Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.
1980-04-01
not observed at low energy level , are developed at high power levels . No matter how low the absorption is. the effect is objectionable at high-energy... levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...Presence of impurities can complicate the exponential tail. particularly at low absorption levels . The impurities may enter 12 the lattice singly or
Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisa, M. H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Hu, T. D.; Xie, Y. N.
2005-12-01
X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained.
Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Chin-Yi
2018-05-01
A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.
Multiple-scattering coefficients and absorption controlled diffusive processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godoy, Salvador; García-Colín, L. S.; Micenmacher, Victor
1999-11-01
Multiple-scattering transmission and reflection coefficients (T,R) are introduced in addition to the diffusion coefficient D for the description of ballistic diffusion in the presence of absorption. For 1D (one-dimensional) systems, the measurement of only one between T and D imposes restrictions on the possible values of the other. If D is measured, then T is bounded between the Landauer and Lambert-Beer equations. Measurements of both (T,D) imply the theoretical knowledge of the microscopic absorption Σa and scattering rΣs cross sections.
Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.
2007-12-01
aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.
Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.
2012-10-01
Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.
Absorption Coefficient of a Semiconductor Thin Film from Photoluminescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, G.; Spindler, C.; Babbe, F.; Rachad, W.; Siebentritt, S.; Nuys, M.; Carius, R.; Li, S.; Platzer-Björkman, C.
2018-06-01
The photoluminescence (PL) of semiconductors can be used to determine their absorption coefficient (α ) using Planck's generalized law. The standard method, suitable only for self-supported thick samples, like wafers, is extended to multilayer thin films by means of the transfer-matrix method to include the effect of the substrate and optional front layers. α values measured on various thin-film solar-cell absorbers by both PL and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) show good agreement. PL measurements are extremely sensitive to the semiconductor absorption and allow us to advantageously circumvent parasitic absorption from the substrate; thus, α can be accurately determined down to very low values, allowing us to investigate deep band tails with a higher dynamic range than in any other method, including spectrophotometry and PDS.
Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.
Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R
2012-06-01
Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.
Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armaly, B. F.
1979-01-01
The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.
Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.
1981-01-01
The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.
Measurement of HCl absorption coefficients with a DF laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bair, C. H.; Allario, F.
1977-01-01
Absorption coefficients in the fundamental P-branch of HCl at several DF laser transitions from 2439.02/cm to 2862.87/cm have been measured experimentally. The 2-1 P(3) DF laser transition has been shown to overlap the P(6) HCl-37 absorption line within the halfwidth of an atmospherically broadened line. The absorption coefficient k was measured to be 5.64 plus or minus 0.28/(atm-cm) for a 0.27% mixture of HCl in N2 at a total pressure of 760 torr. A theoretical and experimental comparison of the pressure dependence of k showed that the 2-1 P(3) DF transition lies 1.32 plus or minus 0.15 GHz from the center of the P(6) HCl absorption line. Applications of these results to differential absorption lidar and to heterodyne detection are discussed.
Photon absorption potential coefficient as a tool for materials engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akande, Raphael Oluwole; Oyewande, Emmanuel Oluwole
2016-09-01
Different atoms achieve ionizations at different energies. Therefore, atoms are characterized by different responses to photon absorption in this study. That means there exists a coefficient for their potential for photon absorption from a photon source. In this study, we consider the manner in which molecular constituents (atoms) absorb photon from a photon source. We observe that there seems to be a common pattern of variation in the absorption of photon among the electrons in all atoms on the periodic table. We assume that the electrons closest to the nucleus (En) and the electrons closest to the outside of the atom (Eo) do not have as much potential for photon absorption as the electrons at the middle of the atom (Em). The explanation we give to this effect is that the En electrons are embedded within the nuclear influence, and similarly, Eo electrons are embedded within the influence of energies outside the atom that there exists a low potential for photon absorption for them. Unlike En and Eo, Em electrons are conditioned, such that there is a quest for balance between being influenced either by the nuclear force or forces external to the atom. Therefore, there exists a higher potential for photon absorption for Em electrons than for En and Eo electrons. The results of our derivations and analysis always produce a bell-shaped curve, instead of an increasing curve as in the ionization energies, for all elements in the periodic table. We obtained a huge data of PAPC for each of the several materials considered. The point at which two or more PAPC values cross one another is termed to be a region of conflicting order of ionization, where all the atoms absorb equal portion of the photon source at the same time. At this point, a greater fraction of the photon source is pumped into the material which could lead to an explosive response from the material. In fact, an unimaginable and unreported phenomenon (in physics) could occur, when two or more PAPCs cross, and
The Free-Free Absorption Coefficients of the Negative Helium Ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, T. L.
1994-08-01
Free-free absorption coefficients of the negative helium ion are calculated by a phaseshift approximation, using continuum data that accurately account for electron-atom correlation and polarization. The approximation is considered to yield results within a few per cent of numerical values for wavelengths greater than 1 m, over the temperature range 1400-10080 K. These coefficients are expected to give the best current estimates of He - continuous absorption. Key words: atomic data - atomic processes - stars: atmospheres - infrared: general.
Measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient with the nonequilibrium process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Liang; Li, Jingxuan; Bai, Hailong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Shanlin; Zhang, Yang
2018-02-01
On the basis of the conventional Jamin interferometer,the improved measuring method is proposed that using a polarization type reentrant Jamin interferometer measures atmospheric aerosol absorption coefficient under the photothermal effect.The paper studies the relationship between the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles and the refractive index change of the atmosphere.In Matlab environment, the variation curves of the output voltage of the interferometer with different concentration aerosol samples under stimulated laser irradiation were plotted.Besides, the paper also studies the relationship between aerosol concentration and the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium.When using the photothermal interferometry the results show that the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium is also increasing with the increasing concentration of aerosol particles,the absorption coefficient and time of aerosol in the process of nonequilibrium are exponentially changing.
Mass attenuation coefficient of chromium and manganese compounds around absorption edge.
Sharanabasappa; Kaginelli, S B; Kerur, B R; Anilkumar, S; Hanumaiah, B
2009-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficient for Potassium dichromate, Potassium chromate and Manganese acetate compounds are measured at different photon energies 5.895, 6.404, 6.490, 7.058, 8.041 and 14.390 keV using Fe-55, Co-57 and 241Am source with Copper target, radioactive sources. The photon intensity is analyzed using a high resolution HPGe detector system coupled to MCA under good geometrical arrangement. The obtained values of mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with theoretical values. This study suggests that measured mass attenuation coefficient values at and near absorption edges differ from the theoretical value by about 5-28%.
Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Philipp H.
1981-10-01
Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.
Protocol to determine accurate absorption coefficients for iron containing transferrins
James, Nicholas G.; Mason, Anne B.
2008-01-01
An accurate protein concentration is an essential component of most biochemical experiments. The simplest method to determine a protein concentration is by measuring the A280, using an absorption coefficient (ε), and applying the Beer-Lambert law. For some metalloproteins (including all transferrin family members) difficulties arise because metal binding contributes to the A280 in a non-linear manner. The Edelhoch method is based on the assumption that the ε of a denatured protein in 6 M guanidine-HCl can be calculated from the number of the tryptophan, tyrosine, and cystine residues. We extend this method to derive ε values for both apo- and iron-bound transferrins. The absorbance of an identical amount of iron containing protein is measured in: 1) 6 M guanidine-HCl (denatured, no iron); 2) pH 7.4 buffer (non-denatured with iron); and 3) pH 5.6 (or lower) buffer with a chelator (non-denatured without iron). Since the iron free apo-protein has an identical A280 under non-denaturing conditions, the difference between the reading at pH 7.4 and the lower pH directly reports the contribution of the iron. The method is fast and consumes ~1 mg of sample. The ability to determine accurate ε values for transferrin mutants that bind iron with a wide range of affinities has proven very useful; furthermore a similar approach could easily be followed to determine ε values for other metalloproteins in which metal binding contributes to the A280. PMID:18471984
Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej
2017-07-01
Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.
Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.
1980-01-01
Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.
Measurements of Soot Mass Absorption Coefficients from 300 to 660 nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Fisher, Al; Helgestad, Taylor; Lambe, Andrew; Sedlacek, Arthur; Smith, Geoffrey; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy; Freedman, Andrew
2016-04-01
Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In particular, the assumed mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot and its variation with wavelength presents a significant uncertainty in the calculation of radiative forcing in global climate change models. As part of the fourth Boston College/Aerodyne soot properties measurement campaign, we have measured the mass absorption coefficient of soot produced by an inverted methane diffusion flame over a spectral range of 300-660 nm using a variety of optical absorption techniques. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS, UC Davis) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm; the absorption coefficient was determined by subtraction. In addition, the absorption coefficients in 8 wavelength bands from 300 to 660 nm were measured using a new broadband photoacoustic absorption monitor (UGA). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The contribution of doubly charged particles to the sample mass was determined using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (DMT). Over a mass range of 1-8 fg, corresponding to differential mobility diameters of ~150 nm to 550 nm, the value of the soot MAC proved to be independent of mass for all wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of the MAC was best fit to a power law with an Absorption Ångstrom Coefficient slightly greater than 1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.
2009-09-01
Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.
Midgley, S M
2004-01-21
A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 < or = Z < or = 20, and the energy range 30-150 keV, the parameterization utilizes four coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin
2016-07-01
The dynamic absorption coefficients of several chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the x-ray interference lithography beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general, the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called chemical sensitivity to account for all the postabsorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which also predicts a quantitative clearing volume and clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of the EUV concepts of clearing volume and clearing radius, which are then defined and quantitatively calculated.
Optimization of the acoustic absorption coefficients of certain functional absorbents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pocsa, V.; Biborosch, L.; Veres, A.; Halpert, E.; Lorian, R.; Botos, T.
1974-01-01
The sound absorption coefficients of some functional absorbents (mineral wool plates) are determined by the reverberation chamber method. The influence of the angle of inclination of the sound absorbing material with respect to the surface to be treated is analyzed as well as the influence of the covering index, defined as the ratio of the designed area of a plate and the area of the treated surface belonging to another plate. As compared with the conventional method of applying sound-absorbing plates, the analyzed structures have a higher technological and economical efficiency. The optimum structure corresponds to an angle of inclination of 15 deg and a covering index of 0.8.
A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping
1989-01-01
A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.
Laboratory measurement of the absorption coefficient of riboflavin for ultraviolet light (365 nm).
Iseli, Hans Peter; Popp, Max; Seiler, Theo; Spoerl, Eberhard; Mrochen, Michael
2011-03-01
Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is an increasingly used treatment technique for stabilizing the cornea in keratoconus. Cross-linking (polymerization) between collagen fibrils is induced by riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light (365 nm). Although reported to reach a constant value at higher riboflavin concentrations, the Lambert-Beer law predicts a linear increase in the absorption coefficient. This work was carried out to determine absorption behavior at different riboflavin concentrations and to further investigate the purported plateau absorption coefficient value of riboflavin and to identify possible bleaching effects. The Lambert-Beer law was used to calculate the absorption coefficient at various riboflavin concentrations. The following investigated concentrations of riboflavin solutions were prepared using a mixture of 0.5% riboflavin and 20% Dextran T500 dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution: 0%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, and were investigated with and without aperture plate implementation. An additional test series measured the transmitted power at selected riboflavin concentrations over time. In diluted solutions, a linear correlation exists between the absorption coefficient and riboflavin concentration. The absorption coefficient reaches a plateau, but this occurs at a higher riboflavin concentration (0.1%) than previously reported (just above 0.04%). Transmitted light power increases over time, indicating a bleaching effect of riboflavin. The riboflavin concentration can be effectively varied as a treatment parameter in a considerably broader range than previously thought. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for Solid Water.
Ho, A K; Paliwal, B R
1986-01-01
The AAPM Task Group 21 protocol provides tables of ratios of average restricted stopping powers and ratios of mean energy-absorption coefficients for different materials. These values were based on the work of Cunningham and Schulz. We have calculated these quantities for Solid Water (manufactured by RMI), using the same x-ray spectra and method as that used by Cunningham and Schulz. These values should be useful to people who are using Solid Water for high-energy photon calibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.
2015-04-01
We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smausz, T.; Kondász, B.; Gera, T.; Ajtai, T.; Utry, N.; Pintér, M.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Budai, J.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.; Hopp, B.
2017-10-01
Absorption coefficient of graphite bulk pressed from 1 to 5 μm-sized crystalline grains was measured in UV-Vis-NIR range with three different methods: (i) determination of pulsed laser ablation rate as the function of laser fluence for different wavelengths (248, 337, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively); (ii) production of aerosol particles by UV laser ablation of the bulk graphite in inert atmosphere and determination of the mass-specific absorption coefficient with a four-wavelength (266, 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively) photoacoustic spectrometer, and (iii) spectroscopic ellipsometry in 250-1000 nm range. Taking into account the wide range of the absorption coefficients of different carbon structures, an overall relatively good agreement was observed for the three methods. The ellipsometric results fit well with the ablation rate measurement, and the data obtained with photoacoustic method are also similar in the UV and NIR region; however, the values were somewhat higher in visible and near-UV range. Taking into account the limitations of the methods, they can be promising candidates for the determination of absorption coefficient when the samples are strongly scattering and there is no possibility to perform transmissivity measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harward, C. N.
1977-01-01
Measurements were performed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of CFM-12 absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation. The absorption coefficients of CFM-12 for CO2 waveguide laser radiation were found to have no spectral structure within small spectral bandwidths around the CO2 waveguide laser lines in the CO2 spectral band for pressures above 20 torr. All of the absorption coefficients for the CO2 laser lines studied are independent of pressure above 100 torr, except for the P(36) laser CO2 spectral band. The absorption coefficients associated with the P(42) line in the same band showed the greatest change with temperature, and it also has the largest value of all the lines studied.
Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grant, William B.
1990-01-01
Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira
1999-02-01
We developed a novel method of obtaining an absorption coefficient which depends on the laser intensity, since a single-photon absorption coefficient of a polymer could not be applied to laser ablation. The relationship between the nonlinear absorption coefficient and the laser intensity was derived from experimental data of transmission and incident laser intensities. Using the nonlinear absorption coefficient of poly(methylmethacrylate) doped with benzil and pyrene, we succeeded in fitting the relationship of etch depth and laser intensity, obtained experimentally, and discussed the energy absorbed by the polymer at the threshold fluence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.
2009-01-01
The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui
2017-09-01
Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy
2018-05-01
Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.
Röttgers, Rüdiger; McKee, David; Utschig, Christian
2014-10-20
The light absorption coefficient of water is dependent on temperature and concentration of ions, i.e. the salinity in seawater. Accurate knowledge of the water absorption coefficient, a, and/or its temperature and salinity correction coefficients, Ψ(T) and Ψ(S), respectively, is essential for a wide range of optical applications. Values are available from published data only at specific narrow wavelength ranges or at single wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions. Ψ(T) and Ψ(S) were therefore spectrophotometrically measured throughout the visible, near, and short wavelength infrared spectral region (400 to ~2700 nm). Additionally, they were derived from more precise measurements with a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) for 400 to 700 nm. When combined with earlier measurements from the literature in the range of 2600 - 14000 nm (wavenumber: 3800 - 700 cm(-1)), the coefficients are provided for 400 to 14000 nm (wavenumber: 25000 to 700 cm(-1)).
Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.
1984-01-01
The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.
Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Courtin, Regis
1988-01-01
The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Baljit; Ghanshyam, C.
2016-11-01
The aim of this study is to quantify the finite spectral bandwidth effect on laser absorption spectroscopy for a wide-band laser source. Experimental analysis reveals that the extinction coefficient of an analyte is affected by the bandwidth of the spectral source, which may result in the erroneous conclusions. An approximate mathematical model has been developed for optical intensities having Gaussian line shape, which includes the impact of source's spectral bandwidth in the equation for spectroscopic absorption. This is done by introducing a suitable first order and second order bandwidth approximation in the Beer-Lambert law equation for finite bandwidth case. The derived expressions were validated using spectroscopic analysis with higher SBW on a test sample, Rhodamine B. The concentrations calculated using proposed approximation, were in significant agreement with the true values when compared with those calculated with conventional approach.
The coefficient of bond thermal expansion measured by extended x-ray absorption fine structure.
Fornasini, P; Grisenti, R
2014-10-28
The bond thermal expansion is in principle different from the lattice expansion and can be measured by correlation sensitive probes such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and diffuse scattering. The temperature dependence of the coefficient α(bond)(T) of bond thermal expansion has been obtained from EXAFS for CdTe and for Cu. A coefficient α(tens)(T) of negative expansion due to tension effects has been calculated from the comparison of bond and lattice expansions. Negative lattice expansion is present in temperature intervals where α(bond) prevails over α(tens); this real-space approach is complementary but not equivalent to the Grüneisen theory. The relevance of taking into account the asymmetry of the nearest-neighbours distribution of distances in order to get reliable bond expansion values and the physical meaning of the third cumulant are thoroughly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.
2018-03-01
The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.
Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.
1993-01-01
Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.
IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.
2010-05-01
Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (ɛ) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ɛ-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for γ-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and γ-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ɛ-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were
A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.
El Abd, A
2014-12-01
A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farahani, Shahrzad Shahrabi; Madanipour, Khosro; Koohian, Ata
2017-05-01
In this work, a nonscanning measurement technique is presented for determining the nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient of liquid media based on Moiré deflectometry. In the proposed method two lasers are used: a low power, wide beam as probe and a high power with specific wavelength as a pump. Interaction of the pump laser beam with the nonlinear sample changes the refractive index, which leads to change in convergence/divergence of the collimated incident probe laser beam. The induced deflection is monitored by Moiré deflectometry. If the pump laser has a Gaussian intensity profile, the refractive index profile of the sample is Gaussian, too. Measuring the deflection angle of the probe beam by Moiré fringes deflection, and by using the inverse Abel transform integral, the refractive index profile and nonlinear refractive index can be determined. This method is fast, easy, and insensitive to environmental noise and allows real-time measurement. Also, the refractive index profile of the interacted medium with pump laser can be achieved by this technique. As a liquid sample, a DCJ dye in water solution was studied. The value of nonlinear refractive index, n_{2}, and absorption coefficient, α, were obtained -2.54×10^{-4} cm^{2} w^{-1} and 1.368 cm^{-1}, respectively.
Experiment to Determine the Absorption Coefficient of Gamma Rays as a Function of Energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouseph, P. J.; And Others
1982-01-01
Simpler than x-ray diffractometer experiments, the experiment described illustrates certain concepts regarding the interaction of electromagnetic rays with matter such as the exponential decrease in the intensity with absorber thickness, variation of the coefficient of absorption with energy, and the effect of the K-absorption edge on the…
Tunable diode laser measurements of HO2NO2 absorption coefficients near 12.5 microns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, R. D.; Molina, L. T.; Webster, C. R.
1988-01-01
A tunable diode laser spectrometer has been used to measure absorption coefficients of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) near the 803/cm Q branch. HO2NO2 concentrations in a low-pressure flowing gas mixture were determined from chemical titration procedures and UV absorption spectroscopy. The diode laser measured absorption coefficients, at a spectral resolution of better than 0.001/cm, are about 10 percent larger than previous Fourier transform infrared measurements made at a spectral resolution of 0.06/cm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hijikata, Hayato; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Takei, Satoshi
2009-06-01
A bottom extreme-ultraviolet-sensitive coating (BESC) for evaluation of the absorption coefficients of ultrathin films such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists was developed. This coating consists of a polymer, crosslinker, acid generator, and acid-responsive chromic dye and is formed by a conventional spin-coating method. By heating the film after spin-coating, a crosslinking reaction is induced and the coating becomes insoluble. A typical resist solution can be spin-coated on a substrate covered with the coating film. The evaluation of the linear absorption coefficients of polymer films was demonstrated by measuring the EUV absorption of BESC substrates on which various polymers were spin-coated.
Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.
Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina
2015-01-01
The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Joong Bae; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae
2018-07-01
It has been shown that the absorption coefficient of a nanofluid can be actively tuned by changing material, size, shape, and concentration of the nanoparticle suspension. In applications of engineered nanofluids for the direct absorption of solar radiation, it is important to experimentally characterize the absorption coefficient of nanofluids in the solar spectrum. If the refractive index of the base fluid (i.e., the solution without nanoparticles) is known a priori, the absorption coefficient of nanofluids can be easily determined from the transmission spectrum. However, if the refractive index of the base fluid is not known, it is not straightforward to extract the absorption coefficient solely from the transmission spectrum. The present work aims to develop an analytical method of determining the absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index by measuring both reflection and transmission spectra. The proposed method will be validated with deionized water, and the effect of measurement uncertainty will be carefully examined. Finally, the general applicability of the proposed method will also be demonstrated for Therminol VP-1 as well as the Therminol VP-1 - graphite nanofluid.
Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Su, Hai-xia; Yan, Fang
2012-04-01
Extracting absorption spectrum in THz band is one of the important aspects in THz applications. Sample's absorption coefficient has a complex nonlinear relationship with its thickness. However, as it is not convenient to measure the thickness directly, absorption spectrum is usually determined incorrectly. Based on the method proposed by Duvillaret which was used to precisely determine the thickness of LiNbO3, the approach to measuring the absorption coefficient spectra of glutamine and histidine in frequency range from 0.3 to 2.6 THz(1 THz = 10(12) Hz) was improved in this paper. In order to validate the correctness of this absorption spectrum, we designed a series of experiments to compare the linearity of absorption coefficient belonging to one kind amino acid in different concentrations. The results indicate that as agreed by Lambert-Beer's Law, absorption coefficient spectrum of amino acid from the improved algorithm performs better linearity with its concentration than that from the common algorithm, which can be the basis of quantitative analysis in further researches.
Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin
2017-11-27
Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.
The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.
2017-01-01
In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.
Realistic absorption coefficient of each individual film in a multilayer architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.
2015-02-01
A spectrophotometric strategy, termed multilayer-method (ML-method), is presented and discussed to realistically calculate the absorption coefficient of each individual layer embedded in multilayer architectures without reverse engineering, numerical refinements and assumptions about the layer homogeneity and thickness. The strategy extends in a non-straightforward way a consolidated route, already published by the authors and here termed basic-method, able to accurately characterize an absorbing film covering transparent substrates. The ML-method inherently accounts for non-measurable contribution of the interfaces (including multiple reflections), describes the specific film structure as determined by the multilayer architecture and used deposition approach and parameters, exploits simple mathematics, and has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions, thick-to-ultrathin films). Reliability tests are performed on films and multilayers based on a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing the film structural quality through doping, thickness-tuning and underlying supporting-film. Results are found consistent with information obtained by standard (optical and structural) analysis, the basic-method and band gap values reported in the literature. The discussed example-applications demonstrate the ability of the ML-method to overcome the drawbacks commonly limiting an accurate description of multilayer architectures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.
2017-12-01
Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.
Band-edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantum wells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kost, Alan; Zou, Yao; Dapkus, P. D.; Garmire, Elsa; Lee, H. C.
1989-01-01
A novel approach to determining absorption coefficients in thin films using luminescence is described. The technique avoids many of the difficulties typically encountered in measurements of thin samples, Fabry-Perot effects, for example, and can be applied to a variety of materials. The absorption edge for GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures, with quantum well widths ranging from 54 to 193 A is examined. Urbach (1953) parameters and excitonic linewidths are tabulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, D.; Cui, Y.
2015-12-01
The objectives of this paper are to validate the applicability of a multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) in retrieval absorption coefficients of optically active constituents in turbid coastal waters, and to further improve the model using a proposed semi-analytical model (SAA). The ap(531) and ag(531) semi-analytically derived using SAA model are quite different from the retrievals procedures of QAA model that ap(531) and ag(531) are semi-analytically derived from the empirical retrievals results of a(531) and a(551). The two models are calibrated and evaluated against datasets taken from 19 independent cruises in West Florida Shelf in 1999-2003, provided by SeaBASS. The results indicate that the SAA model produces a superior performance to QAA model in absorption retrieval. Using of the SAA model in retrieving absorption coefficients of optically active constituents from West Florida Shelf decreases the random uncertainty of estimation by >23.05% from the QAA model. This study demonstrates the potential of the SAA model in absorption coefficients of optically active constituents estimating even in turbid coastal waters. Keywords: Remote sensing; Coastal Water; Absorption Coefficient; Semi-analytical Model
Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan
2017-11-01
A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.
Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient for an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.
2017-09-01
We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the basics of the acoustic properties of materials. The impedance tube-standing wave method is applied to study the normal absorption coefficient of acoustics insulators. The setup includes a tube, a speaker, a microphone, a digital function generator and an oscilloscope, material available in an undergraduate laboratory. Results of the change of the absorption coefficient with the frequency, the sample thickness and the sample density are analysed and compared with those obtained with a commercial system.
Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Liu, Xiaohan
2018-01-22
Absorption (a) and backscattering (bb) coefficients play a key role in determining the light field; they also serve as the link between remote sensing and concentrations of optically active water constituents. Here we present an updated scheme to derive hyperspectral a and bb with hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) as the inputs. Results show that the system works very well from clear open oceans to highly turbid inland waters, with an overall difference less than 25% between these retrievals and those from instrument measurements. This updated scheme advocates the measurement and generation of hyperspectral a and bb from hyperspectral Rrs and Kd, as an independent data source for cross-evaluation of in situ measurements of a and bb and for the development and/or evaluation of remote sensing algorithms for such optical properties.
Sustainable p-type copper selenide solar material with ultra-large absorption coefficient
Chen, Erica M.; Williams, Logan; Olvera, Alan
We report the synthesis of CTSe, a p-type titanium copper selenide semiconductor. Its band gap (1.15 eV) and its ultra-large absorption coefficient (10 5 cm −1 ) in the entire visible range make it a promising Earth-abundant solar absorber material.
Absorption coefficients of solid NH3 from 50 to 7000 per cm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sill, G.; Fink, U.; Ferraro, J. R.
1980-01-01
Thin-film spectra of solid NH3 at a resolution of 1 per cm were used to determine its absorption coefficient over the range 50-7000 per cm. The thin films were formed inside a liquid N2 cooled dewar using a variety of substrates and dewar windows. The spectra were recorded with two Fourier spectrometers, one covering the range from 1 to 4 microns and the other from 2.6 to 200 microns. The thickness of the films was measured with a laser interference technique. The absorption coefficients were determined by application of Lambert's law and by a fitting procedure to the observed spectra using thin-film theory. Good agreement was found with the absorption coefficients recently determined by other investigators over a more restricted wavelength range. A metastable phase was observed near a temperature of 90 K and its absorption coefficient is reported. No other major spectral changes with temperature were noted for the range 88-120 K.
Sustainable p-type copper selenide solar material with ultra-large absorption coefficient
Chen, Erica M.; Williams, Logan; Olvera, Alan; ...
2018-01-01
We report the synthesis of CTSe, a p-type titanium copper selenide semiconductor. Its band gap (1.15 eV) and its ultra-large absorption coefficient (10 5 cm −1 ) in the entire visible range make it a promising Earth-abundant solar absorber material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.
2012-06-01
Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.
Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro
2012-01-01
Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed. PMID:22734767
Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V
2012-06-01
Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.
Ferrero, L; Mocnik, G; Ferrini, B S; Perrone, M G; Sangiorgi, G; Bolzacchini, E
2011-06-15
Vertical profiles of aerosol number-size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentration were measured between ground-level and 500m AGL over Milan. A tethered balloon was fitted with an instrumentation package consisting of the newly-developed micro-Aethalometer (microAeth® Model AE51, Magee Scientific, USA), an optical particle counter, and a portable meteorological station. At the same time, PM(2.5) samples were collected both at ground-level and at a high altitude sampling site, enabling particle chemical composition to be determined. Vertical profiles and PM(2.5) data were collected both within and above the mixing layer. Absorption coefficient (b(abs)) profiles were calculated from the Aethalometer data: in order to do so, an optical enhancement factor (C), accounting for multiple light-scattering within the filter of the new microAeth® Model AE51, was determined for the first time. The value of this parameter C (2.05±0.03 at λ=880nm) was calculated by comparing the Aethalometer attenuation coefficient and aerosol optical properties determined from OPC data along vertical profiles. Mie calculations were applied to the OPC number-size distribution data, and the aerosol refractive index was calculated using the effective medium approximation applied to aerosol chemical composition. The results compare well with AERONET data. The BC and b(abs) profiles showed a sharp decrease at the mixing height (MH), and fairly constant values of b(abs) and BC were found above the MH, representing 17±2% of those values measured within the mixing layer. The BC fraction of aerosol volume was found to be lower above the MH: 48±8% of the corresponding ground-level values. A statistical mean profile was calculated, both for BC and b(abs), to better describe their behaviour; the model enabled us to compute their average behaviour as a function of height, thus laying the foundations for valid parametrizations of vertical profile data which can be useful in both remote sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuye, Cedric; Vanlanduit, Steve; Guillaume, Patrick
2009-06-01
When using optical measurements of the sound fields inside a glass tube, near the material under test, to estimate the reflection and absorption coefficients, not only these acoustical parameters but also confidence intervals can be determined. The sound fields are visualized using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). In this paper the influence of different test signals on the quality of the results, obtained with this technique, is examined. The amount of data gathered during one measurement scan makes a thorough statistical analysis possible leading to the knowledge of confidence intervals. The use of a multi-sine, constructed on the resonance frequencies of the test tube, shows to be a very good alternative for the traditional periodic chirp. This signal offers the ability to obtain data for multiple frequencies in one measurement, without the danger of a low signal-to-noise ratio. The variability analysis in this paper clearly shows the advantages of the proposed multi-sine compared to the periodic chirp. The measurement procedure and the statistical analysis are validated by measuring the reflection ratio at a closed end and comparing the results with the theoretical value. Results of the testing of two building materials (an acoustic ceiling tile and linoleum) are presented and compared to supplier data.
Khalil, Omar S; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Lowery, Michael G; Wu, Xiaomao; Hanna, Charles F; Kantor, Stanislaw; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen; Kanger, Johannes S; Bolt, Rene A; de Mul, Frits F
2003-04-01
We determine temperature effect on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (mu(a) and mu(s)(')) of human forearm skin. Optical and thermal simulation data suggest that mu( a) and mu(s)(') are determined within a temperature-controlled depth of approximately 2 mm. Cutaneous mu(s)(') change linearly with temperature. Change in mu(a) was complex and irreversible above body normal temperatures. Light penetration depth (delta) in skin increased on cooling, with considerable person-to-person variations. We attribute the effect of temperature on mu(s)(') to change in refractive index mismatch, and its effect on mu(a) to perfusion changes. The reversible temperature effect on mu (s)(' ) was maintained during more than 90 min. contact between skin and the measuring probe, where temperature was modulated between 38 and 22 degrees C for multiple cycles While temperature modulated mu(s)(' ) instantaneously and reversibly, mu(a) exhibited slower response time and consistent drift. There was a statistically significant upward drift in mu(a) and a mostly downward drift in mu( s)(') over the contact period. The drift in temperature-induced fractional change in mu(s)(') was less statistically significant than the drift in mu(s)('). Deltamu( s)(') values determined under temperature modulation conditions may have less nonspecific drift than mu(s)(') which may have significance for noninvasive determination of analytes in human tissue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Wang, Lihong V.
2012-02-01
Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Multi-wavelength PAT can noninvasively monitor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution. However, accurate quantification in PAT requires knowledge of the optical fluence distribution, acoustic wave attenuation, and detection system bandwidth. We propose a method to circumvent this requirement using acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at two optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560 and 575 nm were quantified with errors of ><5%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Sood, A. K.; Guha, Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Rao, C. N. R.
2007-12-01
Nonlinear transmission of 80 and 140fs pulsed light with 0.79μm wavelength through single walled carbon nanotubes suspended in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate is studied. Pulse-width independent saturation absorption and negative cubic nonlinearity are observed, respectively, in open and closed aperture z-scan experiments. The theoretical expressions derived to analyze the z-dependent transmission in the saturable limit require two photon absorption coefficient β0˜1.4cm/MW and a nonlinear index γ ˜-5.5×10-11cm2/W to fit the data.
Measurement and calculation of the sound absorption coefficient of pine wood charcoal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Jae Gap; Baik, Kyung min; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Sung Soo
2013-10-01
Although charcoal has been widely utilized for physical therapy and as a deodorant, water purifier, etc. due to its porous features, research on its role as a sound-absorbing material is rarely found. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoal were measured using an impedance tube and were compared with the theoretical predictions in the frequency range of 500˜ 5000 Hz. The theory developed in the current study only considers the lowest possible mode propagating along the air channels of the charcoal and shows good agreements with the measurements. As the frequency is increased, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoals also increase, but are lower than those of other commonly-used sound-absorbing materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.
2017-12-01
Additional absorption was detected in absorption spectra within the range 300-350 nm after addition of copper sulfate CuSO4(aq) to a solution of sodium salicylate NaНSal (рН = 7.8). The additional maximum absorption was observed at 320 nm. Assuming that the additional absorption depends on the formation of copper salicylate CuSal, the molar absorption coefficient εCuSal of this complex was determined to be (3.8 ± 0.02) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1. This value is almost equal to that of monoanion HSal-, εHSal - = (3.6 ± 0.04) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1, and is 2.5 times as much as εFe3 + HSal - = (1.55 ± 0.05) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1 for iron salicylate. The difference in εCuSal and εFe3 + HSal - is due to the difference in the initial electron states of Cu2 + and Fe3 + ions that have the d9 and d5 configurations, respectively.
Infrared absorption-coefficient data on SF6 applicable to atmospheric remote sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varanasi, P.; Gopalan, A.; Brannon, J. F., Jr.
1992-01-01
Spectral absorption coefficients, k(nu)/cm per atm, of SF6 have been measured in the central Q-branches of the nu(3)-fundamental at 947/cm at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights in solar-occultation experiments or layers in the atmosphere. The data obtained with the Doppler-limited spectral resolution (about 0.0001/cm) of a tunable-diode laser spectrometer are useful in the atmospheric remote sensing of this trace gas.
Two-photon interband absorption coefficients in tungstate and molybdate crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukanin, V. I.; Karasik, A. Ya.
2015-02-01
Two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficients were measured in tungstate and molybdate crystals - BaWO4, KGW, CaMoO4, BaMoO4, CaWO4, PbWO4 and ZnWO4 upon different orientations of excitation polarization with respect to the crystallographic axes. Trains of 25 ps pulses with variable radiation intensities of third (349 nm) harmonics of passively mode-locked 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser were used for interband two-photon excitation of the crystals. It was suggested that in the case, when 349 nm radiation pumping energy exceeds the bandgap width (hν>Eg), the nonlinear excitation process can be considered as two-step absorption. The interband two-photon absorption in all the studied crystals induces the following one-photon absorption from the exited states, which affects the nonlinear process dynamics and leads to a hysteresis in the dependence of the transmission on the excitation intensity. This fact was taken into account under analysis of the experimental dependences of the reciprocal transmission on the excitation intensity. Laser excitation in the transparency region of the crystals caused stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) not for all the crystals studied. The measured nonlinear coefficients allowed us to explain the suppression of SRS in crystals as a result of competition between the SRS and TPA.
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θ D ofmore » 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less
Keller, M.; Bostater, C.
1997-06-01
A portable, long path length (50 cm), flow through, absorption tube system is utilized to obtain in-situ specific absorption coefficients from various water environments consisting of both clear and turbid water conditions from an underway ship or vessel. The high spectral resolution absorption signatures can be obtained and correlated with measured water quality parameters along a ship track. The long path cuvette system is capable of measuring important water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston or total suspended matter, tannins, humics, fulvic acids, or dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The various concentrations of these substances can be determinedmore » and correlated with laboratory measurements using the double inflection ratio (DIR) of the spectra based upon derivative spectroscopy. The DIR is determined for all of the possible combinations of the bands ranging from 362-1115 nm using 252 channels, as described previously by Bostater. The information gathered from this system can be utilized in conjunction with hyperspectral imagery that allows one to relate reflectance and absorption to water quality of a particular environment. A comparison is made between absorption signatures and reflectance obtained from the Banana River, Florida.« less
Microwave Resonator Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Coefficients: A Preliminary Design Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walter, Steven J.; Spilker, Thomas R.
1995-01-01
A preliminary design study examined the feasibility of using microwave resonator measurements to improve the accuracy of atmospheric absorption coefficients and refractivity between 18 and 35 GHz. Increased accuracies would improve the capability of water vapor radiometers to correct for radio signal delays caused by Earth's atmosphere. Calibration of delays incurred by radio signals traversing the atmosphere has applications to both deep space tracking and planetary radio science experiments. Currently, the Cassini gravity wave search requires 0.8-1.0% absorption coefficient accuracy. This study examined current atmospheric absorption models and estimated that current model accuracy ranges from 5% to 7%. The refractivity of water vapor is known to 1% accuracy, while the refractivity of many dry gases (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) are known to better than 0.1%. Improvements to the current generation of models will require that both the functional form and absolute absorption of the water vapor spectrum be calibrated and validated. Several laboratory techniques for measuring atmospheric absorption and refractivity were investigated, including absorption cells, single and multimode rectangular cavity resonators, and Fabry-Perot resonators. Semi-confocal Fabry-Perot resonators were shown to provide the most cost-effective and accurate method of measuring atmospheric gas refractivity. The need for accurate environmental measurement and control was also addressed. A preliminary design for the environmental control and measurement system was developed to aid in identifying significant design issues. The analysis indicated that overall measurement accuracy will be limited by measurement errors and imprecise control of the gas sample's thermodynamic state, thermal expansion and vibration- induced deformation of the resonator structure, and electronic measurement error. The central problem is to identify systematic errors because random errors can be reduced by averaging
Backscatter factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for diagnostic radiology dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmakhlouf, Hamza; Bouchard, Hugo; Fransson, Annette; Andreo, Pedro
2011-11-01
Backscatter factors, B, and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios, (μen/ρ)w, air, for the determination of the surface dose in diagnostic radiology were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The main purpose was to extend the range of available data to qualities used in modern x-ray techniques, particularly for interventional radiology. A comprehensive database for mono-energetic photons between 4 and 150 keV and different field sizes was created for a 15 cm thick water phantom. Backscattered spectra were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo system, scoring track-length fluence differential in energy with negligible statistical uncertainty; using the Monte Carlo computed spectra, B factors and (μen/ρ)w, air were then calculated numerically for each energy. Weighted averaging procedures were subsequently used to convolve incident clinical spectra with mono-energetic data. The method was benchmarked against full Monte Carlo calculations of incident clinical spectra obtaining differences within 0.3-0.6%. The technique used enables the calculation of B and (μen/ρ)w, air for any incident spectrum without further time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. The adequacy of the extended dosimetry data to a broader range of clinical qualities than those currently available, while keeping consistency with existing data, was confirmed through detailed comparisons. Mono-energetic and spectra-averaged values were compared with published data, including those in ICRU Report 74 and IAEA TRS-457, finding average differences of 0.6%. Results are provided in comprehensive tables appropriated for clinical use. Additional qualities can easily be calculated using a designed GUI interface in conjunction with software to generate incident photon spectra.
Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Johannes D.
2010-09-01
I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc
2012-04-01
A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res
Transmission and Absorption Coefficients for Ocular Media of the Rhesus Monkey
1978-12-01
Report SAM-TR.78-32 @LEVtt ^ \\ TRANSMISSION AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS FOR OGVLAR MEDIA OF THE RHESUS MONKEY 30 JO \\ Edward F. Maher... MONKEY 5. I il | ||| MhlHWr W PI liriTl i I III I 5" . Final Report ""■"’ 15 Sep 74 - 15 Sep 76 6 «HFORMtMO OHG REPORT KUMBE...for these calculations were performed spectrophotometrically using freshly enucleated rhesus monkey eyes and narrow-bandwidth radiation. Much of the
Determination of absorption coefficient of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tekiner, Murat; Kurt, Mustafa; Ak, Ilknur; Kurt, Arzu
2018-02-01
Safe drinking water is crucial for human healthy, nowadays all drinking and irrigation water in developed country commonly come from dams. The water is transported to our usage area by several type of pipe or water-trench. The water can be infected some bacteria such as Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira maxima, during this transportation. In this study, we determine which wavelength effect to these green algae and cyanobacteria. For different concentration of these microorganisms in water, we determined uv-vis spectrum. By analyzing these spectrums, we determined absorption coefficient of these microorganisms for selected wavelength. The results show which wavelength can be used for destroy these microorganisms in affected water.
Mesure de coefficients d'absorption de plasmas créés par laser nanoseconde
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thais, F.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Eidmann, K.; Bastiani, S.; Blenski, T.; Gilleron, F.
2005-06-01
La mesure des coefficients d'absorption dans les plasmas chauds est particulièrement utile dans le domaine de la fusion par confinement inertiel ainsi que dans divers contextes en astrophysique. Le développement des calculs de physique atomique qui y sont associés repose sur des hypothèses qu'il est nécessaire de vérifier dans la plus large gamme possible de conditions physiques. Nous présentons ici la méthode de mesure et d'analyse employée en nous appuyant sur l'exemple des cibles multicouches nickel/aluminium.
More, Chaitali V., E-mail: chaitalimore89@gmail.com; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com
Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σ{sub a,en}) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μ{sub en}/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vandna; Kumar, Pankaj
2017-11-01
Absorption coefficient of doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) is a critical factor for their device performance and depends on dopants parameters like solubility, order parameter and extinction coefficients, in addition to configuration and orientation of the droplets. In this study, a fixed amount (0.125% wt/wt) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and orange azo dichroic dye was doped in PDLC and measured the OFF state absorption coefficient. Considering the theory based on Beer's law and followed by extinction coefficients of CNT and dye, the OFF state transmission for dye doped PDLC was found lower compared to CNT doped PDLC. As a result, absorption coefficient for dye doped PDLC was higher and resulted in the superior contrast ratio. The experimental results were found be consistent with the theoretical results.
Mean absorption coefficients of He/Ar/N2/(C1-x-y , Ni x , Co y ) thermal plasmas for CNT synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salem, D.; Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph; Béji, L.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the mean absorption coefficients (MACs) calculated for plasma mixtures of argon-helium-nitrogen-carbon-nickel-cobalt at 60 kPa and in a temperature range from 1 kK to 20 kK. These coefficients have been computed under the assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), isothermal plasma, including atomic and molecular continuum, molecular bands and lines radiation splitted into nine spectral intervals. The results show that the continuum absorption coefficients strongly depend on photodissociation and photoionization processes of the molecular species N2, CN and C2, with a significant effect on photodetachment processes of C- in a frequency interval lower than 1 × 1015 Hz and for low temperature (<6 kK). While at high temperature, the main contribution in continuum absorption coefficient comes from radiative recombination processes except in the infrared region (<0.5 × 1015 Hz) where the inverse bremsstrahlung represents the most important component in continuum processes for all temperature values. On the other hand, the calculation of MAC shows that the role of molecular continuum, molecular bands and line absorption of the neutral catalysis species Ni/Co are only important in a small range of temperature and in a few spectral bands located in visible and infrared regions, while at high temperature and in UV and visible regions, the foremost contributions to MAC come from atomic continuum and line absorption.
Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission
Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.
2011-01-01
An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, µ(E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from µ(E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine µ(E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to µ(E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining µ(E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively. PMID:22355697
Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.
Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A
2014-08-01
Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).
Parker, K; Morrison, G
2016-08-01
Occupants of former methamphetamine laboratories, often residences, may experience increased exposure through the accumulation of the methamphetamine in the organic films that coat skin and indoor surfaces. The objectives of this study were to determine equilibrium partition coefficients of vapor-phase methamphetamine with artificial sebum (AS-1), artificial sebum without fatty acids (AS-2), and real skin surface films, herein called skin oils. Sebum and skin oil-coated filters were exposed to vapor-phase methamphetamine at concentrations ranging from 8 to 159 ppb, and samples were analyzed for exposure time periods from 2 h to 60 days. For a low vapor-phase methamphetamine concentration range of ~8-22 ppb, the equilibrium partition coefficient for AS-1 was 1500 ± 195 μg/g/ppb. For a high concentration range of 98-112 ppb, the partition coefficient was lower, 459 ± 80 μg/g/ppb, suggesting saturation of the available absorption capacity. The low partition coefficient for AS-2 (33 ± 6 μg/g/ppb) suggests that the fatty acids in AS-1 and skin oil are responsible for much high partition coefficients. We predict that the methamphetamine concentration in skin lipids coating indoor surfaces can exceed recommended surface remediation standards even for air concentrations well below 1 ppb. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T
2015-03-01
The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt
2015-03-01
A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient μa and Grüneisen parameter Γ of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's μa using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's Γ using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's μa and Γ require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of μa = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and Γ = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give Γ values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.
Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Rüfenacht, D; Delpy, D T
2006-01-21
Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Chuong V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Duque, Carlos A.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Ilyasov, Victor V.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Dinh, Le; Quang, Quach K.; Tung, Luong V.; Phuc, Huynh V.
2017-07-01
In this work, we study the magneto-optical absorption coefficients (MOACs) and refractive index changes (RICs) in monolayer graphene under a perpendicular magnetic field using the compact density matrix approach. The results are presented as functions of photon energy and external magnetic field. Our results show that there are three groups of the possible transitions: the intra-band, the mixed, and the inter-band transitions; in which the MOACs and the RICs appear as a series of peaks in both intra-band and inter-band transitions between the Landau levels. With an increase magnetic field, the resonant peaks give a blue-shift and reduce in their amplitudes. These results suggest a potential application of monolayer graphene in nanoscale electronic and magneto-optical devices.
Free-free absorption coefficients and Gaunt factors for dense hydrogen-like stellar plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srećković, V. A.; Sakan, N.; Šulić, D.; Jevremović, D.; Ignjatović, Lj M.; Dimitrijević, M. S.
2018-03-01
In this work, we present a study dedicated to determination of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients and the corresponding Gaunt factor of dense hydrogen-like stellar-atmosphere plasmas where electron density and temperature change in a wide range. A method suitable for this wide range is suggested and applied to the inner layers of the solar atmosphere, as well as the plasmas of partially ionized layers of some other stellar atmospheres (for example, some DA and DB white dwarfs) where the electron densities vary from 1014 cm-3 to 1020 cm-3 and temperatures from 6000 K to 300 000 K in the wavelength region of 10 nm ≤ λ ≤ 3000 nm. The results of the calculations are illustrated by the corresponding figures and tables.
Gatti, Giorgio; Olivas Olivera, Diana F; Sacchetto, Vittoria; Cossi, Maurizio; Braschi, Ilaria; Marchese, Leonardo; Bisio, Chiara
2017-09-06
Determination of the molar absorption coefficients of the CH 3 bending mode at ν˜ =1380 cm -1 (ϵ 1380 ) of n-hexane adsorbed from the gas phase on two different dealuminated zeolites is derived by a combination of IR spectroscopy and microgravimetric analysis. High-silica zeolite Y (HSZ-Y) and zeolite ZSM-5 (with SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratios of 200 and 280, respectively) with different textural and surface features are selected to evaluate the effect of the pore structure and architecture on the value of ϵ 1380 of the adsorbed n-hexane. Experimental data indicate that the molecule experiences a different adsorption environment inside zeolites; thus resulting in a significant change of the dipole moment and very different ϵ 1380 values: (0.278±0.018) cm μmol -1 for HSZ-Y and (0.491±0.032) cm μmol -1 for ZSM-5. Experimental data are also supported by computational modeling, which confirms the effect of different matrices on the IR absorption intensity. This study reveals that the use of probe molecules for quantitative measurements of surface sites has to be judiciously adopted, especially if adsorption occurs in the restricted spaces of microporous materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
[Estimation of DOC concentrations using CDOM absorption coefficients: a case study in Taihu Lake].
Jiang, Guang-Jia; Ma, Rong-Hua; Duan, Hong-Tao
2012-07-01
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon stock in water ecosystems, which plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), an important water color variation, is the colored fraction of DOC and its absorption controls the instruction of light under water. The available linkage between DOC concentration and CDOM absorptions enables the determination of DOC accumulations using remote sensing reflectance or radiance in lake waters. The present study explored the multi-liner relationship between CDOM absorptions [a(g) (250) and a(g) (365)] and DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake, based on the available data in 4 cruises (201005, 201101, 201103, 201105) (totally 183 sampling sites). Meanwhile, the results were validated with the data of the experiment carried out from August 29 to September 2, 2011 in Taihu Lake (n = 27). Furthermore, a universal pattern of modeling from remote sensing was built for lake waters. The results demonstrated that this method provided more satisfying estimation of DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake. Except the data obtained in January 2011, the fitted results of which were not conductive to the winter dataset (201101) in Taihu Lake, due to the diverse sources and sinks of DOC and CDOM, the multi-liner relationship was robust for the data collected in the other three cruises (R2 = 0.64, RMSE = 14.31%, n = 164), which was validated using the 201108 sampling dataset (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 10.58%, n = 27). In addition, the form of the statistic model is universal, to some extent, for other water areas, however, there is difference in the modeling coefficients. Further research should be focused on the parameterization using local data from different lakes, which provides effective methodology for the estimation of DOC concentrations in lakes and other water regions.
Approximating the near-edge mass absorption coefficients for Ni using an ultra-thin bimetal foil
Alkire, Randall W.
2016-11-01
In an effort to improve the characteristics of a fluorescing metal-foil-based beam position monitor, a new bimetal ultra-thin (0.98/0.67 µm) Ti–Ni foil was introduced to replace an existing single-element ultra-thin 0.5 µm thick Cr foil. During characterization it was determined that absorption measurements on the bimetal foil could be used to fit the Ni mass absorption coefficients accurately in the vicinity of the NiKedge. Comparison with experimental results from the literature demonstrated that the fitting procedure produced coefficients with uncertainties of the order of ±1%. Once determined, these fit coefficients allowed the thickness of an independently mounted 8 µm thickmore » Ni foil to be computed from absorption measurements instead of relying on a tool-based measurement of the foil thickness. Using the 8 µm thick foil, a continuous map of Ni mass absorption coefficients was produced at 1 eV resolution throughout the near-edge region. Lastly, this high-resolution map marks a significant improvement over the existing NIST XCOM or FFAST database mass absorption coefficients, which have estimated errors of 10–20% for the near-edge region.« less
The influence of surface modification on sound absorption coefficient of albizzia wood absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diharjo, Kuncoro; Prabowo, Anditya E.; Jamasri, Suharty, Neng Sri
2017-01-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of surface modification to sound absorption on absorber based albizia wood and kenaf fiber. The absorber was produced using the albizia wood as main materials, and the kenaf fiber was used as acoustic fill. The albizia wood used for producing the absorber was cut in the transverse direction so that its surface had good porosity. The size of specimens had 100 mm in diameter and 40 mm in thickness. The configuration of resonator cavities was 30 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth, and each resonator was completed with a neck hole of the resonator. The types of surface modification were the addition of screen printing ink, fabric (with and without neck hole), and vinyl-wallpaper (with and without neck hole). According to ISO 10534-2, the absorber specimens were tested using two microphones impedance tube with random noise source to get the curve of noise absorption coefficient (NAC) for each specimen. The result shows that both unmodified absorber and absorber modified with screen printing ink have the similar characteristic of NAC and they are feasible to be used as an absorber in conversation rooms. The addition of fabric and vinyl-wallpaper as cover on the absorber surface give the positive effect of the air gap, and it increases the NAC in low frequency (100-400 Hz). However, the covers decrease the NAC in high frequency (400-1,400 Hz). The holes on the fabric and wallpaper covers give the improvement of NAC.
Okunade, Akintunde A
2007-07-01
The mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients (radiation interaction data), which are widely used in the shielding and dosimetry of X-rays used for medical diagnostic and orthovoltage therapeutic procedures, are strongly dependent on the energy of photons, elements and percentage by weight of elements in body tissues and substitutes. Significant disparities exist in the values of percentage by weight of elements reported in literature for body tissues and substitutes for individuals of different ages, genders and states of health. Often, interested parties are in need of these radiation interaction data for body tissues or substitutes with percentage by weight of elements and intermediate energies that are not tabulated in literature. To provide for the use of more precise values of these radiation interaction data, parameters and computer programs, MUA_T and MUEN_T are presented for the computation of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes of arbitrary percentage-by-weight elemental composition and photon energy ranging between 1 keV (or k-edge) and 400 keV. Results are presented, which show that the values of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients obtained from computer programs are in good agreement with those reported in literature.
Rowley, R.L.; Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.
1997-03-01
Natural gas processors use amine treating processes to remove the acid gases H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} from gas streams. Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. The absorption rate was found to be insensitive to the diffusion coefficient of CO{sub 2} in solution but very sensitive to the diffusion rate of bicarbonate and protonated MDEA ions. Evidence also suggested that chemical reaction equilibrium is rapid relative to diffusion. A numerical model was developed on the basis of these observations. The modelmore » was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate and protonated amine, which must be equivalent by electroneutrality arguments, from measured absorption rates. Complete modeling of the absorption process also required data for the diffusion coefficient of MDEA in water. These were measured using a Taylor dispersion apparatus. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate and protonated MDEA were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA in water.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, M.; Sato, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Yamada, Y.
2009-08-01
Our newly developed method using spatially and time-resolved reflectances can easily estimate the absorption coefficients of each layer in a two-layered medium if the thickness of the upper layer and the reduced scattering coefficients of the two layers are known a priori. We experimentally validated this method using phantoms and examined its possibility of estimating the absorption coefficients of the tissues in human heads. In the case of a homogeneous plastic phantom (polyacetal block), the absorption coefficient estimated by our method agreed well with that obtained by a conventional method. Also, in the case of two-layered phantoms, our method successfully estimated the absorption coefficients of the two layers. Furthermore, the absorption coefficients of the extracerebral and cerebral tissue inside human foreheads were estimated under the assumption that the human heads were two-layered media. It was found that the absorption coefficients of the cerebral tissues were larger than those of the extracerebral tissues.
Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.
Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib
2016-06-01
Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens.
Li, Wei Bo; Höllriegl, Vera; Roth, Paul; Oeh, Uwe
2006-07-01
Intestinal absorption of strontium (Sr) in thirteen healthy adult German volunteers has been investigated by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of two stable tracer isotopes, i.e. (84)Sr and (86)Sr. The measured Sr tracer concentration in plasma was analyzed using the convolution integral technique to obtain the intestinal absorption rate. The results showed that the Sr labeled in different foodstuffs was absorbed into the body fluids in a large range of difference. The maximum Sr absorption rates were observed within 60-120 min after administration. The rate of absorption is used to evaluate the intestinal absorption fraction, i.e. the f (1) value for various foodstuffs. The equivalent and effective dose coefficients for ingestion of (90)Sr were calculated using these f (1) values, and they were compared with those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The geometric and arithmetic means of the f (1) values are 0.38 and 0.45 associated with a geometric standard deviation and a standard deviation of 1.88 and 0.22, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the f (1) values obtained in the present study ranges from 0.13 to 0.98. Expressed as the ratio of the 95 and 50% percentiles of the estimated probability, the uncertainty for the f (1) value corresponds to a factor of 2.58. The effective dose coefficients of (90)Sr after ingestion are 6.1 x 10(-9) Sv Bq(-1) for an f(1) value of 0.05, 1.0 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.1, 1.9 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.2, 2.8 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.3, 3.6 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.4, 5.3 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.6, 7.1 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.8, and 7.9 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.9, respectively. Taking the effective dose coefficient of 2.8 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for an f (1) value of 0.3, which is recommended by the ICRP, as a reference, the effective dose coefficient of (90)Sr after ingestion varies by a factor of 2.8 when the f (1) value changes by a factor of 3, i.e. it decreases
Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...
Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjoeberg, Lars E.
1989-01-01
New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.
2002-09-01
Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.
Buhr, H; Büermann, L; Gerlach, M; Krumrey, M; Rabus, H
2012-12-21
For the first time the absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the energy range of 10 to 60 keV has been measured with relative standard uncertainties below 1%, considerably smaller than those of up to 2% assumed for calculated data. For monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring BESSY II both the radiant power and the fraction of power deposited in dry air were measured using a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a free air ionization chamber, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and showed an average deviation of 2% from calculations by Seltzer. However, they agree within 1% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell. In the course of this work, an improvement of the data analysis of a previous experimental determination of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the range of 3 to 10 keV was found to be possible and corrected values of this preceding study are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busch, T. A.; Nugent, R. E.
2003-10-01
In situ testing determined the insertion loss ( IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000 m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66 m high by 14.6 m long demonstration barrier was built in the parking lot of Edison Field, Anaheim, as part of a public open house, thereby allowing for acoustical measurements. Insertion loss ( IL) was measured in third-octave bands assuming 1/2-scale construction. The IL for three, scaled railway noise sub-sources (rail/wheel interface, locomotive, and train horn) was measured at six, scaled distances. The highest total, A-weighted IL, after corrections for finite-barrier and point-source speaker effects was 22 dB(A) for rail/wheel noise, 18 dB(A) for locomotive noise, and 20 dB(A) for train horn noise. These results can be compared favourably to IL predictions made using algorithms from the US Federal Rail Administration (FRA) noise assessment guidelines. For the actual barrier installation, shielded residential receivers located south of the project are expected to see their future noise exposures reduced from an unmitigated 78 CNEL to 65 CNEL. Absorption coefficients were measured using time delay spectrometry. At lower frequencies, measured absorption coefficients were notably less than the reverberation room results advertised in the manufacturer's literature, but generally conformed with impedance tube results. At higher frequencies the correspondence between measured absorption coefficients and reverberation room results was much improved. For the actual barrier installation, unshielded residential receivers to the north are expected to experience noise exposure increases of less than 1 dB(A). This factor of increase is consistent with a finding of no impact when assessed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.
2016-12-01
Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Rebecca E.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Ko, Dong S.
2008-06-01
We developed statistically-based, optical models to estimate tripton (sediment/detrital) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficients ( a sd, a g) from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data. First, empirical algorithms for satellite-derived a sd and a g were developed, based on comparison with a large data set of cruise measurements from northern Gulf shelf waters; these algorithms were then applied to a time series of ocean color (SeaWiFS) satellite imagery for 2002-2005. Unique seasonal timing was observed in satellite-derived optical properties, with a sd peaking most often in fall/winter on the shelf, in contrast to summertime peaks observed in a g. Next, the satellite-derived values were coupled with the physical data to form multiple regression models. A suite of physical forcing variables were tested for inclusion in the models: discharge from the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay, Alabama; gridded fields for winds, precipitation, solar radiation, sea surface temperature and height (SST, SSH); and modeled surface salinity and currents (Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM). For satellite-derived a sd and a g time series (2002-2004), correlation and stepwise regression analyses revealed the most important physical forcing variables. Over our region of interest, the best predictors of tripton absorption were wind speed, river discharge, and SST, whereas dissolved absorption was best predicted by east-west wind speed, river discharge, and river discharge lagged by 1 month. These results suggest the importance of vertical mixing (as a function of winds and thermal stratification) in controlling a sd distribution patterns over large regions of the shelf, in comparison to advection as the most important control on a g. The multiple linear regression models for estimating a sd and a g were applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis and
Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru
2016-02-22
The true absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ´s) of the cell wall substance in Douglas fir were determined using time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Samples were saturated with hexane, toluene or quinolone to minimize the multiple reflections of light on the boundary between pore-cell wall substance in wood. μ´s exhibited its minimum value when the wood was saturated with toluene because the refractive index of toluene is close to that of the wood cell wall substance. The optical parameters of the wood cell wall substance calculated were μa = 0.030 mm(-1) and μ´s= 18.4 mm(-1). Monte Carlo simulations using these values were in good agreement with the measured time-resolved transmittance profiles.
Chen, Weiting; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Tongxin; Yan, Panpan; Zhao, Kuanxin; Qi, Caixia; Gao, Feng
2017-08-08
Spatial frequency domain (SFD) measurement allows rapid and non-contact wide-field imaging of the tissue optical properties, thus has become a potential tool for assessing physiological parameters and therapeutic responses during photodynamic therapy of skin diseases. The conventional SFD measurement requires a reference measurement within the same experimental scenario as that for a test one to calibrate mismatch between the real measurements and the model predictions. Due to the individual physical and geometrical differences among different tissues, organs and patients, an ideal reference measurement might be unavailable in clinical trials. To address this problem, we present a reference-free SFD determination of absorption coefficient that is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) characterization. Instead of the absolute amplitude that is used in the conventional SFD approaches, we herein employ the MTF to characterize the propagation of the modulated lights in tissues. With such a dimensionless relative quantity, the measurements can be naturally corresponded to the model predictions without calibrating the illumination intensity. By constructing a three-dimensional database that portrays the MTF as a function of the optical properties (both the absorption coefficient μ a and the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text]) and the spatial frequency, a look-up table approach or a least-square curve-fitting method is readily applied to recover the absorption coefficient from a single frequency or multiple frequencies, respectively. Simulation studies have verified the feasibility of the proposed reference-free method and evaluated its accuracy in the absorption recovery. Experimental validations have been performed on homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantoms with μ a ranging from 0.01 to 0.07 mm -1 and [Formula: see text] = 1.0 or 2.0 mm -1 . The results have shown maximum errors of 4.86 and 7% for [Formula: see text] = 1.0 mm -1 and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, M.; Seraji, F. E.
2010-01-01
We report a new simple technique for the simultaneous measurements of absorption-, emission cross-sections, background loss coefficient, and dopant density of doped optical fibers with low dopant concentration. Using our proposed technique, the experimental characterization of a sample Ge-Er-doped optical fiber is presented, and the results are analyzed and compared with other reports. This technique is suitable for production line of doped optical fibers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varanasi, Prasad
1992-01-01
Spectral absorption coefficients k(v) in the atmospheric window are reported for CFC-11 and CFC-12. Data obtained with a grating spectrometer are compared with NCAR cross sections and measurements of k(v) made with a tunable diode laser spectrometer at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights or layers in the atmosphere are presented. The results are suitable for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies.
Abutalib, M M; Yahia, I S
2017-09-01
In the current work, the authors report the microwave-assisted synthesis Molybdenum-doped (from 0.05 to 5wt%) hydroxyapatite (HAp) for the first time. The morphology of Mo-doped HAp is nanorods of diameter in the range of 25-70nm and length in the range of 25nm to 200nm. The good crystalline nature was confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and also lattice parameters, grain size, strain and dislocation density were determined. The crystallite size was found to be in the range 16 to 30nm and crystallinity was found to be enhanced from 0.5 to 0.7 with doping. The field emission SEM micrographs show that the morphology of the synthesized nanostructures of pure and Mo-doped HAp are nanorods of few nanometers. The vibrational modes were identified using the FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric properties were studied and the AC electrical conductivity was found to be increased with increasing the concentration of Mo ions doping in HAp. Moreover, antimicrobial studies were also carried out to understand the anti-bacterial and anti-fungi properties. The results suggest that it may be a good bio-ceramics material for bio-medical applications. Mo-doped HAp was subjected to the gamma irradiation produced from Cs-137 (662keV) and its related parameters such as linear absorption coefficient, the half-value layer (HVL) and the tenth value layer TVL were calculated and analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wan, Zhengming; Dozier, Jeff
1992-01-01
The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on thermal infrared spectral signatures measured from satellite sensors is investigated by comparing results from the atmospheric transmission and radiance codes LOWTRAN and MODTRAN and the accurate multiple scattering radiative transfer model ATRAD for different atmospheric profiles. The sensors considered include the operational NOAA AVHRR and two research instruments planned for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir-Mode) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). The difference in band transmittance is as large as 6 percent for some thermal bands within atmospheric windows and more than 30 percent near the edges of these atmospheric windows. The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature can exceed 0.6 K. Quantitative comparison and factor analysis indicate that more accurate measurements of molecular absorption coefficients and better radiative transfer simulation methods are needed to achieve SST accuracy of 0.3 K, as required for global numerical models of climate, and to develop land-surface temperature algorithms at the 1-K accuracy level.
Absolute Two-Photon Absorption Coefficients in UltraViolet Window Materials
1977-12-01
fvtt* tld » II ntctHB,-y md Idtnlll’ by block number; The absolute two-photon absorption coefficiehts of u. v. transmitting materials have been...measured using well-calibrated single picosecond pulses, at the third and fourth harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YAG laser systems. Twc photon...30, 1977. Work in the area of laser induced breakdown and multiphoton absorption in ultraviolet and infrared laser window materials was carried
Vereecken, H; Vanderborght, J; Kasteel, R; Spiteller, M; Schäffer, A; Close, M
2011-01-01
In this study, we analyzed sorption parameters for pesticides that were derived from batch and column or batch and field experiments. The batch experiments analyzed in this study were run with the same pesticide and soil as in the column and field experiments. We analyzed the relationship between the pore water velocity of the column and field experiments, solute residence times, and sorption parameters, such as the organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient ( ) and the mass exchange coefficient in kinetic models, as well as the predictability of sorption parameters from basic soil properties. The batch/column analysis included 38 studies with a total of 139 observations. The batch/field analysis included five studies, resulting in a dataset of 24 observations. For the batch/column data, power law relationships between pore water velocity, residence time, and sorption constants were derived. The unexplained variability in these equations was reduced, taking into account the saturation status and the packing status (disturbed-undisturbed) of the soil sample. A new regression equation was derived that allows estimating the values derived from column experiments using organic matter and bulk density with an value of 0.56. Regression analysis of the batch/column data showed that the relationship between batch- and column-derived values depends on the saturation status and packing of the soil column. Analysis of the batch/field data showed that as the batch-derived value becomes larger, field-derived values tend to be lower than the corresponding batch-derived values, and vice versa. The present dataset also showed that the variability in the ratio of batch- to column-derived value increases with increasing pore water velocity, with a maximum value approaching 3.5. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki
2018-03-01
The two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured in the wavelength range of 1640 to 1800 nm by the Z-scan technique in relatively thick materials. The values of β have been evaluated from the fit to the equation including the spatial and temporal profiles of the focused Gaussian beam. The polarization dependence of β has also been measured. The dependence has been expressed very well by the expression of β with the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ(3).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.
2001-01-01
A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.
Threshold network of a financial market using the P-value of correlation coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Gyeong-Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo; Nobi, Ashadun
2015-06-01
Threshold methods in financial networks are important tools for obtaining important information about the financial state of a market. Previously, absolute thresholds of correlation coefficients have been used; however, they have no relation to the length of time. We assign a threshold value depending on the size of the time window by using the P-value concept of statistics. We construct a threshold network (TN) at the same threshold value for two different time window sizes in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI). We measure network properties, such as the edge density, clustering coefficient, assortativity coefficient, and modularity. We determine that a significant difference exists between the network properties of the two time windows at the same threshold, especially during crises. This implies that the market information depends on the length of the time window when constructing the TN. We apply the same technique to Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P500) and observe similar results.
1987-06-01
polyethylene. The plexiglass is a polymethyl methacrylate and the acrylic is a polymethacrylate . The polyamide(nylon) is made with adipic acid and hexamethylene...are made with acrylic acid . It was not sur- prizing to see both exhibiting similar absorption characteristics atleast 30 times higher than
Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.
2014-05-21
The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types ofmore » approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.
2016-03-01
The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheireddine, M.; Jones, B. H.
2016-02-01
Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. The optical properties of the Red Sea have been empirically related to the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl], historically used as an index of the trophic state and of the abundance of the biological materials. The natural variability around the mean statistical relationships is here examined by comparing the optical properties as a function of [Chl] in different area of the Red Sea: the North Red Sea (NRS), the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) and the South Central Red Sea (SCRS) waters. The systematic deviations, with respect to the average laws provided for the global ocean, mainly result from the differing contents in non-algal particles, phytoplankton communities and dissolved colored substance for a given [Chl] level. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. Specifically, absorption's values of colored dissolved organic matter are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given [Chl] concentration. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan or Arabian origin in the surface layer of the water column.
Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bostater, Charles R., Jr.
1998-12-01
Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behroozian, B.; Askari, H. R.
2018-07-01
The Kerr nonlinearity and the nonlinear absorption coefficient in a four-level M-model of a GaAs cylindrical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential under electromagnetically induced transparency are investigated. By solving the density matrix equations in the steady-state, the third order susceptibility is obtained. Then, by using the real and imaginary parts of third order susceptibility, the Kerr nonlinearity and the nonlinear absorption coefficient, respectively, for this system are computed. The effects of the radius and height of the cylindrical QD are then investigated. In addition, the effects of the control laser fields on the Kerr nonlinearity and the nonlinear absorption coefficient are investigated.
A technique for estimating time of concentration and storage coefficient values for Illinois streams
Graf, Julia B.; Garklavs, George; Oberg, Kevin A.
1982-01-01
Values of the unit hydrograph parameters time of concentration (TC) and storage coefficient (R) can be estimated for streams in Illinois by a two-step technique developed from data for 98 gaged basins in the State. The sum of TC and R is related to stream length (L) and main channel slope (S) by the relation (TC + R)e = 35.2L0.39S-0.78. The variable R/(TC + R) is not significantly correlated with drainage area, slope, or length, but does exhibit a regional trend. Regional values of R/(TC + R) are used with the computed values of (TC + R)e to solve for estimated values of time of concentration (TCe) and storage coefficient (Re). The use of the variable R/(TC + R) is thought to account for variations in unit hydrograph parameters caused by physiographic variables such as basin topography, flood-plain development, and basin storage characteristics. (USGS)
Impact of post-processing methods on apparent diffusion coefficient values.
Zeilinger, Martin Georg; Lell, Michael; Baltzer, Pascal Andreas Thomas; Dörfler, Arnd; Uder, Michael; Dietzel, Matthias
2017-03-01
The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is increasingly used as a quantitative biomarker in oncological imaging. ADC calculation is based on raw diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data, and multiple post-processing methods (PPMs) have been proposed for this purpose. We investigated whether PPM has an impact on final ADC values. Sixty-five lesions scanned with a standardized whole-body DWI-protocol at 3 T served as input data (EPI-DWI, b-values: 50, 400 and 800 s/mm 2 ). Using exactly the same ROI coordinates, four different PPM (ADC_1-ADC_4) were executed to calculate corresponding ADC values, given as [10 -3 mm 2 /s] of each lesion. Statistical analysis was performed to intra-individually compare ADC values stratified by PPM (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests: α = 1 %; descriptive statistics; relative difference/∆; coefficient of variation/CV). Stratified by PPM, mean ADCs ranged from 1.136-1.206 *10 -3 mm 2 /s (∆ = 7.0 %). Variances between PPM were pronounced in the upper range of ADC values (maximum: 2.540-2.763 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ∆ = 8 %). Pairwise comparisons identified significant differences between all PPM (P ≤ 0.003; mean CV = 7.2 %) and reached 0.137 *10 -3 mm 2 /s within the 25th-75th percentile. Altering the PPM had a significant impact on the ADC value. This should be considered if ADC values from different post-processing methods are compared in patient studies. • Post-processing methods significantly influenced ADC values. • The mean coefficient of ADC variation due to PPM was 7.2 %. • To achieve reproducible ADC values, standardization of post-processing is recommended.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demkin, Artem S.; Nikitin, Dmitriy G.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.
2016-04-01
In current work optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with ultraviolet (UV) (λ= 266 nm) induced volume macroscopic defect (track) are investigated using novel piezoelectric resonance laser calorimetry technique. Pulsed laser radiation of 10 W average power at 532 nm wavelength, is consecutively focused into spatial regions with and without optical defect. For these cases exponential fitting of crystal temperature kinetics measured during its irradiation gives different optical absorption coefficients α1 = 8.1 • 10-4 cm-1 (region with defect) and α =3.9ṡ10-4 cm-1 (non-defected region). Optical scattering coefficient is determined as the difference between optical absorption coefficients measured for opaque and transparent lateral facets of the crystal respectively. Measurements reveal that scattering coefficient of LBO in the region with defect is three times higher than the optical absorption coefficient.
[Gas Concentration Measurement Based on the Integral Value of Absorptance Spectrum].
Liu, Hui-jun; Tao, Shao-hua; Yang, Bing-chu; Deng, Hong-gui
2015-12-01
The absorptance spectrum of a gas is the basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas by the law of the Lambert-Beer. The integral value of the absorptance spectrum is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of the gas absorption. Based on the measured absorptance spectrum of a gas, we collected the required data from the database of HIT-RAN, and chose one of the spectral lines and calculated the integral value of the absorptance spectrum in the frequency domain, and then substituted the integral value into Lambert-Beer's law to obtain the concentration of the detected gas. By calculating the integral value of the absorptance spectrum we can avoid the more complicated calculation of the spectral line function and a series of standard gases for calibration, so the gas concentration measurement will be simpler and faster. We studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus temperature. Since temperature variation would cause the corresponding variation in pressure, we studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus both the pressure not changed with temperature and changed with the temperature variation. Based on the two cases, we found that the integral values of the absorptance spectrums both would firstly increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with temperature increasing, but the ranges of specific changing trend were different in the two cases. In the experiments, we found that the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were much higher than 1% and still increased with temperature when we only considered the change of temperature and completely ignored the pressure affected by the temperature variation, and the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were almost constant at about only 1% when we considered that the pressure were affected by the temperature variation. As the integral value
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satoliya, Anil Kumar; Vyas, B. M.; Shekhawat, M. S.
2018-05-01
The first time satellite space based measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosols scattering coefficient at 550nm (BC SC at 550nm), dust aerosols scattering and dust aerosols extinction coefficient (DSC at 550nm and DEC at 550nm) parameters have been used to understand their long term trend of natural and anthropogenic aerosols behavior with its close association with ground based measured precipitation parameters such as Total Rain Fall (TRF), and Total Number of Rainy Days (TNRD) for the same period over western Indian regions concerned to the primary aerosols sources of natural activities. The basic objective of this study is an attempt to investigate the inter-correlation between dust and black carbon aerosols loading characteristics with a variation of rainfall pattern parameters as indirect aerosols induced effect i.e., aerosols-cloud interaction. The black carbon aerosols generated by diverse anthropogenic or human made activities are studied by choosing of measured atmospheric BC SC at 550nm parameter, whereas desert dust mineral aerosols primarily produced by varieties of natural activities pre-dominated of dust mineral desert aerosols mainly over Thar desert influenced area of hot climate and rural tropical site are investigated by selecting DSC at 550nm and DEC at 550nm of first semi-urban site i.e., Udaipur (UDP, 24.6°N, 73.35°E, 580m above surface level (asl)) situated in southern Rajasthan part as well as over other two Great Indian Thar desert locations i.e., Jaisalmer (JSM, 26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220m asl)) and Bikaner (BKN, 28.03°N, 73.30°E, 224m asl) located in the vicinity of the Thar desert region situated in Rajasthan state of the western Indian region. The source of the present study would be collection of longer period of monthly values of the above parameters of spanning 35 years i.e., 1980 to 2015. Such types of atmospheric aerosols-cloud monsoon interaction investigation is helpful in view of understanding their direct and
Functional Linear Model with Zero-value Coefficient Function at Sub-regions.
Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Wang, Naisyin
2013-01-01
We propose a shrinkage method to estimate the coefficient function in a functional linear regression model when the value of the coefficient function is zero within certain sub-regions. Besides identifying the null region in which the coefficient function is zero, we also aim to perform estimation and inferences for the nonparametrically estimated coefficient function without over-shrinking the values. Our proposal consists of two stages. In stage one, the Dantzig selector is employed to provide initial location of the null region. In stage two, we propose a group SCAD approach to refine the estimated location of the null region and to provide the estimation and inference procedures for the coefficient function. Our considerations have certain advantages in this functional setup. One goal is to reduce the number of parameters employed in the model. With a one-stage procedure, it is needed to use a large number of knots in order to precisely identify the zero-coefficient region; however, the variation and estimation difficulties increase with the number of parameters. Owing to the additional refinement stage, we avoid this necessity and our estimator achieves superior numerical performance in practice. We show that our estimator enjoys the Oracle property; it identifies the null region with probability tending to 1, and it achieves the same asymptotic normality for the estimated coefficient function on the non-null region as the functional linear model estimator when the non-null region is known. Numerically, our refined estimator overcomes the shortcomings of the initial Dantzig estimator which tends to under-estimate the absolute scale of non-zero coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated in simulation studies. We apply the method in an analysis of data collected by the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, where the primary interests are in estimating the strength of association between body mass index in midlife and the quality of life in
Microwave measurements of the absolute values of absorption by water vapour in the atmosphere.
Hogg, D C; Guiraud, F O
1979-05-31
MEASUREMENT of the absolute value of absorption by water vapour at microwave frequencies is difficult because the effect is so small. Far in the wings of the absorption lines, in the so-called 'windows' of the spectrum, it is especially difficult to achieve high accuracy in the free atmosphere. But it is in these windows that the behaviour of the absorption is important from both applied and scientific points of view. Satellite communications, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and radioastronomy, are all influenced by this behaviour. Measurements on an Earth-space path are reported here; the results indicate a nonlinear relationship between absorption and water-vapour content.
Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M
2004-04-01
In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.
1982-01-01
Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.
Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy
2016-03-01
The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), S cdm (units: nm -1 ), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving S cdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of S cdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.
Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy
2017-01-01
The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), Scdm (units: nm−1), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving Scdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360–500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of Scdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors. PMID:29201583
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseeva, N.; Churilova, T.; Efimova, T.; Krivenko, O.; Latushkin, A.
2017-11-01
Variability of the bio-optical properties of the Crimean coastal waters in June 2016 has been analyzed. The type of vertical distribution chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton light absorption coefficients and spectra shape differed between shallow and deeper water. In the deeper water seasonal stratification divided euphotic zone into layers with different environmental conditions. In the deeper part of the euphotic zone (below the thermocline) phytoplankton absorption spectra had local maximum at 550 nm, which was likely to be associated with high abundance of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sps.) in the phytoplankton community. The concentration of chlorophyll a specific light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased with depth (especially pronounced in the blue domain of the spectrum). In the shallow water the vertical distributions of all absorption properties were relatively homogeneous due to vertical water mixing. In the shallow water non-algal particles light absorption coefficient and its contribution to total particulate absorption were higher than those in the deeper water. The non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption spectra were well described by an exponential function with a slope averaging 0.010 nm-1 (SD = 0.001 nm-1) and 0.022 nm-1 (SD = 0.0060 nm-1), correspondingly. The CDOM absorption at 440 nm and slope coefficient varied significantly across the investigated area, which was possibly associated with the terrestrial influences. The assessment of the contribution of phytoplankton, NAP and CDOM to total light absorption showed that CDOM dominated in the absorption at 440 nm.
Bae, Hyeyeol; Yoshida, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Oya, Miyako; Nakayama, Takayuki; Takeshita, Hideki; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Numao, Noboru; Koga, Fumitaka; Saito, Kazutaka; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori
2014-03-01
To assess whether there is an association between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. The study cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRI before the prostate biopsy. In 42 tumor foci, the associations of the ADC values with the clinicopathological characteristics and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were analyzed. High-grade cancers (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 4 + 3), larger cancers (maximum diameter (MD) ≥ 16 mm), and highly proliferating cancers (Ki-67 LI ≥ 4.43 %) had significantly lower ADC values, respectively (P < .001, P = .008, and P = .044, respectively). There was no significant difference in ADC value according to age, prostate-specific antigen, presence of extra-prostatic extension, and intra-tumoral stroma proportion. Multivariate analysis showed that GS, Ki-67 LI, and MD had independent and significant correlations with ADC value (P < .001, P = .006, and P = .002, respectively). Low ADC tumors (<0.52 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) are likely to be high-grade cancer foci compared with high ADC tumors (relative risk: 65.2). The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC value to predict high-grade cancer foci are 81.8 and 93.5 %, respectively. A low ADC value reflects the morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. Analyzing the ADC value may make it possible to more precisely predict the cancer aggressiveness of each focus before treatment.
Influence of defects on the absorption edge of InN thin films: The band gap value
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakur, J. S.; Danylyuk, Y. V.; Haddad, D.; Naik, V. M.; Naik, R.; Auner, G. W.
2007-07-01
We investigate the optical-absorption spectra of InN thin films whose electron density varies from ˜1017tõ1021cm-3 . The low-density films are grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy deposition while highly degenerate films are grown by plasma-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The optical-absorption edge is found to increase from 0.61to1.90eV as the carrier density of the films is increased from low to high density. Since films are polycrystalline and contain various types of defects, we discuss the band gap values by studying the influence of electron degeneracy, electron-electron, electron-ionized impurities, and electron-LO-phonon interaction self-energies on the spectral absorption coefficients of these films. The quasiparticle self-energies of the valence and conduction bands are calculated using dielectric screening within the random-phase approximation. Using one-particle Green’s function analysis, we self-consistently determine the chemical potential for films by coupling equations for the chemical potential and the single-particle scattering rate calculated within the effective-mass approximation for the electron scatterings from ionized impurities and LO phonons. By subtracting the influence of self-energies and chemical potential from the optical-absorption edge energy, we estimate the intrinsic band gap values for the films. We also determine the variations in the calculated band gap values due to the variations in the electron effective mass and static dielectric constant. For the lowest-density film, the estimated band gap energy is ˜0.59eV , while for the highest-density film, it varies from ˜0.60tõ0.68eV depending on the values of electron effective mass and dielectric constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.
2012-10-01
A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for Southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows to separate colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) by determining NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, that were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and turbid waters, respectively. In situ measurements showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the Southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahya, I.; Kusuma, J. I.; Harjana; Kristiani, R.; Hanina, R.
2016-02-01
This paper emphasizes the influence of tubular shaped microresonators phononic crystal insertion on the sound absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber. A simple cubic and two different bodies centered cubic phononic crystal lattice model were analyzed in a laboratory test procedure. The experiment was conducted by using transfer function based two microphone impedance tube method refer to ASTM E-1050-98. The results show that sound absorption coefficient increase significantly at the mid and high-frequency band (600 - 700 Hz) and (1 - 1.6 kHz) when tubular shaped microresonator phononic crystal inserted into the tested sound absorber element. The increment phenomena related to multi-resonance effect that occurs when sound waves propagate through the phononic crystal lattice model that produce multiple reflections and scattering in mid and high-frequency band which increases the sound absorption coefficient accordingly
Balliu, E; Vilanova, J C; Peláez, I; Puig, J; Remollo, S; Barceló, C; Barceló, J; Pedraza, S
2009-03-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained in diffusion-weighted (DW) MR sequences for the differentiation between malignant and benign bone marrow lesions. Forty-five patients with altered signal intensity vertebral bodies on conventional MR sequences were included. The cause of altered signal intensity was benign osteoporotic collapse in 16, acute neoplastic infiltration in 15, and infectious processes in 14; based on plain-film, CT, bone scintigraphy, conventional MR studies, biopsy or follow-up. All patients underwent isotropic DW MR images (multi-shot EPI, b values of 0 and 500 s/mm(2)). Signal intensity at DW MR images was evaluated and ADC values were calculated and compared between malignancy, benign edema and infectious spondylitis. Acute malignant fractures were hyperintense compared to normal vertebral bodies on the diffusion-weighted sequence, except in one patient with sclerotic metastases. Mean ADC value from benign edema (1.9+/-0.39 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly (p<0.0001) higher than untreated metastasic lesions (0.9+/-1.3 x 10(-3)mm (2)/s). Mean ADC value of infectious spondilytis (0.96+/-0.49 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was not statistically (p>0.05) different from untreated metastasic lesions. ADC value was low (0.75 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) in one case of subacute benign fracture. ADC values are a useful complementary tool to characterize bone marrow lesions, in order to distinguish acute benign fractures from malignant or infectious bone lesions. However, ADC values are not valuable in order to differentiate malignancy from infection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bürkle, Sebastian; Walter, Nicole; Wagner, Steven
2018-06-01
A set of high-resolution absorption spectrometers based on TDLAS was used to determine the impact of combustion-relevant gases on the pressure shift and broadening of H2O, CO2, C2H2 and CH4 absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. In particular, self- and foreign-broadening coefficients induced by CO2, N2, O2, air, C2H2 and CH4 were measured. The absorption lines under investigation are suitable to measure the respective species in typical combustion environments via laser absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, species-dependent self- and foreign-induced pressure shift coefficients were measured and compared to the literature. The experiments were performed in two specifically designed absorption cells over a wide pressure range from 5 to 180 kPa. Different sources of uncertainty were identified and quantified to achieve relative measurement uncertainties of 0.7-1.5% for broadening coefficients and 0.6-1.6% for pressure shift coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shori, Ramesh K.
The interaction of high-intensity, short-pulsed radiation with liquid water results in dynamic changes in the optical absorption coefficient of water. These changes and their implications, as related to mid-infrared laser ablation of tissue, were not investigated until the late 1980's and early 1990's. Classical models of absorption and heating do not explain the dynamic, non-linear changes in water. The objective of the present work was to quantify the dynamic changes in the absorption coefficient of liquid water as a function of incident energy at three clinically relevant infrared wavelengths (λ = 2.94, 9.6, 10.6 μm). To investigate the changes in the absorption spectrum of water in the 3-μm band, a stable, high-energy Q- switched Er:YAG laser emitting 2.94-μm radiation in a near-perfect TEMoo spatial beam profile was developed. Key to the development of this laser was careful attention to the gain medium, optical pump system, system optics, and the thermal system. The final system design was capable of emitting 110 mJ/pulse at of 2-4 Hz with a lamp lifetime exceeding 12 million pulses The laser was used in two sets of experiments in order to quantify the above changes. First, the laser was used to measure the velocity of the shock front produced by vaporizing a gelatin-based tissue phantom. The measured shock velocity was related to the optical energy absorbed by the tissue phantom and the absorption coefficient, based on the pressure relationships derived using a 1-D piston model for an expanding plume. The shock front velocity measurements indicate that the absorption coefficient is constant for incident fluences less than 20 J/cm2, a result consistent with transmission data. For higher fluences, the data indicate a decrease in the absorption coefficient, which is again consistent with transmission data. Quantification of the absorption coefficient can, however, not be made without violating assumptions that form the basis for the 1-D piston model. Second
Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.
1995-03-01
Burial of vitrified low-level waste (LLW) in the vadose zone of the Hanford Site is being considered as a long-term disposal option. Regulations dealing with LLW disposal require that performance assessment (PA) analyses be conducted. Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site LLW PA were conducted to evaluate the potential health risk of a number of radionuclides, including Ac, Am, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cs, Eu, 1, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Ru, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, and Zr (Piepho et al. 1994). The radionuclides, {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234,235,238}U,more » were identified as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations were very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorbed to the subsurface matrix, described as a distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The literature-derived K{sub d} values used in these simulations were conservative, i.e., lowest values within the range of reasonable values used to provide an estimate of the maximum health threat. Thus, these preliminary modeling results reflect a conservative estimate rather than a best estimate of what is likely to occur. The potential problem with providing only a conservative estimate is that it may mislead us into directing resources to resolve nonexisting problems.« less
Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno
2014-12-01
The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya
2015-03-01
Quantification of the optical properties of the tissues and blood by noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging may provide useful information for screening and early diagnosis of diseases. Linearized 2D image reconstruction algorithm based on PA wave equation and the photon diffusion equation (PDE) can reconstruct the image with computational cost smaller than a method based on 3D radiative transfer equation. However, the reconstructed image is affected by the differences between the actual and assumed light propagations. A quantitative capability of a linearized 2D image reconstruction was investigated and discussed by the numerical simulations and the phantom experiment in this study. The numerical simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and the 2D finite element calculation of the PDE were carried out. The phantom experiment was also conducted. In the phantom experiment, the PA pressures were acquired by a probe which had an optical fiber for illumination and the ring shaped P(VDF-TrFE) ultrasound transducer. The measured object was made of Intralipid and Indocyanine green. In the numerical simulations, it was shown that the linearized image reconstruction method recovered the absorption coefficients with alleviating the dependency of the PA amplitude on the depth of the photon absorber. The linearized image reconstruction method worked effectively under the light propagation calculated by 3D MC simulation, although some errors occurred. The phantom experiments validated the result of the numerical simulations.
El Kady, Reem M; Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Tappouni, Rafel
2011-03-01
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements made with a PACS workstation compared with measurements made with a dedicated workstation, which is currently considered the reference standard. A retrospective review was performed in liver lesions from 79 patients using three MRI platforms. The final diagnosis was established by liver biopsy in 31 patients and by dynamic MRI and follow-up, both clinical and radiologic as indicated, in 48 patients. Each lesion that was clearly demonstrable on the ADC map was measured with a commercial dedicated postprocessing workstation and again with a PACS system. A two-sample t test was used to determine the statistically significant differences between the two ADC measurements. A total of 79 patients with 120 liver lesions were included. ADC values measured on the workstation were 0.4-4.38 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The ADC values measured on the PACS were 0.42-4.35 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The T value was -1.113, with 119 degrees of freedom, and the significance level was 0.268, which implies no significant difference between the two different measuring systems for all pathologic abnormalities and MRI scanners used. ADC values measured on a routine PACS workstation are as accurate as the values obtained on a dedicated specialized workstation. ADC value measurement on the routine PACS will save time and lead to increased utilization, which, in turn, will lead to an improved understanding of the different disease processes and their clinical management.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaya, Necati; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydın, Gökhan; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan
2007-08-01
The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2O 3, Yb 2O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K α1 , K α2 , K β1 and K β2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV γ-photons from an 57Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time.
Ohno, Seigo; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa
2010-08-02
A method for simultaneously measuring the refractive index and absorption coefficient of nonlinear optical crystals in the ultra-wideband terahertz (THz) region is described. This method is based on the analysis of a collinear difference frequency generation (DFG) process using a tunable, dual-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator. The refractive index and the absorption coefficient in the organic nonlinear crystal DAST were experimentally determined in the frequency range 2.5-26.2 THz by measuring the THz-wave output using DFG. The resultant refractive index in the x-direction was approximately 2.3, while the absorption spectrum was in good agreement with FT-IR measurements. The output of the DAST-DFG THz-wave source was optimized to the phase-matching condition using the measured refractive index spectrum in THz region, which resulted in an improvement in the output power of up to a factor of nine.
Fu, Zhan-Zhao; Peng, Yong; Cao, Li-Yan; Chen, Yan-Sheng; Li, Kun; Fu, Bao-Hong
2015-06-01
We investigated the clinical significance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in monitoring the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) treatments in cervical cancer. In order to identify relevant high quality clinical cohort studies reporting the use of DWI in cervical cancers, the following electronic databases in English and Chinese languages were comprehensively searched: MEDLINE, Science Citation Index database, Cochrane Library Database, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Current Contents Index; Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database. All selected studies were published prior to March 2014, and data extracted from these studies were analyzed using STATA 12.0 statistical software. We initially retrieved 196 articles (79 Chinese articles and 117 English articles) through database searches and finally selected sixteen cohort studies for this meta-analysis. The 16 studies contained a combined total of 517 subjects, and all selected studies reported the mean ADC value (10(-3) mm(2)/s) in DWI in cervical cancer patients treated with RT and CT. Combined standardized mean difference (SMD) suggested that the mean post-RT and mean post-CT ADC values were significantly higher than the mean pre-RT and mean pre-CT ADC values, respectively, in cervical cancer patients (SMD=2.95, 95% CI=2.19-3.72, P<0.001). Ethnicity-stratified analysis revealed that increased ADC values were observed post-RT and post-CT in both Caucasian (SMD=1.44, 95% CI=0.93-1.95, P<0.001) and Asian populations (SMD=3.32, 95% CI=2.42-4.22, P<0.001), compared with the mean ADC values before RT and CT, respectively, in the two subgroups. Further, subgroup analysis based on b-value revealed that higher ADC values were found in cervical cancer patients after RT and CT, compared to before RT and CT treatment, with both b value≤900 (SMD=3.71, 95% CI=2.35-5.07, P<0.001) and >900 (SMD=2.55, 95% CI=1.78-3.32, P<0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daksha, M.; Derzsi, A.; Wilczek, S.; Trieschmann, J.; Mussenbrock, T.; Awakowicz, P.; Donkó, Z.; Schulze, J.
2017-08-01
In particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions (PIC/MCC) simulations of capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the plasma-surface interaction is generally described by a simple model in which a constant secondary electron emission coefficient (SEEC) is assumed for ions bombarding the electrodes. In most PIC/MCC studies of CCPs, this coefficient is set to γ = 0.1, independent of the energy of the incident particle, the electrode material, and the surface conditions. Here, the effects of implementing energy-dependent secondary electron yields for ions, fast neutrals, and taking surface conditions into account in PIC/MCC simulations is investigated. Simulations are performed using self-consistently calculated effective SEECs, {γ }* , for ‘clean’ (e.g., heavily sputtered) and ‘dirty’ (e.g., oxidized) metal surfaces in single- and dual-frequency discharges in argon and the results are compared to those obtained by assuming a constant secondary electron yield of γ =0.1 for ions. In single-frequency (13.56 MHz) discharges operated under conditions of low heavy particle energies at the electrodes, the pressure and voltage at which the transition between the α- and γ-mode electron power absorption occurs are found to strongly depend on the surface conditions. For ‘dirty’ surfaces, the discharge operates in α-mode for all conditions investigated due to a low effective SEEC. In classical dual-frequency (1.937 MHz + 27.12 MHz) discharges {γ }* significantly increases with increasing low-frequency voltage amplitude, {V}{LF}, for dirty surfaces. This is due to the effect of {V}{LF} on the heavy particle energies at the electrodes, which negatively influences the quality of the separate control of ion properties at the electrodes. The new results on the separate control of ion properties in such discharges indicate significant differences compared to previous results obtained with different constant values of γ.
Protasenko, Vladimir; Bacinello, Daniel; Kuno, Masaru
2006-12-21
Absorption cross-sections and corresponding molar extinction coefficients of solution-based CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs) are determined. Chemically grown semiconductor NWs are made via a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) synthesis, employing low melting Au/Bi bimetallic nanoparticle "catalysts" to induce one-dimensional (1D) growth. Resulting wires are highly crystalline and have diameters between 5 and 12 nm as well as lengths exceeding 10 microm. Narrow diameters, below twice the corresponding bulk exciton Bohr radius of each material, place CdSe and CdTe NWs within their respective intermediate to weak confinement regimes. Supporting this are solution linear absorption spectra of NW ensembles showing blue shifts relative to the bulk band gap as well as structure at higher energies. In the case of CdSe, the wires exhibit band edge emission as well as strong absorption/emission polarization anisotropies at the ensemble and single-wire levels. Analogous photocurrent polarization anisotropies have been measured in recently developed CdSe NW photodetectors. To further support fundamental NW optical/electrical studies as well as to promote their use in device applications, experimental absorption cross-sections are determined using correlated transmission electron microscopy, UV/visible extinction spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Measured CdSe NW cross-sections for 1 microm long wires (diameters, 6-42 nm) range from 6.93 x 10(-13) to 3.91 x 10(-11) cm2 at the band edge (692-715 nm, 1.73-1.79 eV) and between 3.38 x 10(-12) and 5.50 x 10(-11) cm2 at 488 nm (2.54 eV). Similar values are obtained for 1 microm long CdTe NWs (diameters, 7.5-11.5 nm) ranging from 4.32 x 10(-13) to 5.10 x 10(-12) cm2 at the band edge (689-752 nm, 1.65-1.80 eV) and between 1.80 x 10(-12) and 1.99 x 10(-11) cm2 at 2.54 eV. These numbers compare well with previous theoretical estimates of CdSe/CdTe NW cross-sections far to the blue of the
Li, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Ying; Ren, Jiliang; Shi, Yiqian; Tao, Xiaofeng
2018-03-26
We aimed to investigate the incremental prognostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and integrate it into a multivariate prognostic model. A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging findings was conducted in patients with pathologically confirmed HNSCC between June 2012 and December 2015. For each tumor, six histogram parameters were derived: the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of ADC (ADC 10 , ADC 50 , and ADC 90 ); mean ADC values (ADC mean ); kurtosis; and skewness. The clinical variables included age, sex, smoking status, tumor volume, and tumor node metastasis stage. The association of these histogram and clinical variables with overall survival (OS) was determined. Further validation of the histogram parameters as independent biomarkers was performed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models combined with clinical variables, which was compared to the clinical model. Models were assessed with C index and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the 12- and 36-month OS. Ninety-six patients were eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 877 days (range, 54-1516 days). A total of 29 patients died during follow-up (30%). Patients with higher ADC values (ADC 10 > 0.958 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC 50 > 1.089 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC 90 > 1.152 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC mean > 1.047 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and lower kurtosis (≤0.967) were significant predictors of poor OS (P < .100 for all). After adjusting for sex and tumor node metastasis stage, the ADC 90 and kurtosis are both significant predictors of OS with hazard ratios = 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.001-1.004) and 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.90), respectively. By adding the ADC parameters into the clinical model, the C index and diagnostic accuracies for the 12- and 36-month OS showed significant improvement. ADC histogram analysis has
García Santos, J M; Ordóñez González, C; Torres del Río, S
2009-01-01
To analyze the effects of age, sex, and b value on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in brain areas affected by neurodegenerative diseases. We studied the ADC of the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and of the hippocampus in normal patients using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) with b1,000 s/mm2 and b3,000 s/mm2. We calculated the differences between the ADC (diffusion differential [DD]) with b1,000 and with b3,000 for each region. Patients were classified into the following age groups (
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, M. Z.; Poghosyan, H. M.
2018-04-01
A dynamical problem for a rectangular strip with variable coefficients of elasticity is solved by an asymptotic method. It is assumed that the strip is orthotropic, the elasticity coefficients are exponential functions of y, and mixed boundary conditions are posed. The solution of the inner problem is obtained using Bessel functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshov, A. K.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Lunev, N. N.; Azyazov, V. N.
2018-04-01
Optically pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) with unique properties were recently proposed with a possibility to obtain the laser power on the order of hundreds of Watts from a cubic centimeter. To provide high laser efficiency, the pumping radiation has to match the absorption spectrum of the rare gas metastables. To meet this condition a reliable diagnostics of the key parameters of the active medium is required and knowledge of the broadening and shift coefficients for corresponding transitions of rare gases is necessary. In this paper, the diode-laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the pressure shift coefficient for 811.5 nm Ar line. The value of obtained coefficient in pure argon reduced to 300 K is -(2.1 ± 0.1) × 10-10 s-1cm3. In the course of the study the pressure broadening coefficient was also evaluated and found to be (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-10 s-1cm3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.
2013-02-01
A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012) showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashin, N. I.; Chernyaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Gafarova, L. M.
2016-03-01
A new XRF procedure for the determination of the mass absorption coefficient in thin film Ti/V and V/Ti two-layer systems has been proposed. The procedure uses easy-to-make thin-film layers of sputtered titanium and vanadium on a polymer film substrate. Correction coefficients have been calculated that take into account attenuation of primary radiation of the X-ray tube, as well as attenuation of the spectral line of the bottom layer element in the top layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ershov, Boris G.; Panich, Nadezhda M.
2018-01-01
The chemical species formed from nitric acid in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (up to 18.0 mol L- 1) were studied by optical spectroscopy method. The concentration region of nitronium ion formation was identified and NO2+ ion absorption spectrum was measured (λmax ≤ 190 nm and ε190 = 1040 ± 50 mol- 1 L cm- 1).
2012-09-01
bandwidth of the pulse. Using the standard laboratory and analysis methods of Sheik- Bahae et al., we obtain a two-photon absorption coefficient, β, of...organic thin-film materials deposited on various substrates. 15 6. References 1. Sheik- Bahae , M.; Said, A. A.; Van Stryland, E. W. High...sensitivity, Single-beam n2 Measurements. Optics Letters 1989, 14 (17). 2. Sheik- Bahae , M.; Said, A. A.; Van Stryland, E. W.; Wei, T-H; Hagan, D. J
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.
2008-01-01
At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fairuz Budiman, Mohd; Hu, Weiguo; Igarashi, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Isoda, Taiga; Itoh, Kohei M.; Yamashita, Ichiro; Murayama, Akihiro; Okada, Yoshitaka; Samukawa, Seiji
2012-02-01
A sub-10 nm, high-density, periodic silicon-nanodisc (Si-ND) array has been fabricated using a new top-down process, which involves a 2D array bio-template etching mask made of Listeria-Dps with a 4.5 nm diameter iron oxide core and damage-free neutral-beam etching (Si-ND diameter: 6.4 nm). An Si-ND array with an SiO2 matrix demonstrated more controllable optical bandgap energy due to the fine tunability of the Si-ND thickness and diameter. Unlike the case of shrinking Si-ND thickness, the case of shrinking Si-ND diameter simultaneously increased the optical absorption coefficient and the optical bandgap energy. The optical absorption coefficient became higher due to the decrease in the center-to-center distance of NDs to enhance wavefunction coupling. This means that our 6 nm diameter Si-ND structure can satisfy the strict requirements of optical bandgap energy control and high absorption coefficient for achieving realistic Si quantum dot solar cells.
Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L
2010-08-01
This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout.
Ibrahim, Shawki; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold
2009-01-01
This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g. local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the ICRP (e.g. iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively. The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554
Vasconcelos, Maydla Dos Santos; Passos, Wilson Espíndola; Lescanos, Caroline Honaiser; Pires de Oliveira, Ivan; Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves; Caires, Anderson Rodrigues Lima; Muzzi, Rozanna Marques
2018-01-01
The techniques used to monitor the quality of the biodiesel are intensely discussed in the literature, partly because of the different oil sources and their intrinsic physicochemical characteristics. This study aimed to monitor the thermal degradation of the fatty acid methyl esters of Sesamum indicum L. and Raphanus sativus L. biodiesels (SILB and RSLB, resp.). The results showed that both biodiesels present a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, ∼84% (SILB) and ∼90% (RSLB). The SILB had a high content of polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18 : 2), about 49%, and the oleic monounsaturated (18 : 1), ∼34%. On the other hand, RSLB presented a considerable content of linolenic fatty acid (18 : 3), ∼11%. The biodiesel samples were thermal degraded at 110°C for 48 hours, and acid value, UV absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy analysis were carried out. The results revealed that both absorption and fluorescence presented a correlation with acid value as a function of degradation time by monitoring absorptions at 232 and 270 nm as well as the emission at 424 nm. Although the obtained correlation is not completely linear, a direct correlation was observed in both cases, revealing that both properties can be potentially used for monitoring the biodiesel degradation.
Analysis of oscillatory motion of a light airplane at high values of lift coefficient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batterson, J. G.
1983-01-01
A modified stepwise regression is applied to flight data from a light research air-plane operating at high angles at attack. The well-known phenomenon referred to as buckling or porpoising is analyzed and modeled using both power series and spline expansions of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients associated with the longitudinal equations of motion.
Stramski, Dariusz; Reynolds, Rick A; Kaczmarek, Sławomir; Uitz, Julia; Zheng, Guangming
2015-08-01
Spectrophotometric measurement of particulate matter retained on filters is the most common and practical method for routine determination of the spectral light absorption coefficient of aquatic particles, a_{p}(λ), at high spectral resolution over a broad spectral range. The use of differing geometrical measurement configurations and large variations in the reported correction for pathlength amplification induced by the particle/filter matrix have hindered adoption of an established measurement protocol. We describe results of dedicated laboratory experiments with a diversity of particulate sample types to examine variation in the pathlength amplification factor for three filter measurement geometries; the filter in the transmittance configuration (T), the filter in the transmittance-reflectance configuration (T-R), and the filter placed inside an integrating sphere (IS). Relationships between optical density measured on suspensions (OD_{s}) and filters (OD_{f}) within the visible portion of the spectrum were evaluated for the formulation of pathlength amplification correction, with power functions providing the best functional representation of the relationship for all three geometries. Whereas the largest uncertainties occur in the T method, the IS method provided the least sample-to-sample variability and the smallest uncertainties in the relationship between OD_{s} and OD_{f}. For six different samples measured with 1 nm resolution within the light wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm, a median error of 7.1% is observed for predicted values of OD_{s} using the IS method. The relationships established for the three filter-pad methods are applicable to historical and ongoing measurements; for future work, the use of the IS method is recommended whenever feasible.
Relative f-values from interstellar absorption lines: advantages and pitfalls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Edward B.
2009-05-01
Interstellar absorption features seen in the ultraviolet and visible spectra of stars provide opportunities for comparing the strengths of different transitions out of the ground electronic states of atoms, ions and simple molecules. In principle, such measurements are straightforward since the radiative transfer is manifested as a simple exponential absorption law at any given radial velocity. Complications arise when the velocity structures of the lines are not completely resolved, or when the lines are either very strongly saturated or too weak to observe. Dynamic range limitations can compromise the comparisons of two transitions that have very different absorption f-values, but they can be mitigated if there are examples with very different column densities and transitions of intermediate strength that can help to bridge the large gap in line strengths. Attempts to unravel the effects of saturation include the use of a curve of growth when only equivalent widths are available, or the measurements of the 'apparent optical depth' when the line is mostly resolved by the instrument. Unfortunately, the application of the curve of growth for one constituent to that of another can sometimes create systematic errors, since the two may have different velocity structures. Likewise, unresolved fine velocity structures in features that have large optical depths can make the apparent optical depths misrepresent the smoothed versions of the true optical depths. One method to compare the strength of a very weak line to that of a very strong one is to measure the total absorption of the former and compare it with the strength of the damping wings of the latter. However in many circumstances, small amounts of gas at velocities well displaced from the line center can masquerade as damping wings. For this reason, it is important to check that these wings have the proper shape.
Han, Xu; Suo, Shiteng; Sun, Yawen; Zu, Jinyan; Qu, Jianxun; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Zengai; Xu, Jianrong
2017-03-01
To compare four methods of region-of-interest (ROI) placement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in distinguishing low-grade gliomas (LGGs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Two independent readers measured ADC parameters using four ROI methods (single-slice [single-round, five-round and freehand] and whole-volume) on 43 patients (20 LGGs, 23 HGGs) who had undergone 3.0 Tesla diffusion-weighted imaging and time required for each method of ADC measurements was recorded. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess interobserver variability of ADC measurements. Mean and minimum ADC values and time required were compared using paired Student's t-tests. All ADC parameters (mean/minimum ADC values of three single-slice methods, mean/minimum/standard deviation/skewness/kurtosis/the10 th and 25 th percentiles/median/maximum of whole-volume method) were correlated with tumor grade (low versus high) by unpaired Student's t-tests. Discriminative ability was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. All ADC measurements except minimum, skewness, and kurtosis of whole-volume ROI differed significantly between LGGs and HGGs (all P < 0.05). Mean ADC value of single-round ROI had the highest effect size (0.72) and the greatest areas under the curve (0.872). Three single-slice methods had good to excellent ICCs (0.67-0.89) and the whole-volume method fair to excellent ICCs (0.32-0.96). Minimum ADC values differed significantly between whole-volume and single-round ROI (P = 0.003) and, between whole-volume and five-round ROI (P = 0.001). The whole-volume method took significantly longer than all single-slice methods (all P < 0.001). ADC measurements are influenced by ROI determination methods. Whole-volume histogram analysis did not yield better results than single-slice methods and took longer. Mean ADC value derived from single-round ROI is the most optimal parameter for differentiating LGGs from HGGs. 3 J. Magn
Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng
2012-07-01
A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.
Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O
2016-01-01
The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scatteringmore » sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawabe, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshio; Chida, Toshifumi; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Masuki; Fujihara, Takashi; Sassa, Takafumi; Tsutsumi, Naoto
2015-10-01
In order to analyze the spectra of inseparable chemical mixtures, many mathematical methods have been developed to decompose them into the components relevant to species from series of spectral data obtained under different conditions. We formulated a method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of linear algebra, and applied it to two example systems of organic dyes, being successful in reproducing absorption spectra assignable to cis/trans azocarbazole dyes from the spectral data after photoisomerization and to monomer/dimer of cyanine dyes from those during photodegaradation process. For the example of photoisomerization, polymer films containing the azocarbazole dyes were prepared, which have showed updatable holographic stereogram for real images with high performance. We made continuous monitoring of absorption spectrum after optical excitation and found that their spectral shapes varied slightly after the excitation and during recovery process, of which fact suggested the contribution from a generated photoisomer. Application of the method was successful to identify two spectral components due to trans and cis forms of azocarbazoles. Temporal evolution of their weight factors suggested important roles of long lifetimed cis states in azocarbazole derivatives. We also applied the method to the photodegradation of cyanine dyes doped in DNA-lipid complexes which have shown efficient and durable optical amplification and/or lasing under optical pumping. The same SVD method was successful in the extraction of two spectral components presumably due to monomer and H-type dimer. During the photodegradation process, absorption magnitude gradually decreased due to decomposition of molecules and their decaying rates strongly depended on the spectral components, suggesting that the long persistency of the dyes in DNA-complex related to weak tendency of aggregate formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.
2017-03-01
We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang
2018-07-01
A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Duque, C. A.; Restrepo, R. L.
2016-04-01
In this work we present theoretical results for the electronic structure as well as for the absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for an asymmetric double δ-doped like confining potential in the active region of a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) system. We model the potential profile as a double δ-doped like potential profile between two Schottky (parabolic) potential barriers that are just the main characteristics of the MIGFET configuration. We investigate the effect of external electromagnetic fields in this kind of quantum structures, in particular we applied a homogeneous constant electric field in the growth direction z as well as a homogeneous constant magnetic field in the x-direction. In general we conclude that by applying electromagnetic fields we can modulate the resonant peaks of the absorption coefficient as well as their energy position. Also with such probes it is possible to control the nodes and amplitude of the relative refractive index changes related to resonant intersubband optical transitions.
2012-01-01
The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497
Rocco, Paolo; Cilurzo, Francesco; Minghetti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Pedretti, Alessandro
2017-10-01
The data presented in this article are related to the article titled "Molecular Dynamics as a tool for in silico screening of skin permeability" (Rocco et al., 2017) [1]. Knowledge of the confidence interval and maximum theoretical value of the correlation coefficient r can prove useful to estimate the reliability of developed predictive models, in particular when there is great variability in compiled experimental datasets. In this Data in Brief article, data from purposely designed numerical simulations are presented to show how much the maximum r value is worsened by increasing the data uncertainty. The corresponding confidence interval of r is determined by using the Fisher r → Z transform.
Dakhlaoui, Hassen
2015-04-07
In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values formore » carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.
2008-01-01
Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.
Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla
2013-06-01
Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.
Deng, Shengming; Wu, Zhifang; Wu, Yiwei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jihui; Dai, Na
2017-01-01
The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included), EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher's r-to-z transformation, correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled r for all studies was −0.35 (95% CI: −0.42–0.28) and exhibited a notable heterogeneity (I2 = 78.4%; P < 0.01). In terms of the cancer type subgroup analysis, combined correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from −0.12 (lymphoma, n = 5) to −0.59 (pancreatic cancer, n = 2). We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types. PMID:29097924
Deng, Shengming; Wu, Zhifang; Wu, Yiwei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jihui; Dai, Na; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Jianhua
2017-01-01
The objective of this meta-analysis is to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MR and the standard uptake value (SUV) of 18 F-FDG on PET/CT in patients with cancer. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE included), EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review were searched for relevant original articles that explored the correlation between SUV and ADC in English. After applying Fisher's r -to- z transformation, correlation coefficient ( r ) values were extracted from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses based on tumor type were performed to investigate the potential heterogeneity. Forty-nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, comprising 1927 patients. Pooled r for all studies was -0.35 (95% CI: -0.42-0.28) and exhibited a notable heterogeneity ( I 2 = 78.4%; P < 0.01). In terms of the cancer type subgroup analysis, combined correlation coefficients of ADC/SUV range from -0.12 (lymphoma, n = 5) to -0.59 (pancreatic cancer, n = 2). We concluded that there is an average negative correlation between ADC and SUV in patients with cancer. Higher correlations were found in the brain tumor, cervix carcinoma, and pancreas cancer. However, a larger, prospective study is warranted to validate these findings in different cancer types.
Heursen, Eva-Marie; Zuazo Ojeda, Amaya; Benavente Fernández, Isabel; Jimenez Gómez, Gema; Campuzano Fernández-Colima, Rosalía; Paz-Expósito, José; Lubián López, Simón Pedro
2017-01-01
Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification has been proven to be of prognostic value in term newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) who were treated under normothermia. To evaluate the prognostic value of ADC in standardized brain regions in neonates with HIE who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH). This prospective cohort study included 54 term newborns who were admitted with HIE and treated with TH. All magnetic resonance imaging examinations were performed between days 4 and 6 of life, and ADC values were measured in 13 standardized regions of the brain. At 2 years of age we explored whether ADC values were related to composite outcomes (death or survival with abnormal neurodevelopment). The severity of HIE is inversely related to ADC values in different brain regions. We found that lower ADC values in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), the thalami, the semioval centre, and frontal and parietal white matter were related to adverse outcomes. ADC values in the PLIC and thalami are good predictors of adverse outcomes (AUC 0.86 and 0.76). Low ADC values in the PLIC, thalamus, semioval centre, and frontal and parietal white matter in full-term infants with HIE treated with TH were associated with a poor outcome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sun, Yiqun; Tong, Tong; Cai, Sanjun; Bi, Rui; Xin, Chao; Gu, Yajia
2014-01-01
We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k = 0.775). The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p = 0.003). The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p = 0.006) and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p = 0.006). There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r = -0.318, p = 0.026) and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r = -0.310, p = 0.030). Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.
Rabasco, Paola; Caivano, Rocchina; Simeon, Vittorio; Dinardo, Giuseppina; Lotumolo, Antonella; Gioioso, Matilde; Villonio, Antonio; Iannelli, Giancarlo; D'Antuono, Felice; Zandolino, Alexis; Macarini, Luca; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Cammarota, Aldo
2017-02-07
To analyze diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the related apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in women with breast cancer, correlating these values with the presence at 3 years of distant metastases, and to demonstrate that DWI-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and related ADC values may represent a prognostic value in the study of women with breast cancer. Sixty women (aged 45-73 years) affected with breast cancer with a follow-up in 3 years were enrolled. On DWI, we obtained the ADC values, and these were correlated with the clinical condition of patients at 3 years. Moreover, tumour size, lymph node status, and molecular markers, including estrogens receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67 index, and human growth factor receptor 2 protein, were correlated with ADC values. This study was approved by the Scientific Committee of our institution. We considered patients with metastasis at 3 years (12 patients - 20%) and without metastasis (48 patients - 80%). The mean ADC value in patients with no metastases at 3 years was 1.06 ± 0.38, while for patients with metastases it was 0.74 ± 0.34 (p = .011). The receiver-operator curve analysis identified a value of 0.75 (<0.75 with risk to develop metastasis) as the best predictive cutoff for ADC values, with the highest sensitivity (81.25%) and higher specificity (66.67%). After regression analysis, ADC value, positivity to estrogen-progestin receptors, and presence of lymph nodes were the only prognostic factors found to be statistically significant. DWI-MRI and related ADC values may represent a prognostic value in women with breast cancer.
Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind
2014-07-28
We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.
Yu, Xue; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Lai, Vincent; Chan, Queenie
2014-07-01
To evaluate the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) (tissue metabolism) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (water diffusivity) in peritoneal metastases. Patients with peritoneal dissemination detected on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) were prospectively recruited for MRI examinations with informed consent and the study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. FDG-PET/CT, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MRI, and DWI/MRI images were independently reviewed by two radiologists based on visual analysis. SUVmax/SUVmean and ADCmin/ADCmean were obtained manually by drawing ROIs over the peritoneal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and DWI, respectively. Diagnostic characteristics of each technique were evaluated. Pearson's coefficient and McNemar and Kappa tests were used for statistical analysis. Eight patients were recruited for this prospective study and 34 peritoneal metastases were evaluated. ADCmean was significantly and negatively correlated with SUVmax (r = -0.528, P = 0.001) and SUVmean (r = -0.548, P = 0.001). ADCmin had similar correlation with SUVmax (r = -0.508, P = 0.002) and SUVmean (r = -0.513, P = 0.002). DWI/MRI had high diagnostic performance (accuracy = 98%) comparable to FDG-PET/CT, in peritoneal metastasis detection. Kappa values were excellent for all techniques. There was a significant inverse correlation between SUV and ADC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Renard Penna, Raphaele; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Comperat, Eva; Mozer, Pierre; Léon, Priscilla; Varinot, Justine; Roupret, Morgan; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Lucidarme, Olivier; Cussenot, Olivier
2016-10-01
To evaluate the use of multiparametric MRI (mp MRI) parameters in order to predict prostate cancer aggressiveness as defined by pathological Gleason score or molecular markers in a cohort of patients defined with a Gleason score of 6 at biopsy. Sixty-seven men treated by radical prostatectomy (RP) for a low grade (Gleason 6) on biopsy and mp MRI before biopsy were selected. The cycle cell proliferation (CCP) score assessed by the Prolaris test and Ki-67/PTEN expression assessed by immunohistochemistry were quantified on the RP specimens. 49.25 % of the cancers were undergraded on biopsy compared to the RP specimens. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) < 0.80 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (P value 0.003), Likert score >4 (P value 0.003) and PSA density >0.15 ng/ml/cc (P value 0.035) were significantly associated with a higher RP Gleason score. Regarding molecular markers of aggressiveness, ADC < 0.80 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s and Likert score >4 were also significantly associated with a positive staining for Ki-67 (P value 0.039 and 0.01, respectively). No association was found between any analyzed MRI or clinical parameter and the CCP score. Decreasing ADC value is a stronger indicator of aggressive prostate cancer as defined by molecular markers or postsurgical histology than biopsy characteristics.
Shen, Guohua; Ma, Huan; Liu, Bin; Ren, Pengwei; Kuang, Anren
2017-12-01
Diffusion-weighted imaging and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET are increasingly being recognized as feasible oncological techniques. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured by diffusion-weighted imaging and the standardized uptake value (SUV) from fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET have similar clinical applications. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between these two parameters in various cancers. Several major databases were searched for eligible studies. The correlation coefficient (ρ) values were pooled in a random-effects model. Begg's test was used to analyze the existence of publication bias and the sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses on the basis of study design, diagnostic method, scanning modality, and tumor type. Thirty-five articles were accepted. The pooled ρ value of all of the accepted studies was -0.30 (95% confidence interval: -0.33 to -0.27), and notable heterogeneity was present (I=69.4%, P<0.001), which indicated a relatively weak negative correlation. The pooled ρ values were -0.26, -0.33, -0.32, and -0.33 for the SUVmax/ADCmean, SUVmax/ADCmin, SUVmean/ADCmean, and SUVmean/ADCmin relationships, respectively. The study design and diagnostic method were potential sources of heterogeneity. Lung cancer showed a stronger correlation (ρ=-0.42) than head and neck cancer (ρ=-0.27), cervical cancer (ρ=-0.21), and breast cancer (ρ=-0.23). A Begg's test indicated no significant publication bias among the accepted studies (P>0.05). The two functional parameters of ADC and SUV showed a very weak inverse correlation, which may contribute toward a sophisticated characterization of tumor biology. However, the findings require further validation with trials with large samples and different tumor types.
Li, Huan; Wang, Daofeng; Wei, Wenxiao; Ouyang, Lamei; Lou, Ning
2017-01-01
Anastomotic leak was a potentially severe life-threatening complication of esophagectomy, which drew attention in consequence of progressive dyspnea until acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to the early asymptomatic presentation. Respiratory failure, caused by ARDS as the severe presentation of anastomotic leak, is the most common organ failure. CRP (C-reactive protein), procalcitonin (PCT), and Blood G (BG) test are the sensitivity markers for inflammatory, sepsis, and fungemia, respectively. Early recognition and intervention treatment of anastomotic leak may alleviate complication and improve outcome. We retrospectively analyzed 71 patients, accepting mechanical ventilation support because of ARDS as the complication after radical resection of esophagus cancer. Clinical data were collected from the patients' electronic medical records, including their clinically hematological examination, drainage fluid cultures, and sputum culture. Accord to appearance of anastomotic leak or not, all patients were divided into 2 groups, leak group and no-leak group. Inflammatory markers, such as CRP, PCT, and the coefficient of BG and PCT, were significantly different between the 2 groups. Respiratory index, white blood cell, hemoglobin (HBG), platelet (PLT), and other clinical factors were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve for various cutoff levels of several factors. Blood G tests presented the better predicting value for anastomotic leak. Blood G tests and PCT should be tested after esophagectomy. The coefficient of PCT and BG (>260) is of great significance, and clinical value to predict anastomotic leak for patients with postesophagectomy ARDS, early PCT and BG test, and especially, dynamic variation may alleviate complication and improve outcome.
Zheng, De-Xian; Meng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Qing-Jun; Li, Chuan-Ting; Shang, Xi-Dan; Zhu, Yu-Seng; Bai, Tian-Jun; Xu, Shi-Ming
2016-01-01
AIM: To determine if efficacy of chemotherapy on liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer can be predicted by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: In total, 86 patients with liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer (156 metastatic lesions) diagnosed in our hospital were included in this study. The maximum diameters of these tumors were compared with each other before treatment, 2 wk after treatment, and 12 wk after treatment. Selected patients were classified as the effective group and the ineffective group, depending on the maximum diameter of the tumor after 12 wk of treatment; and the ADC values at different treatment times between the two groups were compared. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the relationship between ADC value and tumor diameter. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the ADC values before treatment to predict the patient’s sensitivity and specificity degree of efficacy to the chemotherapy. RESULTS: There was no difference in age between the two groups and in maximum tumor diameter before treatment and 2 wk after treatment. However, after 12 wk of treatment, maximum tumor diameter in the effective group was significantly lower than that in the ineffective group (P < 0.05). Before treatment, ADC values in the ineffective group were significantly higher than those in the effective group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in ADC values between the effective and ineffective groups after 2 and 12 wk of treatment. However, ADC values were significantly higher after 2 and 12 wk of treatment compared to before treatment in the effective group (P < 0.05). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ADC value before treatment and the reduced percentage of the maximum tumor diameter after 12 wk of treatment were negatively correlated, while the increase in the percentage of the ADC value 12 wk after treatment and the decrease in the
Ghosh, Adarsh; Singh, Tulika; Singla, Veenu; Bagga, Rashmi; Khandelwal, Niranjan
2017-12-01
Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are usually generated by builtin software provided by the MRI scanner vendors; however, various open-source postprocessing software packages are available for image manipulation and parametric map generation. The purpose of this study is to establish the reproducibility of absolute ADC values obtained using different postprocessing software programs. DW images with three b values were obtained with a 1.5-T MRI scanner, and the trace images were obtained. ADC maps were automatically generated by the in-line software provided by the vendor during image generation and were also separately generated on postprocessing software. These ADC maps were compared on the basis of ROIs using paired t test, Bland-Altman plot, mountain plot, and Passing-Bablok regression plot. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean ADC values obtained from the different postprocessing software programs when the same baseline trace DW images were used for the ADC map generation. For using ADC values as a quantitative cutoff for histologic characterization of tissues, standardization of the postprocessing algorithm is essential across processing software packages, especially in view of the implementation of vendor-neutral archiving.
Usuda, Katsuo; Funasaki, Aika; Sekimura, Atsushi; Motono, Nozomu; Matoba, Munetaka; Doai, Mariko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Ueda, Yoshimichi; Uramoto, Hidetaka
2018-04-09
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for detecting malignant tumors and the assessment of lymph nodes, as FDG-PET/CT is. But it is not clear how DWI influences the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The focus of this study is to evaluate the correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET/CT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI with known prognostic factors in resected lung cancer. A total of 227 patients with resected lung cancers were enrolled in this study. FEG-PET/CT and DWI were performed in each patient before surgery. There were 168 patients with adenocarcinoma, 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 15 patients with other cell types. SUVmax was a factor that was correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation. ADC of lung cancer was a factor that was not correlated to T factor, or N factor. There was a significantly weak inverse relationship between SUVmax and ADC (Correlation coefficient r = - 0.227). In analysis of survival, there were significant differences between the categories of sex, age, pT factor, pN factor, cell differentiation, cell type, and SUVmax. Univariate analysis revealed that SUVmax, pN factor, age, cell differentiation, cell type, sex, and pT factor were significant factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax and pN factor were independent significant prognostic factors. SUVmax was a significant prognostic factor that is correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation, but ADC was not. SUVmax may be more useful for predicting the prognosis of lung cancer than ADC values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus
2016-04-01
Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m
Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won
2016-01-01
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse prognoses. The main prognostic determinants are lymph node status, tumor size, histological grade, and biological factors, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 protein levels, and p53 expression. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that provides information related to tumor cellularity and the integrity of the cell membranes. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ADC measurements could provide information on the prognostic factors of breast cancer. A total of 71 women with invasive breast cancer, treated consecutively, who underwent preoperative breast MRIs with DWI at 3.0 Tesla and subsequent surgery, were prospectively included in this study. Each DWI was acquired with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). The mean ADC values of the lesions were measured, including the entire lesion on the three largest sections. We performed histopathological analyses for the tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67, p53, and molecular subtypes. The associations with the ADC values and prognostic factors of breast cancer were evaluated using the independent-samples t test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A low ADC value was associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and with high Ki-67 protein levels (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the ADC values among the histological grade (P = 0.48), molecular subtype (P = 0.51), tumor size (P = 0.46), and p53 protein level (P = 0.62). The pre-operative use of the 3.0 Tesla DWI could provide information about the lymph node status and tumor proliferation for breast cancer patients, and could help determine the optimal treatment plan.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quirama, M.; Morales, R.
2016-12-01
Light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol is recognized as a significant short lived climate pollutant that can contribute to direct and indirect radiative forcing. In urban environments, black carbon is an important contributor to the deterioration of local air quality. In this study, we report measurements of equivalent Black Carbon performed during the months of January, February, and March 2016 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. During this period, a persistent condition of atmospheric stability lead to high concentrations of particulate matter throughout the city. During the month of February, the city was further impacted by a series of small-scale forest fires that took place on hills neighboring the city center. Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations were monitored before, during, and after a mayor forest fire episode with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer. The monitoring instruments were located at a traffic impacted site, 18.3 km from the forest fire. To evaluate the contribution of biomass burning to the light-absorbing aerosol particle concentration, spectral analysis of the absorption coefficient of the sampled aerosol particles was performed. When the biomass burning plume directly impacted the monitoring station during the night of February 4, eBC concentrations of up to 40 µg/m3 were observed at nighttime. This concentration was significantly higher than average nighttime concentrations of eBC, observed to be 4 µg/m3 at the site. However, during the period most intensely affected by the biomass burning plume, the angstrom exponent computed between the 450nm and the 970 nm channel, was found to be close to 1. Angstrom exponent close to 1 is an indication that the contribution from traffic generated black carbon is dominant compared to the contribution of biomass burning. The data set collected during this period suggests that despite the significant contribution of the fresh biomass burning plume to the particulate matter concentration in the city, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Nayral, C.; Ojo, W.-S.; Delpech, F.
2017-10-01
Context. To model the cold dust emission observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, in dense molecular clouds or in cold clumps that could eventually form new stars, it is mandatory to know the physical and spectroscopic properties of this dust and to understand its emission. Aims: This work is a continuation of previous studies aiming at providing astronomers with spectroscopic data of realistic cosmic dust analogues for the interpretation of observations. The aim of the present work is to extend the range of studied analogues to iron-rich silicate dust analogues. Methods: Ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues were produced by a sol-gel method with a mean composition close to Mg1-xFexSiO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. Part of each sample was annealed at 500 °C for two hours in a reducing atmosphere to modify the oxidation state of iron. We have measured the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of these eight ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues in the spectral domain 30-1000 μm for grain temperature in the range 10-300 K and at room temperature in the 5-40 μm range. Results: The MAC of ferromagnesium samples behaves in the same way as the MAC of pure Mg-rich amorphous silicate samples. In the 30-300 K range, the MAC increases with increasing grain temperature whereas in the range 10-30 K, we do not see any change of the MAC. The MAC cannot be described by a single power law in λ- β. The MAC of the samples does not show any clear trend with the iron content. However the annealing process has, on average, an effect on the MAC that we explain by the evolution of the structure of the samples induced by the processing. The MAC of all the samples is much higher than the MAC calculated by dust models. Conclusions: The complex behavior of the MAC of amorphous silicates with wavelength and temperature is observed whatever the exact silicate composition (Mg vs. Fe amount). It is a universal characteristic of amorphous materials, and therefore of
Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Rowley, R.L.
1998-07-01
Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) and of gaseous H{sub 2}S into aqueous MDEA were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. A numerical model for absorption, diffusion, and reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in blends of MDEA, DEA, and water was developed. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for the case of CO{sub 2} absorption and of bisulfide ion for the case of H{sub 2}S absorption from measured absorption rates. CO{sub 2} absorptionmore » rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 50 mass % total amine at DEA:MDEA mole ratios of 1:20, 1:4, 1L3, and 2:3. H{sub 2}S absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bisulfide ion were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA.« less
Çabuk, Gonca; Nass Duce, Meltem; Özgür, Anıl; Apaydın, Feramuz Demir; Polat, Ayşe; Orekici, Gülhan
2015-04-01
The goal of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. Between June 2012 and March 2013, 60 patients with 63 lesions (age range 29-70 years, mean age 48.6 years) were included in our study. All lesions, except complicated cysts and intra-mammary lymph nodes, were confirmed histopathologically. The patients were evaluated with a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner using dedicated bilateral breast coil. DWI images were obtained by echo planar imaging sequence and 'b' values were selected as 200, 600 and 1000 s/mm(2). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of both breast lesions and the normal fibroglandular tissue of the contralateral breast were calculated and statistically compared using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test and the receiver operating curve. Of 63 lesions, 22 were malignant and 41 were benign. In malignant lesions, the mean ADC values were 1.40 ± 0.41 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 200, 1.05 ± 0.28 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 600 and 0.91 ± 0.20 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 1000 and in benign lesions, the mean ADC values were 2.13 ± 0.85 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 200, 1.64 ± 0.47 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 600 and 1.40 ± 0.43 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 1000. The success of ADC values in differentiation of benign and malignant lesions was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). The threshold values were determined to be 1.50 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 200, 1.22 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 600 and 0.98 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for b = 1000 (P < 0.05). DWI can be an effective radiological method in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Orlando, John J.; Burkholder, James B.
1990-01-01
FTIR emission/absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the relative intensities of 88 pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH(X2Pi) distributed over 16 vibrational bands. The experimental technique used to obtain the Einstein A ratios is discussed. The dipole moment function which follows from the intensity ratios along with Einstein A coefficients calculated from mu(r) is presented.
Liu, Q; Li, W; Li, N; Xiao, Q M; He, J Q; Wang, W Z; Qi, H N; Wang, P
2017-05-20
Objective: To investigate the dynamic change in cerebral oxygen utilization coefficient (O(2)UCc) in the early stage of acute severe carbon monoxide poisoning (ASCMP) and its value in predicting delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) . Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for patients with ASCMP who were admitted to our hospital from November 2013 to March 2016, and their baseline features and physiological parameters were recorded. Observation ended at two months after acute poisoning; according to the presence or absence of DEACMP, the patients were divided into DEACMP group with 21 patients and non-DEACMP group with 64 patients. The change in O(2)UCc was monitored on admission and at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Spearman correlation was used to investigate the correlation between O(2)UCc and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of O(2)UCc in predicting DEACMP. Results: Both groups had a significant increase in O(2)UCc on admission, and the DEACMP group had a significantly greater increase than the non-DEACMP group (52.57%±9.30% vs 41.46±%6.37%, P <0.05) . Then both groups tended to have a reduction in O(2)UCc, and the DEACMP group had a significantly higher O(2)UCc than the non-DEACMP group at 6, 24, and 48 hours (47.40%±7.92%, 39.38%±8.01%, and 32.29%±6.31% vs 34.51%±7.89%, 28.79%±5.4%, and 27.72%±5.46%, P <0.05) . On admission and at 6, 24, and 48 hours, O2UCc was positively correlated with APACHE II score ( r =0.304, 0.398, 0.426, and 0.300, P =0.005, 0.000, 0.000, and 0.005) . The ROC curve showed that O(2)UCc had a value in predicting DEACMP on admission and at 6, 24, and 48 hours, and 6-hour O2UCc had the highest predictive value with an area under the ROC curve of 0.870 (95% confidence interval 0.794-0.947, P <0.05) . Conclusion: The dynamic change in O(2)UCc has a reference value in
Wu, X; Reinikainen, P; Vanhanen, A; Kapanen, M; Vierikko, T; Ryymin, P; Hyödynmaa, S; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P-L
2017-01-01
To investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates with prostate cancer aggressiveness and further to compare the diagnostic performance of ADC and normalized ADC (nADC: normalized to non-tumor tissue). Thirty pre-treatment patients (mean age, 69years; range: 59-78years) with prostate cancer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, including DWI with three b values: 50, 400, and 800s/mm 2 . Both ADC and nADC were correlated with the Gleason score obtained through transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The tumor minimum ADC (ADC min : the lowest ADC value within tumor) had an inverse correlation with the Gleason score (r=-0.43, P<0.05), and it was lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than in those with Gleason score 3+3 (0.54±0.11×10 3 mm 2 /s vs. 0.64±0.12×10 -3 mm 2 /s, P<0.05). Both the nADC min and nADC mean correlated with the Gleason score (r=-0.52 and r=-0.55, P<0.01; respectively), and they were lower in patients with Gleason score 3+4 than those with Gleason score 3+3 (P<0.01; respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.765, 0.818, or 0.833 for the ADC min , nADC min , or nADC mean ; respectively, in differentiating between Gleason score 3+4 and 3+3 tumors. Tumor ADC min , nADC min , and nADC mean are useful markers to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Hawat, Sharif
2013-02-01
Infrared (IR) absorption in the spectral range of (1071.88-1084.62 cm-1) vs. pressure in chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22, F-22, and CHClF2) was studied using a tunable continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser radiation on 9R branch lines with a maximum output power of about 2.12 W, provided with an absorber cell located outside the laser cavity. The absorption coefficients were determined vs. the gas pressure between 0.2 mbar and 170 mbar at lines from 9R branch for CFC-22. The frequency shifts of the absorption lines of CFC-22 in relative to the central frequencies of laser lines were calculated vs. the pressure on the basis of these absorption coefficients. The chosen lines were selected according to IR spectrum of the studied gas given by HITRAN cross section database. So the absorption was achieved for CFC-22 at the spectral lines of 9R branch situated from 9R (10) to 9R (30) emitted by a tunable CW CO2 laser. The absorption cross sections of CFC-22 determined in this work were compared with the relevant data given by HITRAN cross section database and a reasonable agreement was observed.
Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H
2010-01-01
Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated.
Srinivasan, A.; Galbán, C.J.; Johnson, T.D.; Chenevert, T.L.; Ross, B.D.; Mukherji, S.K.
2014-01-01
Purpose The objective of our study was to analyze the differences between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) partitions (created using the K-Means algorithm) between benign and malignant neck lesions and evaluate its benefit in distinguishing these entities. Material and methods MRI studies of 10 benign and 10 malignant proven neck pathologies were post-processed on a PC using in-house software developed in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). Lesions were manually contoured by two neuroradiologists with the ADC values within each lesion clustered into two (low ADC-ADCL, high ADC-ADCH) and three partitions (ADCL, intermediate ADC-ADCI, ADCH) using the K-Means clustering algorithm. An unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test was performed for all metrics to determine statistical differences in the means between the benign and malignant pathologies. Results Statistically significant difference between the mean ADCL clusters in benign and malignant pathologies was seen in the 3 cluster models of both readers (p=0.03, 0.022 respectively) and the 2 cluster model of reader 2 (p=0.04) with the other metrics (ADCH, ADCI, whole lesion mean ADC) not revealing any significant differences. Receiver operating characteristics curves demonstrated the quantitative difference in mean ADCH and ADCL in both the 2 and 3 cluster models to be predictive of malignancy (2 clusters: p=0.008, area under curve=0.850, 3 clusters: p=0.01, area under curve=0.825). Conclusion The K-Means clustering algorithm that generates partitions of large datasets may provide a better characterization of neck pathologies and may be of additional benefit in distinguishing benign and malignant neck pathologies compared to whole lesion mean ADC alone. PMID:20007723
This report describes the conceptualization, measurement, and use of the partition (or distribution) coefficient, Kd, parameter, and the geochemical aqueous solution and sorbent properties that are most important in controlling adsorption/retardation behavior of selected contamin...
Stellaard, Frans; von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter
2017-05-01
Regulation of cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis is controlled by three main fluxes, i.e. intestinal absorption, de novo synthesis (ChS) and catabolism, predominantly as bile acid synthesis (BAS). High serum total Chol and LDL-Chol concentrations in particular are considered risk factors and markers for the development of atherosclerosis. Pharmaceutical treatments to lower serum Chol have focused on reducing absorption or ChS and increasing BAS. Monitoring of these three parameters is complex involving isotope techniques, cholesterol balance experiments and advanced mass spectrometry based analysis methods. Surrogate markers were explored that require only one single fasting blood sample collection. These markers were validated in specific, mostly physiological conditions and during statin treatment to inhibit ChS. They were also applied under cholesterol absorption restriction, but were not validated in this condition. We retrospectively evaluated the use of serum campesterol (Camp), sitosterol (Sit) and cholestanol (Cholol) as markers for cholesterol absorption, lathosterol (Lath) as marker for ChS and 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OH-Ch) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-Ch) as markers for BAS under conditions of Chol absorption restriction. Additionally, their values were corrected for Chol concentration (R_sterol or oxysterols). Thirty-seven healthy male omnivore subjects were studied under treatments with placebo (PLAC), ezetimibe (EZE) to inhibit cholesterol absorption, simvastatin (SIMVA) to reduce cholesterol synthesis and a combination of both (EZE+SIMVA). Results were compared to those obtained in 18 pure vegetarian subjects (vegans) whose dietary Chol intake is extremely low. Relative or fractional Chol absorption (FrChA) was measured with the continuous feeding stable isotope procedure, ChS and BAS with the cholesterol balance method. The daily Chol intake (DICh) was inventoried and the daily Chol absorption (DACh) calculated. Monitoring cholesterol
Nguyen, T B; Cron, G O; Mercier, J F; Foottit, C; Torres, C H; Chakraborty, S; Woulfe, J; Jansen, G H; Caudrelier, J M; Sinclair, J; Hogan, M J; Thornhill, R E; Cameron, I G
2015-01-01
The prognostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging-derived plasma volume obtained in tumor and the contrast transfer coefficient has not been well-established in patients with gliomas. We determined whether plasma volume and contrast transfer coefficient in tumor correlated with survival in patients with gliomas in addition to other factors such as age, type of surgery, preoperative Karnofsky score, contrast enhancement, and histopathologic grade. This prospective study included 46 patients with a new pathologically confirmed diagnosis of glioma. The contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume obtained in tumor maps were calculated directly from the signal-intensity curve without T1 measurements, and values were obtained from multiple small ROIs placed within tumors. Survival curve analysis was performed by dichotomizing patients into groups of high and low contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume. Univariate analysis was performed by using dynamic contrast-enhanced parameters and clinical factors. Factors that were significant on univariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis. For all patients with gliomas, survival was worse for groups of patients with high contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume obtained in tumor (P < .05). In subgroups of high- and low-grade gliomas, survival was worse for groups of patients with high contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume obtained in tumor (P < .05). Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with lower survival were age older than 50 years, low Karnofsky score, biopsy-only versus resection, marked contrast enhancement versus no/mild enhancement, high contrast transfer coefficient, and high plasma volume obtained in tumor (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, a low Karnofsky score, biopsy versus resection in combination with marked contrast enhancement, and a high contrast transfer coefficient were associated with lower survival rates (P < .05). In patients with glioma
Engineering the Complex-Valued Constitutive Parameters of Metamaterials for Perfect Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pengwei; Chen, Naibo; Tang, Chaojun; Chen, Jing; Liu, Fanxin; Sheng, Saiqian; Yan, Bo; Sui, Chenghua
2017-04-01
We theoretically studied how to directly engineer the constitutive parameters of metamaterials for perfect absorbers of electromagnetic waves. As an example, we numerically investigated the necessary refractive index n and extinction coefficient k and the relative permittivity ɛ and permeability μ of a metamaterial anti-reflection layer, which could cancel the reflection from a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) thin film on a metal substrate, within the visible wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm. We found that the metamaterial anti-reflection layer should have a negative refractive index ( n < 0) for short-wavelength visible light but have a positive refractive index ( n > 0) for long-wavelength visible light. The relative permittivity ɛ and permeability μ could be fitted by the Lorentz model, which exhibited electric and magnetic resonances, respectively.
Allgayer, H; Sonnenbichler, J; Kruis, W; Paumgartner, G
1985-01-01
Sulphasalazine (SASP), used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, is split into sulphapyridine (SP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the colon. Lower plasma levels of SASP and 5-ASA as compared to those of SP may be due to different absorption rates from the colon because of different pK values and pH dependent lipid-water partition coefficients. In this study we determined the pK values of 5-ASA and its major metabolite, N-acetyl amino-salicylic acid (AcASA), by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and compared the pH dependent apparent benzene-water partition coefficients (Papp) of SASP, SP and 5-ASA with respect to their different plasma levels. The COOH group of 5-ASA had a pK value of 3.0, the -NH3+ group had 6.0, the -OH group 13.9; the -COOH group of AcASA had 2.7 and the -OH group 12.9; The Papp of SASP (0.042 +/- 0.004) and 5-ASA (0.059 +/- 0.01) were significantly lower than that of SP (0.092 +/- 0.03) (at pH 5.5).
Canestri, Franco
2006-10-01
This paper discusses in detail the mathematical identification of the optical absorption alpha (cm(1)) of Beer's law, a crucial parameter to study the development of laser beam craters into dry poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) samples exposed to steady CO(2) laser beams emitting radiation at lambda = 10.6 microm in continuous- wave (CW) mode. Three additional time-dependent coefficients have been determined as well. In clinical applications, these results are important in order to precisely quantify and forecast the ablation capabilities of the CO(2) laser beam, to optimize its usage in the operating room, and to address the safety issues related to surgical interventions on human tissue. Currently, the data available in the literature do not allow the identification of the numerical value of alpha (cm(1)) for PMMA at lambda = 10.6 microm with enough, and therefore satisfactory, accuracy. Additionally, the correct identification of the optical absorption of PMMA would allow the isolation, with better accuracy, of other key time-dependent coefficients, such as relaxation time, surface threshold time, and heat incubation time, which are all described in the literature in a qualitative rather than quantitative fashion. Correct bone cement preparation depends on the value of alpha (cm(1)) of the PMMA in order to avoid unwanted complications in patients during cement removal via laser techniques. The laser in use was configured in different combinations with the following parameters: transverse electromagnetic modes (TEMnm), output power (I0), exposure times (te), and focal lengths (fk). Several PMMA blocks (1 cm x 4 cm x 4 cm) were exposed to CW radiation of three commercially available CO(2) medical laser devices showing a TEM11 mode. Each block was exposed to the beam on a horizontal and well-polished surface of each sample. Four focal lengths (2.5", 5", 7.5", and 15.75" [400 mm]) were used to focus the beam on the well-polished and dry surface of the PMMA samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkatch, V. I.; Svyrydova, K. A.; Vasiliev, S. V.; Kovalenko, O. V.
2017-08-01
Using the results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry, an analysis has been carried out of the initial stages of the eutectic and primary mechanisms of crystallization of a series of metallic glasses based on Fe and Al with the established temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficients. Analytical relationships, which relate the volume density of crystallites formed in the glasses at the temperatures of the onset of crystallization with the values of the effective diffusion coefficients at these temperatures have been proposed. It has been established that, in the glasses, the crystallization of which begins at the lower boundary of the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients ( 10-20 m2/s), structures are formed with the volume density of crystallites on the order of 1023-1024 m-3 and, at the upper boundary (10-18 m2/s), of the order of 1018 and 1020 m-3 in the glasses that are crystallized via the eutectic and primary mechanisms, respectively. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental estimates indicates that the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients are the main factors that determine the structure of glasses at the initial stages of crystallization.
On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.
1973-01-01
The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rerat, A.
1995-01-01
When pigs were submitted to duodenal infusion of solutions containing a large percentage of small peptides (PEP) or free amino acids with the same pattern (AAL) amino acids appear in the portal blood more rapidly and more uniformly after infusion of PEP then after infusion of AAL, with the notable exception of methionine for which the opposite was true. These differences were lowered when a carbohydrate (maltose dextrin) was present in the solution, but nevertheless remained significant for the first hour after the infusion. The long-term (8-hour) uptake of free amino acids into the liver and the peripheral tissues differed in profile according to the nature of the duodenal infusion. Peripheral uptake was appreciably less well balanced after infusion of free amino acids (deficiency of threonine and phenylalanine) than after infusion of small peptides (deficiency of methionine). Accordingly, in the rat, under conditions of discontinuous enteral nutrition the mixture of small peptides was of greater nutritive value than the mixture of free amino acids. It thus appears that the absorption kinetics which results in important variations in the temporal distribution of free amino acids in the tissues may be at the origin of transitory imbalances in tissue amino acid uptake, and as a result of a lower nutritive value.
Adubeiro, Nuno; Nogueira, Maria Luísa; Nunes, Rita G; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre; Ribeiro, Eduardo; La Fuente, José Maria Ferreira
Determining optimal b-value pair for differentiation between normal and prostate cancer (PCa) tissues. Forty-three patients with diagnosis or PCa symptoms were included. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was estimated using minimum and maximum b-values of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 500s/mm2 and 500, 800, 1100, 1400, 1700 and 2000s/mm2, respectively. Diagnostic performances were evaluated when Area-under-the-curve (AUC)>95%. 15 of the 35 b-values pair surpassed this AUC threshold. The pair (50, 2000s/mm2) provided the highest AUC (96%) with ADC cutoff 0.89×10- 3 mm 2 /s, sensitivity 95.5%, specificity 93.2% and accuracy 94.4%. The best b-value pair was b=50, 2000s/mm2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bickel, Hubert; Pinker, Katja; Polanec, Stephan; Magometschnigg, Heinrich; Wengert, Georg; Spick, Claudio; Bogner, Wolfgang; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Helbich, Thomas H; Baltzer, Pascal
2017-05-01
To investigate the influence of region-of-interest (ROI) placement and different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameters on ADC values, diagnostic performance, reproducibility and measurement time in breast tumours. In this IRB-approved, retrospective study, 149 histopathologically proven breast tumours (109 malignant, 40 benign) in 147 women (mean age 53.2) were investigated. Three radiologists independently measured minimum, mean and maximum ADC, each using three ROI placement approaches:1 - small 2D-ROI, 2 - large 2D-ROI and 3 - 3D-ROI covering the whole lesion. One reader performed all measurements twice. Median ADC values, diagnostic performance, reproducibility, and measurement time were calculated and compared between all combinations of ROI placement approaches and ADC parameters. Median ADC values differed significantly between the ROI placement approaches (p < .001). Minimum ADC showed the best diagnostic performance (AUC .928-.956), followed by mean ADC obtained from 2D ROIs (.926-.94). Minimum and mean ADC showed high intra- (ICC .85-.94) and inter-reader reproducibility (ICC .74-.94). Median measurement time was significantly shorter for the 2D ROIs (p < .001). ROI placement significantly influences ADC values measured in breast tumours. Minimum and mean ADC acquired from 2D-ROIs are useful for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions, and are highly reproducible, with rapid measurement. • Region of interest placement significantly influences apparent diffusion coefficient of breast tumours. • Minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient perform best and are reproducible. • 2D regions of interest perform best and provide rapid measurement times.
Wang, Xue; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yumin; Zhou, Yongjin; Ye, Xinjian; Liu, Kun; Bai, Guanghui; Guo, Anna; Du, Meimei; Jiang, Lezhen; Wang, Jinhong; Yan, Zhihan
2017-07-11
Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions. Student's t test revealed that ADC values for stage I endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those for benign lesions. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993, and the cutoff ADC value was 0.98 × 10-3 mm2/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of diagnosing stage I endometrial carcinoma were 100%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively. Second, we conducted a prospective study of 26 patients to validate the use of the cutoff ADC value obtained in the study's first stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign endometrial lesions based on the cutoff ADC value obtained earlier were as follows: radiologist 1 attained 86.67%, 100.0%, and 92.31%, respectively; radiologist 2 attained 86.67%, 91.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that ADC values could be a potential biomarker for use as a quantitative and qualitative tool for differentiating between early-stage endometrial carcinomas and benign mimickers.
Hu, Yumin; Zhou, Yongjin; Ye, Xinjian; Liu, Kun; Bai, Guanghui; Guo, Anna; Du, Meimei; Jiang, Lezhen
2017-01-01
Previous researchers obtained various apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cutoff values to differentiate endometrial carcinoma from benign mimickers with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Few studies have used 3T MRI or validated the effectiveness of these cutoff ADC values prospectively. This study was designed in two stages to obtain a cutoff ADC value at 3T MRI and to validate prospectively the role of the ADC value. First, we conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients to evaluate the diagnostic value of ADC by obtain a theoretical cutoff ADC value for differentiating between benign and malignant endometrial lesions. Student's t test revealed that ADC values for stage I endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those for benign lesions. The area under the curve value of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993, and the cutoff ADC value was 0.98 × 10−3 mm2/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of diagnosing stage I endometrial carcinoma were 100%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively. Second, we conducted a prospective study of 26 patients to validate the use of the cutoff ADC value obtained in the study's first stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign endometrial lesions based on the cutoff ADC value obtained earlier were as follows: radiologist 1 attained 86.67%, 100.0%, and 92.31%, respectively; radiologist 2 attained 86.67%, 91.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that ADC values could be a potential biomarker for use as a quantitative and qualitative tool for differentiating between early-stage endometrial carcinomas and benign mimickers. PMID:28634318
Aggarwal, M; Fisher, P; Hüser, A; Kluxen, F M; Parr-Dobrzanski, R; Soufi, M; Strupp, C; Wiemann, C; Billington, R
2015-06-01
Dermal absorption is a key parameter in non-dietary human safety assessments for agrochemicals. Conservative default values and other criteria in the EFSA guidance have substantially increased generation of product-specific in vitro data and in some cases, in vivo data. Therefore, data from 190 GLP- and OECD guideline-compliant human in vitro dermal absorption studies were published, suggesting EFSA defaults and criteria should be revised (Aggarwal et al., 2014). This follow-up article presents data from an additional 171 studies and also the combined dataset. Collectively, the data provide consistent and compelling evidence for revision of EFSA's guidance. This assessment covers 152 agrochemicals, 19 formulation types and representative ranges of spray concentrations. The analysis used EFSA's worst-case dermal absorption definition (i.e., an entire skin residue, except for surface layers of stratum corneum, is absorbed). It confirmed previously proposed default values of 6% for liquid and 2% for solid concentrates, irrespective of active substance loading, and 30% for all spray dilutions, irrespective of formulation type. For concentrates, absorption from solvent-based formulations provided reliable read-across for other formulation types, as did water-based products for solid concentrates. The combined dataset confirmed that absorption does not increase linearly beyond a 5-fold increase in dilution. Finally, despite using EFSA's worst-case definition for absorption, a rationale for routinely excluding the entire stratum corneum residue, and ideally the entire epidermal residue in in vitro studies, is presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Time-dependent oral absorption models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.
2001-01-01
The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.
Midgley, Stewart; Schleich, Nanette
2015-05-01
A novel method for dual-energy X-ray analysis (DEXA) is tested using measurements of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient μ. The key is a mathematical model that describes elemental cross sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The model is combined with the mixture rule to describe μ for materials, using the same polynomial coefficients. Materials are characterized by their electron density Ne and statistical moments Rk describing their distribution of elements, analogous to the concept of effective atomic number. In an experiment with materials of known density and composition, measurements of μ are written as a system of linear simultaneous equations, which is solved for the polynomial coefficients. DEXA itself involves computed tomography (CT) scans at two energies to provide a system of non-linear simultaneous equations that are solved for Ne and the fourth statistical moment R4. Results are presented for phantoms containing dilute salt solutions and for a biological specimen. The experiment identifies 1% systematic errors in the CT measurements, arising from third-harmonic radiation, and 20-30% noise, which is reduced to 3-5% by pre-processing with the median filter and careful choice of reconstruction parameters. DEXA accuracy is quantified for the phantom as the mean absolute differences for Ne and R4: 0.8% and 1.0% for soft tissue and 1.2% and 0.8% for bone-like samples, respectively. The DEXA results for the biological specimen are combined with model coefficients obtained from the tabulations to predict μ and the mass energy absorption coefficient at energies of 10 keV to 20 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wen-Zhuo; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Peng
2018-04-01
The absorption coefficient and fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) in spring and autumn were analyzed in this study. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three components, namely, humic-like C1, tyrosine-like C2 and tryptophan-like C3. The seasonal variations in the vertical patterns of the CDOM absorption coefficient (aCDOM(355)) and fluorescent components were influenced by the seasonal water mass except for the terrestrial input. The relationship between aCDOM(355) and dissolved organic matter (DOC) was attributed to their own mixing behavior. The correlation of the fluorescent components with DOC was disturbed by other non-conservative processes during the export of CDOM to the open ocean. The different chemical compositions and origins of DOC and CDOM led to variability in carbon-specific CDOM absorption (a*CDOM(355)) and fluorescent component ratios (ICn/IC1). The relationship between a*CDOM(355) and aCDOM(355) demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the BS, but not in the ECS, highly contributed non-absorbing DOC to the total DOC concentration. The photodegradation of dominant terrestrially derived CDOM in the ECS contributed to the positive relationship between a*CDOM(355) and ICn/IC1. By contrast, the abundant autochthonous CDOM in the YS was negatively correlated with ICn/IC1 in autumn. Our established box models showed that water exchange is a potentially important source of the aromatic components in the BS, YS, and ECS. Hence, the seasonal variations in water exchange might contribute to the variability of CDOM chemical composition in the BS, YS, and ECS, and significantly influence the structure and function of their ecosystems.
Srinivasan, A; Galbán, C J; Johnson, T D; Chenevert, T L; Ross, B D; Mukherji, S K
2010-04-01
Does the K-means algorithm do a better job of differentiating benign and malignant neck pathologies compared to only mean ADC? The objective of our study was to analyze the differences between ADC partitions to evaluate whether the K-means technique can be of additional benefit to whole-lesion mean ADC alone in distinguishing benign and malignant neck pathologies. MR imaging studies of 10 benign and 10 malignant proved neck pathologies were postprocessed on a PC by using in-house software developed in Matlab. Two neuroradiologists manually contoured the lesions, with the ADC values within each lesion clustered into 2 (low, ADC-ADC(L); high, ADC-ADC(H)) and 3 partitions (ADC(L); intermediate, ADC-ADC(I); ADC(H)) by using the K-means clustering algorithm. An unpaired 2-tailed Student t test was performed for all metrics to determine statistical differences in the means of the benign and malignant pathologies. A statistically significant difference between the mean ADC(L) clusters in benign and malignant pathologies was seen in the 3-cluster models of both readers (P = .03 and .022, respectively) and the 2-cluster model of reader 2 (P = .04), with the other metrics (ADC(H), ADC(I); whole-lesion mean ADC) not revealing any significant differences. ROC curves demonstrated the quantitative differences in mean ADC(H) and ADC(L) in both the 2- and 3-cluster models to be predictive of malignancy (2 clusters: P = .008, area under curve = 0.850; 3 clusters: P = .01, area under curve = 0.825). The K-means clustering algorithm that generates partitions of large datasets may provide a better characterization of neck pathologies and may be of additional benefit in distinguishing benign and malignant neck pathologies compared with whole-lesion mean ADC alone.
Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J
2014-06-15
Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADC IVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm andmore » 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADC IVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADC IVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADC IVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADC IVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADC IVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets (250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2
Tucker, V A
2000-12-01
Raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. Anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. This paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of this paradox by measuring the drag and torque on wingless model bodies of a peregrine falcon and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with straight and turned heads in a wind tunnel at a speed of 11.7 m s(-)(1). With a turned head, drag increased more than 50 %, and torque developed that tended to yaw the model towards the direction in which the head pointed. Mathematical models for the drag required to prevent yawing showed that the total drag could plausibly more than double with head-turning. Thus, the presumption about increased drag in the paradox is correct. The relationships between drag, head angle and torque developed here are prerequisites to the explanation of how a raptor could avoid the paradox by holding its head straight and flying along a spiral path that keeps its line of sight for maximum acuity pointed sideways at the prey. Although the spiral path to the prey is longer than the straight path, the raptor's higher speed can theoretically compensate for the difference in distances; and wild peregrines do indeed approach prey by flying along curved paths that resemble spirals. In addition to providing data that explain the paradox, this paper reports the lowest drag coefficients yet measured for raptor bodies (0.11 for the peregrine and 0.12 for the red-tailed hawk) when the body models with straight heads were set to pitch and yaw angles for minimum drag. These values are markedly lower than value of the parasite drag coefficient (C(D,par)) of 0.18 previously
Grueneisen, Johannes; Beiderwellen, Karsten; Heusch, Philipp; Buderath, Paul; Aktas, Bahriye; Gratz, Marcel; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Ruhlmann, Verena; Umutlu, Lale
2014-01-01
To evaluate a potential correlation of the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) and the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) in primary and recurrent cervical cancer based on integrated PET/MRI examinations. 19 consecutive patients (mean age 51.6 years; range 30-72 years) with histopathologically confirmed primary cervical cancer (n = 9) or suspected tumor recurrence (n = 10) were prospectively enrolled for an integrated PET/MRI examination. Two radiologists performed a consensus reading in random order, using a dedicated post-processing software. Polygonal regions of interest (ROI) covering the entire tumor lesions were drawn into PET/MR images to assess SUVmax and into ADC parameter maps to determine ADCmin values. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess a potential correlation between the mean values of ADCmin and SUVmax. In 15 out of 19 patients cervical cancer lesions (n = 12) or lymph node metastases (n = 42) were detected. Mean SUVmax (12.5 ± 6.5) and ADCmin (644.5 ± 179.7 × 10(-5) mm2/s) values for all assessed tumor lesions showed a significant but weak inverse correlation (R = -0.342, p < 0.05). When subdivided in primary and recurrent tumors, primary tumors and associated primary lymph node metastases revealed a significant and strong inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmin (R = -0.692, p < 0.001), whereas recurrent cancer lesions did not show a significant correlation. These initial results of this emerging hybrid imaging technique demonstrate the high diagnostic potential of simultaneous PET/MR imaging for the assessment of functional biomarkers, revealing a significant and strong correlation of tumor metabolism and higher cellularity in cervical cancer lesions.
Ding, Jian-Rong; Wang, Dong-Nv; Pan, Jing-Li
2016-01-01
The present meta-analysis investigated the clinical value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for differential diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). Electronic databases searches were employed to identify relevant scientific literature, and the search results were screened to selected high-quality studies for this meta-analysis. Methodological quality of the enrolled studies was evaluated by quality evaluation of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for DCIS versus IDC category of ADC value using Z test. Our meta-analysis contained a combined total of 1,097 subjects (928 patients with IDC and 169 patients with DCIS) from 9 relevant high-quality cohort studies. Pooled ORs demonstrated that ADC value in IDC patients was significantly lower than DCIS patients. Subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity indicated a higher ADC value in DCIS patients compared to IDC, in Asian population, but not in Caucasians. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine type-stratified analysis revealed that the ADC value of DWI obtained from both non- General Electric Company (GE) 1.5T and GE 1.5T machines were highly reliable in the differential diagnosis of DCIS and IDC. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that ADC values in DWI accurately conveys the differences in tumor architecture between IDC and DCIS, which has high clinical value in differentiatal diagnosis of IDC and DCIS. This may lead to improved BC prediction and treatment.
Li, Gui Dian; Liang, Ying Yin; Xu, Ping; Ling, Jian; Chen, Ying Ming
2016-04-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values with fatty infiltration in the thigh muscles of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one boys with DMD were recruited. The grade of fatty infiltration and the ADC and FA values of four thigh muscles (rectus femoris, semitendinosus, sartorius, and gracilis) were measured, and the FA and ADC values were compared with the grade of fatty infiltration. Twenty age-matched healthy boys were enrolled as the control group. The differences in the ADC and FA values of the thigh muscles between patients with DMD and the control group were compared. The patients with DMD showed lower FA values and higher ADC values in all measured muscles when compared with the control group. The FA and ADC values were correlated with the grade of fatty infiltration. For the rectus femoris muscle, r = -0.753 and p = 0.007 for FA, and r = 0.685 and p = 0.001 for ADC. For the semitendinosus muscle, r = -0.621 and p = 0.041 for FA, and r = 0.705 and p = 0.021 for ADC. For the sartorius muscle, r = -0.662 and p = 0.027 for FA, and r = 0.701 and p = 0.017 for ADC. For the gracilis muscle, r = -0.618 and p = 0.043 for FA, and r = 0.695 and p = 0.022 for ADC. Damage to the thigh muscles in patients with DMD can be detected by ADC and FA values using DTI. DTI can be used to assess the severity of the disease.
Ito, Katsuyoshi; Hayashida, Minoru; Kanki, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Akira; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Koji; Tanabe, Masahiro
2018-05-17
To evaluate dynamic changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the kidney at different time points during the cardiac cycle using electrocardiographic (ECG)-triggered diffusion-weighted MR imaging in normal subjects, and to elucidate the differences in ADC values between the right and left kidneys during a cardiac cycle. The study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers who underwent ECG-triggered diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the kidney were included. The differences in ADC values of each kidney during different cardiac phases were compared. Additionally, the differences in maximum and minimum ADC values between the right and left kidney were also evaluated. ADC values in the right and left kidney changed significantly during the cardiac cycle (P < 0.00001). Maximum and minimum ADC values during the cardiac cycle of the left kidney were significantly higher (P = 0.026 and 0.017, respectively) than those of the right kidney. Maximum ADC value in the left kidney had a significantly strong positive correlation with the left renal vein ratio (r = 0.83, P < 0.00001). In the right kidney, maximum ADC showed a weakly positive correlation with the diameter of the right renal vein (r = 0.45, P = 0.048). ADC values of the kidney obtained using ECG-triggered diffusion-weighted MR imaging change significantly during the cardiac cycle. Maximum (systolic) ADC during the cardiac cycle of the left kidney was significantly higher than that of the right kidney, probably due to the anatomical difference in the renal vein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rakheja, Rajan; Chandarana, Hersh; DeMello, Linda; Jackson, Kimberly; Geppert, Christian; Faul, David; Glielmi, Christopher; Friedman, Kent P
2013-11-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of neoplastic lesions in the use of a simultaneous PET/MRI hybrid system. Twenty-four patients with known primary malignancies underwent FDG PET/CT. They then underwent whole-body PET/MRI. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with free breathing and a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b values of 0, 350, and 750 s/mm(2). Regions of interest were manually drawn along the contours of neoplastic lesions larger than 1 cm, which were clearly identified on PET and diffusion-weighted images. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) on PET/MRI and PET/CT images, mean SUV (SUVmean), minimum ADC (ADCmin), and mean ADC (ADCmean) were recorded on PET/MR images for each FDG-avid neoplastic soft-tissue lesion with a maximum of three lesions per patient. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to asses the following relations: SUVmax versus ADCmin on PET/MR and PET/CT images, SUVmean versus ADCmean, and ratio of SUVmax to mean liver SUV (SUV ratio) versus ADCmin. A subanalysis of patients with progressive disease versus partial treatment response was performed with the ratio of SUVmax to ADCmin for the most metabolically active lesion. Sixty-nine neoplastic lesions (52 nonosseous lesions, 17 bone metastatic lesions) were evaluated. The mean SUVmax from PET/MRI was 7.0 ± 6.0; SUVmean, 5.6 ± 4.6; mean ADCmin, 1.10 ± 0.58; and mean ADCmean, 1.48 ± 0.72. A significant inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between PET/MRI SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.21, p = 0.04), between SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.18, p = 0.07), and between SUV ratio and ADCmin (r = -0.27, p = 0.01). A similar inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between the PET/CT SUVmax and ADCmin. Twenty of 24 patients had previously undergone PET/CT; five patients had a partial treatment response, and six had progressive disease according to Response Evaluation
Anderson, Stephan W; Soto, Jorge A; Milch, Holly N; Ozonoff, Al; O'Brien, Michael; Hamilton, James A; Jara, Hernan J
2011-04-01
To evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of liver in a murine model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis using 11.7 Tesla (T) MRI. This animal study was IACUC approved. Seventeen male C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (n = 3) and experimental groups (n = 14) fed a methionine-deficient choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce steatohepatitis. Livers underwent ex vivo diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC maps were calculated. A pathologist determined subjective scores of steatosis, classified from 0 to 3. Digital image analysis was used to determine percentage areas of steatosis. Graphs comparing ADC to subjective and digital image analysis (DIA) determinations of steatosis were plotted. Subjective assessments of steatosis ranged up to values of 3 and DIA determined areas of steatosis to range up to approximately 16%. ADC values approximated 800 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s (range, 749-811 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s, mean 786 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s) in controls and 500 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s (range, 478-733 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s, mean 625 × 10(-6) mm(2) /s) in experimental mice. Moderate correlation between ADC and subjective scores of steatosis (R = -0.56) was observed. Strong correlation between ADC values and percentage areas of steatosis was between ADC values and percentage areas of steatosis was observed greater (R = -0.81) and very strong correlation was observed with the exclusion of a single outlying data point (R = -0.91). Based on the comparison of ADC values and steatosis determinations by DIA, increasing degrees of steatosis are seen to result in decreased hepatic ADC values. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Wang, Yu; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Ruzhi; Zhao, Zhoushe; Xu, Ziqian; Wang, Lei; Liu, Rongbo; Gao, Fabao
2017-01-01
To assess kidney damage in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy based on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data obtained from ultra-high b-values and discuss its relationship to the expression of aquaporins (AQPs). This study was approved by the institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into two groups: (1) untreated controls and (2) diabetes mellitus (DM). All rats underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with 18 b-values (0-4500 s/mm 2 ). Maps of low ADC (ADC low ), standard ADC (ADC st ) and ultra-high ADC (ADC uh ) were calculated from low b-values (0-200 s/mm 2 ), standard b-values (300-1500 s/mm 2 ) and ultra-high b-values (1700-4500 s/mm 2 ), respectively. The expression of AQPs in the kidneys was studied using immunohistochemistry. Laboratory parameters of diabetic and kidney functions, ADC low , ADC st , ADC uh , and the optical density (OD) of AQP expression in the two groups were compared using an independent t test. Correlations between ADCs and the OD of AQP expression were evaluated by Pearson's correlation analysis. ADC uh were significantly higher in the cortex (CO), outer stripe of the outer medulla (OS) and inner stripe of the outer medulla (IS), and the OD values of AQ-2 were significantly higher in the OS, IS and inner medulla (IM) in DM animals compared with control animals. ADC uh and OD values of AQP-2 expression were positively correlated in the OS, IS and IM of the kidney. ADC uh may work as useful metrics for early detection of kidney damage in diabetic nephropathy and may be associated with AQP-2 expression.
Håberg, Asta Kristine; Skandsen, Toril; Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Vik, Anne
2014-01-01
Abstract The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in normal-appearing tissue of the corpus callosum during the 1st year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and relate findings to outcome. Fifty-seven patients (mean age 34 [range 11–63] years) with moderate to severe TBI were examined with diffusion weighted MRI at three time points (median 7 days, 3 and 12 months), and a sex- and age-matched control group of 47 healthy individuals, were examined once. The corpus callosum was subdivided and the mean ADC values computed blinded in 10 regions of interests without any visible lesions in the ADC map. Outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and neuropsychological domain scores at 12 months. We found a gradual increase of the mean ADC values during the 12 month follow-up, most evident in the posterior truncus (r=0.19, p<0.001). Compared with the healthy control group, we found higher mean ADC values in posterior truncus both at 3 months (p=0.021) and 12 months (p=0.003) post-injury. Patients with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesions in the corpus callosum in the early MRI, and patients with disability (GOSE score ≤6) showed evidence of increased mean ADC values in the genu and posterior truncus at 12 months. Mean ADC values in posterior parts of the corpus callosum at 3 months predicted the sensory-motor function domain score (p=0.010–0.028). During the 1st year after moderate and severe TBI, we demonstrated a slowly evolving disruption of the microstructure in normal appearing corpus callosum in the ADC map, most evident in the posterior truncus. The mean ADC values were associated with both outcome and ability to perform speeded, complex sensory-motor action. PMID:23837731
Herek, Duygu; Karabulut, Nevzat; Kocyıgıt, Ali; Yagcı, Ahmet Baki
2016-01-01
Our aim was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal abdominal parenchymal organs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements in the same patients with breath hold (BH) and free breathing (FB) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Forty-eight patients underwent both BH and FB DWI. Spherical region of interest (ROI) was placed on the right hepatic lobe, spleen, pancreas, and renal cortices. ADC values were calculated for each organ on each sequence using an automated software. Image noise, defined as the standard deviation (SD) of the signal intensities in the most artifact-free area of the image background was measured by placing the largest possible ROI on either the left or the right side of the body outside the object in the recorded field of view. SNR was calculated using the formula: SNR=signal intensity (SI) (organ) /standard deviation (SD) (noise) . There were no statistically significant differences in ADC values of the abdominal organs between BH and FB DWI sequences ( p >0.05). There were statistically significant differences between SNR values of organs on BH and FB DWIs. SNRs were found to be better on FB DWI than BH DWI ( p <0.001). Free breathing DWI technique reduces image noise and increases SNR for abdominal examinations. Free breathing technique is therefore preferable to BH DWI in the evaluation of abdominal organs by DWI.
Anderson, Stephan W; Jara, Hernan; Ozonoff, Al; O'Brien, Michael; Hamilton, James A; Soto, Jorge A
2012-01-01
To evaluate the effects of hepatic fibrosis on ADC and T(2) values of ex vivo murine liver specimens imaged using 11.7 Tesla (T) MRI. This animal study was IACUC approved. Seventeen male, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (n = 2) and experimental groups (n = 15), the latter fed a 3, 5-dicarbethoxy-1, 4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) supplemented diet, inducing hepatic fibrosis. Ex vivo liver specimens were imaged using an 11.7T MRI scanner. Spin-echo pulsed field gradient and multi-echo spin-echo acquisitions were used to generate parametric ADC and T(2) maps, respectively. Degrees of fibrosis were determined by the evaluation of a pathologist as well as digital image analysis. Scatterplot graphs comparing ADC and T(2) to degrees of fibrosis were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated. Strong correlation was found between degrees of hepatic fibrosis and ADC with higher degrees of fibrosis associated with lower hepatic ADC values. Moderate correlation between hepatic fibrosis and T(2) values was seen with higher degrees of fibrosis associated with lower T(2) values. Inverse relationships between degrees of fibrosis and both ADC and T(2) are seen, highlighting the utility of these parameters in the ongoing development of an MRI methodology to quantify hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Terada, Yukinori; Toda, Hiroki; Okumura, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Naokado; Yuba, Yoshiaki; Katayama, Toshiro; Iwasaki, Koichi
2018-03-01
Microcystic meningioma, a rare meningioma subtype, can present diagnostic difficulty. We aimed to investigate the historadiological properties of microcystic meningioma using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) analysis. We retrospectively analyzed conventional MRI and DWI results of six microcystic meningioma cases by examining their appearance and determining their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The ADC values of the intratumoral components were normalized with ADC values of the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricle (ADC ratios). As cystic formations are frequently associated with microcystic meningiomas, their MRI characteristics were compared with the imaging data from 11 cystic meningiomas of non-microcystic subtypes. We found that cysts in microcystic meningioma tended to have a reticular appearance on DWI, as they did on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Additionally, these reticular cysts had significantly lower ADC ratios than microcystic non-reticular and non-microcystic cysts. These DWI characteristics likely reflect the histological properties of microcystic meningioma. A reticular appearance on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI and DWI, and cyst formation with relatively low ADC values can be diagnostic markers of microcystic meningiomas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas
2017-06-01
We demonstrate that the band-gap energies Eg of CuSb(Se,Te)2 and CuBi(S,Se)2 can be optimized for high energy conversion in very thin photovoltaic devices, and that the alloys then exhibit excellent optical properties, especially for tellurium rich CuSb(Se1-xTex)2. This is explained by multi-valley band structure with flat energy dispersions, mainly due to the localized character of the Sb/Bi p-like conduction band states. Still the effective electron mass is reasonable small: mc ≈ 0.25m0 for CuSbTe2. The absorption coefficient α(ω) for CuSb(Se1-xTex)2 is at ħω = Eg + 1 eV as much as 5-7 times larger than α(ω) for traditional thin-film absorber materials. Auger recombination does limit the efficiency if the carrier concentration becomes too high, and this effect needs to be suppressed. However with high absorptivity, the alloys can be utilized for extremely thin inorganic solar cells with the maximum efficiency ηmax ≈ 25% even for film thicknesses d ≈ 50 - 150 nm, and the efficiency increases to ˜30% if the Auger effect is diminished.
Campbell, W.L.
1981-01-01
False readings, apparently caused by the presence of high concentrations of manganese dioxide, have been observed in our current flame atomic-absorption procedure for the determination of gold. After a hydrobromic acid (HBr)-bromine (Br2) leach, simply heating the sample to boiling to remove excess Br2 prior to extraction with methyl-isobutyl-ketone (MIBK) eliminates these false readings. ?? 1981.
Santos, Andrés; Manzano, Gema
2010-04-14
As is well known, approximate integral equations for liquids, such as the hypernetted chain (HNC) and Percus-Yevick (PY) theories, are in general thermodynamically inconsistent in the sense that the macroscopic properties obtained from the spatial correlation functions depend on the route followed. In particular, the values of the fourth virial coefficient B(4) predicted by the HNC and PY approximations via the virial route differ from those obtained via the compressibility route. Despite this, it is shown in this paper that the value of B(4) obtained from the virial route in the HNC theory is exactly three halves the value obtained from the compressibility route in the PY theory, irrespective of the interaction potential (whether isotropic or not), the number of components, and the dimensionality of the system. This simple relationship is confirmed in one-component systems by analytical results for the one-dimensional penetrable-square-well model and the three-dimensional penetrable-sphere model, as well as by numerical results for the one-dimensional Lennard-Jones model, the one-dimensional Gaussian core model, and the three-dimensional square-well model.
Sato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Yusaku; Koyama, Junichi; Hongo, Kazuhiro
2017-06-01
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is effective for the treatment of acute brain ischemia, but may trigger fatal brain edema or hemorrhage if the brain ischemia results in a large infarct. Herein, we attempted to predict the extent of infarcts by determining the optimal threshold of ADC values on DWI that predictively distinguishes between infarct and reversible areas, and by reconstructing color-coded images based on this threshold. The study subjects consisted of 36 patients with acute brain ischemia in whom MRA had confirmed reopening of the occluded arteries in a short time (mean: 99min) after tPA treatment. We measured the apparetnt diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in several small regions of interest over the white matter within high-intensity areas on the initial diffusion weighted image (DWI); then, by comparing the findings to the follow-up images, we obtained the optimal threshold of ADC values using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The threshold obtained (583×10 -6 m 2 /s) was lower than those previously reported; this threshold could distinguish between infarct and reversible areas with considerable accuracy (sensitivity: 0.87, specificity: 0.94). The threshold obtained and the reconstructed images were predictive of the final radiological result of tPA treatment, and this threshold may be helpful in determining the appropriate management of patients with acute brain ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Coltelli, Primo; Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valter; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo
2016-12-01
A novel procedure for deriving the absorption spectrum of an object spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its image is presented. Any digital image acquired by a microscope can be used; typical applications are the analysis of cellular/subcellular metabolic processes under physiological conditions and in response to environmental stressors (e.g. heavy metals), and the measurement of chromophore composition, distribution and concentration in cells. In this paper, we challenged the procedure with images of algae, acquired by means of a CCD camera mounted onto a microscope. The many colours algae display result from the combinations of chromophores whose spectroscopic information is limited to organic solvents extracts that suffers from displacements, amplifications, and contraction/dilatation respect to spectra recorded inside the cell. Hence, preliminary processing is necessary, which consists of in vivo measurement of the absorption spectra of photosynthetic compartments of algal cells and determination of spectra of the single chromophores inside the cell. The final step of the procedure consists in the reconstruction of the absorption spectrum of the cell spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its digital image by minimization of a system of transcendental equations based on the absorption spectra of the chromophores under physiological conditions. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.
Li, Hai Ming; Liu, Jia; Qiang, Jin Wei; Gu, Wei Yong; Zhang, Guo Fu; Ma, Feng Hua
2017-11-01
This study aimed to investigate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) features of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) including a preliminary investigation of the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and Ki-67 expression. The clinical and MRI data of 15 patients with ESS confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The conventional MR morphological features, signal intensity on DWI, ADC value (n = 14), and clinicopathological marker Ki-67 (n = 13) were evaluated. Of 15 patients with ESS, 13 tumors were low-grade ESS (LGESS), and the remaining 2 were high-grade ESS (HGESS); 9 tumors were located in the myometrium, 5 were located in the endometrium and/or cervical canal, and 1 was located in extrauterine. Thirteen (87%) of 15 tumors showed a homo- or heterogeneous isointensity on T1-weighted imaging and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging. The hypointense bands were observed in 11 tumors (73%) on T2-weighted imaging. The degenerations (cystic/necrosis/hemorrhage) were observed in 7 LGESS tumors and 2 HGESS tumors. The DWI hyperintensity was observed in 13 tumors (93%) and isointensity in remaining 1. The mean ADC value of the solid components in 14 ESSs was (1.05 ± 0.20) × 10mm/s. The contrast-enhanced MRI showed an obvious enhancement in 14 tumors (93%) (heterogeneous in 7 LGESSs and 2 HGESSs; homogeneous in 5 LGESSs). The ADC value was inversely correlated with the Ki-67 expression (r = -0.613, P = 0.026). Patients with ESS showed some characteristics on conventional MRI and DWI, and there was an inverse correlation between the ADC value and Ki-67 expression.
Resonant indirect optical absorption in germanium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menéndez, José; Noël, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Lockwood, David J.
2017-09-01
The optical absorption coefficient of pure Ge has been determined from high-accuracy, high-precision optical measurements at photon energies covering the spectral range between the indirect and direct gaps. The results are compared with a theoretical model that fully accounts for the resonant nature of the energy denominators that appear in perturbation-theory expansions of the absorption coefficient. The model generalizes the classic Elliott approach to indirect excitons, and leads to a predicted optical absorption that is in excellent agreement with the experimental values using just a single adjustable parameter: the average deformation potential DΓ L coupling electrons at the bottom of the direct and indirect valleys in the conduction band. Remarkably, the fitted value, DΓ L=4.3 ×108eV /cm , is in nearly perfect agreement with independent measurements and ab initio predictions of this parameter, confirming the validity of the proposed theory, which has general applicability.
Shih, I-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wei, Shwu-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Chun; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Tseng, Yao-Hui; Chen, Xin-Jia; Chen, Chi-Hau; Wei, Lin-Hung; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Torng, Pao-Ling; Yen, Men-Luh; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang
2015-12-01
To evaluate the correlation between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin ) of endometrial cancer derived from an integrated positron emission tomography / magnetic resonance (PET/MR) system and to determine their correlation with pathological prognostic factors. This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the hospital, and informed consent was obtained. Between April and December 2014, 47 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer were enrolled and underwent simultaneous PET/MR examinations before surgery. Thirty-six patients with measurable tumors on PET/MR were included for image analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between SUVmax and ADCmin of the tumors. The Mann-Whitney U-test was utilized to evaluate relationships between these two imaging biomarkers and pathological prognostic factors. The mean SUVmax and ADCmin were 14.7 ± 7.1 and 0.48 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, respectively. A significant inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.53; P = 0.001). SUVmax was significantly higher in tumors with advanced stage, deep myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, lymphovascular space involvement, and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). ADCmin was lower in tumors with higher grade, advanced stage, and cervical invasion (P < 0.05). The ratio of SUVmax to ADCmin was higher in tumors with higher grade, advanced stage, deep myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, lymphovascular space involvement, and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). SUVmax and ADCmin of endometrial cancer derived from integrated PET/MR are inversely correlated and are associated with pathological prognostic factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cavalleri, Francesca; Lugli, Licia; Pugliese, Marisa; D'Amico, Roberto; Todeschini, Alessandra; Della Casa, Elisa; Gallo, Claudio; Frassoldati, Rossella; Ferrari, Fabrizio
2014-09-01
The diagnostic and prognostic assessment of newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) comprises, among other tools, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To compare the ability of DWI and ADC maps in newborns with HIE to predict the neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. Thirty-four term newborns with HIE admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Modena University Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were consecutively enrolled in the study. All newborns received EEG, conventional MRI and DWI within the first week of life. DWI was analyzed by means of summation (S) score and regional ADC measurements. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed with a standard 1-4 scale and the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales - Revised (GMDS-R). When the outcome was evaluated with a standard 1-4 scale, the DWI S scores showed very high area under the curve (AUC) (0.89) whereas regional ADC measurements in specific subregions had relatively modest predictive value. The lentiform nucleus was the region with the highest AUC (0.78). When GMDS-R were considered, DWI S scores were good to excellent predictors for some GMDS-R subscales. The predictive value of ADC measurements was both region- and subscale-specific. In particular, ADC measurements in some regions (basal ganglia, white matter or rolandic cortex) were excellent predictors for specific GMDS-R with AUCs up to 0.93. DWI S scores showed the highest prognostic value for the neurological outcome at 2 years of age. Regional ADC measurements in specific subregions proved to be highly prognostic for specific neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Pietropaolo, Marco; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Valentino, Maria; Masoni, Luigi; Ferri, Mario
2016-10-01
The aim of our study was to assess the performance value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the restaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and in the identification of good vs. poor responders to neoadjuvant therapy. A total of 34 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer underwent MRI prior to and after CRT. T stage and tumor regression grade (TRG) on post-CRT MRI was compared with the pathological staging ypT and TRG. Tumor volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before and after neoadjuvant CRT; the percentage of tumor volume reduction and the change of ADC (ΔADC) was also calculated. ADC parameters and the percentage of tumor volume reduction were correlated to histopathological results. The diagnostic performance of ADC and volume reduction to assess tumor response was evaluated by calculating the area under the ROC curve and the optimal cut-off values. A significant correlation between the T stage and the TRG defined in DW-MRI after CRT and the ypT and the TRG observed on the surgical specimens was found (p = 0.001; p < 0.001). The mean post-CRT ADC and ΔADC in responder patients was significantly higher compared to non-responder ones (p = 0.001; p = 0.01). Furthermore, the mean post-CRT ADC values were significantly higher in tumors with T-downstage (p = 0.01). DW-MRI may have a significant role in the restaging and in the evaluation of post-CRT response of locally advanced rectal cancer. Quantitative analysis of DWI through ADC map may result in a promising noninvasive tool to evaluate the response to therapy.
Weeks, Benjamin S; Perez, Pedro P
2007-10-01
In this study we investigated the cellular absorption rates, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of vitamin C-lipid metabolites. The absorption was measured in a human lymphoblastic cell line using a spectrophotometric technique. Cellular vitamin C levels in the human lymphoblastic H9 cell line were measured using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine spectrophotometric technique. Free radical scavenging activity of vitamin C-lipid metabolites was measured by the reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine. Vitamin C-lipid metabolite scavenging of peroxyl radical oxygen reactive species (ORAC) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compared to ascorbic acid (AA), calcium ascorbate (CaA), and calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C), vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) were more rapidly absorbed by the H9 human T-lymphocytes. The vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) also reduced pesticide-induced T-lymphocyte aggregation by 84%, while calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C) reduced aggregation by only 34%. The vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) demonstrated free radical scavenging activity of nearly 100% reduction of DPPH at 20 microg/ml and oxygen radical scavenging of over 1200 micro Trolox equivalents per gram. These data demonstrate that the vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) are more rapidly taken-up and absorbed by cells than other forms of vitamin C, including Ester-C. This increased rate of absorption correlates with an increased protection of the T-lymphocytes from pesticide toxicities. Further, vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) are a potent antioxidant and have significant free radical scavenging capabilities.
Absorption Coefficient of Alkali Halides. Part I.
1979-03-01
Q7 A*.oj DATA’ SET ±6 4-5. 0.827 T - Elsa - Li,. 1.62, 3..%?. f..224 1 t.-.5 :.13L 312.9 15.8 9.8*6 16. t u.. t...5 ., i lo.~ 6.705 Z6.8 . 87± - c7. 9...With Synchrotron Radiation," Solid State Coimnun., 6, 575 (1968). 168. Saito, H., Saito, S., Onaka, R., and Ikeo, B., "Extreme Ultraviolet Ab- sorption
Song, Y; Yoon, Y C; Chong, Y; Seo, S W; Choi, Y-L; Sohn, I; Kim, M-J
2017-08-01
To compare the abilities of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating between benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours (STT). A total of 123 patients with STT who underwent 3 T MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), were retrospectively analysed using variate conventional MRI parameters, ADC mean and ADC min . For the all-STT group, the correlation between the malignant STT conventional MRI parameters, except deep compartment involvement, compared to those of benign STT were statistically significant with univariate analysis. Maximum diameter of the tumour (p=0.001; odds ratio [OR], 8.97) and ADC mean (p=0.020; OR, 4.30) were independent factors with multivariate analysis. For the non-myxoid non-haemosiderin STT group, signal heterogeneity on axial T1-weighted imaging (T1WI; p=0.017), ADC mean , and ADC min (p=0.001, p=0.001), showed significant differences with univariate analysis between malignancy and benignity. Signal heterogeneity in axial T1WI (p=0.025; OR, 12.64) and ADC mean (p=0.004; OR, 33.15) were independent factors with multivariate analysis. ADC values as well as conventional MRI parameters were useful in differentiating between benign and malignant STT. The ADC mean was the most powerful diagnostic parameter in non-myxoid non-haemosiderin STT. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Rajan T; Kauffman, Christopher R; Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Palmeri, Mark L; Madden, John F; Polascik, Thomas J; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B
2015-08-01
The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for benign central zone (CZ) of the prostate were compared with ADC values of benign peripheral zone (PZ), benign transition zone (TZ), and prostate cancer, using histopathologic findings from radical prostatectomy as the reference standard. The study included 27 patients with prostate cancer (mean [± SD] age, 60.0 ± 7.6 years) who had 3-T endorectal coil MRI of the prostate performed before undergoing prostatectomy with whole-mount histopathologic assessment. Mean ADC values were recorded from the ROI within the index tumor and within benign CZ, PZ, and TZ, with the use of histopathologic findings as the reference standard. ADC values of the groups were compared using paired t tests and ROC curve analysis. The ADC of benign CZ in the right (1138 ± 123 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s) and left (1166 ± 141 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s) lobes was not significantly different (p = 0.217). However, the ADC of benign CZ (1154 ± 129 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the ADCs of benign PZ (1579 ± 197 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s) and benign TZ (1429 ± 180 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s). Although the ADC of index tumors (1042 ± 134 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s) was significantly lower (p = 0.002) than the ADC of benign CZ there was no significant difference (p = 0.225) between benign CZ and tumors with a Gleason score of 6 (1119 ± 87 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s). In 22.2% of patients (6/27), including five patients who had tumors with a Gleason score greater than 6, the ADC was lower in benign CZ than in the index tumor. The AUC of ADC for the differentiation of benign CZ from index tumors was 72.4% (sensitivity, 70.4%; specificity, 51.9%), and the AUC of ADC for differentiation from tumors with a Gleason score greater than 6 was 76.7% (sensitivity, 75.0%; specificity, 65.0%). The ADC of benign CZ is lower than the ADC of other zones of the prostate and overlaps with the ADC of prostate cancer tissue, including high-grade tumors. Awareness of this potential
Sobuś, Jan; Ziółek, Marcin
2014-07-21
A numerical study of optimal bandgaps of light absorbers in tandem solar cell configurations is presented with the main focus on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The limits in efficiency and the expected improvements of tandem structures are investigated as a function of total loss-in-potential (V(L)), incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and fill factor (FF) of individual components. It is shown that the optimal absorption onsets are significantly smaller than those derived for multi-junction devices. For example, for double-cell devices the onsets are at around 660 nm and 930 nm for DSSCs with iodide based electrolytes and at around 720 nm and 1100 nm for both DSSCs with cobalt based electrolytes and PSCs. Such configurations can increase the total sunlight conversion efficiency by about 35% in comparison to single-cell devices of the same VL, IPCE and FF. The relevance of such studies for tandem n-p DSSCs and for a proposed new configuration for PSCs is discussed. In particular, it is shown that maximum total losses of 1.7 V for DSSCs and 1.4 V for tandem PSCs are necessary to give any efficiency improvement with respect to the single bandgap device. This means, for example, a tandem n-p DSSC with TiO2 and NiO porous electrodes will hardly work better than the champion single DSSC. A source code of the program used for calculations is also provided.
Kharuzhyk, S A
2015-01-01
to carry out a quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI) in cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) and to estimate the possibility of using pretreatment measured diffusion coefficient (MDC) to predict chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The investigation prospectively enrolled 46 women with morphologically verified Stages IB-IVB CCU. All the women underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic organs before and after treatment. A semiautomatic method was used to determine tumor signal intensity (SI) on DWI at b 1000 s/mm2 (SI b1000) and tumor MDC. The reproducibility of MDC measurements was assessed in 16 randomly selected women. The investigators compared the pretreatment quantitative DWI measures in complete and incomplete regression (CR and IR) groups and the presence and absence of tumor progression during a follow-up. An association of MDC with progression-free and overall survivals (PFS and OS) was determined in the patients. A semiautomatic tumor segmentation framework could determine the pretreatment quantitative DMI measures with minimal time spent and high reproducibility. The mean tumor MDC was 0.82 +/- 0.14 x 10(-3) mm2/s. CR and IR were established in 28 and 18 women, respectively. The MDC < or = 0.83 x 10(-3) mm2/s predicted CR with a sensitivity of 64.3% and a specificity of 77.8% (p=0.007). The median follow-up was 47 months (range, 3-82 months). With the MDC < or = 0.86 x 10(-3) mm2/s, 5-year PFS was 74.1% versus 42.1% with a higher MDC (p=0.023) and 5-year OS was 70.4 and 40.6%, respectively (p=0.021). The survival difference was insignificant in relation to the degree of tumor regression. The pretreatment IS at b1000 was of no prognostic value. The pretreatment tumor MDC may serve as a biomarker for predicting the efficiency of CRT for CCU.
Echavarría-Heras, Héctor; Leal-Ramírez, Cecilia; Villa-Diharce, Enrique; Castillo, Oscar
2014-01-01
Eelgrass is a cosmopolitan seagrass species that provides important ecological services in coastal and near-shore environments. Despite its relevance, loss of eelgrass habitats is noted worldwide. Restoration by replanting plays an important role, and accurate measurements of the standing crop and productivity of transplants are important for evaluating restoration of the ecological functions of natural populations. Traditional assessments are destructive, and although they do not harm natural populations, in transplants the destruction of shoots might cause undesirable alterations. Non-destructive assessments of the aforementioned variables are obtained through allometric proxies expressed in terms of measurements of the lengths or areas of leaves. Digital imagery could produce measurements of leaf attributes without the removal of shoots, but sediment attachments, damage infringed by drag forces or humidity contents induce noise-effects, reducing precision. Available techniques for dealing with noise caused by humidity contents on leaves use the concepts of adjacency, vicinity, connectivity and tolerance of similarity between pixels. Selection of an interval of tolerance of similarity for efficient measurements requires extended computational routines with tied statistical inferences making concomitant tasks complicated and time consuming. The present approach proposes a simplified and cost-effective alternative, and also a general tool aimed to deal with any sort of noise modifying eelgrass leaves images. Moreover, this selection criterion relies only on a single statistics; the calculation of the maximum value of the Concordance Correlation Coefficient for reproducibility of observed areas of leaves through proxies obtained from digital images. Available data reveals that the present method delivers simplified, consistent estimations of areas of eelgrass leaves taken from noisy digital images. Moreover, the proposed procedure is robust because both the optimal
Wunderle, K; Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; Godley, A
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to quantify various first half-value-layers (HVLs), second HVLs and homogeneity coefficients (HCs) for a state-of-the-art fluoroscope utilizing spectral (copper) filtration. Methods: A Radcal (Monrovia, Ca) AccuPro dosimeter with a 10×6-6 calibrated ionization chamber was used to measure air kerma for radiographic x-ray exposures made on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) Artis ZeeGo fluoroscope operated in the service mode. The ionization chamber was centered in the x-ray beam at 72 cm from the focal spot with a source-to-image-distance of 120 cm. The collimators were introduced to limit the x-ray field to approximately 5 cm ×more » 5 cm at the ionization chamber plane. Type-1100 aluminum filters, in 0.5 mm increments, were used to determine the HVL. Two HVL calculation methods were used, log-linear interpolation and Lambert-W interpolation as described by Mathieu [Med Phys, 38(8), 4546 (2011)]. Multiple measurements were made at 60, 80, 100, 120 kVp at spectral filtration thicknesses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm. Results: First HVL, second HVL, and HCs are presented for the fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra indicated above, with nearly identical results from the two interpolation methods. Accuracy of the set kVp was also determined and deviated less than 2%. First HVLs for fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra without spectral filtration determined in our study were 7%–16% greater than previously published data by Fetterly et al. [Med Phys, 28, 205 (2001)]. However, the FDA minimum HVL requirements changed since that publication, requiring larger HVLs as of 2006. Additionally, x-ray tube and generator architecture have substantially changed over the last 15 years providing different beam spectra. Conclusion: X-ray beam quality characteristics for state-of-the-art fluoroscopes with spectral filtration have not been published. This study provides reference data which will be useful for defining beam qualities encountered on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshvari, Jafar; Keshvari, Rahim; Lang, Sakari
2006-03-01
Numerous studies have attempted to address the question of the RF energy absorption difference between children and adults using computational methods. They have assumed the same dielectric parameters for child and adult head models in SAR calculations. This has been criticized by many researchers who have stated that child organs are not fully developed, their anatomy is different and also their tissue composition is slightly different with higher water content. Higher water content would affect dielectric values, which in turn would have an effect on RF energy absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate possible variation in specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head region of children and adults by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and using anatomically correct child and adult head models. In the calculations, the conductivity and permittivity of all tissues were increased from 5 to 20% but using otherwise the same exposure conditions. A half-wave dipole antenna was used as an exposure source to minimize the uncertainties of the positioning of a real mobile device and making the simulations easily replicable. Common mobile telephony frequencies of 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz were used in this study. The exposures of ear and eye regions were investigated. The SARs of models with increased dielectric values were compared to the SARs of the models where dielectric values were unchanged. The analyses suggest that increasing the value of dielectric parameters does not necessarily mean that volume-averaged SAR would increase. Under many exposure conditions, specifically at higher frequencies in eye exposure, volume-averaged SAR decreases. An increase of up to 20% in dielectric conductivity or both conductivity and permittivity always caused a SAR variation of less than 20%, usually about 5%, when it was averaged over 1, 5 or 10 g of cubic mass for all models. The thickness and composition of different tissue layers in the exposed
[Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents in the estuary of Zhujiang River].
Wang, Shan-shan; Wang, Yong-bo; Fu, Qing-hua; Yin, Bin; Li, Yun-mei
2014-12-01
Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents is the main factor affecting the light field under the surface of the water and the spectrum above the surface of the water. Thus, the study is useful for understanding of the water spectral property and the remote reversing of water quality parameters. Absorption properties of total suspended particles, non-algal particles, phytoplankton and CDOM were analyzed using the 30 samples collected in July 2013 in the estuary of Zhujiang River. The results indicated that: (1) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the absorption of the total suspended particles; (2) the absorption coefficient of the non-algal particles, which mainly came from the terrigenous deposits, decreased exponentially from short to long wavelength. In addition, the average value and spatial variation of the slope S(d) were higher than those in inland case- II waters; (3) the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 440 nm showed a better polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration, while the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 675 nm linearly related with the chlorophyll a concentration. Moreover, the influence of accessory pigments on phytoplankton absorption coefficient mainly existed in the range of short wavelength, and Chlorophyll a was the main influencing factor for phytoplankton absorption in long wavelength. The specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased the power exponentially with the increase of the chlorophyll a concentration; (4) CDOM mainly came from the terrigenous sources and its spectral curve had an absorption shoulder between 250-290 nm. Thus, a piecewise S(g) fitting function could effectively express CDOM absorption properties, i.e., M value and S(g) value in period A (240-260 nm) showed a strong positive correlation. The M value was low, and the humic acid had a high proportion in CDOM; (5) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the total absorption in the estuary of
Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery
2018-05-01
This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.
Jiang, Jing; Liu, Wanhua; Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rui; Li, Fengfang; Peng, Chengyu
2014-06-17
To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 152 patients with 162 confirmed histopathologically breast lesions (85 malignant and 77 benign) underwent 3.0 T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four b values (0, 400, 800 and 1 000 s/mm²) were used. The signal intensity and ADC values of breast lesions were measured respectively. The signal intensity decline rate (SIDR) and apparent diffusion coefficient decline rate (ADCDR) were calculated respectively. SIDR = (signal intensity of lesions with low b value-signal intensity of lesions with high b value)/signal intensity of lesions with low b value, ADCDR = (ADC value of lesions with low b value-ADC value of lesions with high b value) /ADC value of lesions with low b value. The independent sample t-test was employed for statistical analyses and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluating the diagnosis efficiency of SIDR and ADCDR values. Significant differences were observed in SIDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 0-400, 400-800 and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SIDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 61.2%, 68.2% and 67.1%, the specificities 74.0%, 85.7% and 67.5%, the diagnosis accordance rates 67.3%, 76.5% and 67.3%, the positive predictive values 72.2%, 84.1% and 69.5% and the negative predictive values 63.3%, 71.0% and 65.0% respectively. Significant differences were observed in ADCDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 400-800 s/mm² and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 80.0% and 65.9%, the specificities 72.7% and 65.0%, the diagnostic accordance rates 76.5% and 65.4%, the positive predictive values 76.4% and 67
During air cool process aerosol absorption detection with photothermal interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baosheng; Xu, Limei; Huang, Junling; Ma, Fei; Wang, Yicheng; Li, Zhengqiang
2014-11-01
This paper studies the basic principle of laser photothermal interferometry method of aerosol particles absorption coefficient. The photothermal interferometry method with higher accuracy and lower uncertainty can directly measure the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols and not be affected by scattered light. With Jones matrix expression, the math expression of a special polarization interferometer is described. This paper using folded Jamin interferometer, which overcomes the influence of vibration on measuring system. Interference come from light polarization beam with two orthogonal and then combine to one beam, finally aerosol absorption induced refractive index changes can be gotten with four beam of phase orthogonal light. These kinds of styles really improve the stability of system and resolution of the system. Four-channel detections interact with interference fringes, to reduce the light intensity `zero drift' effect on the system. In the laboratory, this device typical aerosol absorption index, it shows that the result completely agrees with actual value. After heated by laser, cool process of air also show the process of aerosol absorption. This kind of instrument will be used to monitor ambient aerosol absorption and suspended particulate matter chemical component. Keywords: Aerosol absorption coefficient; Photothermal interferometry; Suspended particulate matter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha
1993-01-01
The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.
Lembcke, B.; Loesler, A.C.; Caspary, W.F.
1986-08-01
In order to delineate the clinical value of a dual-isotope fat absorption test system (FATS) using glycerol (/sup 75/Se)triether as lipid-phase marker and glycerol (/sup 125/I)trioleate as the test lipid, fecal isotope ratios from single stools (and a 72-hr stool homogenate) were compared to quantitative fecal fat excretion. The study included 11 patients without and 24 patients with steatorrhea. With a figure of 0.8% as the upper limit of normal, the test was a reliable indicator of steatorrhea with 87.5% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity; efficiency was 85.7%. Related to a prevalence of steatorrhea of 45.9% as the mean value ofmore » 1269 consecutive 72-hr specimens investigated for steatorrhea during 1978-1982, the positive (negative) predictive value of the FATS is 80.3% (87.2%). With 2% as the upper limit of normal, no false positive results ensued. It is concluded that a two-step interpretation of the FATS (0.8% limit and 2% limit) may be regarded a valid qualitative index for steatorrhea. The FATS isotope ratio using single stools correlated well with FATS ratios in the 72-hr stool homogenates (r = 0.97). FATS therefore allows a convenient estimate of steatorrhea from measuring single stools. As a quantitative measure of fecal fat excretion, the FATS is unreliable.« less
Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.
1977-05-01
A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kugeiko, M. M.; Lisenko, S. A.
2008-07-01
An easily automated method for determining the real part of the refractive index of human blood erythrocytes in the range 0.3 1.2 μm is proposed. The method is operationally and metrologically reliable and is based on the measurement of the coefficients of light scattering from forward and backward hemisphere by two pairs of angles and on the use of multiple regression equations. An engineering solution for constructing a measurement system according to this method is proposed, which makes it possible to maximally reduce the calibration errors and effects of destabilizing factors.
Tsili, Athina C; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Astrakas, Loukas; Xydis, Vasilis; Tsampalas, Stavros; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I
2017-04-01
To evaluate the difference in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging of differently shaped regions-of-interest (ROIs) in testicular germ cell neoplasms (TGCNS), the diagnostic ability of differently shaped ROIs in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell neoplasms (NSGCNs) and the interobserver variability. Thirty-three TGCNs were retrospectively evaluated. Patients underwent MR examinations, including DWI on a 1.5-T MR system. Two observers measured mean tumor ADCs using four distinct ROI methods: round, square, freehand and multiple small, round ROIs. The interclass correlation coefficient was analyzed to assess interobserver variability. Statistical analysis was used to compare mean ADC measurements among observers, methods and histologic types. All ROI methods showed excellent interobserver agreement, with excellent correlation (P<0.001). Multiple, small ROIs provided the lower mean ADC in TGCNs. Seminomas had lower mean ADC compared to NSGCNs for each ROI method (P<0.001). Round ROI proved the most accurate method in characterizing TGCNS. Interobserver variability in ADC measurement is excellent, irrespective of the ROI shape. Multiple, small round ROIs and round ROI proved the more accurate methods for ADC measurement in the characterization of TGCNs and in the differentiation between seminomas and NSGCNs, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sagiyama, Koji; Watanabe, Yuji; Kamei, Ryotaro; Hong, Sungtak; Kawanami, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Honda, Hiroshi
2017-12-01
To investigate the usefulness of voxel-based analysis of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for evaluating soft-tissue tumour malignancy with a PET/MR system. Thirty-five subjects with either ten low/intermediate-grade tumours or 25 high-grade tumours were prospectively enrolled. Zoomed diffusion-weighted and fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG)-PET images were acquired along with fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (FST2WIs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on FST2WIs including the tumour in all slices. ROIs were pasted onto PET and ADC-maps to measure SUVs and ADCs within tumour ROIs. Tumour volume, SUVmax, ADCminimum, the heterogeneity and the correlation coefficients of SUV and ADC were recorded. The parameters of high- and low/intermediate-grade groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. The mean correlation coefficient for SUV and ADC in high-grade sarcomas was lower than that of low/intermediate-grade tumours (-0.41 ± 0.25 vs. -0.08 ± 0.34, P < 0.01). Other parameters did not differ significantly. ROC analysis demonstrated that correlation coefficient showed the best diagnostic performance for differentiating the two groups (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 96.0%, specificity 60%, accuracy 85.7%). SUV and ADC determined via PET/MR may be useful for differentiating between high-grade and low/intermediate-grade soft tissue tumours. • PET/MR allows voxel-based comparison of SUVs and ADCs in soft-tissue tumours. • A comprehensive assessment of internal heterogeneity was performed with scatter plots. • SUVmax or ADCminimum could not differentiate high-grade sarcoma from low/intermediate-grade tumours. • Only the correlation coefficient between SUV and ADC differentiated the two groups. • The correlation coefficient showed the best diagnostic performance by ROC analysis.
Zhu, Jin; Li, Wenbin; Zhu, Mao
2014-03-15
The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of gold particles assembled on a crystal plate are a powerful tool for biological sensors. Here, we prepare gold colloids in different pH solutions. We monitor the effects of the particle radius and particle coverage on the absorption spectra of AT-cut (r-face dihedral angle of about 3°) crystal plates supporting gold nanoparticles. The surface morphologies were monitored on silicon dioxide substrates using ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the gold particle coverage decreases with increasing pH value of the gold colloid solution. This phenomenon demonstrates thatmore » self-assembled gold surfaces were formed via the electrostatic adsorption of gold particles on the positively charged, ionized amino groups on the crystal plates in the acidic solution. The spectrum of gold nanoparticles with different coverage degree on the crystal plates showed that the LSPR properties are highly dependent on pH.« less
Kotovich, D; Guedalia, J S B; Hoffmann, C; Sze, G; Eisenkraft, A; Yaniv, G
2017-07-01
Cytomegalovirus is the leading intrauterine infection. Fetal MR imaging is an accepted tool for fetal brain evaluation, yet it still lacks the ability to accurately predict the extent of the neurodevelopmental impairment, especially in fetal MR imaging scans with unremarkable findings. Our hypothesis was that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection causes diffusional changes in fetal brains and that those changes may correlate with the severity of neurodevelopmental deficiencies. A retrospective analysis was performed on 90 fetal MR imaging scans of cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses with unremarkable results and compared with a matched gestational age control group of 68 fetal head MR imaging scans. ADC values were measured and averaged in the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes; basal ganglia; thalamus; and pons. For neurocognitive assessment, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (VABS-II) was used on 58 children in the cytomegalovirus-infected group. ADC values were reduced for the cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses in most brain areas studied. The VABS-II showed no trend for the major domains or the composite score of the VABS-II for the cytomegalovirus-infected children compared with the healthy population distribution. Some subdomains showed an association between ADC values and VABS-II scores. Cytomegalovirus infection causes diffuse reduction in ADC values in the fetal brain even in unremarkable fetal MR imaging scans. Cytomegalovirus-infected children with unremarkable fetal MR imaging scans do not deviate from the healthy population in the VABS-II neurocognitive assessment. ADC values were not correlated with VABS-II scores. However, the lack of clinical findings, as seen in most cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses, does not eliminate the possibility of future neurodevelopmental pathology. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Differential-optoacoustic absorption detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shumate, M. S.
1977-01-01
Two-cell spectrophone detects trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants by measuring absorption coefficients of gases with various laser sources. Device measures pressure difference between two tapered cells with differential manometer. Background signal is reduced by balanced window heating and balanced carrier gas absorption in two cells.
Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Obara, Makoto; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Sugimura, Kazuro
2012-07-01
To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using b = 2000 s/mm(2) upon 3 Tesla (T) diffusion-weighted MRI is superior to b = 1000 s/mm(2) for discriminating malignant from normal prostate tissue and predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, using histopathological findings of radical prostatectomy as a reference. Eighty prostate cancer patients underwent preoperative 3T MRI including diffusion weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) . ADCs were measured for malignant lesions and normal sites on three sets of ADC maps calculated with monoexponential fitting between b = 0 and 1000, 0 and 2000, and 1000 and 2000, respectively. The relationship between the ADC and Gleason score was evaluated. The areas under the ROC curves for b = 0,1000, b = 0,2000, and b = 1000,2000 were 0.896, 0.937, and 0.857, respectively, in the peripheral zone (PZ) and 0.877, 0.889, and 0.731, respectively, in the transition zone (TZ). The difference between b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 was significant in PZ (P = 0.033), but not in TZ (P = 0.84). Weak but significant negative correlations were identified between ADCs and Gleason score in both PZ and TZ cancer at b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 (r = -0.323 to -0.341). For 3T MRI, ADCs using b = 0,2000 are more accurate than b = 0,1000 for diagnosing PZ cancer, and as accurate for TZ cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...
40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...
40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...
Shi, Kun; Li, Yun-mei; Wang, Qiao; Yang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Wang, Yan-fei; Zhang, Hong; Yin, Bin
2010-05-01
Field experiments are conducted separately in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake on Apr. and Jun. 2009. The changes in absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics are analyzed using spectral differential analysis technology. According the spectral differential characteristic of absorption coefficient; absorption coefficient from 240 to 450 nm is divided into different stages, and the value of spectral slope S is calculated in each stage. In Stage A, S value of CDOM in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are 0.0166-0.0102 nm(-1) [average (0.0132 +/- 0.0017) nm(-1)], 0.029-0.017 nm(-1) [average (0.0214 +/- 0.0024) nm(-1)]. In Stage B, S values are 0.0187-0.0148 nm(-1) [average (0.0169 +/- 0.001) nm(-1)], 0.0179-0.0055 nm(-1) [average (0.0148 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. In Stage C, S values are 0.0208-0.0164 nm(-1) [average (0.0186 +/- 0.0009) nm(-1)], 0.0253-0.0161 nm(-1) [average (0.0197 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. The results can be concluded as: (1) Absorption coefficient of water in Taihu Lake, and its contribution to absorption of each component is less than that of water in Chaohu Lake, however the standardized absorption coefficient is larger than that in Chaohu Lake. (2) Both in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake, derivative spectra of CDOM absorption coefficient reached valley at 260nm, then rise to top at 290 nm, CDOM absorption coefficient can be delivered into three stages. (3) Generally speaking, content of CDOM in Taihu Lake is less than in Chaohu Lake. (4) pectrum slope (S value) of CDOM is related to composition of CDOM, when content of humic acid in CDOM gets higher, S value of Stage B is the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage C. Oppositely, S value of Stage B gets the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage A; the least sensitive value is in Stage B.
Tromberg, Bruce J [Irvine, CA; Berger, Andrew J [Rochester, NY; Cerussi, Albert E [Lake Forest, CA; Bevilacqua, Frederic [Costa Mesa, CA; Jakubowski, Dorota [Irvine, CA
2008-09-23
A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.
The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.
1974-01-01
A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).
Petawatt laser absorption bounded
Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.
2014-01-01
The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656
Electromagnetic absorption behaviour of ferrite loaded three phase carbon fabric composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagatheesan, Krishnasamy; Ramasamy, Alagirusamy; Das, Apurba; Basu, Ananjan
2018-02-01
This article investigates the electromagnetic absorption behaviours of carbon helical yarn fabric reinforced composites and manganese-zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite particles loaded 3 phase fabric composites. A carbon helical yarn having stainless steel core was prepared and made into single jersey knitted fabric. The composite was prepared by sandwiching a fabric with polypropylene films and thermal pressed. The absorption values of helical yarn fabric composite was observed to be less in the C band region (4-8 GHz). For improving the absorption coefficients of composite, Mn-Zn ferrite particles were dispersed in the polypropylene (PP) composite. The ferrite loaded PP composites exhibited better permittivity and permeability values, hence the absorption loss of the composite was improved. The helical yarn fabric reinforced with Mn-Zn ferrite/PP composite showed larger absorption coefficients than virgin PP/fabric composite. The change in thermal stability and particle size distribution in the Mn-Zn ferrite/PP composite was also analyzed. At higher ferrite concentration, bimodal particle distribution was observed which increased the conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite. In addition, complex permittivity value was also increased for higher incident frequency (4-8 GHz). As the ferrite content increases, the dielectric loss and magnetic permeability of PP/ferrite increases due to increased magnetic loss. Hence, ferrite loaded PP composite showed the total SE of -14.2 dB with the absorption coefficients of 0.717. The S1C7 fabric composite having ferrite dispersion showed the better absorption loss and lower reflection coefficient of 14.2 dB and 0.345 respectively compared to virgin PP/helical yarn fabric composite. The increasing ferrite content (45 wt%) improved the absorption loss and total SE. Though, ferrite based fabric composite exhibits moderate absorptive shielding, it can be used as shielding panels in the electronic industries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnovsky, A. A., Jr.; Roumbal, Ya. V.; Ivanov, A. V.; Ambartzumian, R. V.
2006-10-01
The rates of oxygenation of the 1O 2 trap, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran were measured in air-saturated organic solvents and heterogeneous D 2O-sodium dodecyl sulfate dispersions upon infrared (1267 ± 4 nm) laser irradiation. The absorbance and molar absorption coefficients of oxygen corresponding to this wavelength were estimated from the observed oxygenation rates. The data suggest that 1O 2 was formed due to direct oxygen excitation without appreciable involvement of vibrationally excited solvent molecules. The minor 'pseudophase' of detergent micelles was shown to strongly enhance overall 1O 2 production in D 2O-detergent dispersions.
Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slocum, David M.; Slingerland, Elizabeth J.; Giles, Robert H.; Goyette, Thomas M.
2013-09-01
The water vapor continuum absorption spectrum was investigated using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. The transmission of broadband terahertz radiation from 0.300 to 1.500 THz was recorded for multiple path lengths and relative humidity levels. The absorption coefficient as a function of frequency was determined and compared with theoretical predictions and available water vapor absorption data. The prediction code is able to separately model the different parts of atmospheric absorption for a range of experimental conditions. A variety of conditions were accurately modeled using this code including both self and foreign gas broadening for low and high water vapor pressures for many different measurement techniques. The intensity and location of the observed absorption lines were also in good agreement with spectral databases. However, there was a discrepancy between the resonant line spectrum simulation and the observed absorption spectrum in the atmospheric transmission windows caused by the continuum absorption. A small discrepancy remained even after using the best available data from the literature to account for the continuum absorption. From the experimental and resonant line simulation spectra the air-broadening continuum parameter was calculated and compared with values available in the literature.
Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.
2007-12-01
During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnasco, Valerio; Battezzati, Michele; Rapallo, Arnaldo; Costa, Camilla
2006-09-01
T-dependent long-range Keesom coefficients are evaluated up to the R-10 term for small values of the dimensionless parameter |a|. For large values of |a| corrections must be introduced mostly for the dipole-dipole term, the correct values of C6 being best obtained from a recently derived asymptotic formula. The corresponding attractive energies are the isotropic electrostatic contributions to the interaction energy and are temperature-dependent. Comparison with long-range induction and dispersion energy results for some simple polar axially symmetric molecules in the gas phase shows that at R = 10 a0 and T = 293 K the electrostatic dipole-dipole component is dominant for ∣ a11∣ > 0.5. For centrosymmetric molecules the corresponding electrostatic contribution is usually negligible with respect to dispersion.
1993-06-15
for another polar area. For samples from Antartic waters, the mean a*pan(4 3 5 ), normalized to chl a + pheo, was 0.0 18 m2 (mg chl a)-I (Mitchell and...specific absorption coefficients, was suggested as the cause of relatively low mean specific absorption coefficients in the Antartic . The values of c1...moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399-7412. Mitchell, B.G., and 0. Holm-Hansen 1991. Bio-optical properties of Antartic
Thermally induced effect on sub-band gap absorption in Ag doped CdSe thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Jagdish; Sharma, Kriti; Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K.
2015-05-01
Thin films of Ag doped CdSe have been prepared by thermal evaporation using inert gas condensation (IGC) method taking Argon as inert gas. The prepared thin films are annealed at 363 K for one hour. The sub-band gap absorption spectra in the as deposited and annealed thin films have been studied using constant photocurrent method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region is described by an Urbach tail in both as deposited and annealed thin films. The value of Urbach energy and number density of trap states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region which have been found to increase after annealing treatment indicating increase in disorderness in the lattice. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has also been studied using derivative procedure of absorption coefficient.
Hilario, Eric C; Stern, Alan; Wang, Charlie H; Vargas, Yenny W; Morgan, Charles J; Swartz, Trevor E; Patapoff, Thomas W
2017-01-01
Concentration determination is an important method of protein characterization required in the development of protein therapeutics. There are many known methods for determining the concentration of a protein solution, but the easiest to implement in a manufacturing setting is absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region. For typical proteins composed of the standard amino acids, absorption at wavelengths near 280 nm is due to the three amino acid chromophores tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine in addition to a contribution from disulfide bonds. According to the Beer-Lambert law, absorbance is proportional to concentration and path length, with the proportionality constant being the extinction coefficient. Typically the extinction coefficient of proteins is experimentally determined by measuring a solution absorbance then experimentally determining the concentration, a measurement with some inherent variability depending on the method used. In this study, extinction coefficients were calculated based on the measured absorbance of model compounds of the four amino acid chromophores. These calculated values for an unfolded protein were then compared with an experimental concentration determination based on enzymatic digestion of proteins. The experimentally determined extinction coefficient for the native proteins was consistently found to be 1.05 times the calculated value for the unfolded proteins for a wide range of proteins with good accuracy and precision under well-controlled experimental conditions. The value of 1.05 times the calculated value was termed the predicted extinction coefficient. Statistical analysis shows that the differences between predicted and experimentally determined coefficients are scattered randomly, indicating no systematic bias between the values among the proteins measured. The predicted extinction coefficient was found to be accurate and not subject to the inherent variability of experimental methods. We propose the use of a
Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.
1991-01-01
Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.
Shawahna, R.; Rahman, NU.
2011-01-01
Background and the purpose of the study Partition coefficients (log D and log P) and molecular surface area (PSA) are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators. Methods Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0), and PSA. Results Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0, and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0 and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81%) with Caco-2 permeability (Papp). Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). Of these, 57 (42.2%), 28 (20.7%), 44 (32.6%), and 6 (4.4%) were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol. PMID:22615645
Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwyn, Fara
2012-01-01
This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…
Absorption and Scattering of Aerosol measured onboard R/V Gisang1 over the Yellow Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inae, K.; Lee, M.; Shin, B.; Ryoo, S.; Jung, J.; Kim, S. W.
2017-12-01
Absorption and scattering coefficient were measured onboard RV Gisang 1 over the Yellow Sea (covering 124° 127°E, 31° 38°N) during May June, 2016. BC concentration was analyzed at seven wavelengths (370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950nm) every 1 minute by Aethalometer. Scattering coefficient was measured at three wavelengths (450, 550, and 750nm) every 5 minutes with Nephelometer. The mean absorption coefficient was 1.2 Mm-1 at 880nm and the mean scattering coefficient was 116Mm-1 at 550nm. Single scattering albedo(SSA) reached the maximum value of 3.0 at 700nm. The calculated mean scattering angstrom exponent(SAE) was 1.6 and absorbing angstrom exponent(AAE) was 1.1. The AAE and SAE were higher in aged Chinese plume.
Enhanced absorption of TM waves in conductive nanoparticles structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousa, H. M.; Shabat, M. M.; Ouda, A. K.; Schaadt, D. M.
2018-05-01
This paper tackles anti-reflection coating structure for silicon solar cell where conductive nanoparticle (CNP) film is sandwiched between a semi-infinite glass cover and a semi-infinite silicon substrate. The transmission and reflection coefficients are derived by the transfer matrix method and simulated for values of unit cell sizes, gab widths in visible and near-infrared radiation. We also illustrated the dependence of the absorption, transmission and reflection coefficients on several angles of incidence of the transverse magnetic polarized (TM) waves. We found out that reflection decreases by the increase of incident angle to 50∘. If nanoparticles are suitably located and sized at gab width of 3.5 nm, unit cell of 250 nm and CNP layer thickness of 150 nm, the absorptivity of the structure achieves 100%.
Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Nieto, Rosa; Aguilera, José F; Navarro, M Pilar; Seiquer, Isabel
2010-04-15
The effects of pelleting on the extent of the Maillard reaction (MR) and on calcium, magnesium and zinc solubility and absorption were analysed in a conventional pre-starter diet for suckling piglets. Development was tested measuring colour, absorbance (280/420 nm), fluorescence, residual free lysine, furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural contents before and after pelleting. Fluorescence, absorbance and mineral solubility were also measured after in vitro digestion of diets. The effects on mineral absorption were tested using Caco-2 cells. MR indexes confirmed the development of the reaction during the pelleting of this particular diet compared with the meal diet. The CIE-Lab colour parameters showed a decrease in luminosity (L*) and progress of the colour to the red zone (a*) in the pelleted diet. A 36% decrease in free lysine content was observed. Significant correlations were observed between fluorescence intensity and furosine levels, HMF and furfural. The pelleting process did not modify calcium and magnesium solubility after in vitro digestion, but soluble zinc increased. The efficiency of calcium and zinc transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers was greater in the pelleted diet. Evidence of MR development is shown, resulting in various nutritional consequences. Optimisation of pelleting could result in a better formulation of diets for feedstuffs. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Absorption degree analysis on biogas separation with ionic liquid systems.
Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Suojiang; Bao, Di; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping
2015-01-01
For biogas upgrading, present work mainly focuses on either thermodynamics or mass transfer properties. A systematical study on these two aspects is important for developing a new biogas separation process. In this work, a new criterion "absorption degree", which combines both thermodynamics and mass transfer properties, was proposed for the first time to comprehensively evaluate the absorption performance. Henry's law constants of CO2 and CH4 in ionic liquids-polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers mixtures were investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL) were determined. The results indicate that IL-NHD mixtures exhibit not only a high CO2/CH4 selectivity, but also a fast kL for CO2 absorption. The [bmim][NO3]+NHD mixtures present a high absorption degree value for CO2 but a low value for CH4. For presenting a highest relative absorption degree value, the 50wt% [bmim][NO3]+50wt% NHD mixture is recommended for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stieltjes, Bram; Weikert, Thomas; Gatidis, Sergios; Wiese, Mark; Wild, Damian; Lardinois, Didier
2017-01-01
The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET are markers of aggressiveness in lung cancer. The numeric correlation of the two parameters has been extensively studied, but their spatial interplay is not well understood. After FDG-PET and DW-MRI coregistration, values and location of ADCmin- and SUVmax-voxels were analyzed. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for registration accuracy of sequential PET/MRI was 12 mm, and the mean distance (D) between ADCmin- and SUVmax-voxels was 14.0 mm (average of two readers). Spatial mismatch (D > 12 mm) between ADCmin and SUVmax was found in 9/25 patients. A considerable number of mismatch cases (65%) was also seen in a control group that underwent simultaneous PET/MRI. In the entire patient cohort, no statistically significant correlation between SUVmax and ADCmin was seen, while a moderate negative linear relationship (r = −0.5) between SUVmax and ADCmin was observed in tumors with a spatial match (D ≤ 12 mm). In conclusion, spatial mismatch between ADCmin and SUVmax is found in a considerable percentage of patients. The spatial connection of the two parameters SUVmax and ADCmin has a crucial influence on their numeric correlation. PMID:29391862
Sauter, Alexander W; Stieltjes, Bram; Weikert, Thomas; Gatidis, Sergios; Wiese, Mark; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wild, Damian; Lardinois, Didier; Bremerich, Jens; Sommer, Gregor
2017-01-01
The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC min ) derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of FDG-PET are markers of aggressiveness in lung cancer. The numeric correlation of the two parameters has been extensively studied, but their spatial interplay is not well understood. After FDG-PET and DW-MRI coregistration, values and location of ADC min - and SUV max -voxels were analyzed. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for registration accuracy of sequential PET/MRI was 12 mm, and the mean distance ( D ) between ADC min - and SUV max -voxels was 14.0 mm (average of two readers). Spatial mismatch ( D > 12 mm) between ADC min and SUV max was found in 9/25 patients. A considerable number of mismatch cases (65%) was also seen in a control group that underwent simultaneous PET/MRI. In the entire patient cohort, no statistically significant correlation between SUV max and ADC min was seen, while a moderate negative linear relationship ( r = -0.5) between SUV max and ADC min was observed in tumors with a spatial match ( D ≤ 12 mm). In conclusion, spatial mismatch between ADC min and SUV max is found in a considerable percentage of patients. The spatial connection of the two parameters SUV max and ADC min has a crucial influence on their numeric correlation.
Shibata, Masakazu; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Sasahara, Katsunori; Yoda, Noriaki; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mitsunari; Umehara, Ken
2017-05-01
Delamanid (OPC-67683, Deltyba™, nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles derivative) is approved for the treatment of adult pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The absorption, distribution and excretion of delamanid-derived radioactivity were investigated after a single oral administration of 14 C-delamanid at 3 mg/kg to rats. In both male and female rats, radioactivity in blood and all tissues reached peak levels by 8 or 24 h post-dose, and thereafter decreased slowly. Radioactivity levels were 3- to 5-fold higher in lung tissue at time to maximum concentration compared with plasma. In addition, radioactivity was broadly distributed in various tissues, including the central nervous system, eyeball, placenta and fetus, indicating that 14 C-delamanid permeated the brain, retinal and placental blood barriers. By 168 h post-dose, radioactivity in almost all the tissues was higher than that in the plasma. Radioactivity was also transferred into the milk of lactating rats. Approximately 6% and 92% of radioactivity was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively, indicating that the absorbed radioactivity was primarily excreted via the biliary route. No significant differences in the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14 C-delamanid were observed between male and female rats. The pharmacokinetic results suggested that delamanid was broadly distributed to the lungs and various tissues for a prolonged duration of time at concentrations expected to effectively target tuberculosis bacteria. These data indicate that delamanid, in addition to its previously demonstrated efficacy in pulmonary tuberculosis, might be an effective therapeutic approach to treating extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.
2013-12-01
The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.
Mukai, Kazuo; Ouchi, Aya; Azuma, Nagao; Takahashi, Shingo; Aizawa, Koichi; Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi
2017-02-01
Recently, a new assay method for the quantification of the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants (AOs) and food extracts in homogeneous organic solvents was proposed. In this study, second-order rate constants (k Q ) for the reaction of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) with eight different carotenoids (Cars) and α-tocopherol (α-Toc) were measured in an aqueous Triton X-100 (5.0 wt %) micellar solution (pH 7.4, 35 °C), which was used as a simple model of biomembranes. The k Q and relative SOAC values were measured using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The UV-vis absorption spectra of Cars and α-Toc were measured in both a micellar solution and chloroform, to investigate the effect of solvent on the k Q and SOAC values. Furthermore, decay rates (k d ) of 1 O 2 were measured in 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt % micellar solutions (pH 7.4), using time-resolved near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the absolute k Q values of the AOs. The results obtained demonstrate that the k Q values of AOs in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions vary notably depending on (i) the polarity [dielectric constant (ε)] of the reaction field between AOs and 1 O 2 , (ii) the local concentration of AOs, and (iii) the mobility of AOs in solution. In addition, the k Q and relative SOAC values obtained for the Cars in a heterogeneous micellar solution differ remarkably from those in homogeneous organic solvents. Measurements of k Q and SOAC values in a micellar solution may be useful for evaluating the 1 O 2 quenching activity of AOs in biological systems.
Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.
Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival
2015-10-12
Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Lin; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yan-Long
2010-12-01
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) near ultraviolet absorption spectra contains CDOM molecular structure, composition and other important physical and chemical information. Based on the measured data of CDOM absorption coefficient in March 2009 in the north area of Yellow Sea, the present paper analyzed near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of CDOM. The results showed that due to the impact of near-shore terrigenous input, the composition of CDOM is quite different in the north area of Yellow Sea, and this area is a typical case II water; fitted slope with specific range of spectral band and absorption coefficient at specific band can indicate the relative size of CDOM molecular weight, correlation between spectral slope of the Sg,275-300), Sg,300-350, Sg,350-400 and Sg,250-275 and the relative size of CDOM molecular weight indicative parameter M increases in turn and the highest is up to 0.95. Correlation between a(g)(lambda) and M value increases gradually with the increase in wavelength, and the highest is up to 0.92 at 400 nm; being correlated or not between spectral slope and absorption coefficient is decided by the fitting-band wavelength range for the spectra slope and the wavelength for absorption coefficient. Correlation between Sg,275-300 and a(g)(400) is the largest, up to 0.87.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rychnovsky, Steve; Gilbreath, G. C.; Zavriyev, A.
1996-10-01
Simultaneous measurements of the photorefractive and the absorptive grating gain components in GaAs:EL2 are made and are shown to display qualitative behavior consistent with linearized solutions of a two-carrier rate equation model. These two components, together with the linear absorption coefficient, permit determination of four independent material parameters, e.g., the ionized and the nonionized EL2 densities, the hole photoionization cross section ( sigma h), and the electro-optic coefficient (r41). Data obtained at optical wavelengths of 0.96 and 1.06 mu m indicate that sigma h and r41 are larger than published values. .
Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks.
Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu
2018-01-01
Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly
Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks
Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu
2018-01-01
Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly
Nondestructive Method For Measuring The Scattering Coefficient Of Bulk Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groenhuis, R. A. J.; ten Bosch, J. J.
1981-05-01
During demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel its structure changes resulting in a change of the absorption and scattering coefficients of the enamel. By measuring these coefficients during demineralization and remineralization these processes can be monitored in a non-destructive way. For this purpose an experimental arrangement was made: a fibre illuminates a spot on the sample with monochromatic light with a wave-length between 400 nm and 700 nm; a photomultiplier measures the luminance of the light back-scattered by the sample as a function of the distance from the measuring snot to the spot of illumination. In a Monte Carlo-model this luminance is simulated using the same geometry given the scattering and absorption coefficients in a sample. Then the scattering and absorption coefficients in the sample are determined by selecting the theoretical curve fitting the experimental one. Scattering coefficients below 10 mm-1 and absorption coefficients obtained with this method on calibration samples correspond well with those obtained with another method. Scattering coefficients above 10 mm-1 (paper samples) were measured ton low. This perhaps is caused by the anisotropic structure of paper sheets. The method is very suitable to measure the scattering and absorption coefficients of bulk materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Shan, W.; Ager, J. W., III; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.; Su, Ching-Hua
2003-01-01
Optical absorption experiments have been performed using diamond anvil cells to measure the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the fundamental bandgap of ZnSe(sub 1-xTe(sub x) alloys over the entire composition range. The first and second-order pressure coefficients are obtained as a function of composition. Starting from the ZnSe side, the magnitude of both coefficients increases slowly until x approx. 0.7, where the ambient-pressure bandgap reaches a minimum. For larger values of x the coefficients rapidly approach the values of ZnTe. The large deviations of the pressure coefficients from the linear interpolation between ZnSe and ZnTe are explained in terms of the band anticrossing model.
Lahrsow, Maximilian, E-mail: mlahrsow@gmail.com; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Bickford, Matthew W.
PurposeTo use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment.Materials and MethodsFifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions.ResultsOne month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant differencemore » in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC.ConclusionIn patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.« less
Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan
1992-01-01
Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.
Brisson, Paul
1974-01-01
Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976
Orthogonality of spherical harmonic coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLeod, M. G.
1980-08-01
Orthogonality relations are obtained for the spherical harmonic coefficients of functions defined on the surface of a sphere. Following a brief discussion of the orthogonality of Fourier series coefficients, consideration is given to the values averaged over all orientations of the coordinate system of the spherical harmonic coefficients of a function defined on the surface of a sphere that can be expressed in terms of Legendre polynomials for the special case where the function is the sum of two delta functions located at two different points on the sphere, and for the case of an essentially arbitrary function. It is noted that the orthogonality relations derived have found applications in statistical studies of the geomagnetic field.
Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of HN1
2013-08-01
the boil-off of a bulk liquid nitrogen tank, across an alumina Soxhlet thimble in a glass holder filled with the analyte. A vapor–liquid...with mass spectrometry (MS) yielded the results shown in Table 3. Table 3. Results from Analysis of HN1 Sample Used for Determination of...2 yields (3) Equation 3 can then be solved at each frequency using a least-squares approach. This was
Thermal Cyclotron Absorption Coefficients. II. Opacities in the Stokes Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaeth, H. M.; Chanmugam, G.
1995-05-01
We extend the discussion of the calculation of the cyclotron opacities α± of the ordinary and extraordinary mode (Chanmugam et al.) to the opacities κ, q, υ in the Stokes formalism. We derive formulae with which a can be calculated from κ, q, υ. We are hence able to compare our calculations of the opacities, which are based on the single-particle method, with results obtained with the dielectric tensor method of Tam or. Excellent agreement is achieved. We present extensive tables of the opacities in the Stokes formalism for frequencies up to 25ωc, where ωc is the cyclotron frequency, and temperatures kT = 5, 10,20, 30,40, and 50 keV. Furthermore, we derive approximate formulae with which κ, q, υ can be calculated from α± and hence use the Robinson & Melrose analytic formulae for α± in order to calculate the opacities in the Stokes formalism. We compare these opacities to accurate numerical opacities and find that the analytic formulae can reproduce the qualitative behavior of the opacities in the regions where the harmonic structure is unimportant.
Scattering and Absorption Properties of Biomaterials for Dental Restorative Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Oliveras, A.; Rubiño, M.; Pérez, M. M.
2013-08-01
The physical understanding of the optical properties of dental biomaterials is mandatory for their final success in restorative applications.Light propagation in biological media is characterized by the absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the scattering phase function,the refractive index, and the surface conditions (roughness). We have employed the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method to combine transmittance and reflectance measurements performed using an integrating-sphere setup with the results of the previous scattering-anisotropygoniometric measurements. This has led to the determination of the absorption and the scattering coefficients. The aim was to optically characterize two different dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and one type of zirconia ceramic, and comparatively study them. The experimental procedure was conducted under repeatability conditions of measurement in order to determine the uncertainty associated to the optical properties of the biomaterials. Spectral variations of the refraction index and the scattering anisotropy factor were also considered. The whole experimental procedure fulfilled all the necessary requirements to provide optical-property values with lower associated uncertainties. The effective transport coefficient presented a similar spectral behavior for the two composites but completely different for the zirconia ceramic. The results demonstrated that the scattering anisotropy exerted a clearly distinct impact on the optical properties of the zirconia ceramic compared with those of the dental-resin composites.
Gaur, Sonia; Harmon, Stephanie; Rosenblum, Lauren; Greer, Matthew D; Mehralivand, Sherif; Coskun, Mehmet; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Shih, Joanna H; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris
2018-05-07
The purposes of this study were to assess correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalized ADC (ratio of tumor to nontumor tissue) with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) and updated International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) categories and to determine how to optimally use ADC metrics for objective assistance in categorizing lesions within PI-RADSv2 guidelines. In this retrospective study, 100 patients (median age, 62 years; range, 44-75 years; prostate-specific antigen level, 7.18 ng/mL; range, 1.70-84.56 ng/mL) underwent 3-T multiparametric MRI of the prostate with an endorectal coil. Mean ADC was extracted from ROIs based on subsequent prostatectomy specimens. Histopathologic analysis revealed 172 lesions (113 peripheral, 59 transition zone). Two radiologists blinded to histopathologic outcome assigned PI-RADSv2 categories. Kendall tau was used to correlate ADC metrics with PI-RADSv2 and ISUP categories. ROC curves were used to assess the utility of ADC metrics in differentiating each reader's PI-RADSv2 DWI category 4 or 5 assessment in the whole prostate and by zone. ADC metrics negatively correlated with ISUP category in the whole prostate (ADC, τ = -0.21, p = 0.0002; normalized ADC, τ = -0.21, p = 0.0001). Moderate negative correlation was found in expert PI-RADSv2 DWI categories (ADC, τ = -0.34; normalized ADC, τ = -0.31; each p < 0.0001) maintained across zones. In the whole prostate, AUCs of ADC and normalized ADC were 87% and 82% for predicting expert PI-RADSv2 DWI category 4 or 5. A derived optimal cutoff ADC less than 1061 and normalized ADC less than 0.65 achieved positive predictive values of 83% and 84% for correct classification of PI-RADSv2 DWI category 4 or 5 by an expert reader. Consistent relations and predictive values were found by an independent novice reader. ADC and normalized ADC inversely correlate with PI-RADSv2 and ISUP categories and can serve as quantitative metrics to
Li, Yunyun; Ji, Feng; Jiang, Yuzhi; Zhao, Ting; Xu, Chongfu
2018-01-01
To explore the correlation of the expression levels of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and p53 of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the value obtained by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 38 patients were operated for GBM. All the patients had received diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRS prior to surgery. ADC of water molecules and values of metabolite indexes of MRS, including n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), were recorded, and the ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr were calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was done to examine the morphology of tumor and of tumor-adjacent tissues; immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine the expressions of PTEN and p53 in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area. Finally, the correlations of the expressions of PTEN and p53 with ADC, Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr of the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area were analyzed. H&E staining showed that GBM tissues had disordered morphology, different sizes of cells, large cell nuclei and significant cell heterogeneity. IHC indicated that the expression level of p53 protein in the tumor was significantly higher than in the tumor-adjacent tissues (p<0.05). The expression level of PTEN protein was high in the tumor-adjacent tissues, but significantly deficient in the tumor. DWI showed that the signal of DWI in the tumor was significantly increased, but ADC was decreased compared with the tumor-adjacent area. MRS indicated that the wave band of Cho in the tumor was significantly increased, NAA was significantly lowered, and Cr section was decreased compared with the tumor-adjacent area, while NAA/Cr in the tumor was significantly decreased compared with the tumoradjacent area (p<0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that PTEN levels in the tumor and the tumor-adjacent area were
The absorption characteristics of the human cornea in ultraviolet-a crosslinking.
Koppen, Carina; Gobin, Laure; Tassignon, Marie-José
2010-03-01
With respect to the safety of ultraviolet-A (UVA) crosslinking for the corneal endothelium, an absorption coefficient is used that has been calculated in riboflavin soaked porcine corneas. We aim to validate this value for clinical use by measuring the absorption coefficient for UVA 365 nm in postmortem human corneas after instilling riboflavin on the corneal surface. Corneal thickness was measured in nine pairs of human donor eyes of which one eye was subjected to manual removal of the epithelium, whereas the epithelium of the fellow eye was left intact. Both eyes were instilled with riboflavin 0.1% in dextran 20% on the intact globe. After 20 min, the corneas were rinsed, and a corneoscleral button was trephined. The transmission of the cornea for UVA 365 nm was measured by transillumination, which allows calculation of the absorption coefficient. Measurement of average corneal thickness was 658.5 +/- 51.5 microm when the epithelium was removed, and 758.3 +/- 98.8 microm without epithelial removal. The average transmittance for UVA 365 nm was 12.89 +/- 4.10% with epithelial debridement and 28.52 +/- 4.39% without (P<0.05). The resultant average absorption coefficient is 32 +/- 5 cm when the epithelium is removed and 17 +/- 2 cm when it is left intact (P<0.05). Our results show an absorption coefficient for human corneas that is much lower than the values reported in the literature. This finding may be relevant when considering endothelial safety of the clinical crosslinking treatment.
Contribution of particulate brown carbon to light absorption in the rural and urban Southeast US
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devi, J. Jai; Bergin, Michael H.; Mckenzie, Michael; Schauer, James J.; Weber, Rodney J.
2016-07-01
Measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol light absorption coefficients were carried out as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) during the summer of 2013 to determine the contribution of light absorbing organic carbon (BrC) to total aerosol light absorption in a rural location (Centreville, AL) and an urban area (Atlanta, GA). The light absorption coefficients in the near UV and visible wavelengths were measured for both ambient air, as well as ambient air heated in a thermal denuder to 200 °C to remove the semi-volatile organic compounds. Atlanta measurements show dominance of semi-volatile brown carbon with an average absorption angstrom exponent (AAE) of 1.4 before heating and about 1.0 after heating. In urban Atlanta, a decrease of about ∼35% in the light absorption coefficient at 370 nm after heating indicates that light absorbing organic compounds are a substantial fraction of the light absorption budget. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the fraction of light absorption by the semi-volatile aerosol occurs during the daytime, likely linked with photochemistry. Measurements at rural Centerville, on the other hand, do not show any major change in AAE with values before and after heating of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Overall the results suggest that photochemical aged urban emissions result in the presence of light absorbing BrC, while at rural locations which are dominated by aged aerosol and local biogenic emissions (based on measurements of Angstrom exponents) BrC does not significantly contribute to light absorption.
Sound absorption study on acoustic panel from kapok fiber and egg tray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaamin, Masiri; Mahir, Nurul Syazwani Mohd; Kadir, Aslila Abd; Hamid, Nor Baizura; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Ngadiman, Norhayati
2017-12-01
Noise also known as a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disruption. The level of noise can be reduced by using sound absorption panel. Currently, the market produces sound absorption panel, which use synthetic fibers that can cause harmful effects to the health of consumers. An awareness of using natural fibers from natural materials gets attention of some parties to use it as a sound absorbing material. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the potential of sound absorption panel using egg trays and kapok fibers. The test involved in this study was impedance tube test which aims to get sound absorption coefficient (SAC). The results showed that there was good sound absorption at low frequency from 0 Hz up to 900 Hz where the maximum absorption coefficient was 0.950 while the maximum absorption at high frequencies was 0.799. Through the noise reduction coefficient (NRC), the material produced NRC of 0.57 indicates that the materials are very absorbing. In addition, the reverberation room test was carried out to get the value of reverberation time (RT) in unit seconds. Overall this panel showed good results at low frequencies between 0 Hz up to 1500 Hz. In that range of frequency, the maximum reverberation time for the panel was 3.784 seconds compared to the maximum reverberation time for an empty room was 5.798 seconds. This study indicated that kapok fiber and egg tray as the material of absorption panel has a potential as environmental and cheap products in absorbing sound at low frequency.
A contribution of black and brown carbon to the aerosol light absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang-Woo; Cho, Chaeyoon; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin
2017-04-01
Black carbon (BC) is functionally defined as the absorbing component of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols and is typically dominated by soot-like elemental carbon (EC). Organic carbon (OC) has also been shown to absorb strongly at visible to UV wavelengths and the absorbing organics are referred to as brown carbon (BrC; Alexander et al., 2008). These two aerosols contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer, but most optical instruments that quantify light absorption are unable to distinguish one type of absorbing aerosol from another (Moosmüller et al. 2009). In this study, we separate total aerosol absorption from these two different light absorbers from co-located simultaneous in-situ measurements, such as Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS), Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) and Sunset EC/OC analyzer, at Gosan climate observatory, Korea. We determine the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of BC, and then estimate the contribution of BC and BrC on aerosol light absorption, together with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulation. At 565 nm wavelength, BC MAC is found to be about 5.4±2.8 m2 g-1 from COSMOS and Sunset EC/OC analyzer measurements during January-May 2012. This value is similar to those from Alexander et al. (2008; 4.3 ˜ 4.8 m2 g-1 at 550 nm) and Chung et al. (2012; 5.1 m2 g-1 at 520 nm), but slightly lower than Bond and Bergstrom (2006; 7.5±1.2 m2 g-1 at 550 nm). The COMOS BC mass concentration calculated with 5.4 m2 g-1 of BC MAC shows a good agreement with thermal EC concentration, with a good slope (1.1). Aerosol absorption coefficient and BC mass concentration from COSMOS, meanwhile, are approximately 25 ˜ 30 % lower than those of CLAP. This difference can be attributable to the contribution of volatile light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., BrC). The absorption coefficient of BrC, which is determined by the difference of
Zhang, Yun-lin; Qin, Bo-qiang; Ma, Rong-hua; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Wei-min
2005-03-01
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents one of the primary light-absorbing species in natural waters and plays a critical in determining the aquatic light field. CDOM shows a featureless absorption spectrum that increases exponentially with decreasing wavelength, which limits the penetration of biologically damaging UV-B radiation (wavelength from 280 to 320 nm) in the water column, thus shielding aquatic organisms. CDOM absorption measurements and their relationship with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and fluorescence are presented in typical macrophyte and algae lake zone of Lake Taihu based on a field investigation in April in 2004 and lab analysis. Absorption spectral of CDOM was measured from 240 to 800 nm using a Shimadzu UV-2401PC UV-Vis recording spectrophotometer. Fluorescence with an excitation wavelength of 355 nm, an emission wavelength of 450 nm is measured using a Shimadzu 5301 spectrofluorometer. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 6.3 to 17.2 mg/L with an average of 9.08 +/- 2.66 mg/L. CDOM absorption coefficients at 280 nm and 355 nm were in the range of 11.2 - 32.6 m(-1) (average 17.46m(-1) +/- 5.75 m(-1) and 2.4 - 8.3 m(-1) (average 4.17m(-1) +/- 1.47 m(-l)), respectively. The values of the DOC-specific absorption coefficient at 355 nm ranged from 0.31 to 0.64 L x (mg x m)-1. Fluorescence emission at 450 nm, excited at 355 nm, had a mean value of 1.32nm(-1) +/- 0.84 nm(-1). A significant lake zone difference is found in DOC concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence, but not in DOC-specific absorption coefficient and spectral slope coefficient. This regional distribution pattern is in agreement with the location of sources of yellow substance: highest concentrations close to river mouth under the influence of river inflow, lower values in East Lake Taihu. The values of algae lake zone are obvious larger than those of macrophyte lake zone. In Meiliang Bay, CDOM absorption, DOC concentration and fluorescence tend to
Percutaneous absorption of several chemicals, some pesticides included, in the red-winged blackbird
Rogers, J.G.; Cagan, R.H.; Kare, M.R.
1974-01-01
Percutaneous absorption in vivo through the skin of the feet of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) has been investigated. Absorption after 18-24 hours exposure to 0.01 M solutions of salicylic acid, caffeine, urea, 2,4-D, dieldrin, diethylstilbesterol, and DDT was measured. Of these, only DDT and diethylstilbesterol were not absorbed to a measurable degree. The solvents ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and vegetable oil were compared with water in their effects on the absorption ofcaffeine, urea, and salicylic acid. Ethanol, DMSO,and oil each decreased percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid. DMSO increased absorption of caffeine, and ethanol had no effect on it. Neither DMSO nor ethanol affected penetration of urea. Partition coefficients (K) (epidermis/water) were determined for all seven penetrants. Compounds with higher values of K showed lower percutaneous absorption. These findings suggest that K may be useful to predict percutaneous absorption in vivo. It appears unlikely that percutaneous absorption contributes greatly to the body burden of 2,4-D and dieldrin in A. phoeniceus.
Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.
1961-11-14
A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)
Shamjad, P M; Tripathi, S N; Aggarwal, S G; Mishra, S K; Joshi, Manish; Khan, Arshad; Sapra, B K; Ram, Kirpa
2012-08-07
The quantification of the radiative impacts of light absorbing ambient black carbon (BC) particles strongly depends on accurate measurements of BC mass concentration and absorption coefficient (β(abs)). In this study, an experiment has been conducted to quantify the influence of hygroscopic growth of ambient particles on light absorption. Using the hygroscopic growth factor (i.e., Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) approach), a model has been developed to predict the chemical composition of particles based on measurements, and the absorption and scattering coefficients are derived using a core-shell assumption with light extinction estimates based on Mie theory. The estimated optical properties agree within 7% for absorption coefficient and 30% for scattering coefficient with that of measured values. The enhancement of absorption is found to vary according to the thickness of the shell and BC mass, with a maximum of 2.3 for a shell thickness of 18 nm for the particles. The findings of this study underline the importance of considering aerosol-mixing states while calculating their radiative forcing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Huping; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianhua; Shen, Qian; Li, Tongji; Zhang, Fangfang; Yue, Huanyin; Zhang, Bing; Liao, Xiaohan
2017-10-01
The absorption coefficient of water is an important bio-optical parameter for water optics and water color remote sensing. However, scattering correction is essential to obtain accurate absorption coefficient values in situ using the nine-wavelength absorption and attenuation meter AC9. Establishing the correction always fails in Case 2 water when the correction assumes zero absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region and underestimates the absorption coefficient in the red region, which affect processes such as semi-analytical remote sensing inversion. In this study, the scattering contribution was evaluated by an exponential fitting approach using AC9 measurements at seven wavelengths (412, 440, 488, 510, 532, 555, and 715 nm) and by applying scattering correction. The correction was applied to representative in situ data of moderately turbid coastal water, highly turbid coastal water, eutrophic inland water, and turbid inland water. The results suggest that the absorption levels in the red and NIR regions are significantly higher than those obtained using standard scattering error correction procedures. Knowledge of the deviation between this method and the commonly used scattering correction methods will facilitate the evaluation of the effect on satellite remote sensing of water constituents and general optical research using different scattering-correction methods.
Two-photon absorption in arsenic sulfide glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chunaev, D. S.; Snopatin, G. E.; Plotnichenko, V. G.; Karasik, A. Ya.
2016-10-01
The two-photon absorption coefficient of 1047-{\\text{nm}} light in {\\text{As}}35{\\text{S}}65 chalcogenide glass has been measured. CW probe radiation has been used to observe the linear absorption in glass induced by two-photon excitation. The induced absorption lifetime was found to be ∼ 2 {\\text{ms}}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akolkar, A.; Petrasch, J.; Finck, S.; Rahmatian, N.
2018-02-01
An inverse analysis of the phosphor layer of a commercially available, conformally coated, white LED is done based on tomographic and spectrometric measurements. The aim is to determine the radiative transfer coefficients of the phosphor layer from the measurements of the finished device, with minimal assumptions regarding the composition of the phosphor layer. These results can be used for subsequent opto-thermal modelling and optimization of the device. For this purpose, multiple integrating sphere and gonioradiometric measurements are done to obtain statistical bounds on spectral radiometric values and angular color distributions for ten LEDs belonging to the same color bin of the product series. Tomographic measurements of the LED package are used to generate a tetrahedral grid of the 3D LED geometry. A radiative transfer model using Monte Carlo Ray Tracing in the tetrahedral grid is developed. Using a two-wavelength model consisting of a blue emission wavelength and a yellow, Stokes-shifted re-emission wavelength, the angular color distribution of the LED is simulated over wide ranges of the absorption and scattering coefficients of the phosphor layer, for the blue and yellow wavelengths. Using a two-step, iterative space search, combinations of the radiative transfer coefficients are obtained for which the simulations are consistent with the integrating sphere and gonioradiometric measurements. The results show an inverse relationship between the scattering and absorption coefficients of the phosphor layer for blue light. Scattering of yellow light acts as a distribution and loss mechanism for yellow light and affects the shape of the angular color distribution significantly, especially at larger viewing angles. The spread of feasible coefficients indicates that measured optical behavior of the LEDs may be reproduced using a range of combinations of radiative coefficients. Given that coefficients predicted by the Mie theory usually must be corrected in order
Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2012-08-01
In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...
Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients
Rathbun, Ronald E.
1990-01-01
Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.
On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.
The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.
Nonequilibrium quantum absorption refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Fu-Lin
2018-06-01
We study a quantum absorption refrigerator, in which a target qubit is cooled by two machine qubits in a nonequilibrium steady-state. It is realized by a strong internal coupling in the two-qubit fridge and a vanishing tripartite interaction among the whole system. The coherence of a machine virtual qubit is investigated as quantumness of the fridge. A necessary condition for cooling shows that the quantum coherence is beneficial to the nonequilibrium fridge, while it is detrimental as far as the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) and the COP at maximum power are concerned. Here, the COP is defined only in terms of heat currents caused by the tripartite interaction, with the one maintaining the two-qubit nonequilibrium state being excluded. The later can be considered to have no direct involvement in extracting heat from the target, as it is not affected by the tripartite interaction.
Virial Coefficients for the Liquid Argon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korth, Micheal; Kim, Saesun
2014-03-01
We begin with a geometric model of hard colliding spheres and calculate probability densities in an iterative sequence of calculations that lead to the pair correlation function. The model is based on a kinetic theory approach developed by Shinomoto, to which we added an interatomic potential for argon based on the model from Aziz. From values of the pair correlation function at various values of density, we were able to find viral coefficients of liquid argon. The low order coefficients are in good agreement with theoretical hard sphere coefficients, but appropriate data for argon to which these results might be compared is difficult to find.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Bélanger, S.; Bricaud, A.
2014-06-01
In addition to scattering coefficients, the light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012), the data sets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database of the Arctic Ocean by pooling the majority of published data sets and merging new data sets. Our results show that the total nonwater absorption coefficients measured in the eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher than in the western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (aϕ(λ)) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semianalytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific aϕ(λ) values (Matsuoka et al., 2013), this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately derived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Based on statistics, derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC versus CDOM relationships, a semianalytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for river-influenced coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean is presented and applied to satellite
Nguyen, Hieu T., E-mail: hieu.nguyen@anu.edu.au; Macdonald, Daniel; Baker-Finch, Simeon C.
2014-03-17
The radiative recombination coefficient B(T) in crystalline silicon is determined for the temperature range 90–363 K, and in particular from 270 to 350 K with an interval of 10 K, where only sparse data are available at present. The band-band absorption coefficient established recently by Nguyen et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 043710 (2014)] via photoluminescence spectrum measurements is employed to compute the values of B(T) at various temperatures. The results agree very well with literature data from Trupke et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930 (2003).] We present a polynomial parameterization describing the temperature dependence of the product of B(T) and themore » square of the intrinsic carrier density. We also find that B(T) saturates at a near constant value at room temperature and above for silicon samples with relatively low free carrier densities.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Mark Z.
2012-03-01
This study examines modeled properties of black carbon (BC), tar ball (TB), and soil dust (SD) absorption within clouds and aerosols to understand better Cloud Absorption Effects I and II, which are defined as the effects on cloud heating of absorbing inclusions in hydrometeor particles and of absorbing aerosol particles interstitially between hydrometeor particles at their actual relative humidity (RH), respectively. The globally and annually averaged modeled 550 nm aerosol mass absorption coefficient (AMAC) of externally mixed BC was 6.72 (6.3-7.3) m2/g, within the laboratory range (6.3-8.7 m2/g). The global AMAC of internally mixed (IM) BC was 16.2 (13.9-18.2) m2/g, less than the measured maximum at 100% RH (23 m2/g). The resulting AMAC amplification factor due to internal mixing was 2.41 (2-2.9), with highest values in high RH regions. The global 650 nm hydrometeor mass absorption coefficient (HMAC) due to BC inclusions was 17.7 (10.6-19) m2/g, ˜9.3% higher than that of the IM-AMAC. The 650 nm HMACs of TBs and SD were half and 1/190th, respectively, that of BC. Modeled aerosol absorption optical depths were consistent with data. In column tests, BC inclusions in low and mid clouds (CAE I) gave column-integrated BC heating rates ˜200% and 235%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the actual cloud RH (CAE II), which itself gave heating rates ˜120% and ˜130%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the clear-sky RH. Globally, cloud optical depth increased then decreased with increasing aerosol optical depth, consistent with boomerang curves from satellite studies. Thus, CAEs, which are largely ignored, heat clouds significantly.
Two Photon Absorption And Refraction in Bulk of the Semiconducting Materials
Kumari, Vinay; Department of Physics, DCRUST Murthal, Haryana; Kumar, Vinod
2011-10-20
Fast electronic detection systems have opened up a number of new fields like nonlinear optics, optical communication, coherent optics, optical bistability, two/four wave mixing. The interest in this field has been stimulated by the importance of multiphoton processes in many fundamental aspects of physics. It has proved to be an invaluable tool for determining the optical and electronic properties of the solids because of the fact that one gets the information about the bulk of the material rather than the surface one. In this paper we report, the measurement of the nonlinear absorption and refraction from the band gap tomore » half-band gap region of bulk of semiconductors in the direct and indirect band gap crystals with nanosecond laser. The measured theoretical calculated values of two-photon absorption coefficients ({beta}) and nonlinear refraction n{sub 2}({omega}) of direct band gap crystal match the earlier reported theoretical predictions. By making use of these theoretical calculated values, we have estimated {beta} and n{sub 2}({omega}) in the case of indirect band gap crystals. Low value of absorption coefficient in case of indirect band gap crystals have been attributed to phonon assisted transition while reduction in nonlinear refraction is due to the rise in saturation taking place in the absorption.« less
Koldaev, Vladimir M; Manyakhin, Artem Yu
2018-06-05
The study was carried out using 58 species of terrestrial plants of different life forms at the start of their fruiting stage. Photoreceptive systems of the leaves were assessed by means of unconventional numerical indicators of absorption spectra, relative photoabsorption coefficient, photosynthetic pigments' integral absorption intensity and relative absorption intensity coefficient. As the study showed, the leaves of all trees and light-demanding grasses favoring open spaces, which were subjected to the study were featured by the lowest values of numerical indicators of absorption spectra (NIAS). Shade-demanding grasses, which grow beneath the canopy, by contrast, were featured by the highest NIAS values. These values of the shrub leaves were in between those of light-demanding plants and shade-demanding ones. The results obtained are consistent with modern visions concerning the biochemistry and the physiology of plants' photoreceptive system. It is appropriate to apply the NIAS, which were used in this study and reflect a leaf's photoreceptive properties, as spectrophotometric criteria for monitoring and environmental management of natural plant resources and agricultural plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miskevich, Alexander A.; Loiko, Valery A.
2015-12-01
Enhancement of the performance of photovoltaic cells through increasing light absorption due to optimization of an active layer is considered. The optimization consists in creation of particulate structure of active layer. The ordered monolayers and multilayers of submicron crystalline silicon (c-Si) spherical particles are examined. The quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) and the transfer matrix method (TMM) are used to calculate light absorption in the wavelength range from 0.28 μm to 1.12 μm. The integrated over the terrestial solar spectral irradiance "Global tilt" ASTM G173-03 absorption coefficient is calculated. In the wavelength range of small absorption index of c-Si (0.8-1.12 μm) the integral absorption coefficient of monolayer can be more than 20 times higher than the one of the plane-parallel plate of the equivalent volume of material. In the overall considered range (0.28-1.12 μm) the enhancement factor up to ~1.45 for individual monolayer is observed. Maximum value of the spectral absorption coefficient approaches unity for multilayers consisting of large amount of sparse monolayers of small particles. Multilayers with variable concentration and size of particles in the monolayer sequences are considered. Absorption increasing by such gradient multilayers as compared to the non-gradient ones is illustrated. The considered structures are promising for creation of high efficiency thin-film solar cells.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS OF HETEROGENEOUS U-238-U-235 FUELED REACTORS
Astley, E.R.; Mansius, C.A.
1958-05-14
An analytical method of determining the effective reactivity coefficient from fundamental cross sections using the four factor formula is presented. Values of the coefficient obtained by this method compare well with experiment. (A.C.)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram
2015-01-01
The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wollschläger, J.; Röttgers, R.; Petersen, W.; Zielinski, O.
2016-12-01
A free-water mass balance-based study was conducted to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. Open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2. Rates of metabolism were extremely high, with respiration (43 mol m-2 yr-1) greatly exceeding gross primary production (28 mol m-2 yr-1), such that the overall system was net heterotrophic. Metabolism measured with DIC were higher than with O2, which we attribute to high rates of anaerobic respiration and reduced sulfur storage in salt marsh sediments, and we assume substantial levels of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We found gas exchange from a flooded marsh is substantial, accounting for about 28% of total O2 and CO2 air-water exchange. A significant percentage of the overall estuarine aquatic metabolism is attributable to metabolism of marsh organisms during inundation. Our study suggests not rely on oceanographic stoichiometry to convert from O2to C based measurements when constructing C balances for the coastal ocean. We also suggest eddy covariance measurements of salt marsh net ecosystem exchange underestimate net ecosystem production as they do not account for lateral DIC exchange associated with marsh tidal inundation. With the increase of global temperature and sea level rise, salt marshes are likely to export more inorganic carbon to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean due to the decrease of solubility, the increase of aquatic and benthic metabolic activities and the longer marsh inundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuura, H.; Nagasaka, Y.
2018-02-01
We describe an instrument for the measurement of the Soret and thermodiffusion coefficients in ternary systems based on the transient holographic grating technique, which is called Soret forced Rayleigh scattering (SFRS) or thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS). We integrated the SFRS technique and the two-wavelength detection technique, which enabled us to obtain two different signals to determine the two independent Soret coefficients and thermodiffusion coefficients in ternary systems. The instrument has been designed to read the mass transport simultaneously by two-wavelength lasers with wavelengths of λ = 403 nm and λ = 639 nm. The irradiation time of the probing lasers is controlled to reduce the effect of laser absorption to the sample with dye (quinizarin), which is added to convert the interference pattern of the heating laser of λ = 532 nm to the temperature grating. The result of the measurement of binary benchmark mixtures composed of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (THN), isobutylbenzene (IBB), and n-dodecane (nC12) shows that the simultaneous two-wavelength observation of the Soret effect and the mass diffusion are adequately performed. To evaluate performance in the measurement of ternary systems, we carried out experiments on the ternary benchmark mixtures of THN/IBB/nC12 with the mass fractions of 0.800/0.100/0.100 at a temperature of 298.2 K. The Soret coefficient and thermodiffusion coefficient agreed with the ternary benchmark values within the range of the standard uncertainties (23% for the Soret coefficient of THN and 30% for the thermodiffusion coefficient of THN).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, C.; Kim, S. W.; Sheridan, P. J.; Gustafsson, O.; Lee, M.; Yoon, S. C.
2016-12-01
Anthropogenic fine pollution and wind-blown mineral dust aerosols have a significant effect on the regional radiation budget by scattering or absorbing the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. We investigate the optical and physical properties of dust and pollution aerosols at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Korea during Gosan Pollution Experiment 2014 (GOPOEX 2014; January 2014).Mean values of aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient during GOPOEX 2014 were 72 ± 86 Mm-1 and 6 ± 5 Mm-1 at 550 nm, respectively. Aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient during dust episodes were 245 ± 171 Mm-1 and 22 ± 13 Mm-1 at 550 nm, which were approximately 3.5 times greater than mean values during GOPOEX 2014. Values for scattering and absorption coefficient of pollution episodes were recorded as 153 ± 95 Mm-1 and 12 ± 7 Mm-1 at 550 nm. Therefore, single scattering albedo of pollution episodes (0.92 ± 0.02) was slightly higher than those of dust episodes (0.90 ± 0.03). This is because that pollutant aerosols include more scattering fraction such as SO42-, and NO3- in fine particulate matter emitted from industrial areas in the eastern coastal region of China while dust aerosols are transported from North China to Gosan.Aerosol optical properties are influenced by where the air mass is transported from, either South China or North China. The mean values of aerosol scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient when air mass was transported from South China were 136 ± 132 Mm-1 and 15 ± 14 Mm-1 at 550 nm whereas those from North China were 108 ± 112 Mm-1 and 8 ± 7 Mm-1 at 550 nm. Single scattering albedo are almost identical as 0.9 ± 0.03 for both air masses.Carbonaceous composition of aerosols, which occupy a considerable fraction of fine particulate matter, also depends on the origin of the air mass. Radiocarbon (14C) is a good indicator for distinguishing between fossil combustion and biomass combustion. Detailed source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Osan, Janos; Czyzycki, M.; Karydas, A. G.; Puri, Sanjiv
2017-07-01
The absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficients have been measured at sixty two photon energies across the Li (i=1-3) sub-shell absorption edges of 66Dy covering the region 7.6-14.0 keV in order to investigate the influence of near-edge processes on the attenuation coefficients. The present measured attenuation coefficients are found to be higher by up to 10% than the theoretical values evaluated from the computer code XCOM (Berger et al., 2010) and the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model based values tabulated by Chantler (1995) over the energy region 7.6-14.0 keV, except at energies in vicinity (few eV) of the Li (i=1-3) sub-shell absorption edge energies where the measured values are significantly higher (up to 37%) than both the sets of theoretical values. Further, the Li (i=1-3) sub-shell photoionization cross sections, (σLiP)exp, deduced from the present measured mass attenuation coefficients are compared with the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) model based values tabulated by Scofield (1973) and those evaluated from the theoretical total photoionization attenuation coefficients tabulated by Chantler (1995). The deduced (σLiP)exp(i=1-3) values are found to be in better agreement with those evaluated from the tabulations given by Chantler (1995) than the values given by Scofield (1973) over the energy region 7.8 - 14.0 keV included in this study. However, at photon energies up to few eV above the Li edges, the deduced (σLiP)exp(i=1-3) values are found to be significantly higher (up to 32%) than both the sets of theoretical values.
Middle infrared optoelectronic absorption systems for monitoring physiological glucose solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, W. Blake
Tight monitoring of the glucose levels for diabetic individuals is essential to control long-term complications. A definitive diabetes management system has yet to be developed for the diabetic. This research investigates the application of middle infrared absorption frequencies for monitoring glucose levels in biological solutions. Three frequencies were identified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and correlated to changes in glucose concentrations. The 1035 +/- 1 cm-1 frequency was determined to be the best representative frequency. Other biological molecules contributed no significant interference to monitoring glucose absorption. A second frequency at 1193 cm-1 was suggested as a representative background absorption frequency, which could be used for more accurate glucose absorption values. Next, a quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system was designed and developed to monitor glucose. After careful alignment and design, the system was used to monitor physiological glucose concentrations. Correlation at 1036 cm-1 with glucose changes was comparable to the previous results. The use of the background absorption frequency was verified. This frequency essentially acts as a calibrating frequency to adjust in real-time to any changes in the background absorption that may alter the accuracy of the predicted glucose value. An evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique was explored to monitor molecules in a biological solution. Visible light at 425 nm was used to monitor hemoglobin in control urine samples. An adsorption isotherm for hemoglobin was detectable to limit of 5.8 nM. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy would be useful for a glucose solution. Given an equivalent system designed for the middle infrared, the molar extinction coefficient of glucose allows for a detectable limit of 45 mg/dl for a free-floating glucose solution, which is below normal physiological concentrations. The future use of a hydrophobic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick
2001-01-01
We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, aCDOM, and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of aCDOM measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of aCDOM for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5 m-1. At low CDOM concentrations spectrophotometric aCDOM were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples.
Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2012-01-01
Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.
Nonlinear absorption properties of silicene nanosheets.
Zhang, Fang; Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Han, Kezhen; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinguang
2018-06-01
As the cousins of graphene, i.e. same group IVA element, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of silicene nanosheets were rarely studied. In this paper, we successfully exfoliated the two-dimensional silicene nanosheets from bulk silicon crystal using liquid phase exfoliation method. The NLA properties of silicene nanosheets were systemically investigated for the first time, as we have known. Silicene performed exciting saturable absorption and two photon absorption (2PA) behavior. The lower saturable intensity and larger 2PA coefficient at 532 nm excitation indicates that silicene has potential application in ultrafast lasers and optical limiting devices, especially in visible waveband.
Nonlinear absorption properties of silicene nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fang; Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Han, Kezhen; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinguang
2018-06-01
As the cousins of graphene, i.e. same group IVA element, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of silicene nanosheets were rarely studied. In this paper, we successfully exfoliated the two-dimensional silicene nanosheets from bulk silicon crystal using liquid phase exfoliation method. The NLA properties of silicene nanosheets were systemically investigated for the first time, as we have known. Silicene performed exciting saturable absorption and two photon absorption (2PA) behavior. The lower saturable intensity and larger 2PA coefficient at 532 nm excitation indicates that silicene has potential application in ultrafast lasers and optical limiting devices, especially in visible waveband.
Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.
2017-07-01
Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.
Debye–Waller coefficient of heavily deformed nanocrystalline iron1
Abdellatief, M.
2017-01-01
Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns from an extensively ball-milled iron alloy powder were collected at 100, 200 and 300 K. The results were analysed together with those using extended X-ray absorption fine structure, measured on the same sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and at room temperature (300 K), to assess the contribution of static disorder to the Debye–Waller coefficient (B iso). Both techniques give an increase of ∼20% with respect to bulk reference iron, a noticeably smaller difference than reported by most of the literature for similar systems. Besides good quality XRD patterns, proper consideration of the temperature diffuse scattering seems to be the key to accurate values of the Debye–Waller coefficient. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline iron aggregates, mapped on the evidence provided by XRD in terms of domain size distribution, shed light on the origin of the observed B iso increase. The main contribution to the static disorder is given by the grain boundary, while line and point defects have a much smaller effect. PMID:28381974
Debye–Waller coefficient of heavily deformed nanocrystalline iron
Scardi, P.; Rebuffi, L.; Abdellatief, M.
2017-02-17
Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns from an extensively ball-milled iron alloy powder were collected at 100, 200 and 300 K. The results were analysed together with those using extended X-ray absorption fine structure, measured on the same sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and at room temperature (300 K), to assess the contribution of static disorder to the Debye–Waller coefficient (B iso). Both techniques give an increase of ~20% with respect to bulk reference iron, a noticeably smaller difference than reported by most of the literature for similar systems. Besides good quality XRD patterns, proper consideration of themore » temperature diffuse scattering seems to be the key to accurate values of the Debye–Waller coefficient. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline iron aggregates, mapped on the evidence provided by XRD in terms of domain size distribution, shed light on the origin of the observedB isoincrease. The main contribution to the static disorder is given by the grain boundary, while line and point defects have a much smaller effect.« less
Bhatia, Chitra; Kumar, V.
2010-02-15
A neutron multiplication coefficient, k{sub eff}, has been estimated for spallation neutron flux using the data of spectrum average cross sections of all absorption, fission, and nonelastic reaction channels of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 233}U fuel elements. It has been revealed that in spallation neutron flux (i) nonfission, nonabsorption reactions play an important role in the calculation of k{sub eff}, (ii) one can obtain a high value of k{sub eff} even for fertile {sup 232}Th fuel, which is hardly possible in a conventional fast reactor, and (iii) spectrum average absorption cross sections of neutron poisons ofmore » a conventional reactor are relatively very small.« less
Intersubband absorption of p-type wurtzite GaN/AlN quantum well for fiber-optics telecommunication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol; Park, Chan-Yong
2017-11-01
The intersubband transition of wurtzite (WZ) p-type GaN/AlN quantum well (QW) structures grown on GaN substrate was investigated theoretically using the multiband effective-mass theory. The peak value of the TE-polarization absorption spectrum is found to be similar to that of the TM-polarization absorption spectrum. The absorption coefficients for TE- and TM-polarizations are mainly attributed to the absorption from the ground state (m1 = 1) because holes are mainly confined in ground states near the band-edge in an investigated range of the carrier density. We observe that a transition wavelength of 1.55 μm can be obtained for the QW structure with a relatively thin (˜16 Å) well width. Thus, we expect that a p-type WZ AlN/GaN heterostructure is applicable for a photodetector application for fiber-optic communications with normal incidence of wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondelain, D.; Vasilchenko, S.; Čermák, P.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.
2017-01-01
The CO2 absorption continuum near 2.3 μm is determined for a series of sub atmospheric pressures (250-750 Torr) by high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. An experimental procedure consisting in injecting successively a gas flow of CO2 and synthetic air, keeping constant the gas pressure in the CRDS cell, has been developed. This procedure insures a high stability of the spectra baseline by avoiding changes of the optical alignment due to pressure changes. The CO2 continuum was obtained as the difference between the CO2 absorption coefficient and a local lines simulation using a Voigt profile truncated at ±25 cm-1. Following the results of the preceding analysis of the CO2 rovibrational lines (Vasilchenko S et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.002, a CO2 line list with intensities obtained by variational calculations and empirical line positions was preferred to the HITRAN line list. A quadratic pressure dependence of the absorption continuum is observed, with an average binary absorption coefficient increasing from 2 to 4×10-8 cm-1 amagat-2 between 4320 and 4380 cm-1. The obtained continuum is found in good agreement with a previous measurement using much higher densities (20 amagat) and a low resolution grating spectrograph and is consistent with values currently used in the analysis of Venus spectra.
Spectral Dependence of the Scattering Coefficient in Case 1 and Case 2 Waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Arnone, Robert A.; Martinolich, Paul M.
1999-04-01
An approximate linear relationship between the scattering coefficient and the wavelength of light in the visible is found in case 1 and case 2 waters. From this relationship, we estimate scattering at an unknown wavelength from scattering at a single measured wavelength. This approximation is based on measurements in a 1.5-m-thick surface layer collected with an AC9 instrument at 63 stations in the Arabian Sea, northern Gulf of Mexico, and coastal North Carolina. The light-scattering coefficient at 412 nm ranged from 0.2 to 15.1 m 1 in these waters, and the absorption coefficient at 412 nm ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 m 1 . A separate data set for 100 stations from Oceanside, California, and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, was used to validate the relationship. Although the Oceanside waters were considerably different from the developmental data set (based on absorption-to-scattering ratios and single-scattering albedos), the average error between modeled and measured scattering values was 6.0% for the entire test data set over all wavelengths (without regard to sign). The slope of the spectral scattering relationship decreases progressively from high-scattering, turbid waters dominated by suspended sediments to lower-scattering, clear waters dominated by phytoplankton.
Optical absorption and radiative heat transport in olivine at high temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shankland, T. J.; Nitsan, U.; Duba, A. G.
1979-01-01
Results are presented of measurements of the optical absorption spectra (300-8000 nm) of olivine as a function of temperature (300-1700 K) under conditions of controlled and known oxygen fugacity within the stability field of the samples. The absorption spectra are used to calculate the temperature-dependent radiative transfer coefficient of olivine and to numerically study the accuracy of the method. The present absorption measurements in olivine under oxidizing conditions known to be within the olivine stability field indicate that the effective radiative conductivity K(R) is lower than that obtained in previous studies under different experimental conditions. The lower value of K(R) makes it more likely that some of the earth's internal heat is removed by convection and less likely that thermal models involving conduction and radiation alone will satisfactorily explain thermal conditions in the earth's mantle.
Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, Scott Andrew
1995-01-01
The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17)/cu cm. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.
Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, Scott Andrew
1995-01-01
The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.
Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, Scott Andrew
1995-01-01
The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3x10(exp 17) and 9x10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.
Enhanced absorption cycle computer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.
1993-09-01
Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.
Air- and N2-Broadening Coefficients and Pressure-Shift Coefficients in the C-12(O2-16) Laser Bands
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.
1998-01-01
In this paper we report the pressure broadening and the pressure-induced line shift coefficients for 46 individual rovibrational lines in both the (12)C(16)O2, 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)I, and 00(sup 0)1-(10(sup 0)0-02(sup 0)0)II, laser bands (laser band I centered at 960.959/cm and laser band II centered at 1063.735/cm) determined from spectra recorded with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer. The results were obtained from analysis of 10 long-path laboratory absorption spectra recorded at room temperature using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares technique. Pressure effects caused by both air and nitrogen have been investigated. The air-broadening coefficients determined in this study agree well with the values in the 1996 HITRAN database; ratios and standard deviations of the ratios of the present air-broadening measurements to the 1996 HITRAN values for the two laser bands are: 1.005(15) for laser band I and 1.005(14) for laser band II. Broadening by nitrogen is 3 to 4% larger than that of air. The pressure-induced line shift coefficients are found to be transition dependent and different for the P- and R-branch lines with same J" value. No noticeable differences in the shift coefficients caused by air and nitrogen were found. The results obtained are compared with available values previously reported in the literature.
An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.
This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.
1991-01-01
The ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared absorption spectra of naphthalene (C10H8) and its radical ion (C10H8/+/), formed by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, were measured in argon and neon matrices at 4.2 K. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion production in the solid phase. The absorption coefficients were calculated for the ion and found lower than previous values, presumably due to the low polarizability of the neon matrix.
Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples
Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve
2013-01-01
The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Bélanger, S.; Bricaud, A.
2013-11-01
The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012), the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (aφ(λ)) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific aφ(λ) values (Matsuoka et al., 2013), this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately derived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC vs. CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Belanger, S.; Bricaud, A.
2014-01-01
The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean [e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012], the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher 74 than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained 75 by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian 76 side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off 77 North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (a()) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific a() values [Matsuoka et al., 2013], this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately erived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC versus CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.
Huguet, F. et al.
1962-01-01
The absorption of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by vines, permanent pasture, potatoes, green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, and beans in France in 1960 is presented. The strontium coefficient has varied very little from one year to the next and that of cesium has slightly diminished. The values obtained suggest that the concentrations in irrigation water should not exceed one fifth of the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. (auth)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Organelli, Emanuele; Bricaud, Annick; Antoine, David; Matsuoka, Atsushi
2014-09-01
We analyze a two-year time-series of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption measurements in the upper 400 m of the water column at the BOUSSOLE site in the NW Mediterranean Sea. The seasonal dynamics of the CDOM light absorption coefficients at 440 nm (acdom(440)) is essentially characterized by (i) subsurface maxima forming in spring and progressively reinforcing throughout summer, (ii) impoverishment in the surface layer throughout summer and (iii) vertical homogeneity in winter. Seasonal variations of the spectral dependence of CDOM absorption, as described by the exponential slope value (Scdom), are characterized by highest values in summer and autumn at the surface and low values at the depths of acdom(440) subsurface maxima or just below them. Variations of acdom(440) are likely controlled by microbial digestion of phytoplankton cells, which leads to CDOM production, and by photochemical destruction (photobleaching), which leads to CDOM degradation. Photobleaching is also the main driver of Scdom variations. Consistently with previous observations, acdom(440) for a given chlorophyll a concentration is higher than expected from Case I waters bio-optical models. The total non-water light absorption budget shows that surface waters at the BOUSSOLE site are largely dominated by CDOM during all seasons but the algal bloom in March and April. These results improve the knowledge of CDOM absorption dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea, which is scarcely documented. In addition, they open the way to improved algorithms for the retrieval of CDOM absorption from field or satellite radiometric measurements.
Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A
2010-12-01
Greater total energy absorption by the lower extremity musculature during landing may reduce stresses placed on capsuloligamentous tissues with differences in joint contributions to energy absorption potentially affecting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. However, the relationships between energy absorption and prospectively identified biomechanical factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury have yet to be demonstrated. Sagittal plane total, hip, knee and ankle energy absorption, and peak vertical ground reaction force, anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion and knee valgus angles, and internal hip extension and knee varus moments were measured in 27 individuals (14 females, 13 males) performing double leg jump landings. Correlation coefficients assessed the relationships between energy absorption during three time intervals (initial impact phase, terminal phase, and total landing) and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. More favorable values of biomechanical factors related to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury were associated with: 1) Lesser total (R(2)=0.178-0.558), hip (R(2)=0.229-0.651) and ankle (R(2)=0.280), but greater knee (R(2)=0.147) energy absorption during the initial impact phase; 2) Greater total (R(2)=0.170-0.845), hip (R(2)=0.599), knee (R(2)=0.236-0.834), and ankle (R(2)=0.276) energy absorption during the terminal phase of landing; and 3) Greater knee (R(2)=0.158-0.709), but lesser hip (R(2)=0.309) and ankle (R(2)=0.210-0.319) energy absorption during the total landing period. These results suggest that biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury are influenced by both the magnitude and timing of lower extremity energy absorption during landing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of Combined Surface and In-Depth Absorption on Ignition of PMMA
Gong, Junhui; Chen, Yixuan; Li, Jing; Jiang, Juncheng; Wang, Zhirong; Wang, Jinghong
2016-01-01
A one-dimensional numerical model and theoretical analysis involving both surface and in-depth radiative heat flux absorption are utilized to investigate the influence of their combination on ignition of PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate). Ignition time, transient temperature in a solid and optimized combination of these two absorption modes of black and clear PMMA are examined to understand the ignition mechanism. Based on the comparison, it is found that the selection of constant or variable thermal parameters of PMMA barely affects the ignition time of simulation results. The linearity between tig−0.5 and heat flux does not exist anymore for high heat flux. Both analytical and numerical models underestimate the surface temperature and overestimate the temperature in a solid beneath the heat penetration layer for pure in-depth absorption. Unlike surface absorption circumstances, the peak value of temperature is in the vicinity of the surface but not on the surface for in-depth absorption. The numerical model predicts the ignition time better than the analytical model due to the more reasonable ignition criterion selected. The surface temperature increases with increasing incident heat flux. Furthermore, it also increases with the fraction of surface absorption and the radiative extinction coefficient for fixed heat flux. Finally, the combination is optimized by ignition time, temperature distribution in a solid and mass loss rate. PMID:28773940
Effects of Combined Surface and In-Depth Absorption on Ignition of PMMA.
Gong, Junhui; Chen, Yixuan; Li, Jing; Jiang, Juncheng; Wang, Zhirong; Wang, Jinghong
2016-10-05
A one-dimensional numerical model and theoretical analysis involving both surface and in-depth radiative heat flux absorption are utilized to investigate the influence of their combination on ignition of PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate). Ignition time, transient temperature in a solid and optimized combination of these two absorption modes of black and clear PMMA are examined to understand the ignition mechanism. Based on the comparison, it is found that the selection of constant or variable thermal parameters of PMMA barely affects the ignition time of simulation results. The linearity between t ig -0.5 and heat flux does not exist anymore for high heat flux. Both analytical and numerical models underestimate the surface temperature and overestimate the temperature in a solid beneath the heat penetration layer for pure in-depth absorption. Unlike surface absorption circumstances, the peak value of temperature is in the vicinity of the surface but not on the surface for in-depth absorption. The numerical model predicts the ignition time better than the analytical model due to the more reasonable ignition criterion selected. The surface temperature increases with increasing incident heat flux. Furthermore, it also increases with the fraction of surface absorption and the radiative extinction coefficient for fixed heat flux. Finally, the combination is optimized by ignition time, temperature distribution in a solid and mass loss rate.
Hull, C C; Crofts, N C
1996-03-01
The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P < 0.0001) of mu t (0.562 +/- 0.010 mm-1 and 0.820 +/- 0.008 mm-1, respectively) than Polycon II (mu t = 0.025 +/- 0.005 mm-1). A comparison between Polycon II and the three hydrated soft contact lens materials showed a significant increase (P < 0.02) in the total attenuation coefficients for the 38% and 55% water content materials, and a weakly significant increase for the 70% water content soft lens material (P < 0.1). On the assumption that the absorption coefficients of these four materials are approximately constant, then this change would be due to an increase in the scattering coefficient of the material and could contribute to an increase in intraocular scatter. No significant difference (P > 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested.
Rate Coefficients for the OH + (CHO)2 (Glyoxal) Reaction Between 240 and 400 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feierabend, K. J.; Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Burkholder, J. B.
2006-12-01
Glyoxal (CHO)2, the simplest dialdehyde, is an end product formed in the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, for example, isoprene. As such, glyoxal plays a role in regional air quality and ozone production in certain locations. Glyoxal is lost in the atmosphere via UV photolysis and reaction with OH. However, the currently available rate coefficient data for the OH + glyoxal reaction is limited to a single room- temperature measurement made using the relative rate method. A determination of the rate coefficient temperature dependence is therefore needed for a more complete interpretation of the atmospheric processing of glyoxal. This study reports the rate coefficient for the OH + (CHO)2 reaction measured under pseudo- first-order conditions in OH ([(CHO)2] > 1000 [OH]0). OH radicals were produced using 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2 or HNO3 and detected by pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The concentration of glyoxal in the reactor was determined using three independent techniques; gas flow rates as well as in situ UV and IR absorption. The total pressure in the reactor was varied from 40 to 300 Torr (He), and the rate coefficient was found to be independent of pressure over the temperature range studied. The rate coefficient exhibits a negative temperature dependence between 240 and 400 K consistent with the dependence previously observed for many other aldehydes. Our room-temperature rate coefficient is smaller than the relative rate value that is currently recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations. Our measured rate coefficients are discussed with respect to those for other aldehydes. The atmospheric implications of our work will also be discussed.
Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.
Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J
2013-01-01
Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).
Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel
2011-05-01
In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.
Wang, Jun-jun; Liao, Xiao-huan; Ye, Min; Chen, Yong
2010-09-01
To study the effect of liquiritin (Liq) on the transport of strychnine (Str) in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the transport parameters of Str, such as apparent permeability coefficient (P app (B-->A) and P app (A-->B)) and cumulative transport amount (TRcum), were determined and comparatively analyzed when Str was used solely and co-used with Liq. The effect of drug concentrations, conveying times, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil and conveying liquor pH values on the transport of Str were also investigated. The results indicated that the absorption of Str in Caco-2 cell monolayer model was well and the passive transference was the main intestinal absorption mechanism of Str in the Caco-2 monolayer model, along with the excretion action mediated by P-gp. Liq enhanced the absorption of Str. Meanwhile, conveying liquor pH value had significant influence on the excretion transport of Str.
A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.
2017-10-01
Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.
A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.
1990-01-01
Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.
Numerical study of surface plasmon enhanced nonlinear absorption and refraction.
Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G
2008-07-07
Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory is used to study the influence of silver nanoparticle induced field enhancement on the nonlinear response of a Kerr-type nonlinear host. We show that the composite nonlinear absorption coefficient, beta(c), can be enhanced relative to the host nonlinear absorption coefficient near the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. This enhancement is not due to a resonant enhancement of the host nonlinear absorption, but rather due to a phase shifted enhancement of the host nonlinear refractive response. The enhancement occurs at the expense of introducing linear absorption, alpha(c), which leads to an overall reduced figure of merit beta(c)/alpha(c) for nonlinear absorption. For thin (< 1 microm) composites, the use of surface plasmons is found to result in an increased nonlinear absorption response compared to that of the host material.
The second virial coefficient of system ((nitrogen-water))
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podmurnaya, O. A.
2004-01-01
The virial coefficient data of various components of atmosphere are interesting because permit to evaluate a deviation from ideal gas model. These data may be useful while investigating the clusters generation and determination their contribution in absorption. The second cross virial coefficient Baw for system ((nitrogen water)) has been calculated form +9°C to +50°C using the last experimental data about water vapor mole fraction. The reliability of this coefficient has been tested by analysing of errors sources and by comparing the results with other available experimental data.
Hybrid local piezoelectric and conductive functions for high performance airborne sound absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Statharas, Eleftherios Christos; Yao, Kui; Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, Meysam; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock
2017-12-01
A concept of hybrid local piezoelectric and electrical conductive functions for improving airborne sound absorption is proposed and demonstrated in composite foam made of porous polar polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) mixed with conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). According to our hybrid material function design, the local piezoelectric effect in the PVDF matrix with the polar structure and the electrical resistive loss of SWCNT enhanced sound energy conversion to electrical energy and subsequently to thermal energy, respectively, in addition to the other known sound absorption mechanisms in a porous material. It is found that the overall energy conversion and hence the sound absorption performance are maximized when the concentration of the SWCNT is around the conductivity percolation threshold. For the optimal composition of PVDF/5 wt. % SWCNT, a sound reduction coefficient of larger than 0.58 has been obtained, with a high sound absorption coefficient higher than 50% at 600 Hz, showing their great values for passive noise mitigation even at a low frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.
2013-03-01
We apply the Fourier Transform to absorption and scattering coefficient images of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints and evaluate the performance of these coefficients as classifiers using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We find 25 features that yield a Youden index over 0.7, 3 features that yield a Youden index over 0.8, and 1 feature that yields a Youden index over 0.9 (90.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In general, scattering coefficient images yield better one-dimensional classifiers compared to absorption coefficient images. Using features derived from scattering coefficient images we obtain an average Youden index of 0.58 +/- 0.16, and an average Youden index of 0.45 +/- 0.15 when using features from absorption coefficient images.
Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits
DeVault, Robert C.
1988-01-01
A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.
Electromagnetic absorption properties of spacecraft and space debris
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micheli, D.; Santoni, F.; Giusti, A.; Delfini, A.; Pastore, R.; Vricella, A.; Albano, M.; Arena, L.; Piergentili, F.; Marchetti, M.
2017-04-01
Aim of the work is to present a method to evaluate the electromagnetic absorption properties of spacecraft and space debris. For these objects, the radar detection ability depends mainly on volume, shape, materials type and other electromagnetic reflecting behaviour of spacecraft surface components, such as antennas or thermal blankets, and of metallic components in space debris. The higher the electromagnetic reflection coefficient of such parts, the greater the radar detection possibility. In this research an electromagnetic reverberation chamber is used to measure the absorption cross section (ACS) of four objects which may represent space structure operating components as well as examples of space debris: a small satellite, a composite antenna dish, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and a carbon-based composite missile shell. The ACS mainly depends on geometrical characteristics like apertures, face numbers and bulk porosity, as well as on the type of the material itself. The ACS, which is an electromagnetic measurement, is expressed in squared meters and thus can be compared with the objects geometrical cross section. A small ACS means a quite electromagnetic reflective tendency, which is beneficial for radar observations; on the contrary, high values of ACS indicate a strong absorption of the electromagnetic field, which in turn can result a critical hindering of radar tracking.
Photothermal measurement of optical surface absorption using strain transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leslie, D. H.; Trusty, G. L.
1981-09-01
We discuss the measurement of small optical surface absorption coefficients. A demonstration experiment was performed using a metallurgical strain gauge to measure 488 nm absorption on the surface of a glass plate. A strain of 10 to the minus 8th power resulted from absorption of 0.3 watts. The results are interpreted and the sensitivity of a proposed fiber optic strain gauge is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korolenko, P. V.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Ochkin, V. N.; Tskhai, S. N.
2014-04-01
An integral method is considered for recording absorption using three laser beams transmitted through and reflected from an external cavity with the absorbing medium (R-ICOS). The method is the elaboration of a known single-beam ICOS method and allows suppression of the influence of radiation phase fluctuations in the resonator on recording weak absorption spectra. First of all, this reduces high-frequency instabilities and gives a possibility to record spectra during short time intervals. In this method, mirrors of the resonator may have moderate reflection coefficients. Capabilities of the method have been demonstrated by the examples of weak absorption spectra of atmospheric methane and natural gas in a spectral range around 1650 nm. With the mirrors having the reflection coefficients of 0.8-0.99, a spectrum can be recorded for 320 μs with the accuracy sufficient for detecting a background concentration of methane in atmosphere. For the acquisition time of 20 s, the absorption coefficients of ~2×10-8 cm-1 can be measured, which corresponds to a 40 times less molecule concentration than the background value.
Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.
2000-12-01
A nitrogen dioxide calibration method is developed to evaluate the theoretical calibration for a photoacoustic instrument used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical calibration, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorptionmore » of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the instrument compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the calibration method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the calibration method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively.« less
Nitric oxide concentration near the mesopause as deduced from ionospheric absorption measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lastovicka, J.
The upper-D-region NO concentration is calculated on the basis of published 2775-kHz-absorption, Lyman-alpha (OSO-5), and X-ray (Solrad-9) data obtained over Central Europe in June-August 1969, 1970, and 1972. Ionization-rate and radio-wave-absorption profiles for solar zenith angles of 60, 70 and 40 deg are computed, presented graphically, and compared with model calculations to derive the NO-concentration correction coefficients necessary to make the Lyman-alpha/X-ray flux ratios of the models of Meira (1971), Baker et al. (1977), Tohmatsu and Iwagami (1976), and Tisone (1973) agree with the observed ratios. Values of the corrected NO concentration include 6.5 and 8.5 x 10 to the 13th/cu m at 78 and 90 km, respectively. The values are shown to be higher than those of standard models but within the range of observed concentrations.
Retrieval of methanol absorption parameters at terahertz frequencies using multispectral fitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slocum, David M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Giles, Robert H.; Goyette, Thomas M.
2015-12-01
A high-resolution broadband study of the methanol absorption spectrum was performed at 1.480-1.495 THz. The transmittance was recorded under both self- and air-broadening conditions for multiple pressures at a resolution of 500 kHz. A multispectral fitting analysis was then performed. The transition frequency, absolute intensity, self- and air-broadening coefficients, and self- and air-induced pressure shifts were retrieved for 221 absorption lines using the multispectral fitting routine. Observed in the data were two different series of transitions, both a b-type Q-branch with K = - 7 ← - 6 and an a-type R-branch with J = 31 ← 30 . The retrieved frequency position values were compared with values from spectral databases and trends within the different series were identified. An analysis of the precision of the fitting routine was also performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Cheng-Bao; Wen, Xin; Li, Qiang-Hua; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Sun, Wen-Jun; Bai, Li-Na; Yang, Shou-Bin
2017-03-01
We present the structure and nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results show that the CZO films can maintain a wurtzite structure. Furthermore, the open-aperture (OA) Z-scan measurements of the film were carried out by nanosecond laser pulse. A transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) was observed as the excitation intensity increasing. With good excellent nonlinear optical coefficient, the samples were expected to be the potential applications in optical devices.
Study of moisture absorption by an organoplastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniskevich, A. N.; Yanson, Yu. O.
1991-07-01
A complex experimental study of the state of sorbed moisture in a unidirectionally reinforced organoplastic was conducted. The methods of TG, DSC, DTA, and NMR showed that moisture absorption in OP is reversible up to 8%, the sorbed moisture does not crystallize in the temperature range from -70 to 0 °C, it is finely dispersely distributed and is in the strongly and weakly bound state, and there is almost no free moisture. The results of the sorption experiments conducted on OP and its structural components: microplastic and EDT-10 binder, in a wide range of temperature-humidity conditions and the data from physical studies showed that moisture absorption in the materials basically takes place by diffusion and is satisfactorily described by a phenomenological model based on the Fick equation. A method of accelerated determination of the sorption characteristics of anisotropic composite materials was developed, using the introduced concept of the fictitious diffusion coefficient and the extrapolation method of determining the limiting moisture content. The features of migration of moisture on the interface in a multiphase system were investigated, and the possibility of successive calculation estimation of the sorption characteristics of an organoplastic at different structural levels was demonstrated: components—unidirectionally reinforced composite—model laminated article. The tested phenomenological model of the sorption process and the experimentally obtained values of the characteristics of the material were the basis for a method of calculation determination of the resource of moisture-proofing properties of a model multilayer article of CM in nonstationary external conditions.
Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona
Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.
1973-01-01
n in which V = mean cross-sectional velocity of flow, in feet per second; R = hydraulic radius at a cross section, which is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetter perimeter, in feet; Se = energy slope; and n = coefficient of roughness. Many research studies have been made to determine "n" values for open-channel flow (Carter and others, 1963). Guidelines for selecting coefficient of roughness for stream channels are given in most of the literature of stream-channel hydraulics, but few of the data relate directly to streams of Arizona, The U.S> Geological Survey, at the request of the Arizona Highway Department, assembled the color photographs and tables of the Manning "n" values in this report to aid highway engineers in the selection of roughness coefficients for Arizona streams. Most of the photographs show channel reaches for which values of "n" have been assigned by experienced Survey personnel; a few photographs are included for reaches where "n" values have been verified. Verified "n" values are computed from a known discharge and measured channel geometry. Selected photographs of stream channels for which "n" values have been verified are included in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1849 (Barnes, 1967); stereoscopic slides of Barnes' (1967) photographs and additional photographs can be inspected at U.S> Geological Survey offices in: 2555 E. First Street, Tucson; and 5017 Federal Building, 230 N. First Avenue, Phoenix.
Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.
Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim
2016-01-01
Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.
White, W.T. III
1985-11-04
We have studied two-photon absorption in solids theoretically and experimentally. We have shown that it is possible to use accurate band structure techniques to compute two-photon absorption spectra within 15% of measured values in a wide band-gap material, ZnS. The empirical pseudopotential technique that we used is significantly more accurate than previous models of two-photon absorption in zinc blende materials, including present tunneling theories (which are essentially parabolic-band results in disguise) and the nonparabolic-band formalism of Pidgeon et al. and Weiler. The agreement between our predictions and previous measurements allowed us to use ZnS as a reference material in ordermore » to validate a technique for measuring two-photon absorption that was previously untried in solids, pulsed dual-beam thermal lensing. With the validated technique, we examined nonlinear absorption in one other crystal (rutile) and in several glasses, including silicates, borosilicates, and one phosphate glass. Initially, we believed that the absorption edges of all the materials were comparable; however, subsequent evidence suggested that the effective band-gap energies of the glasses were above the energy of two photons in our measurement. Therefore, we attribute the nonlinear absorption that we observed in glasses to impurities or defects. The measured nonlinear absorption coefficients were of the order of a few cm/TW in the glasses and of the order of 10 cm/GW in the crystals, four orders of magnitude higher than in glasses. 292 refs.« less
Recovering DC coefficients in block-based DCT.
Uehara, Takeyuki; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh; Ogunbona, Philip
2006-11-01
It is a common approach for JPEG and MPEG encryption systems to provide higher protection for dc coefficients and less protection for ac coefficients. Some authors have employed a cryptographic encryption algorithm for the dc coefficients and left the ac coefficients to techniques based on random permutation lists which are known to be weak against known-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. In this paper we show that in block-based DCT, it is possible to recover dc coefficients from ac coefficients with reasonable image quality and show the insecurity of image encryption methods which rely on the encryption of dc values using a cryptoalgorithm. The method proposed in this paper combines dc recovery from ac coefficients and the fact that ac coefficients can be recovered using a chosen ciphertext attack. We demonstrate that a method proposed by Tang to encrypt and decrypt MPEG video can be completely broken.
Photon diffusion coefficient in scattering and absorbing media.
Pierrat, Romain; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Carminati, Rémi
2006-05-01
We present a unified derivation of the photon diffusion coefficient for both steady-state and time-dependent transport in disordered absorbing media. The derivation is based on a modal analysis of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation. This approach confirms that the dynamic diffusion coefficient is given by the random-walk result D = cl(*)/3, where l(*) is the transport mean free path and c is the energy velocity, independent of the level of absorption. It also shows that the diffusion coefficient for steady-state transport, often used in biomedical optics, depends on absorption, in agreement with recent theoretical and experimental works. These two results resolve a recurrent controversy in light propagation and imaging in scattering media.
Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia
2018-07-14
In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phononic glass: a robust acoustic-absorption material.
Jiang, Heng; Wang, Yuren
2012-08-01
In order to achieve strong wide band acoustic absorption under high hydrostatic pressure, an interpenetrating network structure is introduced into the locally resonant phononic crystal to fabricate a type of phononic composite material called "phononic glass." Underwater acoustic absorption coefficient measurements show that the material owns high underwater sound absorption coefficients over 0.9 in 12-30 kHz. Moreover, the quasi-static compressive behavior shows that the phononic glass has a compressive strength over 5 MPa which is crucial for underwater applications.
Sound absorption by clamped poroelastic plates.
Aygun, H; Attenborough, K
2008-09-01
Measurements and predictions have been made of the absorption coefficient and the surface acoustic impedance of poroelastic plates clamped in a large impedance tube and separated from the rigid termination by an air gap. The measured and predicted absorption coefficient and surface impedance spectra exhibit low frequency peaks. The peak frequencies observed in the absorption coefficient are close to those predicted and measured in the deflection spectra of the clamped poroelastic plates. The influences of the rigidity of the clamping conditions and the width of the air gap have been investigated. Both influences are found to be important. Increasing the rigidity of clamping reduces the low frequency absorption peaks compared with those measured for simply supported plates or plates in an intermediate clamping condition. Results for a closed cell foam plate and for two open cell foam plates made from recycled materials are presented. For identical clamping conditions and width of air gap, the results for the different materials differ as a consequence mainly of their different elasticity, thickness, and cell structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Kulwinder Singh; Heer, Manmohan Singh; Rani, Asha
2016-07-01
The gamma-ray shielding behaviour of a material can be investigated by determining its various interaction and energy-absorption parameters (such as mass attenuation coefficients, mass energy absorption coefficients, and corresponding effective atomic numbers and electron densities). Literature review indicates that the effective atomic number (Zeff) has been used as extensive parameters for evaluating the effects and defect in the chosen materials caused by ionising radiations (X-rays and gamma-rays). A computer program (Zeff-toolkit) has been designed for obtaining the mean value of effective atomic number calculated by three different methods. A good agreement between the results obtained with Zeff-toolkit, Auto_Zeff software and experimentally measured values of Zeff has been observed. Although the Zeff-toolkit is capable of computing effective atomic numbers for both photon interaction (Zeff,PI) and energy absorption (Zeff,En) using three methods in each. No similar computer program is available in the literature which simultaneously computes these parameters simultaneously. The computed parameters have been compared and correlated in the wide energy range (0.001-20 MeV) for 10 commonly used building materials. The prominent variations in these parameters with gamma-ray photon energy have been observed due to the dominance of various absorption and scattering phenomena. The mean values of two effective atomic numbers (Zeff,PI and Zeff,En) are equivalent at energies below 0.002 MeV and above 0.3 MeV, indicating the dominance of gamma-ray absorption (photoelectric and pair production) over scattering (Compton) at these energies. Conversely in the energy range 0.002-0.3 MeV, the Compton scattering of gamma-rays dominates the absorption. From the 10 chosen samples of building materials, 2 soils showed better shielding behaviour than did other 8 materials.
Method for Calculating the Optical Diffuse Reflection Coefficient for the Ocular Fundus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.
2016-07-01
We have developed a method for calculating the optical diffuse reflection coefficient for the ocular fundus, taking into account multiple scattering of light in its layers (retina, epithelium, choroid) and multiple refl ection of light between layers. The method is based on the formulas for optical "combination" of the layers of the medium, in which the optical parameters of the layers (absorption and scattering coefficients) are replaced by some effective values, different for cases of directional and diffuse illumination of the layer. Coefficients relating the effective optical parameters of the layers and the actual values were established based on the results of a Monte Carlo numerical simulation of radiation transport in the medium. We estimate the uncertainties in retrieval of the structural and morphological parameters for the fundus from its diffuse reflectance spectrum using our method. We show that the simulated spectra correspond to the experimental data and that the estimates of the fundus parameters obtained as a result of solving the inverse problem are reasonable.
Wang, X.; Heald, C. L.; Sedlacek, A.; ...
2016-10-13
The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in modelling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regardingmore » the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new method that decreases the uncertainties associated with estimating BrC absorption. By applying this method to multi-wavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites, we estimate that BrC globally contributes 6-40% of the absorption at 440nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with BC/OA mass ratio. Based on the variability of BC properties and BC/OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.2 m 2/g for OA-MAC at 440nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE 388/440nm for BrC is generally ~4 world-wide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of Manaus, Brazil) reveal no significant relationship between BrC absorptivity and photochemical aging in typical urban influenced conditions. However, the absorption of BrC measured during the biomass burning season near Manaus is found to decrease with photochemical aging with a lifetime of ~1 day. This lifetime is comparable to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Sarma, Y. V. B.; Tiwari, Surya P.; Jones, Burton H.
2018-03-01
The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major variable used in developing robust bio-optical models and understanding biogeochemical processes. Over the last decade, the optical properties of CDOM in the open sea have been intensely studied. However, their variations in clear water are poorly documented, particularly in the Red Sea, owing to the absence of in situ measurements. We performed several cruises in the Red Sea to investigate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient of CDOM. The spectral absorption coefficients were determined from 400 nm to 740 nm using a WETLabs ac-s hyper-spectral spectrophotometer. In general, we found a latitudinal gradient in the CDOM absorption coefficient at 443 nm (aCDOM(443)) from south to north that is likely influenced by the exchange of water through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb and the thermohaline circulation of the Red Sea. However, high aCDOM(443) values were observed in the northern Red Sea due to the existence of a sub-mesoscale feature that may induce an increase in phytoplankton production and lead to CDOM production. The aCDOM(443) covaried with the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a],) despite a high scatter. Furthermore, the aCDOM(443) for a given [Chl a] concentration was higher than those predicted by global ocean bio-optical models. This study advances our understanding of CDOM concentration in the Red Sea and may help improve the accuracy of the algorithms used to obtain CDOM absorption from ocean color.
Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival
2014-10-01
The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Dimple; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, Arun
2015-12-01
The ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with Cr and Cu doping were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanostructures of the prepared undoped and doped ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sizes of QDs were found to be within 3-5 nm range. The nonlinear parameters viz. Two photon absorption coefficient (β2), nonlinear refractive index (n2), third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) at wavelength 532 nm and Four photon absorption coefficient (β4) at wavelength 1064 nm have been calculated by Z-scan technique using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser in undoped, Cr doped and Cu doped ZnS QDs. Higher values of nonlinear parameters for doped ZnS infer that they are potential material for the development of photonics devices and sensor protection applications.
Continuous light absorption photometer for long-term studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogren, John A.; Wendell, Jim; Andrews, Elisabeth; Sheridan, Patrick J.
2017-12-01
A new photometer is described for continuous determination of the aerosol light absorption coefficient, optimized for long-term studies of the climate-forcing properties of aerosols. Measurements of the light attenuation coefficient are made at blue, green, and red wavelengths, with a detection limit of 0.02 Mm-1 and a precision of 4 % for hourly averages. The uncertainty of the light absorption coefficient is primarily determined by the uncertainty of the correction scheme commonly used to convert the measured light attenuation to light absorption coefficient and ranges from about 20 % at sites with high loadings of strongly absorbing aerosols up to 100 % or more at sites with low loadings of weakly absorbing aerosols. Much lower uncertainties (ca. 40 %) for the latter case can be achieved with an advanced correction scheme.
Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.
1984-01-01
The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.
[Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].
Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng
2008-07-01
A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.
Muehlig, Christian; Bublitz, Simon; Kufert, Siegfried
2009-12-10
We report nonlinear absorption data of LaF3 and MgF2 single layers at 193 nm. A highly surface sensitive measurement strategy of the laser induced deflection technique is introduced and applied to measure the absorption of highly transparent thin films independently of the substrate absorption. Linear absorptions k=({alpha}x{lambda})/4{pi} of 2x10{sup -4} and 8.5x10{sup -4} (LaF3) and 1.8x10{sup -4} and 6.9x10{sup -4} (MgF2) are found. Measured two photon absorption (TPA) coefficients are {beta}=1x10{sup -4} cm/W (LaF3), 1.8x10{sup -5}, and 5.8x10{sup -5} cm/W (MgF2). The TPA coefficients are several orders of magnitude higher than typical values for fluoride single crystals, which is likelymore » to result from sequential two step absorption processes.« less
Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.
2011-01-01
Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…
Self-Broadening and Self-Shift Coefficients in the Fundamental Band of 12C 16O
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devi, Malathy V.; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.
1998-01-01
High quality and precise measurements of self-broadened and self-shift coefficients in the fundamental band of C-12O-16 were made using spectra recorded at room temperature with the high-resolution (0.0027 cm(exp -1)) McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona. The spectral region under investigation (2008-2247 cm(exp -1)) contains the P(31) to R(31) transitions. The data were obtained using a high-purity natural isotopic sample ofcarbon monoxide and two absorption cells with pathlengths of 4.08 and 9.98 cm, respectively. Various pressures of CO were used, ranging between 0.25 and 201.2 Torr. The results were obtained by analyzing five spectra simultaneously, using a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique. The self-broadened coefficients ranged from 0.0426(2) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K to 0.0924(2) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K, while the pressure-induced shift coefficients varied between -0.0042(3) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K and +0.0005(l) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) at 296 K. The value in parentheses is the estimated uncertainty in units of the last digit. The self-broadened coefficients of lines with same values of m in the P and R branches agree close to within experimental uncertainties while the self-shift coefficients showed considerable variation within and between the two branches. The mean value of the ratios of P branch to R branch self-broadened coefficients was found to be 1.01 with a standard deviation of + or - 0.01. Comparisons of the results with other published data were made.
Drag Coefficient and Foam in Hurricane Conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golbraikh, E.; Shtemler, Y.
2016-12-01
he present study is motivated by recent findings of saturation and even decrease in the drag coefficient (capping) in hurricane conditions, which is accompanied by the production of a foam layer on the ocean surface. As it is difficult to expect at present a comprehensive numerical modeling of the drag coefficient saturation that is followed by wave breaking and foam production, there is no complete confidence and understanding of the saturation phenomenon. Our semi-empirical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, Cd , with the reference wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. The proposed model treats the efficient air-sea aerodynamic roughness length as a sum of two weighted aerodynamic roughness lengths for the foam-free and foam-covered conditions. On the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage,αf, combined with direct wind speed measurements in hurricane conditions, which provide the minimum of the effective drag coefficient, Cd for the sea covered with foam. The present model yields Cd10 versus U10 in fair agreement with that evaluated from both open-ocean and laboratory measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in the range of U10 from low to hurricane speeds. The present approach opens opportunities for drag coefficient modeling in hurricane conditions and hurricane intensity estimation by the foam-coverage value using optical and radiometric measurements.
Mid-infrared two-photon absorption in an extended-wavelength InGaAs photodetector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piccardo, Marco; Rubin, Noah A.; Meadowcroft, Lauren; Chevalier, Paul; Yuan, Henry; Kimchi, Joseph; Capasso, Federico
2018-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear optical response of a commercial extended-wavelength In0.81Ga0.19As uncooled photodetector. Degenerate two-photon absorption in the mid-infrared range is observed using a quantum cascade laser emitting at λ = 4.5 μm as the excitation source. From the measured two-photon photocurrent signal, we extract a two-photon absorption coefficient β(2) = 0.6 ± 0.2 cm/MW, in agreement with the theoretical value obtained from the Eg-3 scaling law. Considering the wide spectral range covered by extended-wavelength InxGa1-xAs alloys, this result holds promise for applications based on two-photon absorption for this family of materials at wavelengths between 1.8 and 5.6 μm.
Determination of sedimentation coefficients for small peptides.
Schuck, P; MacPhee, C E; Howlett, G J
1998-01-01
Direct fitting of sedimentation velocity data with numerical solutions of the Lamm equations has been exploited to obtain sedimentation coefficients for single solutes under conditions where solvent and solution plateaus are either not available or are transient. The calculated evolution was initialized with the first experimental scan and nonlinear regression was employed to obtain best-fit values for the sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. General properties of the Lamm equations as data analysis tools were examined. This method was applied to study a set of small peptides containing amphipathic heptad repeats with the general structure Ac-YS-(AKEAAKE)nGAR-NH2, n = 2, 3, or 4. Sedimentation velocity analysis indicated single sedimenting species with sedimentation coefficients (s(20,w) values) of 0.37, 0.45, and 0.52 S, respectively, in good agreement with sedimentation coefficients predicted by hydrodynamic theory. The described approach can be applied to synthetic boundary and conventional loading experiments, and can be extended to analyze sedimentation data for both large and small macromolecules in order to define shape, heterogeneity, and state of association. PMID:9449347
Sound absorption of metallic sound absorbers fabricated via the selective laser melting process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Li-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Chun; Kam, Tai-Yan
2017-01-01
The sound absorption capability of metallic sound absorbers fabricated using the additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) method is investigated via both the experimental and theoretical approaches. The metallic sound absorption structures composed of periodic cubic cells were made of laser-melted Ti6Al4 V powder. The acoustic impedance equations with different frequency-independent and frequency-dependent end corrections factors are employed to calculate the theoretical sound absorption coefficients of the metallic sound absorption structures. The calculated sound absorption coefficients are in close agreement with the experimental results for the frequencies ranging from 2 to 13 kHz.
Analytical scheme calculations of angular momentum coupling and recoupling coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deveikis, A.; Kuznecovas, A.
2007-03-01
We investigate the Scheme programming language opportunities to analytically calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Wigner 6j and 9j symbols, and general recoupling coefficients that are used in the quantum theory of angular momentum. The considered coefficients are calculated by a direct evaluation of the sum formulas. The calculation results for large values of quantum angular momenta were compared with analogous calculations with FORTRAN and Java programming languages.
Asymptotic coefficients for one-interacting-level Voigt profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cope, D.; Lovett, R. J.
1988-02-01
The asymptotic behavior of general Voigt profiles with general width and shift functions has been determined by Cope and Lovett (1987). The resulting asymptotic coefficients are functions of the perturber/radiator mass ratio; also, the coefficients for the one-interacting-level (OIL) profiles proposed by Ward et al. (1974) were studied. In this paper, the behavior of the OIL asymptotic coefficients for large mass ratio values is determined, thereby providing a complete picture of OIL asymptotics for all mass ratios.
High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard
1985-01-01
An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.
Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.
Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R
2011-02-01
The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra.
Procrustes Matching by Congruence Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Korth, Bruce; Tucker, L. R.
1976-01-01
Matching by Procrustes methods involves the transformation of one matrix to match with another. A special least squares criterion, the congruence coefficient, has advantages as a criterion for some factor analytic interpretations. A Procrustes method maximizing the congruence coefficient is given. (Author/JKS)
Sound absorption with green materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria
2017-07-01
Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.
Gyawali, Madhu; Arnott, W.; Zaveri, Rahul
We present the evolution of multispectral optical properties as urban aerosols aged and interacted with biogenic emissions resulting in stronger short wavelength absorption and formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols. Ground-based aerosol measurements were made during June 2010 within the Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Data on black carbon and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition were collected at both sites. In addition, photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers were used to measure spectral absorption and scattering coefficients for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 870more » nm. The daytime absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) indicated a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. From the 22nd to the 28th of June, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the median BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for 405 nm and 532 nm at T1 increased by ~23% and ~35%, respectively, compared to the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for the 870 nm wavelength were similar for both sites. These results suggest formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols in biogenically-influenced urban air.« less
Gyawali, Madhu; Arnott, W.; Zaveri, Rahul; ...
2017-11-13
We present the evolution of multispectral optical properties through urban aerosols that have aged and interacted with biogenic emissions, resulting in stronger short wavelength absorption and the formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols. Ground-based aerosol measurements were made in June 2010 within the Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Data on black carbon (BC) and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition were collected at both sites. In addition, photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers were used to measure spectral absorption and scattering coefficients for wavelengths rangingmore » from 355 to 870 nm. The daytime absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) indicated a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. From 22 to 28 June 2010, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites, which was due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the median BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for 405 nm and 532 nm at T1 increased by ~23% and ~35%, respectively, compared with the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for the 870 nm wavelength were similar for both sites. These results suggest the formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols in biogenically-influenced urban air.« less
Gyawali, Madhu; Arnott, W.; Zaveri, Rahul
We present the evolution of multispectral optical properties through urban aerosols that have aged and interacted with biogenic emissions, resulting in stronger short wavelength absorption and the formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols. Ground-based aerosol measurements were made in June 2010 within the Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Data on black carbon (BC) and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition were collected at both sites. In addition, photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers were used to measure spectral absorption and scattering coefficients for wavelengths rangingmore » from 355 to 870 nm. The daytime absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) indicated a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. From 22 to 28 June 2010, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites, which was due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the median BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for 405 nm and 532 nm at T1 increased by ~23% and ~35%, respectively, compared with the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for the 870 nm wavelength were similar for both sites. These results suggest the formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols in biogenically-influenced urban air.« less
Solar absorption surface panel
Santala, Teuvo J.
1978-01-01
A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.
CO2-broadening and shift coefficients in the ν3 and ν2 + (ν4 +ν5)+0 bands of acetylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyulin, O. M.; Petrova, T. M.; Solodov, A. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Perevalov, V. I.
2018-03-01
The absorption spectra of the mixture of C2H2 and CO2 at different partial pressures of both gases have been recorded at room temperature in the 3 μm region using the Bruker IFS 125 HR FTIR spectrometer. The multispectrum fitting procedure has been applied to these spectra to recover the broadening and shift parameters of the acetylene spectral lines. The CO2 broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for 119 lines of the ν3 and ν2 + (ν4 +ν5)+0 bands of acetylene have been derived. The rotational dependence of the values of these coefficients is discussed. The comparison of the obtained coefficients to those published by other authors for the ν1 + ν3 and (ν4 +ν5)+0 bands is performed.
Chantler, C T; Islam, M T; Rae, N A; Tran, C Q; Glover, J L; Barnea, Z
2012-03-01
An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.
An Investigation of the Sampling Distributions of Equating Coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Frank B.
1996-01-01
Using the characteristic curve method for dichotomously scored test items, the sampling distributions of equating coefficients were examined. Simulations indicate that for the equating conditions studied, the sampling distributions of the equating coefficients appear to have acceptable characteristics, suggesting confidence in the values obtained…
Biases and Standard Errors of Standardized Regression Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuan, Ke-Hai; Chan, Wai
2011-01-01
The paper obtains consistent standard errors (SE) and biases of order O(1/n) for the sample standardized regression coefficients with both random and given predictors. Analytical results indicate that the formulas for SEs given in popular text books are consistent only when the population value of the regression coefficient is zero. The sample…
Farrell, Tracy L; Poquet, Laure; Dew, Tristan P; Barber, Stuart; Williamson, Gary
2012-02-01
There is a considerable need to rationalize the membrane permeability and mechanism of transport for potential nutraceuticals. The aim of this investigation was to develop a theoretical permeability equation, based on a reported descriptive absorption model, enabling calculation of the transcellular component of absorption across Caco-2 monolayers. Published data for Caco-2 permeability of 30 drugs transported by the transcellular route were correlated with the descriptors 1-octanol/water distribution coefficient (log D, pH 7.4) and size, based on molecular mass. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to derive a set of model parameters a', β', and b' with an integrated molecular mass function. The new theoretical transcellular permeability (TTP) model obtained a good fit of the published data (R² = 0.93) and predicted reasonably well (R² = 0.86) the experimental apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for nine non-training set compounds reportedly transported by the transcellular route. For the first time, the TTP model was used to predict the absorption characteristics of six phenolic acids, and this original investigation was supported by in vitro Caco-2 cell mechanistic studies, which suggested that deviation of the P(app) value from the predicted transcellular permeability (P(app)(trans)) may be attributed to involvement of active uptake, efflux transporters, or paracellular flux.
Light Absorption of Stratospheric Aerosols: Long-Term Trend and Contribution by Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pueschel , R. F.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Measurements of aerosol light-absorption coefficients are useful for studies of radiative transfer and heating rates. Ogren appears to have published the first light- absorption coefficients in the stratosphere in 1981, followed by Clarke in 1983 and Pueschel in 1992. Because most stratospheric soot appears to be due to aircraft operations, application of an aircraft soot aerosol emission index to projected fuel consumption suggests a threefold increase of soot loading and light absorption by 2025. Together, those four data sets indicate an increase in mid-visible light extinction at a rate of 6 % per year. This trend is similar to the increase per year of sulfuric acid aerosol and of commercial fleet size. The proportionality between stepped-up aircraft operations above the tropopause and increases in stratospheric soot and sulfuric acid aerosol implicate aircraft as a source of stratospheric pollution. Because the strongly light-absorbing soot and the predominantly light-scattering sulfuric acid aerosol increase at similar rates, however, the mid-visible stratospheric aerosol single scatter albedo is expected to remain constant and not approach a critical value of 0.98 at which stratospheric cooling could change to warming.
Properties of seismic absorption induced reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Haixia; Gao, Jinghuai; Peng, Jigen
2018-05-01
Seismic reflections at an interface are often regarded as the variation of the acoustic impedance (product of seismic velocity and density) in a medium. In fact, they can also be generated due to the difference in absorption of the seismic energy. In this paper, we investigate the properties of such reflections. Based on the diffusive-viscous wave equation and elastic diffusive-viscous wave equation, we investigate the dependency of the reflection coefficients on frequency, and their variations with incident angles. Numerical results at a boundary due to absorption contrasts are compared with those resulted from acoustic impedance variation. It is found that, the reflection coefficients resulted from absorption depend significantly on the frequency especially at lower frequencies, but vary very slowly at small incident angles. At the higher frequencies, the reflection coefficients of diffusive-viscous wave and elastic diffusive-viscous wave are close to those of acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. On the other hand, the reflections caused by acoustic impedance variation are independent of frequency but vary distinctly with incident angles before the critical angle. We also investigate the difference between the seismograms generated in the two different media. The numerical results show that the amplitudes of these reflected waves are attenuated and their phases are shifted. However, the reflections obtained by acoustic impedance contrast, show no significant amplitude attenuation and phase shift.
Bilayered Hybrid Perovskite Ferroelectric with Giant Two-Photon Absorption.
Li, Lina; Shang, Xiaoying; Wang, Sasa; Dong, Ningning; Ji, Chengmin; Chen, Xueyuan; Zhao, Sangen; Wang, Jun; Sun, Zhihua; Hong, Maochun; Luo, Junhua
2018-06-06
Perovskite ferroelectrics with prominent nonlinear optical absorption have attracted great attention in the field of photonics. However, they are traditionally dominated by inorganic oxides and exhibit relatively small nonlinear optical absorption coefficients, which hinder their further applications. Herein, we report a new organic-inorganic hybrid bilayered perovskite ferroelectric, (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 (NH 2 CHNH 2 )Pb 2 Br 7 (1), showing an above-room-temperature Curie temperature (∼322 K) and notable spontaneous polarization (∼3.8 μC cm -2 ). Significantly, the unique quantum-well structure of 1 results in intriguing two-photon absorption properties with a giant nonlinear optical absorption coefficient as high as 5.76 × 10 3 cm GW -1 , which is almost two-orders of magnitude larger than those of mostly traditional all-inorganic perovskite ferroelectrics. To our best knowledge, 1 is the first example of hybrid ferroelectrics with giant two-photon absorption coefficient. The mechanisms for ferroelectric and two-photon absorption are revealed. This work will shed light on the design of new ferroelectrics with two-photon absorption and promote their potentials in the photonic application.
Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan
2018-05-01
Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.
Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Trapani, G; Franco, M; Ricci, M
2001-10-09
Clonazepam and lorazepam are two anxiolytics, antidepressant agents, having suitable features for transdermal delivery. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption of these drugs through excised human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis, SCE) and to determine their in vitro permeation behavior from a series of hydro-alcoholic gel formulations containing various enhancing agents. The best permeation profile was obtained for both drugs applying them together with Azone in combination with propylene glycol (PG): these enhancers were able to increase the clonazepam and lorazepam percutaneous fluxes at steady-state about threefold, compared to the free enhancer formulations (Control). To explain the mechanism of the used promoters, the benzodiazepine diffusion and partitioning coefficients from the gel containing the enhancers were calculated. The results indicated that the Azone in combination with PG could act by increasing the benzodiazepine diffusion coefficients, Transcutol increased only the SC/vehicle partition coefficients, limonene in combination with PG appeared to increase both partition and diffusion coefficients moderately, while PG did not increase both the parameters. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential application of tested benzodiazepine formulations containing Azone in combination with PG using the flux values from the in vitro experiments, the corresponding steady-state plasma concentrations (C(SS)) were calculated. The obtained calculated C(SS) values are within the lorazepam therapeutic range and suggest that transdermal delivery of this drug could be regarded as feasible.
Models of filter-based particle light absorption measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamasha, Khadeejeh M.
Light absorption by aerosol is very important in the visible, near UN, and near I.R region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have a great influence on the flux of solar energy, and also impact health in a negative sense when they are breathed into lungs. Aerosol absorption measurements are usually performed by filter-based methods that are derived from the change in light transmission through a filter where particles have been deposited. These methods suffer from interference between light-absorbing and light-scattering aerosol components. The Aethalometer is the most commonly used filter-based instrument for aerosol light absorption measurement. This dissertation describes new understanding of aerosol light absorption obtained by the filter method. The theory uses a multiple scattering model for the combination of filter and particle optics. The theory is evaluated using Aethalometer data from laboratory and ambient measurements in comparison with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption. Two models were developed to calculate aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data, and were compared to the in-situ aerosol light absorption coefficients. The first is an approximate model and the second is a "full" model. In the approximate model two extreme cases of aerosol optics were used to develop a model-based calibration scheme for the 7-wavelength Aethalometer. These cases include those of very strong scattering aerosols (Ammonium sulfate sample) and very absorbing aerosols (kerosene soot sample). The exponential behavior of light absorption in the strong multiple scattering limit is shown to be the square root of the total absorption optical depth rather than linear with optical depth as is commonly assumed with Beer's law. 2-stream radiative transfer theory was used to develop the full model to calculate the aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data. This comprehensive model
Optical Kerr effect and two-photon absorption in monolayer black phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margulis, Vl A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.
2018-05-01
A theoretical treatment of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption is presented for a novel two-dimensional material, monolayer black phosphorus (or phosphorene), irradiated by a normally incident and linearly polarized coherent laser beam of frequency ω. It is found that both the nonlinear refractive index n 2(ω) and the two-photon absorption coefficient α 2(ω) of phosphorene depend upon the polarization of the radiation field relative to phosphorene’s crystallographic axes. For the two principal polarization directions considered—viz, the armchair ({ \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C }) and zigzag ({ \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z }), the calculated values of n 2 and α 2 are distinguished by the order of their magnitude, with the n 2 and α 2 values being greater for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } direction. Furthermore, for almost all the incident photon energies below the fundamental absorption edge, except its neighborhood, the signs of n 2 as well as α 2 for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } and { \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z } polarization directions are opposed to each other. Also, for both the directions, the change of sign of n 2 is predicted to occur in the way between the two-photon absorption edge and the fundamental absorption edge, as well as in the near vicinity of the latter, where the Kerr nonlinearity has a pronounced resonant character and the magnitude of n 2 for the { \\mathcal A }{ \\mathcal C } and { \\mathcal Z }{ \\mathcal Z } polarization directions reaches its largest positive values of the order of 10‑9 and 10‑10 cm2 W‑1, respectively. The implications of the findings for practical all-optical switching applications are discussed.
Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles
Dao, Kim
1990-01-01
Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).
Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene
Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-08-25
We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less
Fulcher, Lewis P.; Scherer, Ronald C.; Anderson, Nicholas V.
2014-01-01
Pressure distributions were obtained for 5°, 10°, and 20° convergent angles with a static physical model (M5) of the glottis. Measurements were made for minimal glottal diameters from d = 0.005–0.32 cm with a range of transglottal pressures of interest for phonation. Entrance loss coefficients were calculated at the glottal entrance for each minimal diameter and transglottal pressure to measure how far the flows in this region deviate from Bernoulli flow. Exit coefficients were also calculated to determine the presence and magnitude of pressure recovery near the glottal exit. The entrance loss coefficients for the three convergent angles vary from values near 2.3–3.4 for d = 0.005 cm to values near 0.6 for d = 0.32 cm. These coefficients extend the tables of entrance loss and exit coefficients obtained for the uniform glottis according to Fulcher, Scherer, and Powell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1548–1553 (2011)]. PMID:25190404
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kartohardjono, Sutrasno; Alexander, Kevin; Larasati, Annisa; Sihombing, Ivander Christian
2018-03-01
Carbon dioxide is pollutant in natural gas that could reduce the heating value of the natural gas and cause problem in transportation due to corrosive to the pipeline. This study aims to evaluate the effects of feed gas flow rate on CO2 absorption through super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. Polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) solution was used as absorbent in this study, whilst the feed gas used in the experiment was a mixture of 30% CO2 and 70% CH4. There are three super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactors sized 6 cm and 25 cm in diameter and length used in this study, which consists of 1000, 3000 and 5000 fibers, respectively. The super hydrophobic fiber membrane used is polypropylene-based with outer and inner diameter of about 525 and 235 μm, respectively. In the experiments, the feed gas was sent through the shell side of the membrane contactor, whilst the absorbent solution was pumped through the lumen fibers. The experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient, flux, absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system and CO2 loading increased with the feed gas flow rate, but the absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system decreased. The mass transfer coefficient and the flux, at the same feed gas flow rate, decreased with the number of fibers in the membrane contactor, but the CO2 absorption efficiency and the CO2 loading increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.
2016-04-01
We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.
Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.
Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J
2017-09-01
Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.
Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A
2018-05-01
Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.
UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf
1994-01-01
Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin
2004-01-01
The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.
Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams
Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.
2012-01-01
Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/.
Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds.
Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis
2011-09-01
This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGee, Holly
1999-01-01
When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.
Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu
2009-10-01
We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.
Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn
2017-09-01
This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
The SASS scattering coefficient algorithm. [Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bracalente, E. M.; Grantham, W. L.; Boggs, D. H.; Sweet, J. L.
1980-01-01
This paper describes the algorithms used to convert engineering unit data obtained from the Seasat-A satellite scatterometer (SASS) to radar scattering coefficients and associated supporting parameters. A description is given of the instrument receiver and related processing used by the scatterometer to measure signal power backscattered from the earth's surface. The applicable radar equation used for determining scattering coefficient is derived. Sample results of SASS data processed through current algorithm development facility (ADF) scattering coefficient algorithms are presented which include scattering coefficient values for both water and land surfaces. Scattering coefficient signatures for these two surface types are seen to have distinctly different characteristics. Scattering coefficient measurements of the Amazon rain forest indicate the usefulness of this type of data as a stable calibration reference target.
Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide
Kavitha, M.K.; Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod
Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novelmore » precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.« less
Sabetghadam, Samaneh; Ahmadi-Givi, Farhang
2014-01-01
Light extinction, which is the extent of attenuation of light signal for every distance traveled by light in the absence of special weather conditions (e.g., fog and rain), can be expressed as the sum of scattering and absorption effects of aerosols. In this paper, diurnal and seasonal variations of the extinction coefficient are investigated for the urban areas of Tehran from 2007 to 2009. Cases of visibility impairment that were concurrent with reports of fog, mist, precipitation, or relative humidity above 90% are filtered. The mean value and standard deviation of daily extinction are 0.49 and 0.39 km(-1), respectively. The average is much higher than that in many other large cities in the world, indicating the rather poor air quality over Tehran. The extinction coefficient shows obvious diurnal variations in each season, with a peak in the morning that is more pronounced in the wintertime. Also, there is a very slight increasing trend in the annual variations of atmospheric extinction coefficient, which suggests that air quality has regressed since 2007. The horizontal extinction coefficient decreased from January to July in each year and then increased between July and December, with the maximum value in the winter. Diurnal variation of extinction is often associated with small values for low relative humidity (RH), but increases significantly at higher RH. Annual correlation analysis shows that there is a positive correlation between the extinction coefficient and RH, CO, PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentration, while negative correlation exists between the extinction and T, WS, and O3, implying their unfavorable impact on extinction variation. The extinction budget was derived from multiple regression equations using the regression coefficients. On average, 44% of the extinction is from suspended particles, 3% is from air molecules, about 5% is from NO2 absorption, 0.35% is from RH, and approximately 48% is unaccounted for, which may represent errors in the data as
Evaluation of generalized heat transfer coefficients in pilot AFBC units
Grewal, N.S.
Experimental data for heat transfer rates as obtained in a 0.209m/sup 2/ AFBC unit at the GFETC is examined in the light of the existing four correlations for heat transfer coefficient between an immersed staggered array of horizontal tubes and a gas-solid fluidized bed. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient from the correlations proposed by Grewal and Bansal are found to be in good agreement with the experimental values of heat transfer coefficient when the contribution due to radiation is also included.
Instrumentation and optimization of intra-cavity fiber laser gas absorption sensing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kun; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yimo
2011-11-01
Detection of pollution, inflammable, explosive gases such as methane, acetylene, carbon monoxide and so on is very important for many areas, such as environmental, mining and petrochemical industry. Intra-cavity gas absorption sensing technique (ICGAST) based on Erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) is one of novel methods for trace gas with higher precision. It has attracted considerable attention, and many research institutes focus on it. Instrumentation and optimization of ICGAST was reported in this paper. The system consists of five parts, which are variable gain module, intelligent frequency-selection module, gas cell, DAQ module and computer respectively. Variable gain module and intelligent frequency-selection module are combined to establish the intra-cavity of the ring laser. Gas cell is used as gas sensor. DAQ module is used to realize data acquisition synchronously. And gas demodulation is finished in the computer finally. The system was optimized by adjusting the sequence of the components. Take experimental simulation as an example, the absorptance of gas was increased five times after optimization, and the sensitivity enhancement factor can reach more than twenty. By using Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon, the absorption wavelength of the detected gas can be obtained, with error less than 20 pm. The spectra of the detected gas can be swept continuously to obtain several absorption lines in one loop. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to show the repeatability of gas concentration detection. And results of CV value can be less than 0.014.
Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, M.; Berthe, L.; Fabbro, R.; Muller, M.
2008-08-01
Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm-2 are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm-2. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.
Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.
1978-01-01
This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.
Loch, Christian; Zakelj, Simon; Kristl, Albin; Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne
2012-08-30
To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers (so-called Ussing chambers). Sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, choroidea-retina-complex and a complex of conjunctiva-sclera-choroidea-retina were excised from fresh porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes. In the porcine eye tissues the highest P(app) values were obtained for conjunctiva with the exception of lidocaine. Therefore, it can be estimated that a certain amount of drug diffuses or is transported through conjunctiva after application. The P(app) values for sclera were also higher than those for cornea and even more, the surface area of sclera which is available for drug absorption is much larger than that of cornea when applying an implant. The obtained permeability coefficients for sclera and conjunctiva indicate that the administration of periocular implants can be an alternative to topically applied formulations. The complexes of the tissues were a significantly (p<0.01) stronger barrier to the investigated substances than the separated tissues. Distinct differences in permeability coefficients between the investigated animal tissues were observed. Overall the highest P(app) values for all mounted tissues were obtained with the rabbit, followed by porcine and bovine eyes. Because of these distinct interspecies differences one must be very careful when selecting the proper animal model for the permeability experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multi-wavelength aerosol light absorption measurements in the Amazon rainforest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saturno, Jorge; Chi, Xuguang; Pöhlker, Christopher; Morán, Daniel; Ditas, Florian; Massabò, Dario; Prati, Paolo; Rizzo, Luciana; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat
2015-04-01
The most important light-absorbing aerosol is black carbon (BC), which is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. BC is considered the second anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Beyond BC, other aerosols like some organics, dust, and primary biological aerosol particles are able to absorb radiation. In contrast to BC, the light absorption coefficient of these aerosols is wavelength dependent. Therefore, multi-wavelength measurements become important in environments where BC is not the predominant light-absorbing aerosol like in the Amazon. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, one of the most pristine continental sites in the world during the wet season. In the dry season, winds coming from the southern hemisphere are loaded with biomass burning aerosol particles originated by farming-related deforestation. BC and aerosol number concentration data from the last two years indicate this is the most polluted period. Two different techniques have been implemented to measure the light absorption at different wavelengths; one of them is the 7-wavelengths Aethalometer, model AE30, an instrument that measures the light attenuation on a filter substrate and requires multiple scattering and filter-loading corrections to retrieve the light absorption coefficient. The other method is an offline technique, the Multi-Wavelength Absorbance Analysis (MWAA), which is able to measure reflectance and absorbance by aerosols collected on a filter and, by means of a radiative model, can retrieve the light absorption coefficient. Filters collected during May-September 2014, comprehending wet-to-dry transition and most of the dry season, were analyzed. The results indicate that the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE), a parameter that is directly proportional to the wavelength dependence of the aerosol light absorption, is close to 1.0 during the transition period and slightly decreases in the beginning of
Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
Grossman, Gershon
1984-01-01
The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.
Grossman, G.
1982-06-16
The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.
Sokolov, Denis A; Morozov, Yurii V; McDonald, Matthew P; Vietmeyer, Felix; Hodak, Jose H; Kuno, Masaru
2014-06-11
Laser reduction of graphene oxide (GO) offers unique opportunities for the rapid, nonchemical production of graphene. By tuning relevant reduction parameters, the band gap and conductivity of reduced GO can be precisely controlled. In situ monitoring of single layer GO reduction is therefore essential. In this report, we show the direct observation of laser-induced, single layer GO reduction through correlated changes to its absorption and emission. Absorption/emission movies illustrate the initial stages of single layer GO reduction, its transition to reduced-GO (rGO) as well as its subsequent decomposition upon prolonged laser illumination. These studies reveal GO's photoreduction life cycle and through it native GO/rGO absorption coefficients, their intrasheet distributions as well as their spatial heterogeneities. Extracted absorption coefficients for unreduced GO are α405 nm ≈ 6.5 ± 1.1 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 1.1 ± 0.3 × 10(4) cm(-1) while corresponding rGO α-values are α405 nm ≈ 21.6 ± 0.6 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 16.9 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 14.5 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1). More importantly, the correlated absorption/emission imaging provides us with unprecedented insight into GO's underlying photoreduction mechanism, given our ability to spatially resolve its kinetics and to connect local rate constants to activation energies. On a broader level, the developed absorption imaging is general and can be applied toward investigating the optical properties of other two-dimensional materials, especially those that are nonemissive and are invisible to current single molecule optical techniques.
Layer coefficients for NHDOT pavement materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janoo, Vincent C.
1994-09-01
In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on Interstate 93 between exits 18 and 19. The RSB test section was designed to the same structural number (SN) as the control. To evaluate the structural capacity of these test sections, the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted deflection tests using a Dynatest 8000 falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Preliminary analysis of the results by NHDOT personnel showed higher deflection in the reclaimed asphalt concrete test sections. The explanation was that the layer coefficient used for the RSB layer in the design was probably incorrect. A total of 10 test sections constituting the base course materials used by NHDOT were built near Bow, New Hampshire. CRREL evaluated and estimated the layer coefficients of the base course materials. The test program was developed to characterize the material in more than one way. Tests were conducted with the heavy weight deflectometer (HWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the Clegg hammer. In situ California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were also conducted. The deflection from the HWD were used with the WESDEF back calculation program to determine the layer moduli. The moduli were than used with the AASHTO Design Guide to calculate the layer coefficients. The layer coefficients were also determined with the method proposed by Rohde. The CBR values from the Clegg hammer, in situ CBR and DCP tests were also used in the relationships in the HDM model to determine the layer coefficients.
Solar selective absorption coatings
Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY
2004-08-31
A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.
Solar selective absorption coatings
Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY
2003-10-14
A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.
Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böke, Aysun
2014-09-01
The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of x<1 Å-1 and from the relativistic modified atomic form factors for values of x≥1 Å-1. With the inclusion of molecular interference effects in the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, more accurate knowledge of the scatter from these tissues will be provided. The number of elements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.
Ocular Absorption of Laser Radiation for Calculating Personnel Hazards
1974-11-30
radia- tion incident on the cell in the conventional spectrophotometers. Carbon Dioxide Laser Measurements: We were interested in obtaining some total...Measurements 19Carbon Dioxide Laser Measurements 20T REFERENCES 22 APPENDIX 1: Fluorescence of Ocular Media 43SAPPENDIX I1: Absorption of Water and...result that we can not get mean- ingful data when the absorption coefficient approaches 10 . In order to work in these more abosrbing regions, we must
The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Allan
2008-07-01
The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04-0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found.
Transport coefficients in ultrarelativistic kinetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambruş, Victor E.
2018-02-01
A spatially periodic longitudinal wave is considered in relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics. At sufficiently small wave amplitudes, an analytic solution is obtained in the linearized limit of the macroscopic conservation equations within the first- and second-order relativistic hydrodynamics formulations. A kinetic solver is used to obtain the numerical solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation for massless particles in the Anderson-Witting approximation for the collision term. It is found that, at small values of the Anderson-Witting relaxation time τ , the transport coefficients emerging from the relativistic Boltzmann equation agree with those predicted through the Chapman-Enskog procedure, while the relaxation times of the heat flux and shear pressure are equal to τ . These claims are further strengthened by considering a moment-type approximation based on orthogonal polynomials under which the Chapman-Enskog results for the transport coefficients are exactly recovered.
Ma, Guo; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Bao, Xingfei; Zhou, Ning; Shi, Qingling; Zheng, Yuanting; Liu, Hongrui; Bu, Fengjiao; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Wenjie; Wang, Fen; Zhu, Yizhun; Cai, Weimin
2015-04-01
1. As a potential new drug candidate for cardiovascular protection and antitumor treatment, the physicochemical properties, gastrointestinal (GI) absorption behaviors and mechanisms of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) were investigated in this study. 2. SPRC exhibited favorable solubility in aqueous media. The log P and log D values were low (≤1.93 ± 0.08). The pKa in the acidic and basic regions was 2.08 ± 0.02 and 8.72 ± 0.03, respectively. The isoelectric point was 5.40 ± 0.02. SPRC was stable in the rat GI fluids, and showed no obvious adsorption and metabolism in the rat GI tract. 3. SPRC displayed poor gastric absorption and favorable intestinal absorption in the rat in situ GI perfusion model. Absorption rate constants (ka), hourly absorption percentage (P) and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of SPRC in the small intestine were ≥0.77 ± 0.06 h(-1), 59.25 ± 4.02% and (7.99 ± 0.88) × 10(-5 )cm/s, respectively. Absorption of SPRC exhibited a certain dependence on physiological pH and absorption region. Absorption of SPRC was not inhibited by l-methionine and 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid. 4. SPRC showed favorable oral absorption. It can be categorized as a BCS class I drug. The membrane pore transport appeared to be one of the predominant absorption modes for SPRC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.
Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick
2000-01-01
We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, a(sub CDOM), and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values (r > 0.99) and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of a(sub CDOM) measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of a(sub CDOM) for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5/m. At low CDOM concentrations (a(sub 370) < 0.1/m) spectrophotometric a(sub CDOM) were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples. The maximum deviation in replicate MPLCW spectra was less than 0.001 absorbance units. The portability, sampling, and optical characteristics of a MPLCW system provide significant enhancements for routine CDOM absorption measurements in a broad range of natural waters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odabasi, Mustafa; Cetin, Eylem; Sofuoglu, Aysun
Octanol-air partition coefficients ( KOA) for 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined as a function of temperature using the gas chromatographic retention time method. log KOA values at 25° ranged over six orders of magnitude, between 6.34 (acenaphthylene) and 12.59 (dibenz[ a,h]anthracene). The determined KOA values were within factor of 0.7 (dibenz[ a,h]anthracene) to 15.1 (benz[ a]anthracene) of values calculated as the ratio of octanol-water partition coefficient to dimensionless Henry's law constant. Supercooled liquid vapor pressures ( PL) of 13 PAHs were also determined using the gas chromatographic retention time technique. Activity coefficients in