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Sample records for absorption bands related

  1. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  2. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  3. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  4. Spectrophotometer spectral bandwidth calibration with absorption bands crystal standard.

    PubMed

    Soares, O D; Costa, J L

    1999-04-01

    A procedure for calibration of a spectral bandwidth standard for high-resolution spectrophotometers is described. Symmetrical absorption bands for a crystal standard are adopted. The method relies on spectral band shape fitting followed by a convolution with the slit function of the spectrophotometer. A reference spectrophotometer is used to calibrate the spectral bandwidth standard. Bandwidth calibration curves for a minimum spectral transmission factor relative to the spectral bandwidth of the reference spectrophotometer are derived for the absorption bands at the wavelength of the band absorption maximum. The family of these calibration curves characterizes the spectral bandwidth standard. We calibrate the spectral bandwidth of a spectrophotometer with respect to the reference spectrophotometer by determining the spectral transmission factor minimum at every calibrated absorption band of the bandwidth standard for the nominal instrument values of the spectral bandwidth. With reference to the standard spectral bandwidth calibration curves, the relation of the spectral bandwidth to the reference spectrophotometer is determined. We determine the discrepancy in the spectrophotometers' spectral bandwidths by averaging the spectral bandwidth discrepancies relative to the standard calibrated values found at the absorption bands considered. A weighted average of the uncertainties is taken.

  5. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  6. Absorption band Q model for the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Given, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Attenuation in solids and liquids, as measured by the quality factor Q, is typically frequency dependent. In seismology, however, Q is usually assumed to be independent of frequency. Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. Specific features of the absorption band model are: low-Q in the seismic band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low-Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q sub s that increases with period, and low Q sub p/Q sub s at short periods in the middle mantle.

  7. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-01-01

    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  8. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  9. Absorption enhancement of a dual-band metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Han, Gui Ming; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose and fabricate a dual-band metamaterial absorber in 6-24 THz region. Electric field distribution reveal that the first absorption band is obtained from localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes which are excited both on inside and outside edges of each circular-patterned metal-dielectric stack, while the second absorption band is excited by LSP modes on outside edges of each stack. Measured results indicate that the absorption band width can be tuned by increasing the radius of circular-patterned layers or reducing the thickness of dielectric spacing layers. Moreover, the designed dual-band metamaterial absorber is independent on circular-patterned dielectric layer combinations.

  10. Relation of molecular structure to Franck-Condon bands in the visible-light absorption spectra of symmetric cationic cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Katrina Tao Hua; Silzel, John W

    2015-05-05

    A Franck-Condon (FC) model is used to study the solution-phase absorbance spectra of a series of seven symmetric cyanine dyes having between 22 and 77 atoms. Electronic transition energies were obtained from routine visible-light absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra. Harmonic normal modes were computed using density functional theory (DFT) and a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM), with frequencies corrected using measured mid-infrared spectra. The model predicts the relative energies of the two major vibronic bands to within 5% and 11%, respectively, and also reproduces structure-specific differences in vibronic band shapes. The bands themselves result from excitation of two distinct subsets of normal modes, one with frequencies between 150 and 625cm(-1), and the other between 850 and 1480cm(-1). Vibronic transitions excite symmetric in-plane bending of the polymethine chain, in-plane bends of the polymethine and aromatic C-H bonds, torsions and deformations of N-alkyl substituents, and in the case of the indocyanines, in-plane deformations of the indole rings. For two dyes, the model predicts vibronic coupling into symmetry-breaking torsions associated with trans-cis photoisomerization.

  11. Interpretation of absorption bands in airborne hyperspectral radiance data.

    PubMed

    Szekielda, Karl H; Bowles, Jeffrey H; Gillis, David B; Miller, W David

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can be used, without atmospheric correction, to determine the presence of accessory phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters using derivative techniques. However, care must be taken not to confuse other absorptions for those caused by the presence of pigments. Atmospheric correction, usually the first step to making products from hyperspectral data, may not completely remove Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands and these absorptions may interfere with identification of phytoplankton accessory pigments. Furthermore, the ability to resolve absorption bands depends on the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, which for a fixed spectral range also determines the number of observed bands. Based on this information, a study was undertaken to determine under what circumstances a hyperspectral sensor may determine the presence of pigments. As part of the study a hyperspectral imager was used to take high spectral resolution data over two different water masses. In order to avoid the problems associated with atmospheric correction this data was analyzed as radiance data without atmospheric correction. Here, the purpose was to identify spectral regions that might be diagnostic for photosynthetic pigments. Two well proven techniques were used to aid in absorption band recognition, the continuum removal of the spectra and the fourth derivative. The findings in this study suggest that interpretation of absorption bands in remote sensing data, whether atmospherically corrected or not, have to be carefully reviewed when they are interpreted in terms of photosynthetic pigments.

  12. Interpretation of Absorption Bands in Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance Data

    PubMed Central

    Szekielda, Karl H.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Gillis, David B.; Miller, W. David

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can be used, without atmospheric correction, to determine the presence of accessory phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters using derivative techniques. However, care must be taken not to confuse other absorptions for those caused by the presence of pigments. Atmospheric correction, usually the first step to making products from hyperspectral data, may not completely remove Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands and these absorptions may interfere with identification of phytoplankton accessory pigments. Furthermore, the ability to resolve absorption bands depends on the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, which for a fixed spectral range also determines the number of observed bands. Based on this information, a study was undertaken to determine under what circumstances a hyperspectral sensor may determine the presence of pigments. As part of the study a hyperspectral imager was used to take high spectral resolution data over two different water masses. In order to avoid the problems associated with atmospheric correction this data was analyzed as radiance data without atmospheric correction. Here, the purpose was to identify spectral regions that might be diagnostic for photosynthetic pigments. Two well proven techniques were used to aid in absorption band recognition, the continuum removal of the spectra and the fourth derivative. The findings in this study suggest that interpretation of absorption bands in remote sensing data, whether atmospherically corrected or not, have to be carefully reviewed when they are interpreted in terms of photosynthetic pigments. PMID:22574053

  13. Increasing efficiency in intermediate band solar cells with overlapping absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Akshay; Krich, Jacob J.

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are promising candidates for realizing high efficiency solar cells. In IB photovoltaics, photons are absorbed in one of three possible electronic transitions—valence to conduction band, valence to intermediate band, or intermediate to conduction band. With fully concentrated sunlight, when the band gaps have been chosen appropriately, the highest efficiency IB solar cells require that these three absorptions be non-overlapping, so absorbed photons of fixed energy contribute to only one transition. The realistic case of overlapping absorptions, where the transitions compete for photons, is generally considered to be a source of loss. We show that overlapping absorptions can in fact lead to significant improvements in IB solar cell efficiencies, especially for IB that are near the middle of the band gap. At low to moderate concentration, the highest efficiency requires overlapping absorptions. We use the detailed-balance method and indicate how much overlap of the absorptions is required to achieve efficiency improvements, comparing with some known cases. These results substantially broaden the set of materials that can be suitable for high-efficiency IB solar cells.

  14. e-beam irradiation effects on IR absorption bands in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichida, Masao; Nagao, Katsunori; Ikemoto, Yuka; Okazaki, Toshiya; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Kawakami, Akira; Kataura, Hiromichi; Umezu, Ikurou; Ando, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We have measured the absorption and Raman spectral change induced by the irradiation of e-beam. By the irradiation of e-beam on SWNTs thin films, the intensity of defect related Raman band increase, and the peak energy of IR absorption bands shift to the higher energy side. These results indicate that the origin of infrared band is due to the plasmon resonance of finite-length SWNT. We have estimated the effective tube length and defect density from IR absorption peak energy.

  15. Photonic band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummer, Karikkuzhi Variyath; Vijaya, Ramarao

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement in photonic band-edge-induced absorption and emission from rhodamine-B dye doped polystyrene pseudo gap photonic crystals is studied. The band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption is achieved by selecting the incident angle of the excitation beam so that the absorption spectrum of the emitter overlaps the photonic band edge. The band-edge-induced enhancement in emission, on the other hand, is possible with and without an enhancement in band-edge-induced absorption, depending on the collection angle of emission. Through a simple set of measurements with suitably chosen angles for excitation and emission, we achieve a maximum enhancement of 70% in emission intensity with band-edge-induced effects over and above the intrinsic emission in the case of self-assembled opals. This is a comprehensive effort to interpret tunable lasing in opals as well as to predict the wavelength of lasing arising as a result of band-edge-induced distributed feedback effects.

  16. Below-band-gap absorption in undoped GaAs at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiak, Michał; Walczak, Jarosław; Motyka, Marcin; Janiak, Filip; Trajnerowicz, Artur; Jasik, Agata

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents results of measurements of optical absorption in undoped epitaxial GaAs for photon energies below the band gap. Absorption spectra were determined from transmission spectra of a thin GaAs layer at several temperatures between 25 °C and 205 °C. We optimized our experiment to investigate the long-wavelength part of the spectrum, where the absorption is relatively low, but significant from the point of view of applications of GaAs in semiconductor lasers. Absorption of 100 cm-1 was observed over 30 nm below the band gap at high temperatures.

  17. Electronic Band Structure and Sub-band-gap Absorption of Nitrogen Hyperdoped Silicon.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Shao, Hezhu; Dong, Xiao; Li, Ning; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-05-27

    We investigated the atomic geometry, electronic band structure, and optical absorption of nitrogen hyperdoped silicon based on first-principles calculations. The results show that all the paired nitrogen defects we studied do not introduce intermediate band, while most of single nitrogen defects can introduce intermediate band in the gap. Considering the stability of the single defects and the rapid resolidification following the laser melting process in our sample preparation method, we conclude that the substitutional nitrogen defect, whose fraction was tiny and could be neglected before, should have considerable fraction in the hyperdoped silicon and results in the visible sub-band-gap absorption as observed in the experiment. Furthermore, our calculations show that the substitutional nitrogen defect has good stability, which could be one of the reasons why the sub-band-gap absorptance remains almost unchanged after annealing.

  18. Shape of impurity electronic absorption bands in nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1994-11-01

    The impurity-matrix anisotropic static intermolecular interactions, orientation-statistical properties, and electronic structure of uniaxial impurity molecules are shown to have a significant influence on spectral moments of the electronic absorption bands of impurities in the nematic liquid crystal. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Constraints on the absorption band model of Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Gary M.; Cormier, Vernon C.

    1980-10-01

    First order models for the combined depth and frequency dependence of Q are derived and tested using several independent constraints. (1) Using a microphysics approach, the adoption of an absorption band as a first-order model for the frequency dependence of Q is justified, and the expected depth behavior of relaxation times in the earth is derived. The significant new parameter in this model of Q is τ2, the period at the half-amplitude point of the high frequency end of the absorption band. (2) Using observed body-wave spectra, the existence of a frequency dependence in Q is proved, and the average location of that frequency dependence (i.e., τ2) is estimated to be in the range 1 to 2.5 Hz. (3) Under the constraints of Q model ratios, the depth dependence of τ2 is estimated by assuming that a free-oscillation and a body-wave Q model both measure Q from the same absorption band. The resulting τ2 is about 0.04 s in the upper 200 km and then increases exponentially with depth in the mantle to about 1.9 at the core mantle boundary. The Q model ratios are better satisfied if a second absorption band is hypothesized to operate in the depth range of the asthenosphere. In that case, τ2 for the mantle absorption band varies from about 0.09 s in the first 200 km to 4.0 s at 2886 km, and τ2 for the asthenosphere absorption band is about 0.005 s in the depth range 35-220 km. (4) Both classes of Q models are tested in the time domain using synthetic seismograms of Russian and American nuclear explosions. Although trade-offs between source and mantle transfer functions preclude further refinement of the models at this time, a compatibility is demonstrated between the double absorption band model and time domain constraints, including arrival time and pulse shape.

  20. Atmospheric absorption of high frequency noise and application to fractional-octave bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.

  1. Concerning the Optical Absorption Band of the Hydrated Electron,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    methylene blue ) showed marked nonlinear absorption due to saturation of optical transitions, no such change was observed for hydrated electrons even though the light intensity was varied by > 10 to the 7th power up to 200 photons per hydrated electron per sq cm. Consequently the photoexcited state lifetime is estimated to be than 6 x 10 to the -12th power sec. This finding is discussed briefly in terms of three possible origins for the absorption band, namely that involving excitation to a bound excited state, as a photoionization efficiency profile or as a distribution

  2. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  3. AKARI observations of ice absorption bands towards edge-on young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Y.; Kamuro, D.; Sakon, I.; Itoh, Y.; Terada, H.; Noble, J. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Fraser, H. J.; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Kawamura, A.; Ueno, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks and envelopes of low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) contain significant amounts of ice. Such icy material will evolve to become volatile components of planetary systems, such as comets in our solar system. Aims: To investigate the composition and evolution of circumstellar ice around low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs), we observed ice absorption bands in the near infrared (NIR) towards eight YSOs ranging from class 0 to class II, among which seven are associated with edge-on disks. Methods: We performed slit-less spectroscopic observations using the grism mode of the InfraRed Camera (IRC) on board AKARI, which enables us to obtain full NIR spectra from 2.5 μm to 5 μm, including the CO2 band and the blue wing of the H2O band, which are inaccessible from the ground. We developed procedures to carefully process the spectra of targets with nebulosity. The spectra were fitted with polynomial baselines to derive the absorption spectra. The molecular absorption bands were then fitted with the laboratory database of ice absorption bands, considering the instrumental line profile and the spectral resolution of the grism dispersion element. Results: Towards the class 0-I sources (L1527, IRC-L1041-2, and IRAS 04302), absorption bands of H2O, CO2, CO, and XCN are clearly detected. Column density ratios of CO2 ice and CO ice relative to H2O ice are 21-28% and 13-46%, respectively. If XCN is OCN-, its column density is as high as 2-6% relative to H2O ice. The HDO ice feature at 4.1 μm is tentatively detected towards the class 0-I sources and HV Tau. Non-detections of the CH-stretching mode features around 3.5 μm provide upper limits to the CH3OH abundance of 26% (L1527) and 42% (IRAS 04302) relative to H2O. We tentatively detect OCS ice absorption towards IRC-L1041-2. Towards class 0-I sources, the detected features should mostly originate in the cold envelope, while CO gas and OCN- could originate in the region close to the protostar

  4. The nature of splitting of fullerene C{sub 70} polarized absorption bands in liquid-crystal matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1994-06-01

    The recently discovered splitting of polarized electronic absorption bands of fullerene C{sub 70} in uniaxial liquid-crystal matrices is shown to result from the spectral dependence of the polarization of these bands relative to the molecular coordinate system. 9 refs.

  5. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Individual induced absorption bands in MgF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Sergeev, P. B.

    2008-03-01

    The absorption spectra of MgF2 samples exposed to an electron beam and laser radiation at 248, 308, and 372 nm are investigated. Fourteen individual absorption bands are separated in the spectra. The parameters of the eight spectra of them are obtained for the first time. The separated bands are assigned to the intrinsic defects of the MgF2 crystal.

  6. Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands measured in the IR spectral range .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, S.; Piccioni, G.; Snels, M.; Adriani, A.; Grassi, D.

    In this work we present two experimental setup able to characterize the optical properties of gases, in particular CO_2 and H_2, at typically planetary conditions. The apparatus consists of a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IT) interferometer able to work in a wide spectral range, from 350 to 25000 cm-1 (0.4 to 29 mu m ) with a relatively high spectral resolution, from 10 to 0.07 cm-1. Two dedicated gas cells have been integrated with the FT-IR. The first, called High Pressure High Temperature (HP-HT), can support pressures up to 300 bar, temperatures up to 300oC and is characterized by an optical path of 2 cm. The second one, a Multi Pass (MP) absorption gas cell, is designed to have a variable optical path, from 2.5 to 30 m, can be heated up to 200o and operate at pressures up to 10 bar. In this paper, measurements of Collision-Induced Absorption (CIA) bands in carbon dioxide and hydrogen recorded in the InfraRed spectral range will be presented. In principle, linear symmetric molecules such as CO_2 and H_2 possess no dipole moment, but, even when the pressure is only a few bar, we have observed the Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands. This absorption results from a short-time collisional interaction between molecules. The band integrated intensity shows a quadratic dependence versus density opposed to the absorption by isolated molecules, which follows Beer's law \\citep{Beer's}. This behaviour suggests an absorption by pairs rather than by individual molecules. The bands integrated intensities show a linear dependence vs square density according to \\citep {CIA Shape} and \\citep{CIA posi}. For what concerns the H_2 CIA bands, a preliminary comparison between simulated data obtained with the model described in \\citep{CIA H2}and measured, shows a good agreement. These processes are very relevant in the dense atmospheres of planets, such as those of Venus and Jupiter and also in extrasolar planets. A detailed knowledge of these contributions is very

  7. Decomposing the First Absorption Band of OCS Using Photofragment Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Toulson, Benjamin W; Murray, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Photofragment excitation spectra of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) have been recorded from 212-260 nm by state-selectively probing either electronically excited S((1)D) or ground state S((3)P) photolysis products via 2 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. Probing the major S((1)D) product results in a broad, unstructured action spectrum that reproduces the overall shape of the first absorption band. In contrast, spectra obtained probing S((3)P) products display prominent resonances superimposed on a broad continuum; the resonances correspond to the diffuse vibrational structure observed in the conventional absorption spectrum. The vibrational structure is assigned to four progressions, each dominated by the C-S stretch, ν1, following direct excitation to quasi-bound singlet and triplet states. The S((3)PJ) products are formed with a near-statistical population distribution over the J = 2, 1, and 0 spin-orbit levels across the wavelength range investigated. Although a minor contributor to the S atom yield near the peak of the absorption cross section, the relative yield of S((3)P) increases significantly at longer wavelengths. The experimental measurements validate recent theoretical work characterizing the electronic states responsible for the first absorption band by Schmidt and co-workers.

  8. Doping-Induced Absorption Bands in P3HT: Polarons and Bipolarons.

    PubMed

    Enengl, Christina; Enengl, Sandra; Pluczyk, Sandra; Havlicek, Marek; Lapkowski, Mieczyslaw; Neugebauer, Helmut; Ehrenfreund, Eitan

    2016-12-05

    In this work, we focus on the formation of different kinds of charge carriers such as polarons and bipolarons upon p-type doping (oxidation) of the organic semiconductor poly(3- hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). We elucidate the cyclic voltammogram during oxidation of this polymer and present spectroscopic changes upon doping in the UV/Vis/near-IR range as well as in the mid-IR range. In the low-oxidation regime, two absorption bands related to sub-gap transitions appear, one in the UV/Vis range and another one in the mid-IR range. The UV/Vis absorption gradually decreases upon further doping while the mid-IR absorption shifts to lower energy. Additionally, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements are performed, showing an increase of the EPR signal up to a certain doping level, which significantly decreases upon further doping. Furthermore, the absorption spectra in the UV/Vis range are analyzed in relation to the morphology (crystalline vs. amorphous) by using theoretical models. Finally, the calculated charge carriers from cyclic voltammogram are linked together with optical transitions as well as with the EPR signals upon p-type doping. We stress that our results indicate the formation of polarons at low doping levels and the existence of bipolarons at high doping levels. The presented spectroscopic data are an experimental evidence of the formation of bipolarons in P3HT.

  9. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  10. Conformational statistics of molecules with inner rotation and shapes of their electronic absorption bands

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    The effect of conformational statistics of molecules with inner rotation of {pi}-conjugated fragments on the position, intensity, and electronic absorption band shapes is studied in isotropic molecular media. It is shown that the conformational disorder of molecules with one inner rotation degree of freedom exerts an appreciable effect on the shift, inhomogeneous broadening, and asymmetry of the electronic absorption bands. An interpretation of the available experimental data is give. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  12. Relative Band Oscillator Strengths for Carbon Monoxide: Alpha (1)Pi-Chi (1)Sigma(+) Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Menningen, K. L.; Lee, Wei; Stoll, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    Band oscillator strengths for CO transitions between the electronic states A (l)Pi and X(1)Sigma(+) were measured via absorption with a synchrotron radiation source. When referenced to the well-characterized (5,0) band oscillator strength, our relative values for the (7,0) to (11,0) bands are most consistent with the recent experiments of Chan et al. and the theoretical predictions of Kirby & Cooper. Since the results from various laboratory techniques and theory now agree, analyses of interstellar CO based on absorption from A-X bands are no longer hindered by uncertainties in oscillator strength.

  13. HAC: Band Gap, Photoluminescence, and Optical/Near-Infrared Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Ryutov, Dimitri; Furton, Douglas G.

    1996-01-01

    We report results of laboratory measurements which illustrate the wide range of physical properties found among hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) solids. Within this range, HAC can match quantitatively the astronomical phenomena ascribed to carbonaceous coatings on interstellar grains. We find the optical band gap of HAC to be well correlated with other physical properties of HAC of astronomical interest, and conclude that interstellar HAC must be fairly hydrogen-rich with a band gap of E(sub g) is approx. greater than 2.0 eV.

  14. Temperature behavior of optical absorption bands in colored LiF crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastampa, Renato; Missori, Mauro; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Conti, Claudio; Vincenti, Maria Aurora; Montereali, Rosa Maria

    We measured the optical absorption spectra of thermally treated, gamma irradiated LiF crystals, as a function of temperature in the range 16-300 K. The temperature dependence of intensity, peak position and bandwidth of F and M absorption bands were obtained.

  15. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-04

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  16. Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

  17. High resolution absorption cross-sections and band oscillator strengths of the Schumann-Runge absorption bands of isotopic oxygen, (O-18)2, at 79 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Friedman, R. S.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Cross-sections of (O-18)2 at 79 K have been obtained from photoabsorption measurements at various pressures throughout the wavelength region 177.8-197.8 nm with a 6.65 m photoelectric scanning spectrometer equipped with a 2400 lines/mm grating and having an instrumental width (FWHM) of 0.0013 nm. The measured absorption cross-sections of the Schumann-Runge bands (14,0) through (2,0) are, with the exception of the (12,0) band, independent of the instrumental width. The measured cross-sections are presented graphically here and are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm as numerical compilations stored on magnetic tape. Band oscillator strengths of those bands have been determined by direct numerical integration of the measured absolute cross-sections and are in excellent agreement with these theoretically calculated values.

  18. Possible spinel absorption bands in S-asteroid visible reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Vilas, F.; Sunshine, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Minor absorption bands in the 0.55 to 0.7 micron wavelength range of reflectance spectra of 10 S asteroids have been found and compared with those of spinel-group minerals using the modified Gaussian model. Most of these S asteroids are consistently shown to have two absorption bands around 0.6 and 0.67 micron. Of the spinel-group minerals examined in this study, the 0.6 and 0.67 micron bands are most consistent with those seen in chromite. Recently, the existence of spinels has also been detected from the absorption-band features around 1 and 2 micron of two S-asteroid reflectance spectra, and chromite has been found in a primitive achondrite as its major phase. These new findings suggest a possible common existence of spinel-group minerals in the solar system.

  19. Hot Bands in Overtone Absorption Transitions: High Temperature Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-17

    the overtone transition. ൖ WWIŝST3" 3 24 002 15.NUMBER ,OF ,,A Overtone Spectroscopy, Hot Bands 16. PRKI CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...Rev 2-89) aWVPOO AfeD $10 139-18’q wAPI .’ N o, lgi OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH GRANT or CONTRACT N00014-88-K-4130 R&T Code 4131063 Technical Report No...Unannounced fJ Justification ................ Prepared for Publication By ................ Di•.t. ibution I in Availability Codes Avail and /or Dist Special

  20. Varied absorption peaks of dual-band metamaterial absorber analysis by using reflection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Han; Yu, Yan-Tao; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Shi-Yong; Liu, Dan-Ping; Ou, Xiang; Zeng, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Cross-resonator metamaterial absorbers (MMA) have been widely investigated from microwave to optical frequencies. However, only part of the factors influencing the absorption properties were analyzed in previous works at the same time. In order to completely understand how the spacer thickness, dielectric parameter and incidence angle affect the absorption properties of the dual-band MMA, two sets of simulation were performed. It was found that with increasing incident angles, the low-frequency absorption peak showed a blue shift, while the high-frequency absorption peaks showed a red shift. However, with the increase in spacer thickness, both of the absorption peaks showed a red shift. By using the reflection theory expressions, the physical mechanism of the cross-resonator MMA was well explained. This method provides an effective way to analyze multi-band absorber in technology.

  1. Fe-substituted indium thiospinels: New intermediate band semiconductors with better absorption of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Chen, Haijie; Qin, Mingsheng; Yang, Chongyin; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Yufeng; Zhang, Wenqing; Huang, Fuqiang

    2013-06-01

    The indium thiospinels In2S3 and MgIn2S4 are promising host for the intermediated band (IB) photovoltaic materials due to their ideal band gap value. Here, the optical properties and electronic structure of Fe-doped In2S3 and MgIn2S4 have been investigated. All the Fe-substituted semiconductors exhibit two additional absorption bands at about 0.7 and 1.25 eV, respectively. The results of first-principles calculations revealed that the Fe substituted at the octahedral In site would introduce a partially filled IB into the band gap. Thanks to the formation of IB, the Fe-substituted semiconductors have the ability to absorb the photons with energies below the band gap. With the wide-spectrum absorption of solar energy, these materials possess potential applications in photovoltaic domain.

  2. The effective air absorption coefficient for predicting reverberation time in full octave bands.

    PubMed

    Wenmaekers, R H C; Hak, C C J M; Hornikx, M C J

    2014-12-01

    A substantial amount of research has been devoted to producing a calculation model for air absorption for pure tones. However, most statistical and geometrical room acoustic prediction models calculate the reverberation time in full octave bands in accordance with ISO 3382-1 (International Organization for Standardization, 2009). So far, the available methods that allow calculation of air absorption in octave bands have not been investigated for room acoustic applications. In this paper, the effect of air absorption on octave band reverberation time calculations is investigated based on calculations. It is found that the approximation method, as described in the standard ANSI S1.26 (American National Standards Institute, 1995), fails to estimate accurate decay curves for full octave bands. In this paper, a method is used to calculate the energy decay curve in rooms based on a summation of pure tones within the band. From this decay curve, which is found to be slightly concave upwards, T20 and T30 can be determined. For different conditions, an effective intensity attenuation coefficient mB ;eff for the full octave bands has been calculated. This mB ;eff can be used for reverberation time calculations, if results are to be compared with T20 or T30 measurements. Also, guidelines are given for the air absorption correction of decay curves, measured in a scale model.

  3. Geometrical attenuation, frequency dependence of Q, and the absorption band problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Igor B.

    2008-10-01

    A geometrical attenuation model is proposed as an alternative to the conventional frequency-dependent attenuation law Q(f) = Q0(f/f0)η. The new model provides a straightforward differentiation between the geometrical and effective attenuation (Qe) which incorporates the intrinsic attenuation and small-scale scattering. Unlike the (Q0, η) description, the inversion procedure uses only the spectral amplitude data and does not rely on elaborate theoretical models or restrictive assumptions. Data from over 40 reported studies were transformed to the new parametrization. The levels of geometrical attenuation strongly correlate with crustal tectonic types and decrease with tectonic age. The corrected values of Qe are frequency-independent and generally significantly higher than Q0 and show no significant correlation with tectonic age. Several case studies were revisited in detail, with significant changes in the interpretations. The absorption-band and the `10-Hz transition' are not found in the corrected Qe data, and therefore, these phenomena are interpreted as related to geometrical attenuation. The absorption band could correspond to changes in the dominant mode content of the wavefield as the frequency changes from about 0.1 to 100 Hz. Alternatively, it could also be a pure artefact related to the power-law Q(f) paradigm above. The explicit separation of the geometrical and intrinsic attenuation achieves three goals: (1) it provides an unambiguous, assumption- and model-free description of attenuation, (2) it allows relating the observations to the basic physics and geology and (3) it simplifies the interpretation because of reduced emphasis on the apparent Q(f) dependence. The model also agrees remarkably well with the initial attempts for finite-difference short-period coda waveform modelling. Because of its consistency and direct link to the observations, the approach should also help in building robust and transportable coda magnitudes and in seismic

  4. Measurement of the depolarization ratio of Rayleigh scattering at absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglister, J.; Steinberg, I. Z.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the depolarization ratio ρv of light scattered by the pigments lycopene and β-carotene at the red part of their absorption bands yielded values which are very close to the theoretical value 1/3 of a fully anisotropic molecular polarizability, i.e., that due to an electric dipole moment. Measurements of ρv at the blue edge of the visible absorption band of pinacyanol chloride yielded a value of 0.75 at 472.2 nm, which is the maximum value that a depolarization ratio can assume, and is attained if the average molecular polarizability is zero. This is possible only if the diagonalized polarizability tensor has at least one negative element to counterbalance the positive ones. A negative refractive index at the blue edge of the absorption band is thus experimentally demonstrated.

  5. AKARI observations of ice absorption bands towards edge-on YSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Y.; Kamuro, D.; Sakon, I.; Itoh, Y.; Noble, J. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M., Fraser, H. J.; Terada, H.; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Kawamura, A.; Ueno, M.

    2011-05-01

    Circumstellar disks and envelopes of low-mass YSOs contain significant amounts of ice. Such icy material will evolve to volatile components of planetary systems, such as comets in our solar system. In order to investigate the composition and evolution of circumstellar ice around low-mass YSOs, we have observed ice absorption bands towards eight YSOs ranging from class 0 to class II, among which seven are associated with edge-on disks. Slit-less spectroscopic observations are performed using the grism mode of Infrared Camera (IRC) on board AKARI, which enables us to obtain full NIR spectra from 2.5 μm to 5 μm, including the CO_2 band and the blue wing of the H_2O band, which are not accessible from the ground. We developed procedures to reduce the spectra of targets with nebulosity. The spectra are fitted with polynomial baselines to derive the absorption spectra. Then we fit the molecular absorption bands with the laboratory spectra from the database, considering the instrumental line profile and the spectral resolution of the dispersion element. Towards the Class 0-I sources, absorption bands of H_2O, CO_2, CO and XCN (OCN^-) are clearly detected. Weak features of 13CO_2, HDO, the C-H band, and gaseous CO are detected as well. OCS ice absorption is tentatively detected towards IRC-L1041-2. The detected features would mostly originate in the cold envelope, while CO gas and OCN^- could originate in the region close to the protostar. Towards class II stars, H_2O ice band is detected. We also detected H_2O ice, CO_2 ice and tentative CO gas features of the foreground component of class II stars.

  6. Full band structure calculation of two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J. L.; Rioux, J.; Sipe, J. E.

    2011-03-28

    Degenerate two-photon indirect absorption in silicon is an important limiting effect on the use of silicon structures for all-optical information processing at telecommunication wavelengths. We perform a full band structure calculation to investigate two-photon indirect absorption in bulk silicon, using a pseudopotential description of the energy bands and an adiabatic bond charge model to describe phonon dispersion and polarization. Our results agree well with some recent experimental results. The transverse acoustic/optical phonon-assisted processes dominate.

  7. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue

    2014-12-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  8. Emergence of Very Broad Infrared Absorption Band By Hyperdoping of Silicon with Chalcogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-03

    measured by Hall effect in Ref. 9 (crosses) as functions of implanted sulfur dose. (c) Calculated reflectivity by Kramers- Kronig transformation of the...MIR band is small enough, this assumption is reasonable according to the Kramers- Kronig relationship between optical absorption and reflectivity...calculated by a Kramers- Kronig transformation of the absorption spectrum shown in Fig. 1(a) and the results are shown in Fig. 1(c). However, the a value

  9. A band model for melanin deducted from optical absorption and photoconductivity experiments.

    PubMed

    Crippa, P R; Cristofoletti, V; Romeo, N

    1978-01-03

    Natural and synthetic melanins have been studied by optical absorption and photoconductivity measurements in the range 200--700 nm. Both optical absorption and photoconductivity increase in the ultraviolet region, and a negative photoconductivity was observed with a maximum near 500 nm. This behaviour has been interpreted by the band model of amorphous materials and an "optical gap" of 3.4 eV has been determined.

  10. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250-450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl- negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Diversity in the Visible-NIR Absorption Band Characteristics of Lunar and Asteroidal Plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Kaiden, H.; Misawa, K.; Kojima, H.; Uemoto, K.; Ohtake, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral properties of plagioclase has been challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining good plagioclase separates from pristine planetary materials such as meteorites and returned lunar samples. After an early study indicated that the 1.25 m band position of plagioclase spectrum might be correlated with the molar percentage of anorthite (An#) [1], there have been few studies which dealt with the band center behavior. In this study, the VNIR absorption band parameters of plagioclase samples have been derived using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) [2] following a pioneering study by [3].

  12. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  13. Isothermal annealing of a 620 nm optical absorption band in Brazilian topaz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotani, Sadao; Matsuoka, Masao; Albuquerque, Antonio Roberto Pereira Leite

    2013-04-01

    Isothermal decay behaviors, observed at 515, 523, 562, and 693 K, for an optical absorption band at 620 nm in gamma-irradiated Brazilian blue topaz were analyzed using a kinetic model consisting of O- bound small polarons adjacent to recombination centers (electron traps). The kinetic equations obtained on the basis of this model were solved using the method of Runge-Kutta and the fit parameters describing these defects were determined with a grid optimization method. Two activation energies of 0.52±0.08 and 0.88±0.13 eV, corresponding to two different structural configurations of the O- polarons, explained well the isothermal decay curves using first-order kinetics expected from the kinetic model. On the other hand, thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra measured at various temperatures showed a single band at 400 nm in the temperature range of 373-553 K in which the 620 nm optical absorption band decreased in intensity. Monochromatic TL glow curve data at 400 nm extracted from the TL emission spectra observed were found to be explained reasonably by using the knowledge obtained from the isothermal decay analysis. This suggests that two different structural configurations of O- polarons are responsible for the 620 nm optical absorption band and that the thermal annealing of the polarons causes the 400 nm TL emission band.

  14. High resolution absorption cross-sections and band oscillator strengths of the Schumann-Runge absorption bands of isotopic oxygen, (0-16)(0-18), at 79 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Friedman, R. S.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-sections of (0-16)(0-18) at 79 K have been obtained from photoabsorption measurements on mixtures of (0-16)2, (0-18)2, and (0-16)(0-18) at various pressures throughout the wavelength region 180.5-195.3 nm with a 6.65 m photoelectric scanning spectrometer equipped with a 2400 lines/mm grating and having an instrumental width (FWHM) of 0.0013 nm. The measured absorption cross-sections of the (0-16)(0-18) Schumann-Runge bands (11.0)-(3.0) are independent of the instrumental width. The measured cross-sections are presented graphically.

  15. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Heera, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm–4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc’s model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  16. Dual-Band Perfect Absorption by Breaking the Symmetry of Metamaterial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Le Dinh; Qui, Vu Dinh; Dinh, Tiep Hong; Hai, Pham; Giang, Trinh Thị; Cuong, Tran Manh; Tung, Bui Son; Lam, Vu Dinh

    2017-02-01

    Since the first proposal of Landy et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:207402, 2008), the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) has rapidly become one of the most crucial research trends. Recently, dual-band, multi-band and broadband MPA have been highly desirable in electronic applications. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate a MPA structure which can generate dual-band absorption operating at the microwave frequency by breaking the symmetry of structure. There is an agreement between simulation and experimental results. The results can be explained by using the equivalent LC circuit and the electric field distribution of this structure. In addition, various structures with different symmetry configurations were studied to gain greater insight into the absorption.

  17. Jet-cooled infrared absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of HCOOH and HCOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Wenguang; Duan, Chuanxi

    2017-04-01

    The jet-cooled absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of normal formic acid (HCOOH) and deuterated formic acid (HCOOD) was recorded in the frequency range of 1370-1392 cm-1 with distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs) as the tunable infrared radiations. A segmented rapid-scan data acquisition scheme was developed for pulsed supersonic jet infrared laser absorption spectroscopy based on DFB-QCLs with a moderate vacuum pumping capacity. The unperturbed band-origin and rotational constants in the excited vibrational state were determined for both HCOOH and HCOOD. The unperturbed band-origin locates at 1379.05447(11) cm-1 for HCOOH, and 1366.48430(39) cm-1 for HCOOD, respectively.

  18. Understanding of sub-band gap absorption of femtosecond-laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon using synchrotron-based techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Chen, S. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Chen, L. Y.; Singh, Shashi B.; Shao, Y. C.; Wang, Y. F.; Hsieh, S. H.; Hsueh, H. C.; Chiou, J. W.; Chen, C. H.; Jang, L. Y.; Cheng, C. L.; Pong, W. F.; Hu, Y. F.

    2015-06-01

    The correlation between sub-band gap absorption and the chemical states and electronic and atomic structures of S-hyperdoped Si have been extensively studied, using synchrotron-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) and first-principles calculation. S 2p XPS spectra reveal that the S-hyperdoped Si with the greatest (~87%) sub-band gap absorption contains the highest concentration of S2- (monosulfide) species. Annealing S-hyperdoped Si reduces the sub-band gap absorptance and the concentration of S2- species, but significantly increases the concentration of larger S clusters [polysulfides (Sn2-, n > 2)]. The Si K-edge XANES spectra show that S hyperdoping in Si increases (decreased) the occupied (unoccupied) electronic density of states at/above the conduction-band-minimum. VB-PES spectra evidently reveal that the S-dopants not only form an impurity band deep within the band gap, giving rise to the sub-band gap absorption, but also cause the insulator-to-metal transition in S-hyperdoped Si samples. Based on the experimental results and the calculations by density functional theory, the chemical state of the S species and the formation of the S-dopant states in the band gap of Si are critical in determining the sub-band gap absorptance of hyperdoped Si samples.

  19. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  20. Analysis of wavelength-dependent photoisomerization quantum yields in bilirubins by fitting two exciton absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Troup, G. J.; Pratesi, R.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption spectra of bilirubins were deconvoluted by two Gaussian curves of equal width representing the exciton bands of the non-degenerate molecular system. The two bands were used to study the wavelength dependence of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) configurational photoisomerization quantum yield of the bichromophoric bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IX), the intrinsically asymmetric bile pigment associated with jaundice and the symmetrically substituted bilirubins (bilirubin-IIIalpha and mesobilirubin-XIIIalpha), when they are irradiated in aqueous solution bound to human serum albumin (HSA). The same study was performed for BR-IX in ammoniacal methanol solution (NH4OH/MeOH). The quantum yields of the configurational photoprocesses were fitted with a combination function of the two Gaussian bands normalized to the total absorption, using the proportionality coefficients and a scaling factor as parameters. The decrease of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) quantum yield with increasing wavelength, which occurs for wavelengths longer than the most probable Franck-Condon transition of the molecule, did not result in a unique function of the exciton absorptions. In particular we found two ranges corresponding to different exciton interactions with different proportionality coefficients and scaling factors. The wavelength-dependent photoisomerization of bilirubins was described as an abrupt change in quantum yield as soon as the resulting excitation was strongly localized in each chromophore. The change was correlated to a variation of the interaction between the two chromophores when the short-wavelength exciton absorption became vanishingly small. With the help of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BR-IX in HSA, a small band was resolved in the bilirubin absorption spectrum, delivering part of the energy required for the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) photoisomerization of the molecule.

  1. Assignment and rotational analysis of new absorption bands of carbon dioxide isotopologues in Venus spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, S.; Borkov, Yu. G.; Vander Auwera, J.; Drummond, R.; Mahieux, A.; Wilquet, V.; Vandaele, A. C.; Perevalov, V. I.; Tashkun, S. A.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present absorption bands of carbon dioxide isotopologues, detected by the Solar Occultation for the Infrared Range (SOIR) instrument on board the Venus Express Satellite. The SOIR instrument combines an echelle spectrometer and an Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter (AOTF) for order selection. It performs solar occultation measurements in the Venus atmosphere in the IR region (2.2-4.3 μm), at a resolution of 0.12-0.18 cm-1. The wavelength range probed by SOIR allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere above the cloud layer (65-150 km) to be made with emphasis on the vertical distributions of gases. Thanks to the SOIR spectral resolution, a new CO2 absorption band was identified: the 21101-01101 band of 16O12C18O with R branch up to J=31. Two other previously reported bands were observed dispelling any doubts about their identifications: the 20001-00001 band of 16O13C18O [Villanueva G, et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2008;109:883-894] and the 01111-00001 band of 16O12C18O [Villanueva G, et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2008;109:883-894 and Wilquet V, et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2008;109:895-905]. These bands were analyzed, and spectroscopic constants characterizing them were obtained. The rotational assignment of the 20001-00001 band was corrected. The present measurements are compared with data available in the HITRAN database.

  2. The Soret absorption band of isolated chlorophyll a and b tagged with quaternary ammonium ions.

    PubMed

    Stockett, Mark H; Musbat, Lihi; Kjær, Christina; Houmøller, Jørgen; Toker, Yoni; Rubio, Angel; Milne, Bruce F; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2015-10-21

    We have performed gas-phase absorption spectroscopy in the Soret-band region of chlorophyll (Chl) a and b tagged by quaternary ammonium ions together with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. This band is the strongest in the visible region of metalloporphyrins and an important reporter on the microenvironment. The cationic charge tags were tetramethylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, and acetylcholine, and the dominant dissociation channel in all cases was breakage of the complex to give neutral Chl and the charge tag as determined by photoinduced dissociation mass spectroscopy. Two photons were required to induce fragmentation on the time scale of the experiment (microseconds). Action spectra were recorded where the yield of the tag as a function of excitation wavelength was sampled. These spectra are taken to represent the corresponding absorption spectra. In the case of Chl a we find that the tag hardly influences the band maximum which for all three tags is at 403 ± 5 nm. A smaller band with maximum at 365 ± 10 nm was also measured for all three complexes. The spectral quality is worse in the case of Chl b due to lower ion beam currents; however, there is clear evidence for the absorption being to the red of that of Chl a (most intense peak at 409 ± 5 nm) and also a more split band. Our results demonstrate that the change in the Soret-band spectrum when one peripheral substituent (CH3) is replaced by another (CHO) is an intrinsic effect. First principles TD-DFT calculations agree with our experiments, supporting the intrinsic nature of the difference between Chl a and b and also displaying minimal spectral changes when different charge tags are employed. The deviations between theory and experiment have allowed us to estimate that the Soret-band absorption maxima in vacuo for the neutral Chl a and Chl b should occur at 405 nm and 413 nm, respectively. Importantly, the Soret bands of the isolated species are significantly blueshifted

  3. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-28

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  4. PRINCIPAL INFRARED ABSORPTION BANDS OF SOME DERIVATIVES OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE AND 1,3,5TRINITROBENZENE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The frequencies of the strong infrared absorption bands of 46 derivatives of di- and tri-nitrobenzene were measured and tabulated. The vibrational ... modes producing these absorptions were assigned in most cases. The effect of structure on the frequency of the absorption due to each of the modes is discussed, with emphasis on identifying unknowns. (Author)

  5. Solvatochromic Shifts on Absorption and Fluorescence Bands of N,N-Dimethylaniline.

    PubMed

    Fdez Galván, Ignacio; Elena Martín, M; Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; Aguilar, Manuel A

    2009-02-10

    A theoretical study of the absorption and fluorescence UV/vis spectra of N,N-dimethylaniline in different solvents has been performed, using a method combining quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, and the mean field approximation. The transitions between the three lowest-lying states have been calculated in vacuum as well as in cyclohexane, tetrahydrofuran, and water. The apparent anomalies experimentally found in water (a blue shift in the absorption bands with respect to the trend in other solvents, and an abnormally high red shift for the fluorescence band) are well reproduced and explained in view of the electronic structure of the solute and the solvent distribution around it. Additional calculations were done with a mixture of cyclohexane and tetrahydrofuran as solvent, which displays a nonlinear solvatochromic shift. Results, although not conclusive, are consistent with experiment and provide a possible explanation for the nonlinear behavior in the solvent mixture.

  6. An alternative model for photodynamic therapy of cancers: Hot-band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Jiyao

    2013-12-01

    The sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS), a photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT), has an absorption tail in the near-infrared region (700-900 nm) which is so-called hot band absorption (HBA). With the HBA of 800 nm, the up-conversion excitation of AlPcS was achieved followed by the anti-Stocks emission (688 nm band) and singlet oxygen production. The HBA PDT of AlPcS seriously damaged the KB and HeLa cancer cells, with a typical light dose dependent mode. Particularly, the in vitro experiments with the AlPcS shielding solutions further showed that the HBA PDT can overcome a self-shielding effect benefiting the PDT applications.

  7. PHASE ANGLE EFFECTS ON 3 μm ABSORPTION BAND ON CERES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DAWN MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Takir, D.; Reddy, V.; Sanchez, J. A.; Corre, L. Le; Hardersen, P. S.; Nathues, A.

    2015-05-01

    Phase angle-induced spectral effects are important to characterize since they affect spectral band parameters such as band depth and band center, and therefore skew mineralogical interpretations of planetary bodies via reflectance spectroscopy. Dwarf planet (1) Ceres is the next target of NASA’s Dawn mission, which is expected to arrive in 2015 March. The visible and near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) on board Dawn has the spatial and spectral range to characterize the surface between 0.25–5.0 μm. Ceres has an absorption feature at 3.0 μm due to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing minerals. We analyzed phase angle-induced spectral effects on the 3 μm absorption band on Ceres using spectra measured with the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9–4.2 μm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Ceres LXD spectra were measured at different phase angles ranging from 0.°7 to 22°. We found that the band center slightly increases from 3.06 μm at lower phase angles (0.°7 and 6°) to 3.07 μm at higher phase angles (11° and 22°), the band depth decreases by ∼20% from lower phase angles to higher phase angles, and the band area decreases by ∼25% from lower phase angles to higher phase angles. Our results will have implications for constraining the abundance of OH on the surface of Ceres from VIR spectral data, which will be acquired by Dawn starting spring 2015.

  8. Search for CO absorption bands in IUE far-ultraviolet spectra of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, Susan E.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the red supergiant (M2 Iab) alpha Ori with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided an unambiguous detection of a far-ultraviolet (far-UV) chromospheric continuum on which are superposed strong molecular absorption bands. The absorption bands have been identified by Carpenter et al. (1994) with the fourth-positive A-X system of CO and are likely formed in the circumstellar shell. Comparison of these GHRS data with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of alpha Ori indicates that both the continuum and the CO absorption features can be seen with IUE, especially if multiple IUE spectra, reduced with the post-1981 IUESIPS extraction procedure (i.e., with an oversampling slit), are carefully coadded to increase the signal to noise over that obtainable with a single spectrum. We therefore initiated a program, utilizing both new and archival IUE Short Wavelength Prime (SWP) spectra, to survey 15 cool, low-gravity stars, including alpha Ori, for the presence of these two new chromospheric and circumstellar shell diagnostics. We establish positive detections of far-UV stellar continua, well above estimated IUE in-order scattered light levels, in spectra of all of the program stars. However, well-defined CO absorption features are seen only in the alpha Ori spectra, even though spectra of most of the program stars have sufficient signal to noise to allow the dectection of features of comparable magnitude to the absorptions seen in alpha Ori. Clearly if CO is present in the circumstellar environments of any of these stars, it is at much lower column densities.

  9. Understanding of sub-band gap absorption of femtosecond-laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon using synchrotron-based techniques

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Chen, S. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Chen, L. Y.; Singh, Shashi B.; Shao, Y. C.; Wang, Y. F.; Hsieh, S. H.; Hsueh, H. C.; Chiou, J. W.; Chen, C. H.; Jang, L. Y.; Cheng, C. L.; Pong, W. F.; Hu, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between sub-band gap absorption and the chemical states and electronic and atomic structures of S-hyperdoped Si have been extensively studied, using synchrotron-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES) and first-principles calculation. S 2p XPS spectra reveal that the S-hyperdoped Si with the greatest (~87%) sub-band gap absorption contains the highest concentration of S2− (monosulfide) species. Annealing S-hyperdoped Si reduces the sub-band gap absorptance and the concentration of S2− species, but significantly increases the concentration of larger S clusters [polysulfides (Sn2−, n > 2)]. The Si K-edge XANES spectra show that S hyperdoping in Si increases (decreased) the occupied (unoccupied) electronic density of states at/above the conduction-band-minimum. VB-PES spectra evidently reveal that the S-dopants not only form an impurity band deep within the band gap, giving rise to the sub-band gap absorption, but also cause the insulator-to-metal transition in S-hyperdoped Si samples. Based on the experimental results and the calculations by density functional theory, the chemical state of the S species and the formation of the S-dopant states in the band gap of Si are critical in determining the sub-band gap absorptance of hyperdoped Si samples. PMID:26098075

  10. Infrared absorption band in deformed qtz crystals analyzed by combining different microstructural methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, Holger; Thust, Anja; Behrens, Harald; Heilbronner, Renee; Kilian, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FÍs decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FÍs form, increasing the number of FÍs drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FÍs is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FÍs. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FÍs, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FÍs during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  11. Reassignment of the Iron (3) Absorption Bands in the Spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption features in the near-infrared and visible region reflectance spectra of Mars have been assigned to specific Fe (3+) crystal-field and o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge transfer transitions. Recently, near-ultraviolet absorption spectra of iron oxides were obtained and the energies of o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge-transfer (LMCT) transitions were determined from accurate SCF-X # alpha-SW molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)(9-) and (FeO4)(5-) clusters. Both the theoretical and experimental results, together with existing data in the literature, show that some of the previous Fe(3+) band assignments in the spectra of Mars need to be revised. The theory of Fe(3+) spectra in minerals is discussed and applied to the spectrum of Mars.

  12. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  13. Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands of CO2 and H2 measured in the IR spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, S.; Piccioni, G.; Snels, M.; Adriani, A.; Grassi, D.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the results on the Collisional Induced Absorption (CIA) bands of CO2 and H2 measured employing two different experimental setup. Each of them allows us to reproduce typical planetary conditions, at a pressure and temperature from 1 up to 50 bar and from 298 up to 500 K respectively. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of the CO2 CIA absorption bands will be presented.

  14. Study of sub band gap absorption of Sn doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    The nanocrystalline thin films of Sn doped CdSe at different dopants concentration are prepared by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrate at room temperature. The effect of Sn doping on the optical properties of CdSe has been studied. A decrease in band gap value is observed with increase in Sn concentration. Constant photocurrent method (CPM) is used to study the absorption coefficient in the sub band gap region. Urbach energy has been obtained from CPM spectra which are found to increase with amount of Sn dopants. The refractive index data calculated from transmittance is used for the identification of oscillator strength and oscillator energy using single oscillator model which is found to be 7.7 and 2.12 eV, 6.7 and 2.5 eV for CdSe:Sn 1% and CdSe:Sn 5% respectively.

  15. Femtosecond supercontinuum generation in water in the vicinity of absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Dharmadhikari, J A; Steinmeyer, G; Gopakumar, G; Mathur, D; Dharmadhikari, A K

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to overcome the perceived limitations caused by absorption bands in water so as to generate supercontinuum (SC) spectra in the anomalous dispersion regime that extend well beyond 2000 nm wavelength. By choosing a pump wavelength within a few hundred nanometers above the zero-dispersion wavelength of 1048 nm, initial spectral broadening extends into the normal dispersion regime and, in turn, the SC process in the visible strongly benefits from phase-matching and matching group velocities between dispersive radiation and light in the anomalous dispersion regime. Some of the SC spectra are shown to encompass two and a half octaves.

  16. Theoretical Modeling of Low Energy Electronic Absorption Bands in Reduced Cobaloximes

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L.; Gray, Harry B.; Fujita, Etsuko; Muckerman, James T.; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent; Arantes, Guilherme M.; Field, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we have analyzed the low energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and using a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task. PMID:25113847

  17. Theoretical modeling of low-energy electronic absorption bands in reduced cobaloximes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L; Gray, Harry B; Fujita, Etsuko; Muckerman, James T; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent; Arantes, Guilherme M; Field, Martin J

    2014-10-06

    The reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we analyze the low-energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and use a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task.

  18. Theoretical modeling of low-energy electronic absorption bands in reduced cobaloximes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L.; Gray, Harry B.; Fujita, Etsuko; Muckerman, James T.; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent; Arantes, Guilherme M.; Field, Martin J.

    2014-08-11

    Here, we report that the reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we have analyzed the low energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and using a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task.

  19. Theoretical modeling of low-energy electronic absorption bands in reduced cobaloximes

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Dempsey, Jillian L.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Here, we report that the reduced Co(I) states of cobaloximes are powerful nucleophiles that play an important role in the hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity of these species. In this work we have analyzed the low energy electronic absorption bands of two cobaloxime systems experimentally and using a variety of density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio quantum chemical approaches. Overall we find a reasonable qualitative understanding of the electronic excitation spectra of these compounds but show that obtaining quantitative results remains a challenging task.

  20. Optimal Reflectance, Transmittance, and Absorptance Wavebands and Band Ratios for the Estimation of Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Spiering, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study utilized regression analysis to identify: wavebands and band ratios within the 400-850 nm range that could be used to estimate total chlorophyll concentration with minimal error; and simple regression models that were most effective in estimating chlorophyll concentrations were measured for two broadleaved species, a broadleaved vine, a needle-leaved conifer, and a representative of the grass family.Overall, reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance corresponded most precisely with chlorophyll concentration at wavelengths near 700 nm, although regressions were strong as well in the 550-625 nm range.

  1. Analysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: sparse methods for statistical selection of relevant absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, Satoshi; Ruggeri, Giulia; Dillner, Ann M.

    2016-07-01

    Various vibrational modes present in molecular mixtures of laboratory and atmospheric aerosols give rise to complex Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra. Such spectra can be chemically informative, but they often require sophisticated algorithms for quantitative characterization of aerosol composition. Naïve statistical calibration models developed for quantification employ the full suite of wavenumbers available from a set of spectra, leading to loss of mechanistic interpretation between chemical composition and the resulting changes in absorption patterns that underpin their predictive capability. Using sparse representations of the same set of spectra, alternative calibration models can be built in which only a select group of absorption bands are used to make quantitative prediction of various aerosol properties. Such models are desirable as they allow us to relate predicted properties to their underlying molecular structure. In this work, we present an evaluation of four algorithms for achieving sparsity in FT-IR spectroscopy calibration models. Sparse calibration models exclude unnecessary wavenumbers from infrared spectra during the model building process, permitting identification and evaluation of the most relevant vibrational modes of molecules in complex aerosol mixtures required to make quantitative predictions of various measures of aerosol composition. We study two types of models: one which predicts alcohol COH, carboxylic COH, alkane CH, and carbonyl CO functional group (FG) abundances in ambient samples based on laboratory calibration standards and another which predicts thermal optical reflectance (TOR) organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass in new ambient samples by direct calibration of infrared spectra to a set of ambient samples reserved for calibration. We describe the development and selection of each calibration model and evaluate the effect of sparsity on prediction performance. Finally, we ascribe

  2. Is a pyrene-like molecular ion the cause of the 4,430-angstroms diffuse interstellar absorption band?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), ubiquitous absorption features in astronomical spectra, have been known since early this century and now number more than a hundred. Ranging from 4,400 angstroms to the near infrared, they differ markedly in depth, width and shape, making the concept of a single carrier unlikely. Whether they are due to gas or grains is not settled, but recent results suggest that the DIB carriers are quite separate from the grains that cause visual extinction. Among molecular candidates the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as the possible carriers of some of the DIBs, and we present here laboratory measurements of the optical spectrum of the pyrene cation C16H10+ in neon and argon matrices. The strongest absorption feature falls at 4,435 +/- 5 angstroms in the argon matrix and 4,395 +/- 5 angstroms in the neon matrix, both close to the strong 4,430-angstroms DIB. If this or a related pyrene-like species is responsible for this particular band, it must account for 0.2% of all cosmic carbon. The ion also shows an intense but puzzling broad continuum, extending from the ultraviolet to the visible, similar to what is seen in the naphthalene cation and perhaps therefore a common feature of all PAH cations. This may provide an explanation of how PAHs convert a large fraction of interstellar radiation from ultraviolet and visible wavelengths down to the infrared.

  3. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wm. Hayden; Conner, Charles P.; Baines, Kevin H.

    1990-01-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH4 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum.

  4. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH sub 4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, WM.H.; Conner, C.P.; Baines, K.H. JPL, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-05-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH{sub 4} 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum. 18 refs.

  5. Band tail absorption saturation in CdWO4 with 100 fs laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Laasner, R; Fedorov, N; Grigonis, R; Guizard, S; Kirm, M; Makhov, V; Markov, S; Nagirnyi, V; Sirutkaitis, V; Vasil'ev, A; Vielhauer, S; Tupitsyna, I A

    2013-06-19

    The decay kinetics of the excitonic emission of CdWO4 scintillators was studied under excitation by powerful 100 fs laser pulses in the band tail (Urbach) absorption region. A special imaging technique possessing both spatial and temporal resolution provided a unique insight into the Förster dipole-dipole interaction of self-trapped excitons, which is the main cause of the nonlinear quenching of luminescence in this material. In addition, the saturation of phonon-assisted excitonic absorption due to extremely short excitation pulses was discovered. A model describing the evolution of electronic excitations in the conditions of absorption saturation was developed and an earlier model of decay kinetics based on the Förster interaction was extended to include the saturation effect. Compared to the previous studies, a more accurate calculation yields 3.7 nm as the Förster interaction radius. It was shown that exciton-exciton interaction is the main source of scintillation nonproportionality in CdWO4. A quantitative description using a new model of nonproportionality was presented, making use of the corrected value of the Förster radius.

  6. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies. PMID:26477740

  7. Thermally induced effect on sub-band gap absorption in Ag doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Sharma, Kriti; Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    Thin films of Ag doped CdSe have been prepared by thermal evaporation using inert gas condensation (IGC) method taking Argon as inert gas. The prepared thin films are annealed at 363 K for one hour. The sub-band gap absorption spectra in the as deposited and annealed thin films have been studied using constant photocurrent method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region is described by an Urbach tail in both as deposited and annealed thin films. The value of Urbach energy and number density of trap states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region which have been found to increase after annealing treatment indicating increase in disorderness in the lattice. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has also been studied using derivative procedure of absorption coefficient.

  8. Ultra-wideband microwave absorber by connecting multiple absorption bands of two different-sized hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiang; Long, Chang; Li, Junhao; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Lin; Guan, Jianguo; Li, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Microwave absorbers have important applications in various areas including stealth, camouflage, and antenna. Here, we have designed an ultra-broadband light absorber by integrating two different-sized tapered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguides, each of which has wide but different absorption bands due to broadband slow-light response, into a unit cell. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that in such a design strategy, the low absorption bands between high absorption bands with a single-sized tapered HMM waveguide array can be effectively eliminated, resulting in a largely expanded absorption bandwidth ranging from 2.3 to 40 GHz. The presented ultra-broadband light absorber is also insensitive to polarization and robust against incident angle. Our results offer a further step in developing practical artificial electromagnetic absorbers, which will impact a broad range of applications at microwave frequencies.

  9. Total ozone and aerosol optical depths inferred from radiometric measurements in the Chappuis absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Flittner, D.E.; Herman, B.M.; Thome, K.J.; Simpson, J.M.; Reagan, J.A. )

    1993-04-15

    A second-derivative smoothing technique, commonly used in inversion work, is applied to the problem of inferring total columnar ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths. The application is unique in that the unknowns (i.e., total columnar ozone and aerosol optical depth) may be solved for directly without employing standard inversion methods. It is shown, however, that by employing inversion constraints, better solutions are normally obtained. The current method requires radiometric measurements of total optical depth through the Chappuis ozone band. It assumes no a priori shape for the aerosol optical depth versus wavelength profile and makes no assumptions about the ozone amount. Thus, the method is quite versatile and able to deal with varying total ozone and various aerosol size distributions. The technique is applied first in simulation, then to 119 days of measurements taken in Tucson, Arizona, that are compared to TOMS values for the same dates. The technique is also applied to two measurements taken at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, for which Dobson ozone values are available in addition to the TOMS values, and the results agree to within 15%. It is also shown through simulations that additional information can be obtained from measurements outside the Chappuis band. This approach reduces the bias and spread of the estimates total ozone and is unique in that it uses measurements from both the Chappuis and Huggins absorption bands. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Collision-Induced Absorption by H2 Pairs in the Second Overtone Band at 298 and 77.5 K: Comparison between Experimental and Theoretical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodbeck, C.; Bouanich, J.-P.; van-Thanh, Nguyen; Fu, Y.; Borysow, A.

    1999-01-01

    The collision-induced spectra of hydrogen in the region of the second overtone at 0.8 microns have been recorded at temperatures of 298 and 77.5 K and for gas densities ranging from 100 to 800 amagats. The spectral profile defined by the absorption coefficient per squared density varies significantly with the density, so that the binary absorption coefficient has been determined by extrapolations to zero density of the measured profiles. Our extrapolated measurements and our recent ab initio quantum calculation are in relatively good agreement with one another. Taking into account the very weak absorption of the second overtone band, the agreement is, however, not as good as it has become (our) standard for strong bands.

  11. Landsat-4/5 Band 6 relative radiometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, D.L.; Boncyk, Wayne C.

    2002-01-01

    Relative radiometric responses for the thematic mapper (TM) band 6 data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were analyzed, and an algorithm has been developed that significantly reduces the striping in Band 6 images due to detector mismatch. The TM internal calibration system as originally designed includes a DC restore circuit, which acts as a feedback system designed to keep detector bias at a constant value. There is a strong indication that the DC restore circuitry implemented in Band 6 does not function as it had been designed to. It operates as designed only during a portion of the calibration interval and not at all during acquisition of scene data. This renders the data acquired during the calibration shutter interval period virtually useless for correction of the individual responses of the four detectors in Band 6. It was observed and statistically quantified that the relative response of each of the detectors to the band average is stable over the dynamic range and throughout the lifetime of the instrument. This allows an alternate approach to relative radiometric correction of TM Band 6 images

  12. [Gastric cancer detection using kubelka-Munk spectral function of DNA and protein absorption bands].

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-quan; Wei, Hua-jiang; Guo, Zhou-yi; Yang, Hong-qin; Xie, Shu-sen; Chen, Xue-mei; Li, Li-bo; He, Bol-hua; Wu, Guo-yong; Lu, Jian-jun

    2009-09-01

    Differential diagnosis for epithelial tissues of normal human gastric, undifferentiation gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric squamous cell carcinomas, and poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma were studied using the Kubelka-Munk spectral function of the DNA and protein absorption bands at 260 and 280 nm in vitro. Diffuse reflectance spectra of tissue were measured using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The results of measurement showed that for the spectral range from 250 to 650 nm, pathological changes of gastric epithelial tissues induced that there were significant differences in the averaged value of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log[f(r infinity)] of the DNA absorption bands at 260 nm between epithelial tissues of normal human stomach and human undifferentiation gastric cancer, between epithelial tissues of normal human stomach and human gastric squamous cell carcinomas, and between epithelial tissues of normal human stomach and human poorly differentiated cancer. Their differences were 68.5% (p < 0.05), 146.5% (p < 0.05), 282.4% (p < 0.05), 32.4% (p < 0.05), 56.00 (p < 0.05) and 83.0% (p < 0.05) respectively. And pathological changes of gastric epithelial tissues induced that there were significant differences in the averaged value of the Kubelka-Munk function f(r infinity) and logarithmic Kubelka-Munk function log[f(r infinity)] of the protein absorption bands at 280 nm between epithelial tissues of normal human stomach and human undifferentiation gastric cancer, between epithelial tissues of normal human stomach and human gastric squamous cell carcinomas, and between epithelial tissues of normal human stomach and human poorly differentiated cancer. Their differences were 86.8% (p < 0.05), 262.9% (p < 0.05), 660.1% (p < 0.05) and 34% (p < 0.05), 72. 2% (p < 0.05), 113.5% (p < 0.05) respectively. And pathological changes of gastric epithelial tissues induced that there were

  13. VARIABILITY OF WATER AND OXYGEN ABSORPTION BANDS IN THE DISK-INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuka; Suto, Yasushi; Turner, Edwin L.

    2013-03-10

    We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5%-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor data. A difference in the diurnal variability patterns of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands is ascribed to the differing vertical and horizontal distribution of those molecular species in the atmosphere. On Earth, the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric water vapor is due to the existence of its exchange with liquid and solid phases of H{sub 2}O on the planet's surface on a timescale short compared with atmospheric mixing times. If such differences in variability patterns were detected in spectra of Earth-analogs, it would provide the information on the inhomogeneous composition of their atmospheres.

  14. Investigation of band gap narrowing in nitrogen-doped La2Ti2O7 with transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yost, Brandon T; Cushing, Scott K; Meng, Fanke; Bright, Joeseph; Bas, Derek A; Wu, Nianqiang; Bristow, Alan D

    2015-12-14

    Doping a semiconductor can extend the light absorption range, however, it usually introduces mid-gap states, reducing the charge carrier lifetime. This report shows that doping lanthanum dititinate (La2Ti2O7) with nitrogen extends the valence band edge by creating a continuum of dopant states, increasing the light absorption edge from 380 nm to 550 nm without adding mid-gap states. The dopant states are experimentally resolved in the excited state by correlating transient absorption spectroscopy with a supercontinuum probe and DFT prediction. The lack of mid-gap states is further confirmed by measuring the excited state lifetimes, which reveal the shifted band edge only increased carrier thermalization rates to the band edge and not interband charge recombination under both ultraviolet and visible excitation. Terahertz (time-domain) spectroscopy also reveals that the conduction mechanism remains unchanged after doping, suggesting the states are delocalized.

  15. Investigation of the optical-absorption bands of Nb4+ and Ti3+ in lithium niobate using magnetic circular dichroism and optically detected magnetic-resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyher, H.-J.; Schulz, R.; Thiemann, O.

    1994-08-01

    The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of the absorption of Nb4+Li and Ti3+Li centers in LiNbO3 has been selectively measured by applying optically detected magnetic resonance. The attribution of a well-known broad and unstructured absorption band peaking at 1.6 eV to the Nb4+Li bound small polaron is now unambiguously confirmed. In the MCD spectrum of the isoelectronic Ti3+Li center, bands show up, which closely resemble the MCD bands at 1.6 eV of this bound small polaron. This striking similarity is explained by a cluster model, representing both defects. Either TiLi or NbLi is at the center of this cluster. In both cases, the small polaron is bound to the cluster, and its MCD bands correspond to intervalence transfer transitions within the constituents of the cluster. A study of the spin-orbit coupling of the molecular orbitals of the cluster allows one to analyze the structure of the MCD bands at 2.9 eV of Ti3+Li have no counterpart in the Nb4+Li spectrum. These bands are assigned to transitions to excited states, which are specific to the impurity and are related to the 10Dq transitions known for the crystal field states of a d1 ion.

  16. Band gap reduction in InNxSb1-x alloys: Optical absorption, k . P modeling, and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, W. M.; Rajpalke, M. K.; Buckeridge, J.; Murgatroyd, P. A. E.; Bomphrey, J. J.; Alaria, J.; Catlow, C. R. A.; Scanlon, D. O.; Ashwin, M. J.; Veal, T. D.

    2016-09-01

    Using infrared absorption, the room temperature band gap of InSb is found to reduce from 174 (7.1 μm) to 85 meV (14.6 μm) upon incorporation of up to 1.13% N, a reduction of ˜79 meV/%N. The experimentally observed band gap reduction in molecular-beam epitaxial InNSb thin films is reproduced by a five band k . P band anticrossing model incorporating a nitrogen level, EN, 0.75 eV above the valence band maximum of the host InSb and an interaction coupling matrix element between the host conduction band and the N level of β = 1.80 eV. This observation is consistent with the presented results from hybrid density functional theory.

  17. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  18. Absorption band oscillator strengths of N2 transitions between 95.8 and 99.4 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Smith, Peter L.; Huber, K. P.; Yoshino, K.; Stevens, M. H.; Ito, K.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen plays a central role in the energetics of the earth's upper atmosphere and is the major constituent of the atmospheres of the planetary satellites Titan and Triton. This paper reports a new set of absorption oscillator strengths measured at higher resolution for seven bands in the 95.8-99.4 nm region. The results are compared with earlier, lower resolution absorption measurements, electron scattering measurements, and calculations based on a deperturbation analysis of the excited states.

  19. Absorption band III kinetics probe the picosecond heme iron motion triggered by nitric oxide binding to hemoglobin and myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Kruglik, Sergei G; Lamarre, Isabelle; Martin, Jean-Louis; Negrerie, Michel

    2012-04-05

    To study the ultrafast movement of the heme iron induced by nitric oxide (NO) binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), we probed the picosecond spectral evolution of absorption band III (∼760 nm) and vibrational modes (iron-histidine stretching, ν(4) and ν(7) in-plane modes) in time-resolved resonance Raman spectra. The time constants of band III intensity kinetics induced by NO rebinding (25 ps for hemoglobin and 40 ps for myoglobin) are larger than in Soret bands and Q-bands. Band III intensity kinetics is retarded with respect to NO rebinding to Hb and to Mb. Similarly, the ν((Fe-His)) stretching intensity kinetics are retarded with respect to the ν(4) and ν(7) heme modes and to Soret absorption. In contrast, band III spectral shift kinetics do not coincide with band III intensity kinetics but follows Soret kinetics. We concluded that, namely, the band III intensity depends on the heme iron out-of-plane position, as theoretically predicted ( Stavrov , S. S. Biopolymers 2004 , 74 , 37 - 40 ).

  20. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1,0)[gamma] band in the daytime thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eparvier, F.G.; Barth, C.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Sounding rocket observations of the ultraviolet fluorescent emissions of the nitric oxide molecule in the lower thermospheric dayglow are described and analyzed. The rocket experiment was an ultraviolet spectrometer which took limb-viewing spectra of the dayglow between 90- and 185- km altitude in the spectral region from 2120 to 2505 [angstrom] with a resolution of 2.0 [angstrom]. The flight occurred at local noon on March 7, 1989, from Poker Flat, Alaska. Several NO[gamma] bands were visible at all altitudes of the flight, along with emission features of N[sub 2], O[sup +], and N[sup +]. The data for the NO (1,0) and (0,1)[gamma] bands were modeled with optically thin synthetic spectra and used as diagnostics of nitric oxide concentrations. The resonant NO (1,0)[gamma] band emissions were shown to be attenuated at low altitudes relative to the expected emission rates predicted from comparison with the nonresonant (0,1)[gamma] band. Inversion of the optically thin data resulted in a peak nitric oxide concentration of 3.1x10[sup 8] cm[sup [minus]3] at an altitude of 100km. A self-absorption model using Holstein transmission functions was developed and applied to the (1,0) [gamma] band observation. The model results agree with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO. The success of the model also confirms the value adopted for the absorption oscillator strength of the (1,0)[gamma] band transition and the instrument calibration.

  1. Highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules in low-pressure inductively-coupled plasmas detected by high sensitivity ultra-broad-band optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Carbone, Emile; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5-80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200-450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to vʺ = 18) by Schumann-Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities indicates a vibrational temperature up to 10,000 K, but these hot molecules only represent a fraction of the total O2 density. By analysing the (11-0) band at higher spectral resolution the O2 rotational temperature was also determined, and was found to increase with both pressure and power, reaching 900 K at 80 mTorr 500 W. These measurements were achieved using a new high-sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy setup, based on a laser-plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration-corrected spectrograph. This setup allows the measurement of weak broadband absorbances due to a baseline variability lower than 2   ×   10-5 across a spectral range of 250 nm.

  2. The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis.

  3. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  4. Dual-band microwave absorption properties of metamaterial absorber composed of split ring resonator on carbonyl iron powder composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Ryu, Yo-Han; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the dual-band absorption properties of metamaterial absorbers composed of a split ring resonator (SRR) on a grounded magnetic substrate. Polymer composites of carbonyl iron powders (CIP) of high permeability and magnetic loss were used as the substrate material. Computational tools were used to model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and materials with the SRR structure. For perpendicular polarization with an electric field (E) perpendicular to the SRR gap, dualband absorption peaks are predicted in the simulation result of reflection loss. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between the SRR and the ground plane is observed at the frequencies of two absorption peaks. The first strong absorption peak at the lower frequency (3.3 GHz) is due to magnetic resonance at the wire part of the SRR. The second absorption peak at the higher frequency (7.2 GHz) is due to magnetic resonance at the SRR split gap. The decreased capacitance with increased gap spacing moves the second absorption frequency to higher frequencies, while the first absorption peak is invariant with gap spacing. In the case of dual gaps at the opposite sides of the SRR, a single absorption peak is predicted due to the elimination of low-frequency resonance. For parallel polarization with the E-field parallel to the SRR gap, a single absorption peak is predicted, corresponding to magnetic resonance at the SRR wire.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Relating water absorption features to soil moisture characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jia; Philpot, William D.

    2015-09-01

    The spectral reflectance of a sample of quartz sand was monitored as the sample progressed from air-dry to fully saturated, and then back to air-dry. Wetting was accomplished by spraying small amounts of water on the surface of the sample, and collecting spectra whenever change occurred. Drying was passive, driven by evaporation from the sand surface, with spectra collected every 5 minutes until the sample was air dry. Water content was determined by monitoring the weight of the sample through both wetting and drying. There was a pronounced difference in the pattern of change in reflectance during wetting and drying, with the differences being apparent both in spectral details (i.e., the depth of absorption bands) and in the magnitude of the reflectance for a particular water content. The differences are attributable to the disposition of water in the sample. During wetting, water initially occurred only on the surface, primarily as water adsorbed onto sand particles. With increased wetting the water infiltrated deeper into the sample, gradually covering all particles and filling the pore spaces. During drying, water and air were distributed throughout the sample for most of the drying period. The differences in water distribution are assumed to be the cause of the differences in reflectance and to the differences in the depths of four strong water absorption bands.

  6. Visible-band (390-940nm) monitoring of the Pluto absorption spectrum during the New Horizons encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Marchant, Jonathan M.

    2015-11-01

    Whilst Earth-based observations obviously cannot compete with New Horizons’ on-board instrumentation in most regards, the New Horizons data set is essentially a snapshot of Pluto in July 2015. The New Horizons project team therefore coordinated a broad international observing campaign to provide temporal context and to take advantage of the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to directly link our Earth-based view of Pluto with “ground truth” provided by in situ measurements. This both adds value to existing archival data sets and forms the basis of long term, monitoring as we watch Pluto recede from the Sun over the coming years. We present visible-band (390-940nm) monitoring of the Pluto absorption spectrum over the period July - October 2015 from the Liverpool Telescope (LT). In particular we wished to understand the well-known 6-day fluctuation in the methane ice absorption spectrum which is observable from Earth in relation to the never-before-available high resolution maps of the Pluto surface. The LT is a fully robotic 2.0m optical telescope that automatically and dynamically schedules observations across 30+ observing programmes with a broad instrument suite. It is ideal for both reactive response to dynamic events (such as the fly-by) and long term, stable monitoring with timing constraints individually optimised to the science requirements of each programme. For example past studies of the observed CH4 absorption variability have yielded ambiguity of whether they were caused by real physical changes or geometric observation constraints, in large part because of the uneven time sampling imposed by traditional telescope scheduling.

  7. Band gap shift and the optical nonlinear absorption of sputtered ZnO-TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi-Bo; Han, Jun-Bo; Hao, Zhong-Hua

    2011-06-01

    ZnO-TiO2 composite films with different Zn/Ti atomic ratios were prepared with radio frequency reactive sputtering method. The Zn percentage composition (f(Zn)) dependent optical band gap and optical nonlinear absorption were investigated using the transmittance spectrum and the Z-scan technique, respectively. The results showed that composite films with f(Zn) in the range of 23.5%-88.3% are poor crystallized and their optical properties are anomalous which exhibit adjustable optical band gap and large optical nonlinear absorption. The optical absorption edge shifted to the blue wavelength direction with the increasing of f(Zn) and reached the minimum value of 285 nm for the sample with f(Zn) = 70.5%, which has the largest direct band gap of 4.30 eV. Further increasing of f(Zn) resulted in the red-shift of the optical absorption edge. The maximum optical nonlinear absorption coefficient of 1.5 x 10(3) cm/GW was also obtained for the same sample with f(Zn) = 70.5%, which is more than 40 times larger than those of pure TiO2 and ZnO films.

  8. Comparison of line-by-line and band models of near-IR methane absorption applied to outer planet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Boudon, V.; Campargue, A.; Nikitin, A.

    2012-03-01

    Recent improvements in high spectral resolution measurements of methane absorption at wavenumbers between 4800 cm-1 and 7919 cm-1 have greatly increased the number of lines with known lower state energies, the number of weak lines, and the number of lines observed at low temperatures (Campargue, A., Wang, L., Kassi, S., Mašát, M., Votava, O. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1141-1151; Campargue, A., Wang, L., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Kassi, S. [2010]. Chem. Phys. 373, 203-210; Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Wang, L.C. [2011]. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 7985-7996; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2011a]. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 268, 93-106; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 2211-2224; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Campargue, A. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1130-1140; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Campargue, A. [2011]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 112, 937-951), making it possible to fit near-IR spectra of Titan using line-by-line calculations instead of band models (Bailey, J., Ahlsved, L., Meadows, V.S. [2011]. Icarus 213, 218-232; de Bergh, C. et al. [2011]. Planet. Space Sci. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2011.05.003). Using these new results, we compiled an improved line list relative that used by Bailey et al. by updating several spectral regions with either calculated or more recently measured line parameters, revising lower state energy estimates for lines lacking them, and adding room temperature lines to make the list applicable over a wider range of temperatures. We compared current band models with line-by-line calculations using this new line list, both to assess the behavior of band models, and to identify remaining issues with line-by-line calculations when applied to outer planet atmospheres and over a wider range of wavelengths. Comparisons were made for a selection of uniform paths representing outer planet conditions and for representative non-uniform paths within the atmospheres of Uranus, Saturn

  9. Stratospheric observations of the attenuated solar irradiance in the Schumann-Runge band absorption region of molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Hudson, R. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A spectrometer flown on the first Solar Absorption Balloon Experiment (SABE-1) observed the attenuated solar irradiance between 184 and 202 nm from an altitude near 40 km. These measurements provide a check on the absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen in the spectral region of the Schumann-Runge bands. Comparison of the measurements with calculations based on cross sections derived from laboratory data shows a general agreement although the irradiance measurements have large error bars near the centers of the absorption bands. The results imply that the 184-200 nm solar irradiance that penetrates to the stratosphere can be computed to an accuracy of + or - 30% or better by using presently available cross sections.

  10. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of perovskite niobium oxynitrides with wide visible-light absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Siritanaratkul, Bhavin; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Hisatomi, Takashi; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-01-17

    Photocatalytic activities of perovskite-type niobium oxynitrides (CaNbO₂N, SrNbO₂N, BaNbO₂N, and LaNbON₂) were examined for hydrogen and oxygen evolution from water under visible-light irradiation. These niobium oxynitrides were prepared by heating the corresponding oxide precursors, which were synthesized using the polymerized complex method, for 15 h under a flow of ammonia. They possess visible-light absorption bands between 600-750 nm, depending on the A-site cations in the structures. The oxynitride CaNbO₂N, was found to be active for hydrogen and oxygen evolution from methanol and aqueous AgNO₃, respectively, even under irradiation by light at long wavelengths (λ<560 nm). The nitridation temperature dependence of CaNbO₂N was investigated and 1023 K was found to be the optimal temperature. At lower temperatures, the oxynitride phase is not adequately produced, whereas higher temperatures produce more reduced niobium species (e. g., Nb³(+) and Nb⁴(+)), which can act as electron-hole recombination centers, resulting in a decrease in activity.

  11. Microwave absorption behavior of a polyaniline magnetic composite in the X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aphesteguy, J. C.; Damiani, A.; DiGiovanni, D.; Jacobo, S. E.

    2012-08-01

    The development of nanosized materials is a subject of considerable interest both for understanding of the fundamental properties of magnetic materials for new technological applications. Polyaniline, composites Fe3O4/(PANI) with conducting, magnetic and electromagnetic properties with different amounts of Fe3O4 were successfully prepared. The samples were structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetically, with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. In order to explore microwave-absorbing properties in X-band, the composite nanoparticles were mixed with an epoxy resin to be converted into a microwave-absorbing composite. Microwave behavior with different Fe3O4/(PANI)-epoxy resin ratio was studied using a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in the range 7.5 to 13 GHz. For a constant thickness of 1.5 mm, absorption increases with the magnetite contents in the composites and in the oriented samples by the application of a magnetic field.

  12. High resolution absorption cross-sections and band oscillator strengths of the Schumann-Runge bands of oxygen at 79 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    Cross sections of O2 at 79 K have been obtained from photoabsorption measurements at various pressures throughout the wavelength region 179.3-198.0 nm with a 6.65-m photoelectric scanning spectrometer equipped with a 2400-lines/mm grating and having an instrumental width (FWHM) of 0.0013 nm. The measured absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands (12,0) through (2,0) are independent of the instrumental width. The measured cross-sections are presented graphically here and are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm as numerical compilations stored on magnetic tape from the National Space Science Data Center, NASA/Goddard. Band oscillator strengths of these bands have been determined by direct numerical integration of the measured cross sections.

  13. Structural diversity of the 3-micron absorption band in Enceladus’ plume from Cassini VIMS: Insights into subsurface environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Hedman, Matthew M.; Clark, Roger N.

    2015-11-01

    Water ice particles in Enceladus’ plume display their diagnostic 3-micron absorption band in Cassini VIMS data. These near infrared measurements of the plume also exhibit noticeable variations in the character of this band. Mie theory calculations reveal that the shape and location of the 3-micron band are controlled by a number of environmental and structural parameters. Hence, this band provides important insights into the properties of the water ice grains and about the subsurface environmental conditions under which they formed. For example, the position of the 3-micron absorption band minimum can be used to distinguish between crystalline and amorphous forms of water ice and to constrain the formation temperature of the ice grains. VIMS data indicates that the water ice grains in the plume are dominantly crystalline which could indicate formation temperatures above 113 K [e.g. 1, 2]. However, there are slight (but observable) variations in the band minimum position and band shape that may hint at the possibility of varying abundance of amorphous ice particles within the plume. The modeling results further indicate that there are systematic shifts in band minimum position with temperature for any given form of ice but the crystalline and amorphous forms of water ice are still distinguishable at VIMS spectral resolution. Analysis of the eruptions from individual source fissures (tiger stripes) using selected VIMS observations reveal differences in the 3-micron band shape that may reflect differences in the size distributions of the water ice particles along individual fissures. Mie theory models suggest that big ice particles (>3 micron) may be an important component of the plume.[1] Kouchi, A., T. Yamamoto, T. Kozasa, T. Kuroda, and J. M. Greenberg (1994) A&A, 290, 1009-1018 [2] Mastrapa, R. M. E., W. M. Grundy, and M. S. Gudipati (2013) in M. S. Gudipati and J. Castillo-Rogez (Eds.), The Science of Solar System Ices, pp. 371.

  14. Absolute infrared vibrational band intensities of molecular ions determined by direct laser absorption spectroscopy in fast ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, E.R.; Polak, M.L.; Owrutsky, J.C.; Coe, J.V.; Saykally, R.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The technique of direct laser absorption spectroscopy in fast ion beams has been employed for the determination of absolute integrated band intensities ({ital S}{sup 0}{sub {ital v}}) for the {nu}{sub 3} fundamental bands of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and NH{sup +}{sub 4}. In addition, the absolute band intensities for the {nu}{sub 1} fundamental bands of HN{sup +}{sub 2} and HCO{sup +} have been remeasured. The values obtained in units of cm{sup {minus}2} atm{sup {minus}1} at STP are 1880(290) and 580(90) for the {nu}{sub 1} fundamentals of HN{sup +}{sub 2} and HCO{sup +}, respectively; and 4000(800) and 1220(190) for the {nu}{sub 3} fundamentals of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and NH{sup +}{sub 4}, respectively. Comparisons with {ital ab} {ital initio} results are presented.

  15. Multiple shear band development and related instabilities in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajo, A.; Bigoni, D.; Wood, D. Muir

    2004-12-01

    A new, small-strain constitutive model, incorporating elastoplastic coupling to describe developing elastic anisotropy, and density as a state variable to capture compaction and dilation, is proposed to simulate the behaviour of granular materials, in particular sand. This developing elastic anisotropy is related to grain reorientation and is shown to be crucial to obtain localisation during strain hardening, as experiments exhibit. Post-localisation analysis is also performed under simplificative assumptions, which evinces a number of features, including softening induced by localisation, size effects and snap-back, all phenomena found in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments. No prior model of granular material deformation correctly captures all these behaviours. The post-localisation analysis has revealed a new form of material instability in granular materials, consisting of a saturation mechanism, in which shear bands just formed unload, permitting new bands to form. This phenomenon shares similarities with the mechanics of phase transformation in metal strips and results in a stress oscillation during increasing deformation. The investigation of this mechanism of localised deformation reveals that loose and dense sands behave in qualitatively different ways. In particular, saturation is not persistent in dense sand; rather, after several shear bands form and saturate, this process is terminated by the formation of a differently inclined shear band occurring in the material transformed by previous strain localisation. In this case, the resulting 'global' stress-strain curve exhibits a few stress oscillations followed by a strong softening. On the other hand, band saturation is found to be a persistent phenomenon in loose sand, yielding a continuing stress oscillation. This provides a consistent description of specific experimental results.

  16. Effects of surface texture and measurement geometry on the near infrared water-of-hydration absorption bands. Implications for the Martian regolith water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.

    Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy is widely used to detect mineral hydration on Solar System surfaces by the observation of absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. Recent studies established empirical relationships between the strength of the 3 µm band and the water content of the studied minerals (Milliken et al., 2005). These results have especially been applied to the OMEGA dataset to derive global maps of the Martian regolith water content (Jouglet et al., 2006 and Milliken et al., 2006). However, parameters such as surface texture and measurement geometry are known to have a strong effect on reflectance spectra but their influence on the hydration bands is poorly documented. The aim of this work is the determination of the quantitative effects of particle size, mixing between materials with different albedo and measurement geometry on the absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. We used both an experimental and a modeling approach to study these effects. Bidirectional reflectance spectra were measured for series of well characterized samples (smectite, volcanic tuff and coals, pure and mixed) and modeled with optical constants of a smectite (Roush, 2005). Criteria commonly used to estimate the strength of the bands were then calculated on these spectra. We show that particle size has a strong effect on the 1.9 and 3 µm bands strength, especially for the finest particles (less than 200 µm). Mixing between a fine smectite powder and anthracite powders with various particle sizes (modeled by a synthetic neutral material) highlights the strong effect of the materials albedo on the hydration band estimation criteria. Measurement geometry has a significant effect on the bands strength for high phase angles. Furthermore, the relative variations of band strength with measurement geometry appear very dependent on the surface texture. We will present in details the relationships between these physical parameters and various criteria chosen to estimate the hydration bands

  17. Mapping atomic and diffuse interstellar band absorption across the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Mandy; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Sarre, Peter J.; Beckman, John E.

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) trace warm neutral and weakly ionized diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Here we present a dedicated, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic survey of two of the strongest DIBs, at 5780 and 5797 Å, in optical spectra of 666 early-type stars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, along with measurements of the atomic Na I D and Ca II K lines. The resulting maps show for the first time the distribution of DIB carriers across large swathes of galaxies, as well as the foreground Milky Way ISM. We confirm the association of the 5797 Å DIB with neutral gas, and the 5780 Å DIB with more translucent gas, generally tracing the star-forming regions within the Magellanic Clouds. Likewise, the Na I D line traces the denser ISM whereas the Ca II K line traces the more diffuse, warmer gas. The Ca II K line has an additional component at ˜200-220 km s-1 seen towards both Magellanic Clouds; this may be associated with a pan-Magellanic halo. Both the atomic lines and DIBs show sub-pc-scale structure in the Galactic foreground absorption; the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs show very little correlation on these small scales, as do the Ca II K and Na I D lines. This suggests that good correlations between the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs, or between Ca II K and Na I D, arise from the superposition of multiple interstellar structures. Similarity in behaviour between DIBs and Na I in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Milky Way suggests the abundance of DIB carriers scales in proportion to metallicity.

  18. The absorption coefficient of the liquid N2 2.15-micron band and application to Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, William M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    The present measurements of the temperature dependence exhibited by the liquid N2 2.15-micron 2-0 collision-induced band's absorption coefficient and integrated absorption show the latter to be smaller than that of the N2 gas, and to decrease with decreasing temperature. Extrapolating this behavior to Triton's nominal surface temperature yields a new estimate of the N2-ice grain size on the Triton south polar cap; a mean N2 grain size of 0.7-3.0 cm is consistent with grain growth rate calculation results.

  19. X-ray absorption and reflection as probes of the GaN conduction bands: Theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Segall, B.

    1997-04-01

    X-ray absorption measurements are a well-known probe of the unoccupied states in a material. The same information can be obtained by using glancing angle X-ray reflectivity. In spite of several existing band structure calculations of the group III nitrides and previous optical studies in UV range, a direct probe of their conduction band densities of states is of interest. The authors performed a joint experimental and theoretical investigation using both of these experimental techniques for wurtzite GaN.

  20. Detection of metal stress in boreal forest species using the 0.67-micron chlorophyll absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhroy, Vernon H.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that a shift of the red-edge inflection near 0.70 micron in vegetation reflectance spectra is an indicator of metal stress, partially attributable to changes in chlorophyll concentration. This 'red-edge shift', however, is difficult to detect and has been reported both toward longer (red) and shorter (blue) wavelengths. Our work demonstrates that direct measurement of the depth and width of the chlorophyll absorption band at 0.67 micron using digital feature extraction and absorption band characterization procedures developed for the analysis of mineral spectra is a more consistent indicator of metal stress. Additionally, the magnitude of these parameters is generally greater than that of the red edge shift and thus should be more amenable to detection and mapping using field and aircraft spectrometers.

  1. Theoretical study of electronic absorption spectroscopy of propadienylidene molecule vis-â-vis the observed diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Samala Nagaprasad; Mahapatra, S.

    2012-07-01

    Observation of broad and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 Å and 5440 Å assigned to the optical absorption spectrum of Y-shaped propadienylidene (H2Cdbnd Cdbnd C:) molecule is theoretically examined in this paper. This molecule apparently absorbs in the same wavelength region as the observed DIBs and was suggested to be a potential carrier of these DIBs. This assignment mostly relied on the experimental data from radioastronomy and laboratory measurements. Motivated by these available experimental data we attempt here a theoretical study and investigate the detailed electronic structure and nuclear dynamics underlying the electronic absorption bands of propadienylidene molecule. Our results show that this molecule indeed absorbs in the wavelength region of the recorded DIBs. Strong nonadiabatic coupling between its energetically low-lying electronic states plays major role, initiates ultrafast internal conversion and contributes to the spectral broadening. Theoretical findings are finally compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and discussed in connection with the recorded DIBs.

  2. First detection of ionized helium absorption lines in infrared K band spectra of O-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Block, David L.; Geballe, T. R.; Hanson, Margaret M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained high SNR, moderate-resolution K band spectra of two early O-type main sequence stars, HD 46150 O5 V, and HD 46223 O4 V, in the Rosette Nebula. We report the detection, for the first time, of the 2.189 micron He II line in O-type stars. Also detected is the 2.1661 micron Br-gamma line in absorption. The 2.058 micron He I line appears to be present in absorption in both stars, although its appearance at our resolution is complicated by atmospheric features. These three lines can form the basis for a spectral classification system for hot stars in the K band that may be used at infrared wavelengths to elucidate the nature of those luminous stars in otherwise obscured H II and giant H II regions.

  3. [Generation of reactive oxygen species in water under exposure of visible or infrared irradiation at absorption band of molecular oxygen].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, S V; Karp, O E; Garmash, S A; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Manokhin, A A; Astashev, M E; Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Bruskov, V I

    2012-01-01

    It is found that in bidistilled water saturated with oxygen hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are formed under the influence of visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs under the influence of both solar and artificial light sourses, including the coherent laser irradiation. The oxygen effect, i.e. the impact of dissolved oxygen concentration on production of hydrogen peroxide induced by light, is detected. It is shown that the visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen leads to the formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA in vitro. Physicochemical mechanisms of ROS formation in water when exposed to visible and infrared light are studied, and the involvement of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion radicals in this process is shown.

  4. Complexities in pyroxene compositions derived from absorption band centers: Examples from Apollo samples, HED meteorites, synthetic pure pyroxenes, and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    We reexamine the relationship between pyroxene composition and near-infrared absorption bands, integrating measurements of diverse natural and synthetic samples. We test an algorithm (PLC) involving a two-part linear continuum removal and parabolic fits to the 1 and 2 μm bands—a computationally simple approach which can easily be automated and applied to remote sensing data. Employing a suite of synthetic pure pyroxenes, the PLC technique is shown to derive similar band centers to the modified Gaussian model. PLC analyses are extended to natural pyroxene-bearing materials, including (1) bulk lunar basalts and pyroxene separates, (2) diverse lunar soils, and (3) HED meteorites. For natural pyroxenes, the relationship between composition and absorption band center differs from that of synthetic pyroxenes. These differences arise from complexities inherent in natural materials such as exsolution, zoning, mixing, and space weathering. For these reasons, band center measurements of natural pyroxene-bearing materials are compositionally nonunique and could represent three distinct scenarios (1) pyroxene with a narrow compositional range, (2) complexly zoned pyroxene grains, or (3) a mixture of multiple pyroxene (or nonpyroxene) components. Therefore, a universal quantitative relationship between band centers and pyroxene composition cannot be uniquely derived for natural pyroxene-bearing materials without additional geologic context. Nevertheless, useful relative relationships between composition and band center persist in most cases. These relationships are used to interpret M3 data from the Humboldtianum Basin. Four distinct compositional units are identified (1) Mare Humboldtianum basalts, (2) distinct outer basalts, (3) low-Ca pyroxene-bearing materials, and (4) feldspathic materials.

  5. a Theoretical Model for Wide-Band Infrared-Absorption Molecular Spectra at any Pressure: Fiction or Reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyreva, Jeanna; Vander Auwera, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Various atmospheric applications require modeling of infrared absorption by the main atmospheric species in wide ranges of frequencies, pressures and temperatures. For different pressure regimes, different mechanisms are responsible for the observed intensities of vibration-rotation line manifolds, and the structure of the bands changes drastically when going from low to high densities. Therefore, no universal theoretical model exists presently to interpret simultaneously collapsed band-shapes observed at very high pressures and isolated-line shapes recorded in sub-atmospheric regimes. Using CO_2 absorption spectra as an example, we introduce some improvements in the non-Markovian Energy-Corrected Sudden model, developed for high-density spectra of arbitrary tensorial rank and generalized recently to parallel and perpendicular infrared absorption bands, and test the applicability of this approach for the case of nearly Doppler pressure regime via comparisons with recently recorded experimental intensities. J.V. Buldyreva and L. Bonamy, Phys. Rev. A 60(1), 370-376 (1999). J. Buldyreva and L. Daneshvar, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164107 (2013). L. Daneshvar, T. Földes, J. Buldyreva, J. Vander Auwera, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2014 (to be submitted).

  6. Wideband enhancement of infrared absorption in a direct band-gap semiconductor by using nonabsorptive pyramids.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weitao; Yap, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2012-07-02

    Efficient trapping of the light in a photon absorber or a photodetector can improve its performance and reduce its cost. In this paper we investigate two designs for light-trapping in application to infrared absorption. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that nonabsorptive pyramids either located on top of an absorbing film or having embedded absorbing rods can efficiently enhance the absorption in the absorbing material. A spectrally averaged absorptance of 83% is achieved compared to an average absorptance of 28% for the optimized multilayer structure that has the same amount of absorbing material. This enhancement is explained by the coupled-mode theory. Similar designs can also be applied to solar cells.

  7. Wide angle and narrow-band asymmetric absorption in visible and near-infrared regime through lossy Bragg stacks

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shiwei; Zhan, Yawen; Lee, Chris; Lu, Jian; Li, Yang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Absorber is an important component in various optical devices. Here we report a novel type of asymmetric absorber in the visible and near-infrared spectrum which is based on lossy Bragg stacks. The lossy Bragg stacks can achieve near-perfect absorption at one side and high reflection at the other within the narrow bands (several nm) of resonance wavelengths, whereas display almost identical absorption/reflection responses for the rest of the spectrum. Meanwhile, this interesting wavelength-selective asymmetric absorption behavior persists for wide angles, does not depend on polarization, and can be ascribed to the lossy characteristics of the Bragg stacks. Moreover, interesting Fano resonance with easily tailorable peak profiles can be realized using the lossy Bragg stacks. PMID:27251768

  8. Annealing-induced optical and sub-band-gap absorption parameters of Sn-doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of Sn-doped CdSe were prepared by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates in an argon gas atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures. Structural evaluation of the films was carried out using X-ray diffraction and their stoichiometry studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The films exhibit a preferred orientation along the hexagonal direction of CdSe. The optical transmittance of the films shows a red shift of the absorption edge with annealing. The fundamental absorption edge corresponds to a direct energy gap with a temperature coefficient of 3.34 × 10-3 eV K-1. The refractive index, optical conductivity and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were found to increase after annealing. The sub-band gap absorption coefficient was evaluated using the constant photocurrent method. It varies exponentially with photon energy. The Urbach energy, the density of defect states, and the steepness of the density of localized states were evaluated from the sub-band-gap absorption.

  9. The C2H, C2, and CN electronic absorption bands in the carbon star HD 19557

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Bregman, J. D.; Cooper, D. M.; Goorvitch, D.; Langhoff, S. R.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared spectrophotometry of the R-type carbon star HD 19557 is presented. Two unusual spectroscopic features are seen: a 3.1 micron band is lacking and a 2.8 micron band is present. Identifications are proposed for three previously unreported stellar absorption bands with electronic sequences of C2, CN, and C2H. The latter is proposed to be responsible for the 2.8 micron feature. The atmospheric structure of the star is studied with synthetic spectra, and an effective temperature between 2600 K and 3000 K is suggested. No SiC emission is seen at 11.3 microns, indicating that grain formation is not a viable process around the star. The lack of dust in R stars may suggest a salient difference between R and N types.

  10. Role of charge separation on two-step two photon absorption in InAs/GaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creti, A.; Tasco, V.; Cola, A.; Montagna, G.; Tarantini, I.; Salhi, A.; Al-Muhanna, A.; Passaseo, A.; Lomascolo, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we report on the competition between two-step two photon absorption, carrier recombination, and escape in the photocurrent generation mechanisms of high quality InAs/GaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. In particular, the different role of holes and electrons is highlighted. Experiments of external quantum efficiency dependent on temperature and electrical or optical bias (two-step two photon absorption) highlight a relative increase as high as 38% at 10 K under infrared excitation. We interpret these results on the base of charge separation by phonon assisted tunneling of holes from quantum dots. We propose the charge separation as an effective mechanism which, reducing the recombination rate and competing with the other escape processes, enhances the infrared absorption contribution. Meanwhile, this model explains why thermal escape is found to predominate over two-step two photon absorption starting from 200 K, whereas it was expected to prevail at lower temperatures (≥70 K), solely on the basis of the relatively low electron barrier height in such a system.

  11. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  12. Contribution of the transition moments, form of the absorption band, exciton, and the correlation effects in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Ponce, Javier Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    This work compares the linear and nonlinear optical properties of polyenes and polyenynes. The simulation was made for finite and infinite conjugation of conjugated polymers, such as polyacetylene, β-carotene, bis (p-toluene sulfonate) (PTS) polyenyne, and a short conjugated polyenyne poly-2,6-decadyin-1,6-ylene azelate (PHDAz). The resonance energy and degree of conjugation are determined by fitting the linear absorption spectra. These parameters are then used for calculating the two photon and third-order nonlinear optical properties. The contribution of the transition moment, the form of the absorption band, the exciton, and phonons in the optical properties are determined. The difference of the experimental values is assigned to correlation effects. We found that the exciton, the correlation effects, and the conduction band are more important in the optical properties of polyenynes than of polyenes. In this way, the dependence of the optical properties of polyenynes on the conduction band makes it possible to increase their nonlinear optical properties by interaction with photons (θ ≈ 0). The dependence of the optical properties on the conduction band also produces that the finiteness of the conjugation strongly decreases the optical properties of polyenynes in relation to polyenes with similar conjugation. On the other hand, the phonons are more important in the optical properties of polyenes than of polyenynes. Consequently, the band is indirect for the studied polyenes and direct for the polyenynes. Therefore, the nonlinear optical properties in the resonance frequency of polyenyne PTS are higher than those for polyacetylene. We also found that asymmetric oscillations of χ(3) in the Brillouin zone increases the χ(3) final value in polyenynes. In addition, we found a change of sign of the wave function coefficients by the Peierls distortion of polyenes to become polyenynes, but this change of sign does not affect the optical properties. As a corollary

  13. Sub-nanometer linewidth perfect absorption in visible band induced by Bloch surface wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jiawei; Liu, Wenxing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Ren, Naifei; Ding, Guilin; Chen, Mingyang; Yao, Hongbing

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the unity absorption of visible light with an ultra-narrow 0.1 nm linewidth. It arises from the Bloch surface wave resonance in alternating TiO2/SiO2 multilayers. The total absorption and narrow linewidth are explained from the radiative and absorptive damping, which are quantitatively determined by the temporal coupled mode theory. When a silver film with proper thickness is added to the absorber, the perfect absorption is achieved with only 3 structural bilayers, in contrast with 8 bilayers required without Ag. Furthermore, significant field enhancement and an ultrahigh 2600/RIU sensing figure-of-merit are simultaneously obtained at resonance, which might facilitate applications in nonlinear optical devices and high resolution refractive index sensing.

  14. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Lisenkov, Sergey; Pendyala, Chandrashekhar; Sunkara, Mahendra K.; Menon, Madhu

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.

  15. Visible-light absorption and large band-gap bowing of GaN1-xSbx from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Sheetz, R. Michael; Richter, Ernst; Andriotis, Antonis N.; ...

    2011-08-01

    Applicability of the Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys for practical realization of photoelectrochemical water splitting is investigated using first-principles density functional theory incorporating the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation plus the Hubbard U parameter formalism. Our calculations reveal that a relatively small concentration of Sb impurities is sufficient to achieve a significant narrowing of the band gap, enabling absorption of visible light. Theoretical results predict that Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys with 2-eV band gaps straddle the potential window at moderate to low pH values, thus indicating that dilute Ga(Sbx)N1-x alloys could be potential candidates for splitting water under visible light irradiation.

  16. Real-time monitoring of reactive species in downstream etch reactor by VUV broad-band absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, R.; Vallier, L.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma etching of nanometric size, high aspect-ratio structures is more challenging at each new technological node. Remote plasmas are beginning to find use when damages on nanostructures by ion bombardment become critical or when etching with high selectivity on different materials present on the wafer is necessary (i . e . tungsten oxide etching with fluorine and hydrogen containing plasmas in remote reactor from AMAT). Furthermore, it is expected that downstream plasma will replace many wet chemical etching processes to alleviate the issue of pattern collapses caused by capillary forces when nanometer size high aspect ratio structures are immersed in liquids. In these downstream plasmas, radicals are the main active species and a control of their density is of prime importance. Most of gases used and radicals produced in etching plasmas (HBr, BrCl, Br2, NF3, CH2F2,...) have strong absorption bands in the vacuum UV spectral region and we have shown that very low concentration of these species can be detected by VUV absorption. We have recently improved the technique by using a VUV CCD camera, instead of the PMT, which render possible the Broad-Band absorption spectroscopy in the 120-200 nm range, with a deuterium lamp, or a laser produced xenon arc lamp as light source. The multi-spectral detection ability of the CCD reduces the acquisition time to less than 1 second and can permit the real time control of the process control.

  17. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  18. [Absorption spectra of nucleic acids and related compounds in the spectral region 120--280 nm].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, M N; Zarochentseva, E P; Dodonova, N Ia

    1975-01-01

    The absorption spectra of thin films of nucleic acids, nucleosides, nucleotides, D-ribose, Na3PO4 in vacuum ultraviolet region are measured. In the spectral region 280--160 nm the absorption spectra consist of the bands of nucleic acid bases. In the range shorter than 160 nm the absorption is determined by phosphate and D-ribose groups. The methods of thin films preparation are discussed.

  19. Radiative analysis of global mean temperature trends in the middle atmosphere: Effects of non-locality and secondary absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomichev, V. I.; Jonsson, A. I.; Ward, W. E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we provide a refined and extended assignment of past and future temperature changes relative to previous analyses and describe and evaluate the relevance of vertical coupling and non-linear and secondary radiative mechanisms for the interpretation of climatic temperature variations in the middle atmosphere. Because of their nature, the latter mechanisms are not adequately accounted for in most regression analyses of temperature trends as a function of local constituent variations. These mechanisms are examined using (1) globally averaged profiles from transient simulations with the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) forced by changes in greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances and (2) a one-dimensional radiative-equilibrium model forced using the diagnosed global mean changes in radiatively active constituents as derived from the CMAM model runs. The conditions during the periods 1975 to 1995 and 2010 to 2040 (during which the rates of change in ozone and CO2 differ) provide a suitable contrast for the role of the non-linear and non-local mechanisms being evaluated in this paper to be clearly differentiated and evaluated. Vertical coupling of radiative transfer effects and the influence of secondary absorption bands are important enough to render the results of multiple linear regression analyses between the temperature response and constituent changes misleading. These effects are evaluated in detail using the 1D radiative-equilibrium model using profiles from the CMAM runs as inputs. In order to explain the differences in the CMAM temperature trends prior to and after 2000 these other radiative effects must be considered in addition to local changes in the radiatively active species. The middle atmosphere temperature cools in response to CO2 and water vapor increases, but past and future trends are modulated by ozone changes.

  20. Method for improving terahertz band absorption spectrum measurement accuracy using noncontact sample thickness measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Su, Haixia; Yan, Fang; Zhang, Han

    2012-07-10

    The terahertz absorption spectrum has a complex nonlinear relationship with sample thickness, which is normally measured mechanically with limited accuracy. As a result, the terahertz absorption spectrum is usually determined incorrectly. In this paper, an iterative algorithm is proposed to accurately determine sample thickness. This algorithm is independent of the initial value used and results in convergent calculations. Precision in sample thickness can be improved up to 0.1 μm. A more precise absorption spectrum can then be extracted. By comparing the proposed method with the traditional method based on mechanical thickness measurements, quantitative analysis experiments on a three-component amino acid mixture shows that the global error decreased from 0.0338 to 0.0301.

  1. Absorption and emission line shapes in the O2 atmospheric bands - Theoretical model and limb viewing simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Bucholtz, A.; Hays, P. B.; Ortland, D.; Skinner, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple scattering radiative transfer model has been developed to carry out a line-by-line calculation of the absorption and emission limb measurements that will be made by the High Resolution Doppler Imager to be flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The multiple scattering model uses the doubling and adding methods to solve the radiative transfer equation, modified to take into account a spherical inhomogeneous atmosphere. Representative absorption and emission line shapes in the O2 1Sigma(+)g - 3Sigma(-)g atmospheric bands (A,B, and gamma) and their variation with altitude are presented. The effects of solar zenith angle, aerosol loading, surface albedo, and cloud height on the line shapes are also discussed.

  2. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of ERTS-1 images of Nevada has followed two courses: comparative lineament mapping and spectral reflectance evaluation. The comparative lineament mapping was conducted by mapping lineaments on 9 x 9 inch prints of MSS bands 5 and 7, transferring the data to a base map, and comparing the results with existing geologic maps. The most significant results are that lineaments are more numerous on the band 7 images, and approximately 100 percent more were mapped than appear on existing maps. Geologic significance of these newly mapped lineaments will not be known until they are checked in the field: many are probably faults. Spectral analysis has been limited to visual comparison among the four MSS bands. In general, higher scene contrast is shown in the near infrared bands (6 and 7) than in the visible wavelength bands (4 and 5). The economic implications of these results derive chiefly from the greater efficiency that can be obtained by using near infrared as well as visible wavelength images.

  3. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2014-08-21

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadening of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.

  4. Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liu Hao; Lau, Lok Yin; Ren, Wei

    2017-03-01

    We report in situ measurements of non-uniform temperature, H2O and CO2 concentration distributions in a premixed methane-air laminar flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A mid-infrared, continuous-wave, room-temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) at 4183 nm was used for the sensitive detection of CO2 at high temperature.The H2O absorption lines were exploited by one distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1343 nm and one ICL at 2482 nm to achieve multi-band absorption measurements with high species concentration sensitivity, high temperature sensitivity, and immunity to variations in ambient conditions. A novel profile-fitting function was proposed to characterize the non-uniform temperature and species concentrations along the line-of-sight in the flame by detecting six absorption lines of CO2 and H2O simultaneously. The flame temperature distribution was measured at different heights above the burner (5-20 mm), and compared with the thermocouple measurement with heat-transfer correction. Our TDLAS measured temperature of the central flame was in excellent agreement (<1.5% difference) with the thermocouple data.The TDLAS results were also compared with the CFD simulations using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism (GRI 3.0) and considering the heat loss to the surroundings.The current CFD simulation overpredicted the flame temperature in the gradient region, but was in excellent agreement with the measured temperature and species concentration in the core of the flame.

  5. Experimental demonstration of terahertz metamaterial absorbers with a broad and flat high absorption band.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Ramani, Suchitra; Reiten, Matthew T; Luo, Sheng-Nian; Taylor, Antoinette J; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2012-01-15

    We present the design, numerical simulations and experimental measurements of terahertz metamaterial absorbers with a broad and flat absorption top over a wide incidence angle range for either transverse electric or transverse magnetic polarization depending on the incident direction. The metamaterial absorber unit cell consists of two sets of structures resonating at different but close frequencies. The overall absorption spectrum is the superposition of individual components and becomes flat at the top over a significant bandwidth. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  6. Theoretical study on the photofragment branching ratios and anisotropy parameters of ICl in the second absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Takahide; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and non-adiabatic coupling terms of the excited states of ICl molecule have been obtained by the spin-orbit configuration interaction method to examine the branching ratios and the anisotropy parameters of the photodissociation process in the second absorption band. The calculation of the branching ratios with the time-dependent coupled Schrödinger equations, including the quantum interference effect between the 0+(III) and 0+(IV) states, shows good agreement with recent experiments, thus resolves the long standing disagreement. The contribution of the quantum interference effect to the photodissociation process is discussed based on a time-dependent perturbation treatment.

  7. Higher-order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Hao; Shi, Jiaru; Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi

    2016-04-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  8. Zodiacal dust bands - Their relation to asteroid families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.

    1990-01-01

    The zodiacal dust band phenomenon is presently reproduced by a mathematical model of orbitally evolved collisional debris spatial distributions whose torus exhibits particle-density maxima at heliocentric latitudes near its constituent particles' mean proper orbital inclinations, as well as near the loci of the particle orbits' perihelia and aphelia. Models of dust toruses for seven asteroid families are generated and compared with observations of the principal dust bands. Nonequilibrium models of dust band production and evolution furnish a framework within which all dust band observations can be understood.

  9. Iron absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron rich zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A lineament study of the Nevada test site is near completion. Two base maps (1:500,000) have been prepared, one of band 7 lineaments and the other of band 5 lineaments. In general, more lineaments and more faults are seen on band 5. About 45% of the lineaments appear to be faults and contacts, the others being predominantly streams, roads, railway tracks, and mountain crests. About 25% of the lineaments are unidentified so far. Special attention is being given to unmapped extensions of faults, groups of unmapped lineaments, and known mineralized areas and alteration zones. Earthquake epicenters recorded from 1869 to 1963 have been plotted on the two base maps. Preliminary examination as yet indicates no basic correlation with the lineaments. Attempts are being made to subtract bands optically, using an I2S viewer, an enlarger, and a data color viewer. Success has been limited so far due to technical difficulties, mainly vignetting and poor light sources, within the machines. Some vegetation and rock type differences, however, have been discerned.

  10. Shape of impurity electronic absorption bands in a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1995-02-01

    It is shown that the anisotropic intermolecular impurity-matrix interactions, statistical orientation properties, and the electronic structure of the uniaxial impurity molecules considerably affect the spectral moments of the impurity electronic adsorption bands in a nematic liquid crystal. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  11. THE 217.5 nm BAND, INFRARED ABSORPTION, AND INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W. W.; Hu, Anming E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-12-20

    We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under ''slow'' deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp {sup 2}/sp {sup 3} ratio Almost-Equal-To 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

  12. Resonant absorption in semiconductor nanowires and nanowire arrays: Relating leaky waveguide modes to Bloch photonic crystal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Whitney, William S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2014-10-21

    We present a unified framework for resonant absorption in periodic arrays of high index semiconductor nanowires that combines a leaky waveguide theory perspective and that of photonic crystals supporting Bloch modes, as array density transitions from sparse to dense. Full dispersion relations are calculated for each mode at varying illumination angles using the eigenvalue equation for leaky waveguide modes of an infinite dielectric cylinder. The dispersion relations along with symmetry arguments explain the selectivity of mode excitation and spectral red-shifting of absorption for illumination parallel to the nanowire axis in comparison to perpendicular illumination. Analysis of photonic crystal band dispersion for varying array density illustrates that the modes responsible for resonant nanowire absorption emerge from the leaky waveguide modes.

  13. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  14. Presence of terrestrial atmospheric gas absorption bands in standard extraterrestrial solar irradiance curves in the near-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Gao, B C; Green, R O

    1995-09-20

    The solar irradiance curves compiled by Wehrli [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Publ. 615 (World Radiation Center, Davosdorf, Switzerland, 1985)] and by Neckel and Labs [Sol. Phys. 90, 205 (1984)] are widely used. These curves were obtained based on measurements of solar radiation from the ground and from aircraft platforms. Contaminations in these curves by atmospheric gaseous absorptions were inevitable. A technique for deriving the transmittance spectrum of the Sun's atmosphere from high-resolution (0.01 cm(-1)) solar occultation spectra measured above the Earth's atmosphere by the use of atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) aboard the space shuttle is described. The comparisons of the derived ATMOS solar transmittance spectrum with the two solar irradiance curves show that he curve derived by Wehrli contains many absorption features in the 2.0-2.5-µm region that are not of solar origin, whereas the curve obtained by Neckel and Labs is completely devoid of weak solar absorption features that should be there. An Earth atmospheric oxygen band at 1.268 µm and a water-vapor band near 0.94 µm are likely present in the curve obtained by Wehrli. It is shown that the solar irradiance measurement errors in some narrow spectral intervals can be as large as 20%. An improved solar irradiance spectrum is formed by the incorporation of the solar transmittance spectrum derived from the ATMOS data into the solar irradiance spectrum from Neckel and Labs. The availability of a new solar spectrum from 50 to 50 000 cm(-1) from the U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory is also discussed.

  15. Infrared, visible and ultraviolet absorptions of transition metal doped ZnS crystals with spin-polarized bands

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.H.; Ding, J.W.; Cao, J.X.; Zhang, Y.L.

    2011-03-15

    The formation energies, electronic structures and optical properties of TM:ZnS systems (TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}) are investigated by using the first principles method. It is found that the wurtzite and zinc-blende structures have about the same stability, and thus can coexist in the TM:ZnS system. From the wurtzite TM:ZnS, especially, a partially filled intermediate band (IB) is obtained at TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}, while it is absent at TM=Mn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. The additional absorptions are obtained in infrared, visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions, due to the completely spin-polarized IB at Fermi level. The results are very helpful for both the designs and applications of TM:ZnS opto-electronics devices, such as solar-cell prototype. -- Graphical abstract: Absorption coefficients of w-TM{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S crystals (TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}) at x=0.028. The results may be helpful for the design and applications of TM:ZnS devices, especially for the new high efficiency solar-cell prototype, UV detector and UV LEDs. Display Omitted Research highlights: > It is found that the wurtzite and zinc-blende structures can coexist in TM:ZnS. > An intermediate band is obtained in TM:ZnS at TM=Cr{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}. > The absorption coefficients are obtained in infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions.

  16. RF environment survey of Space Shuttle related EEE frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J.; Prigel, B.; Postelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency assignments within the continental United States in frequency bands between 121 MHz abd 65 GHz were surveyed and analyzed in order to determine current utilization of anticipated frequency bands for the shuttle borne electromagnetic environment experiment. Data from both government and nongovernment files were used. Results are presented in both narrative form and in histograms which show the total number of unclassified assignments versus frequency and total assigned power versus frequency.

  17. Broad Band Light Absorption and High Photocurrent of (In,Ga)N Nanowire Photoanodes Resulting from a Radial Stark Effect.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Jumpei; Bogdanoff, Peter; Corfdir, Pierre; Brandt, Oliver; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2016-12-21

    The photoelectrochemical properties of (In,Ga)N nanowire photoanodes are investigated using H2O2 as a hole scavenger to prevent photocorrosion. Under simulated solar illumination, In0.16Ga0.84N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy show a high photocurrent of 2.7 mA/cm(2) at 1.2 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode. This value is almost the theoretical maximum expected from the corresponding band gap (2.8 eV) for homogeneous bulk material without taking into account surface effects. These nanowires exhibit a higher incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency over a broader wavelength range and a higher photocurrent than a compact layer with higher In content of 28%. These results are explained by the combination of built-in electric fields at the nanowire sidewall surfaces and compositional fluctuations in (In,Ga)N, which gives rise to a radial Stark effect. This effect enables spatially indirect transitions at energies much lower than the band gap. The resulting broad band light absorption leads to high photocurrents. This benefit of the radial Stark effect in (In,Ga)N nanowires for solar harvesting applications opens up the perspective to break the theoretical limit for photocurrents.

  18. Fluorinated graphene oxide for enhanced S and X-band microwave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sudeep, P. M.; Vinayasree, S.; Mohanan, P.; Ajayan, P. M.; Narayanan, T. N.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    Here we report the microwave absorbing properties of three graphene derivatives, namely, graphene oxide (GO), fluorinated GO (FGO, containing 5.6 at. % Fluorine (F)), and highly FGO (HFGO, containing 23 at. % F). FGO is known to be exhibiting improved electrochemical and electronic properties when compared to GO. Fluorination modifies the dielectric properties of GO and hence thought of as a good microwave absorber. The dielectric permittivities of GO, FGO, and HFGO were estimated in the S (2 GHz to 4 GHz) and X (8 GHz to 12 GHz) bands by employing cavity perturbation technique. For this, suspensions containing GO/FGO/HFGO were made in N-Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP) and were subjected to cavity perturbation. The reflection loss was then estimated and it was found that −37 dB (at 3.2 GHz with 6.5 mm thickness) and −31 dB (at 2.8 GHz with 6 mm thickness) in the S band and a reflection loss of −18 dB (at 8.4 GHz with 2.5 mm thickness) and −10 dB (at 11 GHz with 2 mm thickness) in the X band were achieved for 0.01 wt. % of FGO and HFGO in NMP, respectively, suggesting that these materials can serve as efficient microwave absorbers even at low concentrations.

  19. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D2.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Arno; Dickenson, Gareth D; Salumbides, Edcel J; Ubachs, Wim; de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Nahon, Laurent

    2012-06-21

    An extensive survey of the D(2) absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90,000-119,000 cm(-1) covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B (1)Σ(u)(+), B' (1)Σ(u)(+), and C (1)Π(u) electronic states up to the D(1s) + D(2l) dissociation limit. Improved level energies of rovibrational levels have been determined up to respectively v = 51, v = 13, and v = 20. Highest resolution is achieved by probing absorption in a molecular gas jet with slit geometry, as well as in a liquid helium cooled static gas cell, resulting in line widths of ≈0.35 cm(-1). Extended calibration methods are employed to extract line positions of D(2) lines at absolute accuracies of 0.03 cm(-1). The D (1)Π(u) and B'' (1)Σ(u)(+) electronic states correlate with the D(1s) + D(3l]) dissociation limit, but support a few vibrational levels below the second dissociation limit, respectively, v = 0-3 and v = 0-1, and are also included in the presented study. The complete set of resulting level energies is the most comprehensive and accurate data set for D(2). The observations are compared with previous studies, both experimental and theoretical.

  20. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  1. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  2. Would the solvent effect be the main cause of band shift in the theoretical absorption spectrum of large lanthanide complexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Gimenez, Iara F.; da Costa Junior, Nivan B.

    2011-06-01

    As most reactions take place in solution, the study of solvent effects on relevant molecular properties - either by experimental or theoretical methods - is crucial for the design of new processes and prediction of technological properties. In spite of this, only few works focusing the influence of the solvent nature specifically on the spectroscopic properties of lanthanide complexes can be found in the literature. The present work describes a theoretical study of the solvent effect on the prediction of the absorption spectra for lanthanide complexes, but other possible relevant factors have been also considered such as the molecular geometry and the excitation window used for interaction configuration (CI) calculations. The [Eu(ETA) 2· nH 2O] +1 complex has been chosen as an ideal candidate for this type of study due to its small number of atoms (only 49) and also because the absorption spectrum exhibits a single band. Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, the first one considering the [Eu(ETA) 2] +1 complex in 400 water molecules, evidencing that the complex presents four coordinated water molecules. The second simulation considered the [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex in 400 ethanol molecules, in order to evaluate the solvent effect on the shift of the maximum absorption in calculated spectra, compared to the experimental one. Quantum chemical studies were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of calculated ground state geometry on the prediction of absorption spectra. The influence of the excitation window used for CI calculations on the spectral shift was also evaluated. No significant solvent effect was found on the prediction of the absorption spectrum for [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex. A small but significant effect of the ground state geometry on the transition energy and oscillator strength was also observed. Finally it must be emphasized that the absorption spectra of lanthanide complexes can be predicted with great accuracy

  3. Relating P-band AIRSAR backscatter to forest stand parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yong; Melack, John M.; Davis, Frank W.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    As part of research on forest ecosystems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborating research teams have conducted multi-season airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) experiments in three forest ecosystems including temperate pine forest (Duke, Forest, North Carolina), boreal forest (Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska), and northern mixed hardwood-conifer forest (Michigan Biological Station, Michigan). The major research goals were to improve understanding of the relationships between radar backscatter and phenological variables (e.g. stand density, tree size, etc.), to improve radar backscatter models of tree canopy properties, and to develop a radar-based scheme for monitoring forest phenological changes. In September 1989, AIRSAR backscatter data were acquired over the Duke Forest. As the aboveground biomass of the loblolly pine forest stands at Duke Forest increased, the SAR backscatter at C-, L-, and P-bands increased and saturated at different biomass levels for the C-band, L-band, and P-band data. We only use the P-band backscatter data and ground measurements here to study the relationships between the backscatter and stand density, the backscatter and mean trunk dbh (diameter at breast height) of trees in the stands, and the backscatter and stand basal area.

  4. On the Use of Difference Bands for Modeling SF_6 Absorption in the 10μm Atmospheric Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Mbaye; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.; Boudon, Vincent; Loete, Michel

    2016-06-01

    To model correctly the SF_6 atmospheric absorption requires the knowledge of the spectroscopic parameters of all states involved in the numerous hot bands in the 10,5μm atmospheric transparency window. However, due to their overlapping, a direct analysis of the hot bands near the 10,5μm absorption of SF_6 in the atmospheric window is not possible. It is necessary to use another strategy, gathering information in the far and mid infrared regions on initial and final states to compute the relevant total absorption. In this talk, we present new results from the analysis of spectra recorded at the AILES beamline at the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility. For these measurements, we used a IFS125HR interferometer combined with the synchrotron radiation in the 100-3200 wn range, coupled to a cryogenic multiple pass cell. The optical path length was varied from 45 to 141m with measuring temperatures between 223 and 153+/-5 K. The new information obtained on νb{2}+νb{4}-νb{5}, 2νb{5}-νb{6} and νb{3}+νb{6}-νb{4} allowed to derive improved parameters for νb{5}, 2νb{5} and νb{3}+νb{6}. In turn, they are used to model the more important νb{3}+νb{5}-νb{5} and νb{3}+νb{6}-νb{6} hot band contributions. By including these new parameters in the XTDS model, we substantially improved the SF_6 parameters used to model the atmosphere. F. Kwabia Tchana, F. Willaert, X. Landsheere, J. M. Flaud, L. Lago, M. Chapuis, P. Roy, L. Manceron. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-IR to THz Spectroscopy and Synchrotron Radiation Use. Rev. Sci. Inst. 84, 093101, (2013) C. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov, and J.-P. Champion,"XTDS and SPVIEW: Graphical tools for Analysis and Simulation of High Resolution Molecular Spectra", J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251, 102 (2008)

  5. A thermal broadening analysis of absorption spectra of the D1/D2/cytochrome b-559 complex in terms of Gaussian decomposition sub-bands.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, R; Zucchelli, G; Garlaschi, F M; Finzi, L; Jennings, R C

    1995-11-21

    Absorption spectra of the isolated D1/D2/cytochrome b-559 complex have been measured in the temperature range 80-300 K. All spectra were analyzed in terms of a linear combination of Gaussian bands and the thermal broadening data interpreted in terms of a model in which the spectrum of each pigment site is broadened by (a) a homogeneous component due to linear electron-phonon coupling to a low-frequency protein vibration and (b) an inhomogeneous component associated with stochastic fluctuations at each pigment site. In order to obtain a numerically adequate description of the absorption spectra, a minimum number of five sub-bands is required. Further refinement of this sub-band description was achieved by taking into account published data from hole burning and absorption difference spectroscopy. In this way, both a six sub-band description and a seven sub-band description were generated. In arriving at the seven sub-band description, the original five sub-band wavelength positions were essentially unchanged. Thermal broadening analysis of the seven sub-band description yielded data which displayed the closest correspondence with the literature observations. The wavelength positions of the sub-bands were near 661, 667, 670, and 675 nm, with two bands near 680 and 684 nm. The two almost isoenergetic sub-bands near 680 nm, identified as P680 and pheophytin, have optical reorganization energies around 40 and 16 cm-1, respectively. All other sub-bands, identified as accessory pigments, have optical reorganization energies close to 16 cm-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Europa's ultraviolet absorption band (260 to 320 nm) - Temporal and spatial evidence from IUE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ockert, Maureen E.; Nelson, Robert M.; Lane, Arthur L.; Matson, Dennis L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of 33 IUE UV spectra of Europa, obtained from 1978 to 1982 for orbital phase angles of 21 to 343 deg, confirms that the Lane et al. (1981) absorption feature, centered at 280 nm, is most clearly revealed when 223-333 deg orbital phase angle spectra are ratioed to those nearest 90 deg. The feature's strength is noted to have persisted over the 5-year period studied, suggesting that no large endogenically or exogenically generated changes in surface sulfur dioxide concentration have occurred. These results further substantiate the Lane et al. hypothesis that the feature is due to the implantation of Io plasma torus-derived sulfur ions on the Europa trailing side's water-ice surface.

  7. Optimizing organic photovoltaics using tailored heterojunctions: A photoinduced absorption study of oligothiophenes with low band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueppel, R.; Schmidt, K.; Uhrich, C.; Schulze, K.; Wynands, D.; Brédas, J. L.; Brier, E.; Reinold, E.; Bu, H.-B.; Baeuerle, P.; Maennig, B.; Pfeiffer, M.; Leo, K.

    2008-02-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 3.4% with an open-circuit voltage of 1V was recently demonstrated in a thin film solar cell utilizing fullerene C60 as acceptor and a new acceptor-substituted oligothiophene with an optical gap of 1.77eV as donor [K. Schulze , Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 2872 (2006)]. This prompted us to systematically study the energy- and electron transfer processes at the oligothiophene:fullerene heterojunction for a homologous series of these oligothiophenes. Cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data show that the heterojunction is modified due to tuning of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy for different oligothiophene chain lengths, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy remains essentially fixed due to the presence of electron-withdrawing end groups (dicyanovinyl) attached to the oligothiophene. Use of photoinduced absorption (PA) allows the study of the electron transfer process at the heterojunction to C60 . Quantum-chemical calculations performed at the density functional theory and/or time-dependent density functional theory level and cation absorption spectra of diluted DCVnT provide an unambiguous identification of the transitions observed in the PA spectra. Upon increasing the effective energy gap of the donor-acceptor pair by increasing the ionization energy of the donor, photoinduced electron transfer is eventually replaced with energy transfer, which alters the photovoltaic operation conditions. The optimum open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is thus a trade-off between efficient charge separation at the interface and maximized effective gap. It appears that the open-circuit voltages of 1.0-1.1V in our solar cell devices have reached an optimum since higher voltages result in a loss in charge separation efficiency.

  8. Energy conversion within infrared plasmonic absorption metamaterials for multi-band resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqian; Su, Lei; Xu, Xiaolun; Zhang, Chenglin; Wang, Binbin

    2015-05-01

    The energy conversion within the cross-shaped plasmonic absorber metamaterials (PAM) was investigated theoretically and numerically in the infrared range based on the Poynting's theorem of electromagnetic energy. From the microscopic details, the heat generation owing to the electric current accounts for the majority of the energy conversion, while the magnetic resonance plays a negligible role. The PAMs possess three distinct resonant peaks standing independently, which are attributed to the polarization sensitive excitation of plasmonic resonance. Field redistribution and enhancement associated with multiplex resonant electromagnetic wave passing through the PAM medium provided insight into the energy conversion processes inside the nanostructure. The research results will assist the design of novel plasmon enhanced infrared detectors with multiple-band detection.

  9. 78 FR 17422 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated... Band of Cherokee Indians resulting from severe storms, flooding, landslides, and mudslides during...

  10. Thermodynamic consequence of the new attribution of bands in the electronic absorption spectrum of electron donor-iodine-solvent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Sergey P.

    1999-06-01

    The subject review pays attention to the peculiarities in behaviour of bands in the electronic absorption spectra of electron donor-iodine-solvent systems, the appearance of which is associated with the intermolecular interaction of molecular iodine with electron donor organic molecules. The new concept of the bands’ attribution to the isomeric equilibrium molecular charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) of CTC-I and CTC-II types is considered. The features of possible phase transitions in the solid state are discussed on the basis of the thermodynamic properties and electronic structures of the CTC-I and CTC-II in electron donor-iodine-solvent systems. The stabilisation of the CTC-II structure with the temperature lowering coincided in many cases with the electrons’ localisation in the solid state structures having charge-transfer bonds.

  11. Depolarisation of light scattered by disperse systems of low-dimensional potassium polytitanate nanoparticles in the fundamental absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Yuvchenko, S A; Pravdin, A B; Kochubey, V I; Gorokhovsky, A V; Tretyachenko, E V; Kunitsky, A I

    2014-07-31

    The results of experimental studies of depolarising properties of disperse systems on the basis of potassium polytitanate nanoplatelets and nanoribbons in the visible and near-UV spectral regions are presented. It is shown that in the fundamental absorption band of the nanoparticle material the increase in the depolarisation factor takes place for the radiation scattered perpendicularly to the direction of the probing beam. For nanoribbons a pronounced peak of depolarisation is observed, which is caused by the essential anisotropy of the particles shape and the peculiarities of the behaviour of the material dielectric function. The empirical data are compared with the theoretical results for 'nanodiscs' and 'nanoneedles' with the model dielectric function, corresponding to that obtained from optical constants of the titanium dioxide dielectric function. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Is a pyrene-like molecular ion the cause of the 4,430-A diffuse interstellar absorption band?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorption features of astronomical spectra are suggested by recent results to be separable from the grains that cause visual extinction. Attention is presently given to laboratory measurements of the optical spectrum of the pyrene cation C16H10(+), which is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular candidates proposed as carriers for DIBs. This ion exhibits an intense but strangely broad continuum similar to that of the naphthalene cation, so that this may be a common feature of all PAH cations and the basis of an explanation for PAHs' converting of an interstellar radiation fraction as large as that from the UV and visible range down to the IR.

  13. Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the marine boundary layer species I2, IO and OIO.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Stewart; Gherman, Titus; Ruth, Albert A; Orphal, Johannes

    2008-08-14

    The novel combination of incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) and a discharge-flow tube for the study of three key atmospheric trace species, I(2), IO and OIO, is reported. Absorption measurements of I(2) and OIO at lambda=525-555 nm and IO at lambda=420-460 nm were made using a compact cavity-enhanced spectrometer employing a 150 W short-arc Xenon lamp. The use of a flow system allowed the monitoring of the chemically short-lived radical species IO and OIO to be conducted over timescales of several seconds. We report detection limits of approximately 26 pmol mol(-1) for I(2) (L=81 cm, acquisition time 60 s), approximately 45 pmol mol(-1) for OIO (L=42.5 cm, acquisition time 5 s) and approximately 210 pmol mol(-1) for IO (L=70 cm, acquisition time 60 s), demonstrating the usefulness of this approach for monitoring these important species in both laboratory studies and field campaigns.

  14. Anomalous band gap behavior in mixed Sn and Pb perovskites enables broadening of absorption spectrum in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Feng; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Chang, Robert P H; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2014-06-04

    Perovskite-based solar cells have recently been catapulted to the cutting edge of thin-film photovoltaic research and development because of their promise for high-power conversion efficiencies and ease of fabrication. Two types of generic perovskites compounds have been used in cell fabrication: either Pb- or Sn-based. Here, we describe the performance of perovskite solar cells based on alloyed perovskite solid solutions of methylammonium tin iodide and its lead analogue (CH3NH3Sn(1-x)Pb(x)I3). We exploit the fact that, the energy band gaps of the mixed Pb/Sn compounds do not follow a linear trend (the Vegard's law) in between these two extremes of 1.55 and 1.35 eV, respectively, but have narrower bandgap (<1.3 eV), thus extending the light absorption into the near-infrared (~1,050 nm). A series of solution-processed solid-state photovoltaic devices using a mixture of organic spiro-OMeTAD/lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide/pyridinium additives as hole transport layer were fabricated and studied as a function of Sn to Pb ratio. Our results show that CH3NH3Sn(0.5)Pb(0.5)I3 has the broadest light absorption and highest short-circuit photocurrent density ~20 mA cm(-2) (obtained under simulated full sunlight of 100 mW cm(-2)).

  15. The first UV absorption band for indole is not due to two simultaneous orthogonal electronic transitions differing in dipole moment.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Javier

    2015-05-21

    The currently accepted model for the photophysics of indole assumes that the first UV absorption band encompasses two orthogonal electronic transitions ((1)Lb and (1)La), leading to two electronic states with a markedly different dipole moment. However, there is a body of evidence not explained by this model, which led us to develop a new photophysical model for indole. Based on the new model, the polarity of the electronic ground state (S0) in indoles is very similar to that of the first electronic excited state (S1) producing this structured emission; however, this excited state can lead to a highly dipolar excited state (S1') with largely structureless emission under the influence of the polarity of the medium, and also, very likely, of its viscosity. The molecular structure of the new excited state can be reversibly converted into the normal structure of the compound. Previous observations were confirmed by the absorption, emission, and excitation spectra for indole, as well as by its polarized emission and excitation spectra in various media. Thus, the polarized emission spectra for indole in glycerol at 283 K and 223 K showed the transition dipole moments for the emission from the first two excited states in a polar medium, S1 and S1', to differ by less than 20°.

  16. Confinement effect of laser ablation plume in liquids probed by self-absorption of C{sub 2} Swan band emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Saito, Kotaro; Ogata, Yukio H.

    2005-01-01

    The (0,0) Swan band of the C{sub 2} molecules in a laser ablation plume produced on the surface of graphite target submerged in water was used as a probe to estimate the density of C{sub 2} molecules in the plume. Observed emission spectra were reproduced excellently by introducing a self-absorption parameter to the theoretical spectral profile expected by a rotational population distribution at a certain temperature. The optical density of the ablation plume as a function of time was determined as a best-fit parameter by the quantitative fitting of the whole spectral profile. The results show high optical densities for the laser ablation plume in water compared with that in air. It is related to the plume confinement or the expansion, which are the important phenomena influencing the characteristics of laser ablation plumes in liquids.

  17. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Emission and Absorption Spectra of meso-Pyridyl Porphyrins upon Soret Band Excitation Studied by Fluorescence Up-Conversion and Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Yeduru; Venkatesan, M; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2016-09-08

    A comprehensive study of ultrafast molecular relaxation processes of isomeric meso-(pyridyl) porphyrins (TpyPs) has been carried out by using femtosecond time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopic techniques upon pumping at 400 nm, Soret band (B band or S2), in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent mixture. By combined studies of fluorescence up-conversion, time-correlated single photon counting, and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques, a complete model with different microscopic rate constants associated with elementary processes involved in electronic manifolds has been reported. Besides, a distinct coherent nuclear wave packet motion in Qy state is observed at low-frequency mode, ca. 26 cm(-1) region. Fluorescence up-conversion studies constitute ultrafast time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) over the whole emission range (430-710 nm) starting from S2 state to Qx state via Qy state. Careful analysis of time profiles of up-converted signals at different emission wavelengths helps to reveal detail molecular dynamics. The observed lifetimes are as indicated: A very fast decay component with 80 ± 20 fs observed at ∼435 nm is assigned to the lifetime of S2 (B) state, whereas being a rise component in the region of between 550 and 710 nm emission wavelength pertaining to Qy and Qx states, it is attributed to very fast internal conversion (IC) occurring from B → Qy and B → Qx as well. Two distinct components of Qy emission decay with ∼200-300 fs and ∼1-1.5 ps time constants are due to intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) induced by solute-solvent inelastic collisions and vibrational redistribution induced by solute-solvent elastic collision, respectively. The weighted average of these two decay components is assigned as the characteristic lifetime of Qy, and it ranges between 0.3 and 0.5 ps. An additional ∼20 ± 2 ps rise component is observed in Qx emission, and it is assigned to the formation time of

  18. Study of band inversion in the PbxSn1-xTe class of topological crystalline insulators using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, K. V.; Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Krbal, M.; Tominaga, J.; Uruga, T.

    2014-11-01

    PbxSn1-xTe and PbxSn1-xSe crystals belong to the class of topological crystalline insulators where topological protection is achieved due to crystal symmetry rather than time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we make use of selection rules in the x-ray absorption process to experimentally detect band inversion along the PbTe(Se)-SnTe(Se) tie-lines. The observed significant change in the ratio of intensities of L1 and L3 transitions along the tie-line demonstrates that x-ray absorption can be a useful tool to study band inversion in topological insulators.

  19. Three-pulse femtosecond spectroscopy of PbSe nanocrystals: 1S bleach nonlinearity and sub-band-edge excited-state absorption assignment.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Itay; Shapiro, Arthur; Yang, Chunfan; Yanover, Diana; Lifshitz, Efrat; Ruhman, Sanford

    2015-02-24

    Above band-edge photoexcitation of PbSe nanocrystals induces strong below band gap absorption as well as a multiphased buildup of bleaching in the 1Se1Sh transition. The amplitudes and kinetics of these features deviate from expectations based on biexciton shifts and state filling, which are the mechanisms usually evoked to explain them. To clarify these discrepancies, the same transitions are investigated here by double-pump-probe spectroscopy. Re-exciting in the below band gap induced absorption characteristic of hot excitons is shown to produce additional excitons with high probability. In addition, pump-probe experiments on a sample saturated with single relaxed excitons prove that the resulting 1Se1Sh bleach is not linear with the number of excitons per nanocrystal. This finding holds for two samples differing significantly in size, demonstrating its generality. Analysis of the results suggests that below band edge induced absorption in hot exciton states is due to excited-state absorption and not to shifted absorption of cold carriers and that 1Se1Sh bleach signals are not an accurate counter of sample excitons when their distribution includes multiexciton states.

  20. Optimal design and loss mechanism analysis of microwave absorbing unidirectional SiC fiber composites with broad absorption band and good polarization stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Guangchao; Jiang, Jianjun; He, Yun; Bie, Shaowei

    2016-04-01

    A microwave-absorbing unidirectional SiC fiber composite with wide absorption and good polarization stability was designed by genetic algorithm. The anisotropic nature of unidirectional fiber composites was considered in the design by characterizing tensor permittivity. This special composite is composed of two kinds of SiC fibers that separately exhibit relatively high conductivity and low conductivity. The electromagnetic loss mechanism of this composite was examined for polarizations that differ in the electric field of the incident wave, applied either in the direction of the fiber or in the transverse direction, perpendicular to the fibers. For both polarizations, the absorption band of our composite can reach 6 GHz and the lowest microwave reflectivity was about -20 dB over a range of 8-18 GHz. When the electric field is polarized parallel to fibers, strong coupling among the high-conductivity fibers can induce a strong current and thus efficiently dissipate the electromagnetic energy. When the electric field is polarized perpendicular to fibers, the electromagnetic loss mechanism in the composite resembles the electric energy loss in capacitors and currents in the transverse direction are obstructed by the fibers resulting in attenuation of the electromagnetic energy in the matrix.

  1. Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-11).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-21

    We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

  2. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study has concentrated on the two primary aspects of the project, structural analysis through evaluation of lineaments and circular features and spectral analyses through digital computer-processing techniques. Several previously unrecognized lineaments are mapped which may be the surface manifestations of major fault or fracture zones. Two of these, the Walker Lane and the Midas Trench lineament system, transect the predominantly NNE-NNW-trending moutain ranges for more than 500 km. Correlation of major lineaments with productive mining districts implies a genetic relationship, the 50 circular or elliptical features delineated suggest a related role for Tertiary volcanism. Color-ratio composites have been used to identify limonitic zones and to discriminate mafic and felsic rock by combing diazo color transparencies of three different ratios. EROS Data Center scene identification number for color composite in this report is ER 1 CC 500. Refinement of enhancement procedures for the ratio images is progressing. Fieldwork in coordination with both spectral and structural analyses is underway.

  3. Band models and correlations for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of infrared radiation by various line and band models are briefly reviewed. Narrow band model relations for absorptance are used to develop 'exact' formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Application of a wide band model to a particular gas largely depends upon the spectroscopic characteristic of the absorbing-emitting molecule. Seven continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model are presented and each one of these is compared with the exact (numerical) solutions of the wide band models. Comparison of these results indicate the validity of a correlation for a particular radiative transfer application. In radiative transfer analyses, use of continuous correlations for total band absorptance provides flexibilities in various mathematical operations.

  4. Improved Experimental Line Positions for the (1,1) Band of the b 1Σ+ - X 3Σ- Transition of O2 by Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Leah C.; O'Brien, Emily C.; O'Brien, James J.

    2012-06-01

    We report improved experimental line positions for the (1,1) band of the b 1Σ+ - X 3Σ- transition of O2. Results are comparised with previous experimental measurements and predicted values. Additionally, a new method of producing vibrationally hot molecules for use in absorption spectroscopy of stable gas phase molecules is described.

  5. Individual differences in brain dynamics: important implications for the calculation of event-related band power.

    PubMed

    Doppelmayr, M; Klimesch, W; Pachinger, T; Ripper, B

    1998-07-01

    Measures of event-related band power such as event-related desynchronization (ERD) are conventionally analyzed within fixed frequency bands, although it is known that EEG frequency varies as a function of a variety of factors. The question of how to determine these frequency bands for ERD analyses is discussed and a new method is proposed. The rationale of this new method is to adjust the frequency bands to the individual alpha frequency (IAF) for each subject and to determine the bandwidth for the alpha and theta bands as a percentage of IAF. As an example, if IAF equals 12 Hz, the widths of the alpha and theta bands are larger as compared to a subject with an IAF of, e.g., only 8 Hz. The results of an oddball paradigm show that the proposed method is superior to methods that are based on fixed frequencies and fixed bandwidths.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Ni composites with enhanced microwave absorption properties in Ku-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zetao; Sun, Xin; Li, Guoxian; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; Fan, Xiaoli; Pan, Xuchen; He, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    Recently, graphene has been applied as a new microwave absorber because of its high dielectric loss and low density. Nevertheless, the high dielectric constant of pristine graphene has caused unbalanced electromagnetic parameters and results in a bad impedance matching characteristic. In this study, we report a facile microwave-assisted heating approach to produce reduced graphene oxide-nickel (RGO-Ni) composites. The phase and morphology of as-synthesized RGO-Ni composites are characterized by XRD, Raman, FESEM and TEM. The results show that Ni nanoparticles with a diameter around 20 nm are grown densely and uniformly on the RGO sheets. In addition, enhanced microwave absorption properties in Ku-band of RGO-Ni composites is mainly due to the synergistic effect of dielectric loss and magnetic loss and the dramatically electron polarizations caused by the formation of large conductive network. The minimum reflection loss of RGO-Ni-2 composite with the thickness of 2 mm can reaches -42 dB at 17.6 GHz. The RGO-Ni composite is an attractive candidate for the new type of high performance microwave absorbing material.

  7. Trait absorption is related to enhanced emotional picture processing and reduced processing of secondary acoustic probes.

    PubMed

    Benning, Stephen D; Rozalski, Vincent; Klingspon, Kara L

    2015-10-01

    Trait absorption reflects a propensity to have one's attention drawn to engaging sensory or imaginal experiences. It is related to self-reported levels of positive and negative emotionality, but little work has examined whether absorption is related to greater levels of basic emotional processing. We used the late positive potential (LPP) to pictures and P3 response to subsequent startle probes during those pictures to examine how absorption was related to initial emotional processing and reactivity to a second stimulus. Across genders, absorption was positively related to LPP amplitude to emotional versus neutral pictures at PZ, and it was negatively related to overall P3 amplitude to startle probes at FZ. Thus, absorption appears to index greater processing of emotional material at the cost of reduced processing of subsequent incoming stimuli.

  8. High resolution absorption cross sections in the transmission window region of the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements, conducted in the wavelength region 180-195 nm, and at different pressures of oxygen (between 2.5-760 torr) in order to separate the pressure-dependent absorption from the main cross sections, of the absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands in the window region between the rotational lines of S-R bands of O2. The present cross sections supersede the earlier published cross sections (Yoshino et al., 1983). The combined cross sections are presented graphically; they are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm from the National Space Science Data Center. The Herzberg continuum cross sections are derived after subtracting calculated contributions from the Schumann-Runge bands. These are significantly smaller than any previous measurements.

  9. Effect of thickness on microwave absorptive behavior of La-Na doped Co-Zr barium hexaferrites in 18.0-26.5 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Amit; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra; Pubby, Kunal

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the microwave properties of Lanthanum-Sodium doped Cobalt-Zirconium barium hexaferrites, intended as microwave absorbers, are analyzed on Vector Network Analyzer in K-band. The results indicate that the doping has resulted in lowering of real permittivity and enhancement of dielectric losses. Real permeability has shown increase while magnetic losses have shown decrease in value with doping. All these four properties have shown very small variation with frequency in the scanned frequency range which indicates the relaxation type of behavior. Microwave absorption characteristics of these compositions are analyzed with change in sample thickness. The results demonstrate that the matching frequency of the microwave absorber shifts towards lower side of frequency band with increase in thickness. The complete analysis of the prepared microwave absorbers shows a striking achievement with very low reflection loss and wide absorption bandwidth for all the six compositions in 18-26.5 GHz frequency band.

  10. Influence of the nature of the absorption band on the potential performance of high molar extinction coefficient ruthenium(II) polypyridinic complexes as dyes for sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gajardo, Francisco; Barrera, Mauricio; Vargas, Ricardo; Crivelli, Irma; Loeb, Barbara

    2011-07-04

    When tested in solar cells, ruthenium polypyridinic dyes with extended π systems show an enhanced light-harvesting capacity that is not necessarily reflected by a high (collected electrons)/(absorbed photons) ratio. Provided that metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands, MLCT, are more effective, due to their directionality, than intraligand (IL) π-π* bands for the electron injection process in the solar cell, it seems important to explore and clarify the nature of the absorption bands present in these types of dyes. This article aims to elucidate if all the absorbed photons of these dyes are potentially useful in the generation of electric current. In other words, their potentiality as dyes must also be analyzed from the point of view of their contribution to the generation of excited states potentially useful for direct injection. Focusing on the assignment of the absorption bands and the nature of the emitting state, a systematic study for a series of ruthenium complexes with 4,4'-distyryl-2,2'-dipyridine (LH) and 4,4'-bis[p-(dimethylamino)-α-styryl]-2,2'-bipyridine (LNMe(2)) "chromophoric" ligands was undertaken. The observed experimental results were complemented with TDDFT calculations to elucidate the nature of the absorption bands, and a theoretical model was proposed to predict the available energy that could be injected from a singlet or a triplet excited state. For the series studied, the results indicate that the percentage of MLCT character to the anchored ligand for the lower energy absorption band follows the order [Ru(deebpy)(2)(LNMe(2))](PF(6))(2) > [Ru(deebpy)(2)(LH)](PF(6))(2) > [Ru(deebpy)(LH)(2)](PF(6))(2), where deebpy is 4,4'-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-2,2'-bipyridine, predicting that, at least from this point of view, their efficiency as dyes should follow the same trend.

  11. Working memory performance inversely predicts spontaneous delta and theta-band scaling relations.

    PubMed

    Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E

    2016-04-15

    Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications.

  12. Donor-acceptor type low band gap polymers: polysquaraines and related systems.

    PubMed

    Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed towards the synthesis of conjugated polymers with low optical band gaps (Eg), since they show intrinsic electrical conductivity. One of the approaches towards the designing of such polymers is the use of strong donor and acceptor monomers at regular arrangements in the repeating units, which has limited success in many cases. An alternate strategy is the use of organic dyes, having inherently low HUMO-LUMO separation, as building blocks. Extension of conjugation in organic dyes is therefore expected to result in oligomers and polymers with near infrared absorption, which is a signature of low band gaps. Squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for this purpose due to their unique optical properties. This review highlights the recent developments in the area of donor-acceptor type low band gap polymers with special emphasis on polysquaraines.

  13. Modelling of Collision Induced Absorption Spectra Of H2-H2 Pairs for the Planetary Atmospheres Structure: The Second Overtone Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borysow, Aleksandra; Borysow, Jacek I.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the proposal was to model the collision induced, second overtone band of gaseous hydrogen at low temperatures. The aim of this work is to assist planetary scientists in their investigation of planetary atmospheres, mainly those of Uranus and Neptune. The recently completed extended database of collision induced dipole moments of hydrogen pairs allowed us, for the first time, to obtain dipole moment matrix elements responsible for the roto-vibrational collision induced absorption spectra of H2-H2 in the second overtone band. Despite our numerous attempts to publish those data, the enormous volume of the database did not allow us to do this. Instead, we deposited the data on a www site. The final part of this work has been partially supported by NASA, Division for Planetary Atmospheres. In order to use our new data for modelling purpose, we first needed to test how well we can reproduce the existing experimental data from theory, when using our new input data. Two papers resulted from this work. The obtained agreement between theoretical results and the measurements appeared to be within 10-30%. The obviously poorer agreement than observed for the first H2 overtone, the fundamental, and the rototranslational bands can be attributed to the fact that dipole moments responsible for the second overtone are much weaker, therefore susceptible to larger numerical uncertainties. At the same time, the intensity of the second overtone band is much weaker and therefore it is much harder to be measured accurately in the laboratory. We need to point out that until now, no dependable model of the 2nd overtone band was available for modelling of the planetary atmospheres. The only one, often referred to in previous works on Uranian and Neptune's atmospheres, uses only one lineshape, with one (or two) parameter(s) deduced at the effective temperature of Uranus (by fitting the planetary observation). After that, the parameter(s) was(were) made temperature

  14. Electronic structure of polyenes related to the visual chromophore. A simple model for the observed band shapes.

    PubMed Central

    Hemley, R; Kohler, B E

    1977-01-01

    A model is presented which attributes the widths of absorption bands in carotenoids to conformational disorder induced by the beta-ionylidene moiety. With reasonable parameter choices, the model gives a good quantitative fit to the spectra observed for four carotenoids and at the same time accounts for the lack of structure in the long-wavelength absorption of retinal. PMID:922126

  15. Analysis of Mars surface hydration through the MEx/OMEGA observation of the 3 μm absorption band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouglet, D.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    The near infrared Mars surface global mapping done by OMEGA gives the first opportunity to study the global and detailed characteristics of the 3µm hydration absorption band on Mars surface. This feature is indistinctly due to bending and stretching vibrations of water bound in minerals or adsorbed at their surface, and of hydroxyl groups (for a review, see e.g. [1] or [2]). Its study may give new elements to determine the geologic and climatic past of Mars, and may put new constrain about the current water cycle of Mars. OMEGA data are processed in a pipeline that converts raw data to radiance, removes atmospheric effects and gets I/F. Specific data reduction scheme has been developed to assess temperature of OMEGA spectra at 5 µm and to remove their thermal part so as to get the albedo from 1.µm to 5.1µm ([2]). Two methods, the Integrated Band Depth and the water content based on comparison with laboratory measures of Yen et al. ([3]), have been used to assess the 3µm band depth. These two methods where applied to OMEGA spectra acquired at a nominal calibration level and not exhibiting water ice features. This corresponds to approximately 35 million spectra ([2]). The data processed show the presence of this absorption feature overall the Martian surface, which could be explained by the presence of adsorbed water up to 1% water mass percentage ([4]) and by rinds or coating resulting from weathering (see e.g. [5] or [6]). A possible increase of hydration with albedo is discussed so as to discriminate between the albedo-dependence of the method and hydration variations. Terrains enriched in phyllosilicates ([7]), sulfates ([8]) or hydroxides exhibit an increased hydration at 3 µm. This terrains show that the 3 µm band can bring additional information about composition, for example by observing a variation in the shape of the band. A decrease of hydration with elevation is observed on the processed data independently of the value of albedo. This correlation

  16. Crystallinity of poly(ethylene naphthalate) and its relation to terahertz absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Daisuke; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Mizuno, Maya

    2017-03-01

    The crystallinity of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) was changed by thermal annealing and its effects on terahertz absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were examined. As a result, the intensity of a relatively sharp absorption peak at around 2.2 THz was found to be proportional to the crystallinity. As a plausible cause of this absorption, a lattice vibration, a torsional vibration, or their combination mode associated with (010) planes in crystal α of PEN is proposed. Therefore, the crystallinity of PEN can be estimated from the intensity of this absorption.

  17. Ionospheric Absorption on 1539 Khz in Relation to Solar Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boska, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radio wave absorption data on 1539 kHz for the summer period of 1978 to 1980 are considered in relation to variations of solar X-ray and L-alpha radiation. It is shown that under non-flare conditions L-alpha dominates in controlling absorption and that X-rays contribute about 10% to the total absorption. Optimum regression equations show that absorption is proportional to the m-th power of ionizing flux where m 1. The role of correcting L-alpha values, measured by the AE-E satellite, is discussed.

  18. Optimal frequency selection of multi-channel O2-band different absorption barometric radar for air pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bing; Min, Qilong

    2017-02-01

    Through theoretical analysis, optimal selection of frequencies for O2 differential absorption radar systems on air pressure field measurements is achieved. The required differential absorption optical depth between a radar frequency pair is 0.5. With this required value and other considerations on water vapor absorption and the contamination of radio wave transmission, frequency pairs of present considered radar system are obtained. Significant impacts on general design of differential absorption remote sensing systems are expected from current results.

  19. Estimation of short-time cross-correlation between frequency bands of event related EEG.

    PubMed

    Zygierewicz, J; Mazurkiewicz, J; Durka, P J; Franaszczuk, P J; Crone, N E

    2006-10-30

    Simultaneous variations of the event-related power changes (ERD/ERS) are often observed in a number of frequency bands. ERD/ERS measures are usually based on the relative changes of power in a given single frequency band. Within such an approach one cannot answer questions concerning the mutual relations between the band-power variations observed in different frequency bands. This paper addresses the problem of estimating and assessing the significance of the average cross-correlation between ERD/ERS phenomena occurring in two frequency bands. The cross-correlation function in a natural way also provides estimation of the delay between ERD/ERS in those bands. The proposed method is based on estimating the short-time cross-correlation function between relative changes of power in two selected frequency bands. The cross-correlation function is estimated in each trial separately and then averaged across trials. The significance of those mean cross-correlation functions is evaluated by means of a nonparametric test. The basic properties of the method are presented on simulated signals, and an example application to real EEG and ECoG signals is given.

  20. Origin of absorption peaks in reflection loss spectrum in Ku- frequency band of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using sucrose precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Sukhleen Bindra; Pubby, Kunal; Chawla, S. K.; Kaur, Prabhjyot

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the detailed explanation of the factors, contributing towards the absorption peaks in reflection loss spectrum of hexaferrites. Cobalt-Zirconium substituted strontium hexaferrites, synthesized using sucrose precursor sol-gel technique, were analyzed in 12.4-18 GHz frequency range. The concepts of impedance matching through quarter wavelength condition, complex thickness, dielectric phase angle and attenuation constant have been used to determine the location as well as intensity of absorption peaks. This study also demonstrates the potential application of three compositions of this series with doping content (x)==0.0, 0.6 and 0.8 as an effective microwave absorbers in Ku-frequency band.

  1. Application of surface pressure measurements of O2-band differential absorption radar system in three-dimensional data assimilation on hurricane: Part II - A quasi-observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Qilong; Gong, Wei; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part on assessing the impacts of assimilating various distributions of sea-level pressure (SLP) on hurricane simulations, using the Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR). One key purpose of this series of study is to explore the potential of using remotely sensed sea surface barometric data from O2-band differential absorption radar system currently under development for server weather including hurricane forecasts. In this part II we further validate the conclusions of observational system simulation experiments (OSSEs) in the part I using observed SLP for three hurricanes that passed over the Florida peninsula. Three SLP patterns are tested again, including all available data near the Florida peninsula, and a band of observations either through the center or tangent to the hurricane position. Before the assimilation, a vortex SLP reconstruction technique is employed for the use of observed SLP as discussed in the part I. In agreement with the results from OSSEs, the performance of assimilating SLP is enhanced for the two hurricanes with stronger initial minimum SLP, leading to a significant improvement in the track and position relative to the control where no data are assimilated. On the other hand, however, the improvement in the hurricane intensity is generally limited to the first 24-48 h of integration, while a high resolution nested domain simulation, along with assimilation of SLP in the coarse domain, shows more profound improvement in the intensity. A diagnostic analysis of the potential vorticity suggests that the improved track forecasts are attributed to the combined effects of adjusting the steering wind fields in a consistent manner with having a deeper vortex, and the associated changes in the convective activity.

  2. Resonance Raman intensity analysis of the excited state proton transfer dynamics of 2-nitrophenol in the charge-transfer band absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yaqiong; Wang Huigang; Zhang Shuqiang; Pei Kemei; Zheng Xuming; Lee Phillips, David

    2006-12-07

    Resonance Raman spectra were obtained for 2-nitrophenol in cyclohexane solution with excitation wavelengths in resonance with the charge-transfer (CT) proton transfer band absorption. These spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion along more than 15 normal modes: the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 12} (1326 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCC bend {nu}{sub 23} (564 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CO stretch+NO stretch+CC stretch {nu}{sub 14} (1250 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch+COH bend {nu}{sub 15} (1190 cm{sup -1}); the nominal CCH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 17} (1134 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCC bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 22} (669 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCN bend {nu}{sub 27} (290 cm{sup -1}), the nominal NO{sub 2} bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 21} (820 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCO bend+CNO bend {nu}{sub 25} (428 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CC stretch {nu}{sub 7} (1590 cm{sup -1}), the nominal NO stretch {nu}{sub 8} (1538 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CCC bend+NO{sub 2} bend {nu}{sub 20} (870 cm{sup -1}), the nominal CC stretch {nu}{sub 6} (1617 cm{sup -1}), the nominal COH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 11} (1382 cm{sup -1}), nominal CCH bend+CC stretch {nu}{sub 9} (1472 cm{sup -1}). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and the results for 2-nitrophenol were compared to previously reported results for nitrobenzene, p-nitroaniline, and 2-hydroxyacetophenone. The authors briefly discuss the differences and similarities in the CT-band absorption excitation of 2-nitrophenol relative to those of nitrobenzene, p-nitroaniline, and 2-hydroxyacetophenone.

  3. Polarization and field dependent two-photon absorption in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides in the half-band gap spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, H. K.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; Grant, R. S.; Sibbett, W.; Soole, J. B. D.; LeBlanc, H. P.; Andreadakis, N. C.; Colas, E.; Kim, M. S.

    1991-12-01

    We report the observation of two photon absorption which is strongly dependent on the applied electric field and the optical polarization. At 1.55 μm wavelength, the two-photon absorption coefficient of the GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well (MQW) waveguides for transverse-magnetic light is about seven times lower than for transverse-electric polarized light and changes by a factor of approximately 4 for a change in applied direct-current electric field of ˜140 kV/cm. Ultrafast nonlinear refraction causing phase changes of over π radians without appreciable excess loss is observed. These measurements demonstrate that GaAs/AlGaAs MQW waveguides could be successfully used for subpicosecond all-optical switching near half-band gap, at wavelengths corresponding to the 1.55 μm optical communications band.

  4. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties by Tuning Cation Deficiency of Perovskite Oxides of Two-Dimensional LaFeO3/C Composite in X-Band.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Wang, Lai-Sen; Ma, Yating; Zheng, Hongfei; Lin, Liang; Zhang, Qinfu; Chen, Yuanzhi; Qiu, Yulong; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Development of microwave absorption materials with tunable thickness and bandwidth is particularly urgent for practical applications but remains a great challenge. Here, two-dimensional nanocomposites consisting of perovskite oxides (LaFeO3) and amorphous carbon were successfully obtained through a one pot with heating treatment using sodium chloride as a hard template. The tunable absorption properties were realized by introducing A-site cation deficiency in LaFeO3 perovskite. Among the A-site cation-deficient perovskites, La0.62FeO3/C (L0.62FOC) has the best microwave absorption properties in which the maximum absorption is -26.6 dB at 9.8 GHz with a thickness of 2.94 mm and the bandwidth range almost covers all X-band. The main reason affecting the microwave absorption performance was derived from the A-site cation deficiency which induced more dipoles polarization loss. This work proposes a promising method to tune the microwave absorption performance via introducing deficiency in a crystal lattice.

  5. Quantitative photoluminescence of broad band absorbing melanins: a procedure to correct for inner filter and re-absorption effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Jennifer; Gilmore, Joel; Meredith, Paul

    2005-07-01

    We report methods for correcting the photoluminescence emission and excitation spectra of highly absorbing samples for re-absorption and inner filter effects. We derive the general form of the correction, and investigate various methods for determining the parameters. Additionally, the correction methods are tested with highly absorbing fluorescein and melanin (broadband absorption) solutions; the expected linear relationships between absorption and emission are recovered upon application of the correction, indicating that the methods are valid. These procedures allow accurate quantitative analysis of the emission of low quantum yield samples (such as melanin) at concentrations where absorption is significant.

  6. Strong interlayer coupling mediated giant two-photon absorption in MoS e2 /graphene oxide heterostructure: Quenching of exciton bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rituraj; Aneesh, J.; Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Sanda, Suresh; Barik, A. R.; Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Karmakar, Debjani; Adarsh, K. V.

    2016-04-01

    A complex few-layer MoS e2 /graphene oxide (GO) heterostructure with strong interlayer coupling was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. In this strongly coupled heterostructure, we demonstrate a giant enhancement of two-photon absorption that is in stark contrast to the reverse saturable absorption of a weakly coupled MoS e2 /GO heterostructure and saturable absorption of isolated MoS e2 . Spectroscopic evidence of our study indicates that the optical signatures of isolated MoS e2 and GO domains are significantly modified in the heterostructure, displaying a direct coupling of both domains. Furthermore, our first-principles calculations indicate that strong interlayer coupling between the layers dramatically suppresses the MoS e2 excitonic bands. We envision that our findings provide a powerful tool to explore different optical functionalities as a function of interlayer coupling, which may be essential for the development of device technologies.

  7. Thickness and Composition Tailoring of K- and Ka-Band Microwave Absorption of BaCo x Ti x Fe(12-2 x)O19 Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Sukhleen Bindra; Pubby, Kunal; Singh, Charanjeet

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of M-type barium hexaferrites with chemical formula BaCo x Ti x Fe(12-2 x)O19 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) in K and Ka band. Characterization techniques such as x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were applied to confirm ferrite formation. The frequency dependence of the complex permittivity and complex permeability was studied for prepared ferrite samples in the frequency range from 18 GHz to 40 GHz. Factors such as the quarter-wavelength condition, impedance matching, high dielectric-magnetic losses, as well as ferromagnetic resonance were investigated to determine their contribution to the absorption characteristics. It was found that the quarter-wavelength ( λ/4) model could be successfully applied to predict and understand the position as well as number of reflection peaks in the microwave absorption spectrum. The origin of the reflection loss peaks is explained and verified based on calculations of input impedance, loss tangent, and ferromagnetic resonance. Reflection loss analysis revealed that all six compositions exhibited reflection loss peaks (absorption >90%) at their matching thicknesses and frequencies. Therefore, these ferrites are potential candidates for use in electromagnetic shielding applications requiring low reflectivity in K and Ka band.

  8. A study of the structure of the ν1(HF) absorption band of the СH3СN…HF complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromova, E. I.; Glazachev, E. V.; Bulychev, V. P.; Koshevarnikov, A. M.; Tokhadze, K. G.

    2015-09-01

    The ν1(HF) absorption band shape of the CH3CN…HF complex is studied in the gas phase at a temperature of 293 K. The spectra of gas mixtures CH3CN/HF are recorded in the region of 4000-3400 cm-1 at a resolution from 0.1 to 0.005 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS-120 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer in a cell 10 cm in length with wedge-shaped sapphire windows. The procedure used to separate the residual water absorption allows more than ten fine-structure bands to be recorded on the low-frequency wing of the ν1(HF) band. It is shown that the fine structure of the band is formed primarily due to hot transitions from excited states of the low-frequency ν7 librational vibration. Geometrical parameters of the equilibrium nuclear configuration, the binding energy, and the dipole moment of the complex are determined from a sufficiently accurate quantum-chemical calculation. The frequencies and intensities for a number of spectral transitions of this complex are obtained in the harmonic approximation and from variational solutions of anharmonic vibrational problems.

  9. THEORETICAL CEPHEID PERIOD-LUMINOSITY AND PERIOD-COLOR RELATIONS IN SPITZER IRAC BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria; Cignoni, Michele; Kanbur, Shashsi M.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, the synthetic period-luminosity (P-L) relations in Spitzer's IRAC bands, based on a series of theoretical pulsation models with varying metal and helium abundance, were investigated. Selected sets of these synthetic P-L relations were compared to the empirical IRAC band P-L relations recently determined from Galactic and Magellanic Clouds Cepheids. For the Galactic case, synthetic P-L relations from model sets with (Y = 0.26, Z = 0.01), (Y = 0.26, Z = 0.02), and (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.02) agree with the empirical Galactic P-L relations derived from the Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes. For Magellanic Cloud Cepheids, the synthetic P-L relations from model sets with (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.008) agree with both of the empirical Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud P-L relations. Analysis of the synthetic P-L relations from all model sets suggested that the IRAC band P-L relations may not be independent of metallicity, as the P-L slopes and intercepts could be affected by the metallicity and/or helium abundance. We also derive the synthetic period-color (P-C) relations in the IRAC bands. Non-vanishing synthetic P-C relations were found for certain combinations of IRAC band filters and metallicity. However, the synthetic P-C relations disagreed with the [3.6]-[8.0] P-C relation recently found for the Galactic Cepheids. The synthetic [3.6]-[4.5] P-C slope from the (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.008) model set, on the other hand, is in excellent agreement to the empirical LMC P-C counterpart, if a period range 1.0 < log (P) < 1.8 is adopted.

  10. Comparison of multi-band period-luminosity relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.

    2016-07-01

    The period-luminosity (PL) relation for classical fundamental mode Cepheids (hereafter Cepheids) is an important astrophysical tool in distance scale applications. Because of this, we initiated a program to derive multi-band PL relations with Cepheids in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (hereafter LMC and SMC, respectively), as there are ∼⃒ 103 Cepheids found in these two nearby galaxies. When compared the slopes of the multi-band PL relations for Cepheids in the LMC and SMC, we found that these PL slopes agree with each others except in the V and J band. We also found an excellent agreement of the PL slopes in Wesenheit function, hence we calibrated the Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation by combining the data from both Clouds, together with an accurate LMC distance based on measurement from late-type eclipsing binaries. Our calibrated Wesenheit function is MW = — 3.314 log(P) — 2.601.

  11. Paracellular Absorption Is Relatively Low in the Herbivorous Egyptian Spiny-Tailed Lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia

    PubMed Central

    McWhorter, Todd J.; Pinshow, Berry; Karasov, William H.; Tracy, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of small water-soluble nutrients in vertebrate intestines occurs both by specific, mediated transport and by non-specific, passive, paracellular transport. Although it is apparent that paracellular absorption represents a significant route for nutrient absorption in many birds and mammals, especially small, flying species, its importance in ectothermic vertebrates has not previously been explored. Therefore, we measured fractional absorption (ƒ) and absorption rate of three paracellular probes (arabinose, l-rhamnose, cellobiose) and of 3-O-methyl d-glucose (absorbed by both mediated and paracellular pathways) by the large herbivorous lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia, to explore the relative importance of paracellular and mediated transport in an ectothermic, terrestrial vertebrate. Fractional absorption of 3-O-methyl d-glucose was high (ƒ = 0.73±0.04) and similar to other vertebrates; ƒ of the paracellular probes was relatively low (arabinose ƒ = 0.31±0.03, l-rhamnose ƒ = 0.19±0.02, and cellobiose ƒ = 0.14±0.02), and decreased with molecular mass, a pattern consistent with other vertebrates. Paracellular absorption accounted for approximately 24% of total 3-O-methyl d-glucose uptake, indicating low reliance on this pathway for these herbivorous lizards, a pattern similar to that found in other terrestrial vertebrates, and different from small flying endotherms (both birds and bats). PMID:23596529

  12. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones. [infrared spectral reflectance of Nevada iron deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most major rock units and unaltered and altered areas in the study area can be discriminated on the basis of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectivity differences recorded from satellite altitude. These subtle spectral differences are detectable by digital ratioing of the MSS bands and subsequent stretching to increase the contrast to enhance spectral differences. Hydrothermally altered areas appear as anomalous color patches within the volcanic-rock areas. A map has been prepared which can be regarded as an excellent reconnaissance exploration map, for use in targeting areas for more detailed geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies. Mafic and felsic rock types are easily discriminated on the color stretched-ratio composite. The ratioing process minimizes albedo effects, leaving only the recorded characteristic spectral response. The spectra of unaltered rocks appear different from those of altered rocks, which are typically dominated by limonite and clay minerals. It seems clear that differences in spectral shape can provide a basis for discrimination of geologic material, although the relations between visible and near-infrared spectral reflectivity and mineralogical composition are not yet entirely understood.

  13. Conduction-band electronic states of YbInCu{sub 4} studied by photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Yuki; Kurihara, Hidenao; Maso, Hiroyuki; Tobimatsu, Komei; Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Kojima, Kenichi; Ohkochi, Takuo; Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Mimura, Kojiro; Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Oguchi, Tamio; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2011-09-15

    We have studied conduction-band (CB) electronic states of a typical valence-transition compound YbInCu{sub 4} by means of temperature-dependent hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} core states taken at h{nu}=5.95 keV, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} core absorption region around h{nu}{approx}935 eV, and soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (SX-PES) of the valence band at the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edge of h{nu}=933.0 eV. With decreasing temperature below the valence transition at T{sub V}=42 K, we have found that (1) the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} peaks in the HX-PES spectra exhibit the energy shift toward the lower binding-energy side by {approx}40 and {approx}30 meV, respectively, (2) an energy position of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak in the XAS spectrum is shifted toward higher photon-energy side by {approx}100 meV, with an appearance of a shoulder structure below the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak, and (3) an intensity of the Cu L{sub 3}VV Auger spectrum is abruptly enhanced. These experimental results suggest that the Fermi level of the CB-derived density of states is shifted toward the lower binding-energy side. We have described the valence transition in YbInCu{sub 4} in terms of the charge transfer from the CB to Yb 4f states.

  14. The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2 Sigma hyperon + (v prime = O) - X-2 pion (v prime prime = O) gamma band of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A predominantly single-mode pulsed dye laser system giving a well characterized spatial and temporal output suitable for absolute two-photon absorptivity measurements was used to study the NO gamma(0,0) S11 + R21 (J double prime = 7-1/2) transition. Using a calibrated induced-fluorescence technique, an absorptivity parameter of 2.8 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the minus 51st power cm to the 6th power was obtained. Relative strengths of other rotational transitions in the gamma(0,0) band were also measured and shown to compare well with predicted values in all cases except the O12 (J double prime = 10-1/2) transition.

  15. The Rovibrational Intensities of Five Absorption Bands of (12)C(16)O2 Between 5218 and 5349/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Brown, Linda R.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, Richard S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Absolute line intensities, band intensities, and Herman-Wallis parameters were measured for the (01(sup 1)2)(sub I) from (00(sup 0)0)(sub I) perpendicular band of (12)C(16)O2 centered at 5315/cm, along with the three nearby associated hot bands: (10(sup 0)2)(sub II) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5248/cm, (02(sup 2))(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5291/cm, and (10(sup 0)2)(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5349/cm. The nearby parallel hot band (30(sup 0))(sub I) from (10(sup 0)0)(sub II) at 5218/cm was also included in this study.

  16. Comparison of the THz absorption feature in lactose to related saccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarnason, Jon E.; Brown, Elliott R.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2007-04-01

    Solid-state organic compounds such as α-lactose-monohydrate and biotin have been shown to have narrow and intense THz absorption features at room temperature. Interest in lineshapes in the THz region is justified not only for practical reasons, since they are of crucial importance to spectroscopy-based identification of materials, but also because of the information the line-widths contain about the solid-state physics of the materials. The line-width of THz absorption features (generally from lattice vibrations) in solids is excepted to be inversely proportional to the scattering time of optical phonons. The line-width of absorption features might thus have implications on the solid-state physics of the material, in particular, the interaction of phonons and the phonon density of states. We use a continuous wave THz photomixing system to obtain a high resolution spectrum of α-lactose-mohohydrate and analyze two of its lowest-frequency absorption lines. For comparison we measure the transmission spectra of 5 chemically related saccharides: melecitose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, and raffinose. Since α-lactose-monohydrate has a stronger and narrower absorption feature than any of its related saccharides, this comparison study is an important step in understanding the mechanism of THz radiation absorption by organic solids and what line-widths to expect in THz spectroscopy.

  17. Indirect optical absorption and origin of the emission from β-FeSi2 nanoparticles: Bound exciton (0.809 eV) and band to acceptor impurity (0.795 eV) transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, R.; Amaral, L.; Meneses, E. A.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the optical absorption of the fundamental band edge and the origin of the emission from β-FeSi2 nanoparticles synthesized by ion-beam-induced epitaxial crystallization of Fe+ implanted SiO2/Si(100) followed by thermal annealing. From micro-Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements it was possible to attest the formation of strained β-FeSi2 nanoparticles and its structural quality. The optical absorption near the fundamental gap edge of β-FeSi2 nanoparticles evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry showed a step structure characteristic of an indirect fundamental gap material. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements at each synthesis stage revealed complex emissions in the 0.7-0.9 eV spectral region, with different intensities and morphologies strongly dependent on thermal treatment temperature. Spectral deconvolution into four transition lines at 0.795, 0.809, 0.851, and 0.873 eV was performed. We concluded that the emission at 0.795 eV may be related to a radiative direct transition from the direct conduction band to an acceptor level and that the emission at 0.809 eV derives from a recombination of an indirect bound exciton to this acceptor level of β-FeSi2. Emissions 0.851 and 0.873 eV were confirmed to be typical dislocation-related photoluminescence centers in Si. From the energy balance we determined the fundamental indirect and direct band gap energies to be 0.856 and 0.867 eV, respectively. An illustrative energy band diagram derived from a proposed model to explain the possible transition processes involved is presented.

  18. Electronic structure of an [FeFe] hydrogenase model complex in solution revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using narrow-band emission detection.

    PubMed

    Leidel, Nils; Chernev, Petko; Havelius, Kajsa G V; Schwartz, Lennart; Ott, Sascha; Haumann, Michael

    2012-08-29

    High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy with narrow-band X-ray emission detection, supported by density functional theory calculations (XAES-DFT), was used to study a model complex, ([Fe(2)(μ-adt)(CO)(4)(PMe(3))(2)] (1, adt = S-CH(2)-(NCH(2)Ph)-CH(2)-S), of the [FeFe] hydrogenase active site. For 1 in powder material (1(powder)), in MeCN solution (1'), and in its three protonated states (1H, 1Hy, 1HHy; H denotes protonation at the adt-N and Hy protonation of the Fe-Fe bond to form a bridging metal hydride), relations between the molecular structures and the electronic configurations were determined. EXAFS analysis and DFT geometry optimization suggested prevailing rotational isomers in MeCN, which were similar to the crystal structure or exhibited rotation of the (CO) ligands at Fe1 (1(CO), 1Hy(CO)) and in addition of the phenyl ring (1H(CO,Ph), 1HHy(CO,Ph)), leading to an elongated solvent-exposed Fe-Fe bond. Isomer formation, adt-N protonation, and hydride binding caused spectral changes of core-to-valence (pre-edge of the Fe K-shell absorption) and of valence-to-core (Kß(2,5) emission) electronic transitions, and of Kα RIXS data, which were quantitatively reproduced by DFT. The study reveals (1) the composition of molecular orbitals, for example, with dominant Fe-d character, showing variations in symmetry and apparent oxidation state at the two Fe ions and a drop in MO energies by ~1 eV upon each protonation step, (2) the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, of ~2.3 eV for 1(powder) and ~2.0 eV for 1', and (3) the splitting between iron d(z(2)) and d(x(2)-y(2)) levels of ~0.5 eV for the nonhydride and ~0.9 eV for the hydride states. Good correlations of reduction potentials to LUMO energies and oxidation potentials to HOMO energies were obtained. Two routes of facilitated bridging hydride binding thereby are suggested, involving ligand rotation at Fe1 for 1Hy(CO) or adt-N protonation for 1HHy(CO,Ph). XAES-DFT thus enables verification of the effects of ligand

  19. Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1993-01-01

    We report water-vapor absorption line measurements that are made by using the first Stokes radiation (930-982 nm) with HWHM 0.015/cm generated by a narrow-linewidth, tunable dye laser. Forty-five absorption line strengths are measured with an uncertainty of 6 percent and among them are fourteen strong lines that are compared with previous measurements for the assessment of spectral purity of the light source. Thirty air-broadened linewidths are measured with 8 percent uncertainty at ambient atmospheric pressure with an average of 0.101/cm. The lines are selected for the purpose of temperature-sensitive or temperature-insensitive lidar measurements. Results for these line strengths and linewidths are corrected for broadband radiation and finite laser linewidth broadening effects and compared with the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption.

  20. Broad band nonlinear optical absorption measurements of the laser dye IR26 using white light continuum Z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumyodeep; Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem Ballabh

    2017-03-01

    We study the nonlinear optical response of a standard dye IR26 using the Z-scan technique, but with the white light continuum. The continuum source of wavelength from 450 nm to 1650 nm has been generated from the photonic crystal fiber on pumping with 772 nm of Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The use of broadband incident pulse enables us to probe saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) over the large spectral range with a single Z-scan measurement. The system shows SA in the resonant region while it turns to RSA in the non-resonant regions. The low saturation intensity of the dye can be explained based on the simultaneous excitation from ground states to various higher energy levels with the help of composite energy level diagram. The cumulative effects of excited state absorption and thermal induced nonlinear optical effects are responsible for the observed RSA.

  1. Symmetry-Breaking in Cationic Polymethine Dyes: Part 2. Shape of Electronic Absorption Bands Explained by the Thermal Fluctuations of the Solvent Reaction Field.

    PubMed

    Masunov, Artëm E; Anderson, Dane; Freidzon, Alexandra Ya; Bagaturyants, Alexander A

    2015-07-02

    The electronic absorption spectra of the symmetric cyanines exhibit dramatic dependence on the conjugated chain length: whereas short-chain homologues are characterized by the narrow and sharp absorption bands of high intensity, the long-chain homologues demonstrate very broad, structureless bands of low intensity. Spectra of the intermediate homologues combine both features. These broad bands are often explained using spontaneous symmetry-breaking and charge localization at one of the termini, and the combination of broad and sharp features was interpreted as coexistence of symmetric and asymmetric species in solution. These explanations were not supported by the first principle simulations until now. Here, we employ a combination of time-dependent density functional theory, a polarizable continuum model, and Franck-Condon (FC) approximation to predict the absorption line shapes for the series of 2-azaazulene and 1-methylpyridine-4-substituted polymethine dyes. To simulate inhomogeneous broadening by the solvent, the molecular structures are optimized in the presence of a finite electric field of various strengths. The calculated FC line shapes, averaged with the Boltzmann weights of different field strengths, reproduce the experimentally observed spectra closely. Although the polarizable continuum model accounts for the equilibrium solvent reaction field at absolute zero, the finite field accounts for the thermal fluctuations in the solvent, which break the symmetry of the solute molecule. This model of inhomogeneous broadening opens the possibility for computational studies of thermochromism. The choice of the global hybrid exchange-correlation functional SOGGA11-X, including 40% of the exact exchange, plays the critical role in the success of our model.

  2. Direct Observation of Two-Step Photon Absorption in an InAs/GaAs Single Quantum Dot for the Operation of Intermediate-Band Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-08

    We present the first direct observation of two-step photon absorption in an InAs/GaAs single quantum dot (QD) using photocurrent spectroscopy with two lasers. The sharp peaks of the photocurrent are shifted due to the quantum confined Stark effect, indicating that the photocurrent from a single QD is obtained. In addition, the intensity of the peaks depends on the power of the secondary laser. These results reveal the direct demonstration of the two-step photon absorption in a single QD. This is an essential result for both the fundamental operation and the realization of ultrahigh solar-electricity energy conversion in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  3. Phase-locked hippocampal theta-band responses are related to discriminative eyeblink conditioned responding.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Wikgren, Jan

    2013-11-01

    Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillatory activity is undoubtedly related to learning and memory. The relative power of spontaneously occurring hippocampal theta (∼4-8 Hz) oscillations predicts how fast and how well an animal will learn: more theta predicts faster acquisition of the conditioned response in eyeblink conditioning in both rats and rabbits. Here, our aim was to study how hippocampal theta-band responses to conditioned stimuli elicited during very-long delay discrimination eyeblink conditioning relate to the accompanying conditioned behavior. We trained adult male New Zealand White rabbits using 1500-ms auditory stimuli as conditioned stimuli and a 100-ms airpuff as an unconditioned stimulus. The reinforced conditioned stimulus overlapped and co-terminated with the unconditioned stimulus whereas the non-reinforced conditioned stimulus was always presented alone. Consistent with previous results, hippocampal theta-band responses to the conditioned stimuli diminished in amplitude across training. Interestingly, hippocampal theta-band responses were most consistently time-locked when a well-trained animal failed to suppress behavioral learned responses to the non-reinforced conditioned stimulus. We suggest that phase-locking of hippocampal theta-band oscillations in response to external stimuli reflects retrieval of the dominant memory trace (adaptive or not) along with initiating the most prominent action scheme related to that memory trace.

  4. Calculating Effect of Point Defects on Optical Absorption Spectra of III-V Semiconductor Superlattices Based on (8x8) k-dot-p Band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Danhong; Iurov, Andrii; Gumbs, Godfrey; Cardimona, David; Krishna, Sanjay

    For a superlattice which is composed of layered zinc-blende structure III-V semiconductor materials, its realistic anisotropic band structures around the Gamma-point are calculated by using the (8x8)k-dot-p method with the inclusion of the self-consistent Hartree potential and the spin-orbit coupling. By including the many-body screening effect, the obtained band structures are further employed to calculate the optical absorption coefficient which is associated with the interband electron transitions. As a result of a reduced quasiparticle lifetime due to scattering with point defects in the system, the self-consistent vertex correction to the optical response function is also calculated with the help of the second-order Born approximation.

  5. Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO thin films with thermal annealing: effect of band gap expansion and free-electron absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Chen, T P; Liu, Y; Leong, K C

    2014-09-22

    Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with annealing temperature is observed. It is shown that the evolution is due to the changes in both the band gap and the free-electron absorption as a result of the change of free-electron concentration of the AZO thin films. The change of the electron concentration could be attributed to the activation of Al dopant and the creation/annihilation of the donor-like defects like oxygen vacancy in the thin films caused by annealing.

  6. Predissociation linewidths of the (1,0)-(12,0) Schumann-Runge absorption bands of O2 in the wavelength region 179-202 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, A. S.-C.; Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Chiu, S. S.-L.; Freeman, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    A nonlinear least-squares method of retrieving predissociation linewidths from the experimental absolute absorption cross sections of Yoshino et al. (1983) has been applied to the (1,0)-(12,0) Schumann-Runge bands of oxygen. The predissociation linewidths deduced are larger than the theoretical predictions of Julienne (1976) and the latest measurements of Lewis et al. (1986). The larger linewidths found will have an impact on calculations of solar flux penetration into the earth atmosphere and of the photodissociation rates of trace species in the upper atmosphere.

  7. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as

  8. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  9. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Spectral analysis as related to C-band radar data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Work performed on spectral analysis of data from the C-band radars tracking GEOS-2 and on the development of a data compaction method for the GEOS-2 C-band radar data is described. The purposes of the spectral analysis study were to determine the optimum data recording and sampling rates for C-band radar data and to determine the optimum method of filtering and smoothing the data. The optimum data recording and sampling rate is defined as the rate which includes an optimum compromise between serial correlation and the effects of frequency folding. The goal in development of a data compaction method was to reduce to a minimum the amount of data stored, while maintaining all of the statistical information content of the non-compacted data. A digital computer program for computing estimates of the power spectral density function of sampled data was used to perform the spectral analysis study.

  10. Sub-Band Gap Absorption in As-Deposited and Annealed nc-CdSe Thin Films Using Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kriti; Al-Kabbi, A. S.; Singh, Baljinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Nanocrystalline CdSe thin films have been prepared by thermal vaccum evaporation technique using Inert Gas Condensation method using Argon as inert gas. XRD confirms the crystalline cubic nature of nc-CdSe thin films. The optical band gap is calculated for as deposited nc-CdSe and it comes out to be 2.1 eV. CPM has been used to measure sub-band gap absorption in nanocrystalline CdSe thin films. The thin films of nc-CdSe have been annealed at 80 °C for one hour and sub-bandgap absorption in annealed samples has also been calculated. Slope of Urbach tail which is a measure of disorder in both as deposited and annealed samples has been calculated. In the case of as deposited nc-CdSe thin films, Urbach slope is 354 meV. It decreases to the value 198 meV after annealing which shows structural disorder decreases after annealing.

  11. Proprioceptive Feedback Facilitates Motor Imagery-Related Operant Learning of Sensorimotor β-Band Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Sam; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Boulay, Chadwick B.; Ridding, Michael C.; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) activates the sensorimotor system independent of actual movements and might be facilitated by neurofeedback. Knowledge on the interaction between feedback modality and the involved frequency bands during MI-related brain self-regulation is still scarce. Previous studies compared the cortical activity during the MI task with concurrent feedback (MI with feedback condition) to cortical activity during the relaxation task where no feedback was provided (relaxation without feedback condition). The observed differences might, therefore, be related to either the task or the feedback. A proper comparison would necessitate studying a relaxation condition with feedback and a MI task condition without feedback as well. Right-handed healthy subjects performed two tasks, i.e., MI and relaxation, in alternating order. Each of the tasks (MI vs. relaxation) was studied with and without feedback. The respective event-driven oscillatory activity, i.e., sensorimotor desynchronization (during MI) or synchronization (during relaxation), was rewarded with contingent feedback. Importantly, feedback onset was delayed to study the task-related cortical activity in the absence of feedback provision during the delay period. The reward modality was alternated every 15 trials between proprioceptive and visual feedback. Proprioceptive input was superior to visual input to increase the range of task-related spectral perturbations in the α- and β-band, and was necessary to consistently achieve MI-related sensorimotor desynchronization (ERD) significantly below baseline. These effects occurred in task periods without feedback as well. The increased accuracy and duration of learned brain self-regulation achieved in the proprioceptive condition was specific to the β-band. MI-related operant learning of brain self-regulation is facilitated by proprioceptive feedback and mediated in the sensorimotor β-band. PMID:28232788

  12. Proprioceptive Feedback Facilitates Motor Imagery-Related Operant Learning of Sensorimotor β-Band Modulation.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Sam; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Boulay, Chadwick B; Ridding, Michael C; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) activates the sensorimotor system independent of actual movements and might be facilitated by neurofeedback. Knowledge on the interaction between feedback modality and the involved frequency bands during MI-related brain self-regulation is still scarce. Previous studies compared the cortical activity during the MI task with concurrent feedback (MI with feedback condition) to cortical activity during the relaxation task where no feedback was provided (relaxation without feedback condition). The observed differences might, therefore, be related to either the task or the feedback. A proper comparison would necessitate studying a relaxation condition with feedback and a MI task condition without feedback as well. Right-handed healthy subjects performed two tasks, i.e., MI and relaxation, in alternating order. Each of the tasks (MI vs. relaxation) was studied with and without feedback. The respective event-driven oscillatory activity, i.e., sensorimotor desynchronization (during MI) or synchronization (during relaxation), was rewarded with contingent feedback. Importantly, feedback onset was delayed to study the task-related cortical activity in the absence of feedback provision during the delay period. The reward modality was alternated every 15 trials between proprioceptive and visual feedback. Proprioceptive input was superior to visual input to increase the range of task-related spectral perturbations in the α- and β-band, and was necessary to consistently achieve MI-related sensorimotor desynchronization (ERD) significantly below baseline. These effects occurred in task periods without feedback as well. The increased accuracy and duration of learned brain self-regulation achieved in the proprioceptive condition was specific to the β-band. MI-related operant learning of brain self-regulation is facilitated by proprioceptive feedback and mediated in the sensorimotor β-band.

  13. High energy electron irradiation of interstellar carbonaceous dust analogs: Cosmic ray effects on the carriers of the 3.4 µm absorption band.

    PubMed

    Maté, Belén; Molpeceres, Germán; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J

    2016-11-01

    The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH3 and CH2 in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH3 and CH2 by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons. The decay of the band intensity vs electron fluence reflects a-C:H dehydrogenation, which is well described by a model assuming that H2 molecules, formed by the recombination of H atoms liberated through CH bond breaking, diffuse out of the sample. The CH bond destruction rates derived from the present experiments are in good accordance with those from previous ion irradiation experiments of HAC. The experimental simplicity of electron bombardment has allowed the use of higher energy doses than in the ion experiments. The effects of cosmic rays on the aliphatic components of cosmic dust are found to be small. The estimated cosmic ray destruction times for the 3.4 μm band carriers lie in the 10(8) yr range and cannot account for the disappearance of this band in dense clouds, which have characteristic lifetimes of 3 × 10(7) yr. The results invite a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms of CH bond formation and breaking in the intermediate region between diffuse and dense clouds.

  14. High energy electron irradiation of interstellar carbonaceous dust analogs: Cosmic ray effects on the carriers of the 3.4 µm absorption band

    PubMed Central

    Maté, Belén; Molpeceres, Germán; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH3 and CH2 in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH3 and CH2 by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons. The decay of the band intensity vs electron fluence reflects a-C:H dehydrogenation, which is well described by a model assuming that H2 molecules, formed by the recombination of H atoms liberated through CH bond breaking, diffuse out of the sample. The CH bond destruction rates derived from the present experiments are in good accordance with those from previous ion irradiation experiments of HAC. The experimental simplicity of electron bombardment has allowed the use of higher energy doses than in the ion experiments. The effects of cosmic rays on the aliphatic components of cosmic dust are found to be small. The estimated cosmic ray destruction times for the 3.4 μm band carriers lie in the 108 yr range and cannot account for the disappearance of this band in dense clouds, which have characteristic lifetimes of 3 × 107 yr. The results invite a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms of CH bond formation and breaking in the intermediate region between diffuse and dense clouds. PMID:28133388

  15. High-energy Electron Irradiation of Interstellar Carbonaceous Dust Analogs: Cosmic-ray Effects on the Carriers of the 3.4 μm Absorption Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maté, Belén; Molpeceres, Germán; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of cosmic rays on the carriers of the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band have been investigated in the laboratory. This band is attributed to stretching vibrations of CH3 and CH2 in carbonaceous dust. It is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, but disappears in dense clouds. Destruction of CH3 and CH2 by cosmic rays could become relevant in dense clouds, shielded from the external ultraviolet field. For the simulations, samples of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) have been irradiated with 5 keV electrons. The decay of the band intensity versus electron fluence reflects a-C:H dehydrogenation, which is well described by a model assuming that H2 molecules, formed by the recombination of H atoms liberated through CH bond breaking, diffuse out of the sample. The CH bond destruction rates derived from the present experiments are in good accordance with those from previous ion irradiation experiments of HAC. The experimental simplicity of electron bombardment has allowed the use of higher-energy doses than in the ion experiments. The effects of cosmic rays on the aliphatic components of cosmic dust are found to be small. The estimated cosmic-ray destruction times for the 3.4 μm band carriers lie in the 108 yr range and cannot account for the disappearance of this band in dense clouds, which have characteristic lifetimes of 3 × 107 yr. The results invite a more detailed investigation of the mechanisms of CH bond formation and breaking in the intermediate region between diffuse and dense clouds.

  16. Microwave absorption properties of LiNb3O8 in X-band prepared by combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, J. Pundareekam; Sindam, Bashaiah; Tumuluri, Anil; Raju, K. C. James

    2015-08-01

    Single phase LiNb3O8 powders were prepared using combustion synthesis technique. The powders were prepared by heat treating Li2CO3+Nb2O5/urea mixture in 1:3 ratio. Structural and morphological details have been done to confirm the presence of LiNb3O8. The S-parameters were measured using rectangular waveguide method in the X-band frequency (8.2GHz to 12.4GHz) by Vector Network Analyzer. The dielectric characteristics like dielectric constant (ɛ') and dielectric loss (ɛ″) were calculated using Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm. Complex permittivity of 28-0.2j and 26-1.0j at 8.2GHz and 12.4GHz respectively are observed. Reflection loss was derived with permittivity and permeability as input parameters. Microwave absorber thickness is optimized and the RL< -20dB is obtained in the X-band frequency.

  17. Measurements and Modeling of Aerosol Absorption and Single Scattering Albedo at Ambient Relative Hum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hamill, P.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties in the aerosol single scattering albedo have been identified to be an important source of errors in current large-scale model estimates of the direct aerosol radiative forcing of climate. A number of investigators have obtained estimates of the single scattering albedo from a variety of remote sensing and in situ measurements during aerosol field experiments. During the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX, 1996) for example, estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo were obtained (1) as a best-fit parameter in comparing radiative flux changes measured by airborne pyranometer to those computed from independently measured aerosol properties; (2) from estimates of the aerosol complex index of refraction derived using a combination of airborne sunphotometer, lidar backscatter and in situ size distribution measurements; and (3) from airborne measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption using nephelometers and absorption photometers. In this paper, we briefly compare the results of the latter two methods for two TARFOX case studies, since those techniques provide height-resolved information about the aerosol single scattering albedo. Estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo from nephelometer and absorption photometer measurements require knowledge of the scattering and absorption humidification (i.e., the increase in these properties in response to an increase in ambient relative humidity), since both measurements are usually carried out at a relative humidity different from the ambient atmosphere. In principle, the scattering humidification factor can be measured, but there is currently no technique widely available to measure the absorption of an aerosol sample as a function of relative humidity. Frequently, for lack of better knowledge, the absorption humidification is assumed to be unity (meaning that there is no change in aerosol absorption due to an increase in ambient relative humidity). This

  18. Uniform Supersonic Expansion for FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy: The nu(5) Band of (NO)(2) at 26 K.

    PubMed

    Benidar; Georges; Le Doucen R; Boissoles; Hamon; Canosa; Rowe

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier transform interferometer (Bruker IFS 120 HR) was combined with a uniform supersonic expansion produced by means of axisymmetric Laval nozzles. The geometry profile of the nozzle enabled us to work under precise thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. The effect of the cooling rate of different nozzles on cluster nucleation is illustrated. The experimental sensitivity was tested by recording the nu(5) band of (NO)(2) at 26 K. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Trill consistency is an age-related assessment signal in banded wrens

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Selvino R.; Eldermire, Erin R.B.; Valderrama, Sandra; Botero, Carlos A.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Older males tend to have a competitive advantage over younger males in sexual selection. Therefore, it is expected that signals used in sexual selection change with age. Although song repertoire size in songbirds is often mentioned as an age-related trait, many species, including the banded wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus), do not increase their repertoires after the first year. Here, we show that banded wrens reproduce the trill notes in their songs with less variability between them (i.e. more consistently) when they grow older. In a playback experiment, we also show that banded wrens discriminate between younger and older birds based on structural aspects of their song. In a second experiment, banded wrens also respond differentially to natural songs versus songs with artificially enhanced consistency. We argue that consistency in trill note reproduction may be achieved through practice. Sexual selection in the form of male–male competition may therefore operate on a phenotypic trait, the expression of which is enhanced by practice. PMID:19324742

  20. Midfrontal conflict-related theta-band power reflects neural oscillations that predict behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Donner, Tobias H

    2013-12-01

    Action monitoring and conflict resolution require the rapid and flexible coordination of activity in multiple brain regions. Oscillatory neural population activity may be a key physiological mechanism underlying such rapid and flexible network coordination. EEG power modulations of theta-band (4-8 Hz) activity over the human midfrontal cortex during response conflict have been proposed to reflect neural oscillations that support conflict detection and resolution processes. However, it has remained unclear whether this frequency-band-specific activity reflects neural oscillations or nonoscillatory responses (i.e., event-related potentials). Here, we show that removing the phase-locked component of the EEG did not reduce the strength of the conflict-related modulation of the residual (i.e., non-phase-locked) theta power over midfrontal cortex. Furthermore, within-subject regression analyses revealed that the non-phase-locked theta power was a significantly better predictor of the conflict condition than was the time-domain phase-locked EEG component. Finally, non-phase-locked theta power showed robust and condition-specific (high- vs. low-conflict) cross-trial correlations with reaction time, whereas the phase-locked component did not. Taken together, our results indicate that most of the conflict-related and behaviorally relevant midfrontal EEG signal reflects a modulation of ongoing theta-band oscillations that occurs during the decision process but is not phase-locked to the stimulus or to the response.

  1. Efficient tissue ablation using a laser tunable in the water absorption band at 3 microns with little collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierlich, Alexandra; Chuchumishev, Danail; Nagel, Elizabeth; Marinova, Kristiana; Philipov, Stanislav; Fiebig, Torsten; Buchvarov, Ivan; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Lasers can significantly advance medical diagnostics and treatment. At high power, they are typically used as cutting tools during surgery. For lasers that are used as knifes, radiation wavelengths in the far ultraviolet and in the near infrared spectral regions are favored because tissue has high contents of collagen and water. Collagen has an absorption peak around 190 nm, while water is in the near infrared around 3,000 nm. Changing the wavelength across the absorption peak will result in significant differences in laser tissue interactions. Tunable lasers in the infrared that could optimize the laser tissue interaction for ablation and/or coagulation are not available until now besides the Free Electron Laser (FEL). Here we demonstrate efficient tissue ablation using a table-top mid-IR laser tunable between 3,000 to 3,500 nm. A detailed study of the ablation has been conducted in different tissues. Little collateral thermal damage has been found at a distance above 10-20 microns from the ablated surface. Furthermore, little mechanical damage could be seen in conventional histology and by examination of birefringent activity of the samples using a pair of cross polarizing filters.

  2. Relating resting-state fMRI and EEG whole-brain connectomes across frequency bands.

    PubMed

    Deligianni, Fani; Centeno, Maria; Carmichael, David W; Clayden, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Whole brain functional connectomes hold promise for understanding human brain activity across a range of cognitive, developmental and pathological states. So called resting-state (rs) functional MRI studies have contributed to the brain being considered at a macroscopic scale as a set of interacting regions. Interactions are defined as correlation-based signal measurements driven by blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Understanding the neurophysiological basis of these measurements is important in conveying useful information about brain function. Local coupling between BOLD fMRI and neurophysiological measurements is relatively well defined, with evidence that gamma (range) frequency EEG signals are the closest correlate of BOLD fMRI changes during cognitive processing. However, it is less clear how whole-brain network interactions relate during rest where lower frequency signals have been suggested to play a key role. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI offers the opportunity to observe brain network dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution. We utilize these measurements to compare the connectomes derived from rs-fMRI and EEG band limited power (BLP). Merging this multi-modal information requires the development of an appropriate statistical framework. We relate the covariance matrices of the Hilbert envelope of the source localized EEG signal across bands to the covariance matrices derived from rs-fMRI with the means of statistical prediction based on sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis (sCCA). Subsequently, we identify the most prominent connections that contribute to this relationship. We compare whole-brain functional connectomes based on their geodesic distance to reliably estimate the performance of the prediction. The performance of predicting fMRI from EEG connectomes is considerably better than predicting EEG from fMRI across all bands, whereas the connectomes derived in low frequency EEG bands resemble best rs-fMRI connectivity.

  3. Alpha and beta band event-related desynchronization reflects kinematic regularities.

    PubMed

    Meirovitch, Yaron; Harris, Hila; Dayan, Eran; Arieli, Amos; Flash, Tamar

    2015-01-28

    The short-lasting attenuation of brain oscillations is termed event-related desynchronization (ERD). It is frequently found in the alpha and beta bands in humans during generation, observation, and imagery of movement and is considered to reflect cortical motor activity and action-perception coupling. The shared information driving ERD in all these motor-related behaviors is unknown. We investigated whether particular laws governing production and perception of curved movement may account for the attenuation of alpha and beta rhythms. Human movement appears to be governed by relatively few kinematic laws of motion. One dominant law in biological motion kinematics is the 2/3 power law (PL), which imposes a strong dependency of movement speed on curvature and is prominent in action-perception coupling. Here we directly examined whether the 2/3 PL elicits ERD during motion observation by characterizing the spatiotemporal signature of ERD. ERDs were measured while human subjects observed a cloud of dots moving along elliptical trajectories either complying with or violating the 2/3 PL. We found that ERD within both frequency bands was consistently stronger, arose faster, and was more widespread while observing motion obeying the 2/3 PL. An activity pattern showing clear 2/3 PL preference and lying within the alpha band was observed exclusively above central motor areas, whereas 2/3 PL preference in the beta band was observed in additional prefrontal-central cortical sites. Our findings reveal that compliance with the 2/3 PL is sufficient to elicit a selective ERD response in the human brain.

  4. Absolute Absorption Intensities in the Fundamental nu2 and nu5 Bands of 12CH3F.

    PubMed

    Lepère; Blanquet; Walrand; Tarrago

    1998-06-01

    The absolute strengths of 93 lines belonging to the nu2 and nu5 bands of methyl fluoride were measured in the range of 1416-1503 cm-1 using a tunable diode-laser (TDL) spectrometer. These experimental line intensities were obtained from the equivalent width method. The intensities were analyzed within a dyad system, required to account properly for the strong Coriolis coupling between nu2 and nu5. The fit to the experimental data led to the determination of the dipole moment derivatives partial differentialµ/ partial differentialq2 and partial differentialµ/ partial differentialq5, as well as the first-order Herman-Wallis correction in K to partial differentialµ/ partial differentialq5. The intensities were reproduced with an overall standard deviation of 1.44%, to be compared with a mean experimental uncertainty equal to 1.58%. The values derived for the vibrational band strengths of nu2 and nu5 are 2.124 (18) cm-2.atm-1 and 36.96 cm-2.atm-1 at 296 K, respectively. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Transient absorption phenomena and related structural transformations in femtosecond laser-excited Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.

    2004-09-01

    Analysis of processes affecting transient optical absorption and photogeneration of electron-hole plasma in silicon pumped by an intense NIR or visible femtosecond laser pulse has been performed taking into account the most important electron-photon, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions and, as a result, two main regimes of such laser-matter interaction have been revealed. The first regime is concerned with indirect interband optical absorption in Si, enhanced by a coherent shrinkage of its smallest indirect bandgap due to dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect (DFKE). The second regime takes place due to the critical renormalization of the Si direct bandgap along Λ-axis of its first Brillouin zone because of DFKE and the deformation potential electron-phonon interaction and occurs as intense direct single-photon excitation of electrons into one of the quadruplet of equivalent Λ-valleys in the lowest conduction band, which is split down due to the electron-phonon interaction.

  6. Application of surface pressure measurements from O2-band differential absorption radar system in three-dimensional data assimilation on hurricane: Part I - An observing system simulation experiments study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Qilong; Gong, Wei; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Sea level pressure (SLP) is an important variable in regulating hurricane motion. However, SLP generally cannot be measured in open oceans due to limited buoys. Because of the potential availability of an O2-band differential absorption radar for sea surface barometry, we investigate the value of assimilating various patterns of SLP from such a system on hurricane prediction using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (3DVAR) based on Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). An important objective of this series of study is to explore the potential to use space and airborne sea surface air pressure measurements from an O2-band differential absorption radar currently under development for server weather including hurricane forecasts. The surface pressure patterns include an area of SLP, and a band of SLP either through the center or tangent to the hurricane position; the latter two distributions are similar to what could be obtained from the differential absorption radar system, which could be installed on spaceborne satellites and/or mounted on reconnaissance aircraft. In the banded pressure cases, we propose a vortex reconstruction technique based on surface pressure field. Assimilating observations from the reconstructed surface pressure leads to a better representation of initial SLP and vertical cross-section of wind, relative to the control where no data is assimilated and to the assimilation without vortex reconstruction. In eight of the nine OSSEs simulations on three hurricanes with three leading times of integration, which cover a wide range of initial minimum SLP from 951 to 1011 hPa, substantial improvements are found not only in the hurricane track and position, but also in the hurricane intensity, in terms of the SLP and maximum surface wind. The only case without significant improvement is resulted from the very weak initial condition (SLP 1011 hPa), which had no clear indication of

  7. Ion irradiation of carbonaceous interstellar analogues. Effects of cosmic rays on the 3.4 μm interstellar absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Féraud, G.; Chabot, M.; Carpentier, Y.; Pino, T.; Brunetto, R.; Duprat, J.; Engrand, C.; Bréchignac, P.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Dartois, E.

    2011-05-01

    Context. A 3.4 μm absorption band (around 2900 cm-1), assigned to aliphatic C-H stretching modes of hydrogenated amorphous carbons (a-C:H), is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, but disappears or is modified in dense clouds. This spectral difference between different phases of the interstellar medium reflects the processing of dust in different environments. Cosmic ray bombardment is one of the interstellar processes that make carbonaceous dust evolve. Aims: We investigate the effects of cosmic rays on the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band carriers. Methods: Samples of carbonaceous interstellar analogues (a-C:H and soot) were irradiated at room temperature by swift ions with energy in the MeV range (from 0.2 to 160 MeV). The dehydrogenation and chemical bonding modifications that occurred during irradiation were studied with IR spectroscopy. Results: For all samples and all ions/energies used, we observed a decrease of the aliphatic C-H absorption bands intensity with the ion fluence. This evolution agrees with a model that describes the hydrogen loss as caused by the molecular recombination of two free H atoms created by the breaking of C-H bonds by the impinging ions. The corresponding destruction cross section and asymptotic hydrogen content are obtained for each experiment and their behaviour over a large range of ion stopping powers are inferred. Using elemental abundances and energy distributions of galactic cosmic rays, we investigated the implications of these results in different astrophysical environments. The results are compared to the processing by UV photons and H atoms in different regions of the interstellar medium. Conclusions: The destruction of aliphatic C-H bonds by cosmic rays occurs in characteristic times of a few 108 years, and it appears that even at longer time scales, cosmic rays alone cannot explain the observed disappearance of this spectral signature in dense regions. In diffuse interstellar medium, the formation

  8. Nature of the Intrinsic Relation between Bloch-Band Tunneling and Modulational Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, V.A.; Konotop, V.V.; Kuzmiak, V.

    2006-04-21

    In an example of Bose-Einstein condensates embedded in two-dimensional optical lattices, we show that in nonlinear periodic systems modulational instability and interband tunneling are intrinsically related phenomena. By direct numerical simulations we find that tunneling results in attenuation or enhancement of instability. On the other hand, instability results in asymmetric nonlinear tunneling. The effect strongly depends on the band gap structure and it is especially significant in the case of the resonant tunneling. The symmetry of the coherent structures emerging from the instability reflects the symmetry of both the stable and the unstable states between which the tunneling occurs. Our results provide evidence of the profound effect of the band structure on the superfluid-insulator transition.

  9. Measurements of Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities in the H2O-16 pure rotational and nu2 bands from long horizontal path atmospheric spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Goldman, Aaron; Malathy Devi, V.

    1991-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadening coefficients and relative intensities have been measured for forty-three lines in the pure rotational band and twenty lines in the nu2 band of H2O-16 between 800 and 1150/cm. The results were derived from analysis of nine 0.017/cm-resolution atmospheric absorption spectra recorded over horizontal paths of 0.5-1.5 km with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer and main solar telescope operated on Kitt Peak by the National Solar Observatory. A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting technique was used in the spectral analysis. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculations. In most cases, the measured pressure-broadening coefficients and intensities are significantly different from the values in the 1986 HITRAN line parameters compilation.

  10. Selective Inhibition of Absorption and Long Distance Transport in Relation to the Dual Mechanisms of Ion Absorption in Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Ulrich; Laties, George G.

    1967-01-01

    The influence of several uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibitors of terminal electron transport was studied on absorption and long distance transport of both K and C1 at concentrations within each range of the dual isotherm typical of ion uptake by maize roots. At low concentrations in the range of system 1, the system considered to implement ion movement through the plasma membrane, root absorption and long distance transport are equally inhibited by a given inhibitor. In the high range of system 2, the system considered to mediate ion passage through the tonoplast, long distance transport is markedly less sensitive to inhibitors than is absorption. The observations are in accord with the hypothesis that only system 1 is involved in the uptake of ions from the external solution into the symplast, and hence into the xylem. At high concentrations, entrance into the symplasm is deemed to be largely by diffusion and therefore less inhibitor sensitive. With respect to absorption by the roots, the plasma membrane system is more inhibitor sensitive than is the tonoplast system. It is suggested that the difference in sensitivity is real, and not the consequence of an inequality of inhibitor concentration in the vicinity of the plasma membrane and tonoplast respectively. Images PMID:6040889

  11. First laboratory detection of an absorption line of the first overtone electric quadrupolar band of N2 by CRDS near 2.2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, P.; Vasilchenko, S.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The extremely weak 2-0 O(14) electric quadrupole transition of N2 has been detected by very high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy near 4518 cm-1. It is the first N2 absorption line in the first overtone band reported so far from laboratory experiments. By combining a feedback narrowed Distributed Feedback laser diode with a passive cell tracking technique, a limit of detection of αmin ∼ 1.2 × 10-11 cm-1 was achieved after one day of spectra averaging. The N2 2-0 O(14) line position and line intensity (about 1.5 × 10-30 cm/molecule) agree with calculated values provided in the HITRAN2012 database.

  12. Tentative identification of the 780/cm nu-4 band Q branch of chlorine nitrate in high-resolution solar absorption spectra of the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.; Malathy Devi, V.

    1985-01-01

    According to models of the photochemistry of the stratosphere, chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) is an important temporary reservoir of stratospheric chlorine. At night, ClO is believed to combine in a three-body reaction with NO2 to form chlorine nitrate. During daylight, chlorine nitrate is destroyed by photolysis to form free chlorine and NO3. Infrared spectroscopy has the potential to provide a technique for conducting important quantitative measurements of stratospheric chlorine nitrate. The present paper reports a detailed study of spectra in the 780/cm region. This study has led to the tentative identification of the nu-4 band Q branch of ClONO2 as a significant contributor to the observed stratospheric absorption near 780.21 per cm.

  13. meso-meso linked porphyrin-[26]hexaphyrin-porphyrin hybrid arrays and their triply linked tapes exhibiting strong absorption bands in the NIR region.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Takayuki; Lee, Sangsu; Lim, Jong Min; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-02-11

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of directly meso-meso linked porphyrin-[26]hexaphyrin-porphyrin hybrid oligomers and their triply linked (completely fused) hybrid tapes. meso-meso Linked Ni(II) porphyrin-[26]hexaphyrin-Ni(II) porphyrin trimers were prepared by methanesulfonic acid-catalyzed cross-condensation of meso-formyl Ni(II) porphyrins with a 5,10-diaryltripyrrane followed by oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The Ni(II) porphyrin moieties were converted to Zn(II) porphyrins via an indirect route involving reduction of the [26]hexaphyrin to its 28π congener, acid-induced denickelation, oxidation of the [28]hexaphyrin, and finally Zn(II) ion insertion. Over the course of these transformations, porphyrin-[28]hexaphyrin-porphyrin trimers have been revealed to take on a Möbius aromatic twisted structure for the [28]hexaphyrin segment. Oxidation of meso-meso linked hybrid trimer bearing 5,15-diaryl Zn(II) porphyrins with DDQ/Sc(OTf)3 under mild conditions resulted in meso-meso coupling oligomerization, affording the corresponding dimeric (hexamer), trimeric (nonamer), and tetrameric (dodecamer) oligomers. On the other hand, oxidation of a meso-meso linked hybrid trimer bearing 5,10,15-triaryl Zn(II) porphyrin terminals with DDQ/Sc(OTf)3 under harsher conditions afforded a meso-meso, β-β, β-β triply linked hybrid porphyrin tape, which displays a sharp and intense absorption band at 1912 nm. Comparison of this extremely red-shifted absorption band with those of Zn(II) porphyrin tapes suggests that the bathochromic-shifting capability of a [26]hexaphyrin unit is large, almost equivalent to that of four individual Zn(II) porphyrin units. As demonstrated, the fusion of porphyrins to [26]hexaphyrin offers an efficient means to expand their conjugation networks, significantly expanding the capabilities attainable for these chromophores.

  14. Microwave absorption in X and Ku band frequency of cotton fabric coated with Ni-Zn ferrite and carbon formulation in polyurethane matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K. K.; Abbas, S. M.; Goswami, T. H.; Abhyankar, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    The present study highlights various microwave properties, i.e. reflection, transmission, absorption and reflection loss, of the coated cotton fabric [formulation: Ni-Zn ferrite (Ni 0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) and carbon black (acetylene black) at concentrations of 30, 40, 50, 60 and70 g of ferrite and 5 g carbon in each 100 ml polyurethane] evaluated at 8-18 GHz frequency. The uniform density of filling materials in coated fabrics (dotted marks in SEM micrograph) indicates homogeneous dispersion of conducting fillers in polyurethane and the density of filling material cluster increases with increase in ferrite concentration. SEM images also show uniform coating of conducting fillers/resin system over individual fibers and interweave spaces. The important parameters governing the microwave properties of coated fabrics i.e. permittivity and permeability, S-parameters, reflection loss, etc. were studied in a HVS free space microwave measurement system. The lossy character of coated fabric is found to increase with increase of ferrite content; the ferrite content decreases the impedance and increases the permittivity and permeability values. The 1.6-1.8 mm thick coated fabric sample (40 wt% ferrite, 3 wt% carbon and 57 wt% PU) has shown about 40% absorption, 20% transmission and 40% reflectance in X (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku (12-18 GHz) frequency bands. The reflection loss at 13.5 GHz has shown the highest peak value (22.5 dB) due to coated sample optical thickness equal to λ/4 and more than 7.5 dB in entire Ku band. Owing to its thin and flexible nature, the coated fabric can be used as apparel in protecting human being from hazardous microwaves and also as radar camouflage covering screen in defense.

  15. Resonance-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Ring-Involved Vibrational Modes in the (1)B(2u) Absorption Band of Benzene, Including the Kekule Vibrational Modes ν(9) and ν(10).

    PubMed

    Willitsford, Adam H; Chadwick, C Todd; Kurtz, Stewart; Philbrick, C Russell; Hallen, Hans

    2016-02-04

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy provides much stronger Raman signal levels than its off-resonant counterpart and adds selectivity by excitation tuning. Raman preresonance of benzene has been well studied. On-resonance studies, especially at phonon-allowed absorptions, have received less attention. In this case, we observe resonance of many of the vibration modes associated motion of the carbons in the ring while tuning over the (1)B2u absorption, including the related ν9 (CC stretch Herzberg notation, ν14 Wilson notation) and ν10 (CH-parallel bend Herzberg notation, ν15 Wilson notation) vibrational modes along with the ν2 (CC-stretch or ring-breathing Herzberg notation, ν1 Wilson notation) mode and multiples of the ν18 (CCC-parallel bend Herzberg notation, ν6 Wilson notation) vibrational mode. The ring-breathing mode is found to mix with the b2u modes creating higher frequency composites. Through the use of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to tune through the (1)B2u absorption band of liquid benzene, a stiffening (increase in energy) of the vibrational modes is observed as the excitation wavelength nears the (1)B2u absorption peak of the isolated molecule (vapor) phase. The strongest resonance amplitude observed is in the 2 × ν18 (e2g) mode, with nearly twice the intensity of the ring-breathing mode, ν2. Several overtones and combination modes, especially with ν2 (a1g), are also observed to resonate. Raman resonances on phonon-allowed excitations are narrow and permit the measurement of vibrations not Raman-active in the ground state.

  16. Cytogenetic investigation of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. and related species using the C-banding technique.

    PubMed

    Badaeva, E D; Filatenko, A A; Badaev, N S

    1994-11-01

    Triticum timopheevii and related species T. militinae (2n=28, A(t)G) and T. zhukovskyi (2n=42, A(m)A(t)G), hybrids T. kiharae, T. miguschovae, the amphidiploid T. timopheevii x T. tauschii (all 2n=42, A(t)GD), T. fungicidum (ABA(t)G) and T. timonovum (2n=56, A(t)A(t)GG) were analyzed using the C-banding technique. Chromosomes of the A(m) and A(t) genomes in the karyotype of T. zhukovskyi differed in their C-banding pattern. Partial substitutions of A(t)-genome chromosomes and a complete substitution of the G-genome chromosomes by homoeologous chromosomes of an unidentified tetraploid wheat species with an AB genome composition were found in the T. timonovum karyotype. A(t)- and G-genome chromosomes in the karyotypes of all studied species had similar C-banding patterns and were characterized by a low level of polymorphism. The comparative stability of the A(t) and G genomes is determined by the origin and specifity of cultivation of studied species.

  17. Optimization of absorption bands of dye-sensitized and perovskite tandem solar cells based on loss-in-potential values.

    PubMed

    Sobuś, Jan; Ziółek, Marcin

    2014-07-21

    A numerical study of optimal bandgaps of light absorbers in tandem solar cell configurations is presented with the main focus on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The limits in efficiency and the expected improvements of tandem structures are investigated as a function of total loss-in-potential (V(L)), incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and fill factor (FF) of individual components. It is shown that the optimal absorption onsets are significantly smaller than those derived for multi-junction devices. For example, for double-cell devices the onsets are at around 660 nm and 930 nm for DSSCs with iodide based electrolytes and at around 720 nm and 1100 nm for both DSSCs with cobalt based electrolytes and PSCs. Such configurations can increase the total sunlight conversion efficiency by about 35% in comparison to single-cell devices of the same VL, IPCE and FF. The relevance of such studies for tandem n-p DSSCs and for a proposed new configuration for PSCs is discussed. In particular, it is shown that maximum total losses of 1.7 V for DSSCs and 1.4 V for tandem PSCs are necessary to give any efficiency improvement with respect to the single bandgap device. This means, for example, a tandem n-p DSSC with TiO2 and NiO porous electrodes will hardly work better than the champion single DSSC. A source code of the program used for calculations is also provided.

  18. Highly ordered monolayer/bilayer TiO2 hollow sphere films with widely tunable visible-light reflection and absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qin, Yao; Jin, Chao; Li, Ying; Shi, Donglu; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Gan, Lihua; Yang, Jinhu

    2013-06-07

    Monolayer and bilayer TiO2 hollow hemisphere/sphere (THH/THS) films consisting of highly ordered hexagonal-patterned THHs/THSs with thin shells of ~10 nm and different diameters of ~170 and ~470 nm have been prepared by templating of two-dimensional polystyrene sphere (PS) assembly films coupled with TiO2 sputtering/wet coating approaches. Owing to their precisely adjustable structural parameters, such as THH/THS shape and diameter as well as film layer thickness, the prepared THH/THS films exhibit widely tunable visible-light reflection and absorption bands, i.e. from 380 to 850 nm for reflection and 390 to 520 nm for absorption, respectively. The mechanism of the novel optical behaviors of the THH/THS films has been discussed in depth, combined with some calculations according to Bragg's law. In addition, photocatalytic experiments of RhB degradation employing the THH/THS films as recyclable catalysts have been conducted. The THH/THS films with controlled structures and precisely tunable optical properties are attractive for a wide range of applications, such as recyclable catalysts for photocatalysis, efficient oxide electrodes or scattering layers for solar cells, gas-permeable electrode materials for high-performance sensors and so on.

  19. Electromagnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of BaTiO 3-carbonyl iron composite in S and C bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui-gang, Yang

    2011-07-01

    BaTiO3 powders are prepared by sol-gel method. The carbonyl iron powder is prepared via thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl. Then BaTiO3-carbonyl iron composite with different mixture ratios was prepared using the as-prepared material. The structure, morphology, and properties of the composites are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a network analyzer. The complex permittivity and reflection loss of the composites have been measured at different microwave frequencies in S- and C-bands employing vector network analyzer model PNA 3629D vector. The effect of the mass ratio of BaTiO3/carbonyl iron on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of BaTiO3-carbonyl iron composite has been proposed. The BaTiO3-carbonyl iron composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference, and reduction of radar signature.

  20. Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectrum of the T_1(n,π*) ← S_0 Transition of Acrolein: Analysis of the 0^0_0 Band Rotational Contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek, Nikolaus C.; McAnally, Michael O.; Drucker, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Acrolein (propenal, CH_2=CH---CH=O) is the simplest conjugated enal molecule and serves as a prototype for investigating the photochemical properties of larger enals and enones. Acrolein has a coplanar arrangement of heavy atoms in its ground electronic state. Much of the photochemistry is mediated by the T_1(π,π*) state, which has a CH_2--twisted equilibrium structure. In solution, the T_1(π,π*) state is typically accessed via intersystem crossing from an intially prepared planar S_1(n,π*) state. An intermediate in this photophysical transformation is the lowest ^3 (n,π*) state, a planar species with adiabatic excitation energy below S_1 and above T_1(π,π*). The present work focuses on this ^3 (n,π*) intermediate state; it is designated T_1(n,π*) as the lowest-energy triplet state of acrolein having a planar equilibrium structure. The T_1(n,π*) ← S_0 band system, with origin near 412 nm, was first recorded in the 1970s at medium (0.5 cm-1) resolution using a long-path absorption cell. Here we report the cavity ringdown spectrum of the 0^0_0 band, recorded using a pulsed dye laser with 0.1 cm-1 spectral bandwidth. The spectrum was measured under both bulk-gas (room-temperature) and jet-cooled conditions. The band contour in each spectrum was analyzed by using a computer program developed for simulating and fitting the rotational structure of singlet-triplet transitions. The assignment of several resolved sub-band heads in the room-temperature spectrum permitted approximate fitting of the inertial constants for the T_1(n,π*) state. The determined values (cm-1) are A=1.662, B=0.1485, C=0.1363. For the parameters A and (B+C)/2, estimated uncertainties of ± 0.003 cm-1 and ± 0.0004 cm-1, respectively, correspond to a range of values that produce qualitatively satisfactory global agreement with the observed room-temperature contour. The fitted inertial constants were used to simulate the rotational contour of the 0^0_0 band under jet-cooled conditions

  1. Strain and temperature dependent absorption spectra studies for identifying the phase structure and band gap of EuTiO3 perovskite films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Zhao, Run; Zhang, Peng; Deng, Qinglin; Zhang, Jinzhong; Li, Wenwu; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Hao; Chu, Junhao

    2015-12-21

    Post-annealing has been approved to effectively relax the out-of-plane strain in thin films. Epitaxial EuTiO3 (ETO) thin films, with and without strain, have been fabricated on (001) LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The absorption and electronic transitions of the ETO thin films are investigated by means of temperature dependent transmittance spectra. The antiferrodistortive phase transition can be found at about 260-280 K. The first-principles calculations indicate there are two interband electronic transitions in ETO films. Remarkably, the direct optical band gap and higher interband transition for ETO films show variation in trends with different strains and temperatures. The strain leads to a band gap shrinkage of about 240 meV while the higher interband transition an expansion of about 140 meV. The hardening of the interband transition energies in ETO films with increasing temperature can be attributed to the Fröhlich electron-phonon interaction. The behavior can be linked to the strain and low temperature modified valence electronic structure, which is associated with rotations of the TiO6 octahedra.

  2. Weather related continuity and completeness on Deep Space Ka-band links: statistics and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the concept of link 'stability' as means of measuring the continuity of the link is introduced and through it, along with the distributions of 'good' periods and 'bad' periods, the performance of the proposed Ka-band link design method using both forecasting and long-term statistics has been analyzed. The results indicate that the proposed link design method has relatively good continuity and completeness characteristics even when only long-term statistics are used and that the continuity performance further improves when forecasting is employed. .

  3. Drug marker absorption in relation to pellet size, gastric motility and viscous meals in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhie, J. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Welage, L. S.; Frens, J.; Wald, R. J.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. E.; Putcha, L.; Amidon, G. L.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate drug marker absorption in relation to the gastric emptying (GE) of 0.7 mm and 3.6 mm enteric coated pellets as a function of viscosity and the underlying gastric motility. METHODS: Twelve subjects were evaluated in a 3-way crossover study. 0.7 mm caffeine and 3.6 mm acetaminophen enteric coated pellets were concurrently administered with a viscous caloric meal at the levels of 4000, 6000 and 8000 cP. Gastric motility was simultaneously measured with antral manometry and compared to time events in the plasma profiles of the drug markers. RESULTS: Caffeine, from the 0.7 mm pellets, was observed significantly earlier in the plasma than acetaminophen, from the 3.6 mm pellets, at all levels of viscosity. Motility related size differentiated GE was consistently observed at all viscosity levels, however, less variability was observed with the 4000 cP meal. Specifically, the onset of absorption from the of 3.6 mm pellets correlated with the onset of Phase II fasted state contractions (r = 0.929, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The timeframe of drug marker absorption and the onset of motility events were not altered within the range of viscosities evaluated. Rather, the differences in drug marker profiles from the non-digestible solids were most likely the result of the interaction between viscosity and motility influencing antral flow dynamics. The administration of the two sizes of pellets and a viscous caloric meal with subsequent monitoring of drug marker profiles is useful as a reference to assess the influence of motility patterns on the absorption profile of orally administered agents.

  4. Absorption and long distance transport by isolated stele of maize roots in relation to the dual mechanisms of ion absorption.

    PubMed

    Lüttge, U; Laties, G G

    1967-06-01

    Ion absorption and transport by intact roots, isolated cortex and isolated stele were compared shortly after tissue isolation and after aging. Absorption isotherms in the low and in the high concentration range show that in stripped-stele, which absorbs at a very low rate immediately after isolation, the capacity of system 1 but not system 2 is built up with aging. In agreement with this result analysis of individual fluxes across plasmamembrane and tonoplast reveals that only the influx from the medium into the cytoplasm increases considerably with aging of stele. Changes observed in aging excised roots and in isolated cortex are much less significant. In spite of the increase of absorption with aging by isolated stele, long distance transport, which is essentially passive through freshly stripped stele, decreases with aging. The reported results reflect the marked permeability of the plasmamembrane of fresh isolated stele, and demonstrate the importance of the cortex as a tissue "collecting" ions for long distance transport. New evidence for the theory of symplasmatic transport of ions into the xylem vessels is thus provided.

  5. Simple Experimental Verification of the Relation between the Band-Gap Energy and the Energy of Photons Emitted by LEDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precker, Jurgen W.

    2007-01-01

    The wavelength of the light emitted by a light-emitting diode (LED) is intimately related to the band-gap energy of the semiconductor from which the LED is made. We experimentally estimate the band-gap energies of several types of LEDs, and compare them with the energies of the emitted light, which ranges from infrared to white. In spite of…

  6. Porphodilactones as synthetic chlorophylls: relative orientation of β-substituents on a pyrrolic ring tunes NIR absorption.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xian-Sheng; Chang, Yi; Chen, Jia-Zhen; Tian, Jiangwei; Mack, John; Cheng, Xin; Shen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2014-07-09

    Porphodilactones represent the porphyrin analogues, in which the peripheral bonds of two pyrrole rings are replaced by lactone moieties. They provide an opportunity to investigate how β-substituent orientation of porphyrinoids modulates the electronic structures and optical properties, in a manner similar to what is observed with naturally occurring chlorophylls. In this work, a comprehensive description of the synthesis, characterization, and optical properties of meso-tetrakispentafluorophenylporphodilactone isomers is first reported. The β-dilactone moieties are found to lie at opposite pyrrole positions (trans- and cis-configurations are defined by the relative orientations of the carbonyl group when one lactone moiety is fixed), in accordance with earlier computational predictions (Gouterman, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 3702). The relative orientation of the β-dilactone moieties has a significant influence on the electronic structures and photophysical properties. For example, the Qy band of trans-porphodilactone is red-shifted by 19 nm relative to that of the cis-isomer, and there is a 2-fold increase in the absorption intensity, which resembles the similar trends that have been reported for natural chlorophyll f and d. An in depth analysis of magnetic circular dichroism spectral data and TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory demonstrates that the trans- and cis-orientations of the dilactone moieties have a significant effect on the relative energies of the frontier π-molecular orbitals. Importantly, the biological behaviors of the isomers reveal their different photocytotoxicity in NIR region (>650 nm). The influence of the relative orientation of the β-substituents on the optical properties in this context provides new insights into the electronic structures of porphyrinoids which could prove useful during the development of near-infrared absorbing photosensitizers.

  7. ANOMALOUS DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS IN THE SPECTRUM OF HERSCHEL 36. I. OBSERVATIONS OF ROTATIONALLY EXCITED CH AND CH{sup +} ABSORPTION AND STRONG, EXTENDED REDWARD WINGS ON SEVERAL DIBs

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlstrom, Julie; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Oka, Takeshi; Johnson, Sean; Jiang Zihao; Sherman, Reid; Hobbs, L. M.; Friedman, Scott D.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Rachford, Brian L.; Snow, Theodore P.

    2013-08-10

    Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 A are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, the star illuminating the bright Hourglass region of the H II region Messier 8. Interstellar absorption from excited CH{sup +} in the J = 1 level and from excited CH in the J = 3/2 level is also seen. To our knowledge, neither those excited molecular lines nor such strongly extended DIBs have previously been seen in absorption from interstellar gas. These unusual features appear to arise in a small region near Herschel 36 which contains most of the neutral interstellar material in the sight line. The CH{sup +} and CH in that region are radiatively excited by strong far-IR radiation from the adjacent infrared source Her 36 SE. Similarly, the broadening of the DIBs toward Herschel 36 may be due to radiative pumping of closely spaced high-J rotational levels of relatively small, polar carrier molecules. If this picture of excited rotational states for the DIB carriers is correct and applicable to most DIBs, the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background may set the minimum widths (about 0.35 A) of known DIBs, with molecular processes and/or local radiation fields producing the larger widths found for the broader DIBs. Despite the intense local UV radiation field within the cluster NGC 6530, no previously undetected DIBs stronger than 10 mA in equivalent width are found in the optical spectrum of Herschel 36, suggesting that neither dissociation nor ionization of the carriers of the known DIBs by this intense field creates new carriers with easily detectable DIB-like features. Possibly related profile anomalies for several other DIBs are noted.

  8. MSG-7: Molecular absorption processes related to the penetration of ultraviolet solar radiation into the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Blake, A. J.; Freeman, D. E.; Nicholls, R. W.; Ogawa, T.; Simon, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The information presently available on the absorption cross sections of O2 and O3 with attention to the application of these data in middle atmospheric science is reviewed. The cross sections values reported by different groups are intercompared in tabular form where feasible, and specific values are recommended when there is a basis for preferring a particular set of results over other available data. When no such basis exists, the differences among published cross sections then serve to indicate a range of uncertainty. In these cases the need for additional work is indicated. Specific topics addressed are the absorption of molecular oxygen at Lyman alpha, in the Schumann-Runge continuum, in the Schumann-Runge bands, and in the Herzberg continuum. For ozone, the Hartley and Huggins bands are considered.

  9. MSG-7: molecular absorption processes related to the penetration of ultraviolet solar radiation into the middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.E.; Blake, A.J.; Freeman, D.E.; Nicholls, R.W.; Ogawa, T.

    1983-07-01

    The information presently available on the absorption cross sections of O2 and O3 with attention to the application of these data in middle atmospheric science is reviewed. The cross sections values reported by different groups are intercompared in tabular form where feasible, and specific values are recommended when there is a basis for preferring a particular set of results over other available data. When no such basis exists, the differences among published cross sections then serve to indicate a range of uncertainty. In these cases the need for additional work is indicated. Specific topics addressed are the absorption of molecular oxygen at Lyman alpha, in the Schumann-Runge continuum, in the Schumann-Runge bands, and in the Herzberg continuum. For ozone, the Hartley and Huggins bands are considered.

  10. [Extensive mesenteric ischemia related to naratriptan overuse associated with grapefruit juice absorption].

    PubMed

    Gergaud, S; Lermite, E; Butel, F; Soltner, C; Lasocki, S

    2012-05-01

    We reported the case of a 61-year-old woman, who has been hospitalized in ICU because of an extensive mesenteric ischaemia, involving the small bowel, secondary to a naratriptan overuse. This mesenteric ischaemia was complicated by multiple organ failure and was responsible for extensive small bowel resection and left colectomy. A concomitant abundant absorption of grapefruit juice, a well-known P450 inhibitor, may have enhanced this naratriptan toxicity. This case underscore that an abdominal pain occurring in the context of headache treatment may be related to a mesenteric ischaemia.

  11. On the relation between X-ray absorption and optical extinction in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordovás-Pascual, I.; Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Wiersema, K.; Caccianiga, A.; Della Ceca, R.; Severgnini, P.; Moretti, A.; Ballo, L.

    2017-03-01

    According to the Unified Model of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), an X-ray unabsorbed AGN should appear as unobscured in the optical band (the so called type-1 AGN). However, there is an important fraction (10–30%) of AGN whose optical and X-ray classifications do not match. To provide insight into the origin of such apparent discrepancies, we have conducted two types of analysis: 1) a detailed study of the UV-to-near-IR emission of two X-ray low absorbed AGN with high optical extinction drawn from the Bright Ultra-Hard XMM-Newton Survey (BUXS); 2) a statistical analysis of the optical obscuration and X-ray absorption properties of 159 type-1 AGN drawn from BUXS to determine the distribution of dust-to-gas ratios in AGN over a broad range of luminosities and redshifts. We have determined the impact of contamination from the AGN hosts in their optical classification (detection or lack of detection of rest-frame UV-optical broad emission lines). This is an on-going project, but our preliminary results, reported below, are very promising.

  12. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  13. The Analysis of Hand Movement Distinction Based on Relative Frequency Band Energy Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanyan; Teng, Chaolin; Sun, Zhongjiang; Wang, Jue

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of successfully developing a prosthetic control system, many attempts have been made to improve the classification accuracy of surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals. Nevertheless, the effective feature extraction is still a paramount challenge for the classification of SEMG signals. The relative frequency band energy (RFBE) method based on wavelet packet decomposition was proposed for the prosthetic pattern recognition of multichannel SEMG signals. Firstly, the wavelet packet energy of SEMG signals in each subspace was calculated by using wavelet packet decomposition and the RFBE of each frequency band was obtained by the wavelet packet energy. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index were used to perform the feature selection. Lastly, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied for the classification of SEMG signals. Our results demonstrated that the RFBE approach was suitable for identifying different types of forearm movements. By comparing with other classification methods, the proposed method achieved higher classification accuracy in terms of the classification of SEMG signals. PMID:25431766

  14. A model for Be-related photo-absorption in compensated GaN:Be substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, W. R.; Zvanut, M. E.; Dashdorj, J.; Bockowski, M.

    2016-09-01

    A photo-induced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) attributed to beryllium-related acceptors was identified in GaN:Be substrates grown by the high nitrogen pressure solution technique. The acceptors, initially compensated by shallow O-related donors, were observed after illumination with photon energy greater than 2.7 eV. To adequately fit the time-dependent photo-EPR data over time periods up to 90 min, a two-defect model was developed based on three charge transfer processes: (1) photo-excitation of electrons from compensated acceptors, (2) electron capture by the positively charged donors and neutral acceptors directly from the conduction band, and (3) electron transfer from the donors to acceptors. The analysis of the spectral dependence of the optical cross section leads to the Be-related acceptor level lying 0.7 eV above the valence band maximum, consistent with the role of the acceptor as a compensating center as well as the 2.2 eV luminescence that others observed from these and other GaN:Be samples.

  15. Cloud top height retrieval using the imaging polarimeter (3MI) top-of-atmosphere reflectance measurements in the oxygen absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Munro, Rose

    2016-04-01

    The determination of cloud top height from a satellite has a number of applications both for climate studies and aviation safety. A great variety of methods are applied using both active and passive observation systems in the optical and microwave spectral regions. One of the most popular methods with good spatial coverage is based on the measurement of outgoing radiation in the spectral range where oxygen strongly absorbs incoming solar light. Clouds shield tropospheric oxygen reducing the depth of the corresponding absorption line as detected by a satellite instrument. Radiative transfer models are used to connect the solar light reflectance, e.g., in the oxygen A-band located around 761nm, and the cloud top height. The inverse problem is then solved e.g. using look-up tables, to determine the cloud top height. In this paper we propose a new fast and robust oxygen A-band method for the retrieval of cloud altitude using the Multi-viewing Multi-channel Multi-polarization Imaging instrument (3MI) on board the EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation (EPS-SG). The 3MI measures the intensity at the wavelengths of 410, 443, 490, 555, 670, 763, 765, 865, 910, 1370, 1650, and 2130nm, and (for selected channels) the second and third Stokes vector components which allows the degree of linear polarization and the polarization orientation angle of reflected solar light to be derived at up to 14 observation angles. The instrument response function (to a first approximation) can be modelled by a Gaussian distribution with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) equal to 20nm for all channels except 765nm, 865nm, 1370nm, 1650nm, and 2130nm, where it is equal to 40nm. The FWHM at 763nm (the oxygen A-band location) is equal to 10nm. The following 3MI channels are used in the retrieval procedure: 670, 763, and 865nm. The channels at 670 and 865 nm are not affected by the oxygen absorption. The channel at 763nm is affected by the oxygen concentration vertical profile. The higher

  16. Band-gap energy of heteropoly compounds containing Keggin polyanion-[PVxMo12-xO40]-(3+x) relates to counter-cations and temperature studied by UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasca, Viorel; Popa, Alexandru

    2013-10-01

    The band gap energy (absorption edge energies) of the pure H3[PMo12O40].13H2O and H4[PVMo11O40].13H2O, respectively, supported on SiO2 and SiC and some of its NH4+ and Cs+ salts were determined by different methods. The influence of the counter-cations and the temperature on band gap energy was studied. In this purpose, the diffuse reflectance spectra of above mentioned compounds were registered at different temperatures, and it were transposed in the curves of the Kubelka-Munk function vs. wavelength. The band gap energies were determined by processing of low field energy of the ligand-metal charge transfer band (O2- → Mo6+ and O2- → V5+) usually observed between 200 and 400 nm on these curves. In this aim, the Tauc's relation was adapted for Kubelka-Munk function use and it was plotted for n = 1/2 (direct transition) and 2 (indirect transition) vs. wave energy (photon energy). The intersection of the curves' tangent drawn to their point of inflection with horizontal axis gives the band gap energy. The other method for calculation of band gap energy was the differential calculus on the Kubelka-Munk function vs. wave energy curve where the x value corresponding to curves' maximum is the found value. The comparison between experimental band gap values and literature data showed their partial fit. The higher temperature produces the band gap energy diminution as a result of a stronger interaction between Keggin Units, which occurs especially by the crystallization water loss. The Keggin Units isolation one from another by voluminous counter-ion or their spreading on a support leads to a weaker interaction between them and as a consequence, the increasing of absorption edge energy. A linear correlation of the crystallites size with band gap energy was observed.

  17. [Decomposition of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into absorption spectra of prosthetic group and apoprotein by means of an additive model].

    PubMed

    Lavrinenko, I A; Vashanov, G A; Artyukhov, V G

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition pathways of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into the absorption spectra of the protein and non-protein components are proposed and substantiated by means of an additive model. We have established that the heme component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 269.2 nm (ε = 97163) and the apoprotein component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 278.4 nm (ε = 48669) for the wavelength range from 240.0 to 320.0 nm. An integral relative proportion of absorption for the heme fraction (78.8%) and apoprotein (21.2%) in the investigating wavelength range is defined.

  18. Stochastic relation between anomalous propagation in the line-of-sight VHF radio band and occurrences of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, K.; Haga, N.

    2013-11-01

    This paper was intended to find out any relation between anomalous line-of-sight propagation on the VHF band and occurrences of earthquakes near the VHF propagation paths. The television and FM radio broadcasting waves on the VHF band were monitored continuously over the long term. For that purpose, a multidirectional VHF band monitoring system was established and utilized. Anomalous line-of-sight propagation on the VHF band was distinguished from the monitored wave by using a statistical analysis. After the stochastic consideration, it was found out that earthquakes associated with anomalous propagation were characterized by magnitude of earthquakes M ≥ 4.5, and distances from epicenters L ≤ 75 km. The anomalous propagation was monitored on the VHF band a few days earlier the associated earthquakes occurred. Moreover, the anomaly appeared on multidirectional propagation paths simultaneously. The anomaly on the line-of-sight propagation indicates possibility of narrow focusing the area of epicenter of earthquake.

  19. Modeling of collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of H2 pairs in the first overtone band at temperatures from 20 to 500 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Chunguang; Borysow, Aleksandra

    1995-01-01

    A simple formalism is presented that permits quick computations of the low-resolution, rotovibrational collision-induced absorption (RV CIA) spectra of H2 pairs in the first overtone band of hydrogen, at temperatures from 20 to 500 K. These spectra account for the free-free transitions. The sharp dimer features, originating from the bound-free, free-bound, and bound-bound transitions are ignored, though their integrated intensities are properly accounted for. The method employs spectral model line- shapes with parameters computed from the three lowest spectral moments. The moments are obtained from first principles expressed as analytical functions of temperature. Except for the sharp dimer features, which are absent in this model, the computed spectra reproduce closely the results of exact quantum mechanical lineshape computations. Comparisons of the computed spectra with existing experimental data also show good agreement. The work interest for the modeling of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. The user-friendly Fortran program developed here is available on request from the authors.

  20. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Koichi; Skuja, Linards; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic α-quartz and amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) exposed to 60Co γ-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in α-quartz and a-SiO2, and the peak energy is larger for α-quartz than that for a-SiO2. The full width at half maximum for a-SiO2 is larger by ˜40-60% than that for α-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a-SiO2 network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a-SiO2.

  1. Ti3C2 MXenes with Modified Surface for High-Performance Electromagnetic Absorption and Shielding in the X-Band.

    PubMed

    Han, Meikang; Yin, Xiaowei; Wu, Heng; Hou, Zexin; Song, Changqing; Li, Xinliang; Zhang, Litong; Cheng, Laifei

    2016-08-17

    Electromagnetic (EM) absorbing and shielding composites with tunable absorbing behaviors based on Ti3C2 MXenes are fabricated via HF etching and annealing treatment. Localized sandwich structure without sacrificing the original layered morphology is realized, which is responsible for the enhancement of EM absorbing capability in the X-band. The composite with 50 wt % annealed MXenes exhibits a minimum reflection loss of -48.4 dB at 11.6 GHz, because of the formation of TiO2 nanocrystals and amorphous carbon. Moreover, superior shielding effectiveness with high absorption effectiveness is achieved. The total and absorbing shielding effectiveness of Ti3C2 MXenes in a wax matrix with a thickness of only 1 mm reach values of 76.1 and 67.3 dB, while those of annealed Ti3C2 MXenes/wax composites are 32 and 24.2 dB, respectively. Considering the promising performance of Ti3C2 MXenes with the modified surface, this work is expected to open the door for the expanded applications of MXenes family in EM absorbing and shielding fields.

  2. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kajihara, Koichi; Skuja, Linards; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-10-21

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic α-quartz and amorphous SiO{sub 2} (a‐SiO{sub 2}) exposed to {sup 60}Co γ-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in α-quartz and a‐SiO{sub 2}, and the peak energy is larger for α-quartz than that for a‐SiO{sub 2}. The full width at half maximum for a‐SiO{sub 2} is larger by ∼40-60% than that for α-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a‐SiO{sub 2} network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a‐SiO{sub 2}.

  3. Temperature dependence of the intensity of the vibration-rotational absorption band ν2 of H2O trapped in an argon matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsevich, G.; Doroshenko, I.; Malevich, A..; Shalamberidze, E.; Sapeshko, V.; Pogorelov, V.; Pettersson, L. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    Using two sets of effective rotational constants for the ground (000) and the excited bending (010) vibrational states the calculation of frequencies and intensities of vibration-rotational transitions for J″ = 0 - 2; and J‧ = 0 - 3; was carried out in frame of the model of a rigid asymmetric top for temperatures from 0 to 40 K. The calculation of the intensities of vibration-rotational absorption bands of H2O in an Ar matrix was carried out both for thermodynamic equilibrium and for the case of non-equilibrium population of para- and ortho-states. For the analysis of possible interaction of vibration-rotational and translational motions of a water molecule in an Ar matrix by 3D Schrödinger equation solving using discrete variable representation (DVR) method, calculations of translational frequencies of H2O in a cage formed after one argon atom deleting were carried out. The results of theoretical calculations were compared to experimental data taken from literature.

  4. Intestinal absorptive capacity, intestinal permeability and jejunal histology in HIV and their relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Keating, J; Bjarnason, I; Somasundaram, S; Macpherson, A; Francis, N; Price, A B; Sharpstone, D; Smithson, J; Menzies, I S; Gazzard, B G

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal function is poorly defined in patients with HIV infection. Absorptive capacity and intestinal permeability were assessed using 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose in 88 HIV infected patients and the findings were correlated with the degree of immunosuppression (CD4 counts), diarrhoea, wasting, intestinal pathogen status, and histomorphometric analysis of jejunal biopsy samples. Malabsorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and D-xylose was prevalent in all groups of patients with AIDS but not in asymptomatic, well patients with HIV. Malabsorption correlated significantly (r = 0.34-0.56, p < 0.005) with the degree of immune suppression and with body mass index. Increased intestinal permeability was found in all subgroups of patients. The changes in absorption-permeability were of comparable severity to those found in patients with untreated coeliac disease. Jejunal histology, however, showed only mild changes in the villus height/crypt depth ratio as compared with subtotal villus atrophy in coeliac disease. Malabsorption and increased intestinal permeability are common in AIDS patients. Malabsorption, which has nutritional implications, relates more to immune suppression than jejunal morphological changes. PMID:8549936

  5. Dual Mechanisms of Ion Absorption in Relation to Long Distance Transport in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Ulrich; Laties, George G.

    1966-01-01

    The characteristics of ion transport to the shoots of young corn seedlings were studied with respect to the nature of the isotherm through a wide concentration range, the competitive influence of closely related ions upon the transport of a given ion, and the influence of the counter-ion. Both with respect to 36Cl and 86Rb transport, the characteristics of the process in every way resemble uptake by non-vacuolate root tips wherein the plasma membrane is the only membrane involved in absorption, and where system 1 — of the 2 systems which can be shown to participate in absorption by vacuolate tissue — is the only system operative. Net ion uptake by the roots per se was shown to display both the high affinity (system 1) and low affinity (system 2) mechanisms. It is concluded that the symplastic theory of ion movement to the xylem is valid, and that the contention that system 1 operates at the plasma membrane while system 2 functions at the tonoplast is strengthened. PMID:16656435

  6. Proposal of high efficiency solar cells with closely stacked InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P quantum dot superlattices: Analysis of polarized absorption characteristics via intermediate–band

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, H. Kotani, T.; Kuzumoto, Y.; Izumi, M.; Tomomura, Y.; Hamaguchi, C.

    2014-07-07

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic structures and polarized absorption properties of quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) using wide–gap matrix material, InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs, for realizing intermediate–band solar cells (IBSCs) with two–step photon–absorption. The plane–wave expanded Burt–Foreman operator ordered 8–band k·p theory is used for this calculation, where strain effect and piezoelectric effect are taken into account. We find that the absorption spectra of the second transitions of two–step photon–absorption can be shifted to higher energy region by using In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P, which is lattice–matched material to GaAs substrate, as a matrix material instead of GaAs. We also find that the transverse magnetic polarized absorption spectra in InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSL with a separate IB from the rest of the conduction minibands can be shifted to higher energy region by decreasing the QD height. As a result, the second transitions of two–step photon–absorption by the sunlight occur efficiently. These results indicate that InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs are suitable material combination of IBSCs toward the realization of ultrahigh efficiency solar cells.

  7. Proposal of high efficiency solar cells with closely stacked InAs/In0.48Ga0.52P quantum dot superlattices: Analysis of polarized absorption characteristics via intermediate-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Kotani, T.; Kuzumoto, Y.; Izumi, M.; Tomomura, Y.; Hamaguchi, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic structures and polarized absorption properties of quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) using wide-gap matrix material, InAs/In0.48Ga0.52P QDSLs, for realizing intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs) with two-step photon-absorption. The plane-wave expanded Burt-Foreman operator ordered 8-band k . p theory is used for this calculation, where strain effect and piezoelectric effect are taken into account. We find that the absorption spectra of the second transitions of two-step photon-absorption can be shifted to higher energy region by using In0.48Ga0.52P, which is lattice-matched material to GaAs substrate, as a matrix material instead of GaAs. We also find that the transverse magnetic polarized absorption spectra in InAs/In0.48Ga0.52P QDSL with a separate IB from the rest of the conduction minibands can be shifted to higher energy region by decreasing the QD height. As a result, the second transitions of two-step photon-absorption by the sunlight occur efficiently. These results indicate that InAs/In0.48Ga0.52P QDSLs are suitable material combination of IBSCs toward the realization of ultrahigh efficiency solar cells.

  8. The mass-metallicity relation of absorption selected high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise; Møller, P.; Rhodin, Henrik; Krogager, Jens-Kristian; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2017-03-01

    Strong absorption lines in quasar spectra primarily probe low-mass galaxies and detecting these in emission has previously been difficult. Dedicated surveys for the host galaxies of damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems have often resulted in non-detections and upper limits. Targeting the most metal-rich absorbers has proven to be a viable method, because these galaxies are brighter. By combining DLA metallicities and deriving host galaxy stellar masses, we find that metal-rich DLAs (with >10% solar metallicity) and their host galaxies follow the same redshift-dependent scaling relation between stellar mass and metallicity as luminosity-selected galaxies. We derive a prediction for an absorber galaxy mass that depends on the DLA metallicity.

  9. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  10. Absorption intensity changes and frequency shifts of fundamental and first overtone bands for OH stretching vibration of methanol upon methanol-pyridine complex formation in CCl4: analysis by NIR/IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Futami, Yoshisuke; Ozaki, Yasushi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-02-21

    Infrared (IR) and near infrared (NIR) spectra were measured for methanol and the methanol-pyridine complex in carbon tetrachloride. Upon the formation of the methanol-pyridine complex, the frequencies of both the fundamental and first overtone bands of the OH stretching vibration shifted to lower frequencies, and the absorption intensity of the fundamental increased significantly, while that of the first overtone decreased markedly. By using quantum chemical calculations, we estimated the absorption intensities and frequencies of the fundamental and first overtone bands for the OH stretching vibration based on the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The calculated results well reproduced the experimental results. The molecular vibration potentials and dipole moment functions of the OH stretching vibration modes were compared between methanol and the methanol-pyridine complex in terms of absorption intensity changes and frequency shifts. The large change in the dipole moment function was found to be the main cause for the variations in absorption intensity for the fundamental and first overtone bands.

  11. Absorption Bands at 4300 and 6000-8000Å as Signs of Silicate and Organic Matter Separation and Formation of Hydrated Silicates in KBOs and Similar Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.; Dorofeeva, V. A.; Makalkin, A. B.

    2004-12-01

    Recent spectral observations of some Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) (Boehnhardt et al.: 2002, Proc. of ACM 2002, 47-50; Fornasier S. et al., 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 421, 353-363) discovered characteristic absorption bands at 4300 and 6000-8000Å in reflectance spectra of the bodies. Spectral positions and other parameters of the features are similar to those found in reflectance spectra of terrestrial phyllosilicates (e. g., Clark et al., 1990, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 12653-12680; Busarev et al., 2004, The new ROSETTA targets (L. Colangeli et al., eds.), 79-83), CI- and CM-carbonaceous chondrites (e. g., Busarev and Taran, 2002, Proc. of ACM 2002, 933-936), primitive C-, P-, D-, F- and G-class asteroids (Vilas and Gaffey, 1989, Science 246, 790-792) and hydrated M-, S- and E-class asteroids (Busarev and Taran, 2002, Proc. of ACM 2002, 933-936). Hence, these absorption bands may be considered as universal indicators of hydrated silicates on celestial solid bodies including KBOs. However, before phyllosilicates were formed, an aqueous media should spring up and exist a considerable time in the bodies. One more important factor for the spectral features of hydrated silicates to be observed, it is probably an aqueous separation of silicate and darkening CHON (PAH plus more light organic compounds) components in the bodies. To check the assumptions we have performed some calculations (Busarev et al., 2003, Earth, Moon, and Planets 92, 345-357) applicable to KBOs and analogous silicate-icy bodies existed for the first time in the formation zones of neighbouring giant planets. According to the calculations, the decay of the short-lived 26Al at the early stage of the bodies' evolution and their mutual collisions (at velocities >1.5 km s-1) at the subsequent stage were probably the main sources of heating sufficient for melting water ice in their interiors. Because of these processes, an internal ocean of liquid water covered with ˜10-km crust of dirty ice could originate in

  12. Reduced bone formation and relatively increased bone resorption in absorptive hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Heller, H J; Zerwekh, J E; Gottschalk, F A; Pak, C Y C

    2007-04-01

    Absorptive hypercalciuria (AH), a common stone-forming condition characterized biochemically by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium and hypercalciuria may be associated with bone loss. In AH type I (AH-1), hypercalciuria persists despite restriction in dietary calcium intake. We therefore hypothesized that the skeleton may contribute to the hypercalciuria in this subgroup of patients. Histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest biopsies were performed on nine stone-formers with AH-1 and on nine matched normal subjects. After stabilization on a stone-prevention diet, calcium homeostasis in the stone formers was then evaluated on inpatient constant metabolic diet before and after short-term blockade of bone resorption by alendronate (10 mg daily, 17 days total). Compared with controls, the stone-formers had lower indices of bone formation (osteoblast surface/bone surface 1.8+/-2.1 vs 3.0+/-1.5%, P=0.04; wall thickness 35.8+/-6.9 vs 47.2+/-7.6%, P=0.001) and relatively higher bone resorption (osteoclast surface/bone surface 0.4+/-0.2 vs 0.2+/-0.2%, P=0.05). In the stone-formers, a short-term course of alendronate treatment corrected fasting urinary calcium (0.14+/-0.06 to 0.06+/-0.04 mg Ca/mg Cr, P=0.001) and marginally reduced 24-h urinary calcium by 48 mg/day (P=0.06). Increased intestinal calcium absorption and hypercalciuria persisted, but estimated calcium balance improved (P=0.007). Our results suggest that the hypercalciuria of AH-1 originates primarily from intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium, but bone resorption in excess of bone formation may contribute.

  13. Screened coulomb hybrid DFT investigation of band gap and optical absorption predictions of CuVO3, CuNbO3 and Cu5Ta11O30 materials.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moussab; Masih, Dilshad; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-09-14

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of the optoelectronic properties of CuVO3, CuNbO3 and Cu5Ta11O30 materials for potential photocatalytic and solar cell applications. In addition to the experimental results obtained by powder X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy of the materials synthesized under flowing N2 gas at atmospheric pressure via solid-state reactions, the electronic structure and the UV-Vis optical absorption coefficient of these compounds are predicted with high accuracy using advanced first-principles quantum methods based on DFT (including the perturbation theory approach DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation formalism. The calculated density of states are found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, predicting a small indirect band gap of 1.4 eV for CuVO3, a direct band gap of 2.6 eV for CuNbO3, and an indirect (direct) band gap of 2.1 (2.6) eV for Cu5Ta11O30. It is confirmed that the Cu(I)-based multi-metal oxides possess a strong contribution of filled Cu(I) states in the valence band and of empty d(0) metal states in the conduction band. Interestingly, CuVO3 with its predicted small indirect band gap of 1.4 eV shows the highest absorption coefficient in the visible range with a broad absorption edge extending to 886 nm. This novel result offers a great opportunity for this material to be an excellent candidate for solar cell applications.

  14. Impairments in Background and Event-Related Alpha-Band Oscillatory Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Ilana Y.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired responses to sensory stimuli, especially at the early stages of neural processing. In particular, patients’ alpha-band (8–14 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) and visual P1 event-related potential (ERP) component tend to be significantly reduced, with P1 ERP deficits greater for visual stimuli biased towards the magnocellular system. In healthy controls, studies show that pre-stimulus alpha (background alpha) plays a pivotal role in sensory processing and behavior, largely by shaping the neural responses to incoming stimuli. Here, we address whether patients’ ERD and P1 deficits stem from impairments in pre-stimulus alpha mechanisms. To address this question we recorded electrophysiological activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while they engaged in a visual discrimination task with low, medium, and high contrast stimuli. The results revealed a significant decrease in patients’ ERDs, which was largely driven by reductions in pre-stimulus alpha. These reductions were most prominent in right-hemispheric areas. We also observed a systematic relationship between pre-stimulus alpha and the P1 component across different contrast levels. However, this relationship was only observed in healthy controls. Taken together, these findings highlight a substantial anomaly in patients’ amplitude-based alpha background activity over visual areas. The results provide further support that pre-stimulus alpha activity plays an active role in perception by modulating the neural responses to incoming sensory inputs, a mechanism that seems to be compromised in schizophrenia. PMID:24646909

  15. Different event-related patterns of gamma-band power in brain waves of fast- and slow-reacting subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Jokeit, H; Makeig, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast- and slow-reacting subjects exhibit different patterns of gamma-band electroencephalogram (EEG) activity when responding as quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects produce speeded reactions in different ways and demonstrates that analysis of event-related changes in the amplitude of EEG activity recorded from the human scalp can reveal information about event-related brain processes unavailable using event-related potential measures. Time-varying spectral power in a selected (35- to 43-Hz) gamma frequency band was averaged across trials in two experimental conditions: passive listening and speeded reacting to binaural clicks, forming 40-Hz event-related spectral responses. Factor analysis of between-subject event-related spectral response differences split subjects into two near-equal groups composed of faster- and slower-reacting subjects. In faster-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power peaked near 200 ms and 400 ms poststimulus in the react condition, whereas in slower-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power just before stimulus delivery was larger in the react condition. These group differences were preserved in separate averages of relatively long and short reaction-time epochs for each group. gamma-band (20-60 Hz)-filtered event-related potential response averages did not differ between the two groups or conditions. Because of this and because gamma-band power in the auditory event-related potential is small compared with the EEG, the observed event-related spectral response features must represent gamma-band EEG activity reliably induced by, but not phase-locked to, experimental stimuli or events. PMID:8022783

  16. Lead absorption in children of employees in a lead-related industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, D.E.; Saah, A.J.; Silberg, S.L.; Owens, W.L.; Roberts, M.A.; Saah, M.D.

    1982-04-01

    Children can be exposed to lead from a variety of environmental sources. It has been repeatedly reported that children of employees in a lead-related industry are at increased risk of lead absorption because of the high levels of lead found in the household dust of these workers. A case-control study was done in Oklahoma in 1978 to determine whether children of employees in a battery manufacturing plant has a higher prevalence of high levels of blood lead than children whose parents were not employed in a lead-related industry. The data obtained indicated that the blood lead levels of the study children were significantly greater than those of the control children. None of the control children had blood lead levels >30 ..mu..g/dl, while 53% of the exposed children had blood lead levels of >30 ..mu..g/dl. Trends indicated that the children whose fathers had higher lead exposure at work also had higher blood lead levels. However, the study children whose fathers had good personal hygiene had blood lead levels comparable to the control children. It appeared that only good personal hygiene, i.e., showering, shampooing and changing clothes and shoes before leaving work, was effective for lead containment. The mere changing of clothes and shoes appeared to be inadequate for lead containment.

  17. Aspiration-related organizing pneumonia complicating laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A lung cancer mimicker

    PubMed Central

    Aljohaney, Ahmed A.; Ajlan, Amr M.; Alghamdi, Fahad A.

    2016-01-01

    There are several described pulmonary complications due to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. We report a rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented with pulmonary symptoms and a solitary lung mass 12 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A bronchoscopic lung biopsy showed organizing pneumonia that was induced by aspiration pneumonia. The atypical radiological appearance of the aspiration pneumonia may pose a diagnostic challenge, and clinicians' awareness regarding such an entity is needed to avoid unnecessary intervention. PMID:27803757

  18. Aspiration-related organizing pneumonia complicating laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A lung cancer mimicker.

    PubMed

    Aljohaney, Ahmed A; Ajlan, Amr M; Alghamdi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    There are several described pulmonary complications due to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. We report a rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented with pulmonary symptoms and a solitary lung mass 12 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A bronchoscopic lung biopsy showed organizing pneumonia that was induced by aspiration pneumonia. The atypical radiological appearance of the aspiration pneumonia may pose a diagnostic challenge, and clinicians' awareness regarding such an entity is needed to avoid unnecessary intervention.

  19. Pulsed HF radiowave absorption measurements at 2.1 MHZ. over Delhi under quiet and solar flare conditions and related electron density height profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandra Swamy, A. C.

    of the radio signal, the responsible ionization can be placed in the D-region. The radiowave absorption in the ionosphere at a single frequency of 2.1 MHz. has been measured at the Ionosphere Research Center, University of Delhi by the pulsed A1 Technique. The entire equipment used for this experiment has been designed and fabricated at the IRC, Delhi using the most recent electronic instrumentioation techniques. The systems have been digitised and automated. Ionospheric absorption data have been taken during the years 1981 through 19883 have been analysed for normal, durnal. Seasonal and sunspot cycle variations. The radiowave absorption both under quiet and solar flare conditions has been computed by making use of the generalised sen and wyler3 (1960) magnetoionic theory using the computed electron density profiles. The computed values of radiowave absorption are compared with those of the observed values. Under normal conditions , H-Lyman-α radiation 1215.6 A.U, ionizing nitric oxide is the main source of ionization in the D-region. Under solar flare conditions, the intensity of X-rays below 10 A.U, increases by several orders of magnitude, while the intensity of H-Lyman-α radiation increases only by small factors. In order to show the relative importance of solar X-rays below 10A.U increases by several orders of magnitude, while the intensity of H-Lyman- α radiation increases only by small factors. Inorder to show the relative importance of solar X-rays below 10A.U under solar flare conditions, photoionisation rates have been computed in discrete wavelength bands of the solare spectrum of 10 to 1027 A.U and H-Lyman- α under quiet moderate flare, strong flare and outstanding flare conditions by making use of the latest available input parameters. Electron density profiles have been derived by making use of the ion composition model of Balachndra Swamy (1991) both under quiet and solar flare conditions for Delhi. Using these electron density profiles, the

  20. Photoacoustic and filter-based ambient aerosol light absorption measurements: Instrument comparisons and the role of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.; Raspet, R.; Slaton, W. V.; Hand, J. L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Ambient measurements are reported of aerosol light absorption from photoacoustic and filter-based instruments (aethalometer and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP)) to provide insight on the measurement science. Measurements were obtained during the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study at the Big Bend National Park in South Texas. The aethalometer measurements of black carbon concentration at this site correlate reasonably well with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption, with a slope of 8.1 m2/g and a small offset. Light absorption at this site never exceeded 2.1 Mm-1 during the month of collocated measurements. Measurements were also obtained, as a function of controlled relative humidity between 40% and 90%, during the Photoacoustic IOP in 2000 at the Department of Energy Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site (SGP). PSAP measurements of aerosol light absorption correlated very well with photoacoustic measurements, but the slope of the correlation indicated the PSAP values were larger by a factor of 1.61. The photoacoustic measurements of light absorption exhibited a systematic decrease when the RH increased beyond 70%. This apparent decrease in light absorption with RH may be due to the contribution of mass transfer to the photoacoustic signal. Model results for the limiting case of full water saturation are used to evaluate this hypothesis. A second PSAP measured the light absorption for the same humidified samples, and indicated very erratic response as the RH changed, suggesting caution when interpreting PSAP data under conditions of rapid relative humidity change.

  1. Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S

    1981-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

  2. Nonlinear optical effects related to saturable and reverse saturable absorption by subphthalocyanines at 532 nm.

    PubMed

    Dini, Danilo; Vagin, Sergej; Hanack, Michael; Amendola, Vincenzo; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2005-08-14

    It is found that both effects of saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption are obtained with a solution of subphthalocyanine at 532 nm depending on the intensity of 9 ns laser pulses; saturable absorption occurs at lower intensity levels whereas the reverse effect prevails at higher levels; contrary to expectations, subphthalocyanines can behave as reverse saturable absorbers at 532 nm, despite the high linear absorption at this wavelength; data have been fitted with a five-level model which considers three consecutive electronic transitions with absorption cross-section values of 1.4 x 10(-16), 1.0 x 10(-16) and 40 x 10(-16) cm(2), respectively.

  3. Gender-related differences in the apparent timing of skeletal density bands in the reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Vásquez-Bedoya, L. F.; Cabanillas-Terán, N.; Blanchon, P.

    2013-09-01

    Density banding in skeletons of reef-building corals is a valuable source of proxy environmental data. However, skeletal growth strategy has a significant impact on the apparent timing of density-band formation. Some corals employ a strategy where the tissue occupies previously formed skeleton during as the new band forms, which leads to differences between the actual and apparent band timing. To investigate this effect, we collected cores from female and male colonies of Siderastrea siderea and report tissue thicknesses and density-related growth parameters over a 17-yr interval. Correlating these results with monthly sea surface temperature (SST) shows that maximum skeletal density in the female coincides with low winter SSTs, whereas in the male, it coincides with high summer SSTs. Furthermore, maximum skeletal densities in the female coincide with peak Sr/Ca values, whereas in the male, they coincide with low Sr/Ca values. Both results indicate a 6-month difference in the apparent timing of density-band formation between genders. Examination of skeletal extension rates also show that the male has thicker tissue and extends faster, whereas the female has thinner tissue and a denser skeleton—but both calcify at the same rate. The correlation between extension and calcification, combined with the fact that density banding arises from thickening of the skeleton throughout the depth reached by the tissue layer, implies that S. siderea has the same growth strategy as massive Porites, investing its calcification resources into linear extension. In addition, differences in tissue thicknesses suggest that females offset the greater energy requirements of gamete production by generating less tissue, resulting in differences in the apparent timing of density-band formation. Such gender-related offsets may be common in other corals and require that environmental reconstructions be made from sexed colonies and that, in fossil corals where sex cannot be determined

  4. [High-order derivative spectroscopy of infrared absorption spectra of the reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of reduced and chemically oxidized reaction center preparations from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides were investigated by means of high-order derivative spectroscopy. The model Gaussian band with a maximum at 810 nm and a half-band of 15 nm found in the absorption spectrum of the reduced reaction center preparation is eliminated after the oxidation of photoactive bacteriochlorophyll dimer (P). This band was related to the absorption of the P(+)y excitonic band of P. On the basis of experimental results, it was concluded that the bleaching of the P(+)y absorption band at 810 nm in the oxidized reaction center preparations gives the main contribution to the blue shift of the 800 nm absorption band of Rb. sphaeroides reaction centers.

  5. Dependence of displacement-length scaling relations for fractures and deformation bands on the volumetric changes across them

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, R.A.; Soliva, R.; Fossen, H.; Okubo, C.H.; Reeves, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Displacement-length data from faults, joints, veins, igneous dikes, shear deformation bands, and compaction bands define two groups. The first group, having a power-law scaling relation with a slope of n = 1 and therefore a linear dependence of maximum displacement and discontinuity length (Dmax = ??L), comprises faults and shear (non-compactional or non-dilational) deformation bands. These shearing-mode structures, having shearing strains that predominate over volumetric strains across them, grow under conditions of constant driving stress, with the magnitude of near-tip stress on the same order as the rock's yield strength in shear. The second group, having a power-law scaling relation with a slope of n = 0.5 and therefore a dependence of maximum displacement on the square root of discontinuity length (Dmax = ??L0.5), comprises joints, veins, igneous dikes, cataclastic deformation bands, and compaction bands. These opening- and closing-mode structures grow under conditions of constant fracture toughness, implying significant amplification of near-tip stress within a zone of small-scale yielding at the discontinuity tip. Volumetric changes accommodated by grain fragmentation, and thus control of propagation by the rock's fracture toughness, are associated with scaling of predominantly dilational and compactional structures with an exponent of n = 0.5. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. EL2 deep level defects and above-band gap two-photon absorption in high gain lateral semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Wei; Niu, Hongjian; Zhang, Xianbin; Ji, Weili

    2005-01-01

    Experiments of a lateral semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive switch, both linear and nonlinear mode of the switch were observed when the switch was triggered by 1064 nm laser pulses, with energy of 1.9 mJ and the pulse width of 60 ns, and operated at biased electric field of 4.37 kV/cm. It"s wavelength is longer than 876nm, but the experiments indicate that the semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive switches can absorb 1064 nm laser obviously, which is out of the absorption range of the GaAs material. It is not possible to explain this behavior by using intrinsic absorption mechanism. We think that there are two mostly kinds of absorption mechanisms play a key part in absorption process, they are the two-steps-single-photon absorption that based on the EL2 energy level and two-photon absorption.

  7. Human vision model in relation to characteristics of shapes for the Mach band effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Fang, Yi-Chin

    2015-10-01

    For human vision to recognize the contours of objects means that, as the contrast variation at the object's edges increases, so will the Mach band effect of human vision. This paper more deeply investigates the relationship between changes in the contours of an object and the Mach band effect of human vision. Based on lateral inhibition and the Mach band effect, we studied subjects' eyes as they watched images of different shapes under a fixed brightness at 34  cd/m2, with changes of contrast and spatial frequency. Three types of display were used: a television, a computer monitor, and a projector. For each display used, we conducted a separate experiment for each shape. Although the maximum values for the contrast sensitivity function curves of the displays were different, their variations were minimal. As the spatial frequency changed, the diminishing effect of the different lines also was minimal. However, as the shapes at the contour intersections were modified by the Mach band effect, a greater degree of variation occurred. In addition, as the spatial frequency at a contour intersection increased, the Mach band effect became lower, along with changes in the corresponding contrast sensitivity function curve. Our experimental results on the characteristics of human vision have led to what we believe is a new vision model based on tests with different shapes. This new model may be used for future development and implementation of an artificial vision system.

  8. Relations among low ionosphere parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipriano, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Charged particle conductivities measured in the very low ionosphere at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Wallops Island, Virginia, are compared with atmospheric parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption measurements. Charged particle densities are derived from the conductivity data. Between 33 and 58 km, positive conductivity correlated well with neutral atmospheric temperature, with temperature coefficients as large as 4.6%/deg K. Good correlations were also found between HF radio wave absorption and negative conductivity at altitudes as low as 53 km, indicating that the day-to-day absorption variations were principally due to variations in electron loss rate.

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF CERTAIN PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Calvin B.; Stone, Florence M.; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1936-01-01

    1. The absorption spectra of a number of proteins in the region 2500 to 3000 A. have been found to comprise from six to nine narrow bands. In consequence of variation in the relative intensity of these bands from protein to protein, the absorption curve has a characteristic configuration for each protein. 2. These bands correspond closely in position with the narrow bands which appear in the absorption spectra of tryptophan, tyrosin, and phenylalanine. Tryptophan and tyrosin each present three bands, phenylalanine shows nine. 3. The bands in the proteins are accordingly attributed to these amino acids. In the proteins the bands are displaced from the positions which they occupy in the uncombined amino acids, in most instances, by 10 to 35 A. toward longer wavelengths. 4. The absorption spectrum of Pneumococcus Type I antibody resembles that of normal pseudoglobulin but shows characteristic differences. PMID:19872958

  10. On the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Koss, M. J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Nandra, P.; Netzer, H.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Rosario, D. J.; Veilleux, S.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. There are many borderline cases, however, and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in disagreement. In this article we revisit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We make use of our "dust colour" method to derive the optical obscuration AV, and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3-150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column NH and derive the Seyfert subclasses of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log LX/ (erg / s) ≈ 41.5-43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen at a column NH = 1022.3 cm-2 to be consistent with the optical classification. We find that NH is related to AV and that the NH/AV ratio is approximately Galactic or higher in all sources, as indicated previously. However, in several objects we also see that deviations from the Galactic ratio are only due to a variable X-ray column, showing that (1) deviations from the Galactic NH/AV can be simply explained by dust-free neutral gas within the broad-line region in some sources; that (2) the dust properties in AGNs can be similar to Galactic dust and that (3) the dust colour method is a robust way to estimate the optical extinction towards the sublimation radius in all but the most obscured AGNs.

  11. Visible and Near Infrared Absorption Coefficients of Kaolinite and Related Clays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    propagation of light. This work is intended to provide a quantitative estimate of the absorption coefficient of kaolinite clays by application of a method based on the Kubelka - Munk theory of diffuse reflectance.

  12. Stochastic relation between anomalous propagation in the line-of-sight VHF radio band and occurrences of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, K.; Haga, N.

    2014-08-01

    This paper was intended to find out any relation between anomalous line-of-sight propagation on the very high frequency (VHF) band and occurrences of earthquakes near the VHF propagation paths. The television and FM radio broadcasting waves on the VHF band were monitored continuously over the long term. For that purpose, a multidirectional VHF band monitoring system was established and utilized. Anomalous line-of-sight propagation on the VHF band was distinguished from the monitored wave by using a statistical analysis. After the stochastic consideration, it was found out that earthquakes associated with anomalous propagation were characterized by magnitude of earthquakes M ≥ 4.5, and distances from epicenters L ≤ 75 km. The anomalous propagation was monitored on the VHF band a few days before the associated earthquakes occurred. Moreover, the anomaly appeared on multidirectional propagation paths simultaneously. The anomaly on the line-of-sight propagation indicates the possibility of narrowly focusing the area of the epicenter of earthquake.

  13. Alpha-band phase synchrony is related to activity in the fronto-parietal adaptive control network

    PubMed Central

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh; Scheeringa, René; Lehongre, Katia; Morillon, Benjamin; Giraud, Anne-Lise; D’Esposito, Mark; Kleinschmidt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neural oscillations in the α-band (8-12Hz) are increasingly viewed as an active inhibitory mechanism that gates and controls sensory information processing as a function of cognitive relevance. Extending this view, phase-synchronization of α-oscillations across distant cortical regions could regulate integration of information. Here, we investigated whether such long-range cross-region coupling in the α-band is intrinsically and selectively linked to activity in a distinct functionally specialized brain network. If so, this would provide new insight into the functional role of α-band phase-synchrony. We adapted the phase-locking value (PLV) to assess fluctuations in synchrony that occur over time in ongoing activity. Concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were recorded during resting wakefulness in 26 human subjects. Fluctuations in global synchrony in the upper α-band correlated positively with activity in several prefrontal and parietal regions (as measured by fMRI). fMRI intrinsic connectivity analysis confirmed that these regions correspond to the well-known fronto-parietal (FP) network. Spectral correlations with this network’s activity confirmed that no other frequency band showed equivalent results. This selective association supports an intrinsic relation between large-scale α phase-synchrony and cognitive functions associated with the FP network. This network has been suggested to implement phasic aspects of top-down modulation such as initiation and change in moment-to-moment control. Mechanistically, long-range upper α-band synchrony is well-suited to support these functions. Complementing our previous findings that related α-oscillation power to neural structures serving tonic control, the current findings link α phase-synchrony to neural structures underpinning phasic control of alertness and task requirements. PMID:23055501

  14. Theta and Alpha Band Modulations Reflect Error-Related Adjustments in the Auditory Condensation Task

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Nikita A.; Bryzgalov, Dmitri V.; Chernyshev, Boris V.

    2015-01-01

    Error commission leads to adaptive adjustments in a number of brain networks that subserve goal-directed behavior, resulting in either enhanced stimulus processing or increased motor threshold depending on the nature of errors committed. Here, we studied these adjustments by analyzing post-error modulations of alpha and theta band activity in the auditory version of the two-choice condensation task, which is highly demanding for sustained attention while involves no inhibition of prepotent responses. Errors were followed by increased frontal midline theta (FMT) activity, as well as by enhanced alpha band suppression in the parietal and the left central regions; parietal alpha suppression correlated with the task performance, left central alpha suppression correlated with the post-error slowing, and FMT increase correlated with both behavioral measures. On post-error correct trials, left-central alpha band suppression started earlier before the response, and the response was followed by weaker FMT activity, as well as by enhanced alpha band suppression distributed over the entire scalp. These findings indicate that several separate neuronal networks are involved in post-error adjustments, including the midfrontal performance monitoring network, the parietal attentional network, and the sensorimotor network. Supposedly, activity within these networks is rapidly modulated after errors, resulting in optimization of their functional state on the subsequent trials, with corresponding changes in behavioral measures. PMID:26733266

  15. Cotton response to poultry litter applied by subsurface banding relative to surface broadcasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry poultry litter is typically land-applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes certain litter nutrients to volatilization loss. Applying litter with a new, experimental implement that places the litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may reduce or eliminate such losses but has...

  16. Dispersion of electronic bands in intermetallic compound LiBe and related properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.

    2015-10-01

    Based on the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave within density functional theory calculations dispersion of the electronic band structure, total and the angular momentum resolved projected density of states, the shape of Fermi surface, the electronic charge density distribution and the optical response of the intermetallic LiBe compound are performed. Seeking the influence of the different exchange correlations on the ground state properties of the intermetallic LiBe, calculations are performed within four types of exchange correlations, namely the local density approximation, general gradient approximation, Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation and the modified Becke-Johnson potential. It has been found that replacing the exchange correlations exhibit insignificant influence on the bands dispersion, density of states and hence the optical properties. The obtained results suggest that there exists a strong hybridization between the states resulting in covalent bonds. The Fermi surface is formed by two bands and the center of the Fermi surface is formed by holes. The electronic charge density distribution confirms that the charge is attracted toward Be atoms and the calculated bond lengths are in good accordance with the available experimental data. To get deep insight into the electronic structure, the optical properties are investigated and analyzed in accordance with the calculated band structure and the density of states.

  17. Studies of proteinograms in dermatophytes by disc electrophoresis. 1. Protein bands in relation to growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.

  18. A Survey Study of U.S. Collegiate and K-12 Steel Band Directors' Attitudes Relating to Steel Band Curriculum and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    Steel bands were introduced into U.S. schools and universities during the 1950s and 1960s. There are now more than 600 U.S. school and university steel bands. The range of teaching methods and repertoire choices must be examined to more fully understand the variety of steel band traditions present in K-12 schools and universities. U.S. steel band…

  19. Experimental and theoretical study of absorption spectrum of the (CH3)2CO···HF complex. Influence of anharmonic interactions on the frequency and intensity of the C=O and H-F stretching bands.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, V P; Svishcheva, E A; Tokhadze, K G

    2014-01-03

    IR absorption spectra of mixtures (CH3)2CO/HF and free (CH3)2CO molecules are recorded in the region of 4000-900 cm(-1) with a Bruker IFS-125 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer at room temperature with a resolution up to 0.02 cm(-1). Spectral characteristics of the 2ν(C=O) overtone band of free acetone are reliably measured. The ν1(HF) and ν(C=O) absorption bands of the (CH3)2CO···HF complex are obtained by subtracting the absorption bands of free HF and acetone and absorption lines of atmospheric water from the experimental spectrum of mixtures. The experimental data are compared with theoretical results obtained from variational solutions of 1D-4D vibrational Schrödinger equations. The anharmonic potential energy and dipole moment surfaces used in the calculations were computed in the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) approximation with corrections for the basis set superposition error. Comparison of the data derived from solutions for different combinations of vibrational degrees of freedom shows that taking the inter-mode anharmonic interactions into account has different effects on the transition frequencies and intensities. Particular attention has been given to elucidation of the influence of anharmonic coupling of the H-F and C=O stretches with the low-frequency intermolecular modes on their frequencies and intensities and the strength of resonance between the fundamental H-F and the first overtone C=O transitions.

  20. Effect of Substitution of Mn, Cu, and Zr on the Structural, Magnetic, and Ku-Band Microwave-Absorption Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Mohammad; Moradi, Mahmood; Alam, Reza Shams; Mardani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The ferrites with the compositions of SrMn x Cu x Zr2 x Fe(12-4 x)O19 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) are synthesized by the coprecipitation method. The formation of M-type hexaferrite is confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The morphology of the samples is shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis has been used for the investigation of the magnetic properties, and the reason for the changes in the magnetic properties as a result of doping, are expressed. The values of coercivity decrease by increasing the amount of substitution, which could be related to the modification of anisotropy form the c-axis toward the c-plane. Finally, we have used vector network analysis to investigate the microwave absorption properties. We find that the samples with the composition of SrMn0.4Cu0.4Zr0.8Fe10.4O19 have the largest reflection loss and the widest bandwidth among these samples.

  1. Identification of the key excreted molecule by Lactobacillus fermentum related to host iron absorption.

    PubMed

    González, Ana; Gálvez, Natividad; Martín, Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2017-08-01

    We have taken a vital step towards understanding why probiotic bacteria increase iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. We show here that Lactobacillus fermentum, one of the main probiotics of the microbiota, exhibits an extraordinary ferric-reducing activity. This activity is predominantly due to an excreted molecule: p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid (HPLA). Reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is essential for iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. By reducing Fe(III), HPLA boosts Fe(II) absorption through the DMT1 channels of enterocytes. An in vitro experiment tested and confirmed this hypothesis. This discovery opens new avenues for the treatment of iron deficiency in humans, one of the most common and widespread nutritional disorders in the world.

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of relative optical band gaps in graphene generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Deepika; Singh, Sukhbir; Yadav, Sriniwas; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2017-01-01

    Size and chemical functionalization dependant optical band gaps in graphene family nanomaterials were investigated by experimental and theoretical study using Tauc plot and density functional theory (DFT). We have synthesized graphene oxide through a modified Hummer’s method using graphene nanoplatelets and sequentially graphene quantum dots through hydrothermal reduction. The experimental results indicate that the optical band gap in graphene generations was altered by reducing the size of graphene sheets and attachment of chemical functionalities like epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups plays a crucial role in varying optical band gaps. It is further confirmed by DFT calculations that the π orbitals were more dominatingly participating in transitions shown by projected density of states and the molecular energy spectrum represented the effect of attached functional groups along with discreteness in energy levels. Theoretical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. All of the above different variants of graphene can be used in native or modified form for sensor design and optoelectronic applications.

  3. Effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli–Euler beam

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli–Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature, nonlinear material and nonlinear inertia owing to longitudinal motions of the beam are taken into account, and (ii) mid-plane stretching nonlinearity. A novel approach is employed, the method of varying amplitudes. As a result, the isolated as well as combined effects of the considered sources of nonlinearities are revealed. It is shown that nonlinear inertia has the most substantial impact on the dispersion relation of a non-uniform beam by removing all frequency band-gaps. Explanations of the revealed effects are suggested, and validated by experiments and numerical simulation. PMID:27118899

  4. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma.We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern.Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones.Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions.

  5. Light absorption by secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene: Effects of oxidants, seed aerosol acidity, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2013-10-25

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532, and 870 nm. Significant light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed for the SOA formed from α-pinene + O3 + NO3 system only in the presence of highly acidic sulfate seed aerosols under dry conditions. In contrast, no absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27% or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. Organic nitrates in the SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols were found to be nonabsorbing, while the light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with nitroxy organosulfate groups that are formed in highly acidic sulfate aerosols. Finally and overall, these results suggest that dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems do not form light-absorbing SOA under typical atmospheric conditions.

  6. MELANOPHORE BANDS AND AREAS DUE TO NERVE CUTTING, IN RELATION TO THE PROTRACTED ACTIVITY OF NERVES

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G. H.

    1941-01-01

    1. When appropriate chromatic nerves are cut caudal bands, cephalic areas, and the pelvic fins of the catfish Ameiurus darken. In pale fishes all these areas will sooner or later blanch. By recutting their nerves all such blanched areas will darken again. 2. These observations show that the darkening of caudal bands, areas, and fins on cutting their nerves is not due to paralysis (Brücke), to the obstruction of central influences such as inhibition (Zoond and Eyre), nor to vasomotor disturbances (Hogben), but to activities emanating from the cut itself. 3. The chief agents concerned with the color changes in Ameiurus are three: intermedin from the pituitary gland, acetylcholine from the dispersing nerves (cholinergic fibers), and adrenalin from the concentrating nerves (adrenergic fibers). The first two darken the fish; the third blanches it. In darkening the dispersing nerves appear to initiate the process and to be followed and substantially supplemented by intermedin. 4. Caudal bands blanch by lateral invasion, cephalic areas by lateral invasion and internal disintegration, and pelvic fins by a uniform process of general loss of tint equivalent to internal disintegration. 5. Adrenalin may be carried in such an oil as olive oil and may therefore act as a lipohumor; it is soluble in water and hence may act as a hydrohumor. In lateral invasion (caudal bands, cephalic areas) it probably acts as a lipohumor and in internal disintegration (cephalic areas, pelvic fins) it probably plays the part of a hydrohumor. 6. The duration of the activity of dispersing nerves after they had been cut was tested by means of the oscillograph, by anesthetizing blocks, and by cold-blocks. The nerves of Ameiurus proved to be unsatisfactory for oscillograph tests. An anesthetizing block, magnesium sulfate, is only partly satisfactory. A cold-block, 0°C., is successful to a limited degree. 7. By means of a cold-block it can be shown that dispersing autonomic nerve fibers in Ameiurus can

  7. Capturing electromagnetic emissions in the HF band possibly related to earthquake events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouras, Gr; Kontakos, K.; Ninos, K.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to capture electromagnetic emissions in the HF band. Possible correlations of these emissions prior to strong earthquakes were investigated. In order to record the variations of the electromagnetic field in a wide spectrum of frequencies up to the VHF band, a new device was designed and implemented by our research team. Ten prototype electromagnetic variation (EMV) field stations have already been installed in Greece, at the locations, Corfu, Ioannina, Ithomi (Kalamata), Kephalonia, Kozani, Mytilini, Rodos, Neapoli (Crete), and Bamos (Crete). This telemetric network was launched in 1999 and since it has been in constant operation. During the period 2005-2008, 14 strong earthquakes occurred in Greece with magnitude over Ms>=6. Of them, three events were recorded as precursor signals by only one station. Fractal analysis showed that these were precursors and not manmade signals. In eight EQs events, two or three stations recorded simultaneously precursor signals. In one EQ event, recordings in all stations were disturbed by strong magnetic storms twenty days before the event. In two EQs, events did not trigger any station in a time window of up to 10 days.

  8. The Relation between Peristaltic and Segmental Contraction, Mixing, and Absorption in the Small Intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banco, Gino; Brasseur, James; Wang, Yanxing; Ailiani, Amit; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    The physiology and mechanics of the small intestine originates with lumen-scale fluid motions generated by enterically controlled muscle wall contractions. Although complex in appearance, we have shown with principle component decomposition of gut motion from a rat model that simpler component structure may integrate to produce basic peristaltic and segmental motions. To couple these measured modes with fluid mixing and nutrient absorption we have developed 2-D and axisymmetric models of the gut using the lattice-Boltzmann framework with scalar and second order moving boundary conditions. Previous models indicated that peristalsis is detrimental to absorption and therefore that gut motility is likely bimodal, transitioning between peristalsis and segmental modes to optimize the transport of chyme vs. nutrient absorption. However we have since discovered that more complex control is possible due to potential transitions between ``trapped'' vs. ``nontrapped'' peristaltic fluid motions, depending on occlusion ratio. These transitions lead to an important distinction between 2-D and axisymmetric models and indicate that gut motility may be more finely controlled than previously thought. [Supported by NSF

  9. Electronic transitions and heterogeneity of the bacteriophytochrome Pr absorption band: An angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump-IR probe study.

    PubMed

    Linke, Martin; Yang, Yang; Zienicke, Benjamin; Hammam, Mostafa A S; von Haimberger, Theodore; Zacarias, Angelica; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Heyne, Karsten

    2013-10-15

    Photoisomerization of biliverdin (BV) chromophore triggers the photoresponse in native Agp1 bacteriophytochrome. We discuss heterogeneity in phytochrome Pr form to account for the shape of the absorption profile. We investigated different regions of the absorption profile by angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump-IR probe spectroscopy. We studied the Pr form of Agp1 with its natural chromophore and with a sterically locked 18Et-BV (locked Agp1). We followed the dynamics and orientations of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of ring D and ring A in their ground and electronically excited states. Photoisomerization of ring D is reflected by strong signals of the ring D carbonyl vibration. In contrast, orientational data on ring A show no rotation of ring A upon photoexcitation. Orientational data allow excluding a ZZZasa geometry and corroborates a nontwisted ZZZssa geometry of the chromophore. We found no proof for heterogeneity but identified a new, to our knowledge, electronic transition in the absorption profile at 644 nm (S0→S2). Excitation of the S0→S2 transition will introduce a more complex photodynamics compared with S0→S1 transition. Our approach provides fundamental information on disentanglement of absorption profiles, identification of chromophore structures, and determination of molecular groups involved in the photoisomerization process of photoreceptors.

  10. Band Structures of Plasmonic Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-03-01

    In angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the acceleration of a photo-electron upon photon absorption may trigger shake-up excitations in the sample, leading to the emission of phonons, electron-hole pairs, and plasmons, the latter being collective charge-density fluctuations. Using state-of-the-art many-body calculations based on the `GW plus cumulant' approach, we show that electron-plasmon interactions induce plasmonic polaron bands in group IV transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2). We find that the energy vs. momentum dispersion relations of these plasmonic structures closely follow the standard valence bands, although they appear broadened and blueshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on our results we identify general criteria for observing plasmonic polaron bands in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of solids.

  11. Zinc Absorption Is Not Related to Dietary Phytate Intake in Infants and Young Children Based on Modeling Combined Data from Multiple Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Leland V; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is widely understood that the 2 primary factors affecting dietary zinc absorption in adults are the quantities of zinc and phytate in the diet. Although a similar association of absorption to dietary zinc and phytate is presumed to exist in children, to our knowledge, no large-scale examination of the relation of zinc absorption to dietary and growth factors has been conducted. Objective: The goal was to apply an adult absorption model and related models to data from zinc absorption studies of infants and children in order to determine the nature of the relation of zinc absorption to dietary zinc and phytate, age, body size, and zinc homeostatic variables. Methods: Data from 236 children between 8 and 50 mo of age were obtained from stable-isotope studies of zinc absorption. Statistical and mechanistic models were fit to the data using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Results: The effect of dietary phytate on zinc absorption when controlling for dietary zinc was very small and not statistically discernable (P = 0.29). A 500-mg/d increase in dietary phytate reduced absorbed zinc by <0.04 mg/d. Absorption was observed to vary with age, weight, and height (P < 0.0001) when controlling for dietary zinc. For example, absorption from 6 mg/d of dietary zinc increased by as much as 0.2 mg/d with a 12-mo increase in age. Absorption varied with weight and exchangeable zinc pool size (0.01 < P < 0.05) when controlling for dietary zinc and age. Conclusions: The absence of a detectable phytate effect on zinc absorption raises caution about use of dietary phytate:zinc molar ratios to predict zinc bioavailability and does not support phytate reduction as a strategy to improve zinc status of young children. The effect of age on zinc absorption and the absence of a phytate effect should facilitate estimations of dietary zinc needs in young children. PMID:26108545

  12. Localizing movement-related primary sensorimotor cortices with multi-band EEG frequency changes and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Luu, Phan; Morgan, Kyle K; Dow, Mark; Davey, Colin; Song, Jasmine; Malony, Allen D; Tucker, Don M

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations in multiple frequency bands can be observed during functional activity of the cerebral cortex. An important question is whether activity of focal areas of cortex, such as during finger movements, is tracked by focal oscillatory EEG changes. Although a number of studies have compared EEG changes to functional MRI hemodynamic responses, we can find no previous research that relates the fMRI hemodynamic activity to localization of the multiple EEG frequency changes observed in motor tasks. In the present study, five participants performed similar thumb and finger movement tasks in parallel EEG and functional MRI studies. We examined changes in five frequency bands (from 5-120 Hz) and localized them using 256 dense-array EEG (dEEG) recordings and high-resolution individual head models. These localizations were compared with fMRI localizations in the same participants. Results showed that beta-band (14-30 Hz) desynchronizations (power decreases) were the most robust effects, appearing in all individuals, consistently localized to the hand region of the primary motor cortex, and consistently aligned with fMRI localizations.

  13. New method for determining relative oscillator strengths of atoms through combined absorption and emission measurements - Application to titanium /Ti I/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardon, B. L.; Smith, P. L.; Whaling, W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces a procedure that combines measurements of absorption and emission by atoms to obtain relative oscillator strengths that are independent of temperature determination in the sources and of assumptions regarding local thermodynamic equilibrium. The experimental observations are formed into sets of transitions and required to satisfy defined ratios. The procedure is illustrated with the published data of Whaling et al. and Smith and Kuehne for 16 transitions in Ti I. It is shown that the relative oscillator strengths resulting from this procedure have calculated uncertainties between 5 and 17% (about 95% confidence level). Evidence is presented to suggest that these uncertainties have been overestimated.

  14. Atmospheric absorption cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The measurement capability of the Avionics Laboratory IR Facility was used to evaluate an absorption cell that will be used to simulate atmospheric absorption over horizontal paths of 1 - 10 km in length. Band models were used to characterize the transmittance of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the cell. The measured transmittance was compared to the calculated values. Nitrous oxide is important in the 4 - 4.5 micron range in shaping the weak line absorption of carbon dioxide. The absorption cell is adequate for simulating atmospheric absorption over these paths.

  15. Different Zinc Sources Have Diverse Impacts on Gene Expression of Zinc Absorption Related Transporters in Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danping; Zhuo, Zhao; Fang, Shenglin; Yue, Min; Feng, Jie

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc sources on gene expression of zinc-related transporters in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). IPEC-1 cells were treated with zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly), zinc methionine (Zn-Met), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), respectively, for measurement of cell viability. Then, the relative expression of zinc-related transporters in IPEC-1 in response to different zinc sources (50 μmol/L zinc) was measured. Zinc transporter SLC39A4 (ZIP4) expression was selectively silenced to assess the function of ZIP4 in inorganic and organic zinc absorption. The result showed that Zn-Gly and Zn-Met had lower cell damage compared with ZnSO4 on the same zinc levels. Different zinc sources improved the expression of metallothionein1 (MT1) and zinc transporter SLC30A1 (ZnT1) messenger RNA (mRNA) compared with the control (P < 0.05), while ZIP4 decreased (P < 0.05) in response to zinc addition. MT1 and ZnT1 mRNA expressions in Zn-Gly and Zn-Met were higher than those in ZnSO4, and ZIP4 mRNA expression in Zn-Met was the lowest among three kinds of zinc sources (P < 0.05). Expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA in control was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than added different zinc sources groups. Silencing of ZIP4 significantly decreased MT1 mRNA expression in ZnSO4 and Zn-Gly treatments, reduced zinc absorption rate, and increased DMT1 mRNA expression in ZnSO4 compared with negative control. In summary, different zinc sources could improve zinc status on IPEC-1 cells and organic zinc had lower cell damage compared with ZnSO4. Moreover, Zn-Gly and Zn-Met are more efficient on zinc absorption according to the expression of various zinc-related transporters MT1, ZIP4, ZnT1, and DMT1. ZIP4 played a direct role in inorganic zinc uptake, and the absorption of zinc in Zn-Gly depends on ZIP4 partly, while absorption of Zn-Met is less dependent on ZIP4.

  16. On the state of the emitter of the 3.3 micron unidentified infrared band - Absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flickinger, Gregory C.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Gomez, Percy L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of absorption measurements indicate that the PAH species responsible for the UIR (unidentified infrared) emission probably exist in a condensed form rather than as isolated molecules. It is shown that the peak absorption of the C-H stretch feature of vapor-phase PAHs occurs at a higher frequency than that of the condensed-phase PAHs and does not match the 3.289-micron interstellar feature. The vapor-phase experiments duplicate the phenomenon of the 3.3-micron profile simplification of PAH in KBr at elevated temperature. This confirms that the change of the profile with temperature is an intrinsic molecular effect, and is not a consequence of matrix (KBr) or condensed state interactions.

  17. New Laboratory Data on a Molecular Band at 4429 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, M.; Linnartz, H.; Kolek, P.; Ding, H.; Boguslavskiy, A.; Denisov, A.; Schmidt, T. W.; Motylewski, T.; Cias, P.; Maier, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    New laboratory data are presented for the previously reported molecular absorption band at 4429 Å observed in a benzene plasma matching the strongest diffuse interstellar band (DIB) at 4428.9 Å. Gas-phase absorption spectra are presented for rotational temperatures of ~15 and 200 K. The observations indicate that it is unlikely that the laboratory band and the 4429 Å DIB are related. Eleven isomers of C5H5(+) and C6H5(+), both neutral and cationic, were considered as possible carriers of the laboratory band in view of the observed rotational profiles and deuterium isotope shifts. The experimental data and theoretical calculations (CASPT3, MRCI) indicate that the HCCHCHCHCH radical, a planar but nonlinear chain with one hydrogen on each carbon, is the most probable candidate causing the 4429 Å laboratory absorption.

  18. Band engineering of amorphous silicon ruthenium thin film and its near-infrared absorption enhancement combined with nano-holes pattern on back surface of silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Anran; Zhong, Hao; Li, Wei; Gu, Deen; Jiang, Xiangdong; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Silicon is widely used in semiconductor industry but has poor performance in near-infrared photoelectronic devices because of its bandgap limit. In this study, a narrow bandgap silicon rich semiconductor is achieved by introducing ruthenium (Ru) into amorphous silicon (a-Si) to form amorphous silicon ruthenium (a-Si1-xRux) thin films through co-sputtering. The increase of Ru concentration leads to an enhancement of light absorption and a narrower bandgap. Meanwhile, a specific light trapping technique is employed to realize high absorption of a-Si1-xRux thin film in a finite thickness to avoid unnecessary carrier recombination. A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si1-xRux thin film and silicon random nano-holes layer is formed on the back surface of silicon substrates, and significantly improves near-infrared absorption while the leaky light intensity is less than 5%. This novel absorber, combining narrow bandgap thin film with light trapping structure, may have a potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic devices.

  19. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2010-09-01

    The absorption of filter substances in sunscreens, reducing the incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is the basis for the protecting ability of such formulations. The erythema-correlated sun protection factor (SPF), depending mainly on the intensity of the UVB radiation, is the common value to quantify the efficacy of the formulations avoiding sunburn. An ex vivo method combining tape stripping and optical spectroscopy is applied to measure the absorption of sunscreens in the entire UV spectral range. The obtained relations between the short-wavelength UV (UVB) absorption and the SPF confirm a clear influence of the long-wavelength UV (UVA) absorption on the SPF values. The data reflect the historical development of the relation of the concentration of UVB and UVA filters in sunscreens and points to the influence of additional ingredients, e.g., antioxidants and cell-protecting agents on the efficacy of the products.

  20. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor.

    PubMed

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    The absorption of filter substances in sunscreens, reducing the incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is the basis for the protecting ability of such formulations. The erythema-correlated sun protection factor (SPF), depending mainly on the intensity of the UVB radiation, is the common value to quantify the efficacy of the formulations avoiding sunburn. An ex vivo method combining tape stripping and optical spectroscopy is applied to measure the absorption of sunscreens in the entire UV spectral range. The obtained relations between the short-wavelength UV (UVB) absorption and the SPF confirm a clear influence of the long-wavelength UV (UVA) absorption on the SPF values. The data reflect the historical development of the relation of the concentration of UVB and UVA filters in sunscreens and points to the influence of additional ingredients, e.g., antioxidants and cell-protecting agents on the efficacy of the products.

  1. Unveiling the Intrinsic X-Ray Properties of Broad Absorption Line Quasars with a Relatively Unbiased Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Leah K.; Dai, Xinyu; Leighly, Karen M.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Shankar, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence of a higher intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) than that obtained in optical surveys, on which most previous X-ray studies of BALQSOs have focused. Here we present Chandra observations of 18 BALQSOs at z ~ 2, selected from a near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) sample, where the BALQSO fraction is likely to be close to the intrinsic fraction. We measure photon indices using the stacked spectra of the optically faint (i - Ks >= 2.3 mag) and optically bright (i - Ks < 2.3 mag) samples to be Γ ~= 1.5-2.1. We constrain their intrinsic column density by modeling the X-ray fractional hardness ratio, finding a mean column density of 3.5 × 1022 cm-2 assuming neutral absorption. We incorporate Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical measurements (rest frame UV) to study the broadband spectral index between the X-ray and UV bands, and compare this to a large sample of normal quasars. We estimate that the optically faint BALQSOs are X-ray weaker than the optically bright ones, and the entire sample of BALQSOs are intrinsically X-ray weak when compared to normal active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Correcting for magnification of X-ray emission via gravitational lensing by the central black hole viewed at large inclination angles makes these BALQSOs even more intrinsically X-ray weak. Finally, we estimate AGN kinetic feedback efficiencies of a few percent for an X-ray wind of 0.3c in high-ionization BALQSOs. Combined with energy carried by low-ionization BALQSOs and UV winds, the total kinetic energy in BALQSOs can be sufficient to provide AGN kinetic feedback required to explain the co-evolution between black holes and host galaxies.

  2. Two-photon Absorption In Quantum Dots,quantum Dashes And Related Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ravinder

    2009-08-31

    We have proposed the use of USQDs for various deep-tissue biological imaging applications, notably wavelength-multiplexed multicolor imaging and intra-nuclear studies such as those involving cell apoptosis, and have studied the issue of maximizing two-photon absorption-induced fluorescence (TPAF) signals from CdSe/ZnS USQDs to be used for this application. In particular, using 2 nm USQDs, we have shown that the TPAF signal at 780 nm is ~ 8 times that at 850 nm and 68 times that at 900 nm, two wavelengths that have been used in previous studies using CdSe/ZnS SQDs for deep-tissue imaging of biological studies via TPAF .

  3. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  4. Drug-drug interactions related to altered absorption and plasma protein binding: theoretical and regulatory considerations, and an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Jerome; Tang, Cuyue; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant

    2015-03-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to altered drug absorption and plasma protein binding have received much less attention from regulatory agencies relative to DDIs mediated via drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. In this review, a number of theoretical bases and regulatory framework are presented for these DDI aspects. Also presented is an industry perspective on how to approach these issues in support of drug development. Overall, with the exception of highly permeable and highly soluble (BCS 1) drugs, DDIs related to drug-induced changes in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology can be substantial, thus warranting more attentions. For a better understanding of absorption-associated DDI potential in a clinical setting, mechanistic studies should be conducted based on holistic integration of the pharmaceutical profiles (e.g., pH-dependent solubility) and pharmacological properties (e.g., GI physiology and therapeutic margin) of drug candidates. Although majority of DDI events related to altered plasma protein binding are not expected to be of clinical significance, exceptions exist for a subset of compounds with certain pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties. Knowledge of the identity of binding proteins and the binding extent in various clinical setting (including disease states) can be valuable in aiding clinical DDI data interpretations, and ensuring safe and effective use of new drugs.

  5. Modeling of collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of H2-H2 pairs in the fundamental band at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. [Planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The 20-300 K free-free rotovibrational collision-induced absorption (RV CIA) spectra of H2-H2 pairs are presently obtained by a numerical method which, in addition to closely matching known CIA spectra of H2-H2, can reproduce the results of the quantum-mechanical computations to within a few percent. Since the spectral lineshape parameters are derivable by these means from the lowest three quantum-mechanical spectral moments, these outer-planet atmosphere-pertinent model spectra may be computed on even small computers. 35 refs.

  6. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.

  7. Coloration and oxygen vacancies in wide band gap oxide semiconductors: Absorption at metallic nanoparticles induced by vacancy clustering—A case study on indium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, M. Schewski, R.; Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z.; Markurt, T.; Naumann, M.; Schulz, T.; Uecker, R.; Fornari, R.; Meuret, S.; Kociak, M.

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we show by optical and electron microscopy based investigations that vacancies in oxides may cluster and form metallic nanoparticles that induce coloration by extinction of visible light. Optical extinction in this case is caused by generation of localized surface plasmon resonances at metallic particles embedded in the dielectric matrix. Based on Mie's approach, we are able to fit the absorption due to indium nanoparticles in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to our absorption measurements. The experimentally found particle distribution is in excellent agreement with the one obtained from fitting by Mie theory. Indium particles are formed by precipitation of oxygen vacancies. From basic thermodynamic consideration and assuming theoretically calculated activation energies for vacancy formation and migration, we find that the majority of oxygen vacancies form just below the melting point. Since they are ionized at this temperature they are Coulomb repulsive. Upon cooling, a high supersaturation of oxygen vacancies forms in the crystal that precipitates once the Fermi level crosses the transition energy level from the charged to the neutral charge state. From our considerations we find that the ionization energy of the oxygen vacancy must be higher than 200 meV.

  8. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  9. The UV-absorption spectrum of human iridal melanosomes: a new perspective on the relative absorption of eumelanin and pheomelanin and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Peles, Dana N; Simon, John D

    2012-01-01

    Photoemission electron microscopy is used to measure the absorption coefficients, εc, of intact iridal stroma melanosomes isolated from dark brown and blue-green human irides for the spectral range λ=244-310 nm. These iridal stroma melanosomes were chosen because different colored irides produce organelles of varying eumelanin:pheomelanin ratios with similar size and morphology. Similar absorption spectra are found for the two types of melanosomes. The experimental spectra measured within are compared with both the extinction coefficient spectra obtained on soluble synthetic model systems and the monomeric precursors to each pigment.

  10. Microwave absorption properties of planar-anisotropy Ce2Fe17N3-δ powders/Silicone composite in X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xisheng; Tan, Guoguo; Chen, Shuwen; Man, Qikui; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei; Che, Shenglei; Jiang, Liqiang

    2017-02-01

    The soft-magnetic properties of planar-anisotropy Ce2Fe17N3-δ powders were reported, and reflection loss (RL) of the powders/Silicone composites with various volume concentrations have been studied in 0.1-18 GHz frequency range. It was found that the optimal RL of this composite absorber with a thickness of 1.72 mm is -60.5 dB at 9.97 GHz and the RL is less than -10 dB in the whole X-band (8-12 GHz). The bandwidth with RL exceeding -10 dB and -20 dB are 5.24 GHz and 1.32 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, all the optimal RL value of the composite with the thickness less than 2.13 mm can reach -20 dB in the range of 8-17 GHz, which indicates that the Ce2Fe17N3-δ/Silicone composite absorber will be a promising candidate in higher gigahertz frequency especially in X-band.

  11. Absence of Dystrophin Related Protein-2 disrupts Cajal bands in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Kathryn M.; Bai, Yunhong; Pisciotta, Chiara; Wang, Suola; Feely, Shawna M.E.; Hoegger, Mark; Gutmann, Laurie; Moore, Steven A.; Gonzalez, Michael; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.; Züchner, Stephan; Shy, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Using exome sequencing in an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) we have identified a mutation in the X-linked dystrophin-related protein 2 (DRP2) gene. A 60-year-old gentleman presented to our clinic and underwent clinical, electrophysiological and skin biopsy studies. The patient had clinical features of a length dependent sensorimotor neuropathy with an age of onset of 50 years. Neurophysiology revealed prolonged latencies with intermediate conduction velocities but no conduction block or temporal dispersion. A panel of 23 disease causing genes was sequenced and ultimately was uninformative. Whole exome sequencing revealed a stop mutation in DRP2, c.805C>T (Q269*). DRP2 interacts with periaxin and dystroglycan to form the periaxin-DRP2-dystroglycan complex which plays a role in the maintenance of the well-characterized Cajal bands of myelinating Schwann cells. Skin biopsies from our patient revealed a lack of DRP2 in myelinated dermal nerves by immunofluorescence. Furthermore electron microscopy failed to identify Cajal bands in the patient's dermal myelinated axons in keeping with ultrastructural pathology seen in the Drp2 knockout mouse. Both the electrophysiologic and dermal nerve twig pathology support the interpretation that this patient's DRP2 mutation causes characteristic morphological abnormalities recapitulating the Drp2 knockout model and potentially represents a novel genetic cause of CMT. PMID:26227883

  12. Absence of Dystrophin Related Protein-2 disrupts Cajal bands in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Kathryn M; Bai, Yunhong; Pisciotta, Chiara; Wang, Suola; Feely, Shawna M E; Hoegger, Mark; Gutmann, Laurie; Moore, Steven A; Gonzalez, Michael; Sherman, Diane L; Brophy, Peter J; Züchner, Stephan; Shy, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Using exome sequencing in an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) we have identified a mutation in the X-linked dystrophin-related protein 2 (DRP2) gene. A 60-year-old gentleman presented to our clinic and underwent clinical, electrophysiological and skin biopsy studies. The patient had clinical features of a length dependent sensorimotor neuropathy with an age of onset of 50 years. Neurophysiology revealed prolonged latencies with intermediate conduction velocities but no conduction block or temporal dispersion. A panel of 23 disease causing genes was sequenced and ultimately was uninformative. Whole exome sequencing revealed a stop mutation in DRP2, c.805C>T (Q269*). DRP2 interacts with periaxin and dystroglycan to form the periaxin-DRP2-dystroglycan complex which plays a role in the maintenance of the well-characterized Cajal bands of myelinating Schwann cells. Skin biopsies from our patient revealed a lack of DRP2 in myelinated dermal nerves by immunofluorescence. Furthermore electron microscopy failed to identify Cajal bands in the patient's dermal myelinated axons in keeping with ultrastructural pathology seen in the Drp2 knockout mouse. Both the electrophysiologic and dermal nerve twig pathology support the interpretation that this patient's DRP2 mutation causes characteristic morphological abnormalities recapitulating the Drp2 knockout model and potentially represents a novel genetic cause of CMT.

  13. Proof of concept for a banding scheme to support risk assessments related to multi-product biologics manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Card, Jeffrey W; Fikree, Hana; Haighton, Lois A; Blackwell, James; Felice, Brian; Wright, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    A banding scheme theory has been proposed to assess the potency/toxicity of biologics and assist with decisions regarding the introduction of new biologic products into existing manufacturing facilities. The current work was conducted to provide a practical example of how this scheme could be applied. Information was identified for representatives from the following four proposed bands: Band A (lethal toxins); Band B (toxins and apoptosis signals); Band C (cytokines and growth factors); and Band D (antibodies, antibody fragments, scaffold molecules, and insulins). The potency/toxicity of the representative substances was confirmed as follows: Band A, low nanogram quantities exert lethal effects; Band B, repeated administration of microgram quantities is tolerated in humans; Band C, endogenous substances and recombinant versions administered to patients in low (interferons), intermediate (growth factors), and high (interleukins) microgram doses, often on a chronic basis; and Band D, endogenous substances present or produced in the body in milligram quantities per day (insulin, collagen) or protein therapeutics administered in milligram quantities per dose (mAbs). This work confirms that substances in Bands A, B, C, and D represent very high, high, medium, and low concern with regard to risk of cross-contamination in manufacturing facilities, thus supporting the proposed banding scheme.

  14. Relations Between He I λ10830 Absorption Strength and Stellar Activity Amongst Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme H.

    2016-11-01

    Correlations are identified between the strength of the λ10830 He I triplet line and the following tracers of stellar activity amongst FGK dwarfs with colours of (B - V) > 0.47: coronal soft X-ray emission, emission in the λ1549 C IV and λ1335 C II lines originating from the transition region, and Ca II H and K emission from the chromosphere. No such correlations are present amongst dwarfs with spectral type earlier than F6. In addition, G and K dwarfs with strong triplet lines show evidence of excess flux in the GALEX FUV band compared to weak-triplet-line dwarfs. The X-ray spectra of late-F, G, and K dwarfs with He I triplets stronger than 160 mÅ have greater values of the ROSAT hardness ratio HR1 than are typical of weak-triplet dwarfs in the same range of spectral type. In other words, dwarfs later than F7V with strong He I triplet lines tend towards harder 0.1-2.0 keV X-ray spectra than weak-triplet dwarfs, although values of HR1 -0.2 to +0.1 can still be encountered amongst a minority of weak-He-triplet stars. As regards, FGK main sequence stars the observational data on the λ10830 triplet line remains sparse. Progress could be made through spectroscopy of high resolution for samples of hundreds of stars, selected on the basis of having other measures of chromospheric and coronal activity available.

  15. Induced changes in refractive index, optical band gap, and absorption edge of polycarbonate-SiO2 thin films by Vis-IR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, Hassan; Akhoondi, Somaieh

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental work, we have studied induced changes in refractive index, extinction coefficient, and optical band-gap of Bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) coated with a uniform and thin, anti-scratch SiO2 film irradiated by visible to near-infrared lasers at 532 nm (green),650 nm(red), and 980 nm (IR)wavelength lasers with different energy densities. Our lasers sources are indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide, second harmonic of neodymium-YAG-solid state lasers and gallium-aluminum-arsenide-semiconductor laser. The energy densities of our sources have been changed by changing the spot size of incident laser. samples transmission spectra were monitored by carry500 spectrophotometer and induced changes in optical properties are evaluated by using, extrapolation of the transmission spectrum through Swanepoel method and computer application

  16. First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Nagoya, A; Asahi, R; Kresse, G

    2011-10-12

    First-principles calculations of the band offsets between Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) and XS (X = Cd, Zn) are performed. While the interface dipole contribution for the band offsets is calculated using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional, the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional is employed to introduce the quasiparticle corrections to the band offsets. The calculated conduction band offset between CZTS and CdS is 0.2 eV, validating CdS for the buffer layer of the CZTS solar cell. The small conduction band offset stems from the band gap narrowing of CdS under the interface strain caused by the lattice misfit with CZTS. A large valence band offset over 0.9 eV between CZTS and ZnS indicates that precipitated ZnS is regarded as an inactive insulator phase in CZTS absorbers.

  17. Low-temperature high-resolution absorption spectrum of 14NH3 in the ν1+ν3 band region (1.51 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földes, T.; Golebiowski, D.; Herman, M.; Softley, T. P.; Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L.

    2014-09-01

    Jet-cooled spectra of 14NH3 and 15NH3 in natural abundance were recorded using cavity ring-down (CRDS, 6584-6670 cm-1) and cavity enhanced absorption (CEAS, 6530-6700 cm-1) spectroscopy. Line broadening effects in the CRDS spectrum allowed lines with J″-values between 0 and 3 to be identified. Intensity ratios in 14NH3 between the jet-cooled CRDS and literature room-temperature data from Sung et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1066) further assisted the line assignments. Ground state combination differences were extensively used to support the assignments, providing reliable values for J, K and inversion symmetry of the ground state vibrational levels. CEAS data helped in this respect for the lowest J lines, some of which are saturated in the CRDS spectrum. Further information on a/s doublets arose from the observed spectral structures. Thirty-two transitions of 14NH3 were assigned in this way and a limited but significant number (19) of changes in the assignments results, compared to Sung et al. or to Cacciani et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1084). Sixteen known and 25 new low-J transitions were identified for 15NH3 in the CRDS spectrum but the much scarcer literature information did not allow for any more refined assignment. The present line position measurements improve on literature values published for 15NH3 and on some line positions for 14NH3.

  18. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  19. 13C(16)O(2): Global Treatment of Vibrational-Rotational Spectra and First Observation of the 2nu(1) + 5nu(3) and nu(1) + 2nu(2) + 5nu(3) Absorption Bands.

    PubMed

    Tashkun; Perevalov; Teffo; Lecoutre; Huet; Campargue; Bailly; Esplin

    2000-04-01

    The effective operator approach is applied to the calculation of both line positions and line intensities of the (13)C(16)O(2) molecule. About 11 000 observed line positions of (13)C(16)O(2) selected from the literature have been used to derive 84 parameters of a reduced effective Hamiltonian globally describing all known vibrational-rotational energy levels in the ground electronic state. The standard deviation of the fit is 0.0015 cm(-1). The eigenfunctions of this effective Hamiltonian have then been used in fittings of parameters of an effective dipole-moment operator to more than 600 observed line intensities of the cold and hot bands covering the nu(2) and 3nu(2) regions. The standard deviations of the fits are 3.2 and 12.0% for these regions, respectively. The quality of the fittings and the extrapolation properties of the fitted parameters are discussed. A comparison of calculated line parameters with those provided by the HITRAN database is given. Finally, the first observations of the 2nu(1) + 5nu(3) and nu(1) + 2nu(2) + 5nu(3) absorption bands by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is presented. The deviations of predicted line positions from observed ones is found to be less than 0.1 cm(-1), and most of them lie within the experimental accuracy (0.007 cm(-1)) once the observed line positions are included in the global fit. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. LINE ABSORPTION OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR THE c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) BANDS IN N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, C.; Velasco, A. M.

    2011-09-20

    Theoretical absorption oscillator strengths and emission branching ratios for rotational lines of the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The calculations have been performed with the molecular quantum defect orbital method, which has proved to be reliable in previous studies of rovibronic transitions in diatomic molecules. The strong interaction between c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) and b' {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(10) states has been analyzed through an interaction matrix that includes rotational terms. Owing to the perturbation, the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0), c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(1), and c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(5) bands are not weak, in contrast to what would be expected on the basis of the Franck-Condon principle. Moreover, the intensity distribution of the rotational lines within each of the vibronic bands deviates from considerations based on Hoenl-London factors. In this work, we provide data that may be useful to interpret spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, in which transitions from the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) level have been detected.

  1. The XXL Survey. X. K-band luminosity - weak-lensing mass relation for groups and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziparo, F.; Smith, G. P.; Mulroy, S. L.; Lieu, M.; Willis, J. P.; Hudelot, P.; McGee, S. L.; Fotopoulou, S.; Lidman, C.; Lavoie, S.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Giles, P.; Maughan, B.; Pacaud, F.; Sadibekova, T.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters and groups are important cosmological probes and giant cosmic laboratories for studying galaxy evolution. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how and when baryonic matter cools at the centre of potential wells. However, a clear picture of the efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars is still missing. We present the K-band luminosity-halo mass relation, LK,500-M500,WL, for a subsample of 20 of the 100 brightest clusters in the XXL Survey observed with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). For the first time, we have measured this relation via weak-lensing analysis down to M500,WL = 3.5 × 1013 M⊙. This allows us to investigate whether the slope of the LK-M relation is different for groups and clusters, as seen in other works. The clusters in our sample span a wide range in mass, M500,WL = 0.35-12.10 × 1014 M⊙, at 0 < z < 0.6. The K-band luminosity scales as log 10(LK,500/ 1012 L⊙) ∝ βlog 10(M500,WL/ 1014 M⊙) with β = 0.85+0.35-0.27 and an intrinsic scatter of σlnLK|M = 0.37+0.19-0.17. Combining our sample with some clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS) present in the literature, we obtain a slope of 1.05+0.16-0.14 and an intrinsic scatter of 0.14+0.09-0.07. The flattening in the LK-M seen in previous works is not seen here and might be a result of a bias in the mass measurement due to assumptions on the dynamical state of the systems. We also study the richness-mass relation and find that group-sized halos have more galaxies per unit halo mass than massive clusters. However, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in low-mass systems contributes a greater fraction to the total cluster light than BCGs do in massive clusters; the luminosity gap between the two brightest galaxies is more prominent for group-sized halos. This result is a natural outcome of the hierarchical growth of structures, where massive galaxies form and gain mass within low-mass groups and are ultimately accreted

  2. Relative spins and excitation energies of superdeformed bands in {sup 190}Hg: Further evidence for octupole vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M.; Janssens, R.; Blumenthal, D.; Timar, J.; Wilson, A.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. |; Nakatsukasa, T.; Ahmad, I.; Astier, A.; Azaiez, F.; du Croux, L.; Gall, B.; Hannachi, F.; Khoo, T.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Lopez-Martens, A.

    1995-04-01

    An experiment using the Eurogam phase II {gamma}-ray spectrometer confirms the existence of an excited superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 190}Hg and its very unusual decay into the lowest SD band over 3--4 transitions. The energies of the transitions linking the two SD bands have been firmly established, and their angular distributions are consistent with a dipole character. Comparisons with calculations using random-phase approximation indicate that the excited SD band can be interpreted as an octupole-vibrational structure.

  3. Development of a Novel Simplified PBPK Absorption Model to Explain the Higher Relative Bioavailability of the OROS® Formulation of Oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Ghosh, Avijit; Aarons, Leon; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-11-01

    A new minimal Segmented Transit and Absorption model (mSAT) model has been recently proposed and combined with intrinsic intestinal effective permeability (P eff,int ) to predict the regional gastrointestinal (GI) absorption (f abs ) of several drugs. Herein, this model was extended and applied for the prediction of oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin and its enantiomers to provide a mechanistic explanation of the higher relative bioavailability observed for oxybutynin's modified-release OROS® formulation compared to its immediate-release (IR) counterpart. The expansion of the model involved the incorporation of mechanistic equations for the prediction of release, transit, dissolution, permeation and first-pass metabolism. The predicted pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin enantiomers after oral administration for both the IR and OROS® formulations were in close agreement with the observed data. The predicted absolute bioavailability for the IR formulation was within 5% of the observed value, and the model adequately predicted the higher relative bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation vs. the IR counterpart. From the model predictions, it can be noticed that the higher bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation was mainly attributable to differences in the intestinal availability (F G ) rather than due to a higher colonic f abs , thus confirming previous hypotheses. The predicted f abs was almost 70% lower for the OROS® formulation compared to the IR formulation, whereas the F G was almost eightfold higher than in the IR formulation. These results provide further support to the hypothesis of an increased F G as the main factor responsible for the higher bioavailability of oxybutynin's OROS® formulation vs. the IR.

  4. A d-band bonding theory of the relative heats of solution of transition metal alloys and its relationship to solubility limits

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E.; Bennett, L.H.; Goodman, D.A.

    1983-08-01

    The relative heats of solution of a transition metal in another and vice versa are derived within a Friedel d-band bonding model. The trend found in the heats parallels the trend observed previously in experimental relative solubilities. The implication of the solubility trend for surface segregation is also discussed.

  5. Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range.

    PubMed

    Tretyakov, M Yu; Krupnov, A F; Koshelev, M A; Makarov, D S; Serov, E A; Parshin, V V

    2009-09-01

    The instrument and methods for measuring spectral parameters of discrete atmospheric lines and water-related continuum absorption in the millimeter wave range are described. The instrument is based on measurements of the Fabry-Pérot resonance response width using fast phase continuous scanning of the frequency-synthesized radiation. The instrument allows measurement of gas absorptions at the cavity eigenfrequencies ranging from 45 to 370 GHz with the highest to date absorption variation sensitivity of 4x10(-9) cm(-1). The use of a module of two rigidly bounded maximum identical resonators differing in length by exactly a factor of two allows accurate separation of the studied gas absorption and spectrometer baseline, in particular, the absorption by water adsorbed on the resonator elements. The module is placed in a chamber with temperature controlled between -30 and +60 degrees C, which permits investigation of temperature dependence of absorption. It is shown that systematic measurement error of discrete atmospheric line parameters does not exceed the statistical one and the achieved accuracy satisfies modern demands for the atmospheric remote sensing data retrieval. Potential systematic error arising from the neglect of the effect of water adsorption on mirror surfaces is discussed. Examples of studies of water and oxygen spectral line parameters as well as continuum absorption in wet nitrogen are given.

  6. Full Spectral Resolution Data Generation from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on S-NPP at NOAA and its Use to Investigate Uncertainty in Methane Absorption Band Near 7.66 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sasakawa, M.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D.; Jin, X.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Q.; Weng, F.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding. CrIS on S-NPP started to provide measurements in 1305 channels in its normal mode since its launch on November 2011 to December 4, 2014, and after that it was switched to the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the spectral resolutions are 0.625 cm-1 in all the MWIR (1210-1750 cm-1), SWIR (2155-2550 cm-1) and the LWIR bands (650-1095 cm-1) with a total of 2211 channels. While the NOAA operational Sensor Data Record (SDR) processing (IDPS) continues to produce the normal resolution SDRs by truncating full spectrum RDR data, NOAA STAR started to process the FSR SDRs data since December 4, 2014 to present, and the data is being delivered through NOAA STAR website (ftp://ftp2.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/xxiong/). The current FSR processing algorithm was developed on basis of the CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), and is the baseline of J-1 CrIS SDR algorithm. One major benefit to use the FSR data is to improve the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases, such as CH4, CO and CO2 . From our previous studies to retrieve CH4 using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), it was found the uncertainty in the CH4 absorption band is up to 1-2%. So, in this study we computed the radiance using the community radiative transfer model (CRTM) and line-by-line model, with the inputs of "truth" of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from ECMWF model (and/or RAOB sounding) and CH4 profiles from in-situ aircraft measurements, then convoluted with the response function of CrIS. The difference between the simultaed radiance and the collocated CrIS FSR data is used to exam the uncertainty in these strong absorption channels.Through the improved fitting to the transmittance in these channels, it is expected to improve the retrieval of CH4 using CrIS on S

  7. L(alpha)-induced two-photon absorption of visible light emitted from an O-type star by H2(+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere surrounding the star: A possible explanation for the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glownia, James H.; Sorokin, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is proposed to account for the DIB's (Diffuse Interstellar Bands). In this model, the DIB's result from a non-linear effect: resonantly-enhanced two-photon absorption of H(2+) ions located near the surface of the Stromgren sphere that surrounds an O- or B- type star. The strong light that is required to 'drive' the two-photon transition is provided by L(alpha) light emerging from the Stromgren sphere that bounds the H II region surrounding the star. A value of approximately 100 micro W/sq cm is estimated for the L(alpha) flux at the Stromgren radius, R(s), of a strong (O5) star. It is shown that a c.w. L(alpha) flux of this intensity should be sufficient to induce a few percent absorption for visible light radiated by the same star at a frequency (omega2) that completes an allowed two-photon transition, provided (1) the L(alpha) radiation happens to be nearly resonant with the frequency of a fully-allowed absorber transition that effectively represents the first step in the two-photon transition, and (2) an effective column density approximately 10(sup18)/sq cm of the absorber is present near the Stromgren sphere radius, R(sub s).

  8. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  9. The Influence of Finasteride on Mean and Relative Spectral Density of EEG Bands in Rat Model of Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, D; Hrnčić, D; Rašić-Marković, A; Macut, Dj; Stanojlović, O

    Liver failure is associated with a neuropsychiatric syndrome, known as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Finasteride, inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, may improve the course of HE. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of finasteride on mean and relative power density of EEG bands, determined by spectral analysis, in rat model of thioacetamide-induced HE. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: (1) control; (2) thioacetamide-treated group, TAA (900 mg/kg); (3) finasteride-treated group, FIN (150 mg/kg); and (4) group treated with finasteride (150 mg/kg) and thioacetamide (900 mg/kg), FIN + TAA. Daily doses of FIN (50 mg/kg) and TAA (300 mg/kg) were administered during 3 subsequent days, and in FIN + TAA group FIN was administered 2 h before every dose of TAA. EEG was recorded 22-24 h after treatment and analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. While TAA did not induce significant changes in the beta band, mean and relative power in this band were significantly higher in FIN + TAA versus control group (p < 0.01). TAA caused a significant decline in mean power in alpha, theta, and delta band, and in FIN + TAA group the mean power in these bands was significantly higher compared with control. While in TAA group relative power was significantly decreased in theta (p < 0.01) and increased in delta band (p < 0.01) versus control, the opposite changes were found in FIN + TAA group: an increase in theta (p < 0.01) and a decrease in delta relative power (p < 0.01). In this study, finasteride pretreatment caused EEG changes that correspond to mild TAA-induced HE.

  10. Relative Slowness Estimates for Locations of Repeating Low-Frequency Earthquakes and Narrow-Band Tremor at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, G. P.; Lyons, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Fuego volcano, Guatemala, is an open-vent basaltic stratovolcano characterized by nearly constant, but low-level eruptive activity since 1999. In January 2008, we deployed small antennas of six broadband seismic and five acoustic sensors 0.9 km north of the active vent to investigate the source of explosions and low-frequency seismicity. The seismic array had stations spaced 30 m apart and a total aperture of ~140 m. The infrasound sensors were deployed in a similar array, but with average station spacing of 50 m. There was no lava effusion during the deployment, but explosions were recorded approximately once per hour, with varied amounts of ash, and with durations from 20-150 s. In addition to the explosions, our seismic array recorded narrow band tremor with dominant frequencies of 1.6 and 1.9 Hz and discrete events that were not generally detected by the acoustic array. The dominant class of these events, which repeated approximately 10-15 times per hour, had an impulsive onset with first motion toward the vent, a short duration of <5 s, and dominant frequencies from 1-3 Hz. Their similarity suggests a nondestructive source process. While waveforms are similar from event to event when viewed on the same channel, the large variation in waveforms across the array yields a large uncertainty in slowness parameter estimates. We take advantage of the high degree of similarity between events to determine relative slowness estimates. After determining the best-fit slowness parameters for a master event, we measured the relative slowness parameters for 203 similar events. The results indicate a stationary source, although subtle variations in waveforms suggest that the source mechanism or source location varied slightly with time. The low-frequency events were located by computing slowness parameters from synthetic waveforms for a volume of sources beneath the summit region. The source is ~150 m directly beneath the active vent, but not associated with explosions. Full

  11. Decoupling scattering and absorption of turbid samples using a simple empirical relation between coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and radiative transfer theories.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Harshavardhan Ashok; Kumar, Dinesh; Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Roy, Arindam

    2014-05-01

    Efforts are underway to better understand the absorption properties of micro- and nano-sized particles due to their potential in various photonic applications. However, most of these particles exhibit strong scattering in the spectral regions of interest in addition to absorption. Due to strong interference from scattering, the absorption of these turbid samples cannot be directly measured using conventional spectroscopy techniques. The optical properties of these particles are also different from that of the bulk due to quantum confinement and plasmon resonance effects and cannot be inferred from their bulk properties. By measuring the total transmittance and total reflectance (diffuse and collimated) of turbid samples and using an empirical relation between the coefficients of the Kubelka-Munk and radiative transfer theories, we have demonstrated a method to calculate the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This method is capable of extracting the absorption coefficient of turbid samples with an error of 2%. Using this method, we have decoupled the specific absorption and specific reduced scattering coefficients of commercially available micro-sized iron oxide particles. The current method can be used to measure the optical properties of irregularly shaped particle dispersions, which are otherwise difficult to estimate theoretically.

  12. Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption and Single-Scattering Albedo On Ambient Relative Humidity for Sulfate Aerosols with Black Carbon Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip B.; Hamill, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols frequently contain hygroscopic sulfate species and black carbon (soot) inclusions. In this paper we report results of a modeling study to determine the change in aerosol absorption due to increases in ambient relative humidity (RH), for three common sulfate species, assuming that the soot mass fraction is present as a single concentric core within each particle. Because of the lack of detailed knowledge about various input parameters to models describing internally mixed aerosol particle optics, we focus on results that were aimed at determining the maximum effect that particle humidification may have on aerosol light absorption. In the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm, maximum absorption humidification factors (ratio of wet to 'dry=30% RH' absorption) for single aerosol particles are found to be as large as 1.75 when the RH changes from 30 to 99.5%. Upon lesser humidification from 30 to 80% RH, absorption humidification for single particles is only as much as 1.2, even for the most favorable combination of initial ('dry') soot mass fraction and particle size. Integrated over monomodal lognormal particle size distributions, maximum absorption humidification factors range between 1.07 and 1.15 for humidification from 30 to 80% and between 1.1 and 1.35 for humidification from 30 to 95% RH for all species considered. The largest humidification factors at a wavelength of 450 nm are obtained for 'dry' particle size distributions that peak at a radius of 0.05 microns, while the absorption humidification factors at 700 nm are largest for 'dry' size distributions that are dominated by particles in the radius range of 0.06 to 0.08 microns. Single-scattering albedo estimates at ambient conditions are often based on absorption measurements at low RH (approx. 30%) and the assumption that aerosol absorption does not change upon humidification (i.e., absorption humidification equal to unity). Our modeling study suggests that this assumption alone can

  13. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "molecules".

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric "molecules" with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric "molecule" consists of four "atoms" of two different sizes corresponding to two absorption bands with near unity absorptivity. Numerical and experimental absorptivity verify that the dual-band metamaterial absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide-angle incidence.

  14. Sulfurization Growth of SnS Thin Films and Experimental Determination of Valence Band Discontinuity for SnS-Related Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Murata, Yoshitsuna; Shimizu, Tsubasa; Ramya, Kottadi; Venkataiah, Chinna; Sato, Tomoaki; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.

    2011-05-01

    Tin sulphide is considered to be a potential candidate for the development of low cost polycrystalline thin film solar cells. The advantages of using sulfurization process to grow SnS films were demonstrated. Polycrystalline p-type SnS films were obtained by a simple dry process at 300 °C for 90 min. The sulfurization condition depends on the deposition method of the Sn precursor. Using single-phase SnS films, band discontinuities at SnS/CdS and SnO2/SnS heterointerfaces were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets were determined to be approximately 1.5 eV for SnS/CdS and 3.5 eV for SnO2/SnS interfaces. Using these values and the energy band gaps of the corresponding layers, the energy band diagram was developed. It indicated that the SnS/CdS heterojunction is of TYPE-II form of heterostructure. This result indicated that SnS-related solar cells with CdS as window layer do not have an ideal band structure that could give high conversion efficiency.

  15. Probing the defect nanostructure of helium and proton tracks in LiF:Mg,Ti using optical absorption: Implications to track structure theory calculations of heavy charged particle relative efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, I.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Weissman, L.; Kreisel, A.; Girshevitz, O.; Marino, S.; Druzhyna, S.; Biderman, S.; Mardor, I.

    2015-04-01

    A major objective of track structure theory (TST) is the calculation of heavy charged particle (HCP) induced effects. Previous calculations have been based exclusively on the radiation action/dose response of the released secondary electrons during the HCP slowing down. The validity of this presumption is investigated herein using optical absorption (OA) measurements on LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) samples following irradiation with 1.4 MeV protons and 4 MeV He ions at levels of fluence from 1010 cm-2 to 2 × 1014 cm-2. The major bands in the OA spectrum are the 5.08 eV (F band), 4.77 eV, 5.45 eV and the 4.0 eV band (associated with the trapping structure leading to composite peak 5 in the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve). The maximum intensity of composite peak 5 occurs at a temperature of ∼200 °C in the glow curve and is the glow peak used for most dosimetric applications. The TST calculations use experimentally measured OA dose response following low ionization density (LID) 60Co photon irradiation over the dose-range 10-105 Gy for the simulation of the radiation action of the HCP induced secondary electron spectrum. Following proton and He irradiation the saturation levels of concentration for the F band and the 4.77 eV band are approximately one order of magnitude greater than following LID irradiation indicating enhanced HCP creation of the relevant defects. Relative HCP OA efficiencies, ηHCP, are calculated by TST and are compared with experimentally measured values, ηm, at levels of fluence from 1010 cm-2 to 1011 cm-2 where the response is linear due to negligible track overlap. For the F band, values of ηm/ηHCP = 2.0 and 2.6 for the He ions and protons respectively arise from the neglect of enhanced Fluorine vacancy/F center creation by the HCPs in the TST calculations. It is demonstrated that kinetic analysis simulating LID F band dose response with enhanced Fluorine vacancy creation, and incorporated into the TST calculation, can lead to values of

  16. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  17. [Anomalous absorption and a qualified far infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-qin; Chen, Yu-jing; Li, Hui-hua; Wang, Hai-shui

    2012-02-01

    The ideal 100% line could not be obtained when the content of water vapor in the spectrometer is constant but high during the whole procedure of a far-infrared spectrum collection. This result indicates that anomalous absorption phenomenon takes place in high relative humidity atmosphere. In the present paper, the influences of the relative humidity of ambient air and spectral resolution on anomalous absorption were studied. It was found that both decreasing the water vapor content in the spectrometer and adopting low spectral resolution are effective methods to avoid anomalous absorption. Furthermore, the water vapor bands can be eliminated by "dry air and wet air titration" in the fluctuant humidity. This provides us a quick and economic method to obtain a qualified far infrared spectrum conveniently. It should be noticed that the working condition for "dry air and wet air titration" is low relative humidity to prevent water vapor abnormal absorption.

  18. Donor impurity-related intraband optical absorption in a single quantum ring: Hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-10-01

    The simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field on hydrogenic donor impurity states and intraband optical absorption has been investigated in GaAs/Ga_{1-tilde{x}}Al_{tilde{x}}As quantum ring. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions have been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The intraband absorption coefficient is calculated for different values of the hydrostatic pressure, intense laser field parameter and different locations of hydrogenic donor impurity. The simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field shows that while the increment of the first one leads only to the blueshift of the absorption spectrum, the augmentation of the second one makes the redshift. In addition, both blueshift and redshift of the spectrum have been obtained with the changes of impurity location. The obtained theoretical results indicate good controlling means of the optical spectrum of ring-like structures by the combined influence of the considered factors.

  19. GHASP: an Hα kinematic survey of spiral galaxies - X. Surface photometry, decompositions and the Tully-Fisher relation in the Rc band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Amram, P.; Ferrari, F.; Russeil, D.; Epinat, B.; Perret, V.; Adami, C.; Marcelin, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present Rc-band surface photometry for 170 of the 203 galaxies in GHASP, the Gassendi H-alpha survey of spirals, a sample of late-type galaxies for which high-resolution Fabry-Perot Hα maps have previously been obtained. Our data set is constructed using new Rc-band observations taken at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, supplemented with Sloan Digital Sky Survey archival data, obtained with the purpose of deriving homogeneous photometric profiles and parameters. Our results include Rc-band surface brightness profiles for 170 galaxies and ugriz profiles for 108 of these objects. We catalogue several parameters of general interest for further reference, such as total magnitude, effective radius and isophotal parameters (magnitude, position angle, ellipticity and inclination). We also perform a structural decomposition of the surface brightness profiles using a multi-component method to separate discs from bulges and bars, and to observe the main scaling relations involving luminosities, sizes and maximum velocities. We determine the Rc-band Tully-Fisher relation using maximum velocities derived solely from Hα rotation curves for a sample of 80 galaxies, resulting in a slope of -8.1 ± 0.5, zero-point of -3.0 ± 1.0 and an estimated intrinsic scatter of 0.28 ± 0.07. We note that, unlike the Tully-Fisher relation in the near-infrared derived for the same sample, no change in the slope of the relation is seen at the low-mass end (for galaxies with Vmax < 125 km s-1). We suggest that this different behaviour of the Tully-Fisher relation (with the optical relation being described by a single power law while the near-infrared has two), may be caused by differences in the stellar mass-to-light ratio for galaxies with Vmax < 125 km s-1.

  20. [Calcium absorption by the rat from various milks in relation to their total phosphorus and lactose contents].

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Fournier, A

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of calcium corresponds to a strictly determined mechanism inhibited by phosphates and activited by carbohydrates. We investigate in what extent the absorption of milk calcium from various species has the same proceeding. 4 months old rats are given orally solutions of CaCl2 alone or in combination with sodium dihydrogen phosphate or lactose or these both compounds. We compare calcium absorption of these solutions to that of milk from woman, cow or sow, or to dilutions of these two latter milks. All these fluids are dosed so that they correspond each other by their respective content in total calcium, total phosphorus and lactose. Each solution contains 45Ca. Blood samples 1,30, 4, 6 and 24 hours after ingestion allow establishing the variations of plasma radioactivity. Rats are sacrified after 24 hours. In certain cases, samples from digestive tube contents and feces provide a coefficient of calcium absorption. The osseous retention is obtained from femur radioactivity. In breif, we may consider that milks from cow and sow provide calcium the absorption of which is settled after their respective content of total phosphorus and lactose. Opposed effects of these inhibitors and activators of calcium absorption compensate so that calcium from these milks is just a little better utilized by adult rat than calcium from an isocalcic solution of CaCl2. Calcium from woman milk, rich in carbohydrates, poor in total phosphorus is better absorbed than that from the two latters, however less than we might expect from its high lactose content. We may wonder that calcium utilization from cow milk is as moderate as that of a solution of CaCl2. But skeleton mineralization which may be fulfilled by milk is made better because of that: it is not chloride but calcium phosphate which ensures this mineralization, a phosphate which alone would impair this mineralization without the compensative role of lactose.

  1. Absorption properties of GaAsBi based p-i-n heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhize; Mendes, Danuta F.; Richards, Robert D.; Bastiman, Faebian; David, John PR

    2015-09-01

    The absorption properties of GaAsBi have been investigated using GaAsBi based p-i-n diodes with different bismuth compositions (˜2.1 and ˜3.4%). The absorption behaviour of GaAsBi as a function of incident photon energy above the band gap follows that of a direct band gap material. With increasing bismuth content, the absorption of photons with energy lower than the band gap in GaAsBi is enhanced, probably due to localized states caused by Bi-related defects. A simplified analysis has been undertaken on the behaviour of absorption as a function of bias voltage. By undertaking photoresponsivity measurements as a function of reverse bias, the background doping type and the minority carriers diffusion lengths in GaAsBi have been determined.

  2. Electronic absorptions of the benzylium cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryza, Viktoras; Chalyavi, Nahid; Sanelli, Julian A.; Bieske, Evan J.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic transitions of the benzylium cation (Bz+) are investigated over the 250-550 nm range by monitoring the photodissociation of mass-selected C7H7+-Arn (n = 1, 2) complexes in a tandem mass spectrometer. The Bz+-Ar spectrum displays two distinct band systems, the S1←S0 band system extending from 370 to 530 nm with an origin at 19 067 ± 15 cm-1, and a much stronger S3←S0 band system extending from 270 to 320 nm with an origin at 32 035 ± 15 cm-1. Whereas the S1←S0 absorption exhibits well resolved vibrational progressions, the S3←S0 absorption is broad and relatively structureless. Vibronic structure of the S1←S0 system, which is interpreted with the aid of time-dependent density functional theory and Franck-Condon simulations, reflects the activity of four totally symmetric ring deformation modes (ν5, ν6, ν9, ν13). We find no evidence for the ultraviolet absorption of the tropylium cation, which according to the neon matrix spectrum should occur over the 260 - 275 nm range [A. Nagy, J. Fulara, I. Garkusha, and J. Maier, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 3022 (2011)], 10.1002/anie.201008036.

  3. Atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena related to anomalous VHF-band radio wave transmissions beyond the line of sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Moriya, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have monitored anomalous VHF-band radio wave transmissions received beyond the line of sight prior to earthquakes since 2003 in Hokkaido, northern Japan, to determine the relationship between anomalous transmission of VHF-band radio waves and impending earthquakes. Anomalous VHF-band radio waves were recorded before some medium and large earthquakes of magnitude 4 or higher. Radio waves transmitted from a specific FM radio station are considered to have been scattered in the atmosphere, allowing the radio waves to be received by an observation station beyond the line of sight of the transmitter. One hypothesis to explain the pre-earthquake anomalous radio transmissions is that radon gas emanates from the surface as a result of increasing fluid pressure during the preparation process of an earthquake. The radon release increases the density of small ions and the atmospheric conductivity and decreases the atmospheric electric field in the lower atmosphere. To confirm the process, we monitored the atmospheric electric field at the VHF radio wave monitoring site. Variations in the atmospheric electric field accompanied by anomalous radio wave transmissions were observed at times. Additionally, larger anomalous transmission may be caused by the sporadic E layer of the ionosphere in the early summer season. The sporadic E anomalies overlap anomalies associated with earthquakes and can be distinguished as a distinct feature.

  4. [Interhemispheric relations of the EEG power of cortical potentials in the band of 1-60 Hz during formation and testing of cognitive set to facial expression].

    PubMed

    Dumenko, V N; Kozlov, M K; Kurova, N S; Cheremushkin, E A

    2009-01-01

    Interhemispheric relations of the EEG power in the 1-60 frequency band were studied at the stages of formation and testing of the cognitive set to facial expression. Different topographic asymmetry patterns were revealed in subjects with different set plasticity. In subjects without behavioral actualization (n = 11) of the set at the stage of set formation, EEG power in the gamma band (21-40 and 41-60 Hz) prevailed in the frontal areas of the right hemisphere, whereas the power of electrical oscillations in the bands of 2-7 and 8-13 Hz was higher also in the frontal areas but of the left hemisphere. At the stage of set testing, this basic topographical asymmetry pattern persisted. Formation of the set in subjects with pronounced actualization (n = 18) was characterized by another topographical asymmetry pattern: a significant excess of the power of gamma oscillations was observed in the posterotemporal and occipital areas of the left hemisphere, whereas the power of oscillations in the bands 2-7, 8-13, and 14-20 Hz was higher also in the posterior areas but of the right hemisphere. No asymmetry in the EEG power was observed in these subjects at the stage of set testing.

  5. Band heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Naila, N

    2010-01-01

    Band heterotopias are one of the rarest groups of congenital disorder that result in variable degree of structural abnormality of brain parenchyma. Band of heterotopic neurons result from a congenital or acquired deficiency of the neuronal migration. MRI is the examination of choice for demonstrating these abnormalities because of the superb gray vs. white matter differentiation, detail of cortical anatomy and ease of multiplanar imaging. We report a case of band heterotopia that showed a bilateral band of gray matter in deep white matter best demonstrated on T2 Wt. and FLAIR images.

  6. Cloning of cDNAs encoding a rabbit renal brush border membrane protein immunologically related to band 3. Sequence similarity with microsomal dipeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, P; Karniski, L P

    1991-01-01

    Distinct anion transport processes have been identified in the mammalian renal proximal tubule, but none of the responsible proteins or genes have been isolated. A 43 kDa rabbit microvillus membrane protein that is immunologically related to the erythroid anion exchanger (band 3) was a candidate for a renal anion transporter. To examine the structural relationship with band 3, we cloned cDNAs encoding the 43 kDa protein. The 43 kDa band-3-like protein was purified, and a novel sequence of 24 amino acids was obtained from the N-terminus. Degenerate oligonucleotides were synthesized based on this sequence, and the polymerase chain reaction with single-sided specificity was used to amplify and clone a 1330 bp cDNA from rabbit renal cortex. Additional overlapping 272 bp and 1123 bp cDNAs were obtained by synthesizing and screening a rabbit renal cortical cDNA library. The composite sequence was 1483 bp, terminated with (A)16, and was similar in size to the principal transcript expressed in rabbit renal cortex. The single long open reading frame was predicted to encode a protein composed of 410 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45,193 Da; 15 amino acids predicted to reside at the N-terminus were absent in the mature protein and may constitute a signal peptide. There was only limited sequence similarity with human erythroid band 3. Rather, the sequence was highly similar to microsomal dipeptidase, including the presence of a signal peptide and a consensus sequence for covalent linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol. In summary, the 43 kDa protein from rabbit renal cortex that is recognized by a monospecific antibody to erythroid band 3 is most likely a microvillus membrane dipeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1741759

  7. [Study on temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross sections of nitric oxide at high temperatures].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Shi-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2007-07-01

    To study the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption characteristics of NO species in flue gas, the absorption cross sections of NO in the spectral region 200-230 nm at temperatures ranging from 285 to 410 K were measured using a grating monochromator with 0.2 nm resolution, a deuterium lamp and a specially-fabricated closed sample cell. The absorption spectrum of NO consists of discrete bands superimposed on a continuous base. Results indicated that discrete absorption bands were present with a fixed wavelength interval of roughly 10.5 nm. The peaks of discrete bands decreased first and started to increase later as the temperature rose from 285 to 410 K, with a maximum relative variation of 19.3%. Peak position and half width of the absorption peaks did not exhibit apparent change with the variation of temperature. Continuous absorption cross section increased monotonously with the temperature, and the variation gradient gradually decrease with wavelength red shift. The absorption cross section of NO should not be considered as constant when applied in online monitoring of NO concentration in flue gas. A compensation calculation of absorption cross section with respect to temperature effect is indispensable for the purpose of improving online measurement precision of NO concentration.

  8. Resonant soft-x-ray emission study in relation to the band structure of cBN

    SciTech Connect

    Agui, A.; Shin, S.; Fujisawa, M.; Tezuka, Y.; Ishii, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mishima, O.; Era, K.

    1997-01-01

    The resonant soft-x-ray emission (SXE) and its total photon yield (TPY) spectra were measured at the B 1s and N 1s edges of cubic boron nitride (cBN) using undulator radiation. The band-gap energy was found to be about 6.2 eV, which is in good agreement with other experiments. It was found that the emission from the high symmetry point in the SXE spectrum is enhanced when the same high symmetry point in the TPY spectrum is excited. The line shapes in both the SXE and N 1s TPY spectra were consistent with the calculated partial density of states, though the total bandwidth was not well reproduced. On the other hand, the exciton effect was found to be strong in the B 1s TPY spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Resonant soft-x-ray emission study in relation to the band structure of cBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agui, A.; Shin, S.; Fujisawa, M.; Tezuka, Y.; Ishii, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mishima, O.; Era, K.

    1997-01-01

    The resonant soft-x-ray emission (SXE) and its total photon yield (TPY) spectra were measured at the B 1s and N 1s edges of cubic boron nitride (cBN) using undulator radiation. The band-gap energy was found to be about 6.2 eV, which is in good agreement with other experiments. It was found that the emission from the high symmetry point in the SXE spectrum is enhanced when the same high symmetry point in the TPY spectrum is excited. The line shapes in both the SXE and N 1s TPY spectra were consistent with the calculated partial density of states, though the total bandwidth was not well reproduced. On the other hand, the exciton effect was found to be strong in the B 1s TPY spectra.

  10. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  11. Establishment of an in silico phototoxicity prediction method by combining descriptors related to photo-absorption and photo-reaction.

    PubMed

    Haranosono, Yu; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki

    2014-08-01

    One of the mechanisms of phototoxicity is photo-reaction, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation following photo-absorption. We focused on ROS generation and photo-absorption as key-steps, because these key-steps are able to be described by photochemical properties, and these properties are dependent on chemical structure. Photo-reactivity of a compound is described by HOMO-LUMO Gap (HLG), generally. Herein, we showed that HLG can be used as a descriptor of the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the maximum-conjugated π electron number (PENMC), which we found as a descriptor of photo-absorption, could also predict in vitro phototoxicity. Each descriptor could predict in vitro phototoxicity with 70.0% concordance, but there was un-predicted area found (gray zone). Interestingly, some compounds in each gray zone were not common, indicating that the combination of two descriptors could improve prediction potential. We reset the cut-off lines to define positive zone, negative zone and gray zone for each descriptor. Thereby we overlapped HLG and PENMC in a graph, and divided the total area to nine zones with cut-off lines of each descriptor. The rules to prediction were decided to achieve the best concordance, and the concordances were improved up to 82.8% for self-validation, 81.6% for cross-validation. We found common properties among false positive or negative compounds, photo-reactive structure and photo-allergenic, respectively. In addition, our method could be adapted to compounds rich in structural diversity using only chemical structure without any statistical analysis and complicated calculation.

  12. Excited state absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a obtained with white-light continuum.

    PubMed

    De Boni, L; Correa, D S; Pavinatto, F J; dos Santos, D S; Mendonça, C R

    2007-04-28

    The study of excited state properties of chlorophyll a is a subject of foremost interest, given that it plays important roles in biological process and has also been proposed for applications in photonics. This work reports on the excited state absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a solution from 460 to 700 nm, obtained through the white-light continuum Z-scan technique. Saturation of absorption was observed due to the ground state depletion, induced by the white-light continuum region that is resonant with the Q band of chlorophyll a. The authors also observed reverse saturation of absorption related to the excitation from the first excited state to a higher energy level for wavelengths below 640 nm. An energy-level diagram, based on the electronic states of chlorophyll a, was employed to interpret their results, revealing that more states than the ones related to the Q and B bands participate in the excited state absorption of this molecule.

  13. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  14. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  15. Influence of the Cu Content in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorbers on order-disorder related band gap changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Mario; Renz, Tobias; Mathes, Niklas; Neuwirth, Markus; Schnabel, Thomas; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the radiative recombination in wet-chemically fabricated Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorbers utilizing photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, focusing especially on the effects of varying Cu content. This includes the impact of the latter on the band gap energy and the change in band gap energy related to the order-disorder transition. Characteristic PL and PLE parameters like the energetic position of the PL maximum and the PL yield as a function of the excitation power as well as the PLE tailing parameter do not depend on composition indicating that the nature of the radiative transition is not altered by the Cu content. However, the band gap energy Eg significantly increases as a function of decreasing Cu content. This increase is more pronounced in the disordered than in the ordered atomic arrangement of Cu and Zn atoms in the Cu-Zn planes of the kesterite crystal structure.

  16. Band offsets and trap-related electron transitions at interfaces of (100)InAs with atomic-layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, H.-Y.; O'Connor, E.; O'Mahony, A.; Povey, I. M.; Hurley, P. K.; Dong, Lin; Ye, P. D.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Houssa, M.; Stesmans, A.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral analysis of optically excited currents in single-crystal (100)InAs/amorphous (a-)Al2O3/metal structures allows one to separate contributions stemming from the internal photoemission (IPE) of electrons into alumina and from the trapping-related displacement currents. IPE spectra suggest that the out-diffusion of In and, possibly, its incorporation in a-Al2O3 lead to the development of ≈0.4 eV wide conduction band (CB) tail states. The top of the InAs valence band is found at 3.45 ± 0.10 eV below the alumina CB bottom, i.e., at the same energy as at the GaAs/a-Al2O3 interface. This corresponds to the CB and the valence band offsets at the InAs/a-Al2O3 interface of 3.1 ± 0.1 eV and 2.5 ± 0.1 eV, respectively. However, atomic-layer deposition of alumina on InAs results in additional low-energy electron transitions with spectral thresholds in the range of 2.0-2.2 eV, which is close to the bandgap of AlAs. The latter suggests the interaction of As with Al, leading to an interlayer containing Al-As bonds providing a lower barrier for electron injection.

  17. A Study on Site Diversity Techniques Related to Rain Area Motion Using Ku-Band Satellite Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Yasuyuki; Nakatani, Takayuki; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Hatsuda, Takeshi

    Directions and speeds of the motion of rain areas are estimated for each type of rain fronts, using time differences detected in the rain attenuation of the Ku-band satellite radio wave signals that have been measured at Osaka Electro-Communication University (OECU) in Neyagawa, Osaka, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH) in Uji, Kyoto, and MU Observatory (MU) of Kyoto University in Shigaraki, Shiga, for the past five years since September 2002. These directions and speeds are shown to agree well with those directly obtained from the motion of rain fronts in the weather charts published by Japan Meteorological Agency. The rain area motion is found to have characteristic directions according to each rain type, such as cold and warm fronts or typhoon. A numerical estimate of the effects of site diversity techniques indicates that between two sites among the three locations (OECU, RISH, MU) separated by 20-50km, the joint cumulative time percentages of rain attenuation become lower as the two sites are aligned along the directions of rain area motion. In such a case, compared with the ITU-R recommendations, the distance required between the two sites may be, on an average, reduced down to about 60-70% of the conventional predictions.

  18. Relative roles of land- and ocean-atmosphere interactions in Asian-Pacific thermal contrast variability at the precessional band

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Jian, ZhiMin; Zhao, Ping; Xiao, Dong; Chen, JunMing

    2016-01-01

    In a 250-kyr transient simulation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we identified a precessional forced seesaw of the summer middle-upper tropospheric eddy temperature between Asia and the North Pacific as the paleo-APO (Asian-Pacific oscillation). The paleo-APO variability is out of phase with the precession parameter. Corresponding to a positive paleo-APO phase, both the subtropical anticyclonic circulation over the North Pacific and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strengthen. Summer anomalous sea surface temperature shows a western cold-eastern warm pattern over the extratropical North Pacific and a zonal positive-negative-positive pattern over the tropical Pacific. The variations in the simulated paleo-APO and East Asian southerly wind at the precessional band agree well with the geological proxies at the Dongge, Sanbao, Linzhu, and Hulu caves in China, which also implies that these proxies may well reflect the variability in the southerly wind over East Asia. Sensitivity experiments further reveal that the reduced precession parameter may enhance the positive paleo-APO phase and the associated EASM because of the response of the land-atmosphere interactions to the precessional insolation changes. The effect of the ocean-atmosphere interactions on the paleo-APO is secondary. PMID:27381940

  19. Relative roles of land- and ocean-atmosphere interactions in Asian-Pacific thermal contrast variability at the precessional band.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Jian, ZhiMin; Zhao, Ping; Xiao, Dong; Chen, JunMing

    2016-07-06

    In a 250-kyr transient simulation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we identified a precessional forced seesaw of the summer middle-upper tropospheric eddy temperature between Asia and the North Pacific as the paleo-APO (Asian-Pacific oscillation). The paleo-APO variability is out of phase with the precession parameter. Corresponding to a positive paleo-APO phase, both the subtropical anticyclonic circulation over the North Pacific and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strengthen. Summer anomalous sea surface temperature shows a western cold-eastern warm pattern over the extratropical North Pacific and a zonal positive-negative-positive pattern over the tropical Pacific. The variations in the simulated paleo-APO and East Asian southerly wind at the precessional band agree well with the geological proxies at the Dongge, Sanbao, Linzhu, and Hulu caves in China, which also implies that these proxies may well reflect the variability in the southerly wind over East Asia. Sensitivity experiments further reveal that the reduced precession parameter may enhance the positive paleo-APO phase and the associated EASM because of the response of the land-atmosphere interactions to the precessional insolation changes. The effect of the ocean-atmosphere interactions on the paleo-APO is secondary.

  20. A mixed quantum-classical description of pheophorbide a linear absorption spectra: Quantum-corrections of the Qy- and Qx-absorption vibrational satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megow, Jörg; Kulesza, Alexander; May, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    The ground-state classical path approximation is utilized to compute molecular absorption spectra in a mixed quantum-classical frame. To improve the description for high-frequency vibrational satellites, related quantum correction factors are introduced. The improved method is demonstrated for the Qy- and Qx-bands of pheophorbide a.

  1. RNA-seq Profiles of Immune Related Genes in the Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis Infected with White Band Disease

    PubMed Central

    Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2013-01-01

    Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways - Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal

  2. RNA-seq profiles of immune related genes in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis infected with white band disease.

    PubMed

    Libro, Silvia; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Vollmer, Steven V

    2013-01-01

    Coral diseases are among the most serious threats to coral reefs worldwide, yet most coral diseases remain poorly understood. How the coral host responds to pathogen infection is an area where very little is known. Here we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to produce a transcriptome-wide profile of the immune response of the Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis to White Band Disease (WBD) by comparing infected versus healthy (asymptomatic) coral tissues. The transcriptome of A. cervicornis was assembled de novo from A-tail selected Illumina mRNA-seq data from whole coral tissues, and parsed bioinformatically into coral and non-coral transcripts using existing Acropora genomes in order to identify putative coral transcripts. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the coral and non-coral datasets to identify genes that were up- and down-regulated due to disease infection. RNA-seq analyses indicate that infected corals exhibited significant changes in gene expression across 4% (1,805 out of 47,748 transcripts) of the coral transcriptome. The primary response to infection included transcripts involved in macrophage-mediated pathogen recognition and ROS production, two hallmarks of phagocytosis, as well as key mediators of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. The strong up-regulation of the enzyme allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase suggests a key role of the allene oxide pathway in coral immunity. Interestingly, none of the three primary innate immune pathways--Toll-like receptors (TLR), Complement, and prophenoloxydase pathways, were strongly associated with the response of A. cervicornis to infection. Five-hundred and fifty differentially expressed non-coral transcripts were classified as metazoan (n = 84), algal or plant (n = 52), fungi (n = 24) and protozoans (n = 13). None of the 52 putative Symbiodinium or algal transcript had any clear immune functions indicating that the immune response is driven by the coral host, and not its algal

  3. Analysis of Impurity Band Formation and Related Effects Near the P/N Junction in Compensated GaAs and Si.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    levels are shifted with respect to the edge of the conduction or valence band, forming impurity tands and causing changes in the band gap. In addition...Levels, (d) Densities of States for Conduction Band and Donor Levels, and (e) Densities of States for Acceptor Levels and Valence Band. Each Fig.(page...acceptor state distributions and the density-of-states data for the valence band. The horizontal axis is in this case referred to the edge of

  4. Donor impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a rectangular GaAs quantum dot in the presence of electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wang; Yun, Kang; Xianli, Li

    2016-11-01

    Within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model and effective mass approximation, we obtain the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of the ground (j = 1) and first 2 excited states (j = 2 and 3) of a donor impurity in a rectangular GaAs quantum dot in the presence of electric field. The donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as refractive index changes for the transitions j = 1-2 and j = 2-3 are investigated. The results show that the impurity position, incident optical intensity and electric field play important roles in the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. We find that the impurity effect induces the blueshift for j = 1-2 and redshift for j = 3-2 in the absence of the electric field, but it leads to redshift for j = 1-2 and blueshift for j = 3-2 in the existence of the field. Also, the optical coefficient for the higher energy transitions j = 2-3 is insensitive to variation of impurity positions, while that for the low energy transition j = 1-2 depends significantly on the positions of impurity. In addition, the saturation and splitting phenomenon of the optical absorption are observed as the incident optical intensity increases. Project supported by the Science and Technology Project of Education Department of Heilongjiang Province of China (No. 12541070).

  5. Three-Dimensional Single-Port Labyrinthine Acoustic Metamaterial: Perfect Absorption with Large Bandwidth and Tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    Metamaterials are engineered materials which exhibit fascinating properties unreachable by traditional materials. Here, we report on the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a three-dimensional single-port labyrinthine acoustic metamaterial. By using curled perforations with one end closed and with appropriate loss inside, the metamaterial can perfectly absorb airborne sounds in a low-frequency band. Both the position and the relative width of the band can be tuned flexibly. A trade-off is uncovered between the relative absorption bandwidth and thickness of the metamaterial. When the relative absorption bandwidth is as high as 51%, the requirement of deep-subwavelength thickness (0.07 λ ) can still be satisfied. We emphasize that the perfect absorption with large tunability in relative bandwidth (from 9% to >180 % ) was not attainable previously and may find applications ranging from noise reduction to sound imaging.

  6. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry.

    PubMed

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Nielsen, Jens B; Christensen, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963; Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998), in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008; Herz et al., 2012). Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA) region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC) region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009) favored a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favored for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60 Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ) band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.

  7. Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells by nano disks in a buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho; Seok Jeong, Doo; Seong Lee, Taek; Seong Lee, Wook; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate using finite-difference-time-domain calculations that embedding Ag nano disks (NDs) in the buffer layers of thin P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells can enhance optical absorption in the active layers at specific wavelength range. We show that the aspect ratio of the NDs is a key parameter for strong plasmonic absorption enhancement. Two different plasmonic absorption bands are observed stemming from optical refractive index differences among the layers surrounding the NDs in the solar cell devices. One absorption band by the surface plasmon mode localized at the interface of indium tin oxide/ND, which is undesirable for plasmonic absorption enhancement in the active layer, become negligible as the aspect ratio of the diameter-to-height increased. The other absorption band by the dipole-like surface plasmon mode, which plays a main role in enhancing the absorption in the active layer, is spectrally tunable by adjusting the aspect ratio of the NDs. The influences of diameter, height, and coverage of the NDs on optical absorption in the active layer are discussed. Embedding the optimal size NDs in the buffer layer leads to the enhanced total absorption in the 50 nm thick active layer by 16% relative to that without the NDs, and the optical absorption keeps enhanced with increasing the active layer thickness up to 90 nm. However, further increases in the active layer thickness are detrimental to absorption enhancement, which is considered to be caused by destructive interference between scattered light by the NDs and incident light.

  8. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  9. On the use of the autocorrelation function: the constraint of using frequency band-limited signals for monitoring relative velocity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Correlations of seismic noise are commonly used to monitor temporal variations of relative seismic velocity in period ranges from 1 s up to 100 s. Of particular interest is the detection of small changes in the order of 0.01-0.1 % in propagation speeds. Measuring such small differences can, however, be significantly biased by temporal variations in the properties of the noise sources within the corresponding frequency band. Using synthetic data, we show that apparent relative velocity variations might appear only due to changes in the amplitude and frequency content caused by source variations. Removing such unwanted effects by applying narrow bandpass filters in the preprocessing restricts the high-resolution analysis of any signal due to Gabor's uncertainty limit, i.e., the correlation function suffers a limited resolution to time delay estimates for small correlation times, low-frequency ranges, and in narrow frequency bands. Better understanding of spatiotemporal noise source properties and the theoretical limitations of time-frequency analysis is critical for accurate and reliable passive monitoring.

  10. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  11. Temperature dependences of mechanisms responsible for the water-vapor continuum absorption. II. Dimers and collision-induced absorption.

    PubMed

    Leforestier, C; Tipping, R H; Ma, Q

    2010-04-28

    We investigated the magnitude and temperature dependence (T dependence) of the dimer absorption in the region of 0-600 cm(-1) and the collision-induced absorption (CIA) in the region of 0-1150 cm(-1). Together with our previous study of the self water-vapor continuum contributions resulting from far-wing line shapes of the allowed H(2)O lines in the infrared window between 800 and 1150 cm(-1), we find that the three mechanisms have completely different T dependence behaviors. The dimer absorption has the strongest negative T dependence and the continuum absorption from far wings of the allowed lines has a moderately strong negative one. Meanwhile, the CIA exhibits a mild T dependence. In addition, their T dependence patterns are quite different. The T dependence of the far-wing theory varies significantly as the frequency of interest omega varies. For CIA, in general, its T dependence is mildly negative, but becomes slightly positive in the window region between the H(2)O bands. In contrast, the T dependence of the dimer absorption varies slightly as omega varies. In the microwave and submillimeter region, its T dependence becomes uniform. Concerning the relative importance for each of these three mechanisms, we find that in the infrared widow, the far-wing contributions are the dominant source of the self-continuum. Within the band, its contributions are definitely responsible for the measured continuum data. But, it is impossible to draw quantitatively conclusions on its relative importance unless one is able to improve the accuracy of the local line calculations significantly. On the other hand, within the pure rotational band, the dimer absorptions are a minor contributor to the self-continuum measurements, and its role becomes more important in the microwave and submillimeter regions. Finally, based on our study we conclude that contributions to the self-continuum from CIA in the frequency region of 0-1150 cm(-1) are negligible.

  12. Microbial organisms carried by brown-banded cockroaches in relation to their spatial distribution in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Le Guyader, A; Rivault, C; Chaperon, J

    1989-06-01

    A simultaneous study of cockroach (Supella supellectilium) distribution and of associated carried bacterial flora has been made in the main hospital in Rennes (France). Wild cockroaches carry a high number of bacterial species that can be related to the normal environmental flora and a contaminant flora acquired from particular environments. The diversity of carried bacterial species reveals a proximity factor between continguous floors of the building which leads us to suppose that cockroaches are able to forage from one floor to the other.

  13. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  14. Microbial organisms carried by brown-banded cockroaches in relation to their spatial distribution in a hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, A.; Rivault, C.; Chaperon, J.

    1989-01-01

    A simultaneous study of cockroach (Supella supellectilium) distribution and of associated carried bacterial flora has been made in the main hospital in Rennes (France). Wild cockroaches carry a high number of bacterial species that can be related to the normal environmental flora and a contaminant flora acquired from particular environments. The diversity of carried bacterial species reveals a proximity factor between continguous floors of the building which leads us to suppose that cockroaches are able to forage from one floor to the other. PMID:2737255

  15. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  16. Accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for geometrical and structural photoisomers of bilirubin IX alpha using the relative molar absorptivity values.

    PubMed

    Itoh, S; Isobe, K; Onishi, S

    1999-07-02

    It has been reported that considerable differences exist between the relative molar absorptivity values of the geometrical and structural photoisomers of bilirubin. We have devised an accurate HPLC method for photoisomer quantification based on the following principle: the sum of both the integrated peak areas corrected by each factor for each photoisomer, and the integrated peak area of unchanged (ZZ)-bilirubin [(ZZ)-B] after an anaerobic photoirradiation, should be constant and equal to the integrated peak area of initial (ZZ)-bilirubin [(ZZ)-Bi] before photoirradiation. On this basis, the following equation can be used to determine each factor. [equation: see text] alpha, beta, gamma and delta represent the factors used to correct the integrated peak areas of individual bilirubin photoisomers, and they are arranged in the order of the formula. It was demonstrated that the relative 455 nm molar absorptivity values for (ZZ)-bilirubin and all its geometrical and structural photoisomers, i.e., (ZZ)-bilirubin, (ZE)-bilirubin (EZ)-bilirubin, (EZ)-cyclobilirubin (= lumirubin) and (EE)-cyclobilirubin in the HPLC eluent, are, respectively, 1.0, 0.81 (= alpha), 0.54 (= beta), 0.47 (= gamma) and 0.39 (= delta).

  17. Nonlinear Saturable and Polarization-induced Absorption of Rhenium Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yudong; Lu, Feifei; Liu, Xueming

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), with lamellar structure as that of graphene, has attracted significant attentions in optoelectronics and photonics. Here, we focus on the optical absorption response of a new member TMDs, rhenium disulphide (ReS2) whose monolayer and bulk forms have the nearly identical band structures. The nonlinear saturable and polarization-induced absorption of ReS2 are investigated at near-infrared communication band beyond its bandgap. It is found that the ReS2-covered D-shaped fiber (RDF) displays the remarkable polarization-induced absorption, which indicates the different responses for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations relative to ReS2 plane. Nonlinear saturable absorption of RDF exhibits the similar saturable fluence of several tens of μJ/cm2 and modulation depth of about 1% for ultrafast pulses with two orthogonal polarizations. RDF is utilized as a saturable absorber to achieve self-started mode-locking operation in an Er-doped fiber laser. The results broaden the operation wavelength of ReS2 from visible light to around 1550 nm, and numerous applications may benefit from the anisotropic and nonlinear absorption characteristics of ReS2, such as in-line optical polarizers, high-power pulsed lasers, and optical communication system.

  18. Nonlinear Saturable and Polarization-induced Absorption of Rhenium Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yudong; Lu, Feifei; Liu, Xueming

    2017-01-05

    Monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), with lamellar structure as that of graphene, has attracted significant attentions in optoelectronics and photonics. Here, we focus on the optical absorption response of a new member TMDs, rhenium disulphide (ReS2) whose monolayer and bulk forms have the nearly identical band structures. The nonlinear saturable and polarization-induced absorption of ReS2 are investigated at near-infrared communication band beyond its bandgap. It is found that the ReS2-covered D-shaped fiber (RDF) displays the remarkable polarization-induced absorption, which indicates the different responses for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations relative to ReS2 plane. Nonlinear saturable absorption of RDF exhibits the similar saturable fluence of several tens of μJ/cm(2) and modulation depth of about 1% for ultrafast pulses with two orthogonal polarizations. RDF is utilized as a saturable absorber to achieve self-started mode-locking operation in an Er-doped fiber laser. The results broaden the operation wavelength of ReS2 from visible light to around 1550 nm, and numerous applications may benefit from the anisotropic and nonlinear absorption characteristics of ReS2, such as in-line optical polarizers, high-power pulsed lasers, and optical communication system.

  19. Nonlinear Saturable and Polarization-induced Absorption of Rhenium Disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yudong; Lu, Feifei; Liu, Xueming

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), with lamellar structure as that of graphene, has attracted significant attentions in optoelectronics and photonics. Here, we focus on the optical absorption response of a new member TMDs, rhenium disulphide (ReS2) whose monolayer and bulk forms have the nearly identical band structures. The nonlinear saturable and polarization-induced absorption of ReS2 are investigated at near-infrared communication band beyond its bandgap. It is found that the ReS2-covered D-shaped fiber (RDF) displays the remarkable polarization-induced absorption, which indicates the different responses for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations relative to ReS2 plane. Nonlinear saturable absorption of RDF exhibits the similar saturable fluence of several tens of μJ/cm2 and modulation depth of about 1% for ultrafast pulses with two orthogonal polarizations. RDF is utilized as a saturable absorber to achieve self-started mode-locking operation in an Er-doped fiber laser. The results broaden the operation wavelength of ReS2 from visible light to around 1550 nm, and numerous applications may benefit from the anisotropic and nonlinear absorption characteristics of ReS2, such as in-line optical polarizers, high-power pulsed lasers, and optical communication system. PMID:28053313

  20. Transition Energies and Absorption Oscillator Strengths for {{c}_{4}}^{\\prime 1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{u}}^{+}-{{\\rm{X}}}^{1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{g}}^{+}, {b}^{\\prime 1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{u}}^{+}-{{\\rm{X}}}^{1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{g}}^{+}, and {{c}_{5}}^{\\prime 1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{u}}^{+}-{{\\rm{X}}}^{1}{{{\\rm{\\Sigma }}}_{g}}^{+} Band Systems in N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavín, C.; Velasco, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical transition energies and absorption oscillator strengths for the {{c}4}\\prime 1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ (v‧ = 0–2, 5, 7, 8) ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+(v\\prime\\prime =0{--}14) and {{c}5}\\prime 1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ (v‧ = 0, 2) ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+ (v″ = 0–14) Rydberg bands, and {b}\\prime 1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ (v‧ = 0–9, 11, 12, 14–19, 21, 22) ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+ (v″ = 0–14) valence bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The strong interaction between {}1{{{{Σ }}}u}+ states has been dealt with through a vibronic interaction matrix. As a consequence of the Rydberg-valence interaction, irregularities in the vibrational structure of the above band systems are observed. Good agreement is found with the scarce high-resolution data that are available for oscillator strengths. The new band oscillator strengths reported here may be useful for a reliable interpretation of the spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, where {{{N}}}2 is the mayor constituent.

  1. Infrared absorption related to the metastable state of arsenic antisite defects in electron-irradiated GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuisma, S.; Saarinen, K.; Hautojaervi, P.; Corbel, C.

    1996-12-31

    A metastable irradiation-induced vacancy is detected by positrons in semi-insulating GaAs. The vacancy is associated with the metastable state of an irradition-induced As-antisite-related defect. This metastable state absorbs IR light in contrast to the metastable state of the As-antisite-related native EL2 defect. This property can be explained by the presence of other defects complexed with the As antisite in electron-irradiated GaAs.

  2. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  3. Association between HRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test band positivity and malaria-related anemia at a peripheral health facility in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ross; Reyes, Raquel; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Matte, Michael; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    The detection of severe malaria in resource-constrained settings is often difficult because of requirements for laboratory infrastructure and/or clinical expertise. The aim of this study, therefore, was to explore the utility of a multiple antigen (HRP-2/pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) as a low-cost, surrogate marker of patients at high risk for complications of severe malaria. We reviewed programmatic data at a peripheral health center in Western Uganda. Available demographic and clinical data on all individuals presenting to the center who underwent an RDT for suspected malaria infection were reviewed. We fit logistic regression models to identify correlates of two outcomes of interest: 1) severe malaria-related anemia, defined here as hemoglobin ≤7g/dL and 2) receipt of parenteral quinine. 1509 patients underwent malaria testing with an SD FK60 RDT during the observation period. A total of 637 (42%) RDTs were positive for at least one species of malaria, of which 326 (51%) exhibited a single HRP-2 band and 307 (48%) exhibited both HRP-2 and pLDH bands, while 4 exhibited only a single pLDH band. There was a trend towards more severe anemia in patients with a HRP-2/pLDH positive RDT compared to a HRP-2 only RDT (β = -0.99 g/dl, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.02, P = 0.055). A HRP-2/pLDH positive RDT was associated with an increased risk of severe malaria-related anemia compared to a negative RDT (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 18.8, 95% CI 4.32 to 82.0, P < 0.001) and to a HRP-2 only RDT (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 0.75 to 8.04, P = 0.14). There was no significant association between RDT result and the administration of parenteral quinine. These results offer preliminary evidence that specific patterns of antigen positivity on RDTs could be utilized to identify patients at an increased risk for complications of severe malaria.

  4. Absorption of CO laser radiation by NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Monat, J. P.; Kruger, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes absorption calculations and measurements at selected infrared CO laser wavelengths which are nearly coincident with absorption lines in the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO near 5.3 microns. Initial work was directed towards establishing the optimal CO laser-NO absorption line coincidence for high temperature applications. Measurements of the absorption coefficient at this optimal laser wavelength were carried out, first using a room-temperature absorption cell for high-temperature calculations and then using a shock tube, for the temperature range 630-4000 K, to validate the high temperature calculations.

  5. Optical absorption in semiconductor quantum dots coupling to dispersive phonons of infinite modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhiwen; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Hang

    2012-10-01

    Optical absorption spectrum of semiconductor quantum dot is investigated by means of an analytical approach based on the Green's function for different forms of coupling strength in an unified method by using the standard model with valence and conduction band levels coupled to dispersive quantum phonons of infinite modes. The analytical expression of the optical absorption coefficient in semiconductor quantum dots is obtained and by this expression the line shape and the peak position of the absorption spectrum are procured. The relation between the properties of absorption spectrum and the forms of coupling strength is clarified, which can be referenced for choosing the proper form of the coupling strength or spectral density to control the features of absorption spectrum of quantum dot. The coupling and confinement induced energy shift and intensity decrease in the absorption spectrum are determined precisely for a wide range of parameters. The results show that the activation energy of the optical absorption is reduced by the effect of exciton-phonon coupling and photons with lower frequencies could also be absorbed in absorption process. With increase of the coupling constant, the line shape of optical absorption spectrum broadens and the peak position moves to lower photon energy with a rapid decrease in intensity at the same time. Both the coupling induced red shift and the confinement induced blue shift conduce to decrease in the intensity of absorption spectrum. Furthermore, this method may have application potential to other confined quantum systems.

  6. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  7. Microwave absorption properties and mechanism of cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Xiao-Yong; Jin, Hai-Bo; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Yu-Jin

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in detail. Dielectric constants and losses of the pure cagelike ZnO nanostructures were measured in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4GHz. The measured results indicate that the cagelike ZnO nanostructures are low-loss material for microwave absorption in X band. However, the cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites exhibit a relatively strong attenuation to microwave in X band. Such strong absorption is related to the unique geometrical morphology of the cagelike ZnO nanostructures in the composites. The microcurrent network can be produced in the cagelike ZnO nanostructures, which contributes to the conductive loss.

  8. Effect of in-material losses on terahertz absorption, transmission, and reflection in photonic crystals made of polar dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Serebryannikov, Andriy E.; Nojima, S.; Alici, K. B.; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-10-07

    The effect of the material absorption factor on terahertz absorption (A), transmittance (T), and reflectance (R) for slabs of PhC that comprise rods made of GaAs, a polar dielectric, is studied. The main goal was to illustrate how critical a choice of the absorption factor for simulations is and to indicate the importance of the possible modification of the absorption ability by using either active or lossy impurities. The spectra of A, T, and R are strongly sensitive to the location of the polaritonic gap with respect to the photonic pass and stop bands connected with periodicity that enables the efficient combination of the effects of material and structural parameters. It will be shown that the spectra can strongly depend on the utilized value of the material absorption factor. In particular, both narrow and wide absorption bands may appear owing to a variation of the material parameters with a frequency in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. The latter are often achieved at wideband suppression of transmission, so that an ultra-wide stop band can appear as a result of adjustment of the stop bands having different origin. The results obtained at simultaneous variation of the absorption factor and frequency, and angle of incidence and frequency, indicate the possibility of the existence of wide ranges of tolerance, in which the basic features do remain. This allows for mitigating the accuracy requirements for the absorption factor in simulations and promises the efficient absorption of nonmonochromatic waves and beams with a wide angular spectrum. Suppression of narrowband effects in transmission is demonstrated at rather large values of the absorption factor, when they appear due to either the defect modes related to structural defects or dispersion inspired variations of the material parameters in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. Comparison with auxiliary structures helps one to detect the common features and differences of homogeneous slabs and slabs of a

  9. Critical Review Upon the Role and Potential of Fluorescence and Near-Infrared Imaging and Absorption Spectroscopy in Cancer Related Cells, Serum, Saliva, Urine and Tissue Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huck, Christian W; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Huck-Pezzei, Verena A

    2016-01-01

    During the last years, non-invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic tools in cancer diagnostics have become more important. Many fluorescence spectroscopic methodologies have been established for nearly all different kinds of cancer. The reason therefore is its high sensitivity, low amount of sample required, short testing time, and the suitability for in situ testing. The potential influence factors for cancer diagnostics and the subsequent suitability of the method to different applications are well described. Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is based on differences of endogenous chromophores between cancer and normal tissues using either oxyhaemoglobin or deoxy-haemoglobin, lipid or water bands, or a combination of two or more of these diagnostic markers. These marker bands are known to provide the fundamental for the diagnosis of several cancers and the spectroscopic setup can be applied for the analysis of cells, urine and tissue. For the preparation of this review the literature published during the last fifteen years has been taken into consideration. It will provide an overview on the importance of the fluorescence and NIRS tools in cancer analysis giving hints about how these techniques can play a crucial role in cancer diagnosis, treatment decisions and therapy. The two techniques, fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are faced to each other and individual advantages and/or drawbacks are discussed. Finally, it will be taken into consideration; how the synergistic combination of different approaches can give additional information related to development and progression stages of cancer.

  10. PERITONEAL ABSORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, P. F.; Miller, L. L.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.; Whipple, G. H.

    1944-01-01

    The absorption of red cells from the normal peritoneum of the dog can be demonstrated by means of red cells labeled with radio-iron incorporated in the hemoglobin of these red cells. Absorption in normal dogs runs from 20 to 100 per cent of the amount given within 24 hours. Dogs rendered anemic by bleeding absorb red cells a little less rapidly—ranging from 5 to 80 per cent of the injected red cells. Doubly depleted dogs (anemic and hypoproteinemic) absorb even less in the three experiments recorded. This peritoneal absorption varies widely in different dogs and even in the same dog at different times. We do not know the factors responsible for these variations but there is no question about active peritoneal absorption. The intact red cells pass readily from the peritoneal cavity into lymph spaces in diaphragm and other areas of the peritoneum. The red cells move along the lymphatics and through the lymph glands with little or no phagocytosis and eventually into the large veins through the thoracic ducts. PMID:19871404

  11. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Deborah C

    2004-03-01

    Our understanding of nutrient absorption continues to grow, from the development of unique animal models and from studies in which cutting-edge molecular and cellular biologic approaches have been used to analyze the structure and function of relevant molecules. Studies of the molecular genetics of inherited disorders have also provided many new insights into these processes. A major advance in lipid absorption has been the cloning and characterization of several intestinal acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases; these may provide new targets for antiobesity drug therapy. Studies of intestinal cholesterol absorption and reverse cholesterol transport have encouraged the development of novel potential treatments for hyperlipidemia. Observations in genetically modified mice and in humans with mutations in glucose transporter 2 suggest the importance of a separate microsomal membrane transport pathway for glucose transport. The study of iron metabolism has advanced greatly with the identification of the hemochromatosis gene and the continued examination of the genetic regulation of iron absorptive pathways. Several human thiamine transporters have been identified, and their specific roles in different tissues are being explored.

  12. Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the nu4 (sigma u) fundamental and associated nu11(pi u) hot band of C7 - Evidence for alternating rigidity in linear carbon clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, J. R.; Saykally, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The first characterization of the bending potential of the C7 cluster is reported via the observation of the v = 1(1) and v = 2 deg levels of the nu11 (pi u) bend as hot bands associated with the nu4 (sigma u) antisymmetric stretch fundamental. The lower state hot band rotational constants are measured to be 1004.4(1.3) and 1123.6(9.0) MHz, constituting a 9.3 and 22 percent increase over the ground state rotational constant, 918.89 (41) MHz. These large increases are strong quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants determined for the ground and nu 4 = 1 states are found to be anomalously large and negative, evidencing strong perturbations between stretching and bending modes.

  13. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2006-04-10

    The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique.

  14. Improved conversion efficiency of GaN-based solar cells with Mn-doped absorption layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Huang, Feng-Wen; Lee, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ming-Lun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Lai, Wei-Chih

    2013-08-01

    GaN-based solar cells with Mn-doped absorption layer grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy were investigated. The transmittance spectrum and the spectral response showed the presence of an Mn-related band absorption property. Power-dependent, dual-light excitation, and lock-in amplifier techniques were performed to confirm if the two-photon absorption process occurred in the solar cells with Mn-doped GaN absorption layer. Although a slight decrease in an open circuit voltage was observed, a prominent increase in the short circuit current density resulted in a significant enhancement of the overall conversion efficiency. Under one-sun air mass 1.5 G standard testing condition, the conversion efficiency of Mn-doped solar cells can be enhanced by a magnitude of 5 times compared with the cells without Mn-doped absorption layer.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions and the diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10), and pyrene (C16H10) absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible. C10H8(+) has 12 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 5000 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBS at 6520, 6151, and 5965 A, other moderately strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in a Ne matrix, a position which falls very close to the strongest DIB, that at 4430 A. If C16H10(+), or a closely related pyrene-like ion is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. We also report an intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR.

  16. Cognitive demands during quiet standing elicit truncal tremor in two frequency bands: differential relations to tissue integrity of corticospinal tracts and cortical targets

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Edith V.; Zahr, Natalie M.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stand quietly is disturbed by degradation of cerebellar systems. Given the complexity of sensorimotor integration invoked to maintain upright posture, the integrity of supratentorial brain structures may also contribute to quiet standing and consequently be vulnerable to interference from cognitive challenges. As cerebellar system disruption is a common concomitant of alcoholism, we examined 46 alcoholics and 43 controls with a force platform to derive physiological indices of quiet standing during cognitive (solving simple, mental arithmetic problems) and visual (eyes closed) challenges. Also tested were relations between tremor velocity and regional gray matter and white matter tissue quality measured with the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metric of mean diffusivity (MD), indexing disorganized microstructure. Spectral analysis of sway revealed greater tremor in alcoholic men than alcoholic women or controls. Cognitive dual-tasking elicited excessive tremor in two frequency bands, each related to DTI signs of degradation in separate brain systems: tremor velocity at a low frequency (2–5 Hz/0–2 Hz) correlated with higher MD in the cerebellar hemispheres and superior cingulate bundles, whereas tremor velocity at a higher frequency (5–7 Hz) correlated with higher MD in the motor cortex and internal capsule. These brain sites may represent “tremorgenic networks” that, when disturbed by disease and exacerbated by cognitive dual-tasking, contribute to postural instability, putting affected individuals at heightened risk for falling. PMID:25904858

  17. Quality assessment of recombinant proteins by infrared spectroscopy. Characterisation of a protein aggregation related band of the Ca²⁺-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenge; Kumar, Saroj; Montigny, Cédric; le Maire, Marc; Barth, Andreas

    2014-09-07

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to characterise recombinant sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1a). In the amide I region, its spectrum differed from that of Ca(2+)-ATPase prepared from rabbit fast twitch muscle below 1650 cm(-1). A band at 1642 cm(-1) is reduced in the spectrum of the recombinant protein and a band at 1631 cm(-1) is more prominent. By comparison of amide I band areas with the known secondary structure content of the protein, we assigned the 1642 cm(-1) band to β-sheet structure. Further investigation revealed that the 1642 cm(-1) band decreased and the 1631 cm(-1) band increased upon storage at room temperature and upon repeated washing of a protein film with water. Also protein aggregates obtained after solubilisation of the rabbit muscle enzyme showed a prominent band at 1631 cm(-1), whereas the spectrum of solubilised ATPase resembled that of the membrane bound protein. The spectral position of the 1631 cm(-1) band is similar to that of a band observed for inclusion bodies of other proteins. The findings show that the absence of the 1642 cm(-1) band and the presence of a prominent band at 1631 cm(-1) indicate protein aggregation and can be used as a quality marker for the optimisation of recombinant protein production. We conclude that recombinant production of SERCA1a, storage at room temperature, repeated washing and aggregation after solubilisation all modify existing β-sheets in the cytosolic domains so that they become similar to those found in inclusion bodies of other proteins.

  18. Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng; Shi, Jinhui

    2014-11-17

    We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.

  19. Low-frequency and broad band metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liang Kui; Cheng, Hai Feng; Zhou, Yong Jiang; Wang, Jun

    2011-10-01

    We report a metamaterial absorber (MA) with a broad absorption band in the frequency region of 2-4 GHz, whose thickness is not limited to the quarter-wavelength. Theoretical and experimental results show that the absorber has two adjacent absorption apexes at 2.24 and 3.46 GHz, respectively, which are both related to the electric and magnetic resonances of the metamaterial. The absorption is over 68% in the whole wave band of 2-4 GHz provided the thickness of 4 mm. The distributions of the surface currents and the power loss density indicate that the surface currents produced by the electric and magnetic resonances are strongly consumed by the resistive patches. This low-frequency absorber has potential applications in many scientific and martial fields.

  20. Predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumann-Runge absorption bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18 in the wavelength region 180-196 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, S. S.-L.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Yoshino et al. (1988) measurements of absolute cross sections and those of Cheung et al. (1988) for spectroscopic constants are presently used to derive the predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumman-Runge bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18, in the 180-196 nm wavelength region. Linewidths are determined as parameters in the nonlinear, least-squares fitting of calculated cross-sections to measured ones. The predissociation linewidths obtained are noted to often be greater than previously obtained experimental values for both isotopic molecules.

  1. Relative loudness of low- and high-frequency bands of speech-shaped babble, including the influence of bandwidth and input level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidser, Gitte; Katsch, Richard; Dillon, Harvey; Grant, Frances

    2002-02-01

    In a balancing test, ten normal-hearing listeners adjusted filtered speech-shaped babble-noise to equally loud levels. On average, they selected about 10 dB less gain for bands below 1 kHz than for bands above and including 1 kHz. The findings applied to two bandwidths (octave and equivalent rectangular bandwidth) and two levels (65 and 85 dB SPL). The outcome suggests that hearing aid fitting procedures aiming to equalize loudness of speech bands should prescribe less low-frequency gain than procedures aiming to normalize loudness of speech bands. A significant interaction was found between bandwidth and input level for the high-frequency bands.

  2. Three Band Indexes for Leaf Nitrogen Content estimation in Holm oak in a temporal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Labrador, J.; González, M. R.; Martín, M. P.; Riaño, D.; Salas, J.

    2011-12-01

    Holm oak Leaf Nitrogen Content (LNC) has been estimated in a Mediterranean savanna ecosystem "dehesa" in the Iberian Peninsula using an ASD FieldSpec° FR3 spectroradiometer connected to a Plant Probe with Leaf Clip (www.asdi.com). One of each ten bands between 400nm and 2500nm were selected, and two different Three Bands Indexes (TBI) with all the possible band combinations were built. Linear and logarithmic empirical relations with LNC were analyzed and the most correlated models were independently and inter-annually validated using the bootstrap technique. Data from two complete phenological years were used, the first one for calibration and the second for validation. The consideration of the temporal variation of both, optical responses and LNC resulted critical for the achievement of robust models, which showed high correlations (R2 max =0.81) and low errors (RMSE min = 8.74%). Nitrogen absorption bands were found in the selected indexes where non-correlated bands and usually the red edge region were also involved. Three Band Indexes may be sensible to physical responses of nitrogen bounds in the leaf molecules, though it is still necessary proving the influence of such absorptions in these relations.

  3. SPECTRAL RELATIVE ABSORPTION DIFFERENCE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-17

    When analyzing field data, the uncertainty in the background continuum emission produces the majority of error in the final gamma-source analysis. The background emission typically dominates an observed spectrum in terms of counts and is highly variable spatially and temporally. The majority of the spectral shape of the background continuum is produced by combinations of cosmic rays, {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, and {sup 220}Rn, and the continuum is similar in shape to the 15%-20% level for most field observations. However, the goal of spectroscopy analysis is to pick up subtle peaks (<%5) upon this large background. Because the continuum is falling off as energy increases, peak detection algorithms must first define the background surrounding the peak. This definition is difficult when the range of background shapes is considered. The full spectral template matching algorithms are heavily weighted to solving for the background continuum as it produces significant counts over much of the energy range. The most appropriate background mitigation technique is to take a separate background observation without the source of interest. But, it is frequently not possible to record a background observation in the exact location before (or after) a source has been detected. Thus, one uses approximate backgrounds that rely on spatially nearby locations or similar environments. Since the error in many field observations is dominated by the background, a technique that is less sensitive to the background would be quite beneficial. We report the result of an initial investigation into a novel observation scheme for gamma-emission detection in high background environments. Employing low resolution, NaI, detectors, we examine the different between the direct emission and the 'spectral-shadow' that the gamma emission produces when passed through a thin absorber. For this detection scheme to be competitive, it is required to count and analyze individual gamma-events. We describe the unique instrumental setup which we assembled to make these measurements.

  4. Correlation between relative growth rate and specific leaf area requires associations of specific leaf area with nitrogen absorption rate of roots.

    PubMed

    Osone, Yoko; Ishida, Atsushi; Tateno, Masaki

    2008-07-01

    Close correlations between specific leaf area (SLA) and relative growth rate (RGR) have been reported in many studies. However, theoretically, SLA by itself has small net positive effect on RGR because any increase in SLA inevitably causes a decrease in area-based leaf nitrogen concentration (LNCa), another RGR component. It was hypothesized that, for a correlation between SLA and RGR, SLA needs to be associated with specific nitrogen absorption rate of roots (SAR), which counteracts the negative effect of SLA on LNCa. Five trees and six herbs were grown under optimal conditions and relationships between SAR and RGR components were analyzed using a model based on balanced growth hypothesis. SLA varied 1.9-fold between species. Simulations predicted that, if SAR is not associated with SLA, this variation in SLA would cause a47% decrease in LNCa along the SLA gradient, leading to a marginal net positive effect on RGR. In reality, SAR was positively related to SLA, showing a 3.9-fold variation, which largely compensated for the negative effect of SLA on LNCa. Consequently, LNCa values were almost constant across species and a positive SLA-RGR relationship was achieved. These results highlight the importance of leaf-root interactions in understanding interspecific differences in RGR.

  5. Numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating disk related to development of a spacecraft absorption cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating and a stationary disk related to the development of an absorber unit for a high capacity spacecraft absorption cooling system, is described. The creation of artificial gravity by the use of a centrifugal field was focused upon in this report. Areas covered include: (1) One-dimensional computation of thin liquid film flows; (2) Experimental measurement of film height and visualization of flow; (3) Two-dimensional computation of the free surface flow of a thin liquid film using a pressure optimization method; (4) Computation of heat transfer in two-dimensional thin film flow; (5) Development of a new computational methodology for the free surface flows using a permeable wall; (6) Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin film in the presence and absence of gravity; and (7) Comparison of theoretical prediction and experimental data. The basic phenomena related to fluid flow and heat transfer on rotating systems reported here can also be applied to other areas of space systems.

  6. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al0.3Ga0.7As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  7. Near-infrared absorptions of monomethylhydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Mark; Kurtz, Joe

    1993-01-01

    The peak absorption coefficients for two near-infrared absorptions of monomethylhydrazine, CH3-N2H3, (MMH) were measured. Absorption bands located at 1.524 micrometers (6560/cm), 1.557 micrometers (6423/cm), and 1.583 micrometers (6316/cm) are assigned to the Delta upsilon = 2 overtones of the infared N-H stretching fundamentals at 3317, 3245 and 3177/cm. An absorption band located at 1.04 micrometers (9620 +/- 100/cm) is assigned to the Delta upsilon = 3 overtone of one of these fundamentals. The peak absorption coefficients (alpha(sub 10)) at 1.524 micrometers (6560 +/- 20/cm) and 1.04 micrometers (9620 +/- 100/cm) are 31 x 10(exp -3) and 0.97 x 10(exp -3)/(cm atm), respectively. Uncertainties in these coefficients were estimated to be less than +/- 20% due primarily to uncertainties in the partial vapor pressure of MMH.

  8. Polarized fluorescence and absorption of macroscopically aligned Light Harvesting Complex II.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, H; Kwa, S L; van Bolhuis, B M; van Grondelle, R

    1994-08-01

    Polarized absorption and fluorescence measurements have been performed at 77 K on isotropic and anisotropic preparations of trimeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHC-II) from spinach. The results enable a decomposition of the absorption spectrum into components parallel and perpendicular to the trimeric plane. For the first time, it is shown quantitatively that the strong absorption band around 676 nm is polarized essentially parallel to the plane of the trimer, i.e., the average angle between the corresponding transition dipole moments and this plane is at most 12 degrees. The different absorption bands for LHC-II should not be considered as corresponding to individual pigments but to collective excitations of different pigments. Nevertheless, the average angle between the Qy transition dipole moments of all chlorophyll a pigments in LHC-II and the trimeric plane could be determined and was found to be 17.5 degrees +/- 2.5 degrees. For the chlorophyll b pigments, this angle is significantly larger (close to 35 degrees). At 77 K, most of the fluorescence stems from a weak band above 676 nm and the corresponding transition dipole moments are oriented further out of plane than the dipole moments corresponding to the 676-nm band. The results are shown to be of crucial significance for understanding the relation between the LHC-II structure and its spectroscopy.

  9. Compositional dependence of optical band gap and refractive index in lead and bismuth borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mallur, Saisudha B.; Czarnecki, Tyler; Adhikari, Ashish; Babu, Panakkattu K.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Refractive indices increase with increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. • Optical band gap arises due to direct forbidden transition. • Optical band gaps decrease with increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. • New empirical relation between the optical band gap and the refractive index. - Abstract: We prepared a series of lead and bismuth borate glasses by varying PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and studied refractive index and optical band gap as a function of glass composition. Refractive indices were measured very accurately using a Brewster’s angle set up while the optical band gaps were determined by analyzing the optical absorption edge using the Mott–Davis model. Using the Lorentz–Lorentz method and the effective medium theory, we calculated the refractive indices and then compared them with the measured values. Bismuth borate glasses show better agreement between the calculated values of the refractive index and experimental values. We used a differential method based on Mott–Davis model to obtain the type of transition and optical band gap (E{sub opt}) which in turn was compared with the value of E{sub opt} obtained using the extinction coefficient. Our analysis shows that in both lead and bismuth borate glasses, the optical band gap arises due to direct forbidden transition. With increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, the absorption edge shifts toward longer wavelengths and the optical band gap decreases. This behavior can be explained in terms of changes to the Pb−O/Bi−O chemical bonds with glass composition. We obtained a new empirical relation between the optical band gap and the refractive index which can be used to accurately determine the electronic oxide polarizability in lead and bismuth oxide glasses.

  10. The Oxygen a Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Hoo, Jiajun; Hodges, Joseph; Long, David A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Okumura, Mitchio; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Rupasinghe, Priyanka

    2014-06-01

    The oxygen A band is used for numerous atmospheric experiments, but spectral line parameters that sufficiently describe the spectrum to the level required by OCO2 and other high precision/accuracy experiments are lacking. Fourier transform spectra from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and cavity ring down spectra from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were fitted simultaneously using the William and Mary multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique into a single solution including the entire band. In addition, photoacoustic spectra already available from the California Institute of Technology will be added to the solution. The three types of spectrometers are complementary allowing the strengths of each to fill in the weaknesses of the others. With this technique line positions, intensities, widths, shifts, line mixing, Dicke narrowing, temperature dependences and collision induced absorption have been obtained in a single physically consistent fit. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at The College of William and Mary, the, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Support for the National Institute of Standards and Technology was provided by the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program and a NIST Innovations in Measurement Science (IMS) award.

  11. Study of Evanescence Wave Absorption in Lindane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Prasetyo, E.; Gitrin, M. P.; Suryanti, V.

    2017-02-01

    Evanescent wave field has been studied for the purpose of tailoring fiber sensor capable of detecting lindane concentration in a solution. The mounted fiber was optically polished such that part of the fiber clad is stripped off. To study the evanescent wave field absorption in lindane solution, the unclad fiber was immersed in the solution. Light coming out of the fiber was studied at different wavelength each for different lindane concentration. It was shown that evanescent wave field absorption is stronger at wavelength corresponding to lindane absorption band as has been shown from absorption studies lindane in UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer.

  12. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the

  13. Comparison of the chromosomes of Triticum timopheevi with related wheats using the techniques of C-banding and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J; Miller, T E; Jahier, J; Shepherd, K W

    1982-03-01

    The chromosomes of the tetraploid wheats Triticum timopheevi (Genome AAGG) and T. araraticum (Genome AAGG) were C-banded at mitosis. The identity of the banded and unbanded chromosomes was then established by firstly making comparisons with the hexaploid species T. zhukovskyi which has the genome formula AAAAGG. Secondly, the meiotic pairing in F1 hybrids between T. timopheevi and diploid wheats was examined by means of C-banding. The results showed that the banded chromosomes belonged to the G genome, while the unbanded chromosomes belonged to the A genome. Only one of the two pairs of satellited chromosomes had strong heterochromatic bands. The relationship between the genomes of T. timopheevi and T. dicoccum (Genome AABB) was then assessed at meiosis in hybrids between these species, using the techniques of C-banding and in situ hybridisation of a cloned ribosomal RNA gene probe. It was concluded that there were differences both in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin and also translocation differences between the species.

  14. Band gap estimation from temperature dependent Seebeck measurement—Deviations from the 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max} relation

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Zachary M.; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-01-12

    In characterizing thermoelectric materials, electrical and thermal transport measurements are often used to estimate electronic band structure properties such as the effective mass and band gap. The Goldsmid-Sharp band gap, E{sub g} = 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max}, is a tool widely employed to estimate the band gap from temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient measurements. However, significant deviations of more than a factor of two are now known to occur. We find that this is when either the majority-to-minority weighted mobility ratio (A) becomes very different from 1.0 or as the band gap (E{sub g}) becomes significantly smaller than 10 k{sub B}T. For narrow gaps (E{sub g} ≲ 6 k{sub B}T), the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics applied by Goldsmid-Sharp break down and Fermi-Dirac statistics are required. We generate a chart that can be used to quickly estimate the expected correction to the Goldsmid-Sharp band gap depending on A and S{sub max}; however, additional errors can occur for S < 150 μV/K due to degenerate behavior.

  15. Nonlinear optical absorption tuning in Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ferroelectric thin films by thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Zhong, X. L. E-mail: jbwang@xtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Y.; Wang, J. B. E-mail: jbwang@xtu.edu.cn; Song, H. J.; Tan, C. B.; Li, B.; Cheng, G. H.; Liu, X.

    2015-04-06

    The tunability of nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption in Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNT) ferroelectric thin films was investigated through the open aperture Z-scan method with femtosecond laser pulses at the wavelength of 800 nm. NLO absorption responses of the BNT films were observed to be highly sensitive to the film thickness. As the film thickness increases from 106.8 to 139.7 nm, the NLO absorption changes from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA). When the film thickness further increases to 312.9 nm, the RSA effect is enhanced. A band-gap-related competition between the ground-state excitation and the two-photon absorption is responsible for the absorption switching behavior. Such a tunable NLO absorption can widen the photonic application of the BNT thin films.

  16. Theoretical study of the AlO blue-green (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) band system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Lengsfield, B. H., III; Liu, B.

    1983-01-01

    Two independent, extensive theoretical calculations are reported for the relative band strengths of the AlO (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) blue-green system and for the radiative lifetimes of the lowest few vibrational levels of the B2Sigma(+) state. The theoretical lifetimes, which include a small (less than -.5 percent) contribution from bound-bound transitions into the A2Pi state, are in excellent agreement with laser fluorescence studies. The theoretical lifetimes increase monotonically and very slowly with increasing vibrational quantum number. The relative band strengths for the blue-green system derived from the two theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement, but differ systematically from the relative band strengths of Linton and Nicholls (1969). The present results suggest that their self-absorption corrections are not large enough, resulting in relative intensities that are too large, especially for the weak bands with r centroids less than 1.5 A.

  17. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.

    1997-01-01

    Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than $1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate.

  18. The Red Edge Problem in asteroid band parameter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Dunn, Tasha L.; Emery, Joshua P.; Bowles, Neil E.

    2016-04-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids contain two absorptions at 1 and 2 μm (band I and II) that are diagnostic of mineralogy. A parameterization of these two bands is frequently employed to determine the mineralogy of S(IV) asteroids through the use of ordinary chondrite calibration equations that link the mineralogy to band parameters. The most widely used calibration study uses a Band II terminal wavelength point (red edge) at 2.50 μm. However, due to the limitations of the NIR detectors on prominent telescopes used in asteroid research, spectral data for asteroids are typically only reliable out to 2.45 μm. We refer to this discrepancy as "The Red Edge Problem." In this report, we evaluate the associated errors for measured band area ratios (BAR = Area BII/BI) and calculated relative abundance measurements. We find that the Red Edge Problem is often not the dominant source of error for the observationally limited red edge set at 2.45 μm, but it frequently is for a red edge set at 2.40 μm. The error, however, is one sided and therefore systematic. As such, we provide equations to adjust measured BARs to values with a different red edge definition. We also provide new ol/(ol+px) calibration equations for red edges set at 2.40 and 2.45 μm.

  19. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of prosthesis-related metals in whole blood using volumetric absorptive micro-sampling and tandem ICP - Mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Phan, Kim; Balcaen, Lieve; Resano, Martín; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-10-19

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the suitability of a novel sample collection approach, volumetric absorptive micro-sampling (VAMS), in the context of the determination of ultra-trace concentrations of prosthesis-related metals (Al, Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Sr and Zr) in whole blood. In a first phase, a simple dilute-and-shoot approach (100-fold dilution) followed by tandem ICP - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) analysis was developed for the accurate and sensitive determination of the target elements. The ICP-MS/MS method relies on the use of mass shift reactions proceeding when pressurizing the collision/reaction cell (CRC) with CH3F/He for dealing with spectral overlap. Limits of detection (LoDs) between 0.3 and 30 ng L(-1) were attained in a multi-element approach. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated via successful analysis of the reference materials Seronorm Whole Blood Levels 1 and 3, and real venous blood samples, spiked with the target elements at different concentration levels (5-50 μg L(-1)). Although the implementation of VAMS devices introduced contamination problems for Al, Cr and Ni, VAMS followed by ICP-MS/MS analysis shows potential for future real-life routine applications when assessing levels of Ti, V, Co, Sr and/or Zr.

  20. Determination of cobalt, nickel, lead, bismuth and indium in ores, soils and related materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry after separation by xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1989-05-01

    A method for determining approximately 0.5, mug/g or more of cobalt, nickel and lead and approximately 3 mug/g or more of bismuth and indium in ores, soils and related materials is described. After sample decomposition and dissolution of the salts in dilute hydrochloric-tartaric acid solution, iron(III) is reduced with ascorbic acid and the resultant iron(II) is complexed with ammonium fluoride. Cobalt, nickel, lead, bismuth and indium are subsequently separated from iron, aluminium, zinc and other matrix elements by a triple chloroform extraction of their xanthate complexes at pH 2.00 +/- 0.05. After the removal of chloroform by evaporation and the destruction of the xanthates with nitric and perchloric acids, the solution is evaporated to dryness and the individual elements are ultimately determined in a 20% v/v hydrochloric acid medium containing 1000 mug/ml potassium by atomic-absorption spectrometry with an air-acetylene flame. Co-extraction of arsenic and antimony is avoided by volatilizing them as the bromides during the decomposition step. Small amounts of co-extracted molybdenum, iron and copper do not interfere.

  1. Multi-band slow light metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wu, Qun; Hua, Jun

    2012-02-13

    In this paper, a multi-band slow light metamaterial is presented and investigated. The metamaterial unit cell is composed of three cut wires of different sizes and parallel to each other. Two transparency windows induced by two-two overlaps of absorption bands of three cut wires are observed. The multi-band transmission characteristics and the slow light properties of metamaterial are verified by numerical simulation, which is in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The impacts of structure parameters on transparency windows are also investigated. Simulation results show the spectral properties can be tuned by adjusting structure parameters of metamaterial. The equivalent circuit model and the synthesis method of the multi-band slow light metamaterial are presented. It is seen from simulation results that the synthesis method accurately predicts the center frequency of the multi-band metamaterial, which opens a door to a quick and accurate construction for multi-band slow light metamaterial.

  2. Reflective-tube absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Bartz, Robert; Kitchen, James C.

    1990-09-01

    The design and calibration of a proposed in situ spectral absorption meter is evaluated using a laboratory prototype. The design includes a silver coated (second-surface) glass tube, a tungsten light source (stabilized by means of optical feedback), a monochromator, and a solid state detector. The device measures the absorption coefficient plus a portion of the volume scattering function. Theoretical analyses and laboratory experiments which explore the magnitude and variation of the errors due to scattering and internal reflections are described. Similar analyses are performed on the Cary 1 18 Spectrophotometer to allow cross calibration. Algorithms to yield the abscrption coefficient and the zenith-sun diffuse attenuation coefficient are presented and evaluated. Simultaneous measurement of the beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient allows use of algoriThms with much narrower error bands. The various methods of obtaining absorption and diffuse attenuation values are compared. Procedures for using reverse osmosis filtration to produce a clean water calibration standard are described. An absorption spectrum for pure water is obtained. Development of the absorption meter is proceeding along two lines: 1) a two-wavelength side-by-side LED is being fabricated to allow an in situ chlorophyll a absorption meter to be constructed, and 2) scientific projects using a shipboard or laboratory flow.-through pumping system are being planned.

  3. Multi-Band-SWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials.

  4. Multi-Band-SWIFT.

    PubMed

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A; Garwood, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials.

  5. [Study of cholesterol concentration based on serum UV-visible absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Guo, Xin; Chen, Hui

    2009-04-01

    In the present paper, UV-visible absorption spectrum and neural network theory were used for the analysis of cholesterol concentration. Experimental investigation shows that the absorption spectrum has the following characteristics in the wave band of 350-600 nm: (1) There is a stronger absorption peak at 416 nm for the test sample with different cholesterol concentration; (2) There is a shoulder peak between 450 and 500 nm, whose central wavelength is 460 nm; (3) There is a weaker peak at 578 nm; (4) Absorption spectrums shape of different cholesterol concentration is different obviously. The absorption spectrum of serum is the synthesis result of cholesterol and other components (such as sugar), and the information is contained at each wavelength. There is no significant correlation between absorbance and cholesterol content at 416 nm, showing a random relation, so whether cholesterol content is abnormal is not determined by the absorbance peak at 416 nm. Based on the evident correlation between serum absorption spectrum and cholesterol concentration in the wave band of 455-475 nm, a neural network model was built to predict the cholesterol concentration. The correlation coefficient between predicted cholesterol content output A and objectives T reaches 0.968, which can be regarded as better prediction, and it provides a spectra test method of cholesterol concentration.

  6. The Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectra of Neutral PAHs in Dense Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe and are expected to be present in dense interstellar clouds. In these environments, some P.4Hs may be present in the gas phase, but most should be frozen into ice mantles or adsorbed onto dust grains and their spectral features are expected to be seen in absorption. Here we extend our previous work on the infrared spectral properties of the small PAH naphthalene (C10H8) in several media to include the full mid-infrared laboratory spectra of 11 other PAHs and related aromatic species frozen in H2O ices. These include the molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, anthracene, 9,1O-dihydroanthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, pentacene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene. These results demonstrate that PAHs and related molecules, as a class, show the same spectral behaviors as naphthalene when incorporated into H2O-rich matrices. When compared to the spectra of these same molecules isolated in inert matrices (e.g., Ar or N2), the absorption bands produced when they are frozen in H2O matrices are broader (factors of 3-10), show small position shifts in either direction (usually < 4/cm, always < 10/cm), and show variable changes in relative band strengths (typically factors of 1-3). There is no evidence of systematic increases or decreases in the absolute strengths of the bands of these molecules when they are incorporated in H2O matrices. In H2O-rich ices, their absorption bands are relatively insensitive to concentration over the range of 10 < H2O/PAH < 200): The absorption bands of these molecules are also insensitive to temperature over the 10 K < T < 125 K range, although the spectra can show dramatic changes as the ices are warmed through the temperature range in which amorphous H2O ice converts to its cubic and hexagonal crystalline forms (T > 125 Kj. Given the small observed band shifts cause by H2O, the current database of spectra from Ar matrix

  7. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiang; Shi, Xiheng; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Zhang, Shaohua; Miller, Lauren P.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ∼700 and ∼1400 km s‑1 relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do not change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V-band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ∼700 km s‑1 has a density in the range of 109 to 1010 cm‑3 and a distance of ∼1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ∼1400 km s‑1 has a density of 103 cm‑3 and a distance of ∼1 kpc.

  8. Infrared absorption on a complex comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herklotz, F.; Hupfer, A.; Johansen, K. M.; Svensson, B. G.; Koch, S. G.; Lavrov, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    A hydrogen-related defect in ZnO which causes two broad IR absorption bands at 3303 and 3321 cm-1 is studied by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy and first-principles theory. In deuterated samples, the defect reveals two sharp absorption lines at 2466 and 2488 cm-1 accompanied by weaker sidebands at 2462 and 2480 cm-1. Isotope substitution experiments with varying concentrations of H and D together with polarization-sensitive measurements strongly suggest that these IR absorption lines are due to stretch local vibrational modes of a defect comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms. The zinc vacancy decorated by three hydrogen atoms, VZnH3 , and ammonia trapped at the zinc vacancy, (NH3)Zn, are discussed as a possible origin for the complex.

  9. Computer programs for absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N

    1969-03-01

    Brief descriptions are given of twenty-two modular computer programs for performing the basic numerical computations of absorption spectrophotometry. The programs, written in Fortran IV for card input and output, are available from the National Research Council of Canada. The input and output formats are standardized to permit easy interfacing to yield more complex data processing systems. Though these programs were developed for ir spectrophotometry, they are readily modified for use with digitized visual and uv spectrophotometers. The operations covered include ordinate and abscissal unit and scale interconversions, ordinate addition and subtraction, location of band maxima and minima, smoothing and differentiation, slit function convolution and deconvolution, band profile analysis and asymmetry quantification, Fourier transformation to time correlation curves, multiple overlapping band separation in terms of Cauchy (Lorentz), Gauss, Cauchy-Gauss product, and Cauchy-Gauss sum functions and cell path length determination from fringe spacing analysis.

  10. Ultrafast band-gap oscillations in iron pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, B; Kolpak, AM

    2013-12-20

    With its combination of favorable band gap, high absorption coefficient, material abundance, and low cost, iron pyrite, FeS2, has received a great deal of attention over the past decades as a promising material for photovoltaic applications such as solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells. Devices made from pyrite, however, exhibit open circuit voltages significantly lower than predicted, and despite a recent resurgence of interest in the material, there currently exists no widely accepted explanation for this disappointing behavior. In this paper, we show that phonons, which have been largely overlooked in previous efforts, may play a significant role. Using fully self-consistent GW calculations, we demonstrate that a phonon mode related to the oscillation of the sulfur-sulfur bond distance in the pyrite structure is strongly coupled to the energy of the conduction-band minimum, leading to an ultrafast (approximate to 100 fs) oscillation in the band gap. Depending on the coherency of the phonons, we predict that this effect can cause changes of up to +/- 0.3 eV relative to the accepted FeS2 band gap at room temperature. Harnessing this effect via temperature or irradiation with infrared light could open up numerous possibilities for novel devices such as ultrafast switches and adaptive solar absorbers.

  11. Metamaterial with electromagnetic transparency under multiband absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Qi, Limei

    2017-02-01

    We propose a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) metamaterial that has an electromagnetic (EM) transparency spectrum under multiband absorptions in the C and the X bands. The ground continuous metal film used in the conventional metamaterial absorber (MA) is replaced by a structured ground plane (SGP) in our design. The band-pass properties of the front patterned metal film and the SGP determine the EM transparency spectrum, while the magnetic and the electric resonances in the MDM structure contribute to the multiband absorptions. Due to the symmetric structure of the unit cell, the absorption bands and the EM transparency spectrum of the metamaterial have the property of polarization independency. Despite the normal incidence, the metamaterial can also be used for non-normal incidence.

  12. Optical absorption of polar and semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells for blue to green converter structures

    SciTech Connect

    Neuschl, B. Helbing, J.; Thonke, K.

    2014-11-14

    The optical absorption of indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/GaN multi quantum wells (QWs) is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. For different sample structures, either planar or three-dimensional, including QWs with different tilts relative to the (0001) plane of the wurtzite crystal, the room temperature absorption spectra were measured. We observe increasing absorption for larger indium content in the active zone and for increasing QW thickness. The semipolar structures with their reduced internal electric field are favorable with respect to the spectral absorption when compared with polar samples. Numerical k ⋅ p based simulations for quantum wells with variable thickness, indium content, and orientation are in accordance with the experimental results. By taking all QW energy eigenstates in all bands as well as the orientation dependent transition probabilities into account, the spectral absorption for arbitrary sample structures can be calculated.

  13. On the nature of the Mn-related states in the band structure of (Ga,Mn)As alloys via probing the E{sub 1} and E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1} optical transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Gluba, L. Yastrubchak, O.; Kulik, M.; Żuk, J.; Sęk, G.; Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Misiewicz, J.; Sadowski, J.; Rzodkiewicz, W.; Andrearczyk, T.; Wosinski, T.

    2014-07-21

    The dilute (Ga,Mn)As became a model ferromagnetic semiconductor, however there is still a disagreement on the source of its magnetism. In this paper, we verify the ellipsometric results and compare them with more precise photoreflectance method, which gives an important insight into the interaction of the Mn-related states with the ones of GaAs valence band. No spectral shifts observed for the E{sub 1} and E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1} interband transitions in highly doped and annealed (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers indicate that the coupling between a detached Mn impurity band and the valence band does not occur. Our findings are supported by the characterizations of the (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers with the high resolution transmission electron microscopy and magnetization measurements.

  14. High-Absorption-Efficiency Superlattice Solar Cells by Excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaga, Jiro; Kawaharazuka, Atsushi; Onomitsu, Koji; Horikoshi, Yoshiji

    2013-11-01

    The effect of excitonic absorption on solar cell efficiency has been investigated using solar cells with AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice structures. Numerical calculations reveal that excitonic absorption considerably enhances the overall absorption of bulk GaAs. Excitonic absorption shows strong and sharp peaks at the absorption edge and in the energy region above the band gap. Absorption enhancement is also achieved in the AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice. The measured quantum efficiency spectra of the superlattice solar cells are quite similar to the calculated absorption spectra considering the excitonic effect. The superlattice solar cells are confirmed to have high absorption coefficient compared with the GaAs and AlGaAs bulk solar cells. These results suggest that the enhanced absorption by excitons can increase the quantum efficiency of solar cells. This effect is more prominent for the solar cells with small absorption layer thicknesses.

  15. Pearl-type micropulsations at mid-latitude; their relation to whistlers, solar and geomagnetic activity as well as ionospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märcz, F.; Verő, J.

    2002-02-01

    The occurrence of pearl-type (Pc 1) micropulsations recorded at the mid-latitude station Nagycenk (Hungary) during a half solar cycle showed a quite regular variation on this long time scale. Around solar activity maximum, the number of days with Pc 1 occurrence was rather low, while it began to increase during medium solar activity rising to a maximum around solar activity minimum. Pc 1 pulsations have been analyzed in relation to further parameters and on a shorter time scale, too. Based on data of 2 years with maximum Pc 1 occurrence (around solar activity minimum in 1985 and 1986), a seasonal variation was also found. Additionally, it was confirmed that pearl-type micropulsations might frequently occur, on and after days, with geomagnetic disturbances. At Nagycenk, the selected geomagnetic disturbances were generally associated with an increased ionospheric absorption of radio waves caused by enhanced ionization due to particle precipitation from the magnetosphere into the lower ionosphere. Whistler observations carried out at Panska Veš (a station in the Czech Republic) showed a significant whistler activity connected with these geomagnetic disturbances, however, no after-effect appeared in whistler activity. One of the main goals of the present study was to find a relationship between Pc 1 pulsations and whistlers. Results revealing an increased whistler activity associated with Pc 1 occurrences confirm our previous findings rather convincingly. The latter ones hinted at the probability that certain magnetospheric configurations, e.g. geomagnetic field line shells and whistler ducts are closely connected, as similar positions of the two structures were found within the magnetosphere when characteristics of Pc 3 pulsations and whistlers were analyzed.

  16. Interpretation of the Minkowski bands in Grw + 70 deg 8247.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration on the basis of the spectral structure of circular polarization in Grw + 70 deg 8247, that the absorption bands are at least in part molecular in origin. The spectrum of molecular helium has strong bands coincident with several of the Minkowski bands and, in particular, at high temperature shows a strong band head at about 4125 A. Helium molecules could be formed in sufficient density to give the absorption features in the star if it has a pure helium atmosphere. The Zeeman effect in molecular helium can explain in general the observed spectral features in the polarization and also may be responsible for the continuum polarization.

  17. Low-level optical absorption phenomena in organic thin films for solar cell applications investigated by highly sensitive photocurrent and photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, Ludwig J.; Haenen, Ken; Nesladek, Milos; Poruba, A.; Vanecek, M.; Wagner, P.; Lutsen, Laurence J.; Manca, Jean; Vanderzande, Dirk; De Schepper, Luc

    2004-09-01

    Optical absorption phenomena and in particular sub band gap absorption features are of great importance in the understanding of processes of charge generation and transport in organic pure and composite semiconductor films. To come towards this objective, an alternative and high sensitive spectroscopic approach is introduced to examine the absorption of light in pure and compound organic semiconductors. Because sub band gap absorption features are typically characterized by very low absorption coefficients, it is not possible to resolve them using common transmission and reflection measurements and high sensitive alternatives are needed. Therefore, a combination of photocurrent (Constant Photocurrent Method CPM/Fourier Transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy FT-PS) and photothermal techniques (Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy PDS) has been used, increasing sensitivity by a factor of thousand, reaching detectable absorption coefficients ((E) down to 0.1 cm-1. In this way, the dynamic range of measurable absorption coefficients is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to transmission/reflection measurements. These techniques have been used here to characterize ground state absorption of thin films of MDMO-PPV, PCBM and a mixture of both materials in a 1:4 ratio, as typically used in a standard active layer in a fully organic solar cell. The spectra reveal defect related absorption phenomena and significant indication of existing interaction in the ground state between both materials, contrary to the widely spread conviction that this is not the case. Experimental details of the techniques and measurement procedures are explained.

  18. WIDE BAND REGENERATIVE FREQUENCY DIVIDER AND MULTIPLIER

    DOEpatents

    Laine, E.F.

    1959-11-17

    A regenerative frequency divider and multiplier having wide band input characteristics is presented. The circuit produces output oscillations having frequencies related by a fixed ratio to input oscillations over a wide band of frequencies. In accomplishing this end, the divider-multiplier includes a wide band input circuit coupled by mixer means to a wide band output circuit having a pass band related by a fixed ratio to that of the input circuit. A regenerative feedback circuit derives a fixed frequency ratio feedback signal from the output circuit and applies same to the mixer means in proper phase relation to sustain fixed frequency ratio oscillations in the output circuit.

  19. Quantification of Myofascial Taut Bands

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Hua-jun; Gay, Ralph E.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Manduca, Armando; An, Kai-Nan; Ehman, Richard E.; Basford, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the correlation of clinician identified myofascial taut bands with their presence and characteristics on Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) imaging. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting An MRI research laboratory. Participants A convenience sample of 65 adults (45 women, 20 men) identified by skilled musculoskeletal physicians as having upper trapezius myofascial pain associated taut bands. Interventions Subjects had their taut bands outlined and were positioned within a 1.5T MRI machine. Shear waves were induced with a pneumatic transducer located over the belly of the involved muscle. Wave propagation was visualized with MRE images across a vibration-cycle. Imaging data was assessed independently by two skilled MRE interpreters. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure was the determination of the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of MRE taut band identification and their correlation with clinician identification of band presence. Secondary outcomes consisted of the elucidation of the physical characteristics of taut bands and their surrounding muscle tissue. Results MRE intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent with Kappa's and 95% Confidence intervals (CI) of 0.86, [0.68, 1.00]; and 0.93, [0.79, 1.00], respectively. Stiffness in MRE identified taut bands was elevated at a mean of 11.5 KPa (±2.4 KPa) and fell to a mean of 5.8 KPa (± 0.9 KPa) in surrounding muscle tissue (p<0.001); muscular tone in trapezius muscles without a taut band was relatively uniform at a mean of 6.6 KPa (±2.1 KPa). Agreement between the physicians and the MRE raters, however, was relatively poor (63.1%, 95% CI [50.2%, 74.7%]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that while clinicians may overestimate, and current MRE techniques may underestimate, the presence of taut bands, that these bands exist, can be assessed quantitatively, and do represent localized areas of increased muscle stiffness. PMID:26461163

  20. Aqueous boundary layers related to oral absorption of a drug: from dissolution of a drug to carrier mediated transport and intestinal wall metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2010-10-04

    The aqueous boundary layer (ABL) affects various aspects of oral absorption of a drug, from dissolution of the drug to the apparent K(m) value of intestinal wall metabolism and carrier mediated transport. However, the importance of ABL has often been entirely ignored in oral absorption investigation. In this minireview, the effect of ABL on oral absorption of a drug is discussed in an easy-to-understand manner. This review starts with an introduction of the boundary layer theory with many illustrations (and links to public web movies visualizing the ABL), and then discusses some specific cases of interest in pharmaceutical science, such as dissolution of floating drug particles in the USP paddle apparatus. The effect of the boundary layer on the membrane permeation is also discussed from the viewpoint of structure permeability relationship, carrier mediated transport/metabolism and estimation of the fraction of a dose absorbed for poor solubility compounds.

  1. Atmospheric Absorption Parameters for Laser Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    high-resolution, good photometric accuracy data for numerous bands in the 3-5 Am region, using the facility at Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory. The...L49-L52 (2001). 44. A. Castrillo, G. Gagliardi, G. Casa , and L. Gianfrani, "Combined interferometric and absorption-spectroscopic technique for...from FT visible solar absorption spectra and evaluation of spectroscopic databases," JQRST 82, 133-150 (2003). 53. D. Jacquemart, R.R. Gamache, and L.S

  2. Solvatochromic behavior of the electronic absorption spectra of gallic acid and some of its azo derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Hagagg, Sawsan S.; Ali, Alaa E.; Nasr, Nessma M.

    The electronic absorption spectra of gallic acid and its azo derivatives have been studied in various solvents of different polarities. Multiple regression techniques were applied to calculate the regression and correlation coefficients based on an equation that relates the wavenumbers of the absorption band maxima (υmax-) to the solvent parameters; refractive index (n), dielectric constant (D), empirical Kamlet-Taft solvent parameters, π*(dipolarity/polarizability), α (solvent hydrogen-bond donor acidity) and β (solvent hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity). The fitting coefficient obtained from this analysis allows estimating the contribution of each type of interactions relative to total spectral shifts in solution. The dependence of υmax- on the solvent parameters indicates that the obtained bands are affected by specific and non-specific solute-solvent interactions.

  3. Correlation Between Bands Structure and Magneto-Transport Properties in n-type HgTe/CdTe Superlattice with Relatively Thin CdTe Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Braigue, M.; Nafidi, A.; Chaib, H.; Tirbiyine, A.; Hemine, J.; Idbaha, A.; Boulkassim, A.; El Gouti, T.; Massaq, M.; Talwar, Devki N.; SrinivasaVinod, M.

    2011-12-26

    Theoretical calculations of the electronic properties of n-type HgTe/CdTe superlattices (SLs) in the envelope function formalism have provided a reasonable agreement with the experimental data on the magneto-transport behavior. Numerical results of the band energies E(d{sub 2}), E(k{sub z}) and E(k{sub p}) in the direction of growth and in plane of the SLs predict that the system retains semiconductor characteristics for d{sub 1}/d{sub 2} = 2.69 and d{sub 2}<10 nm. For d{sub 2} = 3.2 nm the calculated effective band gap (E{sub g}({Gamma},4.2 K) = 48 meV) suggests that the material sample is a two-dimensional modulated nanostructure and a potential candidate to be used for the far infrared detection applications.

  4. Relating thematic mapper bands TM3, TM4, and TM5 to agronomic variables for corn, cotton, sugarbeet, soybean, sorghum, sunflower and tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Red, photographic infrared, near infrared spectral data of corn, cotton, soybeans, sugar beets, sorghum, sunflowers and tobacco were collected throughout the entire growing season by using a three band handheld radiometer. Different radiance patterns were found among these crops based on their morphology, green biomass duration and leaf size. Results show near infrared radiance is a good indicator of water content in plant tissue under small scale experimental conditions.

  5. Diffuse Interstellar Bands in Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Sarre, P.; Marshall, C. C. M.; Spekkens, K.; de Naray, R. Kuzio

    Recent Fabry-Pérot observations towards the galaxy NGC 1325 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) led to the serendipitous discovery of an emission feature centered at 661.3 nm arising from material in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy; this emission feature lies at the wavelength of one of the sharper and stronger diffuse bands normally seen in absorption. The flux of the feature is 4.2 +/- 0.5 × 10-18 es-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. It appears that this is the first observation of emission from a diffuse band carrier in the ISM, excited in this case by the interstellar radiation field. We present the discovery spectra and describe follow-up measurements proposed for SALT.

  6. Review of the absorption spectra of solid O2 and N2 as they relate to contamination of a cooled infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    During contamination studies for the liquid helium cooled shuttle infrared telescope facility, a literature search was conducted to determine the absorption spectra of the solid state of homonuclear molecules of O2 and N2, and ascertain what laboratory measurements of the solid have been made in the infrared. With the inclusion of one unpublished spectrum, the absorption spectrum of the solid oxygen molecule has been thoroughly studied from visible to millimeter wavelengths. Only two lines appear in the solid that do not also appear in the gas or liquid. A similar result is implied for the solid nitrogen molecule because it also is homonuclear. The observed infrared absorption lines result from lattice modes of the alpha phase of the solid, and disappear at the warmer temperatures of the beta, gamma, and liquid phases. They are not observed from polycrystalline forms of O2, while strong scattering is. Scattering, rather than absorption, is considered to be the principal natural contamination problem for cooled infrared telescopes in low earth orbit.

  7. Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Wright, C W; Lyon, P E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K

    1999-12-20

    Oceanic radiance model inversion methods are used to develop a comprehensive algorithm for retrieval of the absorption coefficients of phycourobilin (PUB) pigment, type I phycoerythrobilin (PEB) pigment rich in PUB, and type II PEB deficient in PUB pigment (together with the usual "big three" inherent optical properties: the total backscattering coefficient and the absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)-detritus and phytoplankton). This fully modeled inversion algorithm is then simplified to yield a hybrid modeled-unmodeled inversion algorithm in which the phycoerythrin (PE) absorption coefficient is retrieved as unmodeled 488-nm absorption (which exceeds the modeled phytoplankton and the CDOM-detritus absorption coefficients). Each algorithm was applied to water-leaving radiances, but only hybrid modeled-unmodeled inversions yielded viable retrievals of the PE absorption coefficient. Validation of the PE absorption coefficient retrieval was achieved by relative comparison with airborne laser-induced PEB fluorescence. The modeled-unmodeled retrieval of four inherent optical properties by direct matrix inversion is rapid and well conditioned, but the accuracy is strongly limited by the accuracy of the three principal inherent optical property models across all four spectral bands. Several research areas are identified to enhance the radiance-model-based retrievals: (a) improved PEB and PUB absorption coefficient models, (b) PE spectral shifts induced by PUB chromophore substitution at chromophore binding sites, (c) specific absorption-sensitive phytoplankton absorption modeling, (d) total constituent backscattering modeling, (e) unmodeled carotinoid and phycocyanin absorption that are not now accounted for in the chlorophyll-dominated phytoplankton absorption coefficient model, and (f) iterative inversion techniques to solve for six constituents with only five radiances. Although considerable progress has been made toward the

  8. Molecular absorption features in translucent clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krelowski, Jacek

    2007-12-01

    Interstellar clouds, composed of neutral hydrogen, consist about 90% of the total mass of interstellar medium. Their absorption spectra contain: continuous extinction, atomic lines, molecular features and the unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The latter are also believed to be carried by some, rather complex molecules. A vast majority of DIBs is characterized by small central depths. This is why they became observable only since the solid state detectors are widely applied in astrophysics. It is to be emphasized that interstellar absorptions, seen along the same line of sight, may be in fact originated in several, different environments (clouds). The extensive database of echelle spectra allowed to prove that the CaII column density evidently correlates with parallaxes of OB-3 stars in contrast to other interstellar species. Thus CaII is quite evenly distributed in the interstellar medium while other species (NaI, KI, CaI, CH, CN, DIB carriers) are not. This fact is of basic importance as the ob- served spectra cannot be physically interpreted if they mix features originated in different clouds, i.e. in different environments. The abundance ratios of interstellar molecules (identified and DIB carriers) differ from cloud to cloud due to different physical processes which govern their formation. High resolution, high S/N spectra, prove that also profiles of diffuse bands vary from cloud to cloud - this fact strongly supports a molecular origin of these, still nidentified, features and motivates investigation of their relations to other molecules; they can reveal physical conditions which facilitate formation of the DIB carriers and lead to their identification.

  9. Iron deficiency up-regulates iron absorption from ferrous sulphate but not ferric pyrophosphate and consequently food fortification with ferrous sulphate has relatively greater efficacy in iron-deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Biebinger, Ralf; Egli, Ines; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F

    2011-04-01

    Fe absorption from water-soluble forms of Fe is inversely proportional to Fe status in humans. Whether this is true for poorly soluble Fe compounds is uncertain. Our objectives were therefore (1) to compare the up-regulation of Fe absorption at low Fe status from ferrous sulphate (FS) and ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and (2) to compare the efficacy of FS with FPP in a fortification trial to increase body Fe stores in Fe-deficient children v. Fe-sufficient children. Using stable isotopes in test meals in young women (n 49) selected for low and high Fe status, we compared the absorption of FPP with FS. We analysed data from previous efficacy trials in children (n 258) to determine whether Fe status at baseline predicted response to FS v. FPP as salt fortificants. Plasma ferritin was a strong negative predictor of Fe bioavailability from FS (P < 0·0001) but not from FPP. In the efficacy trials, body Fe at baseline was a negative predictor of the change in body Fe for both FPP and FS, but the effect was significantly greater with FS (P < 0·01). Because Fe deficiency up-regulates Fe absorption from FS but not from FPP, food fortification with FS may have relatively greater impact in Fe-deficient children. Thus, more soluble Fe compounds not only demonstrate better overall absorption and can be used at lower fortification levels, but they also have the added advantage that, because their absorption is up-regulated in Fe deficiency, they innately 'target' Fe-deficient individuals in a population.

  10. Band Anticrossing in Highly Mismatched Compound Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys in which metallic anions are partially replaced with more electronegative isoelectronic atoms have recently attracted significant attention. Group IIIN(sub x)V(sub 1-x) alloys with a small amount of the electronegative N substituting more metallic column V elements has been the most extensively studied class of such Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). We have shown that many of the unusual properties of the IIIN(sub x)V(sub 1-x) alloys can be well explained by the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model that describes the electronic structure in terms of an interaction between highly localized levels of substitutional N and the extended states of the host semiconductor matrix. Most recently the BAC model has been also used to explain similar modifications of the electronic band structure observed in Te-rich ZnS(sub x)Te(sub 1-x) and ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) alloys. To date studies of HMAs have been limited to materials with relatively small concentrations of highly electronegative atoms. Here we report investigations of the electronic structure of ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) alloys in the entire composition range, y between 0 and 1. The samples used in this study are bulk ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) crystals grown by either a modified Bridgman method or by physical vapor transport. Photomodulated reflection (PR) spectroscopy was used to measure the composition dependence of optical transitions from the valence band edge and from the spin-orbit split off band to the conduction band. The pressure dependence of the band gap was measured using optical absorption in a diamond anvil cell. We find that the energy of the spin-orbit split off valence band edge does not depend on composition and is located at about 3 eV below the conduction band edge of ZnSe. On the Te-rich side the pressure and the composition dependence of the optical transitions are well explained by the BAC model which describes the downward shift of the conduction band edge in terms of the

  11. Band Anticrossing in Highly Mismatched Compound Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A.; Su, Ching-Hua; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys in which metallic anions are partially replaced with more electronegative isoelectronic atoms have recently attracted significant attention. Group IIIN(x)V(1-x), alloys with a small amount of the electronegative N substituting more metallic column V elements has been the most extensively studied class of such Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). We have shown that many of the unusual properties of the IIIN(x),V(1-x) alloys can be well explained by the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model that describes the electronic structure in terms of an interaction between highly localized levels of substitutional N and the extended states of the host semiconductor matrix. Most recently the BAC model has been also used to explain similar modifications of the electronic band structure observed in Te-rich ZnS(x)Te(l-x) and ZnSe(Y)Te(1-y) alloys. To date studies of HMAs have been limited to materials with relatively small concentrations of highly electronegative atoms. Here we report investigations of the electronic structure of ZnSe(y)Te(1-y) alloys in the entire composition range, 0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 1. The samples used in this study are bulk ZnSe(y)Te(1-y) crystals grown by either a modified Bridgman method or by physical vapor transport. Photomodulated reflection (PR) spectroscopy was used to measure the composition dependence of optical transitions from the valence band edge and from the spin-orbit split off band to the conduction band. The pressure dependence of the band gap was measured using optical absorption in a diamond anvil cell. We find that the energy of the spin-orbit split off valence band edge does not depend on composition and is located at about 3 eV below the conduction band edge of ZnSe. On the Te-rich side the pressure and the composition dependence of the optical transitions are well explained by the BAC model which describes the downward shift of the conduction band edge in terms of the interaction between

  12. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Xu, W.

    2011-06-01

    We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at room temperature. The intensity of SAW absorption by graphene depends strongly on temperature and can be adjusted by changing the carrier density. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as frequency-tunable SAW devices.

  13. UV-visible luminescence properties of the broad-band Yb:CALGO laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffres, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Loiseau, P.; Viana, B.; Doualan, J. L.; Moncorgé, R.

    2015-03-01

    Yb:CALGO is now recognized to exhibit outstanding properties for the production of high-power and ultra-short laser pulses in the near infrared spectral range. However, various UV-visible absorption bands can be also observed due to different types of charge transfer mechanisms. Some of them are assigned to the formation of color centers due to small polarons and others to O2-→Yb3+ ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transitions. The former can be removed by using adequate thermal treatments. The latter are intrinsic and they are very intense with cross sections of about two orders of magnitude larger that the near infrared ones. In fact, such LMCT absorption bands are responsible for relatively large changes of ionic polarizabilities and to non-negligible pseudo-nonlinear changes of refractive indices which should certainly affect the laser properties of Yb:CALGO at high pump power levels.

  14. Energy band gap and optical transition of metal ion modified double crossover DNA lattices.

    PubMed

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Ha, Taewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Choi, Kyujin; Lee, Junwye; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Sung Ha

    2014-10-22

    We report on the energy band gap and optical transition of a series of divalent metal ion (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) modified DNA (M-DNA) double crossover (DX) lattices fabricated on fused silica by the substrate-assisted growth (SAG) method. We demonstrate how the degree of coverage of the DX lattices is influenced by the DX monomer concentration and also analyze the band gaps of the M-DNA lattices. The energy band gap of the M-DNA, between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), ranges from 4.67 to 4.98 eV as judged by optical transitions. Relative to the band gap of a pristine DNA molecule (4.69 eV), the band gap of the M-DNA lattices increases with metal ion doping up to a critical concentration and then decreases with further doping. Interestingly, except for the case of Ni(2+), the onset of the second absorption band shifts to a lower energy until a critical concentration and then shifts to a higher energy with further increasing the metal ion concentration, which is consistent with the evolution of electrical transport characteristics. Our results show that controllable metal ion doping is an effective method to tune the band gap energy of DNA-based nanostructures.

  15. Electronic- and band-structure evolution in low-doped (Ga,Mn)As

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrubchak, O.; Gluba, L.; Żuk, J.; Sadowski, J.; Krzyżanowska, H.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; Wosinski, T.

    2013-08-07

    Modulation photoreflectance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been applied to study the electronic- and band-structure evolution in (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers with increasing Mn doping in the range of low Mn content, up to 1.2%. Structural and magnetic properties of the layers were characterized with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and SQUID magnetometery, respectively. The revealed results of decrease in the band-gap-transition energy with increasing Mn content in very low-doped (Ga,Mn)As layers with n-type conductivity are interpreted as a result of merging the Mn-related impurity band with the host GaAs valence band. On the other hand, an increase in the band-gap-transition energy with increasing Mn content in (Ga,Mn)As layers with higher Mn content and p-type conductivity indicates the Moss-Burstein shift of the absorption edge due to the Fermi level location within the valence band, determined by the free-hole concentration. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of mobile holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in the (Ga,Mn)As diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor.

  16. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived