Photoluminescence from Thin Films of Silicon Phthalocyanine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Gómez, Arturo; Moises Sánchez-Hernández, Carlos; Fleitman-Levin, Ilán; Arenas-Alatorre, Jesús; Carlos Alonso-Huitrón, Juan; Elena Sánchez Vergara, María

    2014-01-01

    The interest of microelectronics industry in new organic compounds for the manufacture of luminescent devices has increased substantially in the last decade. In this paper, we carried out a study of the usage feasibility of three organic bidentate ligands (2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone, anthraflavic acid and potassium derivative salt of anthraflavic acid) for the synthesis of an organic semiconductor based in silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs). We report the visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature obtained from thermal-evaporated thin films of these new materials. The surface morphology of these films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AFM indicated that the thermal evaporation technique is an excellent resource in order to obtain low thin film roughness when depositing these kinds of compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate possible changes in the intra-molecular bonds and to identify any evidence of crystallinity in the powder compounds and in the thin films after their deposition. FTIR showed that there was not any important change in the samples after the thermal deposition. The absorption coefficient (α) in the absorption region reveals non-direct transitions. Furthermore, the PL of all the investigated samples were observed with the naked eye in a bright background and also measured by a spectrofluorometer. The normalized PL spectra showed a Stokes shift ≈ 0.6 eV in two of our three samples, and no PL emission in the last one. Those results indicate that the Vis PL comes from a recombination of charge carriers between conduction band and valence band preceded by a non-radiative relaxation in the conduction band tails. PMID:28788200

  5. Line parameters for CO2 broadening in the ν2 band of HD16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Gamache, Robert R.; Renaud, Candice L.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2017-01-01

    CO2-rich planetary atmospheres such as those of Mars and Venus require accurate knowledge of CO2 broadened HDO half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents for reliable abundance determination. Although a few calculated line lists have recently been published on HDO-CO2 line shapes and their temperature dependences, laboratory measurements of those parameters are thus far non-existent. In this work, we report the first measurements of CO2-broadened half-width and pressure-shift coefficients and their temperature dependences for over 220 transitions in the ν2 band. First measurements of self-broadened half-width and self-shift coefficients at room temperature are also obtained for majority of these transitions. In addition, the first experimental determination of collisional line mixing has been reported for 11 transition pairs for HDO-CO2 and HDO-HDO systems. These results were obtained by analyzing ten high-resolution spectra of HDO and HDO-CO2 mixtures at various sample temperatures and pressures recorded with the Bruker IFS-125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Two coolable absorption cells with path lengths of 20.38 cm and 20.941 m were used to record the spectra. The various line parameters were retrieved by fitting all ten spectra simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm. The HDO transitions in the 1100-4100 cm-1 range were extracted from the HITRAN2012 database. For the ν2 and 2ν2 -ν2 bands there were 2245 and 435 transitions, respectively. Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy formalism (MCRB) calculations were made for the half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence and the pressure shift coefficients for the HDO-CO2 and HDO-HDO collision systems. MCRB calculations are compared with the measured values.

  6. Absorption and Emission Spectroscopic Investigation of Thermal Dynamics and Photo-Dynamics of the Rhodopsin Domain of the Rhodopsin-Guanylyl Cyclase from the Nematophagous Fungus Catenaria anguillulae

    PubMed Central

    Penzkofer, Alfons; Scheib, Ulrike; Stehfest, Katja; Hegemann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase from the nematophagous fungus Catenaria anguillulae belongs to a recently discovered class of enzymerhodopsins and may find application as a tool in optogenetics. Here the rhodopsin domain CaRh of the rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase from Catenaria anguillulae was studied by absorption and emission spectroscopic methods. The absorption cross-section spectrum and excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence quantum distributions of CaRh samples were determined (first absorption band in the green spectral region). The thermal stability of CaRh was studied by long-time attenuation measurements at room temperature (20.5 °C) and refrigerator temperature of 3.5 °C. The apparent melting temperature of CaRh was determined by stepwise sample heating up and cooling down (obtained apparent melting temperature: 62 ± 2 °C). The photocycle dynamics of CaRh was investigated by sample excitation to the first inhomogeneous absorption band of the CaRhda dark-adapted state around 590 nm (long-wavelength tail), 530 nm (central region) and 470 nm (short-wavelength tail) and following the absorption spectra development during exposure and after exposure (time resolution 0.0125 s). The original protonated retinal Schiff base PRSBall-trans in CaRhda photo-converted reversibly to protonated retinal Schiff base PRSBall-trans,la1 with restructured surroundings (CaRhla1 light-adapted state, slightly blue-shifted and broadened first absorption band, recovery to CaRhda with time constant of 0.8 s) and deprotonated retinal Schiff base RSB13-cis (CaRhla2 light-adapted state, first absorption band in violet to near ultraviolet spectral region, recovery to CaRhda with time constant of 0.35 s). Long-time light exposure of light-adapted CaRhla1 around 590, 530 and 470 nm caused low-efficient irreversible degradation to photoproducts CaRhprod. Schemes of the primary photocycle dynamics of CaRhda and the secondary photocycle dynamics of CaRhla1 are developed. PMID:28981475

  7. Design of triple-band polarization controlled terahertz metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Xie, Qin; Dong, Guangxi; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2018-02-01

    A kind of triple-band polarization tunable terahertz absorber based on a metallic mirror and a metallic patch structure with two indentations spaced by an insulating medium layer is presented. Results prove that three near-perfect absorption peaks with average absorption coefficients of 98.25% are achieved when the polarization angle is equal to zero, and their absorptivities gradually decrease (and even disappear) by increasing the angle of polarization. When the polarization angle is increased to 90°, three new resonance modes with average absorption rates of 96.59% can be obtained. The field distributions are given to reveal the mechanisms of the triple-band absorption and the polarization tunable characteristics. Moreover, by introducing photosensitive silicon materials (its conductivity can be changed by the pump beam) in the indentations of the patch structure, the number of resonance peaks of the device can be actively tuned from triple-band to dual-band. The presented absorbers have potential applications, such as controlling thermal emissivity, and detection of polarization direction of the incident waves.

  8. Heterostructures with diffused interfaces: Luminescent technique for ascertainment of band alignment type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramkin, D. S.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Shamirzaev, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    The experimental ascertainment of band alignment type for semiconductor heterostructures with diffused interfaces is discussed. A method based on the analysis of the spectral shift of photoluminescence (PL) band with excitation density (Pex) that takes into account state filling and band bending effects on the PL band shift is developed. It is shown that the shift of PL band maximum position is proportional to ℏωmax ˜ (Ue + Uh).ln(Pex) + b.Pex1/3, where Ue (Uh) are electron (hole) Urbach energy tail, and parameter b characterizes the effect of band bending or is equal to zero for heterostructures with type-II or type-I band alignment, respectively. The method was approved with InAs/AlAs, GaAs/AlAs, GaSb/AlAs, and AlSb/AlAs heterostructures containing quantum wells.

  9. Confocal absorption spectral imaging of MoS2: optical transitions depending on the atomic thickness of intrinsic and chemically doped MoS2.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Jubok; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Minsu; Kan, Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-11-07

    We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a high-energy background (BG) peak at 2.84 eV displayed a gradual redshift as the MoS2 film thickness increased from the monolayer, to the bilayer, to the bulk MoS2 and this shift was attributed to the reduction of the gap energy in the Brillouin zone at the K-point as the atomic thickness increased. We also performed n-type chemical doping of MoS2 films using reduced benzyl viologen (BV) and the confocal absorption spectra modified by the doping showed a strong dependence on the atomic thickness: A and B exciton peaks were greatly quenched in the monolayer MoS2 while much less effect was shown in larger thickness and the BG peak either showed very small quenching for 1 L MoS2 or remained constant for larger thicknesses. Our results indicate that confocal absorption spectral imaging can provide comprehensive information on optical transitions of microscopic size intrinsic and doped two-dimensional layered materials.

  10. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  11. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  12. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  13. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  14. Time dependent density functional theory study of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure of benzene in gas phase and on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Asmuruf, Frans A; Besley, Nicholas A

    2008-08-14

    The near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure of benzene in the gas phase and adsorbed on the Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces is studied with time dependent density functional theory. Excitation energies computed with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals are too low compared to experiment. However, after applying a constant shift the spectra are in good agreement with experiment. For benzene on the Au(111) surface, two bands arising from excitation to the e(2u)(pi(*)) and b(2g)(pi(*)) orbitals of benzene are observed for photon incidence parallel to the surface. On Pt(111) surface, a broader band arises from excitation to benzene orbitals that are mixed with the surface and have both sigma(*)(Pt-C) and pi(*) characters.

  15. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  16. Bands of Clouds and Lace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-05-13

    As Cassini nears its rendezvous with Saturn, new detail in the banded clouds of the planet's atmosphere are becoming visible. Cassini began the journey to the ringed world of Saturn nearly seven years ago and is now less than two months away from orbit insertion on June 30. Cassini’s narrow-angle camera took this image on April 16, 2004, when the spacecraft was 38.5 million kilometers (23.9 million miles) from Saturn. Dark regions are generally areas free of high clouds, and bright areas are places with high, thick clouds which shield the view of the darker areas below. A dark spot is visible at the south pole, which is remarkable to scientists because it is so small and centered. The spot could be affected by Saturn's magnetic field, which is nearly aligned with the planet's rotation axis, unlike the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Earth. From south to north, other notable features are the two white spots just above the dark spot toward the right, and the large dark oblong-shaped feature that extends across the middle. The darker band beneath the oblong-shaped feature has begun to show a lacy pattern of lighter-colored, high altitude clouds, indicative of turbulent atmospheric conditions. The cloud bands move at different speeds, and their irregularities may be due to either the different motions between them or to disturbances below the visible cloud layer. Such disturbances might be powered by the planet's internal heat; Saturn radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun. The moon Mimas (396 kilometers, 245 miles across) is visible to the left of the south pole. Saturn currently has 31 known moons. Since launch, 13 new moons have been discovered by ground-based telescopes. Cassini will get a closer look and may discover new moons, perhaps embedded within the planet’s magnificent rings. This image was taken using a filter sensitive to light near 727 nanometers, one of the near-infrared absorption bands of methane gas, which is one of the ingredients in

  17. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  18. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and methodology of using differential absorption lidar techniques for the remote measurement of atmospheric pressure profiles, surface pressure, and temperature profiles from ground, air, and space-based platforms are presented. Pressure measurements are effected by means of high resolution measurement of absorption at the edges of the oxygen A band lines where absorption is pressure dependent due to collisional line broadening. Temperature is assessed using measurements of the absorption at the center of the oxygen A band line originating from a quantum state with high ground state energy. The population of the state is temperature dependent, allowing determination of the temperature through the Boltzmann term. The results of simulations of the techniques using Voigt profile and variational analysis are reported for ground-based, airborne, and Shuttle-based systems. Accuracies in the 0.5-1.0 K and 0.1-0.3% range are projected.

  19. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... oligoclonal bands may point to a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. How the Test is Performed A sample of ... Performed This test helps support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it does not confirm the diagnosis. ...

  20. Banded Ridges in Hellas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-09

    Low lying areas in the Hellas region, which is the largest impact basin on Mars, often show complex groups of banded ridges, furrows, and pits as seen in this observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  1. Adjustable gastric banding (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pouch and causes a feeling of fullness. The band can be tightened or loosened over time to change the size of the passage. Initially, the pouch holds about 1 ounce of food and later expands to 2-3 ounces.

  2. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 5 out of 5 Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous ...

  3. Optical absorption and TEM studies of silver nanoparticle embedded BaO-CaF{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manukokkal01@gmail.com; Shashikala, H. D.

    Silver nanoparticle embedded 30BaO-20CaF{sub 2}-50P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-4Ag{sub 2}O-4SnO glasses were prepared by melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment process. Silver-doped glasses were heat treated at temperatures 500 °C, 525°C and 550 °C for a fixed duration of 10 hours to incorporate metal nanoparticles into the glass matrix. Appearance and shift in peak positions of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands in the optical absorption spectra of heat treated glass samples indicated that both formation and growth of nanoparticle depended on heat treatment temperature. Glass sample heat treated at 525 °C showed a SPR peak around 3 eV, which indicated that sphericalmore » nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm were formed inside the glass matrix. Whereas sample heat treated at 550 °C showed a size dependent red shift in SPR peak due to the presence of silver nanoparticles of size larger than 20 nm. Size of the nanoparticles calculated using full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of absorption band showed a good agreement with the particle size obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis.« less

  4. Rational Construction of Uniform CoNi-Based Core-Shell Microspheres with Tunable Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Yan, Shao-Jiu; Zhen, Liang

    2018-02-16

    Core-shell particles with integration of ferromagnetic core and dielectric shell are attracting extensive attention for promising microwave absorption applications. In this work, CoNi microspheres with conical bulges were synthesized by a simple and scalable liquid-phase reduction method. Subsequent coating of dielectric materials was conducted to acquire core-shell structured CoNi@TiO 2 composite particles, in which the thickness of TiO 2 is about 40 nm. The coating of TiO 2 enables the absorption band of CoNi to effectively shift from K u to S band, and endows CoNi@TiO 2 microspheres with outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption performance along with a maximum reflection loss of 76.6 dB at 3.3 GHz, much better than that of bare CoNi microspheres (54.4 dB at 17.8 GHz). The enhanced EMA performance is attributed to the unique core-shell structures, which can induce dipole polarization and interfacial polarization, and tune the dielectric properties to achieve good impedance matching. Impressively, TiO 2 coating endows the composites with better microwave absorption capability than CoNi@SiO 2 microspheres. Compared with SiO 2 , TiO 2 dielectric shells could protect CoNi microspheres from merger and agglomeration during annealed. These results indicate that CoNi@TiO 2 core-shell microspheres can serve as high-performance absorbers for electromagnetic wave absorbing application.

  5. Line parameters for CO2- and self-broadening in the ν3 band of HD16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Gamache, Robert R.; Renaud, Candice L.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2017-12-01

    Pressure-broadened line shape parameters of transitions in the ν3 band of HDO (ν0 = 3707.4 cm-1) were measured from spectra of HDO and mixtures of HDO and CO2 for application to accurate retrievals of HDO abundances and D/H ratios for CO2-rich planetary atmospheres of Mars and Venus. A few calculated line lists have recently been published on HDO-CO2 line shapes and their temperature dependences, but the present study represents the first laboratory measurements of those parameters in the ν3 band; Measurements for nearly 100 transitions in the ν3 band have been made. Room temperature measurements of self-broadened width and shift coefficients for all of these transitions, line mixing via off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients and quadratic speed dependence parameter were measured for the majority of these transitions. All these measurements were made by simultaneously fitting eleven high-resolution spectra of HDO and HDO-CO2 mixtures at various temperatures and pressures recorded with the Bruker Fourier transform spectrometer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Two specially built coolable absorption cells with path lengths of 20.38 cm and 20.941 m were used to contain the sample mixtures. Multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm was employed in the analysis. Calculations using the Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy formalism (MCRB) were made for the half-width coefficients, their temperature dependences and pressure shift coefficients for the HDO-CO2 and HDO-HDO collision systems. The calculations were made for all ν3 band transitions in the 1100-4100 cm-1 region on the HITRAN2012 database. Present measurements are compared with the MCRB calculations and other literature values.

  6. Relative Band Oscillator Strengths for Carbon Monoxide: Alpha (1)Pi-Chi (1)Sigma(+) Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Menningen, K. L.; Lee, Wei; Stoll, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    Band oscillator strengths for CO transitions between the electronic states A (l)Pi and X(1)Sigma(+) were measured via absorption with a synchrotron radiation source. When referenced to the well-characterized (5,0) band oscillator strength, our relative values for the (7,0) to (11,0) bands are most consistent with the recent experiments of Chan et al. and the theoretical predictions of Kirby & Cooper. Since the results from various laboratory techniques and theory now agree, analyses of interstellar CO based on absorption from A-X bands are no longer hindered by uncertainties in oscillator strength.

  7. Novel quad-band terahertz metamaterial absorber based on single pattern U-shaped resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen

    2017-03-01

    A novel quad-band terahertz metamaterial absorber using four different modes of single pattern resonator is demonstrated. Four obvious frequencies with near-perfect absorption are realized. Near-field distributions of the four modes are provided to reveal the physical picture of the multiple-band absorption. Unlike most previous quad-band absorbers that typically require four or more patterns, the designed absorber has only one resonant structure, which is simpler than previous works. The presented quad-band absorber has potential applications in biological sensing, medical imaging, and material detection.

  8. Numerical study of surface plasmon enhanced nonlinear absorption and refraction.

    PubMed

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2008-07-07

    Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory is used to study the influence of silver nanoparticle induced field enhancement on the nonlinear response of a Kerr-type nonlinear host. We show that the composite nonlinear absorption coefficient, beta(c), can be enhanced relative to the host nonlinear absorption coefficient near the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. This enhancement is not due to a resonant enhancement of the host nonlinear absorption, but rather due to a phase shifted enhancement of the host nonlinear refractive response. The enhancement occurs at the expense of introducing linear absorption, alpha(c), which leads to an overall reduced figure of merit beta(c)/alpha(c) for nonlinear absorption. For thin (< 1 microm) composites, the use of surface plasmons is found to result in an increased nonlinear absorption response compared to that of the host material.

  9. Infrared radiation parameterizations for the minor CO2 bands and for several CFC bands in the window region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratz, David P.; Chou, Ming-Dah; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast and accurate parameterizations have been developed for the transmission functions of the CO2 9.4- and 10.4-micron bands, as well as the CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 bands located in the 8-12-micron region. The parameterizations are based on line-by-line calculations of transmission functions for the CO2 bands and on high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficients for the CFC bands. Also developed are the parameterizations for the H2O transmission functions for the corresponding spectral bands. Compared to the high-resolution calculations, fluxes at the tropopause computed with the parameterizations are accurate to within 10 percent when overlapping of gas absorptions within a band is taken into account. For individual gas absorption, the accuracy is of order 0-2 percent. The climatic effects of these trace gases have been studied using a zonally averaged multilayer energy balance model, which includes seasonal cycles and a simplified deep ocean. With the trace gas abundances taken to follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Low Emissions 'B' scenario, the transient response of the surface temperature is simulated for the period 1900-2060.

  10. Fourier transform spectrometer observations of solar carbon monoxide. III - Time-resolved spectroscopy of the Delta V = 1 bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Brault, James W.

    1990-11-01

    Time series of the 2100/cm Delta v = 1 absorption bands of CO at the center of the solar disk and at the extreme limb have been recorded by Fourier transform spectrometer. The photospheric 5-min oscillation appears prominently at sun center. The peak-to-peak brightness temperature amplitude is roughly 300 K, and the peak-to-peak Doppler shift is roughly 1100 m/s. The 70 deg phase lag of maximum core intensity with respect to maximum redshift for the strongest Delta v = 1 absorptions is less than the 90 deg expected in the adiabatic limit. No dominant four-minute signal in the line intensity like that reported by Deming et al. (1984, 1986, and 1987) is found, nor is evidence for extreme fluctuations on short time scales like those proposed by Kalkofen et al. (1984). The strong Delta v = 1 lines exhibit systematic Doppler shifts of less than about 1 km/s, contrary to the predictions of transonic redshifts if the CO 'clouds' are associated with a dynamic cooling phase of the Ca II 'cell flashes.'

  11. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  12. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  13. On the optical band gap of zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1998-05-01

    Three different values (3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 eV) have been reported for the optical band gap of zinc oxide single crystals at room temperature. By comparing the optical properties of ZnO crystals using a variety of optical techniques it is concluded that the room temperature band gap is 3.3 eV and that the other values are attributable to a valence band-donor transition at ˜3.15 eV that can dominate the optical absorption when the bulk of a single crystal is probed.

  14. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  15. Electronic and nuclear contributions to time-resolved optical and X-ray absorption spectra of hematite and insights into photoelectrochemical performance

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes, Dugan; Hadt, Ryan G.; Emery, Jonathan D.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Ultrafast time-resolved studies of photocatalytic thin films can provide a wealth of information crucial for understanding and thereby improving the performance of these materials by directly probing electronic structure, reaction intermediates, and charge carrier dynamics. The interpretation of transient spectra, however, can be complicated by thermally induced structural distortions, which appear within the first few picoseconds following excitation due to carrier–phonon scattering. Here we present a comparison of ex situ steady-state thermal difference spectra and transient absorption spectra spanning from NIR to hard X-ray energies of hematite thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. We find that beyond the firstmore » 100 picoseconds, the transient spectra measured for all excitation wavelengths and probe energies are almost entirely due to thermal effects as the lattice expands in response to the ultrafast temperature jump and then cools to room temperature on the microsecond timescale. At earlier times, a broad excited state absorption band that is assigned to free carriers appears at 675 nm, and the lifetime and shape of this feature also appear to be mostly independent of excitation wavelength. The combined spectroscopic data, which are modeled with density functional theory and full multiple scattering calculations, support an assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of hematite that involves two LMCT bands that nearly span the visible spectrum. Lastly, our results also suggest a framework for shifting the ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption bands of ferric oxide films from the near-UV further into the visible part of the solar spectrum to improve solar conversion efficiency.« less

  16. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of nitric oxide synthase studied by visible broadband transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Chang; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Chen, Pei-Feng; Liang, Keng S.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) oxygenase domain was studied by transient absorption spectroscopy pumping at Soret band. The broadband visible probe spectrum has visualized the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to Q-band and charge transfer (CT) band. Supported by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, global fitting analysis has successfully concluded the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to be (1) electronic transition to Q-band (0.16 ps), (2) ligand dissociation and CT (0.94 ps), (3) relaxation of the CT state (4.0 ps), and (4) ligand rebinding (59 ps).

  17. Ion sensing by charge transfer absorption variations of benzocrown-bipyridinium conjugates with an alkyl chain.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tetsuo; Satake, Ryota; Guo, Haocheng

    2015-01-01

    Two benzocrown ether-bipyridinium conjugates, 1 and 2, each having a different length of alkyl chains with butyl and dodecyl groups, respectively, have been synthesized for the purpose of developing a new guest-responsive color-change chemosensor. Both 1 and 2 showed yellow colors with broad absorption bands around 400 nm in acetonitrile. These are associated with the intramolecular charge transfer (CT) absorption, in which the benzocrown ether and bipyridinium units act as the donor and acceptor, respectively. Upon addition of the guest; such as Na(+), they faded in color due to the blue shift in their intramolecular charge transfer absorption bands. These are associated with the formation of 1:1 host-guest inclusion complex. Analogues, 3 and 4, both being similar in structure to 1 and 2 with non-crown ether unit, also showed intramolecular CT absorptions around 400 nm, but did not change their absorption spectra upon addition of the guest because of the lack of guest-binding abilities. The guest-induced color change of 1 and 2 can be used for alkali and alkaline metal ion sensing. Both 1 and 2 could detect divalent cations such as Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) rather than univalent ones, Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). Although a marked difference between 1 and 2 was not observed in their guest sensing abilities, the remarkable recognition of 1 and 2 for Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) was found compared with that of 5, which has benzyl unit instead of alkyl chains of 1 and 2. The sensitivity values of 1 and 2 were roughly proportional to their binding constants, as shown by the binding constants with Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) with the values of 910, 260, 820, and 2300 M(-1) for 1 and 930, 290, 1270, and 2790 M(-1) for 2, while the binding constants of 5 were estimated to be 930, 440, 210, and 1200 M(-1) for Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), respectively. The limit concentration of detection of 2 for Ca(2+) was estimated to be 0.016 mM, which was the smallest value in this

  18. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  19. Solvatochromism and preferential solvation of 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-9,10-anthraquinone by UV-vis absorption and laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasirekha, V.; Vanelle, P.; Terme, T.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2008-12-01

    Solvation characteristics of 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 1) in pure and binary solvent mixtures have been studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence techniques. The binary solvent mixtures used as CCl 4 (tetrachloromethane)-DMF ( N, N-dimethylformamide), AN (acetonitrile)-DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide), CHCl 3 (chloroform)-DMSO, CHCl 3-MeOH (methanol), and MeOH-DMSO. The longest wavelength band of 1 has been studied in pure solvents as well as in binary solvent mixtures as a function of the bulk mole fraction. The Vis absorption band maxima show an unusual blue shift with increasing solvent polarity. The emission maxima of 1 show changes with varying the pure solvents and the composition in the case of binary solvent mixtures. Non-ideal solvation characteristics are observed in all binary solvent mixtures. It has been observed that the quantity [ ν-(Xν+Xν)] serves as a measure of the extent of preferential solvation, where ν˜ and X are the position of band maximum in wavenumbers (cm -1) and the bulk mole fraction values, respectively. The preferential solvation parameters local mole fraction ( X2L), solvation index ( δs2), and exchange constant ( k12) are evaluated.

  20. Shift Verification and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Tara M.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over amore » burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.« less

  1. Band-engineering of TiO2 as a wide-band gap semiconductor using organic chromophore dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Kartini, I.; Ramelan, A. H.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-07-01

    Bond-engineering as applied to semiconductor materials refers to the manipulation of the energy bands in order to control charge transfer processes in a device. When the device in question is a photoelectrochemical cell, the charges affected by drift become the focus of the study. The ideal band gap of semiconductors for enhancement of photocatalyst activity can be lowered to match with visible light absorption and the location of conduction Band (CB) should be raised to meet the reducing capacity. Otherwise, by the addition of the chromofor organic dyes, the wide-band gab can be influences by interacation resulting between TiO2 surface and the dyes. We have done the impruvisation wide-band gap of TiO2 by the addition of organic chromophore dye, and the addition of transition metal dopand. The TiO2 morphology influence the light absorption as well as the surface modification. The organic chromophore dye was syntesized by formation complexes compound of Co(PAR)(SiPA)(PAR)= 4-(2-piridylazoresorcinol), SiPA = Silyl propil amine). The result showed that the chromophore groups adsorbed onto TiO2 surface can increase the visible light absorption of wide-band gab semiconductor. Initial absorption of a chromophore will affect light penetration into the material surfaces. The use of photonic material as a solar cell shows this phenomenon clearly from the IPCE (incident photon to current conversion efficiency) measurement data. Organic chromophore dyes of Co(PAR)(SiPA) exhibited the long wavelength absorption character compared to the N719 dye (from Dyesol).

  2. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  3. Alkaline-stable nickel manganese oxides with ideal band gap for solar fuel photoanodes

    DOE PAGES

    Suram, Santosh K.; Zhou, Lan; Shinde, Aniketa; ...

    2018-01-01

    Combinatorial photoelectrochemistry combined with first principles calculations demonstrate that NiMnO 3 and its mixture with Ni 6 MnO 8 are photoanodes with phenomenal absorptivity and band alignment to the oxygen evolution reaction.

  4. Combinatorial Broadening Mechanism of O-H Stretching Bands in H-Bonded Molecular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsevich, G. A.; Doroshenko, I. Yu.; Pogorelov, V. E.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Sablinskas, V.; Sapeshko, V. V.; Balevicius, V.

    2016-07-01

    A new mechanism for combinatorial broadening of donor-OH stretching-vibration absorption bands in molecular clusters with H-bonds is proposed. It enables the experimentally observed increase of the O-H stretching-vibration bandwidth with increasing number of molecules in H-bonded clusters to be explained. Knowledge of the half-width of the OH stretching-vibration absorption band in the dimer and the number of H-bonds in the analyzed cluster is suffi cient in the zeroth-order approximation to estimate the O-H stretching-absorption bands in clusters containing several molecules. Good agreement between the calculated and published experimental half-widths of the OH stretching-vibration absorption bands in MeOH and PrOH clusters was obtained using this approach.

  5. Alkaline-stable nickel manganese oxides with ideal band gap for solar fuel photoanodes

    SciTech Connect

    Suram, Santosh K.; Zhou, Lan; Shinde, Aniketa

    Combinatorial photoelectrochemistry combined with first principles calculations demonstrate that NiMnO 3 and its mixture with Ni 6 MnO 8 are photoanodes with phenomenal absorptivity and band alignment to the oxygen evolution reaction.

  6. Arylethynyl Substituted 9,lO-Anthraquinones: Tunable Stokes Shifts by Substitution and Solvent Polarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Panzner, Matthew J.; Tyson, Daniel S.; Kinder, James D.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylethynyl- and 2,6- and 2,7-diarylethynyl-substituted 9,lO-anthraquinones were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reactions of 2-bromo-, 2,6-dibromo-, and 2,7-dibromo-9,10- anthraquinone with para-substituted phenylacetylenes. While the redox properties of those compounds are almost insensitive to substitution, their absorption maxima are linearly related to the Hammett constants with different slopes for electron donors and electron acceptors. ABI compounds are photoluminescent both in solution (quantum yields of emission <= 6 %), and as solids. The emission spectra have the characteristics of charge-transfer bands with large Stokes shifts (100-250 nm). The charge-transfer character of the emitting state is supported by large dipole moment differences between the ground and the excited state as concluded on the basis of molecular modeling and Lippert-Mataga correlations of the Stokes shifts with solvent polarity. Maximum Stokes shifts are attained by both electron-donating and -withdrawing groups. This is explained by a destabilization of the HOMO by electron donors and a stabilization of the LUMO by electron acceptors. X-ray crystallographic analysis of, for example, 2,7-bisphenylethynfl- 9,lO-anthraquinone reveals a monoclinic P21In space group and no indication for pi-overlap that would promote quenching, thus explaining emission from the solid state. Representative reduced forms of the title compounds were isolated as stable acetates of the corresponding dihydrs-9,10- anthraquinones. The emission of these compounds is blue-shifted relative to the parent oxidized forms and is attributed to internal transitions in the dihydro-9,lO-anthraquinone core.

  7. Dependence of the electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride on the conditions of dilution and storage time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride ICl are studied. The spectra of as-prepared solutions display the absorption band associated with hydrated ICl molecules. An additional band indicating that molecular iodine was formed in the solution emerges in the spectrum as dissolution takes place. Only the band belonging to iodine monochloride remains in the absorption spectra, and no additional bands appear after chloride anions Cl- are added to the solution. The absorption spectrum becomes more complex when ICl is dissolved in an alkaline medium. The band belonging to molecular iodine emerges in the spectra at low alkali concentrations, while being transformed to other shorter-wavelength bands at high alkali concentrations (pH ≥ 12).

  8. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  9. Femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles using XFEL

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Yuki; Ito, Hironori; Ito, Terumasa; Kurahashi, Naoya; Thürmer, Stephan; Tanaka, Hiroki; Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yo-ichi; Karashima, Shutaro; Nishitani, Junichi; Yabashi, Makina; Suzuki, Toshinori; Misawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    The charge-carrier dynamics of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in an aqueous solution were studied by femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser in combination with a synchronized ultraviolet femtosecond laser (268 nm). Using an arrival time monitor for the X-ray pulses, we obtained a temporal resolution of 170 fs. The transient X-ray absorption spectra revealed an ultrafast Ti K-edge shift and a subsequent growth of a pre-edge structure. The edge shift occurred in ca. 100 fs and is ascribed to reduction of Ti by localization of generated conduction band electrons into shallow traps of self-trapped polarons or deep traps at penta-coordinate Ti sites. Growth of the pre-edge feature and reduction of the above-edge peak intensity occur with similar time constants of 300–400 fs, which we assign to the structural distortion dynamics near the surface. PMID:28713842

  10. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  13. Phononic glass: a robust acoustic-absorption material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Wang, Yuren

    2012-08-01

    In order to achieve strong wide band acoustic absorption under high hydrostatic pressure, an interpenetrating network structure is introduced into the locally resonant phononic crystal to fabricate a type of phononic composite material called "phononic glass." Underwater acoustic absorption coefficient measurements show that the material owns high underwater sound absorption coefficients over 0.9 in 12-30 kHz. Moreover, the quasi-static compressive behavior shows that the phononic glass has a compressive strength over 5 MPa which is crucial for underwater applications.

  14. Experimental observation of a large low-frequency band gap in a polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniaci, Marco; Mazzotti, Matteo; Radzieński, Maciej; Kherraz, Nesrine; Kudela, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Morvan, Bruno; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2018-02-01

    The quest for large and low frequency band gaps is one of the principal objectives pursued in a number of engineering applications, ranging from noise absorption to vibration control, to seismic wave abatement. For this purpose, a plethora of complex architectures (including multi-phase materials) and multi-physics approaches have been proposed in the past, often involving difficulties in their practical realization. To address this issue, in this work we propose an easy-to-manufacture design able to open large, low frequency complete Lamb band gaps exploiting a suitable arrangement of masses and stiffnesses produced by cavities in a monolithic material. The performance of the designed structure is evaluated by numerical simulations and confirmed by Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) measurements on an isotropic polyvinyl chloride plate in which a square ring region of cross-like cavities is fabricated. The full wave field reconstruction clearly confirms the ability of even a limited number of unit cell rows of the proposed design to efficiently attenuate Lamb waves. In addition, numerical simulations show that the structure allows to shift of the central frequency of the BG through geometrical modifications. The design may be of interest for applications in which large BGs at low frequencies are required.

  15. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  16. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  17. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  18. The CI pressure shift and gravitational redshift of the cool DBQA5 white dwarf LDS678A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, E. M.; Vauclair, G.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hammond, G.; Liebert, J.; Koester, D.; Wegner, G.; Marcum, P.

    1990-01-01

    A high resolution ultraviolet spectrum of the helium rich degenerate LDS 678A, obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite is presented. LDS 678A is the coolest metallic line generate (DQ or DZ) yet observed with the IUE scale. These observations provide a detailed line profile of the strong C I 2479 absorption line with equivalent width (W sub 2479 = 2.35 plus or minus 0.06 angstroms) from which theoretical line profile fits yield a C abundance (log C/He = 6.4). The presence of carbon in a helium rich atmosphere lends credence to the notion that LDS 678A is a transitional case between the DB white dwarfs with nearly pure helium atmospheres and the helium rich DQ white dwarfs which exhibit carbon bands. Corrected for an inferred pressure shift for the C I line, a gravitational redshift is deduced from which a most probable mass of 0.55 solar mass is derived.

  19. Selective Absorption Mechanism for the Maintenance of Blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Akira; Itoh, Hisanori

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric blocking is one of the most influential phenomena in global atmospheric environments. The understanding of its dynamical processes is important to clarify weather extremes and the stratosphere-troposphere coupling and to extend forecast periods. In the dynamics of blocking, especially, its maintenance mechanism has been a stimulating topic for many meteorologists. About the maintenance mechanism of blocking, Shutts (1983) evaluated the effect of synoptic eddies in his numerical model and proposed the Eddy Straining Mechanism (hereafter, referred to as ESM). Using simple numerical models, he demonstrated that synoptic eddies strained in the north-south direction by blocking provide negative/positive vorticity to a blocking high/low and this vorticity forcing, i.e., the second-order flow maintains the blocking dipole structure against dissipation. Some pieces of evidence, however have shown that the ESM does not work well in several real cases of the block maintenance. For example, Arai and Mukougawa (2002) performed a similar experiment to Shutts (1983) and indicated the strong sensitivity of the ESM against a small meridional shift of the stormtrack (strictly speaking, wavemaker), or a small change of the size of high-frequency eddies. This is a very adverse constraint in the real atmosphere because the relative positions of blocking to the stormtrack tend to fluctuate from case to case so that they do not necessarily exist in the same latitude band. Thus, we propose a more realistic mechanism of the block maintenance named as the Selective Absorption Mechanism (hereafter referred to as SAM), in which a blocking anticyclone selectively and exclusively absorbs synoptic anticyclones. This mechanism is essentially the same mechanism as the Fujiwhara effect, which qualitatively explains that binary eddies with the same polarity merge and eddies with the opposite polarity separate. In this study, we verify the effectiveness of the SAM by observational

  20. Jupiter's Bands of Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-22

    This enhanced-color image of Jupiter's bands of light and dark clouds was created by citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. Three of the white oval storms known as the "String of Pearls" are visible near the top of the image. Each of the alternating light and dark atmospheric bands in this image is wider than Earth, and each rages around Jupiter at hundreds of miles (kilometers) per hour. The lighter areas are regions where gas is rising, and the darker bands are regions where gas is sinking. Juno acquired the image on May 19, 2017, at 11:30 a.m. PST (2:30 p.m. EST) from an altitude of about 20,800 miles (33,400 kilometers) above Jupiter's cloud tops. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21393

  1. Bulk β-Te to few layered β-tellurenes: indirect to direct band-Gap transitions showing semiconducting property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bozhao; Liu, Xinghui; Yin, Jiuren; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-09-01

    Herein we report a prediction of a highly kinetic stable layered structure of tellurium (namely, bulk β-Te), which is similar to these layered bulk materials such as graphite, black phosphorus, and gray arsenic. Bulk β-Te turns out to be a semiconductor that has a band gap of 0.325 eV (HSE06: 0.605 eV), based on first-principles calculations. Moreover, the single-layer form of the bulk β-Te, called β-tellurene, is predicted to have a high stability. When the bulk β-Te is thinned to one atomic layer, an indirect semiconductor of band gap is changed to 1.265 eV (HSE06: 1.932 eV) with a very high kinetic stability. Interestingly, an increase of the number of the β-tellurene layers from one to three is accompanied by a shift from an indirect to direct band gap. Furthermore, the effective carrier masses, the optical properties and phonon modes of few-layer β-tellurenes are characterized. Few-layer β-tellurenes strongly absorb the ultraviolet and blue-violet visible lights. The dramatic changes in the electronic structure and excellent photo absorptivities are expected to pave the way for high speed ultrathin transistors, as well as optoelectronic devices working in the UV or blue-green visible regions.

  2. Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Band GAP and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited ZnSe Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezema, F. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.

    2006-05-01

    Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films were deposited on glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition method at room temperature from aqueous solutions of zinc sulphate and sodium selenosulfate in which sodium hydroxide was employed as complexing agents. The `as-deposited' ZnSe thin films are red in color and annealed in oven at 473 K for 1 hour and on a hot plate in open air at 333 K for 5 minutes, affecting the morphological and optical properties. Optical properties such as absorption coefficient a and extinction coefficient k, were determined using the absorbance and transmission measurement from Unico UV-2102 PC spectrophotometer, at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. The films have transmittance in VIS-NIR regions that range between 26 and 87%. From absorbance and transmittance spectra, the band gap energy determined ranged between 1.60 eV and 1.75 for the `as deposited' samples, and the annealed samples exhibited a band gap shift of 0.15 eV. The high transmittance of the films together with its large band gap made them good materials for selective coatings for solar cells.

  3. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  4. Topological Exciton Bands in Moire Heterojunctions.

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fengcheng; Lovorn, Timothy; MacDonald, A. H.

    2017-04-05

    Moire patterns are common in Van der Waals heterostructures and can be used to apply periodic potentials to elementary excitations. Here, we show that the optical absorption spectrum of transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers is profoundly altered by long period moire patterns that introduce twist-angle dependent satellite excitonic peaks. Topological exciton bands with non-zero Chern numbers that support chiral excitonic edge states can be engineered by combining three ingredients: i) the valley Berry phase induced by electron-hole exchange interactions, ii) the moire potential, and iii) the valley Zeeman field.

  5. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  6. Synthesizing folded band chaos.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2007-04-01

    A randomly driven linear filter that synthesizes Lorenz-like, reverse-time chaos is shown also to produce Rössler-like folded band wave forms when driven using a different encoding of the random source. The relationship between the topological entropy of the random source, dissipation in the linear filter, and the positive Lyapunov exponent for the reverse-time wave form is exposed. The two drive encodings are viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing both the Lorenz butterfly and Rössler folded band paradigms of nonlinear dynamics.

  7. Dual-band polarization-/angle-insensitive metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Han; Chongqing University, College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing, 400044; Zhong, Lin-Lin

    A dual-band metamaterial absorber (MA) based on triangular resonators is designed and investigated in this paper. It is composed of a two-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric-metal sandwiches array on a dielectric substrate. The simulation results clearly show that this absorber has two absorption peaks at 14.9 and 18.9 GHz, respectively, and experiments are conducted to verify the proposed designs effectively. For each polarization, the dual-band absorber is insensitive to the incident angle (up to 60°) and the absorption peaks remain high for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) radiation. To study the physical mechanism of power loss, the current distributionmore » at the dual absorption peaks is given. The MA proposed in this paper has potential applications in many scientific and martial fields.« less

  8. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  9. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  10. Cation-induced band-gap tuning in organohalide perovskites: interplay of spin-orbit coupling and octahedra tilting.

    PubMed

    Amat, Anna; Mosconi, Edoardo; Ronca, Enrico; Quarti, Claudio; Umari, Paolo; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-06-11

    Organohalide lead perovskites have revolutionized the scenario of emerging photovoltaic technologies. The prototype MAPbI3 perovskite (MA = CH3NH3(+)) has dominated the field, despite only harvesting photons above 750 nm (∼1.6 eV). Intensive research efforts are being devoted to find new perovskites with red-shifted absorption onset, along with good charge transport properties. Recently, a new perovskite based on the formamidinium cation ((NH2)2CH(+) = FA) has shown potentially superior properties in terms of band gap and charge transport compared to MAPbI3. The results have been interpreted in terms of the cation size, with the larger FA cation expectedly delivering reduced band-gaps in Pb-based perovskites. To provide a full understanding of the interplay among size, structure, and organic/inorganic interactions in determining the properties of APbI3 perovskites, in view of designing new materials and fully exploiting them for solar cells applications, we report a fully first-principles investigation on APbI3 perovskites with A = Cs(+), MA, and FA. Our results evidence that the tetragonal-to-quasi cubic structural evolution observed when moving from MA to FA is due to the interplay of size effects and enhanced hydrogen bonding between the FA cations and the inorganic matrix altering the covalent/ionic character of Pb-I bonds. Most notably, the observed cation-induced structural variability promotes markedly different electronic and optical properties in the MAPbI3 and FAPbI3 perovskites, mediated by the different spin-orbit coupling, leading to improved charge transport and red-shifted absorption in FAPbI3 and in general in pseudocubic structures. Our theoretical model constitutes the basis for the rationale design of new and more efficient organohalide perovskites for solar cells applications.

  11. Microwave absorption properties of a wave-absorbing coating employing carbonyl-iron powder and carbon black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lidong; Duan, Yuping; Ma, Lixin; Liu, Shunhua; Yu, Zhen

    2010-11-01

    To prevent serious electromagnetic interference, a single-layer wave-absorbing coating employing complex absorbents composed of carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and carbon black (CB) with epoxy resin as matrix was prepared. The morphologies of CIP and CB were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The electromagnetic parameters of CIP and CB were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz by transmission/reflection technology, and the electromagnetic loss mechanisms of the two particles were discussed, respectively. The microwave absorption properties of the coatings were investigated by measuring reflection loss (RL) using arch method. The effects of CIP ratio, CB content and thickness on the microwave absorption properties were discussed, respectively. The results showed that the higher thickness, CIP or CB content could make the absorption band shift towards the lower frequency range. Significantly, the wave-absorbing coating could be applied in different frequency ranges according to actual demand by controlling the content of CIP or CB in composites.

  12. Preparation, characterization and nonlinear absorption studies of cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2012-07-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper(II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR studies revealed that the formation of pure single-phase cubic. Raman and EPR spectral studies show the presence of CuO in as-synthesized powders of Cu2O. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm 6 ns laser pulses. Samples-exhibited both saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap), we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) in the case of nanoclusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  13. Heterodyne detection of the 752.033-GHz H2O rotational absorption line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionne, G. F.; Fitzgerald, J. F.; Chang, T. S.; Litvak, M. M.; Fetterman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable high resolution two stage heterodyne radiometer was developed for the purpose of investigating the intensity and lineshape of the 752.033 GHz rotational transition of water vapor. Single-sideband system noise temperatures of approximately 45,000 K were obtained using a sensitive GaAs Schottky diode as the first stage mixer. First local oscillator power was supplied by a CO2 laser pumped formic acid laser (761.61 GHz), generating an X-band IF signal with theoretical line center at 9.5744 GHz. Second local oscillator power was provided by means of a 3 GHz waveguide cavity filter with only 9 dB insertion loss. In absorption measurements of the H2O taken from a laboratory simulation of a high altitude rocket plume, the center frequency of the 752 GHz line was determined to within 1 MHz of the reported value. A rotational temperature 75 K, a linewidth 5 MHz and a Doppler shift 3 MHz were measured with the line-of-sight intersecting the simulated-plume axis at a distance downstream of 30 nozzle diameters. These absorption data were obtained against continuum background radiation sources at temperatures of 1175 and 300 K.

  14. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  15. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Rh doping in Sr2IrO4

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, C. H.; Cho, Deok-Yong; Kuo, C.-T.; Sandilands, L. J.; Qi, T. F.; Cao, G.; Noh, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of Rh doping in Sr2IrO4 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We observed appearance of new electron-addition states with increasing Rh concentration (x in Sr2Ir1−xRhxO4) in accordance with the concept of hole doping. The intensity of the hole-induced state is however weak, suggesting weakness of charge transfer (CT) effect and Mott insulating ground states. Also, Ir Jeff = 1/2 upper Hubbard band shifts to lower energy as x increases up to x = 0.23. Combined with optical spectroscopy, these results suggest a hybridisation-related mechanism, in which Rh doping can weaken the (Ir Jeff = 1/2)–(O 2p) orbital hybridisation in the in-planar Rh-O-Ir bond networks. PMID:27025538

  16. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... completely. Some of these are pasta, rice, bread, raw vegetables, and meats. Adding a low-fat sauce, broth gravy can make them easier to ... egg whites Beans Dairy products, which includes low-fat or nonfat ... foods with texture together with protein helps people who have a gastric band stay ...

  17. Banded Sunflower Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  18. Accuracy of band dendrometers

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody

    1976-01-01

    A study to determine the reliability of first-year growth measurements obtained from aluminum band dendrometers showed that growth was underestimated for black cherry trees growing less than 0.5 inch in diameter or accumulating less than 0.080 square foot of basal area. Prediction equations to correct for these errors are given.

  19. High performance of chlorophyll-a prediction algorithms based on simulated OLCI Sentinel-3A bands in cyanobacteria-dominated inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino; Alcântara, Enner; Stech, José Luiz

    2018-07-01

    In this research, we have investigated whether the chlorophyll-a (chl a) retrieval algorithms based on OLCI Sentinel-3A bands are suitable for cyanobacteria-dominated waters. Phytoplankton assemblages model optical properties of the water, influencing the performance of bio-optical algorithms. Understanding these processes is important to improve the prediction of photoactive pigments in order to use them as a proxy for trophic state and harmful algal bloom. So that, both empirical and semi-analytical approaches designed for different inland waters were tested. In addition, empirical models were tuned based on dataset collected in situ. The study was conducted in the Funil hydroelectric reservoir, where chl a ranged from 2.33 to 208.68 mg m-3 in May 2012 (austral fall) and 4.37 to 306.03 mg m-3 in October 2012 (austral spring). OLCI Sentinel-3A bands were tested in existing algorithms developed for other sensors and new band combinations were compared to analyze the errors produced. Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI) exhibited the best performance, with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) of 9.30%. Result showed that wavelength at 665 nm is adequate to estimate chl a, although the maximum pigment absorption band is shifted due to phycocyanin fluorescence at approximately 650 nm.

  20. Band analysis of temperature-dependent near-infrared spectra of oleic acid in the pure liquid state by the analytic geometric approach.

    PubMed

    Koashi, Katsue; Iwahashi, Makio; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2003-12-01

    The applicability of the band-stripping and complementary matching method has been demonstrated by the analysis of temperature-dependent near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra in the 7500-6500 cm(-1) region of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) in the pure liquid state. This method is based on first derivative-second derivative pair (D1-D2) plots and a new concept called the complementary band, cBDi, created by subtracting all the rest of the bands, exclusive of the ith estimated band, eBDi, from an experimental spectrum. The degree of coincidence of both band shapes provides a suitable measure for the quality of fit for each individual component band. It has been confirmed from the present analysis of the NIR spectra of oleic acid measured over a temperature range of 16-79 degrees C that the change of the peak intensity of the component band at around 6915 cm(-1) due to the first overtone of an O-H stretching vibration of the monomer has two transition points around 35 and 55 degrees C. Moreover, the present study has provided new insight into the analysis of temperature-dependent spectral variations of oleic acid. Among the three temperature ranges, 16-35 degrees C, 35-55 degrees C, and 55-79 degrees C, in the first range the band near 6915 cm(-1) shows a slight increase and in the second range it has a linear intensity change with a slope of 0.002 a.u./degree C. In the third range, a rapid increase of the peak intensity is observed. This band exists even at 15 degrees C (just below the melting point) and shows a shift from 6910 to 6915 cm(-1) and a band narrowing from 85 to 80 cm(-1) (full width at half-height) over a temperature range of 16 to 79 degrees C. Furthermore, it has been found that there are two broad bands at around 6835 and 6778.

  1. Properties of seismic absorption induced reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haixia; Gao, Jinghuai; Peng, Jigen

    2018-05-01

    Seismic reflections at an interface are often regarded as the variation of the acoustic impedance (product of seismic velocity and density) in a medium. In fact, they can also be generated due to the difference in absorption of the seismic energy. In this paper, we investigate the properties of such reflections. Based on the diffusive-viscous wave equation and elastic diffusive-viscous wave equation, we investigate the dependency of the reflection coefficients on frequency, and their variations with incident angles. Numerical results at a boundary due to absorption contrasts are compared with those resulted from acoustic impedance variation. It is found that, the reflection coefficients resulted from absorption depend significantly on the frequency especially at lower frequencies, but vary very slowly at small incident angles. At the higher frequencies, the reflection coefficients of diffusive-viscous wave and elastic diffusive-viscous wave are close to those of acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. On the other hand, the reflections caused by acoustic impedance variation are independent of frequency but vary distinctly with incident angles before the critical angle. We also investigate the difference between the seismograms generated in the two different media. The numerical results show that the amplitudes of these reflected waves are attenuated and their phases are shifted. However, the reflections obtained by acoustic impedance contrast, show no significant amplitude attenuation and phase shift.

  2. Band-notched spiral antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  3. Measurements of high-pressure CO2 absorption near 2.0 μm and implications on tunable diode laser sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    A tunable diode laser (TDL) is used to measure the absorption spectra of the R46 through R54 transitions of the 20012 ←00001 band of CO2 near 2.0 μm (5000 cm-1) at room temperature and pressures to 10 atm (densities to 9.2 amagat). Spectra are recorded using direct absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) in a mixture containing 11% CO2 in air. The direct absorption spectra are influenced by non-Lorentzian effects including finite-duration collisions which perturb far-wing absorption, and an empirical χ-function correction to the Voigt line shape is shown to greatly reduce error in the spectral model. WMS-2f spectra are shown to be at least a factor of four less-influenced by non-Lorentzian effects in this region, making this approach more resistant to errors in the far-wing line shape model and allowing a comparison between the spectral parameters of HITRAN and a new database which includes pressure-induced shift coefficients. The implications of these measurements on practical, high-pressure CO2 sensor design are discussed.

  4. The ammonia absorption behavior on Jupiter during 2005-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; V.G.Tejfel, V.D.Vdovichenko, A.M.Karimov, P.G.Lysenko, , G.A.Kirienko, , V.A.Filippov, G.A.Kharitonova, A.S. Khozhenetz

    2017-10-01

    V.G.Tejfel, V.D.Vdovichenko, A.M.Karimov, P.G.Lysenko, , G.A.Kirienko, , V.A.Filippov, G.A.Kharitonova, A.S. KhozhenetzFessenkov Astrophysical Institute, Almaty, KazakhstanWe measured the intensity of the 645 and 787 nm NH3 absorption bands in five latitudinal belts of Jupiter (STrZ, SEB, EZ, NEB and NTrZ) during almost full period of its revolution around the Sun: from 2005 to 2015. The variations in the equivalent widths of the bands were investigated. The permanently lowered intensity of the 787 nm NH3 band in NEB is confirmed. There are also some systematic differences in latitudinal and temporal variations between the 645 and 787 nm ammonia bands. The equivalent width of the 787 nm NH3 band was averaged for all years of observations. Its maximum (W = 18.95 ± 0.75 A) corresponds to EZ, its minimum (W = 15.82 ± 0.68 A) corresponds to NEB. The 645 nm NH3 band shows the maximum in SEB (W = 6.78 ± 0.45 A), and the minimum in NTrZ (W = 5.38 ± 0.36 A). The weakened ammonia absorption is also observed in the Great Red Spot. However, this is due to the increased density of the clouds inside the Spot storm, but not to decreased gaseous ammonia abundance, in contrast to NEB. The brightness temperature of GRS in the infrared and millimeter ranges of thermal radiation is lower, in contrast to NEB, where an increased brightness temperature is observed. The enhanced cloud density may explain also a pretty high brightness of GRS observed in strong methane absorption bands such as the 887 nm CH4 band and more long waved ones.

  5. Theory of optical absorption by interlayer excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fengcheng; Lovorn, Timothy; MacDonald, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    We present a theory of optical absorption by interlayer excitons in a heterobilayer formed from transition metal dichalcogenides. The theory accounts for the presence of small relative rotations that produce a momentum shift between electron and hole bands located in different layers, and a moiré pattern in real space. Because of the momentum shift, the optically active interlayer excitons are located at the moiré Brillouin zone's corners, instead of at its center, and would have elliptical optical selection rules if the individual layers were translationally invariant. We show that the exciton moiré potential energy restores circular optical selection rules by coupling excitons with different center of mass momenta. A variety of interlayer excitons with both senses of circular optical activity, and energies that are tunable by twist angle, are present at each valley. The lowest energy exciton states are generally localized near the exciton potential energy minima. We discuss the possibility of using the moiré pattern to achieve scalable two-dimensional arrays of nearly identical quantum dots.

  6. Theory of optical absorption by interlayer excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fengcheng; Lovorn, Timothy; MacDonald, A. H.

    2018-01-22

    In this paper, we present a theory of optical absorption by interlayer excitons in a heterobilayer formed from transition metal dichalcogenides. The theory accounts for the presence of small relative rotations that produce a momentum shift between electron and hole bands located in different layers, and a moire pattern in real space. Because of the momentum shift, the optically active interlayer excitons are located at the moire Brillouin zone's corners, instead of at its center, and would have elliptical optical selection rules if the individual layers were translationally invariant. We show that the exciton moire potential energy restores circular opticalmore » selection rules by coupling excitons with different center of mass momenta. A variety of interlayer excitons with both senses of circular optical activity, and energies that are tunable by twist angle, are present at each valley. The lowest energy exciton states are generally localized near the exciton potential energy minima. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using the moire pattern to achieve scalable two-dimensional arrays of nearly identical quantum dots.« less

  7. Theory of optical absorption by interlayer excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fengcheng; Lovorn, Timothy; MacDonald, A. H.

    In this paper, we present a theory of optical absorption by interlayer excitons in a heterobilayer formed from transition metal dichalcogenides. The theory accounts for the presence of small relative rotations that produce a momentum shift between electron and hole bands located in different layers, and a moire pattern in real space. Because of the momentum shift, the optically active interlayer excitons are located at the moire Brillouin zone's corners, instead of at its center, and would have elliptical optical selection rules if the individual layers were translationally invariant. We show that the exciton moire potential energy restores circular opticalmore » selection rules by coupling excitons with different center of mass momenta. A variety of interlayer excitons with both senses of circular optical activity, and energies that are tunable by twist angle, are present at each valley. The lowest energy exciton states are generally localized near the exciton potential energy minima. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using the moire pattern to achieve scalable two-dimensional arrays of nearly identical quantum dots.« less

  8. Partially filled intermediate band of Cr-doped GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, S.

    2012-05-14

    We investigated the band structure of sputtered Cr-doped GaN (GaCrN) films using optical absorption, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, and charge transport measurements. It was found that an additional energy band is formed in the intrinsic band gap of GaN upon Cr doping, and that charge carriers in the material move in the inserted band. Prototype solar cells showed enhanced short circuit current and open circuit voltage in the n-GaN/GaCrN/p-GaN structure compared to the GaCrN/p-GaN structure, which validates the proposed concept of an intermediate-band solar cell.

  9. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  10. Tunable band gap in Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. S.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Lee, J. H.; Ezekoye, O. K.; Vlahos, E.; Ramesh, R.; Gopalan, V.; Pan, X. Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    In order to investigate band gap tunability in polar oxides, we measured the optical properties of a series of Bi(Fe1-xMnx)O3 thin films. The absorption response of the mixed metal solid solutions is approximately a linear combination of the characteristics of the two end members, a result that demonstrates straightforward band gap tunability in this system.

  11. Band engineering in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Liao, Chengwei; Ouyang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    In order to explore the theoretical relationship between interlayer spacing, interaction and band offset at the atomic level in vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) structures, we propose an analytical model to address the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling with random stacking configurations in MoS2 bilayers based on the atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism. We found that interlayer spacing changes substantially with respect to the orientations, and the bandgap increases from 1.53 eV (AB stacking) to 1.68 eV (AA stacking). Our results reveal that the evolution of interlayer vdW coupling originates from the interlayer interaction, leading to interlayer separations and electronic properties changing with stacking configurations. Our predictions constitute a demonstration of twist engineering the band shift in the emergent class of 2D crystals, transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  12. Adiabatic pressure dependence of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathai, C. V.; Walls, W. L.; Broersma, S.

    1977-01-01

    An acoustic excitation technique is used to determine the adiabatic pressure derivative of the spectral absorptance of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands, and the 3.5 micron HCl band. The dependence of this derivative on thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, concentration, and pressure is evaluated. A cross-flow water vapor system is used to measure spectral absorptance. Taking F as the ratio of nonrigid to rotor line strengths, it is found that an F factor correction is needed for the 2.7 micron band. The F factor for the 1.9 micron band is also determined. In the wings of each band a wavelength can be found where the concentration dependence is predominant. Farther out in the wings a local maximum occurs for the temperature derivative. It is suggested that the pressure derivative is significant in the core of the band.

  13. Phase-shifting coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François; Carlotti, Alexis; Vérinaud, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    With the recent commissioning of ground instruments such as SPHERE or GPI and future space observatories like WFIRST-AFTA, coronagraphy should probably become the most efficient tool for identifying and characterizing extrasolar planets in the forthcoming years. Coronagraphic instruments such as Phase mask coronagraphs (PMC) are usually based on a phase mask or plate located at the telescope focal plane, spreading the starlight outside the diameter of a Lyot stop that blocks it. In this communication is investigated the capability of a PMC to act as a phase-shifting wavefront sensor for better control of the achieved star extinction ratio in presence of the coronagraphic mask. We discuss the two main implementations of the phase-shifting process, either introducing phase-shifts in a pupil plane and sensing intensity variations in an image plane, or reciprocally. Conceptual optical designs are described in both cases. Numerical simulations allow for better understanding of the performance and limitations of both options, and optimizing their fundamental parameters. In particular, they demonstrate that the phase-shifting process is a bit more efficient when implemented into an image plane, and is compatible with the most popular phase masks currently employed, i.e. fourquadrants and vortex phase masks.

  14. Unattended Multiplicity Shift Register

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matt; Jones, David C.

    2017-01-16

    The Unattended Multiplicity Shift Register (UMSR) is a specialized pulse counter used primarily to count neutron events originating in neutron detection instruments. While the counter can be used to count any TTL input pulses, its unique ability to record time correlated events and the multiplicity distributions of these events makes it an ideal instrument for counting neutron events in the nuclear fields of material safeguards, waste assay and process monitoring and control. The UMSR combines the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) simple and robust shift register design with a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) processor and Ethernet communications. The UMSR is fully compatiblemore » with existing International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) neutron data acquisition instruments such as the Advance Multiplicity Shift Register (AMSR) and JSR-15. The UMSR has three input channels: a multiplicity shift register input and two auxiliary inputs. The UMSR provides 0V to 2kV of programmable High Voltage (HV) bias and both a 12V and a 5V detector power supply output. A serial over USB communication line to the UMSR allows the use of existing versions of INCC or MIC software while the Ethernet port is compatible with the new IAEA RAINSTORM communication protocol.« less

  15. Trophic shift, not collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Stow, Craig A.; Roseman, Edward F.; He, Ji X.

    2013-01-01

    scientists who are closely monitoring Lake Huron’s food web, we believe that the ongoing changes are more accurately characterized as a trophic shift in which benthic pathways have become more prominent. While decreases in abundance have occurred for some species, others are experiencing improved reproduction resulting in the restoration of several important native species.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  17. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  18. Shuttle Ku-band signal design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Braun, W. R.; Mckenzie, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Carrier synchronization and data demodulation of Unbalanced Quadriphase Shift Keyed (UQPSK) Shuttle communications' signals by optimum and suboptimum methods are discussed. The problem of analyzing carrier reconstruction techniques for unbalanced QPSK signal formats is addressed. An evaluation of the demodulation approach of the Ku-Band Shuttle return link for UQPSK when the I-Q channel power ratio is large is carried out. The effects that Shuttle rocket motor plumes have on the RF communications are determined also. The effect of data asymmetry on bit error probability is discussed.

  19. Molecular dynamics and a spectroscopic study of sulfur dioxide absorption by an ionic liquid and its mixtures with PEO.

    PubMed

    Hoher, Karina; Cardoso, Piercarlo F; Lepre, Luiz F; Ando, Rômulo A; Siqueira, Leonardo J A

    2016-10-19

    An investigation comprising experimental techniques (absorption capacity of SO 2 and vibrational spectroscopy) and molecular simulations (thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics) has been performed for the polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the ionic liquid butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([N 4111 ][Tf 2 N]) and their mixtures as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) absorbing materials. The polymer PEO has higher capacity to absorb SO 2 than the neat ionic liquid, whereas the mixtures presented intermediary absorption capacities. The band assigned to the symmetric stretching band of SO 2 at ca. 1140 cm -1 , which is considered a spectroscopic probe for the strength of SO 2 interactions with its neighborhood, shifts to lower wavenumbers as more negative total interaction energy values of SO 2 were evaluated from the simulations. The solvation free energy of SO 2 , ΔG sol , correlates linearly with the absorption capacity of SO 2 . The negative values of ΔG sol are due to negative and positive values of enthalpy and entropy, respectively. In the ionic liquid, SO 2 weakens the cation-anion interactions, whereas in the mixture with a high content of PEO these interactions are slightly increased. Such effects were correlated with the relative population of cisoid and transoid conformers of Tf 2 N anions as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of SO 2 in the systems provokes the increase of diffusion coefficients of the absorbing species in comparison with the systems without the gas. Proper to the slow dynamics of the polymer, the diffusion coefficient of ions and SO 2 diminishes with the increase of the PEO content.

  20. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    PubMed

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel