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Sample records for absorption coefficient ratio

  1. Stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for Solid Water.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Paliwal, B R

    1986-01-01

    The AAPM Task Group 21 protocol provides tables of ratios of average restricted stopping powers and ratios of mean energy-absorption coefficients for different materials. These values were based on the work of Cunningham and Schulz. We have calculated these quantities for Solid Water (manufactured by RMI), using the same x-ray spectra and method as that used by Cunningham and Schulz. These values should be useful to people who are using Solid Water for high-energy photon calibration. PMID:3724702

  2. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-21

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for ¹⁹²Ir and ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish 'an envelope of uncertainty' based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µ(en)/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, u(c), for the µ(en)/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For ⁶⁰Co and ¹⁹²Ir, u(c) is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µ(en)/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µ(en)/ρ)(graphite,air) and (µ(en)/ρ)(graphite,water) are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µ(en)/ρ)(water,air), decreasing gradually down to u(c) = 0.1% for the three µ(en)/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well

  3. Backscatter factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for diagnostic radiology dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Benmakhlouf, Hamza; Bouchard, Hugo; Fransson, Annette; Andreo, Pedro

    2011-11-21

    Backscatter factors, B, and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios, (μ(en)/ρ)(w, air), for the determination of the surface dose in diagnostic radiology were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The main purpose was to extend the range of available data to qualities used in modern x-ray techniques, particularly for interventional radiology. A comprehensive database for mono-energetic photons between 4 and 150 keV and different field sizes was created for a 15 cm thick water phantom. Backscattered spectra were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo system, scoring track-length fluence differential in energy with negligible statistical uncertainty; using the Monte Carlo computed spectra, B factors and (μ(en)/ρ)(w, air) were then calculated numerically for each energy. Weighted averaging procedures were subsequently used to convolve incident clinical spectra with mono-energetic data. The method was benchmarked against full Monte Carlo calculations of incident clinical spectra obtaining differences within 0.3-0.6%. The technique used enables the calculation of B and (μ(en)/ρ)(w, air) for any incident spectrum without further time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. The adequacy of the extended dosimetry data to a broader range of clinical qualities than those currently available, while keeping consistency with existing data, was confirmed through detailed comparisons. Mono-energetic and spectra-averaged values were compared with published data, including those in ICRU Report 74 and IAEA TRS-457, finding average differences of 0.6%. Results are provided in comprehensive tables appropriated for clinical use. Additional qualities can easily be calculated using a designed GUI interface in conjunction with software to generate incident photon spectra.

  4. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500 Hz.

  5. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  6. Optical absorption coefficients of pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng; Zhao, Xianzhen; Fry, Edward S.

    2002-10-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter(ICAM), which is independent of scattering effect, is used to measure the absolute values of small optical absorption coefficients of liquid. A modified ICAM is being used to measure the absorption of water in the wavelength range 300 to 700 nm. The ultrapure water produced by a two-stages water purification system reaches Type I quality. This is equal to or better than ASTM,CAP and NCCLS water quality standards. To avoid the fact that dissolved oxygen absorbs ultraviolet light due to the photochemical effect, the water sample is delivered through a nitrogen sealed system which will prevent the sample from contacting with oxygen. A compassion of our absorption spectrum with other existing data is given.

  7. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  8. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  9. Scattering and absorption coefficients of silica-doped alumina aerogels.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tairan; Tang, Jiaqi; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Alumina-based aerogels are especially useful in many applications due to their excellent stability at high temperatures. This study experimentally analyzed the radiative properties of silica-doped alumina aerogels through spectral directional-hemispherical measurements for wavelengths of 0.38-25 μm. The silica-doped alumina aerogel samples were prepared with a 1.4∶1 molar ratio of silica to alumina. A two-flux model was used to describe the radiation propagation in a 1D scattering absorbing sample to derive expressions for the normal-hemispherical transmittances and reflectances based on the transport approximation. The normal-hemispherical transmittances and reflectances were measured at various spectral wavelengths and sample thicknesses using the integrating sphere method. The spectral absorption and transport scattering coefficients of silica-doped alumina aerogels were then determined from the measured normal-hemispherical data. The absorption and transport scattering coefficients of silica-doped alumina aerogels are (0.1  cm-1, 36  cm-1) and (0.1  cm-1, 112  cm-1) for wavelengths of 0.38-8.0 μm. The spectral transport scattering coefficient varies in the opposite direction from the spectral absorption coefficient for various wavelengths. The radiative properties for silica and alumina aerogels were quite different for the absorption coefficient for wavelengths of 2.5-8.0 μm and for the transport scattering coefficient for wavelengths of 0.38-2.5 and 3.5-6.0 μm. The measured radiative properties were used to predict the spectral normal-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the silica-doped alumina aerogels for various sample thicknesses and wavelengths. The predicted values do not change for the sample thicknesses greater than a critical value. The analysis provides valuable reference data for alumina aerogels for high-temperature applications. PMID:26836071

  10. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  11. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S.

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  12. Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armaly, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.

  13. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient.

  14. Impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-21

    We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data-up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.

  15. Absorption-coefficient-determination method for particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J D; Douglass, R E; Garvey, D M

    1994-07-01

    A method is presented for determining the optical absorption coefficient, or the imaginary refractive index, of particulate material that has been collected from aerosols or hydrosols by means of filtration. The method, based on the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse reflectance, is nondestructive and requires no other knowledge of the sample than the amount present, the specific gravity, and an estimate of the real index of refraction. The theoretical development of the method is discussed along with an analysis of photometric and gravimetric errors. We test the method by comparing results obtained for powdered didymium glass with measurements made before the glass was crushed. An example of the method's application to the determination of the absorption coefficient of atmospheric dust at UV, visible, and near-IR wavelengths is also presented.

  16. Absorption-coefficient-determination method for particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J D; Douglass, R E; Garvey, D M

    1994-07-01

    A method is presented for determining the optical absorption coefficient, or the imaginary refractive index, of particulate material that has been collected from aerosols or hydrosols by means of filtration. The method, based on the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse reflectance, is nondestructive and requires no other knowledge of the sample than the amount present, the specific gravity, and an estimate of the real index of refraction. The theoretical development of the method is discussed along with an analysis of photometric and gravimetric errors. We test the method by comparing results obtained for powdered didymium glass with measurements made before the glass was crushed. An example of the method's application to the determination of the absorption coefficient of atmospheric dust at UV, visible, and near-IR wavelengths is also presented. PMID:20935789

  17. A high absorption coefficient DL-MPP imitating owl skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lijun; Zhao, Zhan; Kong, Deyi; Wu, Shaohua; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a high absorption coefficient micro-perforated panel (MPP) imitating owl skin structure for acoustic noise reduction. Compared to the traditional micro-perforated panel, this device has two unique characteristics-simulating the owl skin structure, its radius of perforated apertures even can be as small as 55μ, and its material is silicon and fabricated by micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) technology; So that its absorption coefficients of acoustic noise for normal incidence sound wave whose frequencies arrange from 1.5 kHz to 6.0 kHz are all above 0.8 which is the owl's hunts sensitivity frequency band. Double leaf MPP fabricated by MEMS technology is an absolutely bionic success in functional-imitation.

  18. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of scattering liquid media by the calorimetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenin, A. V.; Kogan, B. Ya.

    2012-02-01

    Using the example of a number of hydrosols (gold nanorods and nanoshells, silver nanoshells, zinc phthalocyanine nanoparticles), we show that the absorption coefficient of a scattering liquid medium can be measured from its heating by a short-time laser irradiation. The degree of heating was determined from expansion of the liquid in an ampoule with a capillary (the principle of liquid thermometer). Irradiation was performed at a wavelength of 671 or 1069 nm. From the transmission of samples of hydrosols at these wave-lengths, the sum of the absorption and scattering coefficients has been determined. To measure the absorption spectra of scattering liquids by this method, a laser with a tunable radiation wavelength is required. In the case of monodisperse colloidal solutions, the method ensures the measurement of the absorption and scattering cross-section ratio of particles.

  19. Size segregated light absorption coefficient of the atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.

    The light absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in the visible can be determined by depositing the particles on a filter and measuring its "transmission" in a special optical arrangement. With an impactor with rotating impaction plates producing a homogeneous deposit, it is possible to extend this technique to size segregated aerosol samples. A simultaneous determination of the mass size distribution is possible. Test measurements with black carbon aerosol have shown the feasibility of this method. Samples of the atmospheric aerosol have been taken in and near Vienna, in Naples and near Bologna. The light absorption of the aerosol is always highest for particle diameters between 0.1 and 0.2 μm. Only in the humid environment of the Po valley it had a slightly larger peak size, whereas the size of the nonabsorbing particles increased considerably. The light absorption of the atmospheric aerosol is always higher in an urban environment. 'The mass absorption coefficient of the aerosol at all four locations was very similar, and completely different from values which could be. expected using effective refractive indices which are frequently used in models. Using the data measured in this work two alternate models for the effective refractive index and black carbon content of the aerosol are suggested: (a) a size-dependent refractive index, where the imaginary part varies from -0.25 for particles smaller than 30 nm to - 0.003 for particles larger than 2 μm; this could especially be applied if an internal mixing of the aerosol is to be expected, or (2) a size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon in the case of external mixing with 43% of carbon particles for sizes below 30 nm decreasing to 10% for sizes up to 0.4 μm.

  20. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  1. Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.

  2. Photon absorption potential coefficient as a tool for materials engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akande, Raphael Oluwole; Oyewande, Emmanuel Oluwole

    2016-09-01

    Different atoms achieve ionizations at different energies. Therefore, atoms are characterized by different responses to photon absorption in this study. That means there exists a coefficient for their potential for photon absorption from a photon source. In this study, we consider the manner in which molecular constituents (atoms) absorb photon from a photon source. We observe that there seems to be a common pattern of variation in the absorption of photon among the electrons in all atoms on the periodic table. We assume that the electrons closest to the nucleus (En) and the electrons closest to the outside of the atom (Eo) do not have as much potential for photon absorption as the electrons at the middle of the atom (Em). The explanation we give to this effect is that the En electrons are embedded within the nuclear influence, and similarly, Eo electrons are embedded within the influence of energies outside the atom that there exists a low potential for photon absorption for them. Unlike En and Eo, Em electrons are conditioned, such that there is a quest for balance between being influenced either by the nuclear force or forces external to the atom. Therefore, there exists a higher potential for photon absorption for Em electrons than for En and Eo electrons. The results of our derivations and analysis always produce a bell-shaped curve, instead of an increasing curve as in the ionization energies, for all elements in the periodic table. We obtained a huge data of PAPC for each of the several materials considered. The point at which two or more PAPC values cross one another is termed to be a region of conflicting order of ionization, where all the atoms absorb equal portion of the photon source at the same time. At this point, a greater fraction of the photon source is pumped into the material which could lead to an explosive response from the material. In fact, an unimaginable and unreported phenomenon (in physics) could occur, when two or more PAPCs cross, and

  3. Traffic-related differences in indoor and personal absorption coefficient measurements in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, Janine; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; van der Zee, Saskia; Brunekreef, Bert

    Population studies indicate that study participants living near major roads are more prone to chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function decrements and hospital admissions for asthma. The majority of the studies used proxy measures, such as distance to major roads or traffic intensity in the surroundings of the home. Few studies have communicated findings of concurrently performed measurements of outdoor, indoor and personal air pollution in urban streets with high- and low-traffic density. Measuring light absorption or reflectance of particulate matter (PM) collected on filters is an alternative method to determine elemental carbon, a marker for particles produced by incomplete combustion, compared to expensive and destructive analytical methods. This study sets out to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in personal and indoor filter absorption coefficients for participants living along busy and quiet roads in Amsterdam. In one study we measured personal and indoor absorption coefficients in a sample of adults (50-70 years) and, in another study, the indoor levels in a population of adults (50-70 years) and school children (10-12 years). In the first study, the ratios of personal and indoor absorption coefficients in homes along busy roads compared with homes on quiet streets were significantly higher by 29% for personal measurements ( n=16 days, p<0.001), and by 19% for indoor measurements ( n=20, p<0.001), while in the second study, the ratio for the indoor measurements was higher by 26% ( n=25 days, p<0.05). Exposure differences between homes along busy compared to homes along quiet streets remained and significant after adjustment for potential indoor sources (such as cooking and use of unvented heating appliances). This study therefore provides tentative support for the use of the type of road as proxy measure for indoor and personal absorption coefficient measurements in epidemiological studies due to the limitations of the study.

  4. Ratios of transfer coefficients for radiocesium transport in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Karamanis, D.

    1995-09-01

    A corollary of the multiple-compartment model for the transport of trace elements through animals was tested for cows, goats, and sheep. According to this corollary, for a given body {open_quotes}compartment{close_quotes} k of the animal (soft tissue, lung, liver, etc.), the ratio a(k)=f(k)/f(blood) of the transfer coefficients f, should exhibit similar values for physiologically similar animals. In order to verify this prediction, two experiments were performed at the Agricultural Research Station of Ioannina and at the facilities of Ria Pripyat in Pripyat, Ukranine. Eight animals in the first experiment and eighteen in the second were housed in individual pens and were artificially contaminated with a constant daily dose of radiocesium until equilibrium was reached. the animals were then sacrificed and transfer coefficients f(k) to twelve body {open_quotes}compartments{close_quotes} k were measured. These data were used to calculate the ratios a(k). The results were in accordance with predictions of the model and average values of a(k) were extracted for ruminants. It is concluded that these values may be employed for the prediction of animal contamination in any body compartment through the measurement of blood samples. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. Determination of LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor of wolfram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Erhan; Saritas, Nuriye

    2014-04-01

    The LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor of wolfram have been measured by two different methods. In the first method the mass attenuation coefficients have been obtained by narrow beam transmission geometry to calculate the LIII subshell absorption jump ratio and jump factor. In the latter these parameters have been derived from the LIII subshell X-ray production and the photoionization cross sections of the LIII subshell and higher subshells determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique and narrow beam transmission geometry, respectively. The results obtained by both methods have been compared with theoretical and experimental values. They are in good agreement with each other.

  6. Measuring high spectral resolution specific absorption coefficients for use with hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.; Bostater, C.

    1997-06-01

    A portable, long path length (50 cm), flow through, absorption tube system is utilized to obtain in-situ specific absorption coefficients from various water environments consisting of both clear and turbid water conditions from an underway ship or vessel. The high spectral resolution absorption signatures can be obtained and correlated with measured water quality parameters along a ship track. The long path cuvette system is capable of measuring important water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston or total suspended matter, tannins, humics, fulvic acids, or dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The various concentrations of these substances can be determined and correlated with laboratory measurements using the double inflection ratio (DIR) of the spectra based upon derivative spectroscopy. The DIR is determined for all of the possible combinations of the bands ranging from 362-1115 nm using 252 channels, as described previously by Bostater. The information gathered from this system can be utilized in conjunction with hyperspectral imagery that allows one to relate reflectance and absorption to water quality of a particular environment. A comparison is made between absorption signatures and reflectance obtained from the Banana River, Florida.

  7. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of acoustical materials using the sound intensity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the possibility of using the two-microphone sound intensity technique to measure the normal incidence and the random incidence sound absorption coefficient was investigated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incidence on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in an anechoic chamber. The random incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in a reverberation chamber. Absorption coefficient results obtained by the sound intensity technique were compared with standard techniques, namely the reverberation chamber and the standing wave tube. The major advantages of using the sound intensity technique are that it permits 'in situ' measurements and the absorption coefficient for a large range of frequencies can be obtained from a single measurement.

  8. Dynamic absorption coefficients of CAR and non-CAR resists at EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several CAR and non-CAR EUV photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the XIL beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called Chemical Sensitivity to account for all the post-absorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which is also predicts a quantitative clearing volume, and respectively clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help in deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of EUV concept of clearing volume and clearing radius are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  9. Photon energy absorption coefficients for nuclear track detectors using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Medhat, M. E.; Badiger, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Geant4 Monte Carlo code simulations were used to solve experimental and theoretical complications for calculation of mass energy-absorption coefficients of elements, air, and compounds. The mass energy-absorption coefficients for nuclear track detectors were computed first time using Geant4 Monte Carlo code for energy 1 keV-20 MeV. Very good agreements for simulated results of mass energy-absorption coefficients for carbon, nitrogen, silicon, sodium iodide and nuclear track detectors were observed on comparison with the values reported in the literatures. Kerma relative to air for energy 1 keV-20 MeV and energy absorption buildup factors for energy 50 keV-10 MeV up to 10 mfp penetration depths of the selected nuclear track detectors were also calculated to evaluate the absorption of the gamma photons. Geant4 simulation can be utilized for estimation of mass energy-absorption coefficients in elements and composite materials.

  10. Spectral absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Schladitz, A.; Massling, A.; Kaaden, N.; Kandler, K.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2009-02-01

    ABSTRACT During the SAMUM-1 experiment, absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of mineral dust particles were investigated in southern Morocco. Main absorbing constituents of airborne samples were identified to be iron oxide and soot. Spectral absorption coefficients were measured using a spectral optical absorption photometer (SOAP) in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm with a resolution of 50 nm. A new method that accounts for a loading-dependent correction of fibre filter based absorption photometers, was developed. The imaginary part of the refractive index was determined using Mie calculations from 350 to 800 nm. The spectral absorption coefficient allowed a separation between dust and soot absorption. A correlation analysis showed that the dust absorption coefficient is correlated (R2 up to 0.55) with the particle number concentration for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm, whereas the coefficient of determination R2 for smaller particles is below 0.1. Refractive indices were derived for both the total aerosol and a dust aerosol that was corrected for soot absorption. Average imaginary parts of refractive indices of the entire aerosol are 7.4 × 10-3, 3.4 × 10-3 and 2.0 × 10-3 at wavelengths of 450, 550 and 650 nm. After a correction for the soot absorption, imaginary parts of refractive indices are 5.1 × 10-3, 1.6 × 10-3 and 4.5 × 10-4.

  11. Effect of the absorption coefficient of aluminium plates on their thermoelastic bending in photoacoustic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markushev, D. D.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Rabasović, M. D.; Galović, S.; Todorović, D. M.; Bialkowski, S. E.

    2015-06-01

    The open-cell photoacoustic signal measured in the transmission configuration for aluminum thin plates with thicknesses of 280 μm, 197 μm, and 112 μm is experimentally and theoretically analyzed, in the 20 Hz-7 kHz modulation frequency range. It is shown that the observed differences between the predictions of the standard thermoelastic model and the experiment data of both the amplitude and phase of the photoacoustic signal can be overcome by considering the aluminum samples coated with a thin layer of black paint as volume-absorber materials. This new approach provides a quite good agreement with the obtained experimental data, in the whole frequency range, and yields an effective absorption coefficient of (16 ± 2) mm-1, for a 280 μm-thick sample. The introduction of the finite absorption coefficient led to the correct ratio between the thermal diffusion and thermoelastic components of the photoacoustic signal. Furthermore, it is found that the "volume-absorber" approach accurately describes the behavior of the amplitude, but not that of the phase recorded for a 112 μm-thick sample, due to its relatively strong thermoelastic bending, which is not considered by this theory. Within the approximation of the small bending, the proposed "volume-absorber" model provides a reliable description of the photoacoustic signal for Al samples thicker than 112 μm, and extends the applicability of the classical "opaque" approach.

  12. Absorption Coefficient Imaging by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy in Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, Ana M.; Chaves, Claudilene R.; Silva, Haroldo B.; Weber, Gerald

    2003-06-01

    We present a method for obtaining a position-dependent absorption coefficient from near-field scanning optical transmission microscopy. We show that the optical transmission intensity can be combined with the topography, resulting into an absorption coefficient that simplifies the analysis of different materials within a sample. The method is tested with the dye rhodamine 6G, and we show some analysis in biological samples such as bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The calculated absorption coefficient images show important details of the bacteria, in particular for P. aeruginosa , in which membrane vesicles are clearly seen.

  13. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  14. Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Heike; Neusüß, Christian; Wendisch, Manfred; Stratmann, Frank; Koziar, Christian; Keil, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ebert, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Comparisons between measured and calculated aerosol scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients were made based on in situ, ground-based measurements during the Melpitz INTensive (MINT) and Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) field studies. Furthermore, airborne measurements made with the same type of instruments are reviewed and compared with the ground-based measurements. Agreement between measured and calculated values is on the order of ±20% for scattering and backscattering coefficients. A sensitivity analysis showed a large influence on the calculated particle scattering and backscattering coefficients resulting from sizing uncertainties in the measured number size distributions. Measured absorption coefficients were significantly smaller than the corresponding calculated values. The largest uncertainty for the calculated absorption coefficients resulted from the size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon (EC) of the aerosol. A correction for the measured fractions of EC could significantly improve the agreement between measured and calculated absorption coefficients. The overall uncertainty of the calculated values was investigated with a Monte Carlo method by simultaneously and randomly varying the input parameters of the calculations, where the variation of each parameter was bounded by its uncertainty. The measurements were mostly found to be within the range of uncertainties of the calculations, with uncertainties for the calculated scattering and backscattering coefficients of about ±20% and for the absorption coefficients of about ±30%. Thus, to increase the accuracy of calculated scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients, it is crucial to further reduce the error in particle number size distribution measurement techniques. In addition, further improvement of the techniques for measuring absorption coefficients and further investigation of the measurement of the fraction of EC of the aerosol is

  15. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    PubMed

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations.

  16. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed.

  17. Effect of quantum dot size and size distribution on the intersublevel transitions and absorption coefficients of III-V semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kabi, Sanjib; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2015-03-28

    The intersublevel absorption peak energy and absorption coefficient of non-uniform quantum dot (QD) ensembles are calculated analytically. The effect of size variations and size distribution of QDs on their energy states is analyzed. The dots are considered as a quantum box with finite potential at the barriers and the size distribution described by a Gaussian function. The influence of the aspect ratio (base to height ratio) of the QDs on the optical transitions is studied. Our model predicts the dot size (height and base) accurately to determine the absorption peaks and corresponding absorption coefficient. We also compute the absorption coefficient of the QD with different size distributions to verify the results calculated using this model with the reported experimental and other theoretical results.

  18. Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Wright, C W; Lyon, P E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K

    1999-12-20

    Oceanic radiance model inversion methods are used to develop a comprehensive algorithm for retrieval of the absorption coefficients of phycourobilin (PUB) pigment, type I phycoerythrobilin (PEB) pigment rich in PUB, and type II PEB deficient in PUB pigment (together with the usual "big three" inherent optical properties: the total backscattering coefficient and the absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)-detritus and phytoplankton). This fully modeled inversion algorithm is then simplified to yield a hybrid modeled-unmodeled inversion algorithm in which the phycoerythrin (PE) absorption coefficient is retrieved as unmodeled 488-nm absorption (which exceeds the modeled phytoplankton and the CDOM-detritus absorption coefficients). Each algorithm was applied to water-leaving radiances, but only hybrid modeled-unmodeled inversions yielded viable retrievals of the PE absorption coefficient. Validation of the PE absorption coefficient retrieval was achieved by relative comparison with airborne laser-induced PEB fluorescence. The modeled-unmodeled retrieval of four inherent optical properties by direct matrix inversion is rapid and well conditioned, but the accuracy is strongly limited by the accuracy of the three principal inherent optical property models across all four spectral bands. Several research areas are identified to enhance the radiance-model-based retrievals: (a) improved PEB and PUB absorption coefficient models, (b) PE spectral shifts induced by PUB chromophore substitution at chromophore binding sites, (c) specific absorption-sensitive phytoplankton absorption modeling, (d) total constituent backscattering modeling, (e) unmodeled carotinoid and phycocyanin absorption that are not now accounted for in the chlorophyll-dominated phytoplankton absorption coefficient model, and (f) iterative inversion techniques to solve for six constituents with only five radiances. Although considerable progress has been made toward the

  19. Variation of phytoplankton absorption coefficients in the northern South China Sea during spring and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Hong, H.; Shang, S.; Dai, M.; Lee, Z.

    2007-05-01

    We examined the temporal and spatial variabilities of phytoplankton absorption coefficients (αphλ)) and their relationships with physical processes in the northern South China Sea from two cruise surveys during spring (May 2001) and late autumn (November 2002). A large river plume induced by heavy precipitation in May stimulated a phytoplankton bloom on the inner shelf, causing significant changes in the surface water in αph values and B/R ratios (αph(440)/αph(675)). This was consistent with the observed one order of magnitude elevation of chlorophyll α and a shift from a pico/nano dominated phytoplankton community to one dominated by micro-algae. At the seasonal level, enhanced vertical mixing due to strengthened northeast monsoon in November has been observed to result in higher surface αph(675) (0.002-0.006 m-1 higher) and less pronounced subsurface maximum on the outer shelf/slope in November as compared that in May. Measurements of αph and B/R ratios from three transects in November revealed a highest surface αph(675) immediately outside the mouth of the Pearl River Estuary, whereas lower αph(675) and higher B/R ratios were featured in the outer shelf/slope waters, demonstrating the respective influence of the Pearl River plume and the oligotrophic nature of South China Sea water. The difference in spectral shapes of phytoplankton absorption (measured by B/R ratios and bathochromic shifts) on these three transects infers that picoprocaryotes are the major component of the phytoplankton community on the outer shelf/slope rather than on the inner shelf. In addition, a regional tuning of the phytoplankton absorption spectral model (Carder et al., 1999) demonstrated a greater spatial variation than seasonal variation in the lead parameter a0(λ). These results suggest that phytoplankton absorption properties in a coastal region such as the northern South China Sea are complex and region-based parameterization is mandatory in order for remote sensing

  20. Temperature dependence of the band-band absorption coefficient in crystalline silicon from photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Mitchell, Bernhard; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The band-band absorption coefficient in crystalline silicon has been determined using spectral photoluminescence measurements across the wavelength range of 990-1300 nm, and a parameterization of the temperature dependence has been established to allow interpolation of accurate values of the absorption coefficient for any temperature between 170 and 363 K. Band-band absorption coefficient measurements across a temperature range of 78-363 K are found to match well with previous results from MacFarlane et al. [Phys. Rev. 111, 1245 (1958)], and are extended to significantly longer wavelengths. In addition, we report the band-band absorption coefficient across the temperature range from 270-350 K with 10 K intervals, a range in which most practical silicon based devices operate, and for which there are only sparse data available at present. Moreover, the absorption coefficient is shown to vary by up to 50% for every 10 K increment around room temperature. Furthermore, the likely origins of the differences among the absorption coefficient of several commonly referenced works by Green [Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92, 1305 (2008)], Daub and Würfel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1020 (1995)], and MacFarlane et al. [Phys. Rev. 111, 1245 (1958)] are discussed.

  1. Experiment to Determine the Absorption Coefficient of Gamma Rays as a Function of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Simpler than x-ray diffractometer experiments, the experiment described illustrates certain concepts regarding the interaction of electromagnetic rays with matter such as the exponential decrease in the intensity with absorber thickness, variation of the coefficient of absorption with energy, and the effect of the K-absorption edge on the…

  2. Determination of absorption coefficients in AlInP lattice matched to GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, J. S.; Ng, J. S.; Krysa, A. B.; Ong, J. S. L.; David, J. P. R.

    2015-10-01

    The absorption properties of Al0.52In0.48P have been investigated near the fundamental absorption edge by measuring the photocurrent as a function of wavelength in a series of PIN and NIP diodes. Modelling of the photocurrent in these structures enables the absorption coefficients to be determined accurately over a wide dynamic range, which allows the direct and indirect band-gap to be determined.

  3. Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

  4. Tunable diode laser measurements of HO2NO2 absorption coefficients near 12.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Molina, L. T.; Webster, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer has been used to measure absorption coefficients of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) near the 803/cm Q branch. HO2NO2 concentrations in a low-pressure flowing gas mixture were determined from chemical titration procedures and UV absorption spectroscopy. The diode laser measured absorption coefficients, at a spectral resolution of better than 0.001/cm, are about 10 percent larger than previous Fourier transform infrared measurements made at a spectral resolution of 0.06/cm.

  5. Electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in GaAs - Determination of the compensation ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Lagowski, L.; Jastrzebski, L.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Gatos, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of electron mobility and free-carrier absorption in n-type GaAs at room temperature were carried out taking into consideration all major scattering processes. It was found that satisfactory agreement between theoretical and experimental results on free-carrier absorption is obtained only when the effect of compensation is quantitatively taken into account. In conjunction with experimental studies it is shown that the electron mobility (for n greater than 10 to the 15th per cu cm) and free-carrier absorption (for n greater than 10 to the 16th per cu cm) are sufficiently sensitive to the ionized impurity concentration to provide a reliable means for determining the compensation ratio. Convenient procedures are presented for the determination of the compensation ratio from the free-carrier absorption coefficient and from the computed values of room-temperature electron mobility. Values of the compensation ratio obtained by these two procedures are in good agreement provided the carrier-concentration variations in the material are not appreciably greater than 10%.

  6. Use of the light absorption coefficient to monitor elemental carbon and PM2.5--example of Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Gramsch, Ernesto; Ormeño, Isabel; Palma, Guillermo; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Oyola, Pedro

    2004-07-01

    The optical absorption coefficient, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm, and elemental carbon (EC) have been measured simultaneously during winter and spring of 2000 in the western part of Santiago, Chile (Pudahuel district). The optical measurements were carried out with a low-cost instrument recently developed at the University of Santiago. From the data, a site-specific mass absorption coefficient of 4.45+/-0.01 m2/g has been found for EC. In addition, a mass absorption coefficient of 1.02+/-0.03 m2/g has been obtained for PM2.5. These coefficients can be used during the colder months (May-August) to obtain EC concentration or PM2.5 from a measurement of the light absorption coefficient (sigmaa). The high correlation that has been found between these variables indicates that sigmaa is a good indicator of the degree of contamination of urbanized areas. The data also show an increase in PM2.5 and EC concentration during winter and an increase in the ratio of EC to PM2.5. When the EC/PM2.5 ratio is calculated during rush hour (7:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m.) and during part of the night (9:00 p.m.-2:00 a.m.), it is found that the increase is caused by higher concentration levels of EC at night. These results suggest that the rise in the EC concentration is caused by emissions from heating and air mass transport of pollution from other parts of the city, while traffic contribution remains approximately constant.

  7. Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, R; Bertoni, A; Andreola, S; Melloni, E; Sichirollo, A E

    1989-06-15

    Optical properties of different human tissues in vitro have been evaluated by measuring extinction and absorption coefficients at 635- and 515-nm wavelengths and a scattering angular dependence at 635 nm. Extinction was determined by the on-axis attenuation of light transmitted through sliced specimens of various thicknesses. The absorption coefficient was determined by placing samples into an integrating sphere. The Henyey-Greenstein function was used for fitting experimental data of the scattering pattern. The purpose of this work was to contribute to the study of light propagation in mammalian tissues. The results show that, for the investigated tissues, extinction coefficients range from ~200 to 500 cm(-1) whereas absorption coefficients, depending on wavelength, vary from 0.2 to 25 cm(-1). Scattering is forward peaked with an average cosine of ~0.7.

  8. Comparison between different spectral models of the diffuse attenuation and absorption coefficients of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, Oleg V.; Filippov, Yuri V.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this work is to verify different spectral models of the diffuse attenuation and absorption coefficients of sea water and to work out a recommendation for their use. It is shown that the spectral models of the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd((lambda) ) developed by Austin, Petzold, 1984 and by Volynsky, Sud'bin, 1992 correspond with each other, as well the models of Ivanov, Shemshura, 1973 and of Kopelevich, Shemshura, 1988 for calculation of the spectral absorption coefficient a((lambda) ) on the values of Kd((lambda) ). Theoretical foundation of the relation between a((lambda) ) and Kd((lambda) ) is given. The up-to-date physical model of the sea water light absorption is considered and checked by means of comparison with measured values of the attenuation coefficient at the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges.

  9. Measurements of Soot Mass Absorption Coefficients from 300 to 660 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Fisher, Al; Helgestad, Taylor; Lambe, Andrew; Sedlacek, Arthur; Smith, Geoffrey; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In particular, the assumed mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot and its variation with wavelength presents a significant uncertainty in the calculation of radiative forcing in global climate change models. As part of the fourth Boston College/Aerodyne soot properties measurement campaign, we have measured the mass absorption coefficient of soot produced by an inverted methane diffusion flame over a spectral range of 300-660 nm using a variety of optical absorption techniques. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS, UC Davis) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm; the absorption coefficient was determined by subtraction. In addition, the absorption coefficients in 8 wavelength bands from 300 to 660 nm were measured using a new broadband photoacoustic absorption monitor (UGA). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The contribution of doubly charged particles to the sample mass was determined using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (DMT). Over a mass range of 1-8 fg, corresponding to differential mobility diameters of ~150 nm to 550 nm, the value of the soot MAC proved to be independent of mass for all wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of the MAC was best fit to a power law with an Absorption Ångstrom Coefficient slightly greater than 1.

  10. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of pulsed laser deposited MgZnO thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Arpana Dar, Tanveer A.; Solanki, Ravi; Sen, Pratima; Phase, D. M.

    2015-06-24

    We report the imaginary part of 3{sup rd} order nonlinear susceptibility and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of Mg doped ZnO thin film using standard Z-scan technique. The origin of nonlinear absorption is attributed to the two photon absorption followed by the free carrier absorption because of the presence of oxygen vacancy defects. We have also confirmed the experimental results with the theoretical results obtained by considering the steady state response of a two level atom with the monochromatic field models.

  11. In situ measurements of the oblique incidence sound absorption coefficient for finite sized absorbers.

    PubMed

    Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Fernandez-Grande, Efren; Trojgaard, Per; Tiana-Roig, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which combines microphone array measurements over a finite sample with the sound field model in an inverse manner, is proposed. Besides, a temporal subtraction method, a microphone array method, impedance tube measurements, and an equivalent fluid model are used for validation. The finite surface method gives promising agreement with theory, especially at near grazing incidence. Thus, the finite surface method is proposed for further measurements at large incidence angles. PMID:26827003

  12. Accurate estimation of normal incidence absorption coefficients with confidence intervals using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuye, Cedric; Vanlanduit, Steve; Guillaume, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    When using optical measurements of the sound fields inside a glass tube, near the material under test, to estimate the reflection and absorption coefficients, not only these acoustical parameters but also confidence intervals can be determined. The sound fields are visualized using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). In this paper the influence of different test signals on the quality of the results, obtained with this technique, is examined. The amount of data gathered during one measurement scan makes a thorough statistical analysis possible leading to the knowledge of confidence intervals. The use of a multi-sine, constructed on the resonance frequencies of the test tube, shows to be a very good alternative for the traditional periodic chirp. This signal offers the ability to obtain data for multiple frequencies in one measurement, without the danger of a low signal-to-noise ratio. The variability analysis in this paper clearly shows the advantages of the proposed multi-sine compared to the periodic chirp. The measurement procedure and the statistical analysis are validated by measuring the reflection ratio at a closed end and comparing the results with the theoretical value. Results of the testing of two building materials (an acoustic ceiling tile and linoleum) are presented and compared to supplier data.

  13. Absorption Coefficients of the Methane-Nitrogen Binary Ice System: Implications for Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapa, Silvia; Grundy, W.; Tegler, S.; Bergonio, J.; Boehnhardt, H.; Barrera, L.

    2013-10-01

    Near infrared spectroscopic measurements of Pluto display methane (CH4) ice absorption bands shifted toward shorter wavelengths compared to the central wavelengths of pure CH4 obtained in the laboratory. This shift, described by Schmitt and Quirico (1992), occurs when CH4 is dissolved at low concentrations in a matrix of solid N2, and the magnitude of the shift varies from one CH4 band to another. This is the main argument behind the modeling analysis of Pluto’s spectra available in literature, employing pure CH4 and CH4 diluted at low concentrations in N2. However, the nitrogen-methane binary phase diagram generated from X-ray diffraction studies by Prokhvatilov & Yantsevich (1983) indicates that at temperatures relevant to the surfaces of icy dwarf planets, like Pluto, two phases contribute to the absorptions: methane ice saturated with nitrogen and nitrogen ice saturated with methane. No optical constants are available so far for the latter component, limiting this way the knowledge of the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surface of Pluto and other dwarf planets. New infrared absorption coefficient spectra of CH4-I diluted in β-N2 and β-N2 diluted in CH4-I were measured at temperatures between 40 and 90 K, in the wavelength range 0.8-2.5 μm at different mixing ratios. The spectra were derived from transmission measurements of crystals grown from the liquid phase in closed cells. In particular, a systematic study of the changes in CH4:N2 mixtures spectral behavior with mixing ratio is presented for the first time, in order to understand whether the peak frequencies of the CH4-ice bands correlate with the amount of N2-ice. We report a linear trend of the blueshifts of the CH4-ice bands vs CH4 abundance. This trend varies from band to band, while it is fairly constant with temperature. These data are applied to interpret unpublished high dispersion H and K bands spectra of Pluto acquired with the NACO instrument at the ESO VLT on 27 June 2008

  14. Multi-wavelength measurements of aerosol optical absorption coefficients using a photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Yao; Wang, Gui-Shi; Cao, Zhen-Song; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The atmospheric aerosol absorption capacity is a critical parameter determining its direct and indirect effects on climate. Accurate measurement is highly desired for the study of the radiative budget of the Earth. A multi-wavelength (405 nm, 532 nm, 780 nm) aerosol absorption meter based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) invovling a single cylindrical acoustic resonator is developed for measuring the aerosol optical absorption coefficients (OACs). A sensitivity of 1.3 Mm-1 (at 532 nm) is demonstrated. The aerosol absorption meter is successfully tested through measuring the OACs of atmospheric nigrosin and ambient aerosols in the suburbs of Hefei city. The absorption cross section and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) for ambient aerosol are determined for characterizing the component of the ambient aerosol.

  15. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  16. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    2006-06-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of photoacoustic tomography for reconstructing the optical absorption coefficient images of heterogeneous media. Photoacoustic images are obtained from a series of tissuelike phantom experiments using a finite element-based reconstruction algorithm coupled with a scanning photoacoustic imaging system. The experimental results show that optical absorption images can be quantitatively reconstructed when the photon diffusion model is coupled with the Helmholtz photoacoustic wave equation.

  17. Determination of the Absorption Coefficient and Cloudiness Multiplicity Attenuation During the Gamma-Radiation Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, K. N.; Borovikov, I. F.; Gaidamak, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents background value equivalent dose of gamma-radiation investigation in different weather: clear cloudy and overcast. The change of the dose rate of gamma radiation, depending on the weather and the ability cloudiness to shield gamma rays is shown. A new method for eliminating the consequences of accidents at nuclear power plants or plants using radioactive elements is proposed. A calculation method of cloudiness coefficient absorption and cloudiness gamma-radiation multiplicity attenuation is developed. The gamma- radiation multiplicity attenuation and the absorption coefficient of gamma radiation were calculated.

  18. Studies on mass energy-absorption coefficients and effective atomic energy-absorption cross sections for carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2015-04-01

    We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  19. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF EINSTEIN A-COEFFICIENT RATIOS OF BRIGHT [Fe II] LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcalá, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Bonito, R.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe{sup +} lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 Å and 24700 Å, we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH 1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios ≥100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH 1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I  recombination lines and H{sub 2} ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (λ12570/λ16440 and λ13209/λ16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations.

  20. Empirical Determination of Einstein A-coefficient Ratios of Bright [Fe II] Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcalá, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Bonito, R.; Podio, L.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe+ lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 Å and 24700 Å, we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH 1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios >=100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH 1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I recombination lines and H2 ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (λ12570/λ16440 and λ13209/λ16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations. Based on observations collected with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (Chile), operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Program ID: 092.C-0058(A).

  1. An empirical determination of the dust mass absorption coefficient, κd, using the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Christopher J. R.; Schofield, Simon P.; Gomez, Haley L.; Davies, Jonathan I.

    2016-06-01

    We use the published photometry and spectroscopy of 22 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to determine that the value of the dust mass absorption coefficient κd at a wavelength of 500 μm is kappa _{500} = 0.051^{+0.070}_{-0.026} m^{2 kg^{-1}}. We do so by taking advantage of the fact that the dust-to-metals ratio in the interstellar medium of galaxies appears to be constant. We argue that our value for κd supersedes that of James et al. - who pioneered this approach for determining κd - because we take advantage of superior data, and account for a number of significant systematic effects that they did not consider. We comprehensively incorporate all methodological and observational contributions to establish the uncertainty on our value, which represents a marked improvement on the oft-quoted `order-of-magnitude' uncertainty on κd. We find no evidence that the value of κd differs significantly between galaxies, or that it correlates with any other measured or derived galaxy properties. We note, however, that the availability of data limits our sample to relatively massive (109.7 < M⋆ < 1011.0 M⊙), high metallicity (8.61 < [ 12 + log_{10} fracOH ] < 8.86) galaxies; future work will allow us to investigate a wider range of systems.

  2. The Correlation Coefficient as the Ratio of Two Means: An Interpretation Due to Galton and Brogden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James M.; Nicewander, W. Alan

    A standard interpretation of the coefficient of correlation may be obtained from the ratio of two variances. If it is assumed that two variables, X and Y, are bivariate normal and scaled to have zero means and unit variances, it can be shown that the correlation between X and Y is the ratio of two conditional means. Galton's statistical studies of…

  3. [Development of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system for the measurement of absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Niu, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Shi; Cao, Zhen-Song; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors focus on the effect of the resonance frequency shift due to the changes in temperature and humidity on the PA signal, present several methods to control the noise derived form gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Based on the efforts mentioned above, a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-8) W x cm(-1) x Hz(-1/2) was achieved for the measurement of atmospheric aerosols absorption coefficient. During the experiments, the PA cell was calibrated with the absorption of standard NO2 gas at 532 nm and the atmospheric aerosols were measured continuously. The measurement results show that the PAS is suitable for the real-time measurement of the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in their natural suspended state. PMID:24059163

  4. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  5. Contributions of particle absorption to mass extinction coefficients (0.55-14microm) of soil-derived atmospheric dusts: erratum.

    PubMed

    Carlon, H R

    1980-04-01

    Mass extinction coefficients of soil-derived atmospheric dusts often are determined largely by the absorption (rather than scattering) by individual particles, especially at longer IR wavelengths. Under many conditions, reasonable estimates of mass extinction coefficients of dusts can be made from absorption coefficients without the need for detailed knowledge of particle optical constants to perform, e.g., Mie calculations. This paper discusses absorption coefficients of dusts in the visible and IR wavelengths and the physical mechanisms of dust aerosol generation determining that portion of extinction attributable to absorption in a given dust cloud. Some soils, especially clays, can produce dust clouds that are almost pure. absorbers at longer IR wavelengths.

  6. Contributions of particle absorption to mass extinction coefficients (0.55-14 microm) of soil-derived atmospheric dusts.

    PubMed

    Carlon, H R

    1980-03-01

    Mass extinction coefficients of soil-derived atmospheric dusts often are determined largely by the absorption (rather than scattering) by individual particles, especially at longer IR wavelengths. Under many conditions, reasonable estimates of mass extinction coefficients of dusts can be made from absorption coefficients without the need for detailed knowledge of particle optical constants to perform, e.g., Mie calculations. This paper discusses absorption coefficients of dusts in the visible and IR wavelengths and the physical mechanisms of dust aerosol generation determining that portion of extinction attributable to absorption in a given dust cloud. Some soils, especially clays, can produce dust clouds that are almost pure absorbers at longer IR wavelengths.

  7. Light fluence correction for quantitative determination of tissue absorption coefficient using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Frederic M.; Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-07-01

    MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a fast developing imaging modality, combining the high resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound with the excellent contrast from optical imaging of tissue. Absorption and scattering of the near infrared excitation light modulates the spectral profile of light as it propagates deep into biological tissue, meaning the images obtained provide only qualitative insight into the distribution of tissue chromophores. The goal of this work is to accurately recover the spectral profile of excitation light by modelling light fluence in the data reconstruction, to enable quantitative imaging. We worked with a commercial small animal MSOT scanner and developed our light fluence correction for its' cylindrical geometry. Optoacoustic image reconstruction pinpoints the sources of acoustic waves detected by the transducers and returns the initial pressure amplitude at these points. This pressure is the product of the dimensionless Grüneisen parameter, the absorption coefficient and the light fluence. Under the condition of constant Grüneisen parameter and well modelled light fluence, there is a linear relationship between the initial pressure amplitude measured in the optoacoustic image and the absorption coefficient. We were able to reproduce this linear relationship in different physical regions of an agarose gel phantom containing targets of known optical absorption coefficient, demonstrating that our light fluence model was working. We also demonstrate promising results of light fluence correction effects on in vivo data.

  8. Derivation of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient with edge-loss method and comparison with video reflectometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenichiro

    2016-08-01

    We derived the absorption coefficient ( μ a) and the reduced scattering coefficient ( μ s') using the edge-loss method (ELM) and the video reflectometry method (VRM), and compared the results. In a previous study, we developed the ELM to easily evaluate the lateral spread in the skin; the VRM is a conventional method. The ELM measures the translucency index, which is correlated with μ a and μ s'. To obtain a precise estimation of these parameters, we improved the treatment of a white standard and the surface reflection. For both skin phantoms and actual skin, the values for μ a and μ s' that we obtained using the ELM were similar to those obtained using the VRM, when μ a/ μ s' was less than or equal to 0.05 and the diffusion approximation was applicable. Under this condition, the spectral reflectivity is greater than 0.4. In this study, we considered wavelengths longer than 600 nm for Types III and IV of the Fitzpatrick scale. For skin, the repeatability errors of the parameters obtained with the ELM were smaller than those obtained with the VRM; this can be an advantage in field tests.

  9. A new photoacoustic method based on the modulation of the light induced absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, S.; Wenisch, C.; Müller, F. A.; Gräf, S.

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports on a new photoacoustic (PA) measurement method that is suitable for the investigation of light induced absorption effects including e.g. excited state absorption. Contrary to the modulation of the radiation intensity used in conventional PA-methods, the key principle of this novel setup is based on the modulation of the induced absorption coefficient by light. For this purpose, a pump-probe setup with a pulsed pump laser beam and a continuous probe laser beam is utilized. In this regime, the potential influence of heat on the PA-signal is much smaller when compared to arrangements with pulsed probe beam and continuous pump beam. Beyond that, the negative effect of thermal lenses can be neglected. Thus, the measurement technique is well-suited for materials exhibiting a strong absorption at the pump wavelength. The quantitative analysis of the induced absorption coefficient was achieved by the calibration of the additional PA-signal caused by the continuous probe laser to the PA-signal resulting from the pulsed pump laser using thallium bromoiodide (KRS-5) as sample material.

  10. Absorption coefficients of GeSn extracted from PIN photodetector response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Kaiheng; Zhang, Wogong; Oehme, Michael; Schmid, Marc; Gollhofer, Martin; Kostecki, Konrad; Widmann, Daniel; Körner, Roman; Kasper, Erich; Schulze, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the optical absorption of the GeSn PIN photodetector was investigated. The vertical GeSn PIN photodetectors were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and dry etching. By means of current density-voltage (J-V) and capacity-voltage (C-V) measurements the photodetector device was characterized. The absorption coefficients of GeSn material were finally extracted from the optical response of PIN structure. With further direct bandgap analysis the influences of device structure was proved negligible.

  11. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature-dependent absorption coefficient and conductivity of participating media

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fangzhou; Ruan, Liming; Tan, Heping

    2016-01-01

    A secondary optimization technique was proposed to estimate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. In the proposed method, the stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied to solve the inverse problem. The coupled radiation and conduction problem was solved in a 1D absorbing, emitting, but non-scattering slab exposed to a pulse laser. It is found that in the coupled radiation and conduction problem, the temperature response is highly sensitive to conductivity but slightly sensitive to the optical properties. On the contrary, the radiative intensity is highly sensitive to optical properties but slightly sensitive to thermal conductivity. Therefore, the optical and thermal signals should both be considered in the inverse problem to estimate the temperature-dependent properties of the transparent media. On this basis, the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient were both estimated accurately by measuring the time-dependent temperature, and radiative response at the boundary of the slab. PMID:26912418

  12. Index of Refraction and Absorption Coefficient Spectra of Paratellurite in the Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unferdorben, Márta; Buzády, Andrea; Hebling, János; Kiss, Krisztián; Hajdara, Ivett; Kovács, László; Péter, Ágnes; Pálfalvi, László

    2016-07-01

    Index of refraction and absorption coefficient spectra of pure paratellurite (α-TeO2) crystal as a potential material for terahertz (THz) applications were determined in the 0.25-2 THz frequency range at room temperature by THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The investigation was performed with beam polarization both parallel (extraordinary polarization) and perpendicular (ordinary polarization) to the optical axis [001] of the crystal. Similarly to the visible spectral range, positive birefringence was observed in the THz range as well. It was shown that the values of the refractive index for extraordinary polarization are higher and show significantly larger dispersion than for the ordinary one. The absorption coefficient values are also larger for extraordinary polarization. The measured values were fitted by theoretical curves derived from the complex dielectric function containing independent terms of Lorentz oscillators due to phonon-polariton resonances. The results are compared with earlier publications, and the observed significant discrepancies are discussed.

  13. Measurement and calculation of the sound absorption coefficient of pine wood charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Jae Gap; Baik, Kyung min; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Sung Soo

    2013-10-01

    Although charcoal has been widely utilized for physical therapy and as a deodorant, water purifier, etc. due to its porous features, research on its role as a sound-absorbing material is rarely found. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoal were measured using an impedance tube and were compared with the theoretical predictions in the frequency range of 500˜ 5000 Hz. The theory developed in the current study only considers the lowest possible mode propagating along the air channels of the charcoal and shows good agreements with the measurements. As the frequency is increased, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoals also increase, but are lower than those of other commonly-used sound-absorbing materials.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient using photothermal radiometry. II Multilayered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal radiometry to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.

  15. AN INTERCOMPARISON CF THE INTEGRATING PLATE AND THE LASER TRANSMISSION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AEROSOL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, M.; Charlson, R.J.; Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.

    1980-07-01

    The absorption coefficients determined by the integrating plate method and the laser transmission method are found to be comparable and highly correlated. Furthermore, a high correlation is found between these absorption coefficients and the carbon content of the aerosol in urbanized regions.

  16. Correction of radiation absorption on biological samples using Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; dos Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E < 30 keV) applied to a biological matrix based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio and the effective atomic number. For calibration, scattering measurements were performed on standard samples of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of 241Am (59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 1557B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C), in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples.

  17. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  18. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGES

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  19. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-01-30

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages both in computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on the diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for μRproducts between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θDof 0–90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where μ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample andRis the capillary radius. On the basis of this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0–50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4μR) of its original density.

  20. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  1. Microwave Resonator Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Coefficients: A Preliminary Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design study examined the feasibility of using microwave resonator measurements to improve the accuracy of atmospheric absorption coefficients and refractivity between 18 and 35 GHz. Increased accuracies would improve the capability of water vapor radiometers to correct for radio signal delays caused by Earth's atmosphere. Calibration of delays incurred by radio signals traversing the atmosphere has applications to both deep space tracking and planetary radio science experiments. Currently, the Cassini gravity wave search requires 0.8-1.0% absorption coefficient accuracy. This study examined current atmospheric absorption models and estimated that current model accuracy ranges from 5% to 7%. The refractivity of water vapor is known to 1% accuracy, while the refractivity of many dry gases (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) are known to better than 0.1%. Improvements to the current generation of models will require that both the functional form and absolute absorption of the water vapor spectrum be calibrated and validated. Several laboratory techniques for measuring atmospheric absorption and refractivity were investigated, including absorption cells, single and multimode rectangular cavity resonators, and Fabry-Perot resonators. Semi-confocal Fabry-Perot resonators were shown to provide the most cost-effective and accurate method of measuring atmospheric gas refractivity. The need for accurate environmental measurement and control was also addressed. A preliminary design for the environmental control and measurement system was developed to aid in identifying significant design issues. The analysis indicated that overall measurement accuracy will be limited by measurement errors and imprecise control of the gas sample's thermodynamic state, thermal expansion and vibration- induced deformation of the resonator structure, and electronic measurement error. The central problem is to identify systematic errors because random errors can be reduced by averaging

  2. Methamphetamine absorption by skin lipids: accumulated mass, partition coefficients, and the influence of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Parker, K; Morrison, G

    2016-08-01

    Occupants of former methamphetamine laboratories, often residences, may experience increased exposure through the accumulation of the methamphetamine in the organic films that coat skin and indoor surfaces. The objectives of this study were to determine equilibrium partition coefficients of vapor-phase methamphetamine with artificial sebum (AS-1), artificial sebum without fatty acids (AS-2), and real skin surface films, herein called skin oils. Sebum and skin oil-coated filters were exposed to vapor-phase methamphetamine at concentrations ranging from 8 to 159 ppb, and samples were analyzed for exposure time periods from 2 h to 60 days. For a low vapor-phase methamphetamine concentration range of ~8-22 ppb, the equilibrium partition coefficient for AS-1 was 1500 ± 195 μg/g/ppb. For a high concentration range of 98-112 ppb, the partition coefficient was lower, 459 ± 80 μg/g/ppb, suggesting saturation of the available absorption capacity. The low partition coefficient for AS-2 (33 ± 6 μg/g/ppb) suggests that the fatty acids in AS-1 and skin oil are responsible for much high partition coefficients. We predict that the methamphetamine concentration in skin lipids coating indoor surfaces can exceed recommended surface remediation standards even for air concentrations well below 1 ppb.

  3. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Johannes D

    2010-01-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  4. Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chun; Huang, Wenqian Ronny; Ahr, Frederike; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-11-16

    Optical rectification with tilted pulse fronts in lithium niobate crystals is one of the most promising methods to generate terahertz (THz) radiation. In order to achieve higher optical-to-THz energy efficiency, it is necessary to cryogenically cool the crystal not only to decrease the linear phonon absorption for the generated THz wave but also to lengthen the effective interaction length between infrared pump pulses and THz waves. However, the refractive index of lithium niobate crystal at lower temperature is not the same as that at room temperature, resulting in the necessity to re-optimize or even re-build the tilted pulse front setup. Here, we performed a temperature dependent measurement of refractive index and absorption coefficient on a 6.0 mol% MgO-doped congruent lithium niobate wafer by using a THz time-domain spectrometer (THz-TDS). When the crystal temperature was decreased from 300 K to 50 K, the refractive index of the crystal in the extraordinary polarization decreased from 5.05 to 4.88 at 0.4 THz, resulting in ~1° change for the tilt angle inside the lithium niobate crystal. The angle of incidence on the grating for the tilted pulse front setup at 1030 nm with demagnification factor of -0.5 needs to be changed by 3°. The absorption coefficient decreased by 60% at 0.4 THz. These results are crucial for designing an optimum tilted pulse front setup based on lithium niobate crystals.

  5. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    PubMed

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field.

  6. Photoacoustic determination of optical absorption to extinction ratio in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Roessler, D M; Faxvog, F R

    1980-02-15

    The photoacoustic technique has been used in conjunction with an optical transmission measurement to determine the fraction of light absorbed in cigarette and acetylene smoke aerosols. At 0.5145-microm wavelength,the absorption-to-extinction fraction is 0.01 +/- 0.003 for cigarette smoke and is in excellent agreement with predictions from Mie theory for smoke particles having a refractive index of 1.45-0.00133i and a median diameter in the 0.15-0.65-microm range. For acetylene smoke the absorbed fraction was 0.85 +/- 0.05. PMID:20216896

  7. Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-12-24

    We describe a novel reconstruction method that allows for quantitative recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media using tomographic photoacoustic measurements. Images of optical absorption coefficient are obtained from a diffusion equation based regularized Newton method where the absorbed energy density distribution from conventional photoacoustic tomography serves as the measured field data. We experimentally demonstrate this new method using tissue-mimicking phantom measurements and simulations. The reconstruction results show that the optical absorption coefficient images obtained are quantitative in terms of the shape, size, location and optical property values of the heterogeneities examined.

  8. Profiling of K0 lateral stress coefficient in soils using paired directional G0 ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Taeseo; Mayne, Paul W.

    2013-07-01

    Using a special database compiled from directional shear wave velocity measurements at 12 well-documented sites, the geostatic stress state and stress history are evaluated from shear stiffness ratios. At each site, a benchmark profile of lateral stress coefficient (K0) was detailed using direct in-situ methods (i.e., self-boring pressuremeter, total stress cells, and/or hydraulic fracture), and/or laboratory methods (i.e., suction, consolidometer, and/or triaxial stress path testing). Also, the yield stress ratio (YSR), or more common parameter: overconsolidation ratio (OCR), was available either from series of consolidation tests on undisturbed samples procured from various depths and/or engineering geology studies, or both. Statistical expressions are derived to relate both K0 and OCR in terms of the ratio G0,HH/G0,VH as well as other factors.

  9. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of a glucose solution through transmission of light and polarymetry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez M., J.

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes is a disease with no cure, but can be controlled to improve the quality of life of sufferers. Currently there are means to control, but this means they have the disadvantage that in order to measure the amount of glucose is necessary to take blood samples that are painful. This paper presents a system for measuring glucose using non-invasive optical techniques: using absorption spectroscopy and polarimetry technique. It shows the results obtained from experiments done on samples containing distilled water and different amounts of glucose to study the absorption coefficient of glucose with both techniques. Water is used because it is one of the main elements in the blood and interferes with glucose measurement. This experiment will develop a prototype to measure glucose through a non-invasive technique.

  10. Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis

  11. Opto-acoustic measurement of the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media: 2. On the possibility of light absorption coefficient measurement in a turbid medium from the amplitude of the opto-acoustic signal

    SciTech Connect

    Pelivanov, Ivan M; Barskaya, M I; Podymova, N B; Khokhlova, Tanya D; Karabutov, Aleksander A

    2009-09-30

    The second part of this work describes the experimental technique of measuring the local light absorption in turbid media. The technique is based on the measurement of the amplitude of an opto-acoustic (OA) signal excited in a turbid medium under the condition of one-sided access to the object under study. An OA transducer is developed to perform the proposed measurement procedure. Experiments are conducted for the turbid media with different optical properties (light absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) and for different diameters of the incident laser beam. It is found that the laser beam diameter can be chosen so that the dependences of the measured OA signal amplitude on the light absorption coefficient coincide upon varying the reduced scattering coefficient by more than twice. The obtained numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the OA method is applicable for measuring the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media, for example, in biological tissues. (measurement of parametrs of laser radiation)

  12. Determination of Absorption Coefficient of a Solution by a Simple Experimental Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Deepak; Akhildev, C.; Sreenivasan, P. V.; Leelamma, K. K.; Joseph, Lyjo K.; Anila, E. I.

    2011-10-01

    The absorption coefficients of aqueous potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution at 638.8 nm for various concentrations are determined using a simple experimental set up. The setup consists of He-Ne laser source (Red, 638.8 nm, 10 mW), a glass jar in which the KMnO4 sample is taken, a mirror strip inclined at 45° to direct the laser beam towards the bottom of the glass jar, a traveling microscope to adjust the position of light dependent resistor (LDR) and a digital multimeter to measure the resistance.

  13. A diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech: the coefficient of variation ratio.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; Green, Jordan R; Campbell, Thomas F; McSweeny, Jane L; Scheer, Alison R

    2003-01-01

    Terms such as isochrony, syllable segregation, scanning speech and staccato-like rhythmic quality have been used to characterize the temporal regularity that may be a core feature of apraxia of speech. The present report describes a procedure to quantify temporal regularity in children with suspected apraxia of speech (sAOS). Conversational speech samples from 15 such children, together with samples from 30 3-6-year-old children with normal speech acquisition and 30 3-6-year-old children with moderate to severe speech delay of unknown origin, were selected from an audio archive. Signal processing routines were developed to identify and measure the duration of speech and pause events in 24 utterances from the speech samples of each of the 75 speakers. A value termed the coefficient of variation expressed the normalized variability in the durations of each participant's speech events and pause events within each utterance. A metric termed the coefficient of variation ratio, derived by dividing the coefficient of variation for pause events by the coefficient of variation for speech events, expressed a speaker's relative temporal variation in the two domains. The 15 children with sAOS had higher coefficient of variation ratios than the 30 children in each of the two comparison groups, indicating that the children with sAOS had proportionally more variation in the duration of pause events and/or less variation in the duration of speech events. Findings are interpreted as supporting the view that a constraint in speech timing is a core feature of the praxis disorder that defines a developmental form of apraxia of speech.

  14. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, N.; Keshavarz, A.; Nadgaran, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  15. Temperature and pressure dependence of dichloro-difluoromethane (CF2C12) absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harward, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were performed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of CFM-12 absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation. The absorption coefficients of CFM-12 for CO2 waveguide laser radiation were found to have no spectral structure within small spectral bandwidths around the CO2 waveguide laser lines in the CO2 spectral band for pressures above 20 torr. All of the absorption coefficients for the CO2 laser lines studied are independent of pressure above 100 torr, except for the P(36) laser CO2 spectral band. The absorption coefficients associated with the P(42) line in the same band showed the greatest change with temperature, and it also has the largest value of all the lines studied.

  16. Material decomposition with the multi-energy attenuation coefficient ratio by using a multiple discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Jin; Kang, Se-Ryong; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a spectral CT system using a photon counting detector and to decompose materials by applying a multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to the energy-dependent attenuation coefficient ratios. We imaged cylindrical phantoms of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with four holes filled with calcium chloride, iodine, and gold nanoparticle contrast agents. The attenuation coefficients were measured via reconstructed multi-energy images, and the linear attenuation ratio was used for material identification. The MDA projection matrix, determined from training phantoms, was used to identify the four materials in the testing phantoms. For quantification purposes, the relationships between the attenuation coefficients at multiple energy bins and the concentrations were characterized by using the least-squares method for each material. The mean identification accuracy for each of the three materials were 0.94 ± 0.09 for iodine, 0.96 ± 0.07 for gold nanoparticles, and 0.92 ± 0.05 for calcium chloride. The mean quantification errors were 1.90 ± 1.58% for iodine, 3.85 ± 3.13% for gold nanoparticle, and 3.40 ± 2.62% for calcium chloride. The developed multi-energy CT system based on the photon-counting detector with MDA can precisely decompose the four materials.

  17. Measuring absorption coefficient of scattering liquids using a tube inside an integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Veenstra, Colin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-04-10

    A method for measuring the absorption coefficient μa of absorbing and scattering liquid samples is presented. The sample is injected into a small transparent tube mounted through an integrating sphere. Two models for determining the absorption coefficient using the relative optical output signal are described and validated using aqueous ink absorbers of 0.5 vol.% (0.3  mm-1a<1.55  mm-1) and 1.0 vol.% (1.0  mm-1a<4.0  mm-1) concentrations with 1 vol.% (μs'≈1.4  mm-1) and 10 vol.% (μs'≈14  mm-1) Intralipid dilutions. The low concentrations give μa and μs values, which are comparable with those of biological tissues. One model assumes a uniform light distribution within the sample, which is valid for low absorption. Another model considers light attenuation that obeys Lambert-Beer's law, which may be used for relatively high absorption. Measurements with low and high scattering samples are done for the wavelength range of 400-900 nm. Measured spectra of purely absorbing samples are within 15% agreement with measurements using standard transmission spectrophotometry. For 0.5 vol.% ink absorbers and at wavelengths below 700 nm, measured μa values are higher for samples with low scattering and lower for those with high scattering. At wavelengths above 700 nm, measured μa values do not vary significantly with amount of scattering. For 1.0 vol.% ink absorbers, measured spectra do not change with low scattering. These results indicate that the method can be used for measuring absorption spectra of scattering liquid samples with optical properties similar to biological absorbers, particularly at wavelengths above 700 nm, which is difficult to accomplish with standard transmission spectrophotometry.

  18. The melanosome: threshold temperature for explosive vaporization and internal absorption coefficient during pulsed laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, S L; McAuliffe, D J

    1991-06-01

    The explosive vaporization of melanosomes in situ in skin during pulsed laser irradiation (pulse duration less than 1 microsecond) is observed as a visible whitening of the superficial epidermal layer due to stratum corneum disruption. In this study, the ruby laser (694 nm) was used to determine the threshold radiant exposure, H0 (J/cm2), required to elicit whitening for in vitro black (Negroid) human skin samples which were pre-equilibrated at an initial temperature, Ti, of 0, 20, or 50 degrees C. A plot of H0 vs Ti yields a straight line whose x-intercept indicates the threshold temperature of explosive vaporization to be 112 +/- 7 degrees C (SD, N = 3). The slope, delta H0/delta Ti, specifies the internal absorption coefficient, mua, within the melanosome: mua = -rho C/(slope(1 + 7.1 Rd)), where rho C is the product of density and specific heat, and Rd is the total diffuse reflectance from the skin. A summary of the absorption spectrum (mua) for the melanosome interior (351-1064 nm) is presented based on H0 data from this study and the literature. The in vivo absorption spectrum (380-820 nm) for human epidermal melanin was measured by an optical fiber spectrophotometer and is compared with the melanosome spectrum. PMID:1886936

  19. The melanosome: threshold temperature for explosive vaporization and internal absorption coefficient during pulsed laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, S L; McAuliffe, D J

    1991-06-01

    The explosive vaporization of melanosomes in situ in skin during pulsed laser irradiation (pulse duration less than 1 microsecond) is observed as a visible whitening of the superficial epidermal layer due to stratum corneum disruption. In this study, the ruby laser (694 nm) was used to determine the threshold radiant exposure, H0 (J/cm2), required to elicit whitening for in vitro black (Negroid) human skin samples which were pre-equilibrated at an initial temperature, Ti, of 0, 20, or 50 degrees C. A plot of H0 vs Ti yields a straight line whose x-intercept indicates the threshold temperature of explosive vaporization to be 112 +/- 7 degrees C (SD, N = 3). The slope, delta H0/delta Ti, specifies the internal absorption coefficient, mua, within the melanosome: mua = -rho C/(slope(1 + 7.1 Rd)), where rho C is the product of density and specific heat, and Rd is the total diffuse reflectance from the skin. A summary of the absorption spectrum (mua) for the melanosome interior (351-1064 nm) is presented based on H0 data from this study and the literature. The in vivo absorption spectrum (380-820 nm) for human epidermal melanin was measured by an optical fiber spectrophotometer and is compared with the melanosome spectrum.

  20. Highly Dynamic Ligand Binding and Light Absorption Coefficient of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Jonathan; Ibáñez, Maria; Geiregat, Pieter; Nedelcu, Georgian; Walravens, Willem; Maes, Jorick; Martins, Jose C; Van Driessche, Isabel; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Hens, Zeger

    2016-02-23

    Lead halide perovskite materials have attracted significant attention in the context of photovoltaics and other optoelectronic applications, and recently, research efforts have been directed to nanostructured lead halide perovskites. Collodial nanocrystals (NCs) of cesium lead halides (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit bright photoluminescence, with emission tunable over the entire visible spectral region. However, previous studies on CsPbX3 NCs did not address key aspects of their chemistry and photophysics such as surface chemistry and quantitative light absorption. Here, we elaborate on the synthesis of CsPbBr3 NCs and their surface chemistry. In addition, the intrinsic absorption coefficient was determined experimentally by combining elemental analysis with accurate optical absorption measurements. (1)H solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize sample purity, elucidate the surface chemistry, and evaluate the influence of purification methods on the surface composition. We find that ligand binding to the NC surface is highly dynamic, and therefore, ligands are easily lost during the isolation and purification procedures. However, when a small amount of both oleic acid and oleylamine is added, the NCs can be purified, maintaining optical, colloidal, and material integrity. In addition, we find that a high amine content in the ligand shell increases the quantum yield due to the improved binding of the carboxylic acid.

  1. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Bean Seeds Investigated Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, G.; Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Perez-Reyes, M. C. J.; Martinez, E. Moreno

    2015-06-01

    A knowledge about seed optical parameters is of great relevance in seed technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which could be useful for biostimulation processes, by light sources, in early stages of seed germination. In the present research photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient () of five varieties of bean seeds ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of different productive cycles; the seeds were biostimulated by laser treatment to evaluate the effects of biostimulation pre-sowing. It was found that the bean varieties V1, V2, V4, and V5 were optically opaque in the visible spectrum; in the case of the V3 variety, this sample was optically transparent from 680 nm. The varieties of the studied bean seeds showed significant statistical differences in sizes and also in their optical absorption spectra. The biostimulation effects showed that the seed samples with a higher optical penetration length had a positive biostimulation, in the percentage of germination, obtaining an enhancement of 47 % compared to the control sample. The utility of PAS for the optical characterization of seeds has been demonstrated in this study of the laser biostimulation process of this kind of samples.

  2. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Rüfenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-21

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware.

  3. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  4. Determination of the particulate extinction-coefficient profile and the column-integrated lidar ratios using the backscatter-coefficient and optical-depth profiles.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Vladimir A; Hao, Wei Min; Wold, Cyle

    2007-12-20

    A new method is considered that can be used for inverting data obtained from a combined elastic-inelastic lidar or a high spectral resolution lidar operating in a one-directional mode, or an elastic lidar operating in a multiangle mode. The particulate extinction coefficient is retrieved from the simultaneously measured profiles of the particulate backscatter coefficient and the particulate optical depth. The stepwise profile of the column-integrated lidar ratio is found that provides best matching of the initial (inverted) profile of the optical depth to that obtained by the inversion of the backscatter-coefficient profile. The retrieval of the extinction coefficient is made without using numerical differentiation. The method reduces the level of random noise in the retrieved extinction coefficient to the level of noise in the inverted backscatter coefficient. Examples of simulated and experimental data are presented.

  5. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, S. V.; Garanin, Sergey G.; Zhidkov, N. V.; Pinegin, A. V.; Suslov, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 — 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s — 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p — 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  6. Temperature and salinity correction coefficients for light absorption by water in the visible to infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; McKee, David; Utschig, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The light absorption coefficient of water is dependent on temperature and concentration of ions, i.e. the salinity in seawater. Accurate knowledge of the water absorption coefficient, a, and/or its temperature and salinity correction coefficients, Ψ(T) and Ψ(S), respectively, is essential for a wide range of optical applications. Values are available from published data only at specific narrow wavelength ranges or at single wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions. Ψ(T) and Ψ(S) were therefore spectrophotometrically measured throughout the visible, near, and short wavelength infrared spectral region (400 to ~2700 nm). Additionally, they were derived from more precise measurements with a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) for 400 to 700 nm. When combined with earlier measurements from the literature in the range of 2600 - 14000 nm (wavenumber: 3800 - 700 cm(-1)), the coefficients are provided for 400 to 14000 nm (wavenumber: 25000 to 700 cm(-1)).

  7. High resolution absorption coefficients for Freon-12. [by using tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Bair, C. H.; Williams, B.; Harward, C.

    1979-01-01

    The ultra high resolution absorption coefficients of the Q-branch of Freon-12 obtained with tunable diode laser spectroscopy are presented. Continuous spectra are presented from 1155/cm to 1163/cm, and absolute wavelength calibration was obtained using SO2 spectra as a standard and a 5 cm Ge etalon for relative calibration between SO2 lines. The Freon-12 data obtained at a pressure of 0.05 torr showed a rich and highly structured spectra, but with the exception of three isolated features, collisional broadening reduces the spectra to a structureless continuum for nitrogen pressures greater than 20 torr. The spectra at 1161/cm continue to exhibit structure at atmospheric pressure.

  8. Sandwich mixer-reactor: influence of the diffusion coefficient and flow rate ratios.

    PubMed

    Abonnenc, Mélanie; Josserand, Jacques; Girault, Hubert H

    2009-02-01

    A sandwich mixer consists of mixing two solutions in a channel, one central laminar flow being sandwiched between two outer flow solutions. The present numerical study considers the convection-diffusion of two reacting species A and B, provided respectively by the two incoming solutions. The simulations show how the diffusion coefficient, flow rate and species concentration ratios influence, via the transversal diffusion length and reaction kinetics, the reaction extent at the end of the sandwich mixer. First, this extent can be enhanced up to 60% if the species with the lowest diffusion coefficient is located in the outer solutions where the flow velocity is small compared to that of the central part (higher residence time). Secondly, decreasing the outer flow rates (to confine the reaction close to the walls) and increasing the local concentration to keep the same flux ratio improve the extent by 300%. Comparison with a bi-lamination passive mixer, with an ideal mixer and an electro-osmotic driven flow mixer is presented. These conclusions are also demonstrated for consecutive reactions, showing an amplification of the effects described above. The results are also presented versus the residence time in the mixer-reactor to show the time window for which the gain is appreciable.

  9. H + O3 Fourier-transform infrared emission and laser absorption studies of OH(X2Pi) radical - An experimental dipole moment function and state-to-state Einstein A coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Orlando, John J.; Burkholder, James B.

    1990-01-01

    FTIR emission/absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the relative intensities of 88 pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH(X2Pi) distributed over 16 vibrational bands. The experimental technique used to obtain the Einstein A ratios is discussed. The dipole moment function which follows from the intensity ratios along with Einstein A coefficients calculated from mu(r) is presented.

  10. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the α particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles. Results show that, the γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ∥} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ω{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e}≈8×10{sup 19}m{sup −3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, η ≈ 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  11. A new method to retrieve spectral absorption coefficient of highly-scattering and weakly-absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrovsky, Leonid A.

    2016-03-01

    A significant uncertainty in the absorption coefficient of highly scattering dispersed materials is typical in the spectral ranges of very weak absorption. The traditional way to identify the main absorption and scattering characteristics of semi-transparent materials is based on spectral measurements of normal-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance for the material sample. Unfortunately this way cannot be used in the case of in vivo measurements of optical properties of biological tissues. A method suggested in the present paper is based on thermal response to the periodic radiative heating of the open surface of a semi-transparent material. It is shown that the period of a variation of the surface temperature is sensitive to the value of an average absorption coefficient in the surface layer. As a result, the monochromatic external irradiation combined with the surface temperature measurements can be used to retrieve the spectral values of absorption coefficient. Possible application of this method to porous semi-transparent ceramics is considered. An example problem is also solved to illustrate the applicability of this method to human skin. The approach suggested enables one to estimate an average absorption coefficient of human skin of a patient just before the thermal processing.

  12. Absorption Coefficient, Molecular Composition, and Photodegradation of Different Types of Brown Carbon Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; Aiona, P. K.; Nizkorodov, S.; Laskin, J.; Laskin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols that absorb solar radiation have a direct effect on climate. Brown carbon (BrC) represents the type of carbonaceous aerosols characterized by large absorption coefficients in the near-UV range of the spectrum. BrC can be either directly emitted into the atmosphere from combustion sources, or be formed in the atmosphere through multi-phase reactions, such as aging of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) mediated by ammonium sulfate (AS). Under the conditions of exposure to solar radiation, both primary and secondary BrC can potentially change their molecular composition and optical properties as a result of photodegradation of chromophoric compounds. This presentation will discuss the molecular level composition, the absorption and fluorescence spectra, and the mechanism of photodegradation among several representative types of BrC. The primary BrC samples include aerosol produced by smoldering wood combustion. The secondary BrC samples include AS aged products of chamber-generated SOA, products of reaction between methylglyoxal and AS, and SOA produced by the hogh-NOx photooxdiation of aromatic compounds, such as naphthalene. This presentation will also include preliminary data on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of photo-degraded bioaerosols. In all cases, absorption spectra of extracted bulk samples are measured during irradiation by a known flux of UV or visible light. The molecular level composition of the fresh and photobleached samples are characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). Photobleaching of BrC is found to occur over a range of atmospherically relevant time scales. In many cases, the molecular level composition of photobleached BrC exhibits only subtle changes suggesting that the optical and fluorescence properties of BrC are controlled by a few compounds present in low quantities. The observed fluorescence from non-biological BrC indicates potential issues in using fluorescence

  13. Retrieval of phytoplankton and colored detrital matter absorption coefficients with remote sensing reflectance in an ultraviolet band.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping

    2015-02-01

    The light absorption of phytoplankton and colored detrital matter (CDM), which includes contribution of gelbstoff and detrital matters, has distinctive yet overlapping features in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible domain. The CDM absorption (a(dg)) increases exponentially with decreasing wavelength while the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (a(ph)) generally decreases toward the shorter bands for the range of 350-450 nm. It has long been envisioned that including ocean color measurements in the UV range may help the separation of these two components from the remotely sensed ocean color spectrum. An attempt is made in this study to provide an analytical assessment of this expectation. We started with the development of an absorption decomposition model [quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA)-UV], analogous to the QAA, that partitions the total absorption coefficient using information at bands 380 and 440 nm. Compared to the retrieval results relying on the absorption information at 410 and 440 nm of the original QAA, our analyses indicate that QAA-UV can improve the retrieval of a(ph) and a(dg), although the improvement in accuracy is not significant for values at 440 nm. The performance of the UV-based algorithm is further evaluated with in situ measurements. The limited improvement observed with the field measurements highlights that the separation of a(dg) and a(ph) is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ocean color measurements and the estimated total absorption coefficient.

  14. Neoclassical transport coefficients for finite-aspect-ratio and bean-shaped tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crume, E. C., Jr.; Beasley, C. O., Jr.; Hirshman, S. P.; van Rij, W. I.

    1987-04-01

    Numerically calculated tokamak equilibria are used to compute banana-plateau transport coefficients for finite-aspect-ratio, finite-beta plasmas. Calculations are presented for the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) (NTIS Document No. DE 86004663) and the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) (NTIS Document No. DE 86011173). In STX, the poloidal variation of B≡‖B‖ over a magnetic surface tends to be reduced in regions of large major radius R. The reduction of radial transport caused by this quasiomnigeneous condition is offset by increased drifts and trapping probabilities for smaller R. Thus the modulation Δ=(Bmax-Bmin)/(Bmax+Bmin) on a magnetic surface becomes the critical parameter determining neoclassical transport. In PBX, the bean-shaped topology of the magnetic surfaces leads to the presence of multiple magnetic wells. Numerical calculations confirm that analytic calculations of neoclassical transport based on the total fraction of circulating particles are valid even when geometrically distinct classes of trapped particles are present.

  15. Application of the Z-scan technique to determine the optical Kerr coefficient and two-photon absorption coefficient of magnetite nanoparticles colloidal suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivacqua, Marco; Espinosa, Daniel; Martins Figueiredo Neto, Antônio

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the occurrence of the optical Kerr effect and two-photon absorption when an oil-based magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles colloidal suspension is illuminated with high intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The frequency of the pulses is controlled and the Z-scan technique is employed in our measurements of the nonlinear optical Kerr coefficient (n2) and two-photon absorption coefficient (β). From these values it was possible to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility. We observed that increasing the pulse frequency, additional physical processes take place, increasing artificially the absolute values of n2 and β. The experimental conditions are discussed to assure the obtention of reliable values of these nonlinear optical parameters, which may be useful in all-optical switching and optical power limiting applications.

  16. Laboratory measurements of the ozone absorption coefficient in the wavelength region 339 to 362 nm at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, Marco; Disarra, Alcide; Fiocco, Giorgio

    1987-06-01

    Instrumentation for the absolute measurement of the ozone absorption coefficient in the Huggins bands at different temperatures was set up. Ozone is produced with an electrical discharge and stored cryogenically; differential absorption measurements are carried out in a slowly evolving mixture of ozone and molecular oxygen. Results in the region 339 to 362 nm at temperatures between minus 30 and plus 40 C are reported. Results support Katayama's (1979) model of the transitions giving rise to the Huggins absorption bands of ozone. For measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles by DIAL techniques, the results on the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient at the wavelength corresponding to the third harmonic of an NdYAG laser are stressed.

  17. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wm. Hayden; Conner, Charles P.; Baines, Kevin H.

    1990-01-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH4 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum.

  18. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH sub 4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, WM.H.; Conner, C.P.; Baines, K.H. JPL, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-05-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH{sub 4} 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum. 18 refs.

  19. Optoelectronic properties of Mg{sub 2}Si semiconducting layers with high absorption coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takashi; Sago, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-15

    In an attempt to develop a low-cost material for solar cell devices, polycrystalline magnesium silicide (poly-Mg{sub 2}Si) semiconducting layers have been prepared by applying rf magnetron sputtering using a Mg{sub 2}Si target. The optimum substrate temperature for the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si growth was found to be T{sub s} = 200 deg. C; the film deposition at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Mg atoms from the growing surface, while the amorphous phase formation occurs at room temperature. The poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer deposited at T{sub s} = 200 deg. C shows the (111) preferential orientation with a uniform grain size of {approx}50 nm. The dielectric function of the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer has been determined accurately by spectroscopic ellipsometry. From the analysis, quite high absorption coefficients and an indirect gap of 0.77 eV in the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer have been confirmed. The above poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer shows clear photoconductivity and can be applied as a narrow-gap bottom layer in multi-junction solar cell devices.

  20. Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2016-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens.

  1. Noise-driven optical absorption coefficients of impurity doped quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-01-01

    We make an extensive investigation of linear, third-order nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients (ACs) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The noise invoked in the present study is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a source of confinement and a static external electric field has been applied. The AC profiles have been studied as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as optical intensity, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength take on different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the AC profiles has also been analyzed meticulously. The AC profiles often consist of a number of interesting observations such as one photon resonance enhancement, shift of AC peak position, variation of AC peak intensity, and bleaching of AC peak. However, presence of noise alters the features of AC profiles and leads to some interesting manifestations. Multiplicative noise brings about more complexity in the AC profiles than its additive counterpart. The observations indeed illuminate several useful aspects in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise. The findings are expected to be quite relevant from a technological perspective.

  2. Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2016-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens. PMID:27256895

  3. Absorption coefficients of the methane-nitrogen binary ice system: Implications for Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapa, S.; Grundy, W. M.; Tegler, S. C.; Bergonio, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    The methane-nitrogen phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich (1983. Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 9, 94-98) indicates that at temperatures relevant to the surfaces of icy dwarf planets like Pluto, two phases contribute to the methane absorptions: nitrogen saturated with methane N2 ‾ :CH4 and methane saturated with nitrogen CH4 ‾ :N2 . No optical constants are available so far for the latter component limiting construction of a proper model, in compliance with thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. New optical constants for solid solutions of methane diluted in nitrogen (N2 :CH4) and nitrogen diluted in methane (CH4 :N2) are presented at temperatures between 40 and 90 K, in the wavelength range 1.1-2.7 μm at different mixing ratios. These optical constants are derived from transmission measurements of crystals grown from the liquid phase in closed cells. A systematic study of the changes of methane and nitrogen solid mixtures spectral behavior with mixing ratio and temperature is presented.

  4. Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Christoph; Kasemo, Bengt; Zorić, Igor

    2007-05-21

    Localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metallic nanoparticles decay either radiatively or via an electron-hole pair cascade. In this work, the authors have experimentally and theoretically explored the branching ratio of the radiative and nonradiative LSP decay channels for nanodisks of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, with diameters D ranging from 38 to 530 nm and height h=20 nm, supported on a fused silica substrate. The branching ratio for the two plasmon decay channels was obtained by measuring the absorption and scattering cross sections as a function of photon energy. The former was obtained from measured extinction and scattering coefficients, using an integrating sphere detector combined with particle density measurements obtained from scanning electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles. Partly angle-resolved measurements of the scattered light allowed the authors to clearly identify contributions from dipolar and higher plasmonic modes to the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. Based on these experiments they find that absorption dominates the total scattering cross section in all the examined cases for small metallic nanodisks (D<100 nm). For D>100 nm absorption still dominates for Pt and Pd nanodisks, while scattering dominates for Au and Ag. A theoretical approach, where the metal disks are approximated as oblate spheroids, is used to account for the trends in the measured cross sections. The field problem is solved in the electrostatic limit. The spheroid is treated as an induced dipole for which the dipolar polarizability is calculated based on spheroid geometry and the (bulk) dielectric response function of the metal the spheroid consists of and the dielectric medium surrounding it. One might expect this model to be inappropriate for disks with D>100 nm since effects due to the retardation of the incoming field across the metallic nanodisk and contributions from higher plasmonic modes are neglected. However, this model describes quite well

  5. Investigation of linear optical absorption coefficients in core-shell quantum dot (QD) luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimipour, Bahareh Alsadat; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Ramezani, Ali Behjat

    2016-09-01

    The interlevel absorption coefficient of CdSe/ZnS and ZnS/CdSe core-shell Quantum Dot (QD) in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is reported. By considering the quantum confinement effects, the wave functions and eigenenergies of electrons in the nonperturebative system consists of a core-shell QD have been numerically calculated under the frame work of effective-mass approximation by solving a three-dimensional Schrӧdinger equation. And then the absorption coefficient is obtained under density matrix approximation considering in the polymer sheets of the concentrator including the core-shell QDs. The effect of the hetero-structure geometry upon the energy spectrum and absorption coefficient associated to interlevel transitions was also considered. The results show that the core-shell QDs can absorb the photons with higher energy in solar spectrum as compared to the inverted core-shell. And with a small shell layer diameter, the core-shell QDs produce larger linear absorption coefficients and consequently higher efficiency values, however it is inversed for inverted core-shell QDs. The work described here gives a detailed insight into the promise of QD-based LSCs and the optoelectronic devices applications.

  6. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  7. Linear absorption coefficient of beryllium in the 50-300-A wavelength range. [bandpass filter materials for ultraviolet astronomy instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Lewis, M.; Petre, R.

    1983-01-01

    Transmittances of thin-film filters fabricated for an extreme-UV astronomy sounding-rocket experiment yield values for the linear absorption coefficient of beryllium in the 50-300-A wavelength range, in which previous measurements are sparse. The inferred values are consistent with the lowest data previously published and may have important consequences for extreme-UV astronomers.

  8. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  9. Remote Sensing of the Absorption Coefficients and Chlorophyll a Concentration in the U.S. Southern Middle Atlantic Bight from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2008-01-01

    At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.

  10. Absorption coefficient of urban aerosol in Nanjing, west Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, B. L.; Wang, T. J.; Liu, J.; Ma, Y.; Yin, C. Q.; Li, S.; Xie, M.; Han, Y.; Zhu, J. L.; Yang, X. Q.; Fu, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols can significantly modulate short-wave solar radiation in the atmosphere, affecting regional and global climate. The aerosol absorption coefficient (AAC) is an indicator that assesses the impact of absorbing aerosols on radiative forcing. In this study, the near-surface AAC and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) in the urban area of Nanjing, China, are characterized on the basis of measurements in 2012 and 2013 using the seven-channel Aethalometer (model AE-31, Magee Scientific, USA). The AAC is estimated with direct and indirect corrections, which result in consistent temporal variations and magnitudes of AAC at 532 nm. The mean AAC at 532 nm is about 43.23 ± 28.13 M m-1 in the urban area of Nanjing, which is much lower than that in Pearl River Delta and the same as in rural areas (Lin'an) in Yangtze River Delta. The AAC in the urban area of Nanjing shows strong seasonality (diurnal variations); it is high in cold seasons (at rush hour) and low in summer (in the afternoon). It also shows synoptic and quasi-2-week cycles in response to weather systems. Its frequency distribution follows a typical log-normal pattern. The 532 nm AAC ranging from 15 to 65 M m-1 dominates, accounting for more than 72 % of the total data samples in the entire study period. Frequent high pollution episodes, such as those observed in June 2012 and in winter 2013, greatly enhanced AAC and altered its temporal variations and frequency distributions. These episodes are mostly due to local emissions and regional pollution. Air masses flowing from northern China to Nanjing can sometimes be highly polluted and lead to high AAC at the site. AAE at 660/470 nm from the Schmid correction (Schmid et al., 2006) is about 1.56, which might be more reasonable than from the Weingartner correction (Weingartner et al., 2003). Low AAEs mainly occur in summer, likely due to high relative humidity (RH) in the season. AAC increases with increasing AAE at a fixed aerosol loading. The RH

  11. A system coefficient approach for quantitative assessment of the solvent effects on membrane absorption from chemical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Xia, X R; Baynes, R E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Riviere, J E

    2007-01-01

    A system coefficient approach is proposed for quantitative assessment of the solvent effects on membrane absorption from chemical mixtures. The complicated molecular interactions are dissected into basic molecular interaction forces via Abraham's linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The molecular interaction strengths of a chemical are represented by a set of solute descriptors, while those of a membrane/chemical mixture system are represented by a set of system coefficients. The system coefficients can be determined by using a set of probe compounds with known solute descriptors. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane-coated fibres and 32 probe compounds were used to demonstrate the proposed approach. When a solvent was added into the chemical mixture, the system coefficients were altered and detected by the system coefficient approach. The system coefficients of the PDMS/water system were (0.09, 0.49, -1.11, -2.36, -3.78, 3.50). When 25% ethanol was added into the PDMS/water system, the system coefficients were altered significantly (0.38, 0.41, -1.18, -2.07, -3.40, 2.81); and the solvent effect was quantitatively described by the changes in the system coefficients (0.29, -0.08, -0.07, 0.29, 0.38, -0.69). The LSER model adequately described the experimental data with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.995 and F-value of 1056 with p-value less than 0.0001.

  12. A model for partitioning the light absorption coefficient of natural waters into phytoplankton, nonalgal particulate, and colored dissolved organic components: A case study for the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guangming; Stramski, Dariusz; DiGiacomo, Paul M.

    2015-04-01

    We present a model, referred to as Generalized Stacked-Constraints Model (GSCM), for partitioning the total light absorption coefficient of natural water (with pure-water contribution subtracted), anw(λ), into phytoplankton, aph(λ), nonalgal particulate, ad(λ), and CDOM, ag(λ), components. The formulation of the model is based on the so-called stacked-constraints approach, which utilizes a number of inequality constraints that must be satisfied simultaneously by the model outputs of component absorption coefficients. A major advancement is that GSCM provides a capability to separate the ad(λ) and ag(λ) coefficients from each other using only weakly restrictive assumptions about the component absorption coefficients. In contrast to the common assumption of exponential spectral shape of ad(λ) and ag(λ) in previous models, in our model these two coefficients are parameterized in terms of several distinct spectral shapes. These shapes are determined from field data collected in the Chesapeake Bay with an ultimate goal to adequately account for the actual variability in spectral shapes of ad(λ) and ag(λ) in the study area. Another advancement of this model lies in its capability to account for potentially nonnegligible magnitude of ad(λ) in the near-infrared spectral region. Evaluation of model performance demonstrates good agreement with measurements in the Chesapeake Bay. For example, the median ratio of the model-derived to measured ad(λ), ag(λ), and aph(λ) at 443 nm is 0.913, 1.064, and 1.056, respectively. Whereas our model in its present form can be a powerful tool for regional studies in the Chesapeake Bay, the overall approach is readily adaptable to other regions or bio-optical water types.

  13. Neoclassical transport coefficients for finite-aspect-ratio and bean-shaped tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crume E.C. Jr.; Beasley C.O. Jr.; Hirshman, S.P.; van Rij, W.I.

    1987-04-01

    Numerically calculated tokamak equilibria are used to compute banana-plateau transport coefficients for finite-aspect-ratio, finite-beta plasmas. Calculations are presented for the Spherical Torus Experiment (STX) (NTIS Document No. DE 86004663) and the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) (NTIS Document No. DE 86011173). In STX, the poloidal variation of Bequivalentchemically bondBchemically bond over a magnetic surface tends to be reduced in regions of large major radius R. The reduction of radial transport caused by this quasiomnigeneous condition is offset by increased drifts and trapping probabilities for smaller R. Thus the modulation ..delta.. = (B/sub max/-B/sub min/)/(B/sub max/+B/sub min/) on a magnetic surface becomes the critical parameter determining neoclassical transport. In PBX, the bean-shaped topology of the magnetic surfaces leads to the presence of multiple magnetic wells. Numerical calculations confirm that analytic calculations of neoclassical transport based on the total fraction of circulating particles are valid even when geometrically distinct classes of trapped particles are present.

  14. Determination of K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios of 3d transition metals by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters.

    PubMed

    Kaçal, Mustafa Recep; Han, Ibrahim; Akman, Ferdi

    2014-10-29

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) has been employed for measuring K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios for Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu elements. The jump factors and jump ratios for these elements were determined by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters such as the Kα X-ray production cross-sections, K shell fluorescence yields, Kβ-to-Kα X-rays intensity ratios, total atomic absorption cross sections and mass attenuation coefficients. The measurements were performed using a Cd-109 radioactive point source and an Si(Li) detector in direct excitation and transmission experimental geometry. The measured values for jump factors and jump ratios were compared with theoretically calculated and the ones available in the literature. PMID:25464198

  15. A reduced-scale railway noise barrier's insertion loss and absorption coefficients: comparison of field measurements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, T. A.; Nugent, R. E.

    2003-10-01

    In situ testing determined the insertion loss ( IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000 m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66 m high by 14.6 m long demonstration barrier was built in the parking lot of Edison Field, Anaheim, as part of a public open house, thereby allowing for acoustical measurements. Insertion loss ( IL) was measured in third-octave bands assuming 1/2-scale construction. The IL for three, scaled railway noise sub-sources (rail/wheel interface, locomotive, and train horn) was measured at six, scaled distances. The highest total, A-weighted IL, after corrections for finite-barrier and point-source speaker effects was 22 dB(A) for rail/wheel noise, 18 dB(A) for locomotive noise, and 20 dB(A) for train horn noise. These results can be compared favourably to IL predictions made using algorithms from the US Federal Rail Administration (FRA) noise assessment guidelines. For the actual barrier installation, shielded residential receivers located south of the project are expected to see their future noise exposures reduced from an unmitigated 78 CNEL to 65 CNEL. Absorption coefficients were measured using time delay spectrometry. At lower frequencies, measured absorption coefficients were notably less than the reverberation room results advertised in the manufacturer's literature, but generally conformed with impedance tube results. At higher frequencies the correspondence between measured absorption coefficients and reverberation room results was much improved. For the actual barrier installation, unshielded residential receivers to the north are expected to experience noise exposure increases of less than 1 dB(A). This factor of increase is consistent with a finding of no impact when assessed

  16. Effective absorption coefficient measurements in PMMA and PTFE by clean ablation process with a coherent VUV source at 125 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, D.; Castex, M. C.

    First measurements of effective absorption coefficient and penetration depth are given here from the ablation of poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) and poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) samples at 125 nm ( 10 eV). The coherent VUV source used which provides smooth, efficient and clean etched areas, is briefly described. Experimental curves of etch depth as a function of the number of laser shots and etch rate as a function of energy density are obtained and compared with previous works performed at 157 nm (F2 laser) and 193 nm (ArF laser). Experimental results are described with a Beer-Lambert absorption law and discussed.

  17. The absorption coefficient of the liquid N2 2.15-micron band and application to Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, William M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    The present measurements of the temperature dependence exhibited by the liquid N2 2.15-micron 2-0 collision-induced band's absorption coefficient and integrated absorption show the latter to be smaller than that of the N2 gas, and to decrease with decreasing temperature. Extrapolating this behavior to Triton's nominal surface temperature yields a new estimate of the N2-ice grain size on the Triton south polar cap; a mean N2 grain size of 0.7-3.0 cm is consistent with grain growth rate calculation results.

  18. Measurements of standing waves and the absorption coefficients of Various materials with surface electromagnetic waves on Al.

    PubMed

    Bell, R J; Davarpanah, M; Goben, C A; Begley, D L; Bhasin, K; Alexander, R W

    1975-07-01

    The first measurements of the absorption coefficient of materials via surface electromagnetic wave (SEW) techniques are reported. By simply laying samples on a metal sheet on which SEW were passing, the transmittances and absorption coefficients of the sample have been determined. These measurements were made at microwave frequencies, but the general techniques are applicable over the entire frequency range from microwaves into the near ir. Solid samples were used in these measurements, but liquid or gases could also be studied by this new easy-to-use technique. Comments about the applicability of the technique to very thin samples are made. Another result reported is the existence of different propagating SEW modes as a function of the height of a sample (film thickness) measured from the metal-sample interface to the top of the sample at the sample-vacuum interface above.

  19. Effect of dietary calcium: Phosphorus ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal calcium absorption in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Koshihara, Moyuru; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal Ca absorption in ovariectomized (OVX) rat models of osteoporosis and sham-operated rats. Thirty 12-wk-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of OVX rats and three groups of sham rats. Thirty days after the adaptation period, OVX rats and sham rats were fed a diet formulated Ca:P, 1:0.5, 1:1 or 1:2 (each diet containing 0.5% Ca), respectively for 42 d. In both sham and OVX rats, serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, was increased by decreasing Ca:P ratio (1:2). In contrast, rats fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet (dietary P restriction) suppressed the increased serum parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline, and increased Ca absorption in both sham and OVX rats compared to the Ca:P = 1:1 and 1:2 diets. Especially, in OVX rats, the decreased bone mineral density of the fifth lumbar was also suppressed when rats were fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet. These results indicated that the elevation of dietary Ca:P ratio may inhibit bone loss and increase intestinal Ca absorption in OVX rats.

  20. Estimation of boron isotope ratios using high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltsche, Helmar; Prattes, Karl; Zischka, Michael; Knapp, Günter

    2009-04-01

    In the production of 10B enriched steels, the production-recycling process needs to be closely monitored for inadvertent mix-up of materials with different B isotope levels. A quick and simple method for the estimation of boron isotope ratios in high alloyed steels using high resolution continuum source flame AAS (HR-CS-FAAS) was developed. On the 208.9 nm B line the wavelength of the peak absorption of 10B and 11B differs by 2.5 pm. The wavelength of the peak absorption of boron was determined by fitting a Gauss function through spectra simultaneously recorded by HR-CS-FAAS. It was shown that a linear correlation between the wavelength of the peak absorption and the isotope ratio exists and that this correlation is independent of the total boron concentration. Internal spectroscopic standards were used to compensate for monochromator drift and monochromator resolution changes. Accuracy and precision of the analyzed samples were thereby increased by a factor of up to 1.3. Three steel reference materials and one boric acid CRM, each certified for the boron isotope ratio were used to validate the procedure.

  1. Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, Prasad

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients k(v) in the atmospheric window are reported for CFC-11 and CFC-12. Data obtained with a grating spectrometer are compared with NCAR cross sections and measurements of k(v) made with a tunable diode laser spectrometer at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights or layers in the atmosphere are presented. The results are suitable for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies.

  2. Absorption Coefficients of SF{6}, SF{4}, SOF{2} and SO{2}F{2} in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradayrol, C.; Casanovas, A. M.; Deharo, I.; Guelfucci, J. P.; Casanovas, J.

    1996-05-01

    Absorption coefficients k0(m^{-1} 100 kPa^{-1}) of SF{6} and of its main gaseous by-products SF{4}, SOF{2} and SO{2}F{2} were measured in the VUV region. The experiments were carried out at a temperature of 298 K and a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm over the wavelength range 115 - 180 nm for SF{6}, 115 - 220 nm for SF{4}, 120 - 195 nm for SOF{2} and 120 - 210 nm for SO{2}F{2}. The highest absorption coefficient values were obtained for SF{4} and the lowest for SF{6}. Les coefficients d'absorption k0(m^{-1} 100 kPa^{-1}) du SF{6} et de ses principaux produits de décomposition gazeux, SF{4}, SOF{2} et SO{2}F{2} ont été mesurés dans le domaine de l'ultraviolet sous vide. Les expériences ont été réalisées à la température de 298 K avec une résolution de 0,1 nm dans la gamme 115 180 nm pour le SF{6}, 115 220 nm pour le SF{4}, 120 195 nm pour le SOF{2} et 120 210 nm pour le SO{2}F{2}. Les coefficients d'absorption les plus élevés ont été mesurés pour le SF{4} et les plus faibles pour le SF{6}.

  3. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO2 ice - Applications to the Martian south polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1990-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of carbon dioxide frosts were calculated using the optical constants provided by Warren (1986) for the wavelength region 2-6 microns. In comparing these calculated spectra to spectra of frosts observed in the laboratory and on the surface of Mars, problems in the optical constants presented by Warren (1986) became apparent. Absorption coefficients for CO2 ice have been derived using laboratory reflectance measurements and the Hapke (1981) model for calculating diffuse reflectance. This provides approximate values in regions where no data were previously available and indicates where corrections to the compilation by Warren (1986) are required. Using these coefficients to calculate the reflectance of CO2 ice at varying grain sizes indicates that a typical Mariner polar cap spectrum is dominated by absorptions due to CO2 frost or ice at grain sizes that are quite large, probably of the order of millimeters to centimeters. There are indications of contamination of water frost or dust, but confirmation will require more precise absorption coefficients for solid CO2 than can be obtained from the method used here.

  4. Effects of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on the thermal infrared remote sensing of the earth surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on thermal infrared spectral signatures measured from satellite sensors is investigated by comparing results from the atmospheric transmission and radiance codes LOWTRAN and MODTRAN and the accurate multiple scattering radiative transfer model ATRAD for different atmospheric profiles. The sensors considered include the operational NOAA AVHRR and two research instruments planned for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir-Mode) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). The difference in band transmittance is as large as 6 percent for some thermal bands within atmospheric windows and more than 30 percent near the edges of these atmospheric windows. The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature can exceed 0.6 K. Quantitative comparison and factor analysis indicate that more accurate measurements of molecular absorption coefficients and better radiative transfer simulation methods are needed to achieve SST accuracy of 0.3 K, as required for global numerical models of climate, and to develop land-surface temperature algorithms at the 1-K accuracy level.

  5. Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Vodacek, Anthony; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Blough, Neil V.

    1995-10-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 355 nm has been retrieved from airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized CDOM fluorescence. Four combined airborne and ship field experiments have demonstrated that (1) the airborne CDOM fluorescence-to--water Raman ratio is linearly related to concurrent quinine-sulfate-standardized CDOM shipboard fluorescence measurements over a wide range of water masses (coastal to blue water); (2) the vicarious calibration of the airborne fluorosensor in units traceable to a fluorescence standard can be established and then maintained over an extended time period by tungsten lamp calibration; (3) the vicariously calibrated airborne CDOM fluorescence-to-water Raman ratio can be directly applied to previously developed

  6. The absorption of trapped particles by the inner satellites of Jupiter and the radial diffusion coefficient of particle transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Fillius, W.

    1976-01-01

    The process of trapped particle absorption by the inner Jovian satellites is considered in detail taking into account both the particle and satellite motions in a magnetic dipole field which is displaced from the center of the planet and tilted with respect to the planetary rotation axis. An expression is derived for computing the sweeping time at a given satellite, defined as the time required for the satellite to sweep up a given fraction of the trapped particles within its sweeping region. By making use of the sweeping time and the radial diffusion equation of particle transport approximate expressions for the diffusion coefficient are derived. Measurements obtained by Pioneer 10 are then used to obtain estimates of the diffusion coefficient at the orbits of Io and Europa. We find that the diffusion coefficient is a function of energy and magnetic latitude for electrons in the energy range 0.7-14 MeV.

  7. Diffusion coefficients significant in modeling the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine and of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Rowley, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) and of gaseous H{sub 2}S into aqueous MDEA were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. A numerical model for absorption, diffusion, and reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in blends of MDEA, DEA, and water was developed. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for the case of CO{sub 2} absorption and of bisulfide ion for the case of H{sub 2}S absorption from measured absorption rates. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 50 mass % total amine at DEA:MDEA mole ratios of 1:20, 1:4, 1L3, and 2:3. H{sub 2}S absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bisulfide ion were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA.

  8. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  9. Measuring the ratio of aqueous diffusion coefficients between 6Li +Cl - and 7Li +Cr - by osmometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Steven J.

    1992-10-01

    Osmotic equilibrium is a singular occurrence in the evolution of an osmotic cell because at this event the net solution flux is zero such that -J w · V¯w = J s · V¯s. At this juncture, the diffusion coefficient of the solute through the membrane (ω) equals the solute flux ( Js) divided by the osmotic pressure (ΔΠ). Because the solute permeability coefficient (ω) is related to the Fickian diffusion coefficient ( D) through the gas constant, temperature, and the membrane's thickness and tortuosity, the ratio of ω values for individual isotopic species equals the ratio of D values for the same isotopic components. A 0.9450 molal LiCl solution was placed within sealed dialysis tubing and osmoted against a kilogram of deionized water at 22°C. Osmotic equilibrium occurred at 164 ± 10 min. The ratio of ω6Li +Cl -/ω7Li +Cl - was measured to be 1.011 ± 0.003 - a value close to the square root of the mass ratio between 7LiCl and 6LiCl (= 1.012) as calculated by Graham's Law. The measured diffusion coefficient ratio was used to predict the degree of hyperfiltration-induced fractionation of Li isotopes as a function of membrane ideality. When a membrane's σ exceeds 0.95 (as is likely for low-porosity shales) the 6Li /7Li ratio on the high-pressure side of the membrane can theoretically vary by more than 0.0017.

  10. Simultaneous Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction of Absorption Coefficient, Refractive Index and Dark-Field Scattering Coefficient in X-Ray Talbot-Lau Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood reconstruction technique for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography is presented. This technique allows the iterative simultaneous reconstruction of discrete distributions of absorption coefficient, refractive index and a dark-field scattering coefficient. This technique avoids prior phase retrieval in the tomographic projection images and thus in principle allows reconstruction from tomographic data with less than three phase steps per projection. A numerical phantom is defined which is used to evaluate convergence of the technique with regard to photon statistics and with regard to the number of projection angles and phase steps used. It is shown that the use of a random phase sampling pattern allows the reconstruction even for the extreme case of only one single phase step per projection. The technique is successfully applied to measured tomographic data of a mouse. In future, this reconstruction technique might also be used to implement enhanced imaging models for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. These enhancements might be suited to correct for example beam hardening and dispersion artifacts and improve overall image quality of X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. PMID:27695126

  11. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  12. Optimal Reflectance, Transmittance, and Absorptance Wavebands and Band Ratios for the Estimation of Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Spiering, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study utilized regression analysis to identify: wavebands and band ratios within the 400-850 nm range that could be used to estimate total chlorophyll concentration with minimal error; and simple regression models that were most effective in estimating chlorophyll concentrations were measured for two broadleaved species, a broadleaved vine, a needle-leaved conifer, and a representative of the grass family.Overall, reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance corresponded most precisely with chlorophyll concentration at wavelengths near 700 nm, although regressions were strong as well in the 550-625 nm range.

  13. Spatial variability of absorption coefficients over a biogeochemical gradient in a large and optically complex shallow lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Caitlin A. L.; Hunter, Peter D.; Tyler, Andrew N.; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Horváth, Hajnalka; Kovács, Attila W.; Vörös, Lajos; Preston, Tom; Présing, Mátyás.

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve robustness of remote sensing algorithms for lakes, it is vital to understand the variability of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and their mass-specific representations (SIOPs). In this study, absorption coefficients for particulate and dissolved constituents were measured at 38 stations distributed over a biogeochemical gradient in Lake Balaton, Hungary. There was a large range of phytoplankton absorption (aph(λ)) over blue and red wavelengths (aph(440) = 0.11-4.39 m-1, aph(675) = 0.048-2.52 m-1), while there was less variability in chlorophyll-specific phytoplankton absorption (a*ph(λ)) in the lake (a*ph(440) = 0.022 ± 0.0046 m2 mg-1, a*ph(675) = 0.010 ± 0.0020 m2 mg-1) and adjoining wetland system, Kis-Balaton (a*ph(440) = 0.017 ± 0.0015 m2 mg-1, a*ph(675) = 0.0088 ± 0.0017 m2 mg-1). However, in the UV, a*ph(350) significantly increased with increasing distance from the main inflow (Zala River). This was likely due to variable production of photoprotective pigments (e.g., MAAs) in response to the decreasing gradient of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The slope of CDOM absorption (SCDOM) also increased from west to east due to larger terrestrial CDOM input in the western basins. Absorption by nonalgal particles (aNAP(λ)) was highly influenced by inorganic particulates, as a result of the largely mineral sediments in Balaton. The relative contributions to the absorption budget varied more widely than oceans with a greater contribution from NAP (up to 30%), and wind speed affected the proportion attributed to NAP, phytoplankton, or CDOM. Ultimately, these data provide knowledge of the heterogeneity of (S)IOPs in Lake Balaton, suggesting the full range of variability must be considered for future improvement of analytical algorithms for constituent retrieval in inland waters.

  14. Measuring the acoustic absorption coefficient in biological tissue specimens using ultrasonic phase conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, N. V.; Krutyansky, L. M.; Zelenova, Z. V.; Brysev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic absorption has been measured in a series of biological tissue specimens—porcine muscle, renal and fat tissues—by the standard insert-substitution method, as well as by ultrasonic phase conjugation. Comparison of the experimental results and revealed differences confirm the promise of using phase conjugate waves to measure acoustic losses in biological objects. It is demonstrated that in inhomogeneous tissues, the phase conjugation method makes it possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of dissipative losses.

  15. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Barley Seeds Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Their Effects by Laser Biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Reyes, Ma. C.; Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno Martínez, E.

    2015-09-01

    Laser light as a biostimulator has been applied in agriculture, and some scientific reports evidence its usefulness. A knowledge about seed optical parameters is of great relevance in the biostimulation process, because information can be provided about the light absorption of seeds. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient (β ) of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy; these seeds were studied in two conditions: seeds in their natural color and seeds dyed with methylene blue. The seeds were biostimulated by a laser beam (650 nm wavelength) to evaluate the effects of pre-sowing biostimulation in natural mycobiota associated with different laser irradiation times (0 s, 60 s, 120 s, 240 s, and 480 s). The results of this research demonstrated changes in the optical parameters (absorption and penetration) that occur in the seeds by changing the natural condition to a dyed condition. The dyed seeds, by the methylene blue photosensitizer, become optically opaque, producing greater optical absorption at 650 nm which causes an increase in the effect of laser stimulation. The experimental results showed that the biggest mycobiota reduction (52 %) corresponded to dyed seeds irradiated with a laser for 120 s.

  16. Measuring the ratio of aqueous diffusion coefficients between [sup 6]Li[sup +]Cl[sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, S.J. )

    1992-10-01

    Osmotic equilibrium is a singular occurrence in the evolution of an osmotic cell because at this event the net solution flux is zero such that [minus]J[sub w] [center dot] [bar V][sub w] = J[sub s] [center dot] [bar V][sub s]. At this juncture, the diffusion coefficient of the solute through the membrane ([omega]) equals the solute flux (J[sub s]) divided by the osmotic pressure ([delta]II). Because the solute permeability coefficient ([omega]) is related to the Fickian diffusion coefficient (D) through the gas constant, temperature, and the membrane's thickness and tortuosity, the ratio of [omega] values for individual isotopic species equals the ratio of D values for the same isotopic components. A 0.9450 molal LiCl solution was placed within sealed dialysis tubing and osmoted against a kilogram of deionized water at 22C. Osmotic equilibrium occurred at 164 [plus minus] 10 min. The ratio of [omega][sub [sup 6]Li[sup +]Cl[sup [minus

  17. Determination of oral mucosal Poisson's ratio and coefficient of friction from in-vivo contact pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Suenaga, Hanako; Hogg, Michael; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Despite their considerable importance to biomechanics, there are no existing methods available to directly measure apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient of oral mucosa. This study aimed to develop an inverse procedure to determine these two biomechanical parameters by utilizing in vivo experiment of contact pressure between partial denture and beneath mucosa through nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis and surrogate response surface (RS) modelling technique. First, the in vivo denture-mucosa contact pressure was measured by a tactile electronic sensing sheet. Second, a 3D FE model was constructed based on the patient CT images. Third, a range of apparent Poisson's ratios and the coefficients of friction from literature was considered as the design variables in a series of FE runs for constructing a RS surrogate model. Finally, the discrepancy between computed in silico and measured in vivo results was minimized to identify the best matching Poisson's ratio and coefficient of friction. The established non-invasive methodology was demonstrated effective to identify such biomechanical parameters of oral mucosa and can be potentially used for determining the biomaterial properties of other soft biological tissues.

  18. Constraining the ortho-to-para ratio of H2 with anomalous H_2CO absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troscompt, N.; Faure, A.; Maret, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen is a fundamental parameter in understanding the physics and chemistry of molecular clouds. In dark and cold regions, however, H2 is not directly observable and the OPR of H2 in these sources has so far remained elusive. Aims: We show that the 6 cm absorption line of ortho-formaldehyde (H2CO) can be employed to constrain both the density and the OPR of H2 in dark clouds. Methods: Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ortho-H2CO toward the molecular cloud Barnard 68 (B68) are reported. Non-LTE radiative transfer calculations combined with the well-constrained structure of B68 are then employed to derive the physical conditions in the absorption region. Results: We provide the first firm confirmation of the Townes & Cheung mechanism: propensity rules for the collisions of H2CO with H2 molecules are responsible for the sub-2.7 K cooling of the 6 cm doublet. Non-LTE calculations show that in the absorption region of B68, the kinetic temperature is ˜ 10 K, the ortho-H2CO column density amounts to ˜ 2.2× 1013 cm-2, the H2 density is in the range 1.4{-}2.4× 10 4 cm-3, and the OPR of H2 is close to zero. Our observations thus provide fresh evidence that H2 is mostly in its para form in the cold gas, as expected from theoretical considerations. Our results also suggest that formaldehyde absorption originates in the edge of B68, at visual extinctions A_V⪉ 0.5 mag. This work has been inspired by our colleague and friend Pierre Valiron, who passed away in August 2008. This paper is dedicated to his memory.

  19. Constraint on a Cosmological Variation in the Proton-to-electron Mass Ratio from Electronic CO Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daprà, M.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Murphy, M. T.; Ubachs, W.

    2016-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) absorption in the sub-damped Lyα absorber at redshift {z}{abs}≃ 2.69 toward the background quasar SDSS J123714.60+064759.5 (J1237+0647) was investigated for the first time in order to search for a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ, over a cosmological timescale. The observations were performed with the Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph with a signal-to-noise ratio of 40 per 2.5 km s-1 per pixel at ˜5000 Å. Thirteen CO vibrational bands in this absorber are detected: the {{{A}}}1{{\\Pi }} - {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (ν \\prime , 0) for ν \\prime =0{--}8, {{{B}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ - {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (0, 0), {{{C}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ - {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (0, 0), and {{{E}}}1{{\\Pi }} - {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (0, 0) singlet-singlet bands and the {d}3{{Δ }} - {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (5, 0) singlet-triplet band. An updated database including the most precise molecular inputs needed for a μ-variation analysis is presented for rotational levels J = 0-5, consisting of transition wavelengths, oscillator strengths, natural lifetime damping parameters, and sensitivity coefficients to a variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. A comprehensive fitting method was used to fit all the CO bands at once and an independent constraint of {{Δ }}μ /μ =(0.7+/- {1.6}{stat}+/- {0.5}{syst})× {10}-5 was derived from CO only. A combined analysis using both molecular hydrogen and CO in the same J1237+0647 absorber returned a final constraint on the relative variation of {{Δ }}μ /μ =(-5.6+/- {5.6}{stat}+/- {3.1}{syst})× {10}-6, which is consistent with no variation over a look-back time of ˜11.4 Gyr.

  20. Constraint on a Cosmological Variation in the Proton-to-electron Mass Ratio from Electronic CO Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daprà, M.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Murphy, M. T.; Ubachs, W.

    2016-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) absorption in the sub-damped Lyα absorber at redshift {z}{abs}≃ 2.69 toward the background quasar SDSS J123714.60+064759.5 (J1237+0647) was investigated for the first time in order to search for a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ, over a cosmological timescale. The observations were performed with the Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph with a signal-to-noise ratio of 40 per 2.5 km s‑1 per pixel at ˜5000 Å. Thirteen CO vibrational bands in this absorber are detected: the {{{A}}}1{{\\Pi }} ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (ν \\prime , 0) for ν \\prime =0{--}8, {{{B}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (0, 0), {{{C}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (0, 0), and {{{E}}}1{{\\Pi }} ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (0, 0) singlet–singlet bands and the {d}3{{Δ }} ‑ {{{X}}}1{{{Σ }}}+ (5, 0) singlet–triplet band. An updated database including the most precise molecular inputs needed for a μ-variation analysis is presented for rotational levels J = 0–5, consisting of transition wavelengths, oscillator strengths, natural lifetime damping parameters, and sensitivity coefficients to a variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. A comprehensive fitting method was used to fit all the CO bands at once and an independent constraint of {{Δ }}μ /μ =(0.7+/- {1.6}{stat}+/- {0.5}{syst})× {10}-5 was derived from CO only. A combined analysis using both molecular hydrogen and CO in the same J1237+0647 absorber returned a final constraint on the relative variation of {{Δ }}μ /μ =(-5.6+/- {5.6}{stat}+/- {3.1}{syst})× {10}-6, which is consistent with no variation over a look-back time of ˜11.4 Gyr.

  1. Field calibration of multi-scattering correction factor for aethalometer aerosol absorption coefficient during CAPMEX Campaign, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. W.; Yoon, S. C.; Park, R.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Filter-based instrument, such as aethalometer, is being widely used to measure equivalent black carbon(EBC) mass concentration and aerosol absorption coefficient(AAC). However, many other previous studies have poited that AAC and its aerosol absorption angstrom exponent(AAE) are strongly affected by the multi-scattering correction factor(C) when we retrieve AAC from aethalometer EBC mass concentration measurement(Weingartner et al., 2003; Arnott et al., 2005; Schmid et al., 2006; Coen et al., 2010). We determined the C value using the method given in Weingartner et al. (2003) by comparing 7-wavelngth aethalometer (AE-31, Magee sci.) to 3-wavelength Photo-Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3, DMT) at Gosan climate observatory, Korea(GCO) during Cheju ABC plume-asian monsoon experiment(CAPMEX) campaign(August and September, 2008). In this study, C was estimated to be 4.04 ± 1.68 at 532 nm and AAC retrieved with this value was decreased as approximately 100% as than that retrieved with soot case value from Weingartner et al (2003). We compared the AAC determined from aethalomter measurements to that from collocated Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) measurements from January 2012 to December 2013 at GCO and found good agreement in both AAC and AAE. This result suggests the determination of site-specific C is crucially needed when we calculate AAC from aethalometer measurements.

  2. Fluorescence monitor method for measuring effective absorption coefficients of molecular rovibronic transitions using tunable dye laser excitation: The case of absorber linewidth narrower than the laser linewidth applied to H/sub 2/CO

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, P.W.; Garland, N.L.; Howard, W.E. III; Lee, E.K.C.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measuring ''effective'' absorption coefficients is described. It circumvents deviations from Beer's law caused when the excitation source bandwidth is larger than the absorber bandwidth. The technique employs a fluorescence cell placed after an absorption cell to selectively monitor absorption in the center region of the source line. Model calculations relating the fluorescence intensity to source and absorber line shapes indicate that this method should yield linear Beer's law plots for moderate values of k/sub 0/Nl and ..cap alpha.., where ..cap alpha.. is the ratio of the source bandwidth to the absorber bandwidth. This technique has been applied to a number of single rotational levels in the 4/sup 1//sub 0/ transition of the H/sub 2/CO A /sup 1/A/sub 2/reverse arrowX /sup 1/A/sub 1/ system using pulsed, tunable dye laser excitation. The effective absorption coefficients determined experimentally have been compared to the theoretically calculated absorption coefficients.

  3. Impact of measurement uncertainties on determination of chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient for marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Neukermans, Griet; Calzado, Violeta Sanjuan; Trees, Charles; Ampolo-Rella, Marina; Neil, Claire; Cunningham, Alex

    2014-12-01

    Understanding variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption of marine phytoplankton, aph*Chl (λ), is essential for primary production modelling, calculation of underwater light field characteristics, and development of algorithms for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations. Previous field and laboratory studies have demonstrated significant apparent variability in aph*Chl (λ) for natural samples and algal cultures. However, the potential impact of measurement uncertainties on derived values of aph*Chl (λ) has received insufficient study. This study presents an analysis of measurement uncertainties for a data set collected in the Ligurian Sea in Spring and assesses the impact on estimates of aph*Chl (λ). It is found that a large proportion of apparent variability in this set of aph*Chl (λ) can be attributed to measurement errors. Application of the same analysis to the global NOMAD data set suggests that a significant fraction of variability in aph*Chl (λ) may also be due to measurement errors. The copyright line for this article was changed on 16 JAN 2015 after original online publication.

  4. Demonstration of the Applicability of Novel Photoacoustic Aerosol Monitor for Optical Absorption Coefficient Determination. Laboratory and Field Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Schnaiter, M.; Linke, C.; Vragel, M.; Filep, Á.; Fődi, L.; Motika, G.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2009-04-01

    Despite of its importance, the possibilities to determine the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols is very limited due to lack of the reliable on-line instruments. Therefore there is an increasing concern for novel methods promising more accurate and reliable results in this field. The accuracy and reliability of the available on-line instruments like SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer), MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer), are limited by the weakness of the spectral resolution or the sampling artefact of filter matrix during the light attenuation measurement on the deposited filter. These methods neither suitable for direct determination of the light absorption by aerosols nor dispose the capability of the source apportionment. In this work we present a novel photoacoustic based instrument for direct light absorption measurements in the atmosphere and demonstrate the suitability of that both in laboratory and field circumstances. We have developed a novel Multi Wavelength PhotoAcoustic System (WaSul-MuWaPas) based on the diode laser pumped, high repetition rate, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its frequency converted harmonics for direct determination of light absorption by aerosols. This instrument has designed to make in situ measurements at four different wavelengths simultaneously from the NIR to the UV wavelength range (1064nm, 532nm, 355nm, 266nm). The Wasul-MuWaPas measures directly the optical absorption coefficient on airborne particles, not belong to the integrated plate type technique (filter-free operation), operating at wide wavelength range (source apportionment possibilities), due to the possibilities of the wavelength independent cell constant determination the measurement method is absolute. Because of these the Wasul-MuWaPas system may become one of the best candidate for absorption measurements of various atmospheric aerosols such as black carbon, mineral dust, and secondary organic and inorganic aerosols as well as for source

  5. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  6. Optical absorption coefficients in GaN/Al(Ga)N double inverse parabolic quantum wells under static external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadadra, A.; Fellaoui, K.; Abouelaoualim, D.; Oueriagli, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have investigated theoretically the effects of applied electric field on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a GaN/AlxGa1-xN double inverse parabolic quantum well for different Al concentrations at the well center. Our calculations are based on the potential morphing method in the effective mass approximation. The systematic theoretical investigation contains results with all possible combinations of the involved parameters, such as quantum well width, quantum barrier width, Al concentration at each well center and magnitude of the external electric field. Our results show that the electric fields strengths, the parameter of nanostructure and incident optical intensity have a great effect on the optical characteristics of these nanostructures. Thus, the absorption coefficients which can be suitable for great performance optical modulators and multiple infrared optical device applications can be easily obtained by tuning the external electric field value and the Al concentration at the well center.

  7. Antimony orthophosphate glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices, low two-photon absorption coefficients, and ultrafast response

    SciTech Connect

    Falcao-Filho, E.L.; Araujo, Cid B. de; Bosco, C.A.C.; Maciel, G.S.; Acioli, L.H.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Antimony glasses based on the composition Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} were prepared and characterized. The samples present high refractive index, good transmission from 380 to 2000 nm, and high thermal stability. The nonlinear refractive index, n{sub 2}, of the samples was studied using the optical Kerr shutter technique at 800 nm. The third-order correlation signals between pump and probe pulses indicate ultrafast response (<100 fs) for all compositions. Enhancement of n{sub 2} was observed by adding lead oxide to the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} composition. Large values of n{sub 2}{approx_equal}10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/W and negligible two-photon absorption coefficients (smaller than 0.01 cm/GW) were determined for all samples. The glass compositions studied present appropriate figure-of-merit for all-optical switching applications.

  8. Tunable Microwave Absorption Frequency by Aspect Ratio of Hollow Polydopamine@α-MnO2 Microspindles Studied by Electron Holography.

    PubMed

    She, Wen; Bi, Han; Wen, Zhiwei; Liu, Qinghe; Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Jie; Che, Renchao

    2016-04-20

    A tunable response frequency is highly desirable for practical applications of microwave absorption materials but remains a great challenge. Here, hollow lightweight polydopamine@α-MnO2 microspindles were facilely synthesized with the tunable absorption frequency governed by the aspect ratio. The size of the hard template is a key factor to achieve the unique shape; the polymer layer with uniform thickness plays an important role in obtaining spindles with homogeneous size. With the aspect ratio increasing, the maximum reflection loss, as well as the absorption bandwidth (<-10 dB), increases and then decreases; meanwhile, the microwave absorption band shifts to the low frequency. The optimized aspect ratio of the cavity about the hollow polydopamine@α-MnO2 microspindles is ∼2.8. With 3 mm thickness at 9.7 GHz, the strongest reflection reaches -21.8 dB, and the width of the absorbing band (<-10 dB) is as wide as 3.3 GHz. Via electron holography, it is confirmed that strong charge accumulates around the interface between the polydopamine and α-MnO2 layers, which mainly contributes to the dielectric polarization absorption. This study proposes a reliable strategy to tune the absorption frequency via different aspect ratio polymer@α-MnO2 microspindles. PMID:27027922

  9. Estimating the absorption coefficient of the bottom layer in four-layered turbid mediums based on the time-domain depth sensitivity of near-infrared light reflectance.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chie; Shimada, Miho; Tanikawa, Yukari; Hoshi, Yoko

    2013-09-01

    Expanding our previously proposed "time segment analysis" for a two-layered turbid medium, this study attempted to selectively determine the absorption coefficient (μa) of the bottom layer in a four-layered human head model with time-domain near-infrared measurements. The difference curve in the temporal profiles of the light attenuation between an object and a reference medium, which are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, is divided into segments along the time axis, and a slope for each segment is calculated to obtain the depth-dependent μa(μaseg). The reduced scattering coefficient (μs') of the reference is determined by curve fitting with the temporal point spread function derived from the analytical solution of the diffusion equation to the time-resolved reflectance of the object. The deviation of μaseg from the actual μa is expressed by a function of the ratio of μaseg in an earlier time segment to that in a later segment for mediums with different optical properties and thicknesses of the upper layers. Using this function, it is possible to determine the μa of the bottom layer in a four-layered epoxy resin-based phantom. These results suggest that the method reported here has potential for determining the μa of the cerebral tissue in humans.

  10. Molar absorption coefficients and stability constants of metal complexes of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR): Revisiting common chelating probe for the study of metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Kocyła, Anna; Pomorski, Adam; Krężel, Artur

    2015-11-01

    4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) is one of the most popular chromogenic chelator used in the determination of the concentrations of various metal ions from the d, p and f blocks and their affinities for metal ion-binding biomolecules. The most important characteristics of such a sensor are the molar absorption coefficient and the metal-ligand complex dissociation constant. However, it must be remembered that these values are dependent on the specific experimental conditions (e.g. pH, solvent components, and reactant ratios). If one uses these values to process data obtained in different conditions, the final result can be under- or overestimated. We aimed to establish the spectral properties and the stability of PAR and its complexes accurately with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) at a multiple pH values. The obtained results account for the presence of different species of metal-PAR complexes in the physiological pH range of 5 to 8 and have been frequently neglected in previous studies. The effective molar absorption coefficient at 492 nm for the ZnHx(PAR)2 complex at pH7.4 in buffered water solution is 71,500 M(-1) cm(-1), and the dissociation constant of the complex in these conditions is 7.08×10(-13) M(2). To confirm these values and estimate the range of the dissociation constants of zinc-binding biomolecules that can be measured using PAR, we performed several titrations of zinc finger peptides and zinc chelators. Taken together, our results provide the updated parameters that are applicable to any experiment conducted using inexpensive and commercially available PAR.

  11. Variability in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and colored dissolved organic matter in a subtropical bay (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Amabile; Ciotti, Áurea Maria; Coló Giannini, Maria Fernanda

    2014-02-01

    This study characterized the variability in magnitudes and spectral shapes of the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, detritus, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in a dynamic bay (Santos Bay) in southeastern Brazil in response to the contributions of the main estuarine channel and large tide variations, therefore in different time scales. Two strategies were adopted: (1) monthly year-round sampling in the estuarine channel and Santos Bay and (2) sampling in Santos Bay during spring/neap tides and cold/warm months. Chlorophyll-a concentration and CDOM absorption were higher during warm (wet) months, while the relative contribution of organic and inorganic particles was driven by neap/spring tide cycles. Salinity partially accounted for changes in optical variables, especially for CDOM absorption and total suspended matter (TSM) during cold months and neap tides, respectively. The spectral shapes of detritus and CDOM absorption showed relatively little variability for the entire dataset and were not considered feasible for monitoring purposes. The spectral shape of phytoplankton absorption (index of cell size) varied broadly, with no remarkable dependence on the sampling conditions. Comparison of absorption coefficients measured by the Quantitative Filter Technique (QFT) and Transmittance Reflectance (TR) method showed higher phytoplankton coefficients toward longer visible wavelengths (flatter spectra) and shallower slopes of detritus absorption yielded by the TR method. Our results also suggest that measurements at the near red spectral region result from not only scattering signals but also non-algal particle absorption.

  12. Integrating sphere-based photoacoustic setup for simultaneous absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements of biomedical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-03-01

    A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient μa and Grüneisen parameter Γ of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's μa using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's Γ using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's μa and Γ require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of μa = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and Γ = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give Γ values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.

  13. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), Scdm (units: nm-1), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving Scdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized dataset to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of Scdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  14. HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl): OH rate coefficient, UV and infrared absorption spectra, and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillen, Max R.; Bernard, François; Fleming, Eric L.; Burkholder, James B.

    2015-07-01

    HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl), an ozone-depleting substance, is primarily removed from the atmosphere by gas-phase reaction with OH radicals and by UV photolysis. The rate coefficient, k, for the OH + HCFC-133a reaction was measured between 233 and 379 K and is given by k(T) = (9.32 ± 0.8) × 10-13 exp(-(1296 ± 28)/T), where k(296 K) was measured to be (1.10 ± 0.02) × 10-14 (cm3 molecule-1 s-1) (2σ precision uncertainty). The HCFC-133a UV absorption spectrum was measured between 184.95 and 240 nm at 213-323 K, and a spectrum parameterization is presented. The HCFC-133a atmospheric loss processes, lifetime, ozone depletion potential, and uncertainties were evaluated using a 2-D atmospheric model. The global annually averaged steady state lifetime and ozone depletion potential (ODP) were determined to be 4.45 (4.04-4.90) years and 0.017 (±0.001), respectively, where the ranges are based solely on the 2σ uncertainty in the kinetic and photochemical parameters. The infrared absorption spectrum of HCFC-133a was measured, and its global warming potential was determined to be 380 on the 100 year time horizon.

  15. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  16. Light absorption coefficient measurement of SOA using a UV-Visible spectrometer connected with an integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Jang, Myoseon

    2011-08-01

    A method for measuring an aerosol light absorption coefficient ( B a) has been developed using a conventional UV-visible spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere covering a wide range of wavelengths (280-800 nm). The feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated in both the transmittance mode (TUV-IS) and the reflective mode (RUV-IS) using the reference aerosol known for the cross-sectional area. The aerosol was collected on a conventional filter and measured for B a values. The resulting RUV-IS method was applied to measure light absorption of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). SOA was produced through photooxidation of different precursor hydrocarbons such as toluene, d-limonene and α-pinene in the presence of NO x (60-70 ppb) and inorganic seed aerosol using a 2-m 3 indoor Teflon film chamber. Of the three precursor hydrocarbons, the B a value of toluene SOA (0.574 m 2 g -1 at 350 nm) was the highest compared with B a values for α-pinene SOA (0.029 m 2 g -1) and d-limonene SOA (0.038 m 2 g -1). When d-limonene SOA or toluene SOA was internally mixed with neutral [(NH 4) 2SO 4] or acidic inorganic seed (NH 4HSO 4:H 2SO 4 = 1:1 by mole), the SOA showed 2-3 times greater B a values at 350 nm than the SOA with no seed. Aerosol aging with a light source for this study reduced B a values of SOA (e.g., on average 10% for toluene SOA and 30% for d-limonene SOA within 4 h). Overall, weak absorption appeared for chamber-generated SOA over wavelengths ranging from 280 to 550 nm, which fall into the sunlight spectrum.

  17. Distinct positive temperature coefficient effect of polymer-carbon fiber composites evaluated in terms of polymer absorption on fiber surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo

    2016-03-21

    In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect. PMID:26923428

  18. Depth profiling the optical absorption and thermal reflection coefficient via an analysis based on the method of images (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of depth profiling optical absorption in a thermally depth variable solid is a problem of direct interest for the analysis of complex structured materials. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm to solve this problem in a planar layered sample which is impulse irradiated. The sample is comprised of "N" model layers of thickness Δx, of constant diffusivity α, where the conductivity varies depth wise with each layer. This derivation extends to the general case of a depth variable thermal reflection coefficient with depth variable optical source density. In such a sample, at finite time, t, past excitation, thermal energy can only significantly penetrate NL model layers NL≈√4αt[-ln(ɛ)] /2Δx, where ɛ is a small error (ɛ⩽10-6) and a double transit through each layer is assumed. The depth profile of optical absorption in each layer, i, is approximated by δ(x-iΔx), weighted by the optical source density Si. The temperature at x=0- just inside a front medium contacting the sample is given by T(x=0,t)= ∑ i=12NL SiṡGR(x,x0=iΔx,t)]x=0, where GR(x,x0,t) represents an effective Green's function for optical absorption at the depth x0=iΔx in the sample. The method of images1 gives GR(x,x0=iΔx,t) in the following form: [GR(x,0Δx,t)GR(x,2Δx,t)…GR(x,2NLΔx,t)]=[A10A12 A14 A16 …..A1,2NL0A32A34 A36 …..A3,2NL….0……A2NL-1,2NL][G(x-0Δx,t)G(x-2Δx,t)……G(x-2NLΔx,t)]. The G(x-nΔx,t) are shifted image fields obtained from the infinite domain Green's function for one-dimensional heat conduction. They account for thermal wave reflection/transmission over the path length nΔx from the source (at interface i) to the surface (x=0). The Ain are lumped coefficients giving the efficiency of heat transmission from the ith source to the surface for each path order n. They are determined by a mapping procedure that identifies all propagation paths of each order, n, and computes the individual and lumped reflection coefficients. Equation (2) is

  19. Laboratory investigation on the role of tubular shaped micro resonators phononic crystal insertion on the absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, I.; Kusuma, J. I.; Harjana; Kristiani, R.; Hanina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper emphasizes the influence of tubular shaped microresonators phononic crystal insertion on the sound absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber. A simple cubic and two different bodies centered cubic phononic crystal lattice model were analyzed in a laboratory test procedure. The experiment was conducted by using transfer function based two microphone impedance tube method refer to ASTM E-1050-98. The results show that sound absorption coefficient increase significantly at the mid and high-frequency band (600 - 700 Hz) and (1 - 1.6 kHz) when tubular shaped microresonator phononic crystal inserted into the tested sound absorber element. The increment phenomena related to multi-resonance effect that occurs when sound waves propagate through the phononic crystal lattice model that produce multiple reflections and scattering in mid and high-frequency band which increases the sound absorption coefficient accordingly

  20. Impacts Of Atmospheric State On Differential Absorption Spectroscopy Retrievals Of Column XCO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernini, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Botos, C.; Browell, E. V.; Henderson, J.; Obland, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    This work assesses the impact of uncertainties in atmospheric state on laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS)-based retrievals of CO2 column mixing ratios (XCO2). LAS estimates of column XCO2 are normally derived from a combination of observed CO2 differential optical depths (∆τ) and measured/estimated values of temperature, moisture and pressure along the viewing path. XCO2 can be related to CO2 ∆τ as(see equation)where Δτother represents residual observed ∆τ due to other species, ∆σ is the CO2 differential absorption cross section, psfc is the surface pressure, q is the local specific humidity and λon/λoff represent the observation on/off-line wavelengths. As shown by these equations, the accuracy of retrieved XCO2 values depends on both the error characteristics of the observed ∆τ and the ability to accurately characterize P, T, and q along the observed path. In the case of global space-based monitoring systems it is often not possible to provide collocated in situ measurements of the ancillary quantities for all observations. Therefore, retrievals often rely on collocated remotely sensed data or values derived from Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) models to describe the atmospheric state. A radiative transfer (RT)-based simulation framework, combined with representative global upper-air observations and matched NWP profiles, was used to assess the impact of model differences in vertical T, vertical moisture, and psfc on estimates of column CO2 and O2 concentrations. These analyses focus on characterizing these errors for several CO2 features in the 1.57- and 2.05-μm region, and representative O2 features near 0.76 and 1.27 μm. The results provide a set of signal-to-noise metrics that characterize the errors in retrieved values associated with uncertainties in knowledge of the atmospheric state, and provide a method for selecting optimal differential line pairs to minimize the impact of this noise term. These metrics may help define the

  1. Influence of Diffraction Effects on the Result of Measuring the Absorption Coefficient of Ultrasound in Weakly Absorbing Liquids by the Pulse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatsky, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of the influence of diffraction effects on the result of measuring the absorption coefficient of ultrasound in weakly absorbing liquids by the pulse method. Diffraction attenuation of an ultrasonic signal in a measuring cell using solid-state delay lines is calculated. It is shown that the use of delay lines of the ultrasonic signal leads to a considerable distortion of the measured absorption coefficient in the low-frequency range from the true value and can either overestimate or underestimate the results.

  2. A method to obtain the absorption coefficient spectrum of single grain coal in the aliphatic C-H stretching region using infrared transflection microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tonoue, Ryota; Katsura, Makoto; Hamamoto, Mai; Bessho, Hiroki; Nakashima, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed to obtain the absorption coefficient spectrum of a grain of coal (as small as 10(-7)) in the region of aliphatic and aromatic C-H stretching bands (2700-3200 cm(-1)) using infrared transflection microspectroscopy. In this method, the complex refractive index n - ik was determined using an optimization algorithm with the Kramers-Kronig transform so that the calculated transflection spectrum from the Fresnel equation corresponded to the measured one. The obtained absorption coefficients were compared with the bulk values determined from the potassium bromide (KBr) pellet measurement method.

  3. Statistical models for sediment/detritus and dissolved absorption coefficients in coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Rebecca E.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Ko, Dong S.

    2008-06-01

    We developed statistically-based, optical models to estimate tripton (sediment/detrital) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficients ( a sd, a g) from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data. First, empirical algorithms for satellite-derived a sd and a g were developed, based on comparison with a large data set of cruise measurements from northern Gulf shelf waters; these algorithms were then applied to a time series of ocean color (SeaWiFS) satellite imagery for 2002-2005. Unique seasonal timing was observed in satellite-derived optical properties, with a sd peaking most often in fall/winter on the shelf, in contrast to summertime peaks observed in a g. Next, the satellite-derived values were coupled with the physical data to form multiple regression models. A suite of physical forcing variables were tested for inclusion in the models: discharge from the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay, Alabama; gridded fields for winds, precipitation, solar radiation, sea surface temperature and height (SST, SSH); and modeled surface salinity and currents (Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM). For satellite-derived a sd and a g time series (2002-2004), correlation and stepwise regression analyses revealed the most important physical forcing variables. Over our region of interest, the best predictors of tripton absorption were wind speed, river discharge, and SST, whereas dissolved absorption was best predicted by east-west wind speed, river discharge, and river discharge lagged by 1 month. These results suggest the importance of vertical mixing (as a function of winds and thermal stratification) in controlling a sd distribution patterns over large regions of the shelf, in comparison to advection as the most important control on a g. The multiple linear regression models for estimating a sd and a g were applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis and

  4. Measurements of the ratio between the transverse diffusion coefficient and the mobility for argon ions in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Thórarinn; Skullerud, H. R.

    1999-03-01

    The ratio 0953-4075/32/5/001/img1 between the transverse diffusion coefficient and the mobility for 0953-4075/32/5/001/img2 ions in argon has been determined from directly measured transverse current density distribution profiles of mass-analysed ions, as a function of the ratio 0953-4075/32/5/001/img3 between the electric field and the gas number density in the interval 0953-4075/32/5/001/img4 Td, at gas temperature T = 294 K using a variable-length drift tube mass spectrometer. The error (two standard deviations) in the results is believed to be less than 0953-4075/32/5/001/img5% for 0953-4075/32/5/001/img6 Td, thereafter gradually increasing to 0953-4075/32/5/001/img7% at 4000 Td. The results are compared with moment theory calculations based on an analytical four-parameter model potential. The agreement between measured and calculated values is very good except at the highest 0953-4075/32/5/001/img3-values.

  5. Influence of the light propagation models on a linearized photoacoustic image reconstruction of the light absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of the optical properties of the tissues and blood by noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging may provide useful information for screening and early diagnosis of diseases. Linearized 2D image reconstruction algorithm based on PA wave equation and the photon diffusion equation (PDE) can reconstruct the image with computational cost smaller than a method based on 3D radiative transfer equation. However, the reconstructed image is affected by the differences between the actual and assumed light propagations. A quantitative capability of a linearized 2D image reconstruction was investigated and discussed by the numerical simulations and the phantom experiment in this study. The numerical simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and the 2D finite element calculation of the PDE were carried out. The phantom experiment was also conducted. In the phantom experiment, the PA pressures were acquired by a probe which had an optical fiber for illumination and the ring shaped P(VDF-TrFE) ultrasound transducer. The measured object was made of Intralipid and Indocyanine green. In the numerical simulations, it was shown that the linearized image reconstruction method recovered the absorption coefficients with alleviating the dependency of the PA amplitude on the depth of the photon absorber. The linearized image reconstruction method worked effectively under the light propagation calculated by 3D MC simulation, although some errors occurred. The phantom experiments validated the result of the numerical simulations.

  6. A method to determine the acoustic reflection and absorption coefficients of porous media by using modal dispersion in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media.

  7. Influence of Ni/Co molar ratio on electromagnetic properties and microwave absorption performances for Ni/Co paraffin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. J.; Dai, S. L.; Ding, H. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Liu, D. B.

    2014-05-01

    Ni and Co metallic microparticles with submicron size were synthesized with a simple wet chemical reduction method at a relatively low temperature. Then their morphologies and structures were characterized by SEM and XRD. Ni metallic microparticles have spherical-shape morphology with fcc crystalline structure, however, Co has a distinct leaf-like morphology with the fcc and hcp mixed phases crystalline structures. For the characterization of their electromagnetic properties, paraffin matrix composites containing different molar ratio Ni and Co mixture powder as fillers were prepared. It was found that both the electromagnetic properties and electromagnetic microwave absorption performances of absorber layer were remarkably influenced by Ni/Co molar ratio. The electromagnetic microwave absorption performances were significantly improved by blending Ni and Co metallic microparticles into paraffin matrix with changing Ni/Co molar ratio, and enhanced mechanism were discussed.

  8. Spectral particle absorption coefficients, single scattering albedos and imaginary parts of refractive indices from ground based in situ measurements at Cape Verde Island during SAMUM-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Schladitz, A.; Kandler, K.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-09-01

    During the SAMUM-2 experiment, spectral absorption coefficients, single scattering albedos and imaginary parts of refractive indices of mineral dust particles were investigated at the Cape Verde Islands. Main absorbing constituents of airborne samples were mineral dust and soot. PM10 spectral absorption coefficients were measured using a Spectral Optical Absorption Photometer (SOAP) covering the wavelength range from 300 to 960 nm with a resolution of 25 nm. From SOAP, also information on the particle scattering coefficients could be retrieved. Spectral single scattering albedos were obtained in the wavelength range from 350 to 960 nm. Imaginary parts of the refractive index were inferred from measured particle number size distributions and absorption coefficients using Mie scattering theory. Imaginary parts for a dust case were 0.012, 0.0047 and 0.0019 at the wavelengths 450, 550 and 950 nm, respectively, and the single scattering albedos were 0.91, 0.96 and 0.98 at the same wavelengths. During a marine case, the imaginary parts of the refractive indices were 0.0045, 0.0040 and 0.0036 and single scattering albedos were 0.93, 0.95 and 0.96 at the wavelengths given above.

  9. Deriving effective atomic numbers from DECT based on a parameterization of the ratio of high and low linear attenuation coefficients.

    PubMed

    Landry, Guillaume; Seco, Joao; Gaudreault, Mathieu; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can provide simultaneous estimation of relative electron density ρe and effective atomic number Zeff. The ability to obtain these quantities (ρe, Zeff) has been shown to benefit selected radiotherapy applications where tissue characterization is required. The conventional analysis method (spectral method) relies on knowledge of the CT scanner photon spectra which may be difficult to obtain accurately. Furthermore an approximate empirical attenuation correction of the photon spectrum through the patient is necessary. We present an alternative approach based on a parameterization of the measured ratio of low and high kVp linear attenuation coefficients for deriving Zeff which does not require the estimation of the CT scanner spectra. In a first approach, the tissue substitute method (TSM), the Rutherford parameterization of the linear attenuation coefficients was employed to derive a relation between Zeff and the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficients measured at the low and high kVp of the CT scanner. A phantom containing 16 tissue mimicking inserts was scanned with a dual source DECT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp. The data from the 16 inserts phantom was used to obtain model parameters for the relation between Zeff and [Formula: see text]. The accuracy of the method was evaluated with a second phantom containing 4 tissue mimicking inserts. The TSM was compared to a more complex approach, the reference tissue method (RTM), which requires the derivation of stoichiometric fit parameters. These were derived from the 16 inserts phantom scans and used to calculate CT numbers at 80 and 140 kVp for a set of tabulated reference human tissues. Model parameters for the parameterization of [Formula: see text] were estimated for this reference tissue dataset and compared to the results of the TSM. Residuals on Zeff for the reference tissue dataset for both TSM and RTM were compared to those obtained from the spectral method. The

  10. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina. P.

    2016-05-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σa,en) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μen/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  11. Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer Measurements of CO2 Column Mixing Ratios: Source and Sink Detection in the Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The four most recent flight campaigns were on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft, in support of the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission formulation studies. This instrument operates in the 2.05-μm spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the CO2LAS signal processing, data analysis, and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from flights in various U.S. locations during the past three years include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest, also cases of point-source and regional plume detection that enable the calculation of emission rates.

  12. Methods for Retrievals of CO2 Mixing Ratios from JPL Laser Absorption Spectrometer Flights During a Summer 2011 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. This instrument employs CW laser transmitters and coherent detection receivers in the 2.05- micro m spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the evolving LAS signal processing and data analysis algorithms and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from 2011 flights in various U.S. locations include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest and high spatial resolution plume detection during a leg downwind of the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico.

  13. CoxFey@C Composites with Tunable Atomic Ratios for Excellent Electromagnetic Absorption Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hualiang; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Haiqian; Li, Meng; Zuo, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Du, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    The shell on the nano-magnetic absorber can prevent oxidation, which is very important for its practical utilization. Generally, the nonmagnetic shell will decrease the integral magnetic loss and thus weaken the electromagnetic absorption. However, maintaining the original absorption properties of the magnetic core is a major challenge. Here, we designed novel and facile CoxFey@C composites by reducing CoxFe3−xO4@phenolic resin (x = 1, 0.5 and 0.25). High saturation magnetization value (Ms) of CoxFey particle, as a core, shows the interesting magnetic loss ability. Meanwhile, the carbon shell may increase the integral dielectric loss. The resulting composite shows excellent electromagnetic absorption properties. For example, at a coating thickness of 2 mm, the RLmin value can reach to −23 dB with an effective frequency range of 7 GHz (11–18 GHz). The mechanisms of the improved microwave absorption properties are discussed. PMID:26659124

  14. CoxFey@C Composites with Tunable Atomic Ratios for Excellent Electromagnetic Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hualiang; Ji, Guangbin; Zhang, Haiqian; Li, Meng; Zuo, Zhongzheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Baoshan; Tang, Dongming; Du, Youwei

    2015-12-01

    The shell on the nano-magnetic absorber can prevent oxidation, which is very important for its practical utilization. Generally, the nonmagnetic shell will decrease the integral magnetic loss and thus weaken the electromagnetic absorption. However, maintaining the original absorption properties of the magnetic core is a major challenge. Here, we designed novel and facile CoxFey@C composites by reducing CoxFe3-xO4@phenolic resin (x = 1, 0.5 and 0.25). High saturation magnetization value (Ms) of CoxFey particle, as a core, shows the interesting magnetic loss ability. Meanwhile, the carbon shell may increase the integral dielectric loss. The resulting composite shows excellent electromagnetic absorption properties. For example, at a coating thickness of 2 mm, the RLmin value can reach to -23 dB with an effective frequency range of 7 GHz (11-18 GHz). The mechanisms of the improved microwave absorption properties are discussed.

  15. High-resolution spectra and photoabsorption coefficients for carbon monoxide absorption bands between 94.0 nm and 100.4 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Stark, G.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Ito, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photoabsorption coefficients have been measured for the CO in interstellar clouds at a resolving power more than 20 times greater than previously obtainable. In order to facilitate comparisons, these data have been integrated over the same wavelength ranges as used in Letzelter et al. (1987). It is found that most of the results obtained for bands between 94.0 and 100.4 nm are larger than those of Letzelter; the discrepancy may be attributable to the difference between the resolving powers of the spectrometers used, because the saturation effects associated with low resolution can underestimate absorption coefficient values.

  16. On the question of the ratio between diffusion coefficients of radical ions and their parent molecules in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, V. I.

    2007-02-01

    The diffusion coefficients of radical ions of hexafluorobenzene, diphenylacetylene, triptycene, and tetraphenylnaphthalene were measured in liquid n-hexane and n-hexadecane at different temperatures. These were compared with the literature values of the diffusion coefficients of the corresponding neutral molecules in these solvents. Typically, the relative change in the diffusion coefficients decreased with increasing the size of particles or the temperature of solutions. No evidence for a specific manifestation of the low solvent polarity in the relative change was observed. In the case of triptycene in hexadecane solution, the enhancement of the solute's diffusion caused by ionization was found.

  17. Novel ratio difference at coabsorptive point spectrophotometric method for determination of components with wide variation in their absorptivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Ahmed S.; Abo-Talib, Nisreen F.; El-Ghobashy, Mohamed R.

    2016-01-01

    Different methods have been introduced to enhance selectivity of UV-spectrophotometry thus enabling accurate determination of co-formulated components, however mixtures whose components exhibit wide variation in absorptivities has been an obstacle against application of UV-spectrophotometry. The developed ratio difference at coabsorptive point method (RDC) represents a simple effective solution for the mentioned problem, where the additive property of light absorbance enabled the consideration of the two components as multiples of the lower absorptivity component at certain wavelength (coabsorptive point), at which their total concentration multiples could be determined, whereas the other component was selectively determined by applying the ratio difference method in a single step. Mixture of perindopril arginine (PA) and amlodipine besylate (AM) figures that problem, where the low absorptivity of PA relative to AM hinders selective spectrophotometric determination of PA. The developed method successfully determined both components in the overlapped region of their spectra with accuracy 99.39 ± 1.60 and 100.51 ± 1.21, for PA and AM, respectively. The method was validated as per the USP guidelines and showed no significant difference upon statistical comparison with reported chromatographic method.

  18. Novel ratio difference at coabsorptive point spectrophotometric method for determination of components with wide variation in their absorptivities.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed S; Abo-Talib, Nisreen F; El-Ghobashy, Mohamed R

    2016-01-01

    Different methods have been introduced to enhance selectivity of UV-spectrophotometry thus enabling accurate determination of co-formulated components, however mixtures whose components exhibit wide variation in absorptivities has been an obstacle against application of UV-spectrophotometry. The developed ratio difference at coabsorptive point method (RDC) represents a simple effective solution for the mentioned problem, where the additive property of light absorbance enabled the consideration of the two components as multiples of the lower absorptivity component at certain wavelength (coabsorptive point), at which their total concentration multiples could be determined, whereas the other component was selectively determined by applying the ratio difference method in a single step. Mixture of perindopril arginine (PA) and amlodipine besylate (AM) figures that problem, where the low absorptivity of PA relative to AM hinders selective spectrophotometric determination of PA. The developed method successfully determined both components in the overlapped region of their spectra with accuracy 99.39±1.60 and 100.51±1.21, for PA and AM, respectively. The method was validated as per the USP guidelines and showed no significant difference upon statistical comparison with reported chromatographic method. PMID:26253440

  19. Exponential Sum Absorption Coefficients of Phosphine from 2750 to 3550/cm for Application to Radiative Transfer Analyses on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temma, T.; Baines, K. H.; Butler, R. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Sagui, L.; Kleiner, I.

    2006-01-01

    PH3 exponential sum k coefficients were computed between 2750 and 3550/cm (2.82-3.64 (microns), in view of future application to radiative transfer analyses of Jupiter and Saturn in a phosphine absorption band near 3 microns. The temperature and pressure of this data set cover the ranges from 80 to 350 K and from 10 (exp -3)to 10(exp 1) bars, respectively. Transmission uncertainty incurred by the use of the k coefficients is smaller than a few percent as long as the radiation is confined above an altitude of a few bars in the giant planets. In spectral regions of weak absorption at high pressures close to 10 bars, contributions from far wings of strong absorption lines must be carefully taken into account. Our data set helps map the three-dimensional distribution of PH3 on the giant planets, revealing their global atmospheric dynamics extending down to the deep interior. The complete k coefficient data set of this work is available at the Web site of the NASA Planetary Data System Atmospheres Node.

  20. Control of optical bandgap energy and optical absorption coefficient by geometric parameters in sub-10 nm silicon-nanodisc array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairuz Budiman, Mohd; Hu, Weiguo; Igarashi, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Isoda, Taiga; Itoh, Kohei M.; Yamashita, Ichiro; Murayama, Akihiro; Okada, Yoshitaka; Samukawa, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    A sub-10 nm, high-density, periodic silicon-nanodisc (Si-ND) array has been fabricated using a new top-down process, which involves a 2D array bio-template etching mask made of Listeria-Dps with a 4.5 nm diameter iron oxide core and damage-free neutral-beam etching (Si-ND diameter: 6.4 nm). An Si-ND array with an SiO2 matrix demonstrated more controllable optical bandgap energy due to the fine tunability of the Si-ND thickness and diameter. Unlike the case of shrinking Si-ND thickness, the case of shrinking Si-ND diameter simultaneously increased the optical absorption coefficient and the optical bandgap energy. The optical absorption coefficient became higher due to the decrease in the center-to-center distance of NDs to enhance wavefunction coupling. This means that our 6 nm diameter Si-ND structure can satisfy the strict requirements of optical bandgap energy control and high absorption coefficient for achieving realistic Si quantum dot solar cells.

  1. Influence of size, proportion, and absorption coefficient of spherical scatterers on the degree of light polarization and the grain size of speckle pattern.

    PubMed

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Nassif, Rana; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we present the evolution of speckle pattern polarimetric parameters in response to controlled changes in scatterer sizes, proportions, and the absorption coefficient in media. The experimental study was performed on mixtures of polystyrene microspheres with dye in order to ensure biological medium-like properties. The speckle grain sizes and degrees of polarization for linear and circular light were monitored. We observed helicity flipping in the degree of circular polarization for small scatterer proportion around 25%. Furthermore, linear depolarization decreased slightly for media containing more small particles. Good agreement was shown with numerical results computed using a Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light taking into account our experimental configuration. Speckle grain size also evolves with the increase of small scatterers as well as the media absorption coefficient. Such variations of properties are encountered during fruit maturation, in tissues in precancerous stages, and any transformation that causes a modification in particle proportions and absorption coefficient in biological media. The computed parameters proved to be sensitive to these changes.

  2. Quasi-random narrow-band model fits to near-infrared low-temperature laboratory methane spectra and derived exponential-sum absorption coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; West, Robert A.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Moreno, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    Near-infrared 10/cm resolution spectra of methane obtained at various temperatures, pressures, and abundances are fit to a quasi-random narrow-band model. Exponential-sum absorption coefficients for three temperatures (112, 188, and 295 K), and 20 pressures from 0.0001 to 5.6 bars, applicable to the cold environments of the major planets, are then derived from the band model for the 230 wavelengths measured from 1.6 to 2.5 microns. RMS deviations between the laboratory and the exponential-sum synthetic transmissions are reported for the best fitting 50 wavelengths. Deviations relevant to broadband, 1-percent spectral resolution observations are also presented. The validity of exponential-sum coefficients derived from broadband (10/cm) transmission data is demonstrated via direct comparison with line-by-line calculations. The complete atlas of coefficients is available from the Planetary Data System-Planetary Atmospheres Discipline Node.

  3. Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Reichart, P.; Rhede, D.; Thomas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (ɛ) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position on the appropriate O- H...O distances and thereby the magnitude of the dipole momentum which is proportional to the band intensity. However, it has been observed that these calibrations can not be adopted to nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [3].To study the potential dependence of ɛ on structure and chemistry in NAMs we synthesized olivine and SiO2 polymorphs with specific isolated hydroxyl point defects, e.g. quartz, coesite and stishovite with B3++H+=Si4+ and/or Al3++H+=Si4+ substitutions. Experiments were performed with water in excess in piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Single crystal IR spectra demonstrate that we successfully managed to seperate generally complex OH patterns as e.g. observed in natural quartz and synthetic coesite. We quantified sample water contents of both natural samples and our run products by applying proton-proton-scattering [4], confocal microRaman spectroscopy [5] and Secondary Ion mass spectrometry. Resulting water concentrations were used to calculate new mineral specific ɛs. For olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3517 cm-1 we determined an ɛ value of 41,000±5,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Quantification of olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3550 cm-1 in contrast resulted in an ɛ value of 47,000±1,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Taking into account previous studies [6, 7] there is evidence to suggest a linear wavenumber dependent correlation for olivine, where ɛ increases with decreasing wavenumber. In case of the SiO2 system it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ within one structure type is independent of the liable OH point defect and

  4. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  5. Effect of water vapor on sound absorption in nitrogen at low frequency/pressure ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sound absorption measurements were made in N2-H2O binary mixtures at 297 K over the frequency/pressure range f/P of 0.1-2500 Hz/atm to investigate the vibrational relaxation peak of N2 and its location on f/P axis as a function of humidity. At low humidities the best fit to a linear relationship between the f/P(max) and humidity yields an intercept of 0.013 Hz/atm and a slope of 20,000 Hz/atm-mole fraction. The reaction rate constants derived from this model are lower than those obtained from the extrapolation of previous high-temperature data.

  6. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  7. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, I. R.; Matei, C. E.; Patachia, M.; Bratu, A. M.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2016-06-01

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm and power levels up to 4.7 W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4 μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68 cm- 1 atm- 1 at 9R(20) line and 3.65 cm- 1 atm- 1 at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30 ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications.

  8. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Ivascu, I R; Matei, C E; Patachia, M; Bratu, A M; Dumitras, D C

    2016-06-15

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8μm and power levels up to 4.7W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(20) line and 3.65cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications.

  9. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Ivascu, I R; Matei, C E; Patachia, M; Bratu, A M; Dumitras, D C

    2016-06-15

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8μm and power levels up to 4.7W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(20) line and 3.65cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications. PMID:27045783

  10. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  11. Determination of Aroma Compound Partition Coefficients in Aqueous, Polysaccharide, and Dairy Matrices Using the Phase Ratio Variation Method: A Review and Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Andrej; Sonne, Alina; Schieberle, Peter; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The partition of aroma compounds between a matrix and a gas phase describes an individual compound's specific affinity toward the matrix constituents affecting orthonasal sensory perception. The static headspace phase ratio variation (PRV) method has been increasingly applied by various authors to determine the equilibrium partition coefficient K in aqueous, polysaccharide, and dairy matrices. However, reported partition coefficients are difficult to relate and compare due to different experimental conditions, e.g., aroma compound selection, matrix composition, equilibration temperature. Due to its specific advantages, the PRV method is supposed to find more frequent application in the future, this Review aims to summarize, evaluate, compare, and relate the currently available data on PRV-determined partition coefficients. This process was designed to specify the potentials and the limitations as well as the consistency of the PRV method, and to identify open fields of research in aroma compound partitioning in food-related, especially dairy matrices.

  12. Determination of Aroma Compound Partition Coefficients in Aqueous, Polysaccharide, and Dairy Matrices Using the Phase Ratio Variation Method: A Review and Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Andrej; Sonne, Alina; Schieberle, Peter; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The partition of aroma compounds between a matrix and a gas phase describes an individual compound's specific affinity toward the matrix constituents affecting orthonasal sensory perception. The static headspace phase ratio variation (PRV) method has been increasingly applied by various authors to determine the equilibrium partition coefficient K in aqueous, polysaccharide, and dairy matrices. However, reported partition coefficients are difficult to relate and compare due to different experimental conditions, e.g., aroma compound selection, matrix composition, equilibration temperature. Due to its specific advantages, the PRV method is supposed to find more frequent application in the future, this Review aims to summarize, evaluate, compare, and relate the currently available data on PRV-determined partition coefficients. This process was designed to specify the potentials and the limitations as well as the consistency of the PRV method, and to identify open fields of research in aroma compound partitioning in food-related, especially dairy matrices. PMID:27182770

  13. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  14. Determination of mass attenuation coefficient by numerical absorption calibration with Monte-Carlo simulations at 59.54 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrelle, D.; Mavon, C.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a numerical method in order to determine the mass attenuation coefficient of a sample with an unknown chemical composition at low energy. It is compared with two experimental methods: a graphic method and a transmission method. The method proposes to realise a numerical absorption calibration curve to process experimental results. Demineralised water with known mass attenuation coefficient (0.2066cm2g-1 at 59.54 keV) is chosen to confirm the method. 0.1964 ± 0.0350cm2g-1 is the average value determined by the numerical method, that is to say less than 5% relative deviation compared to more than 47% for the experimental methods.

  15. Pressure-broadening and narrowing coefficients and temperature dependence measurements of CO2 at 2.68 μm by laser diode absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric applications.

    PubMed

    Ghysels, M; Durry, G; Amarouche, N

    2013-04-15

    By using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer in conjunction with a cryogenically cooled multipath cell, we have revisited the air-induced pressure-broadening coefficients and the narrowing coefficients related to the Dicke effect, as well as the temperature dependences, for the R(18) and R(20) lines of the (10°1)I←(00°0) vibrational band at 2.68 μm of carbon dioxide. The selected transitions are used to probe in situ CO2 in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere by using balloon-borne laser sensors. The achieved measurements are thoroughly compared to existing former determinations. The impact of processing the in situ atmospheric CO2 spectra with this new set of molecular data is reported.

  16. A wave based method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficient of two-dimensional rigid frame porous structures with periodic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, Elke; Claeys, Claus; Atak, Onur; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier; Desmet, Wim

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an extension to the Wave Based Method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients of a porous material with an embedded periodic set of inclusions. The porous unit cell is described using the Multi-Level methodology and by embedding Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions in the weighted residual scheme. The dynamic pressure field in the semi-infinite acoustic domains is approximated using a novel wave function set that fulfils the Helmholtz equation, the Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The method is meshless and computationally efficient, which makes it well suited for optimisation studies.

  17. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nageotte, S M; Day, J P

    1998-01-01

    A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources.

  18. Decreased-activity mutants of phosphoglucose isomerase in the cytosol and chloroplast of Clarkia xantiana. Impact on mass-action ratios and fluxes to sucrose and starch, and estimation of Flux Control Coefficients and Elasticity Coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Kruckeberg, A L; Neuhaus, H E; Feil, R; Gottlieb, L D; Stitt, M

    1989-01-01

    1. Subcellular-compartment-specific decreased-activity mutants of phosphoglucose isomerase in Clarkia xantiana were used to analyse the control of sucrose and starch synthesis during photosynthesis. Mutants were available in which the plastid phosphoglucose isomerase complement is decreased to 75% or 50% of the wild-type level, and the cytosol complement to 64%, 36% or 18% of the wild-type level. 2. The effects on the [product]/[substrate] ratio and on fluxes to sucrose or starch and the rate of photosynthesis were studied with the use of saturating or limiting light intensity to impose a high or low flux through these pathways. 3. Removal of a small fraction of either phosphoglucose isomerase leads to a significant shift of the [product]/[substrate] ratio away, from equilibrium. We conclude that there is no 'excess' of enzyme over that needed to maintain its reactants reasonably close to equilibrium. 4. Decreased phosphoglucose isomerase activity can also alter the fluxes to starch or sucrose. However, the effect on flux does not correlate with the extent of disequilibrium, and also varies depending on the subcellular compartment and on the conditions. 5. The results were used to estimate Flux Control Coefficients for the chloroplast and cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerases. The chloroplast isoenzyme exerts control on the rate of starch synthesis and on photosynthesis in saturating light intensity and CO2, but not at low light intensity. The cytosolic enzyme only exerts significant control when its complement is decreased 3-5-fold, and differs from the plastid isoenzyme in exerting more control in low light intensity. It has a positive Control Coefficient for sucrose synthesis, and a negative Control Coefficient for starch synthesis. 6. The Elasticity Coefficients in vivo of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase were estimated to lie between 5 and 8 in the wild-type. They decrease in mutants with a lowered complement of cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase. 7. The

  19. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  20. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497

  1. Airborne Measurements of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients in the Planetary Boundary Layer above the Po Valley, Italy, during the PEGASOS Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Weingartner, E.; Gysel, M.; Tillmann, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Decesari, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gobbi, G. P.; Fierli, F.; Cairo, F.; Bucci, S.; Zanatta, M.; Größ, J.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by interacting with the incoming sunlight. The chemical composition and size of aerosol particles determine their potential to scatter and absorb radiation as well as their capability to take up water (Zieger et al., 2011). If particles are hygroscopic their optical properties will be altered at enhanced relative humidities (RH) due to the increase in size and change in index of refraction. It is known that RH but also the chemical composition of aerosols change with altitude (Morgan et al., 2010) which makes it very important to investigate optical properties at different heights. Within the Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) a set of instruments was installed on a Zeppelin to investigate changes of light scattering and absorption in the planetary boundary layer. In order to obtain the scattering properties, Mie calculations were performed for size distributions recorded with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and WELAS (optical size spectrometer). The index of refraction and the hygroscopicity of the aerosol particles were measured with the white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS). These measurements further allowed studying the RH-dependence of the optical properties. Moreover, a seven wavelength portable aethalometer was employed to determine the light absorption properties of the aerosol. In this work we will present vertical profiles of scattering and absorption coefficients measured during Zeppelin flights of the PEGASOS campaigns in Italy in 2012. Additionally comparisons with ground based measurements from nephelometers and aethalometers, as well as remote sensing results will be shown. W.T. Morgan et al., Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: Airborne measurements in North-Western Europe, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(2010), pp. 8151-8171.P. Zieger et al., Comparison of ambient aerosol

  2. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  3. Enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser integrated with an electro-absorption modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Jongseong; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2016-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser diode integrated with an electro-absorption modulator. A directly- modulated dual-section laser can provide improved modulation performance under a low bias level ( i.e., below the threshold level) compared with a standard directly-modulated laser. By combining the extinction ratio from a dual-section laser with that from an electro-absorption modulator section, a total extinction ratio of 49.6. dB are successfully achieved.

  4. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  5. Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Gage J.; Istfan, Raeef; Higgins, Laura M.; Balachandran, Kartik; Roblyer, Darren; Pierce, Mark C.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Optical phantoms are used in the development of various imaging systems. For certain applications, the development of thin phantoms that simulate the physical size and optical properties of tissue is important. Here, we demonstrate a method for producing thin phantom layers with tunable optical properties using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a substrate material. The thickness of each layer (between 115 and 880  μm) was controlled using a spin coater. The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol–soluble nigrosin, respectively. These optical coefficients were quantified at six discrete wavelengths (591, 631, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) at varying concentrations of titanium dioxide and nigrosin using spatial frequency domain imaging. From the presented data, we provide lookup tables to determine the appropriate concentrations of scattering and absorbing agents to be used in the design of PDMS-based phantoms with specific optical coefficients. In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties. These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc. PMID:25387084

  6. Analysis of molecular hydrogen absorption toward QSO B0642–5038 for a varying proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.; Murphy, M. T.; Whitmore, J. B.

    2014-02-10

    Rovibronic molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) transitions at redshift z {sub abs} ≅ 2.659 toward the background quasar B0642–5038 are examined for a possible cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. We utilize an archival spectrum from the Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼35 per 2.5 km s{sup –1} pixel at the observed H{sub 2} wavelengths (335-410 nm). Some 111 H{sub 2} transitions in the Lyman and Werner bands have been identified in the damped Lyα system for which a kinetic gas temperature of ∼84 K and a molecular fraction log f = –2.18 ± 0.08 are determined. The H{sub 2} absorption lines are included in a comprehensive fitting method, which allows us to extract a constraint on a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio Δμ/μ from all transitions at once. We obtain Δμ/μ = (17.1 ± 4.5{sub stat} ± 3.7{sub sys}) × 10{sup –6}. However, we find evidence that this measurement has been affected by wavelength miscalibration errors recently identified in UVES. A correction based on observations of objects with solar-like spectra gives a smaller Δμ/μ value and contributes to a larger systematic uncertainty: Δμ/μ = (12.7 ± 4.5{sub stat} ± 4.2{sub sys}) × 10{sup –6}.

  7. Noninvasive determination of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads by time-resolved reflectance measurements for functional near infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanifuji, T; Wang, L

    2014-01-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μ(a) and μ'(s)) of adult heads have been noninvasively determined by time-resolved reflectance measurements. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis was used to calculate time-resolved reflectance from realistic adult head models with brain grooves containing a non-scattering layer. In vivo time-resolved reflectances of human heads were measured by a system composed of a time-correlated single photon counter and a diode laser. By minimizing the objective functions that compare theoretical and experimental time resolved reflectances, μ(a) and μ'(s) of brain were determined. It became clear that time-resolved measurements have enough sensitivity to determine both μ(a) and μ'(s) for superficial tissues, gray matter and white matter, except μ(s) for white matter.

  8. A Capillary Absorption Spectrometer for Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio (13C/12C) Analysis in Very Small Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Moran, James J.; Alexander, M. L.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2012-02-06

    A capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) suitable for IR laser isotope analysis of small CO{sub 2} samples is presented. The system employs a continuous-wave (cw) quantum cascade laser to study nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO{sub 2} near 2307 cm{sup -1} (4.34 {mu}m). This initial CAS system can achieve relative isotopic precision of about 10 ppm {sup 13}C, or {approx}1{per_thousand} (per mil in delta notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) with 20-100 picomoles of entrained sample within the hollow waveguide for CO{sub 2} concentrations {approx}400 to 750 ppm. Isotopic analyses of such gas fills in a 1-mm ID hollow waveguide of 0.8 m overall physical path length can be carried out down to {approx}2 Torr. Overall {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios can be calibrated to {approx}2{per_thousand} accuracy with diluted CO{sub 2} standards. A novel, low-cost method to reduce cw-fringing noise resulting from multipath distortions in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level (peak-to-rms) after 1,000 scans are co-added in {approx}10 sec. The CAS is meant to work directly with converted CO{sub 2} samples from a Laser Ablation-Catalytic-Combustion (LA CC) micro-sampler to provide {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of small biological isolates with spatial resolutions {approx}50 {mu}m.

  9. Paleodiet characterisation of an Etrurian population of Pontecagnano (Italy) by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)(#).

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Carla; Lubritto, Carmine; Proto, Antonio; Rubino, Mauro; Fiengo, Gilda; Marzaioli, Fabio; Passariello, Isabella; Busiello, Gaetano; Fortunato, Antonietta; Alfano, Davide; Sabbarese, Carlo; Rogalla, Detlef; De Cesare, Nicola; d'Onofrio, Antonio; Terrasi, Filippo

    2006-06-01

    Human bones recovered from the archaeological site of Pontecagnano (Salerno, Italy) have been studied to reconstruct the diet of an Etrurian population. Two different areas were investigated, named Library and Sant' Antonio, with a total of 44 tombs containing human skeletal remains, ranging in age from the 8th to the 3rd century B.C. This time span was confirmed by 14C dating obtained using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) on one bone sample from each site. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to extract information about the concentration of Sr, Zn, Ca elements in the bone inorganic fraction, whilst stable isotope ratio measurements (IRMS) were carried out on bone collagen to obtain the delta13C and delta15N. A reliable technique has been used to extract and separate the inorganic and organic fractions of the bone remains. Both IRMS and AAS results suggest a mixed diet including C3 plant food and herbivore animals, consistent with archaeological indications. PMID:16707316

  10. An inversion model based on salinity and remote sensing reflectance for estimating the phytoplankton absorption coefficient in the Saint Lawrence Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Xie, Huxiang

    2015-10-01

    The inversion of individual inherent optical properties (IOPs) is very challenging in optically complex waters and within the violet spectral range (i.e., 380-450 nm) due to the strong light attenuation caused by chromophoric dissolved organic matter, nonalgal particulates, and phytoplankton. Here we present a technique to better discriminate light absorption contributions due to phytoplankton based on a hybrid model (QAA-hybrid) that combines regional Saint Lawrence System estimates of IOPs derived from a quasi-analytical algorithm (hereafter QAA-SLE) and empirical relationships between salinity and IOPs. Preliminary results in the Saint Lawrence System during May 2000 and April 2001 showed that QAA-hybrid estimates of phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 443 nm have a smaller bias with respect to in situ measurements (root-mean-square deviation, RMSD = 0.156) than those derived from QAA-SLE (RMSD = 0.341). These results were valid for surface waters (i.e., 0-5 m depth) of the lower estuary with a salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration range of 22-28 psu and 2.1-13.8 mg m-3, respectively.

  11. Impacts of Uncertainties in Atmospheric State on Differential Absorption Spectroscopy Retrievals of Column XCO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccheo, T.; Pernini, T.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Harrison, F. W.; Henderson, J.; Ismail, S.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    This work assesses the impact of uncertainties in atmospheric state knowledge on laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) based retrievals of carbon dioxide column mixing ratios (XCO2). LAS estimates of column XCO2 are normally derived from a combination of observed CO2 differential optical depths (ΔOD) and measured, or estimated, values of temperature, moisture and pressure along the viewing path. The observed CO2 differential optical depth from space, associated with a given CO2 spectral feature, is given by ΔOD=∫psfcΔσ(λon, λoff,T,p) η(T,WV,p)dp where Δσ is the CO2 differential absorption cross section, η is the dry air CO2 number density, psfc is the surface pressure, and λon/λoff represent the on/off-line wavelengths. XCO2 is given by XCO2= ΔOD / ∫psfcΔσ(λon, λoff,T,p) dp Both Δσ and η vary as a function of pressure (P) and depend on temperature (T), and water vapor concentration (WV), which vary as a function of pressure. In addition, absorption due to other trace gas features (including water vapor), which are not considered in this simplified formulation, may also impact the observed ΔOD. As illustrated by these equations, the accuracy of retrieved XCO2 values depends not only on the error characteristics of the observed ΔOD, but also the ability to accurately characterize the ,P, T, and WV concentration along the observed path. In the case of global space-based monitoring systems it is often difficult, if not impossible, to provide collocated in situ measurements of the ancillary quantities for all observations. Therefore, retrievals often rely on collocated remotely sensed data or values derived from Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) models to describe the atmospheric state. A radiative transfer (RT)-based simulation framework, combined with representative global upper-air observations and matched NWP profiles, was used to assess the impact of model differences in vertical temperature, vertical moisture and surface pressure on

  12. Study of crop coefficient and the ratio of soil evaporation to evapotranspiration in an irrigated maize field in an arid area of Yellow River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuan; Yan, Haofang; Shi, Haibin; Sugimoto, Hideki

    2013-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a maize field in 2006 in an arid area of the Yellow River Basin in China. The daytime evapotranspiration (ETc) and soil evaporation beneath the maize canopy ( E g) were measured by Bowen ratio energy balance method and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The results showed that the total ETc during maize growth season was 696 mm, and the maximum values occurred at about 90-140 days after sowing. The crop coefficient ( K c), which was calculated from the ratio of ETc to reference evapotranspiration (ET0), was quite different from the values reported by other researchers in similar climate areas, with average values of 0.34, 0.47, 1.0 and 0.9 for initial, development, mid-season and late-season stages, respectively. High correlations between leaf area index (LAI) and average K c for every 4 days were obtained. The total E g was 201.4 mm with average values ranged from 0.92 to 2.05 for four growth stages of maize; and accounted for around 28.9 % of ETc. The ratio E g/ETc showed high negative relationship with LAI. These results were very important in precise management of irrigation for maize in Yellow River Basin areas.

  13. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m

  14. Opto-acoustic measurement of the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media: 1. Monte-Carlo simulation of laser fluence distribution at the beam axis beneath the surface of a turbid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelivanov, Ivan M; Barskaya, M I; Podymova, N B; Khokhlova, Tanya D; Karabutov, Aleksander A

    2009-09-30

    A new method for measuring the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media, for example, biological tissues, is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the amplitude of the excited opto-acoustic (OA) signal is proportional to the absorbed laser power density (the product of the light absorption coefficient and the laser fluence) at the medium interface. In the first part of the paper, the influence of the laser beam diameter, the light absorption and reduced scattering coefficients on the maximal amplitude of the laser fluence at the laser beam axis in the near-surface layer of the turbid medium is studied by using the Monte-Carlo simulation. The conditions are predicted under which the amplitude of the OA signal detected in a transparent medium in contact with the scattering medium should remain proportional to the light absorption coefficient of the medium under study, when the scattering coefficient in it changes more than twice. The results of the numerical simulation are used for the theoretical substantiation of the OA method being proposed. (measurement of parametrs of laser radiation)

  15. Simultaneous assessment of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans using on-line gas chromatography/ combustion and gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gremaud, G; Piguet, C; Baumgartner, M; Pouteau, E; Decarli, B; Berger, A; Fay, L B

    2001-01-01

    A number of dietary components and drugs are known to inhibit the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol, but at the same time can compensate by increasing cholesterol synthesis. It is, therefore, necessary to have a convenient and accurate method to assess both parameters simultaneously. Hence, we validated such a method in humans using on-line gas chromatography(GC)/combustion and GC/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Cholesterol absorption was measured using the ratio of [(13)C]cholesterol (injected intravenously) to [(18)O]cholesterol (administered orally). Simultaneously, cholesterol synthesis was measured using the deuterium incorporation method. Our methodology was applied to 12 mildly hypercholesterolemic men that were given a diet providing 2685 +/- 178 Kcal/day (mean +/- SD) and 255 +/- 8 mg cholesterol per day. Cholesterol fractional synthesis rates ranged from 5.0 to 10.5% pool/day and averaged 7.36% +/- 1.78% pool/day (668 +/- 133 mg/day). Cholesterol absorption ranged from 36.5-79.9% with an average value of 50.8 +/- 15.4%. These values are in agreement with already known data obtained with mildly hypercholesterolemic Caucasian males placed on a diet similar to the one used for this study. However, our combined IRMS method has the advantage over existing methods that it enables simultaneous measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans, and is therefore an important research tool for studying the impact of dietary treatments on cholesterol parameters.

  16. Stratospheric N2O mixing ratio profile from high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra and laboratory spectra near 1880/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Smith, M. A. H.; Seals, R. K., Jr.; Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure is used to derive the stratospheric N2O mixing ratio profile from balloon-borne solar absorption spectra and laboratory spectra near 1880/cm. The atmospheric spectra analyzed here were recorded during sunset from a float altitude of 33 km with the University of Denver's 0.02/cm resolution interferometer near Alamogordo, N.M. (33 deg N) on Oct. 10, 1979. The laboratory data are used to determine the N2O line intensities. The measurements suggest an N2O mixing ratio of 264 ppbv near 15 km, decreasing to 155 ppbv near 28 km.

  17. Stratospheric N(2)O mixing ratio profile from high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra and laboratory spectra near 1880 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Rinsland, C P; Goldman, A; Murcray, F J; Murcray, D G; Smith, M A; Seals, R K; Larsen, J C; Rinsland, P L

    1982-12-01

    A nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure has been used to derive the stratospheric N(2)O mixing ratio profile from balloon-borne solar absorption spectra and laboratory spectra near 1880 cm(-1). The atmospheric spectra were recorded during sunset from a float altitude of 33 km with the University of Denver 0.02-cm(-1) resolution interferometer near Alamogordo, N.M. (33 degrees N), on 10 Oct. 1979. The laboratory data were used to determine the N(2)O line intensities. The measurements indicate an N(2)O mixing ratio of 264 ppbv near 15 km decreasing to 155 ppbv near 28 km. PMID:20401069

  18. Stratospheric N2O mixing ratio profile from high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra and laboratory spectra near 1880/cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Smith, M. A. H.; Seals, R. K., Jr.; Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, P. L.

    1982-12-01

    A nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure is used to derive the stratospheric N2O mixing ratio profile from balloon-borne solar absorption spectra and laboratory spectra near 1880/cm. The atmospheric spectra analyzed here were recorded during sunset from a float altitude of 33 km with the University of Denver's 0.02/cm resolution interferometer near Alamogordo, N.M. (33 deg N) on Oct. 10, 1979. The laboratory data are used to determine the N2O line intensities. The measurements suggest an N2O mixing ratio of 264 ppbv near 15 km, decreasing to 155 ppbv near 28 km.

  19. Prospects for determining the cosmological helium-3 to helium-4 ratio via absorption-line studies of the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    The prospects for determining the interstellar (He-3)/(He-4) ratio via absorption-line studies in the extreme ultraviolet are considered. A high-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectrometer fed by a 1-meter-class telescope similar to that discussed in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Report (1983) is assumed, and it is found that detection of He-3 may be possible with less than three days of observing time. To measure the (He-3)/(He-4) ratio with sufficient precision to determine the number of light neutrino species will require over 50 days of integration time for each object studied.

  20. Absorption coefficients and frequency shifts measurement in the spectral range of 1071.88-1084.62 cm-1 vs. pressure for chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) using tunable CW CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hawat, Sharif

    2013-02-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption in the spectral range of (1071.88-1084.62 cm-1) vs. pressure in chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22, F-22, and CHClF2) was studied using a tunable continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser radiation on 9R branch lines with a maximum output power of about 2.12 W, provided with an absorber cell located outside the laser cavity. The absorption coefficients were determined vs. the gas pressure between 0.2 mbar and 170 mbar at lines from 9R branch for CFC-22. The frequency shifts of the absorption lines of CFC-22 in relative to the central frequencies of laser lines were calculated vs. the pressure on the basis of these absorption coefficients. The chosen lines were selected according to IR spectrum of the studied gas given by HITRAN cross section database. So the absorption was achieved for CFC-22 at the spectral lines of 9R branch situated from 9R (10) to 9R (30) emitted by a tunable CW CO2 laser. The absorption cross sections of CFC-22 determined in this work were compared with the relevant data given by HITRAN cross section database and a reasonable agreement was observed.

  1. Correction of pathlength amplification in the filter-pad technique for measurements of particulate absorption coefficient in the visible spectral region.

    PubMed

    Stramski, Dariusz; Reynolds, Rick A; Kaczmarek, Sławomir; Uitz, Julia; Zheng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Spectrophotometric measurement of particulate matter retained on filters is the most common and practical method for routine determination of the spectral light absorption coefficient of aquatic particles, ap(λ), at high spectral resolution over a broad spectral range. The use of differing geometrical measurement configurations and large variations in the reported correction for pathlength amplification induced by the particle/filter matrix have hindered adoption of an established measurement protocol. We describe results of dedicated laboratory experiments with a diversity of particulate sample types to examine variation in the pathlength amplification factor for three filter measurement geometries; the filter in the transmittance configuration (T), the filter in the transmittance-reflectance configuration (T-R), and the filter placed inside an integrating sphere (IS). Relationships between optical density measured on suspensions (ODs) and filters (ODf) within the visible portion of the spectrum were evaluated for the formulation of pathlength amplification correction, with power functions providing the best functional representation of the relationship for all three geometries. Whereas the largest uncertainties occur in the T method, the IS method provided the least sample-to-sample variability and the smallest uncertainties in the relationship between ODs and ODf. For six different samples measured with 1 nm resolution within the light wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm, a median error of 7.1% is observed for predicted values of ODs using the IS method. The relationships established for the three filter-pad methods are applicable to historical and ongoing measurements; for future work, the use of the IS method is recommended whenever feasible. PMID:26368092

  2. Coefficient of Variation, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, and Effects of Normalization in Validation of Biomarkers from NMR-based Metabonomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Goodpaster, Aaron M.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    A primary goal of metabonomics research is biomarker discovery for human diseases based on differences in metabolic profiles between healthy and diseased patient populations. One of the most significant challenges in biomarker discovery is validation, which implicitly depends on the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the measurement technique. This paper investigates how the CV of metabolite resonances measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) depends on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and normalization method. CVs were calculated for NMR resonance peaks in a series of NMR spectra of five synthetic urine samples collected over an eight-month period. An inverse correlation was detected between SNR and CV for all normalization methods. Small peaks with SNR<15 tended to have larger CVs (15–30%) compared to peaks with the highest SNR>150, which typically had smaller CVs (5–10%). The inverse relationship between CV and SNR roughly obeyed a log10 dependence. Quotient normalization (QN) tended to produce smaller CVs for smaller peaks, but larger CVs for the strongest peaks in the data, compared to no normalization, normalization to total intensity (NTI) or normalization to an internal standard (NIS). Consequently, quotient normalization appears optimal for validating low concentration metabolites. NTI or NIS appear superior to QN for samples that have very small variation in total signal intensity. While the inverse relationship between CV and log10(SNR) did not strictly hold for all metabolites, weaker concentration metabolites will likely require more rigorous validation as potential biomarkers since they tend to have poorer reproducibility. PMID:24678137

  3. Coefficient of Variation, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, and Effects of Normalization in Validation of Biomarkers from NMR-based Metabonomics Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Goodpaster, Aaron M; Kennedy, Michael A

    2013-10-15

    A primary goal of metabonomics research is biomarker discovery for human diseases based on differences in metabolic profiles between healthy and diseased patient populations. One of the most significant challenges in biomarker discovery is validation, which implicitly depends on the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the measurement technique. This paper investigates how the CV of metabolite resonances measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) depends on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and normalization method. CVs were calculated for NMR resonance peaks in a series of NMR spectra of five synthetic urine samples collected over an eight-month period. An inverse correlation was detected between SNR and CV for all normalization methods. Small peaks with SNR<15 tended to have larger CVs (15-30%) compared to peaks with the highest SNR>150, which typically had smaller CVs (5-10%). The inverse relationship between CV and SNR roughly obeyed a log10 dependence. Quotient normalization (QN) tended to produce smaller CVs for smaller peaks, but larger CVs for the strongest peaks in the data, compared to no normalization, normalization to total intensity (NTI) or normalization to an internal standard (NIS). Consequently, quotient normalization appears optimal for validating low concentration metabolites. NTI or NIS appear superior to QN for samples that have very small variation in total signal intensity. While the inverse relationship between CV and log10(SNR) did not strictly hold for all metabolites, weaker concentration metabolites will likely require more rigorous validation as potential biomarkers since they tend to have poorer reproducibility.

  4. Signal to Noise Ratio in Digital Lock-in Detection for Multiple Intensity-Modulated Signals in CO2 Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, S.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Nehrir, A. R.; Campbell, J. F.; Refaat, T.; Abedin, N. M.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometers (LASs) for the measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) column mixing ratio from both air- and space-borne platforms. The LAS system uses high-power fiber lasers/amplifiers in the 1.57-um CO2 absorption band and the 1.26-um O2 absorption band in the transmitters and simultaneous digital lock-in detection for the multiple intensity-modulated signals with different modulation waveforms , such as simple sinusoidal waves at different frequencies, associated with different wavelengths in the receivers. The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in the system is of interest for the system designs and the performance prediction of airborne and space-borne implementations in the future. This paper will discuss the properties of the signals and various noises in the LAS system, especially for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection with a single detector for the multiple intensity-modulated signals at different frequencies. The numerical simulation of the SNR for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in terms of relative intensity of the multiple modulated signals and the integration time, and an initial experimental verification will be presented.

  5. Calibration of the infrared molar absorption coefficients by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) for H measurements in olivine and clinopyroxene crystals and rhyolitic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubaud, C.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Khodja, H.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Bell, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is the most widely applied technique for measuring hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) and silicate glasses. FTIR is rapid, sensitive, widely available and gives information on the bonding environment of H-bearing species. H determination relies on the Beer-Lambert law and therefore requires constraints on the applicable molar absorption coefficient, ɛ. Values of ɛ may be derived only from independent absolute methods. These ɛ are now reasonably well known for glasses, but to date determinations of ɛ applicable to NAMs are extremely limited and subject to uncertainties. Most notably, the Paterson (1982) calibration gives H contents in olivine that are a factor of 2.5- 3.5 lower than those suggested by the Bell et al. JGR 2003 calibration. We performed elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on a range of samples that had been previously analyzed by FTIR, including natural rhyolitic glasses (1430-1772 ppm H2O), natural and synthetic olivine (0-910 ppm), natural orthopyroxene (38-147 ppm), and natural clinopyroxene crystals (0-490 ppm). ERDA is a nuclear microprobe technique that yields matrix-independent absolute determinations of H concentration. A 3 MeV beam of 4He is employed at high spatial resolution (50 × 200 microns). The detection limit, determined from analysis of dry minerals is 150±20 ppm H2O, too great for analysis of many NAMs from the upper mantle, but applicable to H-rich natural and synthetic NAMs. For glasses, synthetic olivines, and clinopyroxenes, we found good proportionality between the measured ERDA hydrogen concentration and the linear (rhyolite) or integrated (minerals) absorbance measured by FTIR. The ɛ found for rhyolite (103±9 l/mol per cm) is close to that of 88±2 l/mol per cm given by Dobson et al. (GCA, 1989). For clinopyroxene, we obtain ɛ 47010±6070 l/mol per cm2, slightly larger than 38300±1700 l/mol per cm2 found by Bell et al. (Am. Min. 1995). Finally, for

  6. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  7. Inter-comparison of 2 microm Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar, Laser Diode Spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Fabien; Joly, Lilian; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène; Schmidt, Martina; Royer, Adrien; Flamant, Pierre H; Ramonet, Michel; Parvitte, Bertrand; Durry, Georges; Zéninari, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing and in situ instruments are presented and compared in the same location for accurate CO(2) mixing ratio measurements in the atmosphere: (1) a 2.064 microm Heterodyne DIfferential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL), (2) a field deployable infrared Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) using new commercial diode laser technology at 2.68 microm, (3) LICOR NDIR analyzer and (4) flasks. LDS, LICOR and flasks measurements were made in the same location, LICOR and flasks being taken as reference. Horizontal HDIAL measurements of CO(2) absorption using aerosol backscatter signal are reported. Using new spectroscopic data in the 2 microm band and meteorological sensor measurements, a mean CO(2) mixing ratio is inferred by the HDIAL in a 1 km long path above the 15m height location of the CO(2) in situ sensors. We compare HDIAL and LDS measurements with the LICOR data for 30 min of time averaging. The mean standard deviation of the HDIAL and the LDS CO(2) mixing ratio results are 3.3 ppm and 0.89 ppm, respectively. The bias of the HDIAL and the LDS measurements are -0.54 ppm and -0.99 ppm, respectively. PMID:18718810

  8. The retrieval of atmospheric constituent mixing-ratio profiles from solar absorption spectra. Ph.D. Thesis. Interim Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods used to determine various atmospheric gas distributions are summarized. The experimentally determined mixing ratio profiles (the mixing ratio of a gas is the ratio of the number of gas molecules to the number of air molecules) of some atmospheric gases are shown. In most in situ experiments stratospheric gas samples are collected at several altitudes by balloon, aircraft, or rocket. These samples are then analyzed by various methods. Mixing ratio profiles of Ci, ClO, and OH were determined by laser induced fluorescence of samples. Others have analyzed gas samples by gas chromatography in order to determine the molecular abundances of CCl2F2, CCl4, CCl3F, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CHClF2, CH3CCl3, CH4, CO, C2Cl3F3, C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C6H6, C7H8, H2, and N2O.

  9. Determination of Phase Ratio in Polymorphic Materials by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: The Case of Anatase and Rutile Phase Mixture in TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. F.; Klysubun, W.; Kityakarn, S.; Worayingyong, A.; Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S. H.; Onkaw, D.; Songsiriritthigul, P.; Rujirawat, S.; Limpijumnong, S.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can be used as an unconventional characterization technique to determine the proportions of different crystal phases in polymorphic samples. As an example, we show that ratios of anatase and rutile phases contained in the TiO{sub 2} samples obtained by XAS are in agreement with conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements to within a few percent. We suggest that XAS measurement is a useful and reliable technique that can be applied to study the phase composition of highly disordered or nanoparticle polymorphic materials, where traditional XRD technique might be difficult.

  10. Aspect ratio-related three-photon absorption and mechanism of α-FeOOH nanorods in the near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baohua; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Chong; Cao, Yawan; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Jiayu; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-07-20

    Tuning a semiconductor nanomaterial with large three-photon absorption (3PA) cross section in the near infrared and investigating the relationship between the nanostructure and nonlinear optical properties is a challenging topic, which is of significance in potential applications. Here, we report the aspect ratio-related 3PA response of α-FeOOH nanorods (NRs) in the near infrared. Large 3PA cross section at room temperature is achieved as high as ~10(-77) cm(6) s(2) photon(-2) when the distribution of photo-induced and intrinsic surface polarization charges of excitons to both ends of NRs is tuned through the aspect ratio, yielding total enhancement more than three times larger than that of NRs with 12.1 nm diameter. PMID:27218307

  11. Simultaneous detection of the absorption spectrum and refractive index ratio with a spectrophotometer: monitoring contaminants in bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontturi, V.; Hyvärinen, S.; García, A.; Carmona, R.; Murzin, D. Yu; Mikkola, J.-P.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2011-05-01

    The optical properties of a biofuel resulting from the fungi-treated lignocellulosic biomass in an ethanol matrix were studied. The matrix simulates the case that the bioethanol is contaminated by sugars, water and colour pigments that reduce the quality of the biofuel and compromise the combustion process. It is suggested that by applying a spectrophotometer only, it is possible to obtain valid information, i.e. the spectral features of the contaminants as well as the refractive index ratio of bioethanol. This allows for simultaneous purity and density detection of biomass-derived liquids or liquid biofuels, in comparison to a reference representing an ideal bioethanol (pure ethyl alcohol, ethanol of 99.5% purity (v/v)).

  12. A linear relationship between the Hall carrier concentration and the effective absorption coefficient measured by means of photothermal radiometry in IR semi-transparent n-type CdMgSe mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, M.; Maliński, M.; Firszt, F.; Pelzl, J.; Ludwig, A.; Marasek, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we demonstrate the ability to measure the effective infrared absorption coefficient in semiconductors by a photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR) experiment, and its correlation with the Hall carrier concentration. The amplitude and phase of the PTR signal were measured for Cd1-xMgxSe mixed crystals, with the magnesium content varying from x = 0 to x = 0.15. The PTR experiments were performed at room temperature in thermal reflection and transmission configurations using a mercury cadmium telluride infrared detector. The PTR data were analyzed in the frame of the one-dimensional heat transport model for infrared semi-transparent crystals. Based on the variation of the normalized PTR phase and amplitude on the modulation frequency, the thermal diffusivity and the effective infrared absorption coefficient were obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to experimental data and compared with the Hall carrier concentration determined by supplementary Hall experiments. A linear relationship between the effective infrared absorption coefficient and the Hall carrier concentration was found which is explained in the frame of the Drude theory. The uncertainty of the measured slope was 6%. The value of the slope depends on (1) the sample IR absorption spectrum and (2) the spectral range of the infrared detector. It has to be pointed out that this method is suitable for use in an industrial environment for a fast and contactless carrier concentration measurement. This method can be used for the characterization of other semiconductors after a calibration procedure is carried out. In addition, the PTR technique yields information on the thermal properties in the same experiment.

  13. Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at lambda=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs' effect.

    PubMed

    Kir'yanov, Alexander V; Barmenkov, Yuri O; Martinez, Itzel L; Kurkov, Audrey S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2006-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the nonlinear transmission coefficient in a set of Ytterbium-doped silica fibers (YFs) with various concentrations of Yb(3+) ions at continuous-wave 980-nm pumping is reported. An analysis of the obtained experimental data shows that YF transmission coefficient is notably affected by the presence of Yb(3+) - Yb(3+) ion-pairs in the fibers, especially in heavily-doped ones. The last fact is confirmed by the study of the cooperative luminescence and absorption effects in the fibers, where a detailed inspection of their dependence on Yb3+ concentration is presented. The pairs' effect is shown to seriously modify both the nonlinear character of YF transmission coefficient at lambda = 980 nm and Yb(3+) excited-state relaxation. A modeling of the experimental data is performed, which allows to find the coefficients addressing the pairs' effect in each of YFs under study and, as a result, to fit the experimentally measured dependences of YF transmission coefficient on pump power, fiber length, and Yb(3+) concentration. PMID:19516545

  14. Cooperative luminescence and absorption in Ytterbium-doped silica fiber and the fiber nonlinear transmission coefficient at λ=980 nm with a regard to the Ytterbium ion-pairs' effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Barmenkov, Yuri O.; Martinez, Itzel L.; Kurkov, Audrey S.; Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2006-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the nonlinear transmission coefficient in a set of Ytterbium-doped silica fibers (YFs) with various concentrations of Yb3+ ions at continuous-wave 980-nm pumping is reported. An analysis of the obtained experimental data shows that YF transmission coefficient is notably affected by the presence of Yb3+ - Yb3+ ion-pairs in the fibers, especially in heavily-doped ones. The last fact is confirmed by the study of the cooperative luminescence and absorption effects in the fibers, where a detailed inspection of their dependence on Yb3+ concentration is presented. The pairs’ effect is shown to seriously modify both the nonlinear character of YF transmission coefficient at λ = 980 nm and Yb3+ excited-state relaxation. A modeling of the experimental data is performed, which allows to find the coefficients addressing the pairs’ effect in each of YFs under study and, as a result, to fit the experimentally measured dependences of YF transmission coefficient on pump power, fiber length, and Yb3+ concentration.

  15. Effects of dietary sulfur concentration and forage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal fermentation, sulfur metabolism, and short-chain fatty acid absorption in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Amat, S; McKinnon, J J; Penner, G B; Hendrick, S

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary S concentration and forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on ruminal fermentation, S metabolism, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption in beef heifers. Sixteen ruminally cannulated heifers (initial BW 628 ± 48 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. The main factors included F:C (4% forage vs. 51% forage, DM basis) and the S concentration, which was modified using differing sources of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to achieve low- and high-S diets (LS = 0.30% vs. HS = 0.67% S on a DM basis). Elemental S was also added to increase the S content for the HS diets. Serum sulfate concentration from blood, sulfide (S(2-)), and SCFA concentrations from ruminal fluid, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration from the ruminal gas cap, and urinary sulfate concentration were determined. Continuous rumen pH and SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) absorption were measured. There were no interactions between S concentration and F:C. The F:C did not affect DMI (P = 0.26) or ruminal S metabolite concentrations (P ≥ 0.19), but ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.01) and SCFA absorption was greater (P < 0.01) for low F:C diets. Heifers fed HS diets had less DMI (P < 0.01) but greater ruminal pH (P < 0.01), greater concentrations of ruminal H2S (P < 0.01) and serum sulfate (P < 0.01), and greater urinary sulfate concentration (P < 0.01) and output (P < 0.01) relative to heifers fed LS diets. Ruminal H2S was positively correlated with serum sulfate (r = 0.89; P < 0.01). Ruminal acetate concentration was not affected (P = 0.26) by dietary S concentration. Heifers fed the HS diet had lower (P = 0.01) ruminal propionate concentration and tended to have lower (P = 0.06) butyrate concentration than heifers fed the LS diet. Ruminal acetate was greater (P = 0.01) and butyrate was less (P < 0.01) with the high F:C diet than the low F:C diet. Both HS (P = 0.06) and low F

  16. Determining Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxy Extinction Probabilities and a Statistical Approach to Estimating the Absorption-to-reddening Ratio RV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Deustua, Susana; Marleau, Francine

    2016-03-01

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B - V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, RV, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). We use SN Ia spectral templates to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B - V) with RV = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B - V) with projected radial galaxy center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo, and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa-Sap, Sab-Sbp, Sbc-Scp, Scd-Sdm, S0, and irregular galaxy classes as a function of R/R25. We find that the largest expected reddening probabilities are in Sab-Sb and Sbc-Sc galaxies, while S0 and irregular galaxies are very dust poor. We present a new approach for determining the absorption-to-reddening ratio RV using color excess probability functions and find values of RV = 2.71 ± 1.58 for 21 SNe Ia observed in Sab-Sbp galaxies, and RV = 1.70 ± 0.38, for 34 SNe Ia observed in Sbc-Scp galaxies.

  17. An airborne amplitude-modulated 1.57 μm differential laser absorption spectrometer: simultaneous measurement of partial column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 and target range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaizawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the partial column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 (XCO2) and target range were demonstrated using airborne amplitude-modulated 1.57 μm differential laser absorption spectrometer (LAS). The LAS system is useful for discriminating between ground and cloud return signals and has a demonstrated ability to suppress the impact of integrated aerosol signals on atmospheric CO2 measurements. A high correlation coefficient (R) of 0.987 between XCO2 observed by LAS and XCO2 calculated from in situ measurements was obtained. The averaged difference in XCO2 obtained from LAS and validation data was within 1.5 ppm for all spiral measurements. An interesting vertical profile was observed for both XCO2LAS and XCO2val, in which lower altitude CO2 decreases compared to higher altitude CO2 attributed to the photosynthesis over grassland in the summer. In the case of an urban area where there are boundary-layer enhanced CO2 and aerosol in the winter, the difference of XCO2LAS to XCO2val is a negative bias of 1.5 ppm, and XCO2LAS is in agreement with XCO2val within the measurement precision of 2.4 ppm (1 SD).

  18. HIGH-LYING OH ABSORPTION, [C II] DEFICITS, AND EXTREME L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} RATIOS IN GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    González-Alfonso, E.; Blasco, A.; Fischer, J.; Sturm, E.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Contursi, A.; Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Aalto, S.; Falstad, N.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Farrah, D.; Henkel, C.; Verma, A.; Spaans, M.; Smith, H. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; and others

    2015-02-10

    Herschel/PACS observations of 29 local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, including both starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated sources as diagnosed in the mid-infrared/optical, show that the equivalent width of the absorbing OH 65 μm Π{sub 3/2} J = 9/2-7/2 line (W {sub eq}(OH65)) with lower level energy E {sub low} ≈ 300 K, is anticorrelated with the [C II]158 μm line to far-infrared luminosity ratio, and correlated with the far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass and with the 60-to-100 μm far-infrared color. While all sources are in the active L {sub IR}/M {sub H2} > 50L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉} mode as derived from previous CO line studies, the OH65 absorption shows a bimodal distribution with a discontinuity at L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} ≈ 100 L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉}. In the most buried sources, OH65 probes material partially responsible for the silicate 9.7 μm absorption. Combined with observations of the OH 71 μm Π{sub 1/2} J = 7/2-5/2 doublet (E {sub low} ≈ 415 K), radiative transfer models characterized by the equivalent dust temperature, T {sub dust}, and the continuum optical depth at 100 μm, τ{sub 100}, indicate that strong [C II]158 μm deficits are associated with far-IR thick (τ{sub 100} ≳ 0.7, N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}), warm (T {sub dust} ≳ 60 K) structures where the OH 65 μm absorption is produced, most likely in circumnuclear disks/tori/cocoons. With their high L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} ratios and columns, the presence of these structures is expected to give rise to strong [C II] deficits. W {sub eq}(OH65) probes the fraction of infrared luminosity arising from these compact/warm environments, which is ≳ 30%-50% in sources with high W {sub eq}(OH65). Sources with high W {sub eq}(OH65) have surface densities of both L {sub IR} and M {sub H2} higher than inferred from the half-light (CO or UV/optical) radius, tracing coherent structures that represent the most buried/active stage of (circum)nuclear starburst

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N double quantum wells operating at 1.55 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen

    2015-04-07

    In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)

  20. Intensities and self-broadening coefficients of the strongest water vapour lines in the 2.7 and 6.25 μm absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2016-07-01

    Intensities and self-broadening coefficients are presented for about 460 of the strongest water vapour lines in the spectral regions 1400-1840 cm-1 and 3440-3970 cm-1 at room temperature, obtained from rather unique measurements using a 5-mm-path-length cell. The retrieved spectral line parameters are compared with those in the HITRAN database ver. 2008 and 2012 and with recent ab-initio calculations. Both the retrieved intensities and half-widths are on average in reasonable agreement with those in HITRAN-2012. Maximum systematic differences do not exceed 4% for intensities (1600 cm-1 band) and 7% for self-broadening coefficients (3600 cm-1 band). For many lines however significant disagreements were detected with the HITRAN-2012 data, exceeding the average uncertainty of the retrieval. In addition, water vapour line parameters for 5300 cm-1 (1.9 μm) band reported by us in 2005 were also compared with HITRAN-2012, and show average differences of 4-5% for both intensities and half-widths.

  1. Optical depth ratios and metal-line absorption around z≈2.3 star-forming galaxies: insights from observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Monica; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Strom, Allison

    2015-01-01

    We study metal-line absorption around 854 z≈2.3 star-forming galaxies taken from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey. The galaxies in this survey lie in the fields of 15 hyper-luminous background QSOs, with galaxy impact parameters ranging from 35 proper kpc (pkpc) to 2 proper Mpc (pMpc). Using the pixel optical depth technique, we present the first galaxy-centered 2-D maps of the median absorption by OVI, NV, CIV, CIII, and SiIV, as well as updated results for HI. At small galactocentric radii we detect a strong enhancement of the absorption relative to randomly located regions that extend out to at least 180 pkpc in the transverse direction, and ±240 km s-1 along the line-of-sight (LOS, ˜1 pMpc in the case of pure Hubble flow) for all ions except NV. Limiting the sample to the 340 galaxies with redshifts measured from nebular emission lines does not decrease the extent of the enhancement along the LOS compared to that in the transverse direction, which rules out redshift errors as the source of the observed redshift-space anisotropy and implies that we have detected the signature of gas peculiar velocities from infall, outflows, or virial motions. Looking next at optical depth ratios, we isolate pixel pairs at small galactocentric distances (within 180 pkpc in the transverse direction and 170 km s-1 along the LOS) and find that the optical depth of OVI at fixed HI is enhanced with respect to the full sample. Comparison with CLOUDY models, and assuming photoionisation, results in nearly solar metallicities at intergalactic overdensities, which we consider to be unphysical. Invoking collisional ionisation, we are able to place a lower limit on [O/H] of ˜1/100th solar, and conclude that we are likely probing collisionally ionised gas near galaxies. Finally, we turn to the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to interpret our results, and furthermore to study the evolution of the column density profiles as a function of impact parameter for different

  2. EXTENSION OF THE INVERSE ADDING-DOUBLING METHOD TO THE MEASUREMENT OF WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING COEFFICIENTS OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.

  3. Comparison of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Methods for Determining Stable Isotope Ratios of Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubierna Lopez, N.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Griffith, D. W.; Mount, G. H.; Cousins, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are determined using eddy-covariance methods. Information from isotopic CO2 measurements provides valuable constraints to partition NEE into its component fluxes. Stable isotope measurements have traditionally been constrained in frequency by the need to collect and analyze field samples in a laboratory using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (MS). New techniques based on absorption spectroscopy allow for high temporal sampling resolution in the field, but with concerns about precision and accuracy of the isotope-ratios. We tested two absorption spectroscopy systems, a Fourier transformed infrared analyzer (FTIR, Vector 22, Bruker Optics, Ettlingen, Germany) and a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS, model TGA 100, Campbell Scientific, Inc. Logan, UT, USA), by comparing them with continuous-flow MS (Delta plus XP IRMS, ThermoFinnigan, Bremen, Germany). We conducted a laboratory comparison of gases mixed with various CO2 concentrations and isotopic signatures as well as field-collected samples. The mixed tanks were balanced in ultra-zero air with CO2 concentrations ranging from 353 to 553 ppm, and isotopic compositions (δ13C) between -11.7% to -39.3%. The field samples were collected at four different locations (forest, wheat field, dairy farm, and paper mill) by pumping ambient air into 44- L tanks. Gas from each sample tank was simultaneously delivered to the FTIR and TDLAS systems and subsequently analyzed with continuous-flow MS. The [CO2] determined with the TDLAS or FTIR differed by <1 ppm for CO2-tanks and <2.4 ppm for ambient air samples. The δ13C offset of the CO2 tanks between the MS and the TDLAS and FTIR were on average 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. However, the offset in TDLAS δ13C values increased for ambient air samples to values of 0.4%, with a maximum of 0.9% for the dairy farm and paper mill samples. Ambient air samples analyzed with the FTIR were on

  4. Impact of O2-Based Surface Pressure Uncertainties on Laser Absorption Spectrometer Retrievals of Column CO2 Mixing Ratios (XCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernini, T.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernak, R.; Botos, C.; Browell, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we assess the overall impact of surface pressure uncertainties, derived from either laser-based O2 column measurements or numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and water vapor uncertainties on laser-based retrievals of CO2 column mixing ratios (XCO2). Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS) estimates of column XCO2 can be derived from a combination of observed CO2 differential optical depths ( ) and measured/estimated values of temperature (T), pressure (P), and moisture (q) along the viewing path. XCO2 can be related to CO2 as (equation 1) where Δτother represents residual observed due to other species, is CO2 differential absorption cross section, psfc is surface pressure, q is local specific humidity and / represent the observation on/off-line wavelengths. The accuracy of retrieved XCO2 values depends on both the error characteristics of the observed and the ability to accurately characterize T, P, and q along the observed path. A radiative transfer (RT)-based simulation framework, combined with representative global upper-air observations and matched NWP profiles, was used to assess the impact of model differences in vertical T, vertical moisture, and surface P on estimates of column CO2 and O2concentrations. Additionally we characterize the impact of a combined XCO2 retrieval approach based on either O2 LAS measurements or NWP data, as well as the additional impact due to water vapor. These analyses focus on characterizing the errors for a combined retrieval approach for LAS CO2 measurements in the 1.57 and 2.05 μm regions and O2 measurements in the 0.76 and 1.27 μm. The results provide a set of signal-to-noise metrics that characterize the errors in retrieved XCO2 associated with uncertainties in knowledge of the atmospheric state, and provide a method for selecting optimal differential line pairs for both CO2 and O2 measurements to minimize the impact of this noise term.

  5. Evaluation of time-resolved multi-distance methods to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads in vivo: Optical parameters dependences on geometrical structures of the models used to calculate reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, T.

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved multi-distance measurements are studied to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads, which have enough depth sensitivity to determine the optical parameters in superficial tissues and brain separately. Measurements were performed by putting the injection and collection fibers on the left semi-sphere of the forehead, with the injection fiber placed toward the temporal region, and by moving the collection fiber between 10 and 60 mm from the central sulcus. It became clear that optical parameters of the forehead at all collection fibers were reasonably determined by selecting the appropriate visibility length of the geometrical head models, which is related to head surface curvature at each position.

  6. In vivo time-resolved multidistance near infra-red spectroscopy of adult heads: time shift tolerance of measured reflectance to suppress the coupling between absorption and reduced scattering coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, T.; Sakai, D.

    2015-03-01

    The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients ( μa and μ's) of adult heads were determined by multidistance timeresolved reflectance measurements. The finite difference time domain analysis was used to calculate the time-resolved reflectance from adult head models. In vivo time-resolved reflectances of human heads was measured at wavelengths of 680 and 780 nm. By minimizing the objective functions that compare the theoretical and experimental time-resolved reflectances, μa and μ's of the brains were determined. The results show that the time shift tolerance of measured reflectance for reducing to less than 10% the deviations in μa and μ's due to their coupling from the values obtained by optimum time shifts is more than 20 ps at both wavelengths.

  7. Signal to Noise Ratio Estimation for a Space-borne Swept-Frequency Intensity-Modulated CO2 Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Lin, B.; Petway, L. B.; Ismail, S.; Campbell, J. F.; Bai, Y.; Harrison, F. W.; Refaat, T. F.; Obland, M. D.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in the digital lock-in detection for a space-borne swept-frequency Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) CO2 Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS) has a direct influence on the accuracy of the CO2 measurement. According to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method, we have theoretically analyzed a linear swept-frequency sine wave signal in an additive high Gaussian-distributed noise with a constant variance, which is a good approximation for the detector-noise-limited system or the solar background noise dominated space-borne IM-CW CO2 LAS. The general MLE equations for the amplitude and the phase of the swept-frequency IM_CW signal have been generated and solved by a nonlinear optimization procedure. The variances of the amplitude and the phase have been obtained by using the Cramer-Rao lower bound, a lower bound on the variance of the estimated parameters. Under the large sampling numbers, the SNR, signal amplitude divided by the square-root of the amplitude variance, increases as the square-root of the total sampling numbers. Thousands of numerical simulations with randomly generated uniform distributed Gaussian noise were completed for the statistical verification of the estimation. The estimation has also been applied to a space-borne IM-CW CO2 LAS with typical parameters under averaged daytime solar background to confirm the feasibilities of the instrument design of the space-borne IM-CW CO2 LAS.

  8. Searching for variations in the fine-structure constant and the proton-to-electron mass ratio using quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Julian A.

    2012-02-01

    (abridged) Quasar absorption lines provide a precise test of the assumed constancy of the fundamental constants of physics. We have investigated potential changes in the fine-structure constant, alpha, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu. The many-multiplet method allows one to use optical fine-structure transitions to constrain (Delta alpha)/alpha at better than the 10^(-5) level. We present a new analysis of 154 quasar absorbers with 0.2 < z <3.7 in VLT/UVES spectra. From these absorbers we find 2.2 sigma evidence for angular variations in alpha under a dipole+monopole model. Combined with previous Keck/HIRES observations, we find 4.1 sigma evidence for angular (and therefore spatial) variations in alpha, with maximal increase of alpha occurring in the direction RA=(17.3 +/- 1.0) hr, dec=(-61 +/- 10) deg. Under a model where the observed effect is proportional to the lookback-time distance the significance increases to 4.2 sigma. Dipole models fitted to the VLT and Keck samples and models fitted to z<1.6 and z>1.6 sub-samples independently yield consistent estimates of the dipole direction, which suggests that the effect is not caused by telescope systematics. We consider a number of systematic effects and show that they are unable to explain the observed dipole effect. We have used spectra of the quasars Q0405-443, Q0347-383 and Q0528-250 from VLT/UVES to investigate the absorbers at z=2.595, 3.025 and 2.811 in these spectra respectively. We find that (Delta mu)/mu=(10.1 +/- 6.6) x 10^(-6), (8.2 +/- 7.5) x 10^(-6) and (-1.4 +/- 3.9) x 10^(-6) in these absorbers respectively. A second spectrum of Q0528-250 provides an additional constraint of (Delta mu)/mu=(0.2 +/- 3.2_stat +/- 1.9_sys) x 10^(-6). The weighted mean of these values yields (Delta mu)/mu=(1.7 +/- 2.4) x 10^(-6), the most precise constraint on evolution in mu at z>1.

  9. Measurement of the D/H, ¹⁸O/¹⁶O, and ¹⁷O/¹⁶O isotope ratios in water by laser absorption spectroscopy at 2.73 μm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Weidong; Fertein, Eric; Masselin, Pascal; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Yingjian; Koeth, Johannes; Brückner, Daniela; He, Xingdao

    2014-05-21

    A compact isotope ratio laser spectrometry (IRLS) instrument was developed for simultaneous measurements of the D/H, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in water by laser absorption spectroscopy at 2.73 μm. Special attention is paid to the spectral data processing and implementation of a Kalman adaptive filtering to improve the measurement precision. Reduction of up to 3-fold in standard deviation in isotope ratio determination was obtained by the use of a Fourier filtering to remove undulation structure from spectrum baseline. Application of Kalman filtering enables isotope ratio measurement at 1 s time intervals with a precision (<1‰) better than that obtained by conventional 30 s averaging, while maintaining a fast system response. The implementation of the filter is described in detail and its effects on the accuracy and the precision of the isotope ratio measurements are investigated.

  10. Measurement of the D/H, 18O/16O, and 17O/16O Isotope Ratios in Water by Laser Absorption Spectroscopy at 2.73 μm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Weidong; Fertein, Eric; Masselin, Pascal; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Yingjian; Koeth, Johannes; Brückner, Daniela; He, Xingdao

    2014-01-01

    A compact isotope ratio laser spectrometry (IRLS) instrument was developed for simultaneous measurements of the D/H, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in water by laser absorption spectroscopy at 2.73 μm. Special attention is paid to the spectral data processing and implementation of a Kalman adaptive filtering to improve the measurement precision. Reduction of up to 3-fold in standard deviation in isotope ratio determination was obtained by the use of a Fourier filtering to remove undulation structure from spectrum baseline. Application of Kalman filtering enables isotope ratio measurement at 1 s time intervals with a precision (<1‰) better than that obtained by conventional 30 s averaging, while maintaining a fast system response. The implementation of the filter is described in detail and its effects on the accuracy and the precision of the isotope ratio measurements are investigated. PMID:24854363

  11. A strategy for the separation of diterpenoid isomers from the root of Aralia continentalis by countercurrent chromatography: The distribution ratio as a substitute for the partition coefficient and a three-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Kwang Ho; Choi, Wonmin; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-08-01

    Aralia continentalis (Araliaceae) is widely used as a medicinal plant in East Asia. Previous studies have indicated that diterpenoid isomers (kaurenoic acid, continentalic acid, and ent-continentalic acid) are the major bioactive compounds of this plant. A new strategy was developed to alleviate difficulties in the separation of these isomers from this plant. A three-phase solvent system was applied to separate the isomers, and furthermore, the distribution ratio (Kc) was introduced as a substitute for the partition coefficient (KD). For compounds exhibiting a single equilibrium, their distributions in two immiscible phases were only affected by the partition coefficient of each solute. However, compounds that have a dissociating functional group (e.g., -COOH) are involved in two types of equilibrium in the two-phase system. In this case, the partitioning behaviors of the solutes are greatly affected by the pH of the solution. A mathematical prediction was applied for adjusting the solutions to the proper pH values. To prevent non-used phase (medium phase) waste, both the stationary phase (upper phase) and mobile phase (lower phase) were prepared on-demand without pre-saturation with the application of (1)H NMR. Each fraction obtained was collected and dried, yielding the following diterpenoid isomers from the 50mg injected sample: kaurenoic acid (19.7mg, yield: 39%) and ent-continentalic acid (21.3mg, yield: 42%).

  12. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients as a function of temperature and IR absorption cross sections for CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf), potential replacement of CF3CH2F (HFC-134a).

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Jiménez, Elena; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    CF3CH=CH2 (hydrofluoroolefin, HFO-1243zf) is a potential replacement of high global-warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a, CF3CFH2). Both the atmospheric lifetime and the radiative efficiency of HFO-1243zf are parameters needed for estimating the GWP of this species. Therefore, the aim of this work is (i) to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1243zf from the reported OH rate coefficients, k OH, determined under tropospheric conditions and (ii) to calculate its radiative efficiency from the reported IR absorption cross sections. The OH rate coefficient at 298 K also allows the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)). The pulsed laser photolysis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to determine k OH for the reaction of OH radicals with HFO-1243zf as a function of pressure (50-650 Torr of He) and temperature (263-358 K). Gas-phase IR spectra of HFO-1243zf were recorded at room temperature using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer between 500 and 4,000 cm(-1). At all temperatures, k OH did not depend on bath gas concentration (i.e., on the total pressure between 50 and 650 Torr of He). A slight but noticeable T dependence of k OH was observed in the temperature range investigated. The observed behavior is well described by the following Arrhenius expression: k OH(T) = (7.65 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) exp [(165 ± 10) / T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Negligible IR absorption of HFO-1243zf was observed at wavenumbers greater than 1,700 cm(-1). Therefore, IR absorption cross sections, [Formula: see text], were determined in the 500-1,700 cm(-1) range. Integrated [Formula: see text] were determined between 650 and 1,800 cm(-1) for comparison purposes. The main diurnal removal pathway for HFO-1243zf is the reaction with OH radicals, which accounts for 64% of the overall loss by homogeneous reactions at 298 K. Globally, the lifetime due to OH reaction (τ OH) was estimated to be 8.7 days under

  13. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients as a function of temperature and IR absorption cross sections for CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf), potential replacement of CF3CH2F (HFC-134a).

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Jiménez, Elena; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    CF3CH=CH2 (hydrofluoroolefin, HFO-1243zf) is a potential replacement of high global-warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a, CF3CFH2). Both the atmospheric lifetime and the radiative efficiency of HFO-1243zf are parameters needed for estimating the GWP of this species. Therefore, the aim of this work is (i) to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1243zf from the reported OH rate coefficients, k OH, determined under tropospheric conditions and (ii) to calculate its radiative efficiency from the reported IR absorption cross sections. The OH rate coefficient at 298 K also allows the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)). The pulsed laser photolysis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to determine k OH for the reaction of OH radicals with HFO-1243zf as a function of pressure (50-650 Torr of He) and temperature (263-358 K). Gas-phase IR spectra of HFO-1243zf were recorded at room temperature using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer between 500 and 4,000 cm(-1). At all temperatures, k OH did not depend on bath gas concentration (i.e., on the total pressure between 50 and 650 Torr of He). A slight but noticeable T dependence of k OH was observed in the temperature range investigated. The observed behavior is well described by the following Arrhenius expression: k OH(T) = (7.65 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) exp [(165 ± 10) / T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Negligible IR absorption of HFO-1243zf was observed at wavenumbers greater than 1,700 cm(-1). Therefore, IR absorption cross sections, [Formula: see text], were determined in the 500-1,700 cm(-1) range. Integrated [Formula: see text] were determined between 650 and 1,800 cm(-1) for comparison purposes. The main diurnal removal pathway for HFO-1243zf is the reaction with OH radicals, which accounts for 64% of the overall loss by homogeneous reactions at 298 K. Globally, the lifetime due to OH reaction (τ OH) was estimated to be 8.7 days under

  14. Analysis of transmission spectra for large ratio of emission-to-absorber linewidths: extension of differential absorption lidar analysis for finite laser linewidths.

    PubMed

    Klett, James D

    2005-07-10

    A simple algorithm is presented for the analysis of transmission spectra provided by a lidar with an emission linewidth that is comparable with or larger than the absorption features of interest. The spreading of line shapes as seen by the lidar precludes use of the classical differential absorption lidar (DIAL) approach. However, it is assumed that, as with the DIAL method, small spectral intervals exist where single absorbers are dominant, and an inversion process for the transmission over such intervals is carried out for the absorber concentration. A second-stage algorithm based on singular-value decomposition is also provided to improve further the concentration estimates. An example situation for use of the algorithms is included wherein the objective is to estimate the concentration of a known trace gas in a composite transmission spectrum in the mid-infrared, where the dominant absorbers are water vapor and methane.

  15. Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricaud, Annick; Babin, Marcel; Claustre, Hervé; Ras, JoséPhine; TièChe, Fanny

    2010-08-01

    Absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles (NAPs), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and their relative contributions to total light absorption, are essential variables for bio-optical and biogeochemical models. However, their actual variations in the open ocean remain poorly documented, particularly for clear waters because of the difficulty in measuring very low absorption coefficients. The Biogeochemistry and Optics South Pacific Experiment (BIOSOPE) cruise investigated a large range of oceanic regimes, from mesotrophic waters around the Marquesas Islands to hyperoligotrophic waters in the subtropical gyre and eutrophic waters in the upwelling area off Chile. The spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were determined using the filter technique, while the CDOM absorption coefficients were measured using a 2 m capillary waveguide. Over the whole transect, the absorption coefficients of both dissolved and particulate components covered approximately two orders of magnitude; in the gyre, they were among the lowest ever reported for open ocean waters. In the oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were notably lower than those measured in other oceanic areas with similar chlorophyll contents, indicating some deviation from the standard chlorophyll-absorption relationships. The contribution of absorption by NAPs to total particulate absorption showed large vertical and horizontal variations. CDOM absorption coefficients covaried with algal biomass, albeit with a high scatter. The spectral slopes of both NAP and CDOM absorption revealed structured spatial variability in relation with the trophic conditions. The relative contributions of each component to total nonwater absorption were (at a given wavelength) weakly variable over the transect, at least within the euphotic layer.

  16. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-04-21

    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)-carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. This study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors for constructing selective CO2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation. PMID:27045045

  17. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  18. Analysis of Sabine and Eyring equations and their application to concert hall audience and chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L

    2006-09-01

    Historically, two equations have been used for predicting reverberation times, Sabine and Eyring. A precise means is presented for determining Eyring absorption coefficients alpha(eyring) when the Sabine coefficients alpha(sabine) are known, and vice versa. Thus, either formula can be used provided the absorption coefficients for the Sabine formula are allowed to exceed 1.0. The Sabine formula is not an approximation to the Eyring equation and is not a shortcoming. Given low reverberation times, the ratio of alpha(sabine) to alpha(eyring) may become greater than 2.0. It is vital that, for correct prediction of reverberation times, the absorption coefficients used in either formula must have been determined in spaces similar in size and shape, with similar locations of high absorption (audience) areas, and with similar reverberation times. For concert halls, it is found that, when the audience area (fully occupied) and midfrequency reverberation time are postulated, the hall volume is directly proportional to the audience absorption coefficient. Approximately 6% greater room volumes are needed when choosing nonrectangular versus classical-rectangular shaped halls and approximately 10% greater volumes when choosing heavily upholstered versus medium upholstered chairs. Determinations of audience sound absorption coefficients are presented, based on published acoustical and architectural data for 20 halls.

  19. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Malara, P.; Campanella, C. E.; Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; De Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2016-01-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator’s quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes. PMID:27364475

  20. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption.

    PubMed

    Malara, P; Campanella, C E; Giorgini, A; Avino, S; De Natale, P; Gagliardi, G

    2016-01-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator's quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes. PMID:27364475

  1. Super-Resonant Intracavity Coherent Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malara, P.; Campanella, C. E.; Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; de Natale, P.; Gagliardi, G.

    2016-07-01

    The capability of optical resonators to extend the effective radiation-matter interaction length originates from a multipass effect, hence is intrinsically limited by the resonator’s quality factor. Here, we show that this constraint can be overcome by combining the concepts of resonant interaction and coherent perfect absorption (CPA). We demonstrate and investigate super-resonant coherent absorption in a coupled Fabry-Perot (FP)/ring cavity structure. At the FP resonant wavelengths, the described phenomenon gives rise to split modes with a nearly-transparent peak and a peak whose transmission is exceptionally sensitive to the intracavity loss. For small losses, the effective interaction pathlength of these modes is proportional respectively to the ratio and the product of the individual finesse coefficients of the two resonators. The results presented extend the conventional definition of resonant absorption and point to a way of circumventing the technological limitations of ultrahigh-quality resonators in spectroscopy and optical sensing schemes.

  2. [Variations in the optical absorption and attenuation properties of cultured phytoplankton and their relationships with cell size].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Sun, Zhao-Hua; Cao, Wen-Xi; Wang, Gui-Fen

    2012-12-01

    The spectral absorption and attenuation coefficients of 16 phytoplankton species were measured in the laboratory using acs instrument. Ancillary measurements included particle size distribution and chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a). The results indicated that both algal cell size and Chl a were the two major factors dominating the magnitudes of the spectral absorption and attenuation coefficients. The spectral behaviors of attenuation spectra were dominated by algal cell size, the relationship of them didn't follow the monotonic function. Both the ratio of absorption in blue and red waveband and the spectral slope of absorption coefficient were influenced by the product of algal cell density and squares of cell size rather than algal cell size alone. The relationship between algal cell size and both absorption and attenuation spectra would be interpreted by Mie theory for homogenous sphere, which imply that the heterogeneity and non-spherical shape in algal cell morphology and internal structure have little effect on the inherent association among them.

  3. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  4. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  5. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  6. Multiscale modeling of light absorption in tissues: limitations of classical homogenization approach.

    PubMed

    Mottin, Stephane; Panasenko, Grigory; Ganesh, S Sivaji

    2010-12-31

    In biophotonics, the light absorption in a tissue is usually modeled by the Helmholtz equation with two constant parameters, the scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient. This classic approximation of "haemoglobin diluted everywhere" (constant absorption coefficient) corresponds to the classical homogenization approach. The paper discusses the limitations of this approach. The scattering coefficient is supposed to be constant (equal to one) while the absorption coefficient is equal to zero everywhere except for a periodic set of thin parallel strips simulating the blood vessels, where it is a large parameter ω. The problem contains two other parameters which are small: ε, the ratio of the distance between the axes of vessels to the characteristic macroscopic size, and δ, the ratio of the thickness of thin vessels and the period. We construct asymptotic expansion in two cases: ε --> 0, ω --> ∞, δ --> 0, ωδ --> ∞, ε2ωδ --> 0 and ε --> 0, ω --> ∞, δ --> 0, ε2ωδ --> ∞, and and prove that in the first case the classical homogenization (averaging) of the differential equation is true while in the second case it is wrong. This result may be applied in the biomedical optics, for instance, in the modeling of the skin and cosmetics.

  7. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser - Quantification for a narrowband absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brobst, William D.; Allen, John E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors including transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power is presented for a CW dye laser with a narrow-band absorber (NO2). A Beer-Lambert type relationship is found over a small but useful range of these parameters. Quantitative measurement of intracavity absorption from the dye laser spectral profiles showed enhancements up to 12,000 (for pump powers near lasing threshold) when compared to extracavity measurements. The definition of an intracavity absorption coefficient allowed the determination of accurate transition strength ratios, demonstrating the reliability of the method.

  8. Comparison of vertical aerosol extinction coefficients from in-situ and LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Herrmann, E.; Bucci, S.; Fierli, F.; Cairo, F.; Gysel, M.; Tillmann, R.; Größ, J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Di Liberto, L.; Di Donfrancesco, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weingartner, E.; Virtanen, A.; Mentel, T. F.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ~ 50-800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a LIDAR system provided aerosol extinction coefficients for a vertically resolved comparison between in-situ and remote sensing results. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20% was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 to 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ~ 10 local time) before the mixed layer (ML) was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ~ 12 local time) the ML was fully developed, resulting in constant extinction coefficients at all altitudes measured on the Zeppelin NT. LIDAR results captured these dynamic features well and good agreement was found for the extinction coefficients compared to the in-situ results, using fixed LIDAR ratios (LR) between 30 and 70 sr for the altitudes probed with the Zeppelin. These LR are

  9. Prediction of sound absorption in rigid porous media with the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Andrey Ricardo; Mareze, Paulo; Brandão, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sound absorption phenomena associated with the viscous shear stress within rigid porous media is investigated with a simple isothermal lattice Boltzmann BGK model. Simulations are conducted for different macroscopic material properties such as sample thickness and porosity and the results are compared with the exact analytical solution for materials with slit-like structure in terms of acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient. The numerical results agree very well with the exact solution, particularly for the sound absorption coefficient. The small deviations found in the low frequency limit for the real part of the acoustic impedance are attributed to the ratio between the thicknesses of the slit and the viscous boundary layer. The results suggest that the lattice Boltzmann method can be a very compelling numerical tool for simulating viscous sound absorption phenomena in the time domain, particularly due to its computational simplicity when compared to traditional continuum based techniques.

  10. Organic Carbon and Light Absorption Analysis of Los Angeles Aerosols through an Online Sampling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, M. K.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Brown carbon is a comprehensive term for organic compounds with wavelength dependent light absorption. Common sources of brown carbon include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and aqueous reactions in cloud and fog water. Nitrophenols have been proposed as one source of brown carbon in the Los Angeles area. In this work, we are interested in the relative strengths of each of these sources within Los Angeles. We have implemented a continuous online system of collection and analysis within our lab. The system consists of a particle into liquid sampler (PILS), a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC). Online analysis of organic carbon content and UV-Vis absorption has allowed us to study the ratio of the two as an intrinsic property of the aerosol particles, called the 'absorption coefficient.' Using a rearrangement of Beer's Law, we have analyzed the relationship: ɛ = A / C (where ɛ is the absorption coefficient, A is the light absorption of the sample and C is the concentration of organic carbon in the sample). Using our continuous online system, we have collected absorption spectra and total organic carbon measurements over several weeks and in varying environmental conditions. Our work has shown that different weather conditions, along with fog or cloud formation, can affect the absorption coefficient of the brown carbon compounds in the air.

  11. Results of measurement of radio wave absorption in the ionosphere by the AI method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korinevskaya, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    Median noon absorption values for each month from 1964 through 1967, the diurnal variations of absorption on the regular world days, and the seasonal variations of absorption are given. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on sunspot number is analyzed.

  12. Differential optical spectroscopy for absorption characterization of scattering media.

    PubMed

    Billet, Cyril; Sablong, Raphaël

    2007-11-15

    Reflectance techniques are commonly used to characterize the optical properties of tissues. However, the precise determination of local chromophore concentrations in turbid media is usually difficult because of the nonlinear dependence of light intensity as a function of scattering and absorption coefficients. A technique is presented to easily determine absorbent compound concentration ratios in a turbid media from three optical reflectance spectra, in the visible range, measured for source-detector distances less than 1cm. The validity of the method is experimentally established, in cases of sets of diluted milk containing absorbent inks, over a relatively wide range of absorption (0.05-0.5 cm(-1)) and reduced scattering (10-20 cm(-1)) coefficients.

  13. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  14. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  15. Measuring optical temperature coefficients of Intralipid.

    PubMed

    McGlone, V Andrew; Martinsen, Paul; Künnemeyer, Rainer; Jordan, Bob; Cletus, Biju

    2007-05-01

    The temperature sensitivities of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in the range 700-1000 nm are determined for the liquid phantom Intralipid using spatially resolved continuous wave measurements. The measurements were conducted on a 10 L heated volume of 1% Intralipid subjected to a 40-30 degrees C cooling regime. The temperature sensitivities of the absorbance coefficients are similar to that expected for pure water. However, the reduced scattering coefficients are more sensitive than can be explained by temperature related density changes, and show an unexpected relationship with wavelength. We have also found that temperature perturbations provide a useful means to evaluate instrument model performance. PMID:17440240

  16. On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.

  17. Broadband microwave absorption spectrometer for liquid media

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, P.; Gosnell, T.R.; Bigio, I.J.

    1988-12-01

    A broadband, continuous-sweep microwave spectrometer has been constructed for measurements of the absorption coefficient of aqueous solutions and other liquid media. The spectrometer makes use of the phase fluctuation optical heterodyne technique, which provides a direct measure of the microwave power deposited in the sample. Consequently, in contrast to the standard dielectrometric techniques that indirectly determine the absorption coefficient via separate measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, this spectrometer directly measures the microwave absorption coefficient. Broadband spectra are obtained using a transmission line to couple microwave power into the liquid sample. The absorption spectrum for deionized water in the range 3--20 GHz is presented as an example and shows excellent agreement with calculated values of the absorption coefficient based on previously published dielectric data.

  18. Light absorption properties of brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Elena N.; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The light-absorbing properties of water-soluble brown carbon (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble brown carbon (MeS-BrC) were studied in PM10 aerosols collected at the "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) station (5079 m above sea level) during the period 2013-2014. The light absorption coefficients of WS-BrC and MeS-BrC were the highest during the premonsoon season and the lowest during monsoon. MeS-BrC absorbs about 2 times higher at 365 nm and about 3 times more at 550 nm compared to WS-BrC. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) of WS-BrC measured at 365 nm is similar to that observed previously at South Asian low-altitude sites. Fractional solar radiation absorption by BrC compared to BC considering the full solar spectrum showed that WS-BrC absorbs 4 ± 1% and MeS-BrC absorbs 9 ± 2% compared to BC at NCO-P. Such ratios become 8 ± 1% (for WS-BrC respect to BC) and 17 ± 5% (for MeS-BrC respect to BC) when accounting for correction factors proposed by previous studies to convert absorption coefficients in bulk solutions into light absorption by accumulation mode aerosol particles. These results confirm the importance of BrC in contributing to light-absorbing aerosols in this region of the world. However, the BrC absorption at 550 nm appears small compared to that of BC (1-5%, or 3-9% with conversion factors), and it is lower compared to global model estimates constrained by Aerosol Robotic Network observations. Finally, our study provides no clear evidence of a change in the fractional contribution of BrC with respect to BC to light absorption in the middle troposphere respect to the Indo-Gangetic plain boundary layer.

  19. Measuring the scattering coefficient of turbid media from two-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sevrain, David; Dubreuil, Matthieu; Leray, Aymeric; Odin, Christophe; Le Grand, Yann

    2013-10-21

    In this paper, we propose a new and simple method based on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy to measure the scattering coefficient µ(s) of thick turbid media. We show, from Monte Carlo simulations, that µ(s) can be derived from the axial profile of the ratio of the TPEF signals epi-collected by the confocal and the non-descanned ports of a scanning microscope, independently of the anisotropy factor g and of the absorption coefficient µ(a) of the medium. The method is validated experimentally on tissue-mimicking optical phantoms, and is shown to have potential for imaging the scattering coefficient of heterogeneous media. PMID:24150363

  20. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  1. [A new retrieval method for ozone concentration at the troposphere based on differential absorption lidar].

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang-Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Lu, Yi-Huai; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Dong, Yun-Sheng; Zhao, Xue-Song

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols interfere with differential absorption lidar ozone concentration measurement and can introduce significant errors. A new retrieval method was introduced, and ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient were gained simultaneously based on the retrieval method. The variables were analyzed by experiment including aerosol lidar ratio, aerosol wavelength exponent, and aerosol-molecular ratio at the reference point. The results show that these parameters introduce error less than 8% below 1 km. The measurement error derives chiefly from signal noise and the parameters introduce error less than 3% above 1 km. Finally the vertical profile of tropospheric ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient were derived by using this algorithm. The retrieval results of the algorithm and traditional dual-wavelength difference algorithm are compared and analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm is feasible, and the algorithm can reduce differential absorption lidar measurement error introduced by aerosol.

  2. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    PubMed

    Coursol; Gorozhankin; Yakushev; Briancon; Vylov

    2000-03-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z = 30 to Z = 103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10 < or = Z < or = 104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Rosel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations. PMID:10724406

  3. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  4. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as

  5. Infrared absorption mechanisms of black silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhengxi; Chen, Yongping; Ma, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Black silicon has a wide spectrum of non-spectral characteristics high absorption from visible to long wave infrared band .Based on semi-empirical impurity band model, free carrier absorption, radiation transitions between the valence band and the impurity band, radiation transitions between the impurity band and the conduction band were calculated, and absorption coefficients for each process were got. The results showed that the transitions from valence band to the impurity band induced absorption in the near-infrared waveband, but it has a rapid decay with wavelength. In the shortwave mid-wave and long-wave IR bands, transitions from the impurity band to the conduction band caused a huge absorption, and the absorption coefficient was slowly decreased with increasing wavelength. The free carrier absorption dominates in long-wave band. The calculation results agreed well with the test results of plant black silicon in magnitude and trends.

  6. Calculation of UV attenuation and colored dissolved organic matter absorption spectra from measurements of ocean color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, S. C.; Miller, W. L.; Cullen, J. J.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by colored or chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) drives much of marine photochemistry. It also affects the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UV) into the water column and can confound remote estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Measurements of ocean color from satellites can be used to predict UV attenuation and CDOM absorption spectra from relationships between visible reflectance, UV attenuation, and absorption by CDOM. Samples were taken from the Bering Sea and from the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and water types ranged from turbid, inshore waters to the Gulf Stream. We determined the following relationships between in situ visible radiance reflectance, Lu/Ed (λ) (sr-1), and diffuse attenuation of UV, Kd(λ) (m-1): Kd(323nm) = 0.781[Lu/Ed(412)/Lu/Ed(555)]-1.07; Kd(338nm) = 0.604[Lu/Ed(412)/Lu/Ed(555)]-1.12; Kd(380 nm) = 0.302[Lu/Ed(412)/Lu/Ed(555)]-1.24. Consistent with published observations, these empirical relationships predict that the spectral slope coefficient of CDOM absorption increases as diffuse attenuation of UV decreases. Excluding samples from turbid bays, the ratio of the CDOM absorption coefficient to Kd is 0.90 at 323 nm, 0.86 at 338 nm, and 0.97 at 380 nm. We applied these relationships to SeaWiFS images of normalized water-leaving radiance to calculate the CDOM absorption and UV attenuation in the Mid-Atlantic Bight in May, July, and August 1998. The images showed a decrease in UV attenuation from May to August of approximately 50%. We also produced images of the areal distribution of the spectral slope coefficient of CDOM absorption in the Georgia Bight. The spectral slope coefficient increased offshore and changed with season.

  7. [Phytoplankton Light Absorption Properties During the Blooms in Adjacent Waters of the Changjiang Estuary].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-yang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2015-06-01

    Phytoplankton dominant species and their light absorption properties during the blooms occurred in August 2013 in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were analyzed. The results showed that phytoplankton blooms broke out in 10 out of 34 investigation stations, among which diatom blooms occurred in 6 stations while 3 stations were predominated by dinoflagellate. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients of both bloom and non-bloom waters exhibited large variations, with respective ranges of 0.199-0.832 m(-1) and 0.012-0.109 m(-1), while phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients spanned much narrower range, with the average values of bloom and non-bloom waters being 0.023 and 0.035 m2 x mg(-1), respectively. When transitioned from bloom to non-bloom waters, the proportion of phytoplankton with larger cell size lowered while that of smaller phytoplankton elevated, causing a less extent of package effect and thus higher specific absorption coefficients. Distinctive absorption spectra were observed between different types of bloom (such as diatom and dinoflagellate blooms) with similar phytoplankton cell size, mostly attributed to distinctive accessory pigment composition. The ratios of diadinoxanthin and chlorophyll-c2 concentrations to chlorophyll-a concentration in dinoflagellate blooms were higher than those in diatom blooms, which largely contributed to the shoulder peaks at 465 nm in dinoflagellate blooms.

  8. Influence of boron concentration on nonlinear absorption and ultrafast dynamics in GaSe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatay, Ahmet; Yuksek, Mustafa; Ertap, Hüseyin; Mak, Ali Kemal; Karabulut, Mevlüt; Elmali, Ayhan

    2016-10-01

    The nonlinear absorption properties and ultrafast dynamics of pure and boron doped GaSe crystals have been studied by open aperture Z-scan and ultrafast pump probe spectroscopy techniques. All of the studied crystals showed nonlinear absorption under 100 fs pulse duration and 1200 nm wavelength excitations. Nonlinear absorption coefficients increase with increasing the doping ratio of boron atoms in crystals. These findings indicate that free carrier density increase with boron doping and this behavior leads to excited state absorption. Second harmonic generation signals of crystals were detected with the help of fiber optic spectrometer. The blue shift in the energy of the second harmonic generation signals was observed in boron doped crystals. Ultrafast pump probe experiments indicate that the excited state absorption signal with long lifetime observed for undoped GaSe crystal switches to bleach signal for boron doped GaSe crystals at 625 nm probe wavelength. The effects of increasing doping ratio were observed on ultrafast dynamics as a switching time changes. Our experimental results indicate that it is possible to control nonlinear absorption properties, frequency conversion and ultrafast dynamics of GaSe crystal by changing boron doping ratio.

  9. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser: quantification for a narrowband absorber.

    PubMed

    Brobst, W D; Allen, J E

    1987-09-01

    Although it is recognized as a very sensitive detection technique, the general application of intracavity absorption to areas such as chemical kinetics and photochemistry has been somewhat limited. Concerns are frequently expressed about the nonlinear nature, experimental difficulty, and reliability of the technique. To allay some of these objections, the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors such as transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power has been investigated experimentally for a cw dye laser with a narrowband absorber (NO(2)). For this case a Beer-Lambert type relationship has been confirmed over a useful range of these parameters. The extent of intracavity absorption was quantitatively measured directly from the dye laser spectral profiles and, when compared to extracavity measurements, indicated enhancements as high as 12,000 for pump powers near lasing threshold. By defining an intracavity absorption coefficient, it was possible to demonstrate the reliability of the method by obtaining accurate transition strength ratios.

  10. Intracavity absorption with a continuous wave dye laser: quantification for a narowband absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Brobst, W.D.; Allen J.E. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    Although it is recognized as a very sensitive detection technique, the general application of intracavity absorption to areas such as chemical kinetics and photochemistry has been somewhat limited. Concerns are frequently expressed about the nonlinear nature, experimental difficulty, and reliability of the technique. To allay some of these objections, the dependence of intracavity absorption on factors such as transition strength, concentration, absorber path length, and pump power has been investigated experimentally for a cw dye laser with a narrowband absorber (NO/sub 2/). For this case a Beer-Lambert type relationship has been confirmed over a useful range of these parameters. The extent of intracavity absorption was quantitatively measured directly from the dye laser spectral profiles and, when compared to extracavity measurements, indicated enhancements as high as 12,000 for pump powers near lasing threshold. By defining an intracavity absorption coefficient, it was possible to demonstrate the reliability of the method by obtaining accurate transition strength ratios.

  11. Estimation of Sedimentation Coefficients and Frictional Ratios of Globular Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program to support lectures on analytical centrifugation, and to illustrate the manner in which useful analytical data about macromolecules can be obtained from simple centrifugation studies without the need for mathematical expertise. Discusses the background, methods, calculations, and results involved in this activity. (CW)

  12. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  13. Measurements of the mass absorption cross section of atmospheric soot particles using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Müller, K.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-11-01

    Soot particles are a major absorber of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. The mass absorption cross section is an essential quantity to describe this light absorption process. This work presents new experimental data on the mass absorption cross section of soot particles in the troposphere over Central Europe. Mass absorption cross sections were derived as the ratio between the light absorption coefficient determined by multiangle absorption photometry (MAAP) and the soot mass concentration determined by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman method is sensitive to graphitic structures present in the particle samples and was calibrated in the laboratory using Printex®90 model particles. Mass absorption cross sections were determined for a number of seven observation sites, ranging between 3.9 and 7.4 m2 g-1depending on measurement site and observational period. The highest values were found in a continentally aged air mass in winter, where soot particles were assumed to be mainly internally mixed. Our values are in the lower range of previously reported values, possibly due to instrumental differences to the former photometer and mass measurements. Overall, a value of 5.3m2 g-1from orthogonal regression over all samples is considered to be representative for the soot mass absorption cross section in the troposphere over Central Europe.

  14. Detailed Tabulation of Atomic Form Factors, Photoelectric Absorption and Scattering Cross Section, and Mass Attenuation Coefficients in the Vicinity of Absorption Edges in the Soft X-Ray (Z=30-36, Z=60-89, E=0.1 keV-10 keV), Addressing Convergence Issues of Earlier Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantler, C. T.

    2000-07-01

    Reliable knowledge of the complex x-ray form factor [Re(f ) and f″] and the photoelectric attenuation coefficient (σPE) is required for crystallography, medical diagnosis, radiation safety, and XAFS studies. Discrepancies between currently used theoretical approaches of 200% exist for numerous elements from 1 to 3 keV x-ray energies. The key discrepancies are due to the smoothing of edge structure, the use of nonrelativistic wave functions, and the lack of appropriate convergence of wave functions. This paper addresses these key discrepancies and derives new theoretical results of substantially higher accuracy in near-edge soft x-ray regions. The high-energy limitations of the current approach are also illustrated. The energy range covered is 0.1 to 10 keV. The associated figures and tabulation demonstrate the current comparison with alternate theory and with available experimental data. In general, experimental data are not sufficiently accurate to establish the errors and inadequacies of theory at this level. However, the best experimental data and the observed experimental structure as a function of energy are strong indicators of the validity of the current approach. New developments in experimental measurement hold great promise in making critical comparisons with theory in the near future.

  15. Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, John; Konek, Christopher T.; Moran, Jesse S.; Witko, Ewelina M.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2009-08-01

    We report here, for the first time, the terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The experimental spectra are coupled with solid-state density functional theory, and preliminary assignments are provided to gain physical insight into the experimental spectrum. The calculated absorption coefficients are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  16. Studying the vertical aerosol extinction coefficient by comparing in situ airborne data and elastic backscatter lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Herrmann, Erik; Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Cairo, Francesco; Gysel, Martin; Tillmann, Ralf; Größ, Johannes; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Di Liberto, Luca; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weingartner, Ernest; Virtanen, Annele; Mentel, Thomas F.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol particle optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ˜ 50 and 800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol particle size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a single wavelength polarization diversity elastic lidar system provided estimates of aerosol extinction coefficients using the Klett method to accomplish the inversion of the signal, for a vertically resolved comparison between in situ and remote-sensing results. Note, however, that the comparison was for the most part done in the altitude range where the overlap function is incomplete and accordingly uncertainties are larger. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20 % was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 and 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ˜ 10:00 LT - local time) before the mixing layer (ML) was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ˜ 12:00 LT) the ML was fully developed, resulting in

  17. Variability of phytoplankton light absorption in Canadian Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelle, Corinne B.; Larouche, Pierre; Gosselin, Michel

    Phytoplankton light absorption spectra (aϕ(λ)) were measured in the Canadian Arctic (i.e., the Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, northern Baffin Bay and the Hudson Bay system) to improve algorithms used in remote-sensing models of primary production. The absorption by algae, dominated by picophytoplankton (<5 μm), was not the major light absorption factor in the four provinces; the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed up to 70% of total light absorption. During the fall, the low total chlorophyll a-specific aϕ*(443) (aϕ(443)/TChl a) coefficients of the Canadian High Arctic were associated with photoacclimation processes (i.e., the package effect) occurring in light-limited environments. Low light availability and high proportion of CDOM (absorbing strongly the ultraviolet) seem to allow the growth of phytoplankton with accessory pigments absorbing light at longer wavelengths. The ratio of photoprotective and photosynthetic carotenoids (PPC:PSC) was inversely proportional with the salinity and the cell size, and mostly decreases throughout the Canadian High Arctic during fall. In return, the highest TChl a-specific phytoplankton light absorption coefficients at the blue peak (aϕ*(443)) were observed in the Hudson Bay system from September to October (i.e., fall) as well as in the Amundsen Gulf from May to July (i.e., spring/summer). These results will ultimately allow the accurate monitoring of phytoplankton biomass and productivity evolution that is likely to take place as a result of the fast-changing Arctic environment.

  18. Multiphoton absorption in germanium using pulsed infrared free-electron laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Gregory, J. M.; Feldman, L. C.; Tolk, N. H.; Cohen, P. I.

    2011-05-01

    We report wavelength- and intensity-dependent transmission measurements of intense mid-infrared radiation from the Vanderbilt free-electron laser in single-crystal Ge(100) in the wavelength range of 2.8-5.2 μm. This range accesses both the direct and indirect energy gaps in Ge, requiring in each case either two or three photons (2PA or 3PA) for absorption. Large changes in the multiphoton absorption rate are seen at the direct-to-indirect and 2PA-to-3PA transitions. Photon interactions are dominated by free-carrier absorption (FCA), primarily due to holes. The entire absorption process is modeled with the two- and three-photon absorption coefficients (β and γ) as fitting parameters. Using newly measured values of the low-intensity FCA cross sections, we find a best fit to the data at 2.8 μm that is in agreement with theory and previous measurements. We report a ratio of 175 for β across the direct-to-indirect transition, and a ratio of 5 across the same transition for γ. These ratios are independent of systematic variations in free-carrier cross sections and beam diameter.

  19. Logarithmic conversion of absorption detection in wavelength modulation spectroscopy with a current-modulated diode laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuntao; Cai, Haiwen; Geng, Jianxin; Fang, Zujie

    2009-07-20

    Logarithmic-conversion data processing used in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with a current-modulated diode laser as its source is analyzed and compared with second-to-first ratio detection. Analytic Fourier coefficients of logarithmic-converted residual amplitude modulation (RAM) of a light source are given. An experimental setup for methane absorption detection at 1650 nm is described. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that logarithmic-converted WMS cannot only eliminate the fluctuation of received light power, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio significantly. PMID:19623220

  20. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  1. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  2. Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the hindgut of the rat.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, C; Sacquet, E

    1983-01-01

    For 4 weeks, 3-month old germfree (GF) and conventional (CV) rats were given a semi-synthetic diet sterilized by irradiation with or without 10% of lactose. During the 5th week, 0.2% of titanium oxide (TiO2) was added to the diet and the rats were killed at regular intervals throughout the light/dark cycle. The patterns of TiO2 and 45Ca excretion were similar, indicating that TiO2 was a good marker of unabsorbed calcium transit. The apparent absorption coefficient of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/TiO2 ratio. The effects of microflora and lactose varied with the mineral and the digestive tract level studied. --In the small intestine, microflora had no effect on the apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium and magnesium absorption, and this increase was similar in GF and CV rats, but lactose had a favorable effect on phosphorus absorption only in CV rats. --In the caecum, microflora had an unfavorable effect on the apparent absorption of calcium and magnesium and a favorable effect on phosphorus absorption. The ingestion of lactose reduced calcium and magnesium absorption in the caecum of GF rats and phosphorus absorption in the caecum of CV animals. --In the colon, mineral absorption was not significant in either CV or GF rats receiving the lactose-free diets. Lactose ingestion caused the absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus to rise significantly only in GF rats. This absorption contributed to the stronger effect of lactose on total calcium and phosphorus absorption in GF rats.

  3. Experimental investigation of chair type, row spacing, occupants, and carpet on theatre chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ji; Bradley, John S; Jeong, Dae-Up

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the individual variations of chair type, row spacing, as well as the presence of occupants and carpet, combine to influence the absorption characteristics of theater chairs as a function of sample perimeter-to-area (P/A) ratios. Scale models were used to measure the interactive effects of the four test variables on the chair absorption characteristics, avoiding the practical difficulties of full scale measurements. All of the test variables led to effects that could lead to important changes to auditorium acoustics conditions. At mid and higher frequencies, the various effects can usually be explained as due to, more or less, porous absorbing material. In the 125 and 250 Hz octave bands, the major changes were attributed to resonant absorbing mechanisms. The results indicate that for accurate predictions of the effective absorption of the chairs in an auditorium, one should use the P/A method and reverberation chamber tests of the chair absorption coefficients to predict the absorption coefficients of each block of chairs and use these results as input in a room acoustics computer model of the auditorium. The application of these results to auditorium acoustics design is described, more approximate approaches are considered, and relations to existing methods are discussed.

  4. Monitoring spacecraft atmosphere contaminants by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained which will provide a test of the accuracy of the differential absorption method for trace contaminant detection in many-component gas mixtures. The necessary accurate absorption coefficient determinations were carried out for several gases; acetonitrile, 1,2-dichloroethane, Freon-113, furan, methyl ethyl ketone, and t-butyl alcohol. The absorption coefficients are displayed graphically. An opto-acoustic method was tested for measuring absorbance, similar to the system described by Dewey.

  5. [Oat growth and cation absorption characteristics under salt and alkali stress].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuan; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Li, Pin-Fang; Ren, Tu-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    This paper monitored the oat growth and cation absorption characteristics on a saline-alkali soil in the Baicheng region of Jilin Province under low, medium, and high levels of salt stress. No significant differences were observed in the shoot growth and yield components under the three levels of salt stress, but the root biomass and root/shoot ratio decreased significantly with increasing salt stress level. At maturing stage, the root/shoot ratio under medium and high salt stresses was 77.2% and 64.5% of that under low salt stress, respectively. Under the three levels of salt stress, the K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios in oat plant had significant differences at trefoil stage, but no significant differences at heading stage. With the increase of salt stress level, the cation absorption selectivity coefficient of oat at filling stage decreased significantly, but the transportation selectivity coefficient had no significant difference under the three levels of stress. It was concluded that oat could adapt to the salt and alkali stress of soda-alkaline soil to some extent, and the adaptation capability decreased with the increasing level of stress. The decrease of oat root biomass and the stronger ion selective absorption capacity at heading stage under salt and alkali stress could benefit the shoot growth and yield components of oat.

  6. The influence of edge geometry on end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Muttalip Aşkın; Lopez Arteaga, Ines; Efraimsson, Gunilla; Åbom, Mats; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2015-12-01

    Global expressions are proposed for end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates (MPPs) using non-dimensional parameters. MPPs are sound absorbers with small perforation diameters such that the Stokes boundary layers fill up almost the entire perforation. Sound absorption does not only occur within the perforation, but also takes place just outside of it. The latter contribution plus the outside inertia effect on the transfer impedance of the MPP are referred to as end-corrections. In order to determine them, an analytical solution employing the very thin Stokes layer assumption has been derived. However, this assumption requires empirical coefficients in the end-corrections for accurate results. To explore the effects of various parameters a numerical model is used. This model is verified with open-end reflection coefficient measurements. The most prominent result from this study is that compared to plate thickness, the ratio of perforation diameter to Stokes layer thickness (Shear number) and edge geometry affect the end-correction coefficients more significantly. The effect of plate thickness can be neglected for practical purposes, therefore, expressions for the end-corrections in terms of Shear number and edge geometry are provided. The relative error of these expressions is <3% compared to the numerical results. PMID:26723322

  7. The influence of edge geometry on end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Muttalip Aşkın; Lopez Arteaga, Ines; Efraimsson, Gunilla; Åbom, Mats; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2015-12-01

    Global expressions are proposed for end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates (MPPs) using non-dimensional parameters. MPPs are sound absorbers with small perforation diameters such that the Stokes boundary layers fill up almost the entire perforation. Sound absorption does not only occur within the perforation, but also takes place just outside of it. The latter contribution plus the outside inertia effect on the transfer impedance of the MPP are referred to as end-corrections. In order to determine them, an analytical solution employing the very thin Stokes layer assumption has been derived. However, this assumption requires empirical coefficients in the end-corrections for accurate results. To explore the effects of various parameters a numerical model is used. This model is verified with open-end reflection coefficient measurements. The most prominent result from this study is that compared to plate thickness, the ratio of perforation diameter to Stokes layer thickness (Shear number) and edge geometry affect the end-correction coefficients more significantly. The effect of plate thickness can be neglected for practical purposes, therefore, expressions for the end-corrections in terms of Shear number and edge geometry are provided. The relative error of these expressions is <3% compared to the numerical results.

  8. Air- and N2-Broadening Coefficients and Pressure-Shift Coefficients in the C-12(O2-16) Laser Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we report the pressure broadening and the pressure-induced line shift coefficients for 46 individual rovibrational lines in both the (12)C(16)O2, 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)I, and 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)II, laser bands (laser band I centered at 960.959/cm and laser band II centered at 1063.735/cm) determined from spectra recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer. The results were obtained from analysis of 10 long-path laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares technique. Pressure effects caused by both air and nitrogen have been investigated. The air-broadening coefficients determined in this study agree well with the values in the 1996 HITRAN database; ratios and standard deviations of the ratios of the present air-broadening measurements to the 1996 HITRAN values for the two laser bands are: 1.005(15) for laser band I and 1.005(14) for laser band II. Broadening by nitrogen is 3 to 4% larger than that of air. The pressure-induced line shift coefficients are found to be transition dependent and different for the P- and R-branch lines with same J" value. No noticeable differences in the shift coefficients caused by air and nitrogen were found. The results obtained are compared with available values previously reported in the literature.

  9. Dependence of aerosol scattering coefficients on relative humidity observed at two coastal sites on the East China Sea: Comparison to remote observations and influence of chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Taketani, F.; Irie, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Xiaole, P.; Takami, A.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We employed an integrating nephelometer equipped with a humidifier (where the relative humidity (RH) was scanned between 40 and 90%) to measure the aerosol scattering coefficients and their dependence on RH at Fukue Island (32.75N, 128.68E), west of Japan, in May 2009 and at Rudong, Jiangsu, China (32.26N, 121.37E) in May/June 2010, aiming at better characterization of optical properties of the regional-scale aerosol pollution over East Asia. The two coastal sites are located east and west of the East China Sea and are separated by about 700 km. The observed scattering coefficients are normalized by the concurrently measured PM2.5 mass concentrations and thereby behaviors of the mass scattering coefficients are discussed. At Fukue, the mass scattering coefficients under the ambient RH conditions were >1.5 times higher than those observed under the dry condition (RH = 40%), suggesting that the RH effect was crucial in determining optical properties under ambient conditions. The coefficients under the ambient RH conditions, rather than the dry values, agreed better with the extinction coefficients determined by MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique based on remote measurements of O4 optical depths. The single-scattering albedo (SSA), estimated in combination to the absorption coefficients determined by a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) instrument, had similar average values (~0.95) at the two sites. The SSA values at the two sites were commonly lowered (to below 0.90) when the air traveled from the North China Plain region. At Fukue, the RH dependence was found to be weakened when the organics/sulfate ratio increased (as observed by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer), while such influence of chemical composition was less clear at Rudong, possibly masked by large temporal variations in the particle size distributions.

  10. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  11. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  12. Modulation of ganciclovir intestinal absorption in presence of absorption enhancers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Jogani, Viral; Mishra, Pushpa; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Bagchi, Tamishraha; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the influences of absorption enhancers in increasing oral bioavailability of Ganciclovir (GAN) by assessing the transepithelial permeation across cell monolayers in vitro and bioavailability in rats in vivo. The permeation of GAN across Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers in the absence/presence of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD), chitosan hydrochloride (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), and their combinations was studied for a 2-h period. GAN was administered to rats in absence/presence of absorption enhancers and drug contents in plasma were estimated. We found that the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of GAN in absence of absorption enhancers (control) were 0.261 +/- 0.072 x 10(-6) and 0.486 +/- 0.063 x 10(-6) cm/s in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers, respectively, whereas in the presence of DMbetaCD, CH, SLS, and their combinations, Papp of GAN increased by 5- to 25-fold and 7- to 33-fold as compared to control in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers, respectively. However, in rats, the maximum enhancement in bioavailability of GAN during coadministration of these absorption enhancers was only fivefold compared to GAN control. To conclude, the absorption enhancers-DMbetaCD, CH, SLS, and their combinations demonstrated significant improvement in transepithelial permeation and bioavailability of GAN.

  13. HAB detection based on absorption and backscattering properties of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hui; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Qiankun

    2011-11-01

    The coastal area of East China Sea (ECS) suffers from the harmful algal blooms (HAB) frequently every year in the warm season. The most common causative phytoplankton algal species of HAB in the ECS in recent years are Prorocentrum donghaiense (dinoflagellates), Karenia mikimotoi (dinoflagellates which could produce hemolytic and ichthyotoxins) and Skeletonema costatum (diatom). The discrimination between the dinoflagellates and diatom HAB through ocean color remote sensing approach can add the knowledge of HAB events in ECS and help to the precaution. A series of in-situ measurement consisted of absorption coefficient, total scattering and particulate backscattering coefficient was conducted in the southern coast of Zhejiang Province in May 2009, and the estuary of Changjiang River in August 2009 and December 2010, which encountered two HAB events and a moderate bloom. The Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) of the bloom waters have significant difference between phytoplankton species in absorption and backscattering properties. The chlorophyll a specific absorption coefficient (a*phy(λ)) for the bloom patches (chlorophyll a concentration >6mg m-3) differ greatly from the adjacent normal seawater, with the a*phy(λ) of bloom water lower than 0.03 m2 mg-1 while the a*phy(λ) of the adjacent normal seawater is much higher (even up to 0.06 m2 mg-1). Meanwhile, the backscattering coefficients at 6 wavebands (420, 442, 470, 510, 590 and 700nm) are also remarkably lower for bloom waters (<0.01 m-1) than the normal seawater (> 0.02 m-1). The backscattering coefficient ratio (Rbp(λ)) is much lower for diatom bloom waters than for dinoflagellates types (0.01079 vs. 0.01227). A discrimination model based on IOPs is established, and several typical dinoflagellates and diatom bloom events including Prorocentrum donghaiense, Karenia mikimotoi and Skeletonema costatum in the ECS are picked out for testing with the MODIS-L2 and L3 ocean color remote sensing products from NASA

  14. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: Method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X.; Heald, C. L.; Sedlacek, A.; de Sa, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Aiken, A. C.; Springston, S. R.; Artaxo, P.

    2016-10-13

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in modelling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regardingmore » the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new method that decreases the uncertainties associated with estimating BrC absorption. By applying this method to multi-wavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites, we estimate that BrC globally contributes 6-40% of the absorption at 440nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with BC/OA mass ratio. Based on the variability of BC properties and BC/OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.2 m2/g for OA-MAC at 440nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE388/440nm for BrC is generally ~4 world-wide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of Manaus, Brazil) reveal no significant relationship between BrC absorptivity and photochemical aging in typical urban influenced conditions. However, the absorption of BrC measured during the biomass burning season near Manaus is found to decrease with photochemical aging with a lifetime of ~1 day. This lifetime is comparable to

  15. VAPID: Voigt Absorption-Profile [Interstellar] Dabbler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Ian D.

    2015-06-01

    VAPID (Voigt Absorption Profile [Interstellar] Dabbler) models interstellar absorption lines. It predicts profiles and optimizes model parameters by least-squares fitting to observed spectra. VAPID allows cloud parameters to be optimized with respect to several different data set simultaneously; those data sets may include observations of different transitions of a given species, and may have different S/N ratios and resolutions.

  16. Theoretical analysis of the sound absorption characteristics of periodically stiffened micro-perforated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-An; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Mei, Yu-Lin

    2014-10-01

    The vibro-acoustic responses and sound absorption characteristics of two kinds of periodically stiffened micro-perforated plates are analyzed theoretically. The connected periodical structures of the stiffened plates can be ribs or block-like structures. Based on fundamental acoustic formulas of the micro-perforated plate of Maa and Takahashi, semi-analytical models of the vibrating stiffened plates are developed in this paper. Approaches like the space harmonicmethod, Fourier transforms and finite elementmethod (FEM) are adopted to investigate both kinds of the stiffened plates. In the present work, the vibro-acoustic responses of micro-perforated stiffened plates in the wavenumber space are expressed as functions of plate displacement amplitudes. After approximate numerical solutions of the amplitudes, the vibration equations and sound absorption coefficients of the two kinds of stiffened plates in the physical space are then derived by employing the Fourier inverse transform. In numerical examples, the effects of some physical parameters, such as the perforation ratio, incident angles and periodical distances etc., on the sound absorption performance are examined. The proposed approaches are also validated by comparing the present results with solutions of Takahashi and previous studies of stiffened plates. Numerical results indicate that the flexural vibration of the plate has a significant effect on the sound absorption coefficient in the water but has little influence in the air.

  17. Measurements of air-broadened and nitrogen-broadened Lorentz width coefficients and pressure shift coefficients in the nu4 and nu2 bands of C-12H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    1988-01-01

    Air-broadened and N2-broadened halfwidth and pressure shift coefficients of 294 transitions in the nu4 and nu2 bands of C-12H4 have been measured from laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope facility of the National Solar Observatory. Total pressures of up to 551 Torr were employed with absorption paths of 5-150 cm, CH4 volume mixing ratios of 2.6 percent or less, and resolutions of 0.005 and 0.01/cm. A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting technique has been utilized in the analysis of the twenty-five measured spectra. Lines up to J double-prime = 18 in the nu4 band and J double-prime = 15 in the nu2 band have been analyzed.

  18. Light absorption enhancement in Ge nanomembrane and its optoelectronic application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Munho; Liu, Shih-Chia; Kim, Tong June; Lee, Jaeseong; Seo, Jung-Hun; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-07-25

    In this study, the light absorption property of Ge nanomembrane (Ge NM), which incorporates hydrogen (H), in near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range was analyzed. Due to the presence of a large amount of structural defects, the light absorption coefficient of the Ge layer becomes much higher (10 times) than that of bulk Ge in the wavelength range of 1000 ~1600 nm. Increased light absorption was further measured from released Ge NM that has H incorporation in comparison to that of bulk Ge, proving the enhanced light absorption coefficient of H incorporated Ge. Finally, metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors were demonstrated using the H incorporated Ge on GeOI.

  19. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  20. Evaluation of Fourier transform coefficients for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis from diffuse optical tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    We apply the Fourier Transform to absorption and scattering coefficient images of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints and evaluate the performance of these coefficients as classifiers using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We find 25 features that yield a Youden index over 0.7, 3 features that yield a Youden index over 0.8, and 1 feature that yields a Youden index over 0.9 (90.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In general, scattering coefficient images yield better one-dimensional classifiers compared to absorption coefficient images. Using features derived from scattering coefficient images we obtain an average Youden index of 0.58 +/- 0.16, and an average Youden index of 0.45 +/- 0.15 when using features from absorption coefficient images.

  1. Series extension: predicting approximate series coefficients from a finite number of exact coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttmann, Anthony J.

    2016-10-01

    Given the first 20-100 coefficients of a typical generating function of the type that arises in many problems of statistical mechanics or enumerative combinatorics, we show that the method of differential approximants performs surprisingly well in predicting (approximately) subsequent coefficients. These can then be used by the ratio method to obtain improved estimates of critical parameters. In favourable cases, given only the first 20 coefficients, the next 100 coefficients are predicted with useful accuracy. More surprisingly, this is also the case when the method of differential approximants does not do a useful job in estimating the critical parameters, such as those cases in which one has stretched exponential asymptotic behaviour. Nevertheless, the coefficients are predicted with surprising accuracy. As one consequence, significant computer time can be saved in enumeration problems where several runs would normally be made, modulo different primes, and the coefficients constructed from their values modulo different primes. Another is in the checking of newly calculated coefficients. We believe that this concept of approximate series extension opens up a whole new chapter in the method of series analysis.

  2. Light-intensity-induced characterization of elastic constants and d33 piezoelectric coefficient of PLZT single fiber based transducers.

    PubMed

    Kozielski, Lucjan; Erhart, Jiri; Clemens, Frank Jörg

    2013-02-12

    Enhanced functionality of electro-optic devices by implementing piezoelectric micro fibers into their construction is proposed. Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics are known to exhibit high light transparency, desirable electro-optic properties and fast response. In this study PLZT fibers with a diameter of around 300 microns were produced by a thermoplastic processing method and their light-induced impedance and piezoelectric coefficient were investigated at relatively low light intensity (below 50 mW/cm2). The authors experimentally proved higher performance of light controlled microfiber transducers in comparison to their bulk form. The advantage of the high surface area to volume ratio is shown to be an excellent technique to design high quality light sensors by using fibrous materials. The UV absorption induced change in elastic constants of 3% and 4% for the piezoelectric coefficient d(33).

  3. Light absorption by airborne aerosols: comparison of integrating plate and spectrophone techniques.

    PubMed

    Szkarlat, A C; Japar, S M

    1981-04-01

    An excellent correlation between the integrating plate (IP) and the photoacoustic methods for measuring aerosol light absorption has been found for airborne graphitic carbon in diesel vehicle exhaust. However, the regression coefficient depends on the orientation of the Teflon membrane filter during the IP analysis. With the collected particulates between the filter and the integrating plate, the IP response is 1.85 times that for the filter reversed. In either case the response ratio of the IP method to the photoacoustic method is >1.0, i.e., 2.43 vs 1.30. The IP calibration is also probably dependent on the nature of the filter medium. PMID:20309278

  4. Influence of Brown Carbon Aerosols on Absorption Enhancement and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamjad, Puthukkadan; Nand Tripathi, Sachchida; Kant Pathak, Ravi; Hallquist, Mattias

    2015-04-01

    This study presents aerosol mass and optical properties measured during winter-spring months (February-March) of two consecutive years (2013-2014) from Kanpur, India located inside Gangetic Plain. Spectral absorption and scattering coefficients (405, 532 and 781 nm) of both atmospheric and denuded (at 300° C) is measured using a 3 wavelength Photo Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS 3). Ratio between the atmospheric and denuded absorption is reported as enhancement in absorption (Eabs). Eabs values shows presence of large quantities of Brown Carbon (BrC) aerosols in the location. Diurnal trend of Eabs shows similar patterns at 405 and 532 nm. But at 781 nm Eabs values increased during day time (10:00 to 18:00) while that 405 and 532 nm decreased. Positive Matrix Analysis (PMF) of organic aerosols measured using HR-ToF-AMS shows factors with different trends with total absorption. Semi-volatile factor (SV-OOA) show no correlation with absorption but other factors such as Low-volatile (LV-OOA), Hydrocarbon (HOA) and Biomass burning (BBOA) organic aerosols shows a positive trend. All factors shows good correlation with scattering coefficient. Also a strong dependence of absorption is observed at 405 and 532 nm and a weak dependence at 781 nm is observed during regression analysis with factors and mass loading. We also present direct radiative forcing (DRF) calculated from measured optical properties due to total aerosol loading and only due to BrC. Total and BrC aerosol DRF shows cooling trends at top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and warming trend in atmosphere. Days with biomass burning events shows increase in magnitude of DRF at atmosphere and surface up to 30 % corresponding to clear days. TOA forcing during biomass burning days shows increase in magnitude indicating change from negative to less negative.

  5. Light absorption by biomass burning source emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan; Engling, Guenter; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W. Patrick; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Wold, Cyle E.; Hao, Wei Min; He, Ke-bin

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol has relatively short atmospheric lifetimes yet plays a unique and important role in the Earth's climate system, making it an important short-term climate mitigation target. Globally, biomass burning is the largest source of BC emissions into the atmosphere. This study investigated the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of biomass burning BC generated by controlled combustion of various wildland fuels during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). MAE values derived from a photoacoustic spectrometer (∼7.8 m2/g at a wavelength of 532 nm) were in good agreement with those suggested for uncoated BC when the emission ratios of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) were extremely low (i.e., below 0.3). With the increase of OC/EC, two distinct types of biomass smoke were identified. For the first type, MAE exhibited a positive dependence on OC/EC, while the overestimation of the light absorption coefficient (babs) by a filter-based method was less significant and could be estimated by a nearly constant correction factor. For the second type, MAE was biased low and correlated negatively with OC/EC, while the overestimation of babs by the filter-based method was much more significant and showed an apparent OC/EC dependence. This study suggests that BC emission factors determined by the commonly used thermal-optical methods might be sustantially overestimated for some types of biomass burning emissions. Our results also indicate that biomass burning emissions may include some liquid-like organics that can significantly bias filter-based babs measurements.

  6. Hydrolysis-dependent absorption of disaccharides in the rat small intestine (chronic experiments and mathematical modeling).

    PubMed

    Gromova, L V; Gruzdkov, A A

    1999-06-01

    In order to throw light on the mechanisms responsible for the enzyme-dependent absorption of disaccharides membrane hydrolysis of maltose and trehalose and the absorption of glucose (free and that derived from disaccharides) were studied in isolated loops (20 cm) of the rat small intestine in chronic experiments. The rates of glucose absorption were 0.26-0.81 micromol x min(-1) x cm(-1) when the loop was perfused with a 12.5 to 75.0 mmol/l free glucose solution, which is only insignificantly higher than the rates observed during perfusion with equivalent maltose solutions. The coupling coefficient (the ratio of glucose absorption rate to the rate of disaccharide hydrolysis) decreased from 0.90 to 0.60 with the increasing maltose concentrations in the infusate from 6.25 to 37.5 mmol/l, but remained unchanged (approximately 0.95) within the same range of trehalose concentrations. The permeability of the pre-epithelial barrier was equivalent to that of unstirred water layer of less than 40 microm thickness. Fluid absorption was within the range of 0.73-2.55 microl x min(-1) x cm(-1), and it showed a correlation with the rates of glucose absorption. The results agree with a model developed on the assumption that free glucose and that released from disaccharides share the same membrane transporters. It could be concluded that a close coupling of disaccharide hydrolysis with derived glucose absorption in chronic experiments is achieved mainly due to a high activity of glucose transporters, which are presumably not associated with membrane disaccharidases. The transcellular active transport is a predominant mechanism of disaccharide-derived glucose absorption under conditions close to physiological.

  7. Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between zircon, apatite, and liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujimaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Concentration ratios of Hf, Zr, and REE between zircon, apatite, and liquid were determined for three igneous compositions: two andesites and a diorite. The concentration ratios of these elements between zircon and corresponding liquid can approximate the partition coefficient. Although the concentration ratios between apatite and andesite groundmass can be considered as partition coefficients, those for the apatite in the diorite may deviate from the partition coefficients. The HREE partition coefficients between zircon and liquid are very large (100 for Er to 500 for Lu), and the Hf partition coefficient is even larger. The REE partition coefficients between apatite and liquid are convex upward, and large (D=10-100), whereas the Hf and Zr partition coefficients are less than 1. The large differences between partition coefficients of Lu and Hf for zircon-liquid and for apatite-liquid are confirmed. These partition coefficients are useful for petrogenetic models involving zircon and apatite. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Discharge coefficients of impingement and film cooling holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T.; Brown, A.; Garret, S.

    1985-03-01

    In this article measurements of fluid flow through impingement and film cooling holes for typical turbine blade cooling systems are presented. The purpose of the measurements was to determine hole discharge coefficients over a range of Reynolds numbers from 5,000 to 30,000 and to observe in this range the dependence of discharge coefficient on Reynolds number. The effect of hole geometry, that is, sharp edged inlet or corner radius inlet, on discharge coefficients is also measured. Correlations relating discharge coefficients to Reynolds number, corner radius to hole diameter ratio, and blowing parameter are suggested.

  9. Clindamycin Phosphate Absorption from Nanoliposomal Formulations through Third-Degree Burn Eschar

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Azadeh; Manafi, Ali; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been shown that topical nanoliposomal formulations improve burn healing process. On the other hand, it has been shown that liposomal formulations increase drug deposition in the normal skin while decrease their systemic absorption; there is not such data available for burn eschar. Present investigation studies permeation of clindamycin phosphate (CP) through burn eschar from liposomal formulations to answer this question. In this investigation, permeation of CP through fully hydrated third-degree burn eschar was evaluated using solution, normal nanoliposomes and ultradeformable nanoliposomes. METHODS Liposomal CP were prepared by thin-film hydration and characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and short-time stability. Then the effect of liposomal lipid concentration on CP absorption was investigated. RESULTS The permeability coefficient ratio (liposome/solution) and permeation lag-time ratio (liposome/solution) of CP through burn eschar at 20 Mm lipid concentration were 0.81±0.21 and 1.19±1.30 respectively, indicating the retardation effects of liposomes. Data also showed that increasing liposomal lipid concentration from 20 to 100 mM, clindamycin permeation decreased by about 2 times. There was no difference between normal liposome and ultradeformable liposome in terms of clindamycin absorption. CONCLUSION Nanoliposomes could decrease trans-eschar absorption of CP, in good agreement with normal skin data, and might indicate CP deposition in the eschar tissue. PMID:26284183

  10. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND EMISSIVITY REDUCTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-11-20

    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.

  11. Gas-film coefficients for the volatilization of ethylene dibromide from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tal, D.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Gas-film coefficients for the volatilization of ethylene dibromide (EDB) and water were determined in the laboratory as a function of wind speed and temperature. The ratio of the coefficients was independent of wind speed and increased slightly with temperature. Use of this ratio with an environmentally determined gas-film coefficient for the evaporation of water permits determination of the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of EDB from environmental waters.

  12. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  13. The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.

    1974-01-01

    A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).

  14. The relationship between water absorption characteristics and the mechanical strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements in long-term water storage.

    PubMed

    Akashi, A; Matsuya, Y; Unemori, M; Akamine, A

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the water absorption characteristics of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and to also investigate the relationship between the characteristics and mechanical strength after long-term water storage. The mechanism of water diffusion in these cements is also discussed. Water absorption was measured using a gravimetric analysis for 12 m, while the diffusion coefficient was calculated using Fick's law of diffusion. Water solubility was determined based on the weight of the residue in the immersed water. The compressive and diametral tensile strength were measured at 1, 2, 6, and 12 m. A correlation was observed between the diffusion coefficient and equilibrium water uptake, which thus suggests the water in the cements to diffuse through micro-voids in accordance with the 'Free volumetric theory'. A correlation was seen between the solubility and diffusion coefficient of the cements. The deterioration ratio, defined as the ratio of the strength at 12 m versus that at 1 m, was also calculated. Finally, a negative correlation was observed between the deterioration ratio of the compressive strength and the diffusion coefficients of the cements.

  15. Reference Material for Seebeck Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edler, F.; Lenz, E.; Haupt, S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a measurement method and a measuring system to determine absolute Seebeck coefficients of thermoelectric bulk materials with the aim of establishing reference materials for Seebeck coefficients. Reference materials with known thermoelectric properties are essential to allow a reliable benchmarking of different thermoelectric materials for application in thermoelectric generators to convert thermal into electrical energy or vice versa. A temperature gradient (1 to 8) K is induced across the sample, and the resulting voltage is measured by using two differential Au/Pt thermocouples. On the basis of the known absolute Seebeck coefficients of Au and Pt, the unknown Seebeck coefficient of the sample is calculated. The measurements are performed in inert atmospheres and at low pressure (30 to 60) mbar in the temperature range between 300 K and 860 K. The measurement results of the Seebeck coefficients of metallic and semiconducting samples are presented. Achievable relative measurement uncertainties of the Seebeck coefficient are on the order of a few percent.

  16. Measurement of osmotic reflection coefficient for small molecules in cat hindlimbs.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M B; Watson, P D

    1989-01-01

    Capillary osmotic reflection coefficients (sigma) for NaCl, urea, sucrose, and raffinose were measured in the isolated, perfused cat hindlimb using the osmotic transient technique. sigma were determined from the ratio of the maximum rate of transcapillary absorption [delta Jv(max)] to the increase in the osmotic pressure (25-35 mosmol/kg H2O) in the arterial inflow (delta pi a) produced by adding one of the molecules to an albumin-electrolyte perfusate containing isoproterenol (greater than 10(-7) M). delta Jv (max) was determined from organ weight and delta pi a from perfusate osmolalities. For each molecule, the delta Jv(max)/delta pi a ratio increased monotonically with perfusate flow rates (Q) to Q greater than 100 ml.min-1.100 g-1. This ratio was independent of the size of the delta pi a. Apparent sigma values were calculated by dividing these ratios by the capillary hydraulic capacity determined in other studies. At low Q, apparent sigma was comparable to the approximately 0.1 values found by others in skeletal muscle. At the highest Q, apparent sigma for these molecules were at least 0.5. These data are consistent with at least 50% of transcapillary water flow moving through a water-exclusive pathway.

  17. Absorption by oxygen and water vapor in the real atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cachorro, V E; de Frutos, A M; Casanova, J L

    1987-02-01

    Unexpected absorption in the real atmosphere in the window from 840 to 890 nm has been clearly observed through measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance under clear, cloud-free skies. This absorption is not predicted by the known theoretical models. The cause of this apparent absorption may be due to the presence of high thin nonvisible cirrus clouds. A quantitative evaluation of this absorption and an improvement of oxygen absorption coefficients has been carried out after a comparison of more than seventy experimental spectra. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account the different behavior of modeled and experimental data at low and high air masses.

  18. High efficiency advanced absorption heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, E. A., Jr.

    1982-03-01

    A high efficiency absorption heat pump for the residential market is investigated. The performance targets established for this high efficiency absorption heat pump are a heating coefficient of performance of 1.5 and a cooling coefficient of performance of 0.8 at rating conditions, including parasitic electric power consumption. The resulting heat pump would have a space heating capacity of 68,000 BTU/hour, and a space cooling capacity of 36,000 BTU/hour at rating conditions. A very simplified schematic block diagram of the high efficiency absorption heat pump cycle is shown. High temperature, high pressure, refrigerant vapor is produced in the refrigerant generator and heat exchange system, is condensed to a liquid in the condenser, expanded to a low pressure vapor in the evaporator, and mixed with and reabsorbed into the weakened solution returned from the refrigerant generator and heat exchange system in the absorber.

  19. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  20. Discharge coefficients of cooling holes with radiused and chamfered inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, N.; Spencer, A.

    1991-06-01

    The flow of cooling air within the internal passages of gas turbines is controlled and metered using holes in disks and casings. The effects of inlet radiusing and chamfering of these holes on the discharge coefficient are discussed. Experimental results for a range of radiusing and chamfering ratios for holes of different length to diameter ratios are presented, covering the range of pressure ratios of practical interest. The results indicate that radiusing and chamfering are both beneficial in increasing the discharge coefficient. Increases of 10-30 percent are possible. Chamfered holes give the more desirable performance characteristics in addition to being easier to produce than radiused holes.

  1. Reference Phantom Method for Acoustic Backscatter Coefficient and Attenuation Coefficient Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Linxin

    1990-08-01

    In previous work in our laboratory accurate backscatter coefficient measurements were obtained with a data reduction method that explicitly accounts for experimental factors involved in recording echo data. An alternative, relative processing method for determining the backscatter coefficient and the attenuation coefficient is presented here. This method involves comparison of echo data from a sample with data recorded from a reference phantom whose backscatter and attenuation coefficients are known. The ratio of the signals cancels depth-dependent instrumentation factors. This saves the efforts of beam profile computation and various calibrations. The attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient of the sample are found from these ratios and the known acoustic properties of the reference phantom. This method is tested using tissue-mimicking phantoms with known scattering and attenuation properties. Various experiments have been done using clinical scanners with different transducers to compute attenuation coefficients and backscatter coefficients, and to make quantitative images. This method has been found to be accurate for media containing Rayleigh scatterers, as well as samples containing intermediate-size scatterers. Accuracy was maintained over different frequency bands and for a wide range of transducer-to-ROI distances. Measurements were done in vivo for human livers, kidneys and dog myocardium. The results have shown that the reference phantom method simplifies the measurement procedure as well as keeps the accuracy, and therefore is practical clinically. Statistical uncertainties propagated in the data reduction have been analyzed in detail. Formulae are deduced to predict statistical errors in the attenuation and backscatter coefficients measured with the reference phantom method. Spatial correlations of the echo signals are also considered. A 2-dimensional lateral correlation matrix is introduced to compute the number of effective independent

  2. Inbreeding coefficients and coalescence times.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, M

    1991-10-01

    This paper describes the relationship between probabilities of identity by descent and the distribution of coalescence times. By using the relationship between coalescence times and identity probabilities, it is possible to extend existing results for inbreeding coefficients in regular systems of mating to find the distribution of coalescence times and the mean coalescence times. It is also possible to express Sewall Wright's FST as the ratio of average coalescence times of different pairs of genes. That simplifies the analysis of models of subdivided populations because the average coalescence time can be found by computing separately the time it takes for two genes to enter a single subpopulation and time it takes for two genes in the same subpopulation to coalesce. The first time depends only on the migration matrix and the second time depends only on the total number of individuals in the population. This approach is used to find FST in the finite island model and in one- and two-dimensional stepping-stone models. It is also used to find the rate of approach of FST to its equilibrium value. These results are discussed in terms of different measures of genetic distance. It is proposed that, for the purposes of describing the amount of gene flow among local populations, the effective migration rate between pairs of local populations, M, which is the migration rate that would be estimated for those two populations if they were actually in an island model, provides a simple and useful measure of genetic similarity that can be defined for either allozyme or DNA sequence data.

  3. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Roux, Lauriane N; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine). The six amines were dosed in four vehicles (water and three generic water-based MWF formulations) and analyzed using a scintillation counter or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These 24 h studies showed that dermal absorption significantly (P < 0.05) increased from water for the six amines (e.g. 1.15 ± 0.29% dose; DEA in water) compared to other formulations (e.g. 0.13 ± 0.01% dose; DEA in semisynthetic MWF) and absorption was greatest for dibutylethanolamine in all the formulations. The soluble oil formulation tended to increase the dermal absorption of the hydrophilic amines. The permeability coefficient was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with TEA relative to the other hydrophilic amines (e.g. 4.22 × 10(-4) ± 0.53 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [TEA in synthetic MWF] vs. 1.23 × 10(-4) ± 0.10 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [MEA in synthetic MWF]), except for MEA in soluble oil formulation. Future research will confirm these findings in an in vivo pig model along with dermatotoxicity studies. These results should help MWF industries choose safer additives for their formulations to protect the health of metalworkers. PMID:25186650

  4. Broken-cloud enhancement of solar radiation absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.N.; Somerville, R.C.; Subasilar, B.

    1996-04-01

    Two papers recently published in Science have shown that there is more absorption of solar radiation than estimated by current atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) and that the discrepancy is associated with cloudy scenes. We have devised a simple model which explains this as an artifact of stochastic radiative transport. We first give a heuristic description, unencumbered by mathematical detail. Consider a simple case with clouds distributed at random within a single level whose upper and lower boundaries are fixed. The solar zenith angle is small to moderate; this is therefore an energetically important case. Fix the average areal liquid water content of the cloud layer, and take the statistics of the cloud distribution to be homogeneous within the layer. Furthermore, assume that all the clouds in the layer have the same liquid water content, constant throughout the cloud, and that apart from their droplet content they are identical to the surrounding clear sky. Let the clouds occupy on the average a fraction p{sub cld} of the volume of the cloudy layer, and let them have a prescribed distribution of sizes about some mean. This is not a fractal distribution, because it has a scale. Cloud shape is unimportant so long as cloud aspect ratios are not far from unity. Take the single-scattering albedo to be unity for the droplets in the clouds. All of the absorption is due to atmospheric gases, so the absorption coefficient at a point is the same for cloud and clear sky. Absorption by droplets is less than 10% effect in the numerical stochastic radiation calculations described below, so it is reasonable to neglect it at this level of idealization.

  5. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Roux, Lauriane N; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine). The six amines were dosed in four vehicles (water and three generic water-based MWF formulations) and analyzed using a scintillation counter or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These 24 h studies showed that dermal absorption significantly (P < 0.05) increased from water for the six amines (e.g. 1.15 ± 0.29% dose; DEA in water) compared to other formulations (e.g. 0.13 ± 0.01% dose; DEA in semisynthetic MWF) and absorption was greatest for dibutylethanolamine in all the formulations. The soluble oil formulation tended to increase the dermal absorption of the hydrophilic amines. The permeability coefficient was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with TEA relative to the other hydrophilic amines (e.g. 4.22 × 10(-4) ± 0.53 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [TEA in synthetic MWF] vs. 1.23 × 10(-4) ± 0.10 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [MEA in synthetic MWF]), except for MEA in soluble oil formulation. Future research will confirm these findings in an in vivo pig model along with dermatotoxicity studies. These results should help MWF industries choose safer additives for their formulations to protect the health of metalworkers.

  6. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  7. Tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser for applications of infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Han Young; Lee, Won-Kyu; Moon, Han Seb; Suh, Ho Suhng

    2007-07-01

    We fabricate a low noise erbium-doped fiber ring laser that can be continuously tuned over 102 nm by insertion of the fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) in the ring cavity with a novel cavity structure and the optimal gain medium length. As an application of this fiber ring laser, we performed the absorption spectroscopy of acetylene (13C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (H13C14N) and measure the absorption spectra of more than 50 transition lines of these gases with an excellent signal to noise ratio (SNR). The pressure broadening coefficients of four acetylene transition lines are obtained using this fiber ring laser and an external cavity laser diode.

  8. Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R

    2011-02-01

    The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra.

  9. Measuring the Optical Absorption Cross-sections of Au-Ag Nanocages and Au Nanorods by Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Chul; Kim, Chulhong; Zhou, Fei; Cobley, Claire M.; Song, Kwang Hyun; Chen, Jingyi; Li, Zhi-Yuhan; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the optical absorption cross-sections (σa) of Au-Ag nanocages and Au nanorods. The method is based on photoacoustic (PA) imaging, where the detected signal is directly proportional to the absorption coefficient (μa) of the nanostructure. For each type of nanostructure, we firstly obtained μa from the PA signal by benchmarking against a linear calibration curve (PA signal vs. μa) derived from a set of methylene blue solutions with different concentrations. We then calculated σa by dividing the μa by the corresponding concentration of the Au nanostructure. Additonally, we obtained the extinction cross-section (σe, sum of absorption and scattering) from the extinction spectrum recorded using a conventional UV-vis-NIR spectrometer. From the measurements of σa and σe, we were able to easily derive both the absorption and scattering cross-sections for each type of gold nanostructure. The ratios of absorption to extinction obtained from experimental and theoretical approaches agreed well, demonstrating the potential use of this method in determining the optical absorption and scattering properties of gold nanostructures and other types of nanomaterials. PMID:19680423

  10. The method of imbedded Lagrangian element to estimate wave power absorption by some submerged devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihous, Gérard C.

    2014-06-01

    A simple approach is described to estimate the wave power absorption potential of submerged devices known to cause wave focusing and flow enhancement. In particular, the presence of a flow-through power take-off (PTO) system, such as low-head turbines, can be accounted for. The wave radiation characteristics of an appropriately selected Lagrangian element (LE) in the fluid domain are first determined. In the limit of a vanishing mass, the LE reduces to a patch of distributed normal dipoles. The hydrodynamic coefficients of this virtual object are then input in a standard equation of motion where the effect of the PTO can be represented, for example, as a dashpot damping term. The process is illustrated for a class of devices recently proposed by Carter and Ertekin (2011), although in a simplified form. Favorable wave power absorption is shown for large ratios of the LE wave radiation coefficient over the LE added mass coefficient. Under optimal conditions, the relative flow reduction from the PTO theoretically lies between 0.50 and , with lower values corresponding to better configurations. Wave power capture widths, the sensitivity of results to PTO damping and sample spectral calculations at a typical site in Hawaiian waters are proposed to further illustrate the versatility of the method.

  11. Optical absorption and scattering properties in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; He, Xian-qiang; Chen, Xiao-yan; Hao, Zeng-zhou; Huang, Haiqing; Zhu, Qiankun

    2011-11-01

    The absorption and particulate backscattering coefficients are the basic parameters of the water inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are also the basic parameters for the development and validation of the semi-analysis models of the ocean color remote sensing. In this work, the absorption and backscattering coefficients in the East China Sea (ECS) were measured in the summer and winter of 2009 using the three in-situ optical instruments, including the WET Labs acs, and the HOBI Labs HydroScat-6. Based on the in-situ measured data, the distribution of the absorption and backscattering coefficients in the ECS are analyzed. The results show that in the summer the water absorption coefficient at 440nm (a(440nm),excluding the absorption of the pure sea water) in the surface layer is ranged from 0.022 to 0.067 m-1, and the particulate backscattering coefficient at 442nm(bbp(442nm), is between 0.00064 and 0.03274 m-1. As a whole, both of the absorption and backscattering coefficients decrease with the offshore direction, and the high values located at the mouth of Changjiang River. In the winter, a(440nm) is between 0.051 and 0.887 m-1, and bbp(442nm) is ranged from 0.000639 to 0.14614 m-1 at the surface layer. The spatial distributions in winter are similar as the summer, with the high value in the coast and low value in the offshore. The absorption and backscattering coefficients in winter are significantly larger than the summer's, especially in coastal area near the mouth of Changjiang River, which maybe caused by the southward Fujian-Zhejiang coastal current occurring in winter. As the vertical profile distributions, we find that both of the absorption and backscattering coefficients present a layer structure, which caused by the stratification of the sea water in the summer; while in the winter, affected by the strong wind disturbing, both of the absorption and backscattering coefficients are thoroughly vertical mixing. To our knowledge, it is the first time

  12. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  13. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  14. Virial coefficients and demixing in the Asakura-Oosawa model.

    PubMed

    López de Haro, Mariano; Tejero, Carlos F; Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B; Fiumara, Giacomo; Saija, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The problem of demixing in the Asakura-Oosawa colloid-polymer model is considered. The critical constants are computed using truncated virial expansions up to fifth order. While the exact analytical results for the second and third virial coefficients are known for any size ratio, analytical results for the fourth virial coefficient are provided here, and fifth virial coefficients are obtained numerically for particular size ratios using standard Monte Carlo techniques. We have computed the critical constants by successively considering the truncated virial series up to the second, third, fourth, and fifth virial coefficients. The results for the critical colloid and (reservoir) polymer packing fractions are compared with those that follow from available Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble. Limitations and perspectives of this approach are pointed out. PMID:25573578

  15. Virial coefficients and demixing in the Asakura-Oosawa model.

    PubMed

    López de Haro, Mariano; Tejero, Carlos F; Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B; Fiumara, Giacomo; Saija, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The problem of demixing in the Asakura-Oosawa colloid-polymer model is considered. The critical constants are computed using truncated virial expansions up to fifth order. While the exact analytical results for the second and third virial coefficients are known for any size ratio, analytical results for the fourth virial coefficient are provided here, and fifth virial coefficients are obtained numerically for particular size ratios using standard Monte Carlo techniques. We have computed the critical constants by successively considering the truncated virial series up to the second, third, fourth, and fifth virial coefficients. The results for the critical colloid and (reservoir) polymer packing fractions are compared with those that follow from available Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble. Limitations and perspectives of this approach are pointed out.

  16. Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.

  17. Conversion coefficients of the isomeric state in {sup 72}Br

    SciTech Connect

    Briz, J. A.; Borge, M. J. G.; Maira, A.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Estevez, E.; Nacher, E.; Rubio, B.; Fraile, L. M.; Deo, A.; Farrelly, G.; Gelletly, W.; Podolyak, Z.

    2010-04-26

    In order to determine the Gamow-Teller strength distribution for the N Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr an experiment was performed with a Total Absorption Gamma Spectrometer. To fully accomplish this task it is crucial to determine the multipolarity of the low energy transitions as the spin-parity of the daughter ground state has been debated. This is done by experimental determination of the conversion coefficients. Preliminary results for the multipolarity and conversion coefficients of the transition connecting the isomeric state at 101 keV with the {sup 72}Br ground state are presented.

  18. Optical-induced absorption tunability of Barium Strontium Titanate film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunya; Ji, Jie; Yue, Jin; Rao, Yunkun; Yao, Gang; Li, Dan; Zeng, Ying; Li, Renkui; Xiao, Longsheng; Liu, Xinxing; Yao, Jianquan; Ling, Furi

    2016-10-01

    The absorption tunability of 100 nm thickness of ferroelectric Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) thin films with different densities of pumped optical field is measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.2 THz - 1.2 THz at 19 °C. Experimental results show that the absorption coefficient of BST film is approximately at 5000 cm-1-20000 cm-1 in the range of 0.2 THz - 1.2 THz and the absorption coefficient reached up to 16% when we applied the optical field up to 600 mW. The theoretical calculations reveal that increasing photoexcitation fluences is responsible for the increasing of transmission change in the conduction current density cause the absorption coefficient varied.

  19. Absorption of microwaves in metal-ceramic powder materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. V.; Eremeev, A. G.; Plotnikov, I. V.; Rybakov, K. I.; Kholoptsev, V. V.; Bykov, Yu. V.

    2010-11-01

    Sintering of metal-ceramic composites by microwave heating is a promising method for creation of functionally graded materials. In this paper, we study the absorption of microwaves in compacted mixtures of metal and dielectric powders. The coefficient of microwave absorption is calculated within the framework of the effective-medium approximation as a function of the mass fraction, dimensions, and temperature of metal particles. The experimental method for determination of the microwave absorption coefficient is proposed, which is based on measuring the temperature of the samples during their heating by microwaves in an oversized working chamber. The coefficients of microwave absorption in powder composites Al2O3-Ni, which were measured by the proposed method, are presented. An agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is demonstrated.

  20. Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients in the Fundamental Band of 12C 16O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, Malathy V.; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1998-01-01

    High quality and precise measurements of self-broadened and self-shift coefficients in the fundamental band of C-12O-16 were made using spectra recorded at room temperature with the high-resolution (0.0027 cm(exp -1)) McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. The spectral region under investigation (2008-2247 cm(exp -1)) contains the P(31) to R(31) transitions. The data were obtained using a high-purity natural isotopic sample ofcarbon monoxide and two absorption cells with pathlengths of 4.08 and 9.98 cm, respectively. Various pressures of CO were used, ranging between 0.25 and 201.2 Torr. The results were obtained by analyzing five spectra simultaneously, using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique. The self-broadened coefficients ranged from 0.0426(2) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K to 0.0924(2) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K, while the pressure-induced shift coefficients varied between -0.0042(3) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K and +0.0005(l) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K. The value in parentheses is the estimated uncertainty in units of the last digit. The self-broadened coefficients of lines with same values of m in the P and R branches agree close to within experimental uncertainties while the self-shift coefficients showed considerable variation within and between the two branches. The mean value of the ratios of P branch to R branch self-broadened coefficients was found to be 1.01 with a standard deviation of + or - 0.01. Comparisons of the results with other published data were made.

  1. Computational oral absorption simulation for low-solubility compounds.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2009-11-01

    Bile micelles play an important role in oral absorption of low-solubility compounds. Bile micelles can affect solubility, dissolution rate, and permeability. For the pH-solubility profile in bile micelles, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation should be modified to take bile-micelle partition into account. For the dissolution rate, in the Nernst-Brunner equation, the effective diffusion coefficient in bile-micelle media should be used instead of the monomer diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of bile micelles is 8- to 18-fold smaller than that of monomer molecules. For permeability, the effective diffusion coefficient in the unstirred water layer adjacent to the epithelial membrane, and the free fraction at the epithelial membrane surface should be taken into account. The importance of these aspects is demonstrated here using several in vivo and clinical oral-absorption data of low-solubility model compounds. Using the theoretical equations, the food effect on oral absorption is further discussed.

  2. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  3. Ultraviolet (250-550  nm) absorption spectrum of pure water.

    PubMed

    Mason, John D; Cone, Michael T; Fry, Edward S

    2016-09-01

    Data for the spectral light absorption of pure water from 250 to 550 nm have been obtained using an integrating cavity made from a newly developed diffuse reflector with a very high UV reflectivity. The data provide the first scattering-independent measurements of absorption coefficients in the spectral gap between well-established literature values for the absorption coefficients in the visible (>400  nm) and UV (<200  nm). A minimum in the absorption coefficient has been observed in the UV at 344 nm; the value is 0.000811±0.000227  m-1. PMID:27607297

  4. Correlations between absorption Angström exponent (AAE) of wintertime ambient urban aerosol and its physical and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Filep, Á.; Pintér, M.; Török, Zs.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-07-01

    Based on a two-week measurement campaign in an environment heavily polluted both by transit traffic and household heating in the inner city of Szeged (Hungary), correlations between the absorption Angström exponent (AAE) fitted to the optical absorption coefficients measured with a four wavelength (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm) photoacoustic aerosol measuring system (4λ-PAS) and various aerosol parameters were identified. AAE was found to depend linearly on OCwb/EC and on NGM100/NGMD20, i.e. on the ratio of mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) to the fraction of organic carbon associated with wood burning (OCwb), and on the ratio of aerosol number concentrations in the 20 nm (NGMD20) to 100 nm (NGMD100) modes, with a regression coefficient of R = 0.95 and R = 0.86, respectively. In the daily fluctuation of AAE two minima were identified, which coincide with the morning and afternoon rush hours, during which NGMD20 exhibits maximum values. During the campaign the shape of the aerosol volume size distribution (dV/dlogD) was found to be largely invariant, supporting the assumption that the primary driver for the AAE variation was aerosol chemical composition rather than particle size. Furthermore, when wavelength segregated AAE values were calculated, AAE for the shorter wavelengths (AAE355-266) was also found to depend linearly on the above mentioned ratios with similar regression coefficients but with a much steeper correlation line, while the AAE for the longer wavelengths (AAE1064-532) exhibits only a considerably weaker correlation. These results prove the unique advantages of real time multi-wavelength photoacoustic measurement of optical absorption in case the wavelength range includes the ultra-violet too.

  5. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  6. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  7. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  8. Disorder-induced enhancement of indirect absorption in a GeSn photodetector grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chang, C.; Cheng, H. H.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    We report an investigation on the absorption mechanism of a GeSn photodetector with 2.4% Sn composition in the active region. Responsivity is measured and absorption coefficient is calculated. Square root of absorption coefficient linearly depends on photon energy indicating an indirect transition. However, the absorption coefficient is found to be at least one order of magnitude higher than that of most other indirect materials, suggesting that the indirect optical absorption transition cannot be assisted only by phonon. Our analysis of absorption measurements by other groups on the same material system showed the values of absorption coefficient on the same order of magnitude. Our study reveals that the strong enhancement of absorption for the indirect optical transition is the result of alloy disorder from the incorporation of the much larger Sn atoms into the Ge lattice that are randomly distributed.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less

  10. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S -matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition, self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. We also present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.

  11. Risk assessment of distribution coefficient from 137Cs measurements.

    PubMed

    Külahci, Fatih; Sen, Zekai

    2009-02-01

    Classically distribution coefficient is defined as the ratio of solid total element concentration to surface water total concentration. This coefficient is obtained from the ion measurements in the Keban Dam, Turkey, which supplies water for domestic, irrigation and hydroelectric energy generation purposes. The measurements of 137Cs are carried out in 40 different sites and the general risk formulation and application is achieved for the distribution coefficient. The models are of exponential type and the spatial independence of the data is considered. Various charts are prepared for a set of risk levels as 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, and 50%.

  12. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  13. Maximum profit performance of an absorption refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Sun, F.; Wu, C.

    1996-12-01

    The operation of an absorption refrigerator is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The relations between the optimal profit and COP (coefficient of performance), and the COP bound at the maximum profit of the refrigerator are derived based on a general heat transfer law. The results provide a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing a variety of absorption refrigerators. The focus of this paper is to search the compromise optimization between economics (profit) and the utilization factor (COP) for finite-time endoreversible thermodynamic cycles.

  14. Monitoring of MOCVD reactants by UV absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Baucom, K.C.; Killeen, K.P.; Moffat, H.K.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, we describe how UV absorption measurements can be used to measure the flow rates of metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactants. This method utilizes the calculation of UV extinction coefficients by measuring the total pressure and absorbance in the neat reactant system. The development of this quantitative reactant flow rate monitor allows for the direct measurement of the efficiency of a reactant bubbler. We demonstrate bubbler efficiency results for TMGa, and then explain some discrepancies found in the TMAl system due to the monomer to dimer equilibrium. Also, the UV absorption spectra of metal organic and hydride MOCVD reactants over the wavelength range 185 to 400 nm are reported.

  15. Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yaohu; Liu, Xin; Li, Ji; Guo, Jinchuan; Niu, Hanben

    2016-06-01

    Filling materials with high x-ray linear absorption coefficients in high aspect-ratio (HAR) structures is a key process for the fabrication of absorption gratings used in x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging. Bismuth has been chosen as an effective filling material in micro-casting technology, because of its low cost both in price and facility use. However, repellence on structure surfaces against molten bismuth leads to an obstacle in terms of completely filling bismuth into the small-aperture and HAR microstructure formed by photo-assisted electrochemical etching in 5 inch silicon wafers. We propose and implement a novel method of surface modification to completely fill bismuth into these structures with periods of 3 μm and 42 μm, respectively, and as deep as 150 μm. The modified surface with a Bi2O3 layer covering the structure surface, including the side walls, induces an enhanced bismuth filling ratio. The superiority of the method is demonstrated by micrographs which show filled microstructures compared to the previously used method, where only a layer of 100 nm SiO2 was covered. Furthermore, we have observed that the improved micro-casting makes the absorption gratings clean surfaces, and no post treatment is needed.

  16. Identity Coefficients in Finite Populations. I. Evolution of Identity Coefficients in a Random Mating Diploid Dioecious Population

    PubMed Central

    Chevalet, C.; Gillois, M.; Nassar, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Properties of identity relation between genes are discussed, and a derivation of recurrent equations of identity coefficients in a random mating, diploid dioecious population is presented. Computations are run by repeated matrix multiplication. Results show that for effective population size (Ne) larger than 16 and no mutation, a given identity coefficient at any time t can be expressed approximately as a function of (1—f), (1—f)3 and (1— f)6, where f is the mean inbreeding coefficient at time t. Tables are presented, for small Ne values and extreme sex ratios, showing the pattern of change in the identity coefficients over time. The pattern of evolution of identity coefficients is also presented and discussed with respect to N eu, where u is the mutation rate. Applications of these results to the evolution of genetic variability within and between inbred lines are discussed. PMID:892430

  17. Sensitivity optimization of the one beam Z-scan technique and a Z-scan technique immune to nonlinear absorption.

    PubMed

    Dávila Pintle, José A; Lara, Edmundo Reynoso; Iturbe Castillo, Marcelo D

    2013-07-01

    It is presented a criteria for selecting the optimum aperture radius for the one beam Z-scan technique (OBZT), based on the analysis of the transmittance of the aperture. It is also presented a modification to the OBZT by directly measuring the beam radius in the far field with a rotating disk, which allows to determine simultaneously the non-linear absorptive coefficient and non-linear refractive index, much less sensitive to wave front distortions caused by inhomogeneities of the sample with a negligible loss of signal to noise ratio. It is demonstrated its equivalence to the OBZT.

  18. Bandgap widening in thermochromic Mg-doped VO2 thin films: Quantitative data based on optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Yi; Mlyuka, Nuru R.; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Hallén, Anders; Possnert, Göran; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2013-10-01

    Thermochromic Mg-doped VO2 films were deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering onto heated glass and carbon substrates. Elemental compositions were inferred from Rutherford backscattering. Optical bandgaps were obtained from spectral transmittance and reflectance measurements—from both the film side and the back side of the samples—and ensuing determination of absorption coefficients. The bandgap of Mg-doped films was found to increase by 3.9 ± 0.5 eV per unit of atom ratio Mg/(Mg + V) for 0 < Mg/(Mg + V) < 0.21. The presence of ˜0.45 at. % Si enhanced the bandgap even more.

  19. On the errors in measuring the particle density by the light absorption method

    SciTech Connect

    Ochkin, V. N.

    2015-04-15

    The accuracy of absorption measurements of the density of particles in a given quantum state as a function of the light absorption coefficient is analyzed. Errors caused by the finite accuracy in measuring the intensity of the light passing through a medium in the presence of different types of noise in the recorded signal are considered. Optimal values of the absorption coefficient and the factors capable of multiplying errors when deviating from these values are determined.

  20. Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate laser glasses with high gain coefficient and improved laser property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Peng, B.; Li, W. N.; Hou, Ch. Q.; She, J. B.; Guo, H. T.; Lu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses with high stimulated emission cross-section, large gain coefficient and low hydroxyl absorption coefficient were prepared by high temperature melting for fiber laser applications, and their spectral, general laser parameters were investigated accordingly by means of fluorescence emission spectrum, decay cure and infrared absorption spectra. Compared with previously reported fluorophosphate glasses, the investigated fluorophosphate glasses have highest grain coefficient and maintain a maximum laser systematical factor over other various types of laser glasses. The introduction of fluorides to fluorophosphate glasses results in the low level of hydroxyl absorption coefficient and concentration. All these advantages might mean that Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses are a good candidate as an active laser media for short pulse, high power laser generation used for next generation nuclear fusion.

  1. Parametric distortion of the optical absorption edge of a magnetic semiconductor by a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, O.A.C.

    1985-09-15

    The influence of a strong laser field on the optical absorption edge of a direct-gap magnetic semiconductor is considered. It is shown that as the strong laser intensity increases the absorption coefficient is modified so as to give rise to an absorption tail below the free-field forbidden gap. An application is made for the case of the EuO.

  2. Measurements of argon broadened Lorentz width and pressure-induced line shift coefficients in the nu4 band of (C-12)H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    1989-01-01

    Room temperature argon broadened halfwidth and pressure-induced line shift coefficients have been determined for 118 transitions in the nu4 band of (C-12)H4 from analysis of high resolution laboratory absorption spectra recorded with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer operated on Kitt Peak by the National Solar Observatory. Transitions up to J-double-prime = 12 have been measured using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure. The variation of the measured halfwidth coefficients with symmetry type and rotational quantum number is very similar to that measured previously for N2 and air broadening, but the absolute values of the argon broadening coefficients are all smaller. On average, the ratio of the argon broadened halfwidth coefficient to the corresponding N2 broadened halfwidth coefficient is 0.877 + or - 0.017 (2 Sigma). More than 95 percent of the pressure-induced shifts are negative with values ranging from -0.0081 to +0.0055/cm atm. The pressure shifts in argon are nearly equal to corresponding values measured previously in N2 and air.

  3. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2002-04-01

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested that sex-ratio data offer a relatively cheap and easy method for indirectly estimating inbreeding rates. Here, we exploit a new theoretical machinery to show that there are generally valid relationships between f, Wright's coefficient of inbreeding, and sex ratio, z(*), the generality being with respect to population structure. To focus the discussion, we concentrate on malaria and show that the previously derived result, f = 1 - 2z(*), does not depend on the artificial assumptions about population structure that were previously made. Not only does this justify the use of sex ratio as an indirect measure of f, but also we argue that it may actually be preferable to measure f by measuring sex ratios, rather than by measuring departures from Hardy-Weinberg genotypic proportions both in malaria and parasites more generally. PMID:11934369

  4. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  5. Modification of Einstein A Coefficient in Dissipative Gas Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Cao, Hui; Qin, Ke-Cheng

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous radiation in dissipative gas medium such as plasmas is investigated by Langevin equations and the modified Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. Since the refractive index of gas medium is expected to be nearly unity, we shall first neglect the medium polarization effect. We show that absorption in plasmas may in certain case modify the Einstein A coefficient significantly and cause a pit in the A coefficient-density curves for relatively low temperature plasmas and also a pit in the A coefficient-temperature curves. In the next, the effect of medium polarization is taken into account in addition. To our surprise, its effect in certain case is quite significant. The dispersive curves show different behaviors in different region of parameters.

  6. Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes. Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed in which a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream--the tracer gas being desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas. The slug-injection and constant-rate injection methods of performing gas tracer desorption measurements are described. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, methods of injection, sampling and analysis, and computational techniques to compute desorption and reaeration coefficients. (Author 's abstract)

  7. On the Fast Evaluation Method of Temperature and Gas Mixing Ratio Weighting Functions for Remote Sensing of Planetary Atmospheres in Thermal IR and Microwave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of weighting functions in the atmospheric remote sensing is usually the most computer-intensive part of the inversion algorithms. We present an analytic approach to computations of temperature and mixing ratio weighting functions that is based on our previous results but the resulting expressions use the intermediate variables that are generated in computations of observable radiances themselves. Upwelling radiances at the given level in the atmosphere and atmospheric transmittances from space to the given level are combined with local values of the total absorption coefficient and its components due to absorption of atmospheric constituents under study. This makes it possible to evaluate the temperature and mixing ratio weighting functions in parallel with evaluation of radiances. This substantially decreases the computer time required for evaluation of weighting functions. Implications for the nadir and limb viewing geometries are discussed.

  8. ABSORPTION OF p MODES BY THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rekha; Hindman, Bradley W.; Braun, Doug C.; Birch, Aaron C.

    2009-04-10

    We study the interaction between p modes and the many magnetic fibrils that lace the solar convection zone. In particular, we investigate the resulting absorption of p-mode energy by the fibril magnetic field. Through mechanical buffeting, the p modes excite tube waves on the magnetic fibrils-in the form of longitudinal sausage waves and transverse kink waves. The tube waves propagate up and down the magnetic fibrils and out of the p-mode cavity, thereby removing energy from the incident acoustic waves. We compute the absorption coefficient associated with this damping mechanism and model the absorption that would be observed for magnetic plage. We compare our results to the absorption coefficient that is measured using the local-helioseismic technique of ridge-filtered holography. We find that, depending on the mode order and the photospheric boundary conditions, we can achieve absorption coefficients for simulated plage that exceed 50%. The observed increase of the absorption coefficient as a function of frequency is reproduced for all model parameters.

  9. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  10. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  11. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  12. Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.

    1996-01-01

    Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)

  13. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  14. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  15. Identities for generalized hypergeometric coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Louck, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Generalizations of hypergeometric functions to arbitrarily many symmetric variables are discussed, along with their associated hypergeometric coefficients, and the setting within which these generalizations arose. Identities generalizing the Euler identity for {sub 2}F{sub 1}, the Saalschuetz identity, and two generalizations of the {sub 4}F{sub 3} Bailey identity, among others, are given. 16 refs.

  16. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  17. Diffusion coefficients of actinide and lanthanide ions in molten Li[sub 2]BeF[sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu; Ito, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    In the conceptual design of molten salt breeder reactors (MSBR) developed at ORNL, molten fluoride mixtures are used as the fuel carrier and coolant. The fuel salt must be reprocessed continuously in order to meet a high breeding ratio. The main function of the reprocessing are to isolate [sup 233]Pa from the neutron flux and to remove the fission product lanthanides having high neutron absorption cross sections. The processing method involves the reductive extraction of these components from the fuel salt into liquid bismuth solutions in a two phase contacting system. Diffusion coefficients of actinide and lanthanide ions in molten Li[sub 2]BeF[sub 4] were measured in the temperature range from 813 to 1,023 K by a capillary method. The diffusion coefficients of both ions are unusually high, considering the high viscosity of the liquids. The dependence of the diffusion coefficients on temperature and ionic charge are discussed in terms of the theories of Stokes and Einstein.

  18. Enhanced absorption in silicon metamaterials waveguide structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouche, Houria; Shabat, Mohammed M.

    2016-07-01

    Metamaterial waveguide structures for silicon solar cells are a novel approach to antireflection coating structures that can be used for the achievement of high absorption in silicon solar cells. This paper investigates numerically the possibility of improving the performance of a planar waveguide silicon solar cell by incorporating a pair of silicon nitride/metamaterial layer between a semi-infinite glass cover layer and a semi-infinite silicon substrate layer. The optimized layer thicknesses of the pair are determined under the solar spectrum AM1.5 by the effective average reflectance method. The transmission and reflection coefficients are derived by the transfer matrix method for values of metamaterial's refractive index in visible and near-infrared radiation. In addition, the absorption coefficient is examined for several angles of incidence of the transverse electric polarized (TE), transverse magnetic polarized (TM) and the total (TE&TM) guided waves. Numerical results provide an extremely high absorption. The absorptivity of the structure achieves greater than 98 %.

  19. Uptake coefficients for biosolids-amended dryland winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids regulations developed in the United States employed risk assessment impacts of trace element additions on plant uptake. The US Environmental Protection Agency adapted the uptake coefficient (ratio of plant concentration to quantity of element added) when developing limitations on selected...

  20. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  1. Absorptive carbon nanotube electrodes: Consequences of optical interference loss in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Jeffrey G.; de Volder, Michaël F. L.; Cheyns, David; Heremans, Paul; Rand, Barry P.

    2015-04-01

    devices. Additionally, other candidate absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics were simulated with absorptive contacts, elucidating device design in the absence of optical interference and reflection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: An animation of the MWCNT spray coating process, and five figures, including: a photograph of completed devices with MWCNT electrodes, performance metrics for devices with photoactive layer thickness up to 3000 nm, contour plots of simulated devices used to build Fig. 5, simulation data for perovskite devices, and a contour plot of the simplified equation of photoactive layer thickness required to attain a specified photocurrent ratio (x-axis) and absorption coefficient (y-axis). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01119a

  2. Absorption of ultraviolet radiation by antarctic phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Vernet, M.; Mitchell, B.G. )

    1990-01-09

    Antarctic phytoplankton contain UV-absorbing compounds that may block damaging radiation. Compounds that absorb from 320-340 nm were observed in spectral absorption of both particulates and in methanol extracts of the particulates. The decrease in the total concentration of these UV compounds with respect to chlorophyll a, as measured by the ratio of in vitro absorption at 335 nm to absorption at 665 nm is variable and decreases with depth. We observed up to 5-fold decrease in this ratio for samples within the physically mixes surface layer. The absorption of UV radiation in methanol extracts, which peaks from 320 to 340 nm, may be composed of several compounds. Shifts in peak absorption with depth (for example, from 331 nm at surface to 321 nm at 75 m), may be interpreted as a change in composition. Ratios of protective yellow xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin) to photosynthetic fucoxanthin-like pigments have highest values in surface waters. As these pigments also absorb in the near UV, their function might extend to protection as well as utilization of UV radiation for photosynthesis. We document strong absorption in the UV from 320-330 nm for Antarctic marine particulates. Below this region of the solar energy spectrum, absolute energy levels of incident radiation drop off dramatically. Only wavelengths shorter than about 320 nm will be significantly enhanced due to ozone depletion. If the absorption we observed serves a protective role for phytoplankton photosynthesis, it appears the peak band is in the region where solar energy increases rapidly, and not in the region where depletion would cause significant variations in absolute flux.

  3. The retrieval of scattering coefficient of marine particles from polarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Amir; Gilerson, Alex; Stepinski, Jan; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Samir

    2013-09-01

    Polarized light in the oceans carries intrinsic information that can be utilized to estimate the optical and microphysical properties of the oceanic hydrosols. It is especially sensitive to the scattering coefficient, which cannot be retrieved from the unpolarized light used in current ocean color remote sensing algorithms. Through the unpolarized remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), these classical algorithms can only estimate backscattering coefficients bb, but the total scattering coefficient b could be solely retrieved based on the characteristics of polarized light. The correlation is quantified in this paper. Based on extensive simulations using the vector radiative transfer program RayXP, the attenuation-to-absorption ratio (c/a), from which b is readily computed, is shown to be closely related to the degree of linear polarization (DoLP). The relationship is investigated for the upwelling polarized light for several wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum, for a complete set of viewing geometries, and for varying concentrations of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and color dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the aquatic environment. It is shown that there is an excellent correlation between the DoLP and c/a for a wide range of viewing geometries. That correlation is investigated theoretically using fitting techniques, which show that it depends not only on the general composition of water but also on the particle size distribution (PSD) of the (mainly non-algal) particles. A large dataset of Stokes components for various water compositions, measured in the field with a hyperspectral and multi-angular polarimeter, then provides the opportunity to validate the parameterized relationship between DOLP and c/a. This study opens the possibility for the retrieval of additional inherent optical properties (IOPs) from air- or space-borne DoLP measurements of the ocean.

  4. Optical absorption in ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, C. H.; Land, C. E.

    1984-08-01

    Optical absorption measurements have been performed on unmodified and on ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics using the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique. Bulk absorption coefficients depend on the average grain size of the material while the absorption associated with the ion-damaged layers does not. The damage-induced surface absorptance correlates well with the photosensitivity observed in implanted PLZT devices, supporting earlier models for the enhanced imaging efficiency of the materials.

  5. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, M.K.; Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu; John, Honey

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  6. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  7. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  8. Transport coefficients of He(+) ions in helium.

    PubMed

    Viehland, Larry A; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R; Wright, Timothy G

    2016-02-21

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of (4)He(+) in (4)He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X(2)Σu (+) and A(2)Σg (+) states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of (4)He(+) in (4)He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:26896985

  9. Transport coefficients of He+ ions in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehland, Larry A.; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of 4He+ in 4He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X2Σu+ and A2Σg+ states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of 4He+ in 4He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects.

  10. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Heald, Colette L.; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; de Sá, Suzane S.; Martin, Scot T.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Watson, Thomas B.; Aiken, Allison C.; Springston, Stephen R.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-10-01

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However, the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood, leading to large uncertainties in modeling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regarding the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new AAE method which improves upon previous approaches by using the information from the wavelength-dependent measurements themselves and by allowing for an atmospherically relevant range of BC properties, rather than fixing these at a single assumed value. We note that constraints on BC optical properties and mixing state would help further improve this method. We apply this method to multiwavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites. We estimate that BrC globally contributes up to 40 % of the seasonally averaged absorption at 440 nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with the BC / OA mass ratio. Based on the variability in BC properties and BC / OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.5 m2 g-1 for OA-MAC at 440 nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE388/440 nm for BrC is generally ˜ 4 worldwide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of observations at two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of

  11. Rotordynamic coefficients for stepped labyrinth gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1989-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a stepped labyrinth gas seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are presented in the form of a parametric study, since there are no known experimental data for the rotordynamic coefficients of stepped labyrinth gas seals. The parametric study investigates the relative rotordynamic stability of convergent, straight and divergent stepped labyrinth gas seals. The results show that, generally, the divergent seal is more stable, rotordynamically, than the straight or convergent seals. The results also show that the teeth-on-stator seals are not always more stable, rotordynamically, then the teeth-on-rotor seals as was shown by experiment by Childs and Scharrer (1986b) for a 15 tooth seal.

  12. Study of Dispersion Coefficient Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, K. R.; Bressan, C. K.; Pires, M. S. G.; Canno, L. M.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    The issue of water pollution has worsened in recent times due to releases, intentional or not, of pollutants in natural water bodies. This causes several studies about the distribution of pollutants are carried out. The water quality models have been developed and widely used today as a preventative tool, ie to try to predict what will be the concentration distribution of constituent along a body of water in spatial and temporal scale. To understand and use such models, it is necessary to know some concepts of hydraulic high on their application, including the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study aims to conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the channel dispersion coefficient, yielding more information about their direct determination in the literature.

  13. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  14. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  15. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  16. Correlation between cosmic noise absorption and VHF coherent echo intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevitch, R. A.; Honary, F.

    2005-07-01

    We present examples and statistical analysis of the events with statistically significant correlation between the cosmic noise absorption (CNA) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the VHF coherent echo intensity in the area monitored simultaneously by an imaging riometer and two oblique-sounding coherent VHF radars in Northern Scandinavia. By only considering the observations from the narrow riometer beams comparable (in terms of the intersection with the ionosphere) with the VHF radar cells, we identify ~200 one-hour high correlation periods (HCPs) for 2 years near the solar cycle maximum, 2000 2001. The HCP occurrence is maximized in the afternoon (12:00 17:00 UT, MLT≅UT+3), with the secondary peak near the midnight (21:00 02:00 UT). Relative to the VHF echo occurrence, HCPs occur more frequently from 11:00 to 20:00 UT. The diurnal variation of HCP occurrence is similar to that of the 1-h intervals with the lowest mean absorption A<0.25dB.

    The HCPs are observed more frequently during the winter months, which, combined with the fact that VHF echoes observed during HCPs exhibit features typical for field-aligned E-region irregularities, makes their association with the polar mesospheric echoes (for which some positive CNA/SNR correlation has been reported in the past) very unlikely. Instead, we attribute the high positive CNA/SNR correlation to the synchronous, to a first approximation, variation of the particle fluxes for two different but close sets of energies.

    By considering the dependence of the CNA/SNR correlation coefficients for both VHF radars (CA1 and CA2) upon the correlation between SNRs for two radars (C12), we show that both coefficients, CA1 and CA2, and the agreement between them decrease drastically with a C12 decrease, which we interpreted through the progressively increasing role of the spatial inhomogeneity of the processes leading to the enhanced CNA and SNR. In this situation

  17. An in silico skin absorption model for fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Schultz, Terry; Bhatia, Sneha

    2014-12-01

    Fragrance materials are widely used in cosmetics and other consumer products. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) evaluates the safety of these ingredients and skin absorption is an important parameter in refining systemic exposure. Currently, RIFM's safety assessment process assumes 100% skin absorption when experimental data are lacking. This 100% absorption default is not supportable and alternate default values were proposed. This study aims to develop and validate a practical skin absorption model (SAM) specific for fragrance material. It estimates skin absorption based on the methodology proposed by Kroes et al. SAM uses three default absorption values based on the maximum flux (J(max)) - namely, 10%, 40%, and 80%. J(max) may be calculated by using QSAR models that determine octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)), water solubility (S) and permeability coefficient (K(p)). Each of these QSAR models was refined and a semi-quantitative mechanistic model workflow is presented. SAM was validated with a large fragrance-focused data set containing 131 materials. All resulted in predicted values fitting the three-tiered absorption scenario based on Jmax ranges. This conservative SAM may be applied when fragrance material lack skin absorption data.

  18. [Decomposing total suspended particle absorption based on the spectral correlation relationship].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Fen; Cao, Wen-Xi; Yang, Ding-Tian; Zhao, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A model for estimating the contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles to the total particulate absorption coefficient was developed based on their separate spectral relationships, and a constrained nonlinear optimization code was used to realize the spectral decomposition. The spectral absorption of total particulate matter including phytoplankton and nonalgal particles was measured using the filter-pad method during two cruises in autumn in Northern South China Sea. Using the dataset collected in 2004, the spectral relationships of particle absorption coefficients were examined and the results showed that the phytoplankton absorption coefficients at various wavebands could be well expressed by aph (443) as the second-order quadratic equations; and the nonalgal particle absorption (aNAP(lambda)) could be successfully modeled with the simple exponential function. Based on these spectral relationships, we developed this partition model. The model was tested using the independently measured absorption by phytoplankton and nonalgal materials which were obtained in 2005 from the same area. The test results showed that the computed spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles were consistent with in situ measurement. Good correlations were fo und between the comput ed phytoplankton absorption coefficient and the measured value,with the determination coefficients (r2) being higher than 0.97 and slopes being around 1.0; and the RMSE values could be controlled within 17% over the main absorption wavebands such as 443, 490 and 683 nm. Compared with the other two existing models from Bricaud et al. and Oubelkheir et al., this method shows many advantages for local applications. Moreover, this model does not need any information about pigment concentrations and the selected spectral bands are consistent with the ocean color satellite sensor. This method could also be used in the total absorption coefficient decomposition which provides

  19. Ionization coefficients in gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, D.; Šašić, O.; Jovanović, J.; Radmilović-Rađenović, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2007-03-01

    We have tested the application of the common E/N ( E—electric field, N—gas number density) or Wieland approximation [Van Brunt, R.J., 1987. Common parametrizations of electron transport, collision cross section, and dielectric strength data for binary gas mixtures. J. Appl. Phys. 61 (5), 1773-1787.] and the common mean energy (CME) combination of the data for pure gases to obtain ionization coefficients for mixtures. Test calculations were made for Ar-CH4, Ar-N2, He-Xe and CH4-N2 mixtures. Standard combination procedure gives poor results in general, due to the fact that the electron energy distribution is considerably different in mixtures and in individual gases at the same values of E/N. The CME method may be used for mixtures of gases with ionization coefficients that do not differ by more than two orders of magnitude which is better than any other technique that was proposed [Marić, D., Radmilović-Rađenović, M., Petrović, Z.Lj., 2005. On parametrization and mixture laws for electron ionization coefficients. Eur. Phys. J. D 35, 313-321.].

  20. The interpretation of selection coefficients.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H; Servedio, M R

    2015-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have an array of powerful theoretical techniques that can accurately predict changes in the genetic composition of populations. Changes in gene frequencies and genetic associations between loci can be tracked as they respond to a wide variety of evolutionary forces. However, it is often less clear how to decompose these various forces into components that accurately reflect the underlying biology. Here, we present several issues that arise in the definition and interpretation of selection and selection coefficients, focusing on insights gained through the examination of selection coefficients in multilocus notation. Using this notation, we discuss how its flexibility-which allows different biological units to be identified as targets of selection-is reflected in the interpretation of the coefficients that the notation generates. In many situations, it can be difficult to agree on whether loci can be considered to be under "direct" versus "indirect" selection, or to quantify this selection. We present arguments for what the terms direct and indirect selection might best encompass, considering a range of issues, from viability and sexual selection to kin selection. We show how multilocus notation can discriminate between direct and indirect selection, and describe when it can do so. PMID:25790030

  1. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  2. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  3. Observation of Ortho-Para Dependence of Pressure Broadening Coefficient in Acetylene νb{1}+νb{3} Vibration Band Using Dual-Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, Kana; Okubo, Sho; Inaba, Hajime; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Sasada, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koichi MT

    2016-06-01

    We observe that the pressure-broadening coefficients depend on the ortho-para levels. The spectrum is taken with a dual-comb spectrometer which has the resolution of 48 MHz and the frequency accuracy of 8 digit when the signal-to-noise ratio is more than 20. In this study, about 4.4-Tz wide spectra of the P(31) to R(31) transitions in the νb{1}+νb{3} vibration band of 12C_2H_2 are observed at the pressure of 25, 60, 396, 1047, 1962 and 2654 Pa. Each rotation-vibration absorption line is fitted to Voight function and we determined pressure-broadening coefficients for each rotation-vibration transition. The Figure shows pressure broadening coefficient as a function of m. Here m is J"+1 for R and -J" for P-branch. The graph shows obvious dependence on ortho and para. We fit it to Pade function considering the population ratio of three-to-one for the ortho and para levels. This would lead to detailed understanding of the pressure boarding mechanism. S. Okubo et al., Applied Physics Express 8, 082402 (2015)

  4. Effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on absorption properties in eutrophic shallow lakes: field and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yin, Yan; Wang, Mingzhu; Liu, Xiaohan

    2012-05-21

    We investigated phytoplankton absorption properties of Lake Taihu, in the spring and summer of 2005 and 2006, and for 17 days studied laboratory cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus (chlorophyta) and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanophyta) to determine the effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on the absorption properties. There were significant seasonal differences in phytoplankton community composition and absorption coefficients. In spring, the phytoplankton community was dominated by chlorophyta with large cells, whereas in summer was dominated by cyanophyta with small cells. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients increased significantly from spring to summer, with the increase in chlorophyll a (Chla) concentration. In addition, Chla-specific absorption coefficients increased with the phytoplankton community succession from chlorophyta to cyanophyta. In culture, the cells density of S. obliquus was generally lower than that of M. aeruginosa, and Chla concentrations of S. obliquus were significantly higher than those of M. aeruginosa. Correspondingly, the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of S. obliquus were significantly lower than those of M. aeruginosa. Significant exponential correlations were found between absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients and Chla concentration for S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa. In addition, we developed a model to predict absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients using Chla concentration and cell size when data from two species was grouped together. Field and experimental results both showed that the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of cyanophyta were significantly higher than those of chlorophyta. The variability in specific absorption can attributed to phytoplankton community composition, cell size and pigment composition. As phytoplankton community composition changed significantly with season in the lake, and as variation in the cell sizes and accessory pigments of the phytoplankton

  5. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  6. Absorption of infrared radiation by electrons in the field of a neutral hydrogen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical expression for the absorption coefficient is developed from a relationship between the cross-section for inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the cross-section for electron-atom momentum transfer; it is accurate for those photon frequencies v and temperatures such that hv/kT is small. The determination of the absorption of infrared radiation by free-free transitions of the negative hydrogen ion has been extended to higher temperatures. A simple analytical expression for the absorption coefficient has been derived.

  7. Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of laser induced selective photothermolysis is to induced thermal damage to specific targets in such a manner that the temperature of the surrounding tissue is maintained below the threshold for thermal damage. The selectivity is obtained by selection of a proper wavelength and pulse duration. The technique is presently being used in the clinic for removal of port-wine stains. The presence of melanin in the epidermal layer can represent a limitation to the selectivity. Melanin absorption drops off significantly with increasing wavelength, but is significant in the entire wavelength region where the blood absorption is high. Treatment of port-wine stain in patients with high skin pigmentation may therefore give overheating of the epidermis, resulting in epidermal necrosis. Melanosomal heating is dependent on the energy and duration of the laser pulse. The heating mechanism for time scales less than typically 1 microsecond(s) corresponds to a transient local heating of the individual melanosomes. For larger time scales, heat diffusion out of the melanosomes become of increased importance, and the temperature distribution will reach a local steady state condition after typically 10 microsecond(s) . For even longer pulse duration, heat diffusing from neighboring melanosomes becomes important, and the temperature rise in a time scale from 100 - 500 microsecond(s) is dominated by this mechanism. The epidermal heating during the typical 450 microsecond(s) pulse used for therapy is thus dependent on the average epidermal melanin content rather than on the absorption coefficient of the individual melanosomes. This study will present in vivo measurements of the epidermal melanin absorption of human skin when exposed to short laser pulses (< 0.1 microsecond(s) ) from a Q-switched ruby laser and with long laser pulses (approximately 500 microsecond(s) ) from a free-running ruby laser or a long pulse length flashlamp pumped dye laser. The epidermal melanin

  8. Drag coefficient and settling velocity for particles of cylindrical shape

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2008-01-01

    Solid particles of cylindrical shape play a significant role in many separations processes. Explicit equations for the drag coefficient and the terminal velocity of free-falling cylindrical particles have been developed in this work. The developed equations are based on available experimental data for falling cylindrical particles in all flow regimes. The aspect ratio (i.e., length-over-diameter ratio) has been used to account for the particle shape. Comparisons with correlations proposed by other researchers using different parameters to account for the geometry are presented. Good agreement is found for small aspect ratios, and increasing differences appear when the aspect ratio increases. The aspect ratio of cylindrical particles satisfactorily accounts for the geometrical influence on fluid flow of settling particles.

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. The virial coefficients of hard hypersphere binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, E.; Almarza, N. G.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Bermejo, F. J.

    The third, fourth and fifth virial coefficients of hard hypersphere binary mixtures with dimensionality d = 4, 5 have been calculated for size ratios R ≥0.1, R ı σ22 / σ11 , where σ ii is the diameter of component i . The composition independent partial virial coefficients have been evaluated by Monte Carlo integration of the corresponding Mayer modified star diagrams. The results are compared with the predictions of Santos, S., Yuste, S. B., and Lopez de Haro, M., 1999, Molec. Phys ., 96 , 1 of the equation of state of a multicomponent mixture of hard hyperspheres, and the good agreement gives strong support to the validity of that recipe.

  13. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  14. Heat transfer coefficients of dilute flowing gas-solids suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, R. S.; Pfeffer, R.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients of air-glass, argon-glass, and argon-aluminum suspensions were measured in horizontal and vertical tubes. The glass, 21.6 and 36.0 micron diameter particles, was suspended at gas Reynolds numbers between 11,000 and 21,000 and loading ratios between 0 and 2.5. The presence of particles generally reduced the heat transfer coefficient. The circulation of aluminum powder in the 0.870 inch diameter closed loop system produced tenacious deposits on protuberances into the stream. In the vertical test section, the Nusselt number reduction was attributed to viscous sublayer thickening; in the horizontal test section to particle deposition.

  15. Air broadening coefficients for the ν3 band of hydroperoxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamida, Maya; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2014-11-01

    Using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the room-temperature pressure broadening coefficients for hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) in nitrogen and oxygen over the 1060.0-1065.5 cm-1 range of the ν3 band. The HO2 radicals were produced by flash photolysis of a chlorine/1,4-cyclohexadiene/oxygen mixture. The 20 measured absorption profiles were analyzed with Voigt functions. Air broadening coefficients were estimated from the nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening results and compared with previous results. We discuss the dependence of air broadening on rotational states.

  16. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  17. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  18. Inclusion Analysis and Absorption Measurement in Nonlinear Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L L

    2005-08-26

    Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) is a newly developed nonlinear optical crystal used for second harmonic generation in the Mercury laser. As with any new crystal, optical characterization of the material properties needs to be fully investigated. We are developing two new techniques to detect inclusions and measure optical absorption. With the side illuminating detection examination (SIDE) method, we hope to identify and map the size, density, and the morphology of inclusions. The multi-pass absorption technique (MPAT) will be used to help determine the absorption coefficient of various finished crystalline pieces at near-infrared wavelengths.

  19. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  20. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  1. Coefficient of thermal expansion of fluorinert as a function of volume percent absorbed air

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The relationship between the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion of liquid Fluorinert FC-86 and the volume percent of absorbed air was examined experimentally. A special test apparatus was built for this purpose. A floating liquid seal was used to isolate the Fluorinert sample from the atmosphere. This prevented gas absorption during thermal cycling yet allowed the sample to expand and contract freely during testing. It was found that the coefficient of thermal expansion is not influenced by the percentage of absorbed air.

  2. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  3. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  4. Solvent drag effect in drug intestinal absorption. II. Studies on drug absorption clearance and water influx.

    PubMed

    Karino, A; Hayashi, M; Awazu, S; Hanano, M

    1982-09-01

    In order to study the solvent drag effect, it was shown that back flux of absorbed drug from blood to intestinal lumen can be ignored but the back flux of water cannot. Then, apparent water influx was calculated as a new measure of solvent drag based on the model in which the back flux of D2O from blood to lumen was considered during absorption. Consequently, the correlation between drug absorption clearance (CLdrug) and apparent water influx was highly significant for benzoic acid, salicylic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, antipyrine, cephalexin (CEX) and cefroxadine (CXD), resulting the high solvent drag effects were detected. The mean values of the slopes in the regression lines of CLdrug versus apparent water influx, i.e., sieving coefficients, were smaller than one for benzoic acid and salicylic acid, but the values were not significantly different from one. The sieving coefficients of the other drugs were significantly smaller than one. From these results, the molecular size dependence in the reflection from the intestinal membrane during absorption was clearly shown. And the intercepts of the regression lines including diffusive permeabilities were found to be significantly different from zero in CEX and CXD. On the basis of the sieving coefficients and intercept values obtained in such ways, the appropriateness of this model was discussed.

  5. Water sorption and diffusion coefficient through an experimental dental resin.

    PubMed

    Costella, A M; Trochmann, J L; Oliveira, W S

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric composites have been widely used as dental restorative materials. A fundamental knowledge and understanding of the behavior of these materials in the oral cavity is essential to improve their properties and performance. In this paper we computed the data set of water absorption through an experimental dental resin blend using specimen discs of different thicknesses to estimate the diffusion coefficient. The resins were produced using Bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate, Bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate and Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomers. The water sorption test method was based on International Standard ISO 4049 "Dentistry-Polymer-based filling materials". Results show a diffusion coefficient around 6.38 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s, within a variance of 0.01%, which is in good agreement with the values reported in the literature and represents a very suitable value.

  6. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-03-21

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

  7. Identification of a dissipation coefficient by a variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baev, A. V.; Kutsenko, N. V.

    2006-10-01

    A generalized inverse problem for the identification of the absorption coefficient for a hyperbolic system is considered. The well-posedness of the problem is examined. It is proved that the regular part of the solution is an L 2 function, which reduces the inverse problem to minimizing the error functional. The gradient of the functional is determined in explicit form from the adjoint problem, and approximate formulas for its calculation are derived. A regularization algorithm for the solution of the inverse problem is considered. Numerical results obtained for various excitation sources are displayed.

  8. Measurements of spectral attenuation coefficients in the lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral transmission was measured for water samples taken in the lower Chesapeake Bay to allow characterization of several optical properties. The coefficients of total attenuation, particle attenuation, and absorption by dissolved organic matter were determined over a wavelength range from 3500 A to 8000 A. The data were taken over a 3 year period and at a number of sites so that an indication of spatial and temporal variations could be obtained. The attenuations determined in this work are, on the average, 10 times greater than those obtained by Hulburt in 1944, which are commonly accepted in the literature for Chesapeake Bay attenuation.

  9. Testing ion-neutral interaction potentials using calculated ion transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Hogan, M J

    2006-10-28

    Several commonly measured ion transport coefficients were investigated in order to determine their sensitivity for testing and comparing proposed ion-neutral interaction potentials. A variety of positive ions, negative ions, neutrals, and temperatures were included in order to draw as general a conclusion as possible. All transport coefficients considered were found to be sufficiently sensitive to be used to clearly distinguish between less and more accurate interaction potentials. It was also found that the longitudinal diffusion coefficient is the most sensitive test, followed by both the transverse diffusion coefficient and the ratio of the longitudinal diffusion coefficient to mobility, followed by the ratio of the transverse diffusion coefficient to mobility and that the mobility is the least sensitive test. When presently achievable levels of experimental error were also taken into account, however, there was no significant difference in the sensitivities. PMID:17092091

  10. Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.

  11. Use of Reflectance Ratios as a Proxy for Coastal Water Constituent Monitoring in the Pearl River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Li-Gang; Chen, Shui-Sen; Li, Dong; Li, Hong-Li

    2009-01-01

    Spectra, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS, in mg/L) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, ag(400) at 400 nm) sampled in stations in 44 different locations on December 18, 19 and 21, in 2006 were measured and analyzed. The studied field covered a large variety of optically different waters, the absorption coefficient of CDOM ([ag(400)] in m-1) varied between 0.488 and 1.41 m-1, and the TSS concentrations (mg/L) varied between 7.0 and 241.1 mg/L. In order to detect salinity of the Pearl River Estuary, we analyzed the spectral properties of TSS and CDOM, and the relationships between field water reflectance spectra and water constituents' concentrations based on the synchronous in-situ and satellite hyper-spectral image analysis. A good correlation was discovered (the positive correlation by linear fit), between in-situ reflectance ratio R680/R527 and TSS concentrations (R2 = 0.65) for the salinity range of 1.74-22.12. However, the result also showed that the absorption coefficient of CDOM was not tightly correlated with reflectance. In addition, we also observed two significant relationships (R2 > 0.77), one between TSS concentrations and surface salinity and the other between the absorption coefficient of CDOM and surface salinity. Finally, we develop a novel method to understand surface salinity distribution of estuarine waters from the calibrated EO-1 Hyperion reflectance data in the Pearl River Estuary, i.e. channels with high salinity and shoals with low salinity. The EO-1 Hyperion derived surface salinity and TSS concentrations were validated using in-situ data that were collected on December 21, 2006, synchronous with EO-1 Hyperion satellite imagery acquisition. The results showed that the semi-empirical relationships are capable of predicting salinity from EO-1 Hyperion imagery in the Pearl River Estuary (RMSE < 2‰). PMID:22389623

  12. Influence of electrically induced refraction and absorption on the measurement of spin current by pockels effect in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Houquan; She, Weilong

    2015-03-14

    The pockels effect could be utilized to measure spin current in semiconductors for linear electro-optic coefficient can be induced by spin current. When dc electric field is applied, the carriers will shift in k space, which could lead to the change of refraction and absorption coefficients. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the induced change of the refraction and absorption coefficients on the measurement of spin current by pockels effect in GaAs.

  13. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  14. Time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for chemical kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheps, Leonid; Chandler, David W.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental measurements of elementary reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios are essential to our understanding of many fundamentally important processes in Combustion Chemistry. However, such measurements are often impossible because of a lack of adequate detection techniques. Some of the largest gaps in our knowledge concern some of the most important radical species, because their short lifetimes and low steady-state concentrations make them particularly difficult to detect. To address this challenge, we propose a novel general detection method for gas-phase chemical kinetics: time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (TR-BB-CEAS). This all-optical, non-intrusive, multiplexed method enables sensitive direct probing of transient reaction intermediates in a simple, inexpensive, and robust experimental package.

  15. Semi-active control of piezoelectric coating's underwater sound absorption by combining design of the shunt impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Huang, Aigen; Li, Qihu

    2015-10-01

    Piezoelectric shunt damping technology has been applied in the field of underwater sound absorption in recent years. In order to achieve broadband echo reduction, semi-active control of sound absorption of multi-layered piezoelectric coating by shunt damping is significant. In this paper, a practical method is proposed to control the underwater sound absorption coefficients of piezoelectric coating layers by combining design of the shunt impedance that allows certain sound absorption coefficients at setting frequencies. A one-dimensional electro-acoustic model of the piezoelectric coating and the backing is established based on the Mason equivalent circuit theory. First, the shunt impedance of the coating is derived under the constraint of sound absorption coefficient at one frequency. Then, taking the 1-3 piezoelectric composite coating as an example, the sound absorption properties of the coating shunted to the designed shunt impedance are investigated. Next, on the basis of that, an iterative method for two constrained frequencies and an optimizing algorithm for multiple constrained frequencies are provided for combining design of the shunt impedances. At last, an experimental sample with four piezoelectric material layers is manufactured, of which the sound absorption coefficients are measured in an impedance tube. The experimental results show good agreement with the finite element simulation results. It is proved that a serial R-L circuit can control the peak frequency, maximum and bandwidth of the sound absorption coefficient and the combining R-L circuits shunted to multiple layers can control the sound absorption coefficients at multiple frequencies.

  16. The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, H.

    1979-01-01

    The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.

  17. Optimization of Power Coefficient of Wind Turbine Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajakumar, Sappani; Ravindran, Durairaj; Sivakumar, Mahalingam; Venkatachalam, Gopalan; Muthukumar, Shunmugavelu

    2016-06-01

    In the design of a wind turbine, the goal is to attain the highest possible power output under specified atmospheric conditions. The optimization of power coefficient of horizontal axis wind turbine has been carried out by integration of blade element momentum method and genetic algorithm (GA). The design variables considered are wind velocity, angle of attack and tip speed ratio. The objective function is power coefficient of wind turbine. The different combination of design variables are optimized using GA and then the Power coefficient is optimized. The optimized design variables are validated with the experimental results available in the literature. By this optimization work the optimum design variables of wind turbine can be found economically than experimental work. NACA44XX series airfoils are considered for this optimization work.

  18. The application of reduced absorption cross section on the identification of the compounds with similar function-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Zuo, Jian; Mu, Kai-jun; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Lei-wei; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful tool for materials investigation. The low frequency vibrations were usually investigated by means of absorption coefficient regardless of the refractive index. It leads to the disregard of some inherent low-frequency vibrational information of the chemical compounds. Moreover, due to the scattering inside the sample, there are some distortions of the absorption features, so that the absorption dependent material identification is not valid enough. Here, a statistical parameter named reduced absorption cross section (RACS) is introduced. This can not only help us investigate the molecular dynamics but also distinguish one chemical compound with another which has similar function-groups. Experiments are carried out on L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine and the different mass ratios of their mixtures as an example of the application of RACS. The results come out that the RACS spectrum of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine reserve the spectral fingerprint information of absorption spectrum. The log plot of RACSs of the two amino acids show power-law behavior σR(~ν) ~ (ν~α), and there is a linear relation between the wavenumber and the RACS in the double logarithmic plot. The exponents α, at the same time, are the slopes of the RACS curves in the double logarithmic plot. The big differences of the exponents α between the two amino acids and their mixtures can be seen visually from the slopes of the RACS curves. So we can use RACS analytical method to distinguish some complex compounds with similar function-groups and mixtures from another which has similar absorption peaks in THz region.

  19. Effects of fluid inertia and turbulence on force coefficients for squeeze film dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, L. S.; Vance, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of fluid inertia and turbulence on the force coefficients of squeeze film dampers are investigated analytically. Both the convective and the temporal terms are included in the analysis of inertia effects. The analysis of turbulence is based on friction coefficients currently found in the literature for Poiseuille flow. The effect of fluid inertia on the magnitude of the radial direct inertia coefficient (i.e., to produce an apparent added mass at small eccentricity ratios, due to the temporal terms) is found to be completely reversed at large eccentricity ratios. The reversal is due entirely to the inclusion of the convective inertia terms in the analysis. Turbulence is found to produce a large effect on the direct damping coefficient at high eccentricity ratios. For the long or sealed squeeze film damper at high eccentricity ratios, the damping prediction with turbulence included is an order of magnitude higher than the laminar solution.

  20. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  1. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperatures boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorptions systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system`s components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H{sub 2}O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H{sub 2}O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the User`s Manual.

  2. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  3. Singular topology of optical absorption in biaxial crystals.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; Petit, Yannick; Boulanger, Benoît; Segonds, Patricia; Félix, Corinne; Ménaert, Bertrand; Aka, Gérard

    2009-10-26

    We show for the first time that biaxial crystals exhibit continua of directions of propagation where the absorption coefficient is the same for the two associated polarization modes. This statement is supported by both calculations and experimental data obtained in Nd:YCOB.

  4. Partial-fraction expansion and inverse Laplace transform of a rational function with real coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, F.-C.; Mott, H.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for the partial-fraction expansion of functions which are ratios of polynomials with real coefficients. The expansion coefficients are determined by writing the polynomials as Taylor's series and obtaining the Laurent series expansion of the function. The general formula for the inverse Laplace transform is also derived.

  5. X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access)   Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.

  6. Enhanced visible and near-infrared optical absorption in silicon supersaturated with chalcogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Si H.; Recht, Daniel; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Williams, James S.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    We show that single-crystal silicon supersaturated with sulfur (S), selenium (Se), or tellurium (Te) displays a substantially enhanced absorption coefficient for light with wavelengths of 400 to 1600 nm. Alloys were prepared in silicon on insulator wafers by ion implantation followed by nanosecond pulsed laser melting. Measurements of the absorption coefficient were made by direct transmission through freestanding thin films and by spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  7. Effects of surface roughness and absorption on light propagation in graded-profile waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilenko, S S; Osovitskii, A N

    2011-06-30

    This paper examines the effects of surface roughness and absorption on laser light propagation in graded-profile waveguiding structures. We derive analytical expressions for the scattering and absorption coefficients of guided waves and analyse these coefficients in relation to parameters of the waveguiding structure and the roughness of its boundary. A new approach is proposed to measuring roughness parameters of precision dielectric surfaces. Experimental evidence is presented which supports the main conclusions of the theory. (integraled-optical waweguides)

  8. Ultraviolet Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are typically formed in the atmosphere by the condensation of a myriad of intermediates from the photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many of these partly oxidized molecules have functional groups (chromophores) that absorb at the ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths available in the troposphere (λ ≳ 290 nm). We used the explicit chemical model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics for Organics in the Atmosphere) to estimate UV absorption cross sections for the gaseous and particulate components of SOA from different precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic) and formed in different environments (low and high NOx, day and night). Model predictions are evaluated with laboratory and field measurements of SOA UV optical properties (esp. mass absorption coefficients and single scattering albedo), and implications are presented for surface UV radiation trends, urban actinic flux modification, and SOA lifetimes.

  9. Moisture absorption in thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher; Lenhart, Joseph; Jones, Ronnie; Prabhu, Vivek; Lin, Eric; Wu, Wen-Li

    2003-03-01

    We explore the kinetics and dynamics of moisture transport in a series of poly(hydroxystyrene), poly(tert-butoxycarboxystyrene), and epoxy films as a function of film thickness. Specular X-ray reflectivity is used to monitor the equilibrium swelling in films exposed to water vapor while a quartz crystal microbalance is used to track the kinetics of the absorption process. For relatively thick films we find that the equilibrium swelling is nominally consistent with the bulk moisture absorption properties of the polymer. However, when the film thickness drops below 100 nm, enhanced swelling occurs and the extent of the enhancement increases with resin polarity. Below the same thickness threshold of 100 nm, we also observe a strong retardation in the uptake kinetics, i.e., a decrease in the effective diffusion coefficient of the water. The results are discussed in detail with respect to confinement of the polymer films.

  10. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  11. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Note on Two Generalizations of Coefficient Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.

    1979-01-01

    An important relationship is given for two generalizations of coefficient alpha: (1) Rajaratnam, Cronbach, and Gleser's generalizability formula for stratified-parallel tests, and (2) Raju's coefficient beta. (Author/CTM)

  14. Inbreeding and relatedness coefficients: what do they measure?

    PubMed

    Rousset, F

    2002-05-01

    This paper reviews and discusses what is known about the relationship between identity in state, allele frequency, inbreeding coefficients, and identity by descent in various uses of these terms. Generic definitions of inbreeding coefficients are given, as ratios of differences of probabilities of identity in state. Then some of their properties are derived from an assumption in terms of differences between distributions of coalescence times of different genes. These inbreeding coefficients give an approximate measurement of how much higher the probability of recent coalescence is for some pair of genes relative to another pair. Such a measure is in general not equivalent to identity by descent; rather, it approximates a ratio of differences of probabilities of identity by descent. These results are contrasted with some other formulas relating identity, allele frequency, and inbreeding coefficients. Additional assumptions are necessary to obtain most of them, and some of these assumptions are not always correct, for example when there is localized dispersal. Therefore, definitions based on such formulas are not always well-formulated. By contrast, the generic definitions are both well-formulated and more broadly applicable.

  15. Specialized ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H

    1983-01-01

    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  17. Assessment of internal conversion coefficients for anomalous electric dipole transitions.

    PubMed

    Gorozhankin, V M; Bé, M-M

    2008-01-01

    Sound quantitative knowledge of internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) is important when establishing decay schemes. ICCs are normally derived from efficiency tables and calculation, but for anomalous transitions and some electric dipole transitions (E1) in particular, theoretical values can differ considerably from the few available measured values. Experimentally measured ICCs and their ratios have been compiled, and these data have been used to propose a method based on the existence of measured ratios to determine the total ICC for such transitions. Comparisons have been made with the existing measured values, and good agreement was observed within the uncertainty limits.

  18. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-03-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure.

  19. Evolution of wavelength-dependent mass absorption cross sections of carbonaceous aerosols during the 2010 DOE CARES campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Subramanian, R.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Jobson, B. T.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing require process level optical property models that are built on precise and accurate field observations. Evolution of aerosol optical properties for urban influenced carbonaceous aerosol undergoing transport and mixing with rural air masses was a focal point of the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects (CARES) campaign near Sacramento, CA in summer 2010. Urban aerosol was transported from Sacramento, CA (T0) to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to a rural site located near Cool, CA (T1). Aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients were measured at the T0 and T1 sites using integrated photoacoustic acoustic/nephelometer instruments (PASS-3 and PASS-UV) at 781, 532, 405, and 375 nm. Single particle soot photometry (SP2) instrumentation was used to monitor black carbon (BC) mass at both sites. Combining data from these sensors allows estimate of the wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficient (MAC(λ)) and partitioning of MAC(λ) into contributions from the BC core and from enhancements from coating of BC cores. MAC(λ) measured in this way is free of artifacts associated with filter-based aerosol absorption measurements and takes advantage of the single particle sensitivity of the SP2 instrument, allowing observation of MAC(λ) on 10 minute and faster time scales. Coating was observed to enhance MAC(λ) by 20 - 30 % and different wavelength dependence for MAC(λ) was observed for urban and biomass burning aerosol. Further, T0 - T1 evolution of MAC(λ) was correlated with separately measured NO/NOy ratios and CO/CO2 ratios to understand the effects of aging & transport on MAC(λ) and the implications of aerosol processing that links air quality to radiative forcing on a regional scale. Aircraft observations made from the Gulfstream-1 during CARES are also analyzed to enhance process level understanding of the optical properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosol in the urban-rural interface.

  20. Unusually high sound absorption in topological interlocking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Yuri; Molotnikov, Andrey; Carlesso, Mateus

    2015-04-01

    Topological interlocking materials are a new class of architectured materials, which have a range of unusual mechanical and acoustic properties. We present a novel approach for combating noise pollution based on the concept of topological interlocking. Specifically, we propose to segment monolithic plates into an assembly of topologically interlocked building blocks and show experimentally that this leads to a spectacular increase of the sound absorption coefficient over that in the original material, as exemplified by ceramics. Measurements of the airflow resistance confirmed the primary role of segmentation in enhancing sound absorption capability of the material in the audible frequency range. The absorption coefficient was further boosted by design of the material itself. The new material design proposed poses some interesting challenges to theory of sound wave propagation in heterogeneous media.