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Sample records for absorption cross-section spectra

  1. Quantitative comparisons of absorption cross-section spectra and integrated intensities of HFC-143a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; Graham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The integrated absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) differ substantially in the literature. This leads to an important uncertainty on the value of the radiative efficiency of this molecule. The ambiguity on the absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a is highlighted by the existence of two significantly different datasets in the HITRAN database. To solve the issue, we performed high-resolution Fourier transform infrared laboratory measurements of HFC-13a and compared the spectra with the two HITRAN datasets and with the data from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The experimental methods and data analysis techniques are examined and typical sources of errors are discussed. The integrated intensities of the main bands are compared to other literature values. It was found that the integrated absorption cross-section values in the highest range - around 13.8 ×10-17 cm .molecule-1 in the 570-1500 cm-1 spectral band - show the most consistency between authors.

  2. Orthogonal spectra and cross sections: Application to optimization of multi-spectral absorption and fluorescence lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Shokair, I.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the problem of selection of lidar parameters, namely wavelengths for absorption lidar and excitation fluorescence pairs for fluorescence lidar, for optimal detection of species. Orthogonal spectra and cross sections are used as mathematical representations which provide a quantitative measure of species distinguishability in mixtures. Using these quantities, a simple expression for the absolute error in calculated species concentration is derived and optimization is accomplished by variation of lidar parameters to minimize this error. It is shown that the optimum number of wavelengths for detection of a species using absorption lidar (excitation fluorescence pairs for fluorescence lidar) is the same as the number of species in the mixture. Each species present in the mixture has its own set of optimum wavelengths. There is usually some overlap in these sets. The optimization method is applied to two examples, one using absorption and the other using fluorescence lidar, for analyzing mixtures of four organic compounds. The effect of atmospheric attenuation is included in the optimization process. Although the number of optimum wavelengths might be small, it is essential to do large numbers of measurements at these wavelengths in order to maximize canceling of statistical errors.

  3. Infrared absorption cross sections for trifluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2013-11-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for trifluoromethane have been determined over the range 950-1500 cm-1 from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26-cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of trifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD) at a number of temperatures and pressures (23-762 Torr and 188-294 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using composite trifluoromethane spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database.

  4. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: new ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section.

    PubMed

    Sellberg, Jonas A; Kaya, Sarp; Segtnan, Vegard H; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2014-07-21

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF2(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in spectral intensity between 544 and 548 eV and high-symmetry points in the electronic band structure, suggesting a more extended hydrogen-bond network as compared to ices prepared differently. The spectral differences for various ice preparations are compared to the temperature dependence of spectra of liquid water upon supercooling. A double-peak feature in the absorption cross-section between 540 and 543 eV is identified as a characteristic of the crystalline phase. The connection to the interpretation of the liquid phase O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum is extensively discussed.

  5. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: New ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Sellberg, Jonas A.; Nilsson, Anders; Kaya, Sarp; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2014-07-21

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF{sub 2}(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in spectral intensity between 544 and 548 eV and high-symmetry points in the electronic band structure, suggesting a more extended hydrogen-bond network as compared to ices prepared differently. The spectral differences for various ice preparations are compared to the temperature dependence of spectra of liquid water upon supercooling. A double-peak feature in the absorption cross-section between 540 and 543 eV is identified as a characteristic of the crystalline phase. The connection to the interpretation of the liquid phase O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum is extensively discussed.

  6. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  7. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  8. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  9. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  10. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Daniel H. Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  11. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  12. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  13. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  14. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 Kmore » in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.« less

  15. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  16. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  17. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  18. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  19. Chirality Dependence of the Absorption Cross Section of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialla, Fabien; Roquelet, Cyrielle; Langlois, Benjamin; Delport, Géraud; Santos, Silvia Morim; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Roussignol, Philippe; Delalande, Claude; Voisin, Christophe; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-09-01

    The variation of the optical absorption of carbon nanotubes with their geometry has been a long-standing question at the heart of both metrological and applicative issues, in particular because optical spectroscopy is one of the primary tools for the assessment of the chiral species abundance of samples. Here, we tackle the chirality dependence of the optical absorption with an original method involving ultraefficient energy transfer in porphyrin-nanotube compounds that allows uniform photoexcitation of all chiral species. We measure the absolute absorption cross section of a wide range of semiconducting nanotubes at their S22 transition and show that it varies by up to a factor of 2.2 with the chiral angle, with type I nanotubes showing a larger absorption. In contrast, the luminescence quantum yield remains almost constant.

  20. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of ozone have been measured in the wavelength range 185-350 nm and in the temperature range 225-298 K. The absolute ozone concentrations were established by measuring the pressure of pure gaseous samples in the 0.08to 300-torr range, and the UV spectra were recorded under conditions where less than 1 percent of the sample decomposed. The temperature dependence is significant for wavelengths longer than about 280 nm. The absorption cross-section values around 210 nm were found to be about 10 percent larger than the previously accepted values.

  1. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Buzan, Eric; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 μm have been obtained for ethane, C2H6. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm-1. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C2H6 cross sections at elevated temperatures.

  2. Absorption cross-sections of sodium diatomic molecules. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Zeng-Shevan

    1985-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of sodium dimers were studied using a heat pipe over operating in the non-heat-pipe mode. Three wavelength regions were observed. They are in the red, the green-blue, and the near ultraviolet regions. The absorption cross section depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Representative peak values for the v"=0 progression in the red and green-blue regions are 2.59 A sup 2 (average value) and 11.77 A sup 2 (T sub ave=624 K). The value for the C greater than X transitions is several tenths A sup 2. The cross sections were measured from absorption spectra taken as a function of temperature.

  3. Effect of pressure broadening on molecular absorption cross sections in exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Christina; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric compositions. However, molecular abundances derived from spectra are degenerate with the absorption cross-sections which form critical input data in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in molecular cross-sections to reliably estimate the uncertainties in derived molecular abundances. However, converting line lists into cross-sections via line broadening involves a series of prescriptions for which the uncertainties are not well understood. We investigate and quantify the effects of various factors involved in line broadening in exoplanetary atmospheres - the profile evaluation width, pressure versus thermal broadening, broadening agent, spectral resolution and completeness of broadening parameters - on molecular absorption cross-sections. We use H2O as a case study as it has the most complete absorption line data. For low-resolution spectra (R ≲ 100) for representative temperatures and pressures (T ˜ 500-3000 K, P ≲ 1 atm) of H2-rich exoplanetary atmospheres, we find the median difference in cross-sections (δ) introduced by various aspects of pressure broadening to be ≲1 per cent. For medium resolutions (R ≲ 5000), including those attainable with James Webb Space Telescope, we find that δ can be up to 40 per cent. For high resolutions (R ˜ 105), δ can be ≳100 per cent, reaching ≳1000 per cent for low temperatures (T ≲ 500 K) and high pressures (P ≳ 1 atm). The effect is higher still for self-broadening. We generate a homogeneous data base of absorption cross-sections of molecules of relevance to exoplanetary atmospheres for which high-temperature line lists are available, particularly H2O, CO, CH4, CO2, HCN, and NH3.

  4. Cross section for absorption of partly shielded dielectric sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, S. S.; Sulima, A. V.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of an ideally conducting spherical metal cup, as a shield, on the microwave absorption characteristics of a dielectric sphere is evaluated on the basis of the known solution to the diffraction problem for a plane electromagnetic wave propagating along the axis of cup and sphere. The Debye electric and magnetic potentials are calculated for the shielded segment of the sphere and for the unshielded remainder of the dielectric sphere, the cup lying either on the front surface or the back surface of the sphere. The problem reduces to two coupled systems of linear algebraic equations of the second kind. The cross section for absorption, equal to the difference between total incident energy flux and scattered energy flux in accordance with power balance or conservation of diffraction energy, has been calculated as a function of kb (k- wave number in free space, b- radius of cup base circle). Numerical results indicate that within the resonance range (b- wavelength of incident radiation) correction must be made to include quasi-natural modes of the shield. A narrow shield behind the sphere increases the overall absorption level in the latter, while a narrow shield before the sphere has almost no effect on the absorption.

  5. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  6. Temperature dependent measurement of absorption and emission cross sections for various Yb3+ doped laser materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, J.; Hein, J.; Kahle, M.; Liebetrau, H.; Lenski, M.; Kaluza, M.; Loeser, M.; Siebold, M.

    2011-06-01

    For laser performance simulations, optical properties of applied active materials have to be exactly known. Here we report on temperature dependent emission and absorption cross section measurements for Yb:YAG, Yb:CaF2 and Yb:FP15-glass. The temperature of the samples was aligned in steps of 20 K between 100 K and room temperature with a liquid nitrogen driven cryostat. Absorption spectra were obtained with a fiber coupled white light source and fluorescence spectra by excitation with a fiber coupled 10W laser diode at 970 nm. All spectral measurements were performed with a scanning spectrum analyzer, providing a spectral resolution down to 0.05 nm. By applying the McCumber relation in combination with the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg method, we were able to obtain a valid emission cross section over the whole range of interest from the measured data.

  7. Modeling of gas absorption cross sections by use of principal-component-analysis model parameters.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jimmy

    2002-05-20

    Monitoring the amount of gaseous species in the atmosphere and exhaust gases by remote infrared spectroscopic methods calls for the use of a compilation of spectral data, which can be used to match spectra measured in a practical application. Model spectra are based on time-consuming line-by-line calculations of absorption cross sections in databases by use of temperature as input combined with path length and partial and total pressure. It is demonstrated that principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to compress the spectrum of absorption cross sections, which depend strongly on temperature, into a reduced representation of score values and loading vectors. The temperature range from 300 to 1000 K is studied. This range is divided into two subranges (300-650 K and 650-1000K), and separate PCA models are constructed for each. The relationship between the scores and the temperature values is highly nonlinear. It is shown, however, that because the score-temperature relationships are smooth and continuous, they can be modeled by polynomials of varying degrees. The accuracy of the data compression method is validated with line-by-line-calculated absorption data of carbon monoxide and water vapor. Relative deviations between the absorption cross sections reconstructed from the PCA model parameters and the line-by-line-calculated values are found to be smaller than 0.15% for cross sections exceeding 1.27 x 10(-21) cm(-1) atm(-1) (CO) and 0.20% for cross sections exceeding 4.03 x 10(-21) cm(-1) atm(-1) (H2O). The computing time is reduced by a factor of 10(4). PMID:12027171

  8. Infrared absorption cross sections for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane have been determined over the spectral range 750-1600 cm-1 from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26-cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD) at a number of temperatures and pressures (22-761 Torr and 191-296 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using composite 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. This cross section dataset is intended to replace what is currently available in the HITRAN/GEISA databases.

  9. Measurements of the infrared absorption cross-sections of HCFC-141b (CH3CFCl2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; McDowell, James; Strong, Kimberly

    2012-10-01

    Detection of atmospheric trace gases by optical remote sensing techniques relies on the availability of molecular absorption spectra over a range of relevant temperatures. Absorption cross-sections of a pure vapour of the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-141b are reported at a resolution of 0.02 cm-1 for a range of temperatures between 223 and 283 K and a spectral range of 570-3100 cm-1. The integrated intensities of the nine main harmonic bands compare well with the data available from previous experimental studies and with theoretical calculations by ab initio and density functional theories.

  10. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-11-19

    The OH- and O3- initiated oxidations of isoprene, which is one of the primary volatile organic compounds produced by vegetation, are a major source of atmospheric formaldehyde and other oxygenated organics, yet little quantitative IR data exists for isoprene. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600 - 6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in a 19.96 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker 66V FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven pressures at each temperature.

  11. Absorption Cross Sections of Hot Hydrocarbons in the 3 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Buzan, Eric M.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-06-01

    The 3 μm region of ethane, propane and propene contains a number of vibrational modes dominated by various C-H stretches. Transmission spectra for these hydrocarbons have been obtained at high resolution (0.005 wn) and at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K). The integrated absorption cross sections over the isolated 3 μm region are calibrated to those from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in order to obtain an effective pressure for the sample. With the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM on Juno) due to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, these cross sections will find use in the study of hot emission from hydrocarbons in the auroral regions of Jupiter. They are also appropriate for modeling atmospheres of hot Jupiter exoplanets and brown dwarfs.

  12. Fine structure of inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra for MN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshin, A. S.; Igumenov, A. Yu; Mikhlin, Yu L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Zhigalov, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The comparative analysis of the reflection electron energy loss spectra and the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra for Mn was carried out. It is shown that inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have certain advantages in the study of the interaction of electrons with the substance as compared to the electron energy loss spectra. The inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra fine structure was analysed by fitting the experimental spectra using the 3 parameters Lorentzian-type formula of Tougaard. This method was used for the quantitative analysis of the contributions of various loss processes in the inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra, determination of the loss peaks energies and origin.

  13. Comparative analysis of characteristic electron energy loss spectra and inelastic scattering cross-section spectra of Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshin, A. S.; Igumenov, A. Yu.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Zhigalov, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    The inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra of Fe have been calculated based on experimental spectra of characteristic reflection electron energy loss as dependences of the product of the inelastic mean free path by the differential inelastic electron scattering cross section on the electron energy loss. It has been shown that the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have certain advantages over the electron energy loss spectra in the analysis of the interaction of electrons with substance. The peaks of energy loss in the spectra of characteristic electron energy loss and inelastic electron scattering cross sections have been determined from the integral and differential spectra. It has been shown that the energy of the bulk plasmon is practically independent of the energy of primary electrons in the characteristic electron energy loss spectra and monotonically increases with increasing energy of primary electrons in the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra. The variation in the maximum energy of the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra is caused by the redistribution of intensities over the peaks of losses due to various excitations. The inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have been analyzed using the decomposition of the spectra into peaks of the energy loss. This method has been used for the quantitative estimation of the contributions from different energy loss processes to the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra of Fe and for the determination of the nature of the energy loss peaks.

  14. Microscopic optical model calculations of 4He, 12C-nucleus absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, R. R.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of absorption cross sections using a microscopic first-order optical potential for heavy-ion scattering are compared with experiments. In-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections were used to calculate the two-body scattering amplitude. A medium-modified first-order optical potential was obtained for heavy-ion scattering using the in-medium two-body scattering amplitude. A partial wave expansion of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in momentum space was used to calculate the absorption cross sections for various systems. The results are presented for the absorption cross sections for 4He-nucleus and 12C-nucleus scattering systems and are compared with the experimental values in the energy range 18-83A MeV. The use of the in-medium NN cross sections is found to result in significant reduction of the free space absorption cross sections in agreement with experiment.

  15. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  16. Nucleon-nucleus interaction data base: Total nuclear and absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Buck, W. W.; Chun, S. Y.; Hong, B. S.; Lamkin, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections are represented for Li to Pu targets at energies above 0.1 MeV and less than 100 MeV using a modified nuclear Ramsauer formalism. The formalism is derived for energies above 100 MeV by fitting theoretical cross sections. Neutron absorption cross sections are represented by analytic expressions of similar form, but shape resonance phenomena of the Ramsauer effect is not present. Elastic differential cross sections are given as a renormalized impulse approximation. These cross section data bases are useful for nucleon transport applications.

  17. Measurements of the Ultraviolet Fluorescence Cross Sections and Spectra of Bacillus Anthracis Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.R.

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of the ultraviolet autofluorescence spectra and absolute cross sections of the Bacillus anthracis (Ba) simulants Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and Bacillus cereus (Bc) were measured. Fluorescence spectra and cross sections of pine pollen (Pina echinata) were measured for comparison. Both dried vegetative cells and spores separated from the sporulated vegetative material were studied. The spectra were obtained by suspending a small number (<10) of particles in air in our Single Particle Spectroscopy Apparatus (SPSA), illuminating the particles with light from a spectrally filtered arc lamp, and measuring the fluorescence spectra of the particles. The illumination was 280 nm (20 nm FWHM) and the fluorescence spectra was measured between 300 and 450 nm. The fluorescence cross section of vegetative Bg peaks at 320 nm with a maximum cross section of 5 X 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle while the Bg spore fluorescence peaks at 310 nm with peak fluorescence of 8 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Pine pollen particles showed a higher fluorescence peaking at 355 nm with a cross section of 1.7 X 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Integrated cross sections ranged from 3.0 X 10{sup -13} for the Bg spores through 2.25 X 10{sup -12} (cm{sup 2}/sr-particle) for the vegetative cells.

  18. New and improved infrared absorption cross sections for chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2016-06-01

    The most widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) commercially since the 1930s has been chloro-difluoromethane, or HCFC-22, which has the undesirable effect of depleting stratospheric ozone. As this molecule is currently being phased out under the Montreal Protocol, monitoring its concentration profiles using infrared sounders crucially requires accurate laboratory spectroscopic data. This work describes new high-resolution infrared absorption cross sections of chlorodifluoromethane over the spectral range 730-1380 cm-1, determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26 cm pathlength cell. Spectra of chlorodifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at resolutions between 0.01 and 0.03 cm-1 (calculated as 0.9/MOPD; MOPD denotes the maximum optical path difference) over a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-762 Torr and 191-295 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission) and GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques) databases; in particular it provides coverage over a wider range of pressures and temperatures, has more accurate wavenumber scales, more consistent integrated band intensities, improved signal-to-noise, is free of channel fringing, and additionally covers the ν2 and ν7 bands.

  19. New and improved infrared absorption cross sections for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Despite its widespread commercial use throughout the twentieth century, primarily in the refrigeration industry, dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) is now known to have the undesirable effect of depleting stratospheric ozone. As this long-lived molecule slowly degrades in the atmosphere, monitoring its vertical concentration profile using infrared sounders on satellite platforms crucially requires accurate laboratory spectroscopic data. This work describes new high-resolution infrared absorption cross sections of dichlorodifluoromethane over the spectral range 800-1270 cm-1, determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26 cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of dichlorodifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at resolutions between 0.01 and 0.03 cm-1 (calculated as 0.9/MOPD; MOPD = maximum optical path difference) over a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-761 Torr and 190-294 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases.

  20. New and improved infrared absorption cross sections for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    Despite its widespread commercial use throughout the twentieth century, primarily in the refrigeration industry, dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) is now known to have the undesirable effect of depleting stratospheric ozone. As this long-lived molecule slowly degrades in the atmosphere, monitoring its vertical concentration profile using infrared sounders on satellite platforms crucially requires accurate laboratory spectroscopic data. This work describes new high-resolution infrared absorption cross sections of dichlorodifluoromethane over the spectral range 800-1270 cm-1, determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26 cm pathlength cell. Spectra of dichlorodifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at resolutions between 0.01 and 0.03 cm-1 (calculated as 0.9/MOPD; MOPD = maximum optical path difference) over a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-761 Torr and 190-294 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases.

  1. Optical Absorption Cross Section of Individual Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Visible Region.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Shahzad, Nadia; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the optical absorption cross section for visible radiation of various types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having different dimensions through macroscopic optical measurements. This is achieved by dispersing MWCNTs in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and preparing composite films. Different percentages (0.0% to 1.5%) of each MWCNTs type were mixed into the PDMS matrix using high speed mechanical stirring (~1000 rpm) and ultrasonication (~37 kHz) to reach optimal dispersion. By using doctor blading technique, 100 µm thick uniform films were produced on glass. They were then thermally cured and detached from the glass to get flexible and self-standing films. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis of cryo-fractured composite samples was used to check the dispersion of MWCNTs in PDMS, while Raman spectroscopy and FTIR were employed to rule out possible structural changes of the polymer in the composite that would have altered its optical properties. Total and specular reflection and transmission spectra were measured for all films. The absorption coefficient, which represents the fractional absorption per unit length and is proportional to the concentration of absorbing sites (i.e., MWCNTs at photon energies upon which PDMS is non-absorbing), was extracted. For each MWCNTs type, the absorption cross section of an individual MWCNT was obtained from the slope of absorption coefficient versus MWCNTs number density curve. It was found to be related with MWCNT volume. This method can be applied to all other nanoparticles as far as they can be dispersed in a host transparent matrix. PMID:27398474

  2. Nonadiabatic calculations of ultraviolet absorption cross section of sulfur monoxide: Isotopic effects on the photodissociation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Danielache, Sebastian O.; Tomoya, Suzuki; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Kondorsky, Alexey; Tokue, Ikuo

    2014-01-28

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted sulfur monoxide (SO) isotopologues were calculated using R-Matrix expansion technique. Energies, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated at MRCI/AV6Z level. The calculated absorption cross section of {sup 32}S{sup 16}O was compared with experimental spectrum; the spectral feature and the absolute value of photoabsorption cross sections are in good agreement. Our calculation predicts a long lived photoexcited SO* species which causes large non-mass dependent isotopic effects depending on the excitation energy in the ultraviolet region.

  3. Gas-phase absorption cross sections of 24 monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the UV and IR spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzkorn, Thomas; Klotz, Björn; Sørensen, Søren; Patroescu, Iulia V.; Barnes, Ian; Becker, Karl H.; Platt, Ulrich

    Absorption cross sections of 24 volatile and non-volatile derivatives of benzene in the ultraviolet (UV) and the infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum have been determined using a 1080 l quartz cell. For the UV a 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrometer coupled with a photodiode array detector (spectral resolution 0.15 nm) was used. IR spectra were recorded with an FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker IFS-88, spectral resolution 1 cm -1). Absolute absorption cross sections and the instrument function are given for the UV, while for the IR, absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities are reported. The study focused primarily on the atmospherically relevant methylated benzenes (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene) and their ring retaining oxidation products (benzaldehyde, o-tolualdehyde, m-tolualdehyde, p-tolualdehyde, phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, 2,3-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,5-dimethylphenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3,4-dimethylphenol, 3,5-dimethylphenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and ( E,Z)- and ( E,E)-2,4-hexadienedial). The UV absorption cross sections reported here can be used for the evaluation of DOAS spectra (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) for measurements of the above compounds in the atmosphere and in reaction chambers, while the IR absorption cross sections will primarily be useful in laboratory studies on atmospheric chemistry, where FT-IR spectrometry is an important tool.

  4. Measurements of the mass absorption cross section of atmospheric soot particles using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Müller, K.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-11-01

    Soot particles are a major absorber of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. The mass absorption cross section is an essential quantity to describe this light absorption process. This work presents new experimental data on the mass absorption cross section of soot particles in the troposphere over Central Europe. Mass absorption cross sections were derived as the ratio between the light absorption coefficient determined by multiangle absorption photometry (MAAP) and the soot mass concentration determined by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman method is sensitive to graphitic structures present in the particle samples and was calibrated in the laboratory using Printex®90 model particles. Mass absorption cross sections were determined for a number of seven observation sites, ranging between 3.9 and 7.4 m2 g-1depending on measurement site and observational period. The highest values were found in a continentally aged air mass in winter, where soot particles were assumed to be mainly internally mixed. Our values are in the lower range of previously reported values, possibly due to instrumental differences to the former photometer and mass measurements. Overall, a value of 5.3m2 g-1from orthogonal regression over all samples is considered to be representative for the soot mass absorption cross section in the troposphere over Central Europe.

  5. UV absorption cross-sections of phenol and naphthalene at temperatures up to 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, H.; Sárossy, Z.; Egsgaard, H.; Fateev, A.

    2015-05-01

    Absorption cross-sections and their temperature dependency, especially in the UV spectral range, of organic compounds such as phenol and naphthalene are of great interest in atmospheric research and high temperature processes. Due to the challenges of producing premixed gases of known concentration, it is difficult to determine absorption cross-sections in experiments, especially at higher temperatures. In this paper, a gas flow of nitrogen with a stable but unknown concentration of phenol or naphthalene is produced, and their UV absorption spectra between 195 and 350 nm have been measured at higher resolution than before (0.019 nm) in a hot gas flow cell at temperatures of up to 500 °C/773 K. A Petersen column is used to sample the organic compounds in the gas mixture to determine their concentration by GC-MS. The absorption cross-sections are calculated with the use of the Lambert-Beer law. Consequently, the absorption cross-sections for phenol and naphthalene at room temperature, 423 K, 573 K and 773 K in the range of 195-360 nm are presented in this study.

  6. Experimental determination of single CdSe nanowire absorption cross sections through photothermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jay; Syed, Muhammad; Banning, Michael T; Kuno, Masaru; Hartland, Greg

    2010-01-26

    Absorption cross sections ((sigma)abs) of single branched CdSe nanowires (NWs) have been measured by photothermal heterodyne imaging (PHI). Specifically, PHI signals from isolated gold nanoparticles (NPs) with known cross sections were compared to those of individual CdSe NWs excited at 532 nm. This allowed us to determine average NW absorption cross sections at 532 nm of (sigma)abs = (3.17 +/- 0.44) x 10(-11) cm2/microm (standard error reported). This agrees well with a theoretical value obtained using a classical electromagnetic analysis ((sigma)abs = 5.00 x 10(-11) cm2/microm) and also with prior ensemble estimates. Furthermore, NWs exhibit significant absorption polarization sensitivities consistent with prior NW excitation polarization anisotropy measurements. This has enabled additional estimates of the absorption cross section parallel ((sigma)abs) and perpendicular ((sigma)abs(perpendicular) to the NW growth axis, as well as the corresponding NW absorption anisotropy ((rho)abs). Resulting values of (sigma)abs = (5.6 +/- 1.1) x 10(-11) cm2/microm, (sigma)abs(perpendicular) = (1.26 +/- 0.21) x 10(-11) cm2/microm, and (rho)abs = 0.63+/- 0.04 (standard errors reported) are again in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These measurements all indicate sizable NW absorption cross sections and ultimately suggest the possibility of future direct single NW absorption studies.

  7. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  8. ABSORPTION CROSS SECTION OF GASEOUS ACETYLENE AT 85 K IN THE WAVELENGTH RANGE 110-155 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Bing-Ming; Chen, Hui-Fen; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hong-Kai; Alam, M. S.; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh

    2011-09-01

    Absorption spectra and absorption cross sections of gaseous acetylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, at 298 and 85 K were measured in the wavelength range 110-155 nm with a slit-jet system coupled to a synchrotron as a source of vacuum ultraviolet light. Using published spectral parameters of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, we simulated the absorption profile for the Rydberg transition to state 4R{sub 0} in the range 124.6-125.1 nm, according to which the temperature of the jet-expanded sample at stagnation pressure 200 Torr is 85 {+-} 5 K. Our cross sections of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} are applicable for determining properties sensitive to temperature for diagnostic work on Saturn and Titan.

  9. Absorption cross sections of some atmospheric molecules for resonantly scattered O I 1304-A radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Absorption cross sections for O2, N2, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO have been measured at each of the lines of the atomic oxygen triplet at 1302, 1305, and 1306 A. Radiation resonantly scattered from oxygen atoms at a temperature of about 300 K was used for the line source. Absorber temperatures were also near 300 K. Direct application of the Lambert-Beer absorption equation yielded pressure-dependent cross sections for carbon monoxide at each line of the O I triplet. Reasons for this apparent dependence are presented and discussed.

  10. Relative high-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Appadoo, D. R. T.

    2015-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used to record absorption cross sections of ethane, C2H6, in the far-infrared with very high spectral resolution (up to 0.00096 cm-1). C2H6 is present in the atmospheres of the Gas Giant planets and Titan but the vapor pressure at relevant atmospheric temperatures (i.e., between 70 and 200 K) is low. This makes laboratory measurements difficult. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique "enclosive flow" cold cell, located at the Australian Synchrotron, that enables high-resolution absorption cross sections of gaseous C2H6 to be recorded at 90 K.

  11. Temperature- and pressure-dependent absorption cross sections of gaseous hydrocarbons at 3.39 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, A. E.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2006-07-01

    The pressure- and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of several neat hydrocarbons and multi-component fuels are measured using a 3.39 µm helium-neon laser. Absorption cross section measurements are reported for methane, ethylene, propane, n-heptane, iso-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane, JP-10, gasoline and jet-A with an estimated uncertainty of less than 3.5%. The experimental conditions range from 298 to 673 K and from 500 to 2000 Torr with nitrogen as the bath gas. An apparatus is designed to facilitate these measurements, and specific care is taken to ensure the compositional accuracy of the hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures. The absorption cross sections of the smallest hydrocarbons, methane and ethylene, vary with temperature and pressure. The cross sections of larger hydrocarbons show negligible dependence on pressure and only a weak dependence on temperature. The reported data increase the range of conditions and the number of hydrocarbons for which cross section measurements are available at the HeNe laser wavelength.

  12. OH reaction rate constants and UV absorption cross-sections of unsaturated esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruel, M. A.; Lane, S. I.; Mellouki, A.; Solignac, G.; Le Bras, G.

    Absolute rate coefficients have been determined for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with methyl acrylate ( k1), methyl methacrylate ( k2) and ethyl acrylate ( k3). Experiments were performed using two different techniques, the relative rate method and the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. The kinetic data obtained were used to derive the following Arrhenius expressions in the temperature range 253-374 K (in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1): k1=(2.0±0.8)×10exp[(553±51)/T], k2=(2.5±0.8)×10exp[(821±55)/T], k3=(2.3±0.8)×10exp[(580±65)/T]. At 298 K, the reaction rate constants obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. In addition, the UV absorption spectra for the three unsaturated esters have been determined at (298±2) K and the absorption cross-sections in the wavelength region 215-298 nm were reported. The results are presented, discussed and used to estimate the atmospheric lifetimes for the studied esters.

  13. New High-Resolution Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of HCFC-142B in the Mid-Ir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly; Melo, Stella

    2009-06-01

    HCFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) is a temporary substitute for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). However, due to its high absorption cross-sections in the mid-IR, HCFC-142b is also a highly potent greenhouse gas, now detectable from space by satellite missions. So far, the accuracy of the retrieval has been limited by the lack of reference data in a range of temperatures compatible with atmospheric observations. We present new absorption cross section measurements of HCFC-142b at high-resolution (0.02 cm^{-1}) from 223 K to 283 K in the 600 cm^{-1}- 4000 cm^{-1} spectral window. The composite spectra are calculated for each temperature from a set of acquisitions at different pressures by Fourier transform spectroscopy.

  14. Energy-absorption capability and scalability of square cross section composite tube specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Static crushing tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy square cross section tubes to study the influence of specimen geometry on the energy-absorption capability and scalability of composite materials. The tube inside width-to-wall thickness (W/t) ratio was determined to significantly affect the energy-absorption capability of composite materials. As W/t ratio decreases, the energy-absorption capability increases nonlinearly. The energy-absorption capability of Kevlar epoxy tubes was found to be geometrically scalable, but the energy-absorption capability of graphite/epoxy tubes was not geometrically scalable.

  15. Cross section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and emission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerjuoy, E.

    1974-01-01

    Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.

  16. Measurement of Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of Metal Ions by a Mass Sedimentation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhuo-Chen; Chen, Qi-Dai; Han, Bing; Liu, Xue-Qing; Song, Jun-Feng; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The photo-reduction of metal ions in solution induced by femtosecond laser is an important and novel method for fabricating three-dimensional metal microstructures. However, the nonlinear absorption cross section of metal ions remains unknown because its measurement is difficult. In the present study, a method based on Two-Photon Excited Sedimentation (TPES) is proposed to measure the two-photon absorption cross section (TPACS) of metal ions in solution. The power-squared dependence of the amount of sediment on the excitation intensity was confirmed, revealing that 800 nm femtosecond laser induced reduction of metal ions was a two photon absorption process. We believe that the proposed method may be applied to measure the TPACS of several metal ions, thereby opening a new avenue towards future analysis of two-photon absorption materials. PMID:26657990

  17. Uncertainty budgets of major ozone absorption cross sections used in UV remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Mark; Gorshelev, Victor; Serdyuchenko, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Detailed uncertainty budgets of three major ultraviolet (UV) ozone absorption cross-section datasets that are used in remote sensing application are provided and discussed. The datasets are Bass-Paur (BP), Brion-Daumont-Malicet (BDM), and the more recent Serdyuchenko-Gorshelev (SG). For most remote sensing application the temperature dependence of the Huggins ozone band is described by a quadratic polynomial in temperature (Bass-Paur parameterization) by applying a regression to the cross-section data measured at selected atmospherically relevant temperatures. For traceability of atmospheric ozone measurements, uncertainties from the laboratory measurements as well as from the temperature parameterization of the ozone cross-section data are needed as input for detailed uncertainty calculation of atmospheric ozone measurements. In this paper the uncertainty budgets of the three major ozone cross-section datasets are summarized from the original literature. The quadratic temperature dependence of the cross-section datasets is investigated. Combined uncertainty budgets is provided for all datasets based upon Monte Carlo simulation that includes uncertainties from the laboratory measurements as well as uncertainties from the temperature parameterization. Between 300 and 330 nm both BDM and SG have an overall uncertainty of 1.5 %, while BP has a somewhat larger uncertainty of 2.1 %. At temperatures below about 215 K, uncertainties in the BDM data increase more strongly than the others due to the lack of very low temperature laboratory measurements (lowest temperature of BDM available is 218 K).

  18. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  19. Universality of high-energy absorption cross sections for black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Decanini, Yves; Esposito-Farese, Gilles; Folacci, Antoine

    2011-02-15

    We consider the absorption problem for a massless scalar field propagating in static and spherically symmetric black holes of arbitrary dimension endowed with a photon sphere. For this wide class of black holes, we show that the fluctuations of the high-energy absorption cross section are totally and very simply described from the properties (dispersion relation and damping) of the waves trapped near the photon sphere and therefore, in the eikonal regime, from the characteristics (orbital period and Lyapunov exponent) of the null unstable geodesics lying on the photon sphere. This is achieved by using Regge pole techniques. They permit us to make an elegant and powerful resummation of the absorption cross section and to extract then all the physical information encoded in the sum over the partial wave contributions. Our analysis induces moreover some consequences concerning Hawking radiation which we briefly report.

  20. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G.; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light–matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  1. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-05-27

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light-matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  2. Thermal neutron absorption cross sections for igneous rocks: Newberry Caldera, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption cross sections of geologic materials are of first-order importance to the interpretation of pulsed neutron porosity logs and of second-order importance to the interpretation of steady-state porosity logs using dual detectors. Even in the latter case, uncertainties in log response can be excessive whenever formations are encountered that possess absorption properties appreciably greater than the limestones used in most tool calibrations. These effects are of importance to logging operations directed at geothermal applications where formation vary from igneous to sedimentary and which may contain solution-deposited minerals with very large cross-section values. Most measurements of cross-section values for geologic materials have been made for hydrocarbon production applications. Hence, the specimen materials are sedimentary and clean in the sense that they are not altered by geothermal fluids. This investigation was undertaken to measure cross-section values from a sequence of igneous materials obtained from a single hole drilled in an active hydrothermal system. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Principal-components analysis of fluorescence cross-section spectra from pathogenic and simulant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Harold I.

    2005-10-01

    Principal-components analysis of a new set of highly resolved (<1 nm) fluorescence cross-section spectra excited at 354.7 nm over the 370 646 nm band has been used to demonstrate the potential ability of UV standoff lidars to discriminate among particular biological warfare agents and simulants over short ranges. The remapped spectra produced by this technique from Bacillus globigii (Bg) and Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores were sufficiently different to allow them to be cleanly separated, and the Ba spectra obtained from Sterne and Ames strain spores were distinguishable. These patterns persisted as the spectral resolution was subsequently degraded in processing from ˜1 to 34 nm. This is to the author's knowledge the first time that resolved fluorescence spectra from biological warfare agents have been speciated or shown to be distinguishably different from those normally used surrogates by optical spectroscopy.

  4. Exceptionally large two- and three-photon absorption cross-sections by OPV organometalation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Beibei; Mazur, Leszek M; Morshedi, Mahbod; Barlow, Adam; Wang, Huan; Quintana, Cristóbal; Zhang, Chi; Samoc, Marek; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-07-01

    Oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs) containing up to 8 PV units and end-functionalized by ruthenium alkynyl groups have been prepared and their nonlinear absorption properties assessed using the Z-scan technique and employing low repetition rate femtosecond pulses. Exceptionally large two-photon absorption (ca. 12 500 GM at 725 nm) and three-photon absorption cross sections (ca. 1.6 × 10(-76) cm(6) s(2) at 1100 nm) are found for the 8PV-containing example, highlighting the potential of an "organometalation" approach to NLO-efficient organic materials. PMID:27297290

  5. On the fine structure of spectra of the inelastic-electron-scattering cross section and the Si surface parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Parshin, A. S. Igumenov, A. Yu.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. A.

    2015-04-15

    Reflection electron-energy loss spectra are obtained for a series of Si samples with different crystallographic orientations, prepared under different technological conditions. Using the experimental spectra, the electron energy loss dependences of the product of the mean inelastic free path and differential inelastic electron scattering cross section are calculated. A new technique is suggested for analyzing the spectra of inelastic electron scattering cross section by simulating experimental spectra with the use of the three-parameter Tougaard universal cross section functions. The results of the simulation are used to determine the nature of loss peaks and to calculate the surface parameter.

  6. Absorption cross-section and decay rate of rotating linear dilaton black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Aslan, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We analytically study the scalar perturbation of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) rotating linear dilaton black holes (RLDBHs) in 4-dimensions. We show that both radial and angular wave equations can be solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The exact greybody factor (GF), the absorption cross-section (ACS), and the decay rate (DR) for the massless scalar waves are computed for these black holes (BHs). The results obtained for ACS and DR are discussed through graphs.

  7. Effect of light state transitions on the apparent absorption cross section of Photosystem II in Chlorella

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.; Fujita, Yoshihiko

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of excitation energy between photosystems may profoundly affect the quantum yield of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Excitation energy absorbed by pigment molecules is transferred to reaction centers, where it may potentially drive a photochemical event. To balance the photochemical events in PSII with those in PSI, excitation energy may be transferred between PSII and PSI. This type of energy transfer has been inferred primarily in the steady state quantum yield of oxygen evolution and/or fluorescence with changes in excitation wavelength. These so called ''state transitions'' have been attributed to changes in either the absorption cross section of PSII or ''spillover'' of excitation energy between the two photosystems. We report here on measurements of relative absorption cross sections of PSII under state I and state II light conditions. We simultaneously followed the yields of O/sub 2/ and the change in fluorescence yields, ..delta.. phi, as a function of flash energy using single turnover xenon flashes. Our data suggest that the effective absorption cross section of PSII does not change within +- 10% under physiological conditions in unpoisoned Chlorella pyrenoidosa. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Total cross section for photon absorption by two protons in [sup 3]He

    SciTech Connect

    Emura, T.; Endo, S.; Huber, G.M.; Itoh, H.; Kato, S.; Koike, M.; Konno, O.; Lasiuk, B.; Lolos, G.J.; Maeda, K.; Maki, T.; Maruyama, K.; Miyamoto, H.; Naridomi, R.; Niki, K.; Ogata, T.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Sasaki, A.; Suda, T.; Sumi, Y.; Wada, Y.; Yamazaki, H. Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 724 Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S0A2 Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840 Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 188 Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 982 Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N0W0 Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushi 807 College of General Education, Akita University, Akita, 010

    1994-07-18

    The [sup 3]He([gamma],[ital pp])[ital n] reaction was investigated in the photon energy range 200--500 MeV using the spectrometer TAGX, which has a solid angle for protons of [pi] sr. Two types of photon absorption, one by two protons and the other by three nucleons, were observed by looking at the undetected neutron momentum distributions. The total cross section for photon absorption by two protons shows that this process is consistent with the [ital E]2 transition.

  9. Measurements of the absorption cross section of (13)CHO(13)CHO at visible wavelengths and application to DOAS retrievals.

    PubMed

    Goss, Natasha R; Waxman, Eleanor M; Coburn, Sean C; Koenig, Theodore K; Thalman, Ryan; Dommen, Josef; Hannigan, James W; Tyndall, Geoffrey S; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-05-14

    The trace gas glyoxal (CHOCHO) forms from the atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons and is a precursor to secondary organic aerosol. We have measured the absorption cross section of disubstituted (13)CHO(13)CHO ((13)C glyoxal) at moderately high (1 cm(-1)) optical resolution between 21 280 and 23 260 cm(-1) (430-470 nm). The isotopic shifts in the position of absorption features were found to be largest near 455 nm (Δν = 14 cm(-1); Δλ = 0.29 nm), whereas no significant shifts were observed near 440 nm (Δν < 0.5 cm(-1); Δλ < 0.01 nm). These shifts are used to investigate the selective detection of (12)C glyoxal (natural isotope abundance) and (13)C glyoxal by in situ cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) in a series of sensitivity tests using synthetic spectra, and laboratory measurements of mixtures containing (12)C and (13)C glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, and other interfering absorbers. We find the changes in apparent spectral band shapes remain significant at the moderately high optical resolution typical of CE-DOAS (0.55 nm fwhm). CE-DOAS allows for the selective online detection of both isotopes with detection limits of ∼200 pptv (1 pptv = 10(-12) volume mixing ratio), and sensitivity toward total glyoxal of few pptv. The (13)C absorption cross section is available for download from the Supporting Information. PMID:25551419

  10. Near-UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bongartz, A.; Kames, J.; Welter, F.; Schurath, U. )

    1991-02-07

    The A {sup 1}A{double prime} {l arrow} X {sup 1}A{prime} absorption spectrum of gaseous nitrous acid has been measured in the 300-400-nm range. Absolute cross sections were determined by a combination of gas-phase and wet chemical analysis. The cross sections of prominent bands are 25% larger than the recommended values of Stockwell and Calvert. The influence of spectral resolution on absolute and differential absorption cross sections was also investigated. The integrated band area of the n{pi}* transition yields an oscillator strength f = (8.90 {plus minus} 0.36) {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, less than the reported liquid phase value of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. The equilibrium constant K = p{sub trans}/p{sub cis}, based on the assumption that the oscillator strength of the n{pi}* transition is the same for both rotamers, was found to be 3.25 {plus minus} 0.30 at 277 K. This yields an energy difference {Delta}E between trans- and cis-HONO of -2,700 J mol{sup {minus}1} in the electronic ground state, and -6,000 J mol{sup {minus}1} in the excited state.

  11. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    PubMed

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0.

  12. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    PubMed

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0. PMID:26894323

  13. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  14. Absorption cross-sections of ozone in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions: Status report 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Johannes; Staehelin, Johannes; Tamminen, Johanna; Braathen, Geir; De Backer, Marie-Renée; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitris; Barbe, Alain; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Birk, Manfred; Burkholder, James B.; Chance, Kelly; von Clarmann, Thomas; Cox, Anthony; Degenstein, Doug; Evans, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Flittner, David; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Gorshelev, Viktor; Gratien, Aline; Hare, Edward; Janssen, Christof; Kyrölä, Erkki; McElroy, Thomas; McPeters, Richard; Pastel, Maud; Petersen, Michael; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Pitts, Michael; Labow, Gordon; Rotger-Languereau, Maud; Leblanc, Thierry; Lerot, Christophe; Liu, Xiong; Moussay, Philippe; Redondas, Alberto; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sander, Stanley P.; Schneider, Matthias; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Veefkind, Pepijn; Viallon, Joële; Viatte, Camille; Wagner, Georg; Weber, Mark; Wielgosz, Robert I.; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    The activity "Absorption Cross-Sections of Ozone" (ACSO) started in 2008 as a joint initiative of the International Ozone Commission (IO3C), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the IGACO ("Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations") O3/UV subgroup to study, evaluate, and recommend the most suitable ozone absorption cross-section laboratory data to be used in atmospheric ozone measurements. The evaluation was basically restricted to ozone absorption cross-sections in the UV range with particular focus on the Huggins band. Up until now, the data of Bass and Paur published in 1985 (BP, 1985) are still officially recommended for such measurements. During the last decade it became obvious that BP (1985) cross-section data have deficits for use in advanced space-borne ozone measurements. At the same time, it was recognized that the origin of systematic differences in ground-based measurements of ozone required further investigation, in particular whether the BP (1985) cross-section data might contribute to these differences. In ACSO, different sets of laboratory ozone absorption cross-section data (including their dependence on temperature) of the group of Reims (France) (Brion et al., 1993, 1998, 1992, 1995, abbreviated as BDM, 1995) and those of Serdyuchenko et al. (2014), and Gorshelev et al. (2014), (abbreviated as SER, 2014) were examined for use in atmospheric ozone measurements in the Huggins band. In conclusion, ACSO recommends: The spectroscopic data of BP (1985) should no longer be used for retrieval of atmospheric ozone measurements. For retrieval of ground-based instruments of total ozone and ozone profile measurements by the Umkehr method performed by Brewer and Dobson instruments data of SER (2014) are recommended to be used. When SER (2014) is used, the difference between total ozone measurements of Brewer and Dobson instruments are very small and the difference between Dobson measurements at AD and CD wavelength pairs are diminished

  15. Effective absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Ali, Nujhat N.; Saiduddin, Mariyah N.; Wu, Michael; Lee, Hyun Ji (Julie); Aiona, Paige K.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mass absorption coefficient (MAC) values were measured for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples produced by flow tube ozonolysis and smog chamber photooxidation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically: α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, farnesene, guaiacol, imidazole, isoprene, linalool, ocimene, p-xylene, 1-methylpyrrole, and 2-methylpyrrole. Both low-NOx and high-NOx conditions were employed during the chamber photooxidation experiments. MAC values were converted into effective molecular absorption cross sections assuming an average molecular weight of 300 g/mol for SOA compounds. The upper limits for the effective photolysis rates of SOA compounds were calculated by assuming unity photolysis quantum yields and convoluting the absorption cross sections with a time-dependent solar spectral flux. A more realistic estimate for the photolysis rates relying on the quantum yield of acetone was also obtained. The results show that condensed-phase photolysis of SOA compounds can potentially occur with effective lifetimes ranging from minutes to days, suggesting that photolysis is an efficient and largely overlooked mechanism of SOA aging.

  16. Absorption cross section for the 5νOH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5νOH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is αmin =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2σ noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  17. Effective Absorption Cross-Sections in Porphyridium cruentum: Implications for Energy Transfer between Phycobilisomes and Photosystem II Reaction Centers.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C

    1984-02-01

    Effective absorption cross-sections for O(2) production by Porphyridium cruentum were measured at 546 and 596 nanometers. Although all photosystem II reaction centers are energetically coupled to phycobilisomes, any single phycobilisome acts as antenna for several photosystem II reaction centers. The cross-section measured in state I was 50% larger than that measured in state II.

  18. Vibrational spectra of light and heavy water with application to neutron cross section calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Damian, J. I. Marquez; Granada, J. R.; Malaspina, D. C.

    2013-07-14

    The design of nuclear reactors and neutron moderators require a good representation of the interaction of low energy (E < 1 eV) neutrons with hydrogen and deuterium containing materials. These models are based on the dynamics of the material, represented by its vibrational spectrum. In this paper, we show calculations of the frequency spectrum for light and heavy water at room temperature using two flexible point charge potentials: SPC-MPG and TIP4P/2005f. The results are compared with experimental measurements, with emphasis on inelastic neutron scattering data. Finally, the resulting spectra are applied to calculation of neutron scattering cross sections for these materials, which were found to be a significant improvement over library data.

  19. Ultraviolet Raman spectra and cross-sections of the G-series nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Christesen, Steven D; Pendell Jones, Jay; Lochner, Joseph M; Hyre, Aaron M

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy is being applied to the detection of chemical agent contamination of natural and man-made surfaces. In support of these efforts, we have measured the UV Raman signatures of the G-series nerve agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GD (soman), GF (cyclosarin), and the agent simulant diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) at 248 nm and 262 nm, as well as taking their UV Raman and UV absorption cross-sections. Of these chemicals, only GA exhibits any significant pre-resonance enhancement. We also show that reduction of the excitation wavelength from 262 nm to 248 nm effectively shifts the Raman spectrum away from a substantial sample fluorescence background, implying a significant improvement in detection capability. PMID:18926015

  20. Accurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2015-03-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.86% (coverage factor k= 2). This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn (1961) with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross-sections with reduced uncertainties, a system was set up to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross-sections of 9.48 x 10-18, 10.44 x 10-18 and 11.07 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.7%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.06, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non-UV-photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  1. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.84 %. This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn in 1961 with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross sections with reduced uncertainties, a system to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was setup. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross sections of 9.48 × 10-18, 10.44 × 10-18, and 11.07 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.6%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.062, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non UV photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  2. Method and apparatus for determination of temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power

    DOEpatents

    Vagelatos, Nicholas; Steinman, Donald K.; John, Joseph; Young, Jack C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear method and apparatus determines the temperature of a medium by injecting fast neutrons into the medium and detecting returning slow neutrons in three first energy ranges by producing three respective detection signals. The detection signals are combined to produce three derived indicia each systematically related to the population of slow neutrons returning from the medium in a respective one of three second energy ranges, specifically exclusively epithermal neutrons, exclusively substantially all thermal neutrons and exclusively a portion of the thermal neutron spectrum. The derived indicia are compared with calibration indicia similarly systematically related to the population of slow neutrons in the same three second energy ranges returning from similarly irradiated calibration media for which the relationships temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power to such calibration indicia are known. The comparison indicates the temperature at which the calibration indicia correspond to the derived indicia and consequently the temperature of the medium. The neutron absorption cross section and moderating power of the medium can be identified at the same time.

  3. EMPIRICAL LINE LISTS AND ABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR METHANE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Dulick, M.; Bailey, J.

    2015-11-01

    Hot methane is found in many “cool” sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  4. UV absorption cross sections between 290 and 380 nm of a series of furanaldehydes: Estimation of their photolysis lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenar, Inmaculada; González, Sergio; Jiménez, Elena; Martín, Pilar; Salgado, Sagrario; Cabañas, Beatriz; Albaladejo, José

    2015-02-01

    Furanaldehydes, such as 2-furanaldehyde (also known as furfural), 3-furanaldehyde and 5-methyl-2-furanaldehyde, are aromatic aldehydes which can be present in the atmosphere as primary and secondary pollutants. The atmospheric removal initiated by sunlight for these species is not well-known in the solar actinic region (at λ > 290 nm), mainly due to the absence of data concerning the UV absorption cross sections (σλ) and photolysis frequencies (Ji(z,θ)). In this work σλ for the mentioned furanaldehydes have been determined between 290 and 380 nm at room temperature for the first time. Experiments were performed in an absorption jacketed Pyrex cell, employing a deuterium lamp as irradiation source and a CCD detector. The obtained absorption spectra exhibit absorption maxima around 320 nm with absolute absorption cross sections of 1.13, 0.75 and 1.14 × 10-19 cm2 molecule-1 for 2-furanaldehyde, 3-furanaldehyde and 5-methyl-2-furanaldehyde, respectively. The reported UV absorption cross sections were used to provide estimates of Ji(z,θ) and, therefore, estimates of the lifetime (τhν) due to this atmospheric removal process, under different solar radiation situations. Estimated τhν have been compared with the lifetimes due to the homogeneous reaction with the main diurnal tropospheric oxidants. The results obtained suggest that photolysis in the actinic region can be the main degradation pathway for these furanaldehydes when assuming a quantum yield (Φλ) of unity and the maximum solar actinic flux, while photolysis can compete with the reaction of OH radicals when assuming Φλ = 0.1. On the contrary, the removal of all three furanaldehydes by the reactions with OH radicals becomes more important than the UV photolysis under low solar actinic flux conditions independently of Φλ. If the emission source of these furanaldehydes also occurs during the nighttime NO3 radicals will dominate the elimination process of these species.

  5. Two-photon absorption cross section measurement in the gamma band system of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A dye laser with a single longitudinal mode and very stable spatial mode structure has been constructed. With this laser system a four-wave mixing experiment was done in the gamma bands of nitric oxide using two photon resonance. Another four-wave mixing experiment was done in nitrogen using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the two signals ratioed. Using accurately known values of the Raman scattering cross section, the third order susceptibility in NO was determined without needing to know the spatial and temporal properties of the dye lasers. From this susceptibility, the two photon absorption cross section was calculated with the explicit dependence of sigma/sup (2)/ upon X/sup (3)/ shown. For the R/sub 22/ + S/sub 12/(J'' = 9 1/2) (A/sup 2/..sigma..+(v' = 0) -- X/sup 2/..pi..(v'' = 0)) line, sigma/sup (2)/ = (1.0 +/- 0.6) x 10/sup -38/cm/sup 4/g(2/sub 1/-Vertical Barsub f/ is the normalized lineshape. Branching ratios for the A/sup 2/..sigma..+(v' = n) ..-->.. X/sup 2/..omega..(v'' = n)(n = o,...9) transitions of NO were also measured, Franck-Condon factors calculated and the lifetime of the A state determined.

  6. SO_2 Absorption Cross Sections and N_2 VUV Oscillator Strengths for Planetary Atmosphere Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Stark, G.; Rufus, J.; Pickering, J. C.; Cox, G.; Huber, K. P.

    1998-09-01

    The determination of the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Io from Hubble Space Telescope observations in the 190-220 nm wavelength region requires knowledge of the photoabsorption cross sections of SO_2 at temperatures ranging from about 110 K to 300 K. We are engaged in a laboratory program to measure SO_2 absorption cross sections with very high resolving power (lambda /delta lambda =~ 450,000) and at a range of temperatures appropriate to the Io atmosphere. Previous photoabsorption measurements, with lambda /delta lambda =~ 100,000, have been unable to resolve the very congested SO_2 spectrum, and, thus, to elucidate the temperature dependence of the cross sections. Our measurements are being performed at Imperial College, London, using an ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. We will present our recently completed room temperature measurements of SO_2 cross sections in the 190-220 nm region and plans for extending these to ~ 195 K. Analyses of Voyager VUV occultation measurements of the N_2-rich atmospheres of Titan and Triton have been hampered by the lack of fundamental spectroscopic data for N_2, in particular, by the lack of reliable f-values and line widths for electronic bands of N_2 in the 80-100 nm wavelength region. We are continuing our program of measurements of band oscillator strengths for the many (approximately 100) N_2 bands between 80 and 100 nm. We report new f-values, derived from data obtained at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan) synchrotron radiation facility with lambda /delta lambda =~ 130,000, of 37 bands in the 80-86 nm region and 21 bands in the 90-95 nm region. We have also begun the compilation of a searchable archive of N_2 data on the World Wide Web; see http://cfa-www.harvard. edu/amp/data/n2/n2home.html. The archive, covering the spectroscopy of N_2 between 80 and 100 nm, will include published and unpublished (14) N_2, (14) N(15) N, and (15) N_2 line lists and spectroscopic identifications, excited state energy

  7. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH{sub 3}CFCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M.J.

    1993-11-20

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH{sub 3}CFCl{sub 2} (HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in these experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Absorption and scattering cross-section extinction values of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaing, May; Gebear-Eigzabher, Bellsabel; Roa, Azael; Marcano, Aristides; Radu, Daniela; Lai, Cheng-Yu

    2016-08-01

    We determine the extinction values of silver nanoparticles as a function of their diameter for three different wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 671 nm) from the values of absorbance and their photothermal lens response. We show that for particles of small diameters (<50 nm) the extinction grows as the cube of the diameter for all three wavelengths. For larger particles the extinction determined from absorbance exhibits a sixth order dependence on the diameters for 532 nm and 671 nm. This kind of behavior is typical of scattering processes that should dominate for large particles. For 405 nm the plasmonic resonant absorption dominates over scattering making difficult the observation of the sixth order dependence even for particles larger than 50 nm. The absorption cross-section measured by the photothermal method does not show the sixth order dependence. It depends on the cube of the particle's diameter for all nanoparticles confirming the scattering free character of this absorption technique and validating the results of the absorbance experiment.

  9. Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

    1973-01-01

    Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

  10. Temperature dependent absorption cross-sections of O2-O2 collision pairs between 340 and 630 nm and at atmospherically relevant pressure.

    PubMed

    Thalman, Ryan; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-10-01

    The collisions between two oxygen molecules give rise to O4 absorption in the Earth atmosphere. O4 absorption is relevant to atmospheric transmission and Earth's radiation budget. O4 is further used as a reference gas in Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) applications to infer properties of clouds and aerosols. The O4 absorption cross section spectrum of bands centered at 343, 360, 380, 446, 477, 532, 577 and 630 nm is investigated in dry air and oxygen as a function of temperature (203-295 K), and at 820 mbar pressure. We characterize the temperature dependent O4 line shape and provide high precision O4 absorption cross section reference spectra that are suitable for atmospheric O4 measurements. The peak absorption cross-section is found to increase at lower temperatures due to a corresponding narrowing of the spectral band width, while the integrated cross-section remains constant (within <3%, the uncertainty of our measurements). The enthalpy of formation is determined to be ΔH(250) = -0.12 ± 0.12 kJ mol(-1), which is essentially zero, and supports previous assignments of O4 as collision induced absorption (CIA). At 203 K, van der Waals complexes (O(2-dimer)) contribute less than 0.14% to the O4 absorption in air. We conclude that O(2-dimer) is not observable in the Earth atmosphere, and as a consequence the atmospheric O4 distribution is for all practical means and purposes independent of temperature, and can be predicted with an accuracy of better than 10(-3) from knowledge of the oxygen concentration profile.

  11. Temperature dependent absorption cross-sections of O2-O2 collision pairs between 340 and 630 nm and at atmospherically relevant pressure.

    PubMed

    Thalman, Ryan; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-10-01

    The collisions between two oxygen molecules give rise to O4 absorption in the Earth atmosphere. O4 absorption is relevant to atmospheric transmission and Earth's radiation budget. O4 is further used as a reference gas in Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) applications to infer properties of clouds and aerosols. The O4 absorption cross section spectrum of bands centered at 343, 360, 380, 446, 477, 532, 577 and 630 nm is investigated in dry air and oxygen as a function of temperature (203-295 K), and at 820 mbar pressure. We characterize the temperature dependent O4 line shape and provide high precision O4 absorption cross section reference spectra that are suitable for atmospheric O4 measurements. The peak absorption cross-section is found to increase at lower temperatures due to a corresponding narrowing of the spectral band width, while the integrated cross-section remains constant (within <3%, the uncertainty of our measurements). The enthalpy of formation is determined to be ΔH(250) = -0.12 ± 0.12 kJ mol(-1), which is essentially zero, and supports previous assignments of O4 as collision induced absorption (CIA). At 203 K, van der Waals complexes (O(2-dimer)) contribute less than 0.14% to the O4 absorption in air. We conclude that O(2-dimer) is not observable in the Earth atmosphere, and as a consequence the atmospheric O4 distribution is for all practical means and purposes independent of temperature, and can be predicted with an accuracy of better than 10(-3) from knowledge of the oxygen concentration profile. PMID:23928555

  12. Studies on mass energy-absorption coefficients and effective atomic energy-absorption cross sections for carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2015-04-01

    We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  13. Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Capture on 234,236,238U Measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C.-Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2014-05-01

    A new measurement of the 238U(n, γ) cross section using a thin 48 mg/cm2 target was made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE over the energy range from 10 eV to 500 keV. The results confirm earlier measurements. Measurements of the gamma-ray emission spectra were also made for 238U(n, γ) as well as 234,236U(n, γ). These measurements help to constrain the radiative strength function used in the cross-section calculations.

  14. Computation of the ultraviolet absorption and electron inelastic scattering cross section of multishell fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A. A.; Henrard, L.; Lambin, Ph.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a model in which the ultraviolet dielectric tensor of planar graphite is transported to the spherical geometry of a nanoscale multishell fullerene with a central cavity. This is accomplished by assigning to every point of the multishell fullerene a local dielectric tensor identical to that of graphite with its c axis aligned along the local radial direction. The dynamic, multipolar polarizabilities of the model fullerene are obtained from the exact solutions of the nonretarded Maxwell equations. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the hollow fullerene is calculated as a function of the ratio of the inner and outer radii. Comparisons of the theoretical absorption spectra with the 2175-Å interstellar extinction hump and with recent absorption measurements for synthetic multishell fullerenes indicate that the dielectric properties of graphite are qualitatively adequate for understanding the optical data. However, difficulties persist with both the astrophysical and laboratory absorption peaks which lead us to consider the possible role of multishell fullerene aggregation into small or large clusters. It is found that the effect of clustering is important and reduces but does not remove completely the quantitative difficulties of the graphitic multishell model. Finally theoretical electron-energy-loss spectra (EELS) of these structures with an empty or filled cavity are calculated from the multipolar polarizabilities of the model. The results indicate that spatially resolved EELS measurements should be ideally suited to study the dielectric properties of individual multishell fullerenes and to ascertain to what extent they differ from those of planar graphite.

  15. UV Absorption Cross Sections of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Between 210 and 350 K and the Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlon, Nabilah Rontu; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Newman, Paul A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm) at 27 temperatures in the range 210-350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200-235 nm as a function of temperature (225-350 K). The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5-7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in 37 atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  16. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  17. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335

  18. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335

  19. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  20. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M.; Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X.; Howk, J. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R.

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  1. Absorption and scattering of light by Pt, Pd, Ag, and Au nanodisks: absolute cross sections and branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Christoph; Kasemo, Bengt; Zorić, Igor

    2007-05-21

    Localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of metallic nanoparticles decay either radiatively or via an electron-hole pair cascade. In this work, the authors have experimentally and theoretically explored the branching ratio of the radiative and nonradiative LSP decay channels for nanodisks of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd, with diameters D ranging from 38 to 530 nm and height h=20 nm, supported on a fused silica substrate. The branching ratio for the two plasmon decay channels was obtained by measuring the absorption and scattering cross sections as a function of photon energy. The former was obtained from measured extinction and scattering coefficients, using an integrating sphere detector combined with particle density measurements obtained from scanning electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles. Partly angle-resolved measurements of the scattered light allowed the authors to clearly identify contributions from dipolar and higher plasmonic modes to the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. Based on these experiments they find that absorption dominates the total scattering cross section in all the examined cases for small metallic nanodisks (D<100 nm). For D>100 nm absorption still dominates for Pt and Pd nanodisks, while scattering dominates for Au and Ag. A theoretical approach, where the metal disks are approximated as oblate spheroids, is used to account for the trends in the measured cross sections. The field problem is solved in the electrostatic limit. The spheroid is treated as an induced dipole for which the dipolar polarizability is calculated based on spheroid geometry and the (bulk) dielectric response function of the metal the spheroid consists of and the dielectric medium surrounding it. One might expect this model to be inappropriate for disks with D>100 nm since effects due to the retardation of the incoming field across the metallic nanodisk and contributions from higher plasmonic modes are neglected. However, this model describes quite well

  2. Measuring the Optical Absorption Cross-sections of Au-Ag Nanocages and Au Nanorods by Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Chul; Kim, Chulhong; Zhou, Fei; Cobley, Claire M.; Song, Kwang Hyun; Chen, Jingyi; Li, Zhi-Yuhan; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the optical absorption cross-sections (σa) of Au-Ag nanocages and Au nanorods. The method is based on photoacoustic (PA) imaging, where the detected signal is directly proportional to the absorption coefficient (μa) of the nanostructure. For each type of nanostructure, we firstly obtained μa from the PA signal by benchmarking against a linear calibration curve (PA signal vs. μa) derived from a set of methylene blue solutions with different concentrations. We then calculated σa by dividing the μa by the corresponding concentration of the Au nanostructure. Additonally, we obtained the extinction cross-section (σe, sum of absorption and scattering) from the extinction spectrum recorded using a conventional UV-vis-NIR spectrometer. From the measurements of σa and σe, we were able to easily derive both the absorption and scattering cross-sections for each type of gold nanostructure. The ratios of absorption to extinction obtained from experimental and theoretical approaches agreed well, demonstrating the potential use of this method in determining the optical absorption and scattering properties of gold nanostructures and other types of nanomaterials. PMID:19680423

  3. Photoionization cross section by Stieltjes imaging applied to coupled cluster Lanczos pseudo-spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Cukras, Janusz; Coriani, Sonia; Decleva, Piero; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-09-07

    A recently implemented asymmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing (complex) linear response functions within the coupled cluster singles (CCS), coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles (CC2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is coupled to a Stieltjes imaging technique in order to describe the photoionization cross section of atoms and molecules, in the spirit of a similar procedure recently proposed by Averbukh and co-workers within the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction approach. Pilot results are reported for the atoms He, Ne, and Ar and for the molecules H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, HF, CO, and CO{sub 2}.

  4. Photoionization cross section by Stieltjes imaging applied to coupled cluster Lanczos pseudo-spectra.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Janusz; Coriani, Sonia; Decleva, Piero; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    A recently implemented asymmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing (complex) linear response functions within the coupled cluster singles (CCS), coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles (CC2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is coupled to a Stieltjes imaging technique in order to describe the photoionization cross section of atoms and molecules, in the spirit of a similar procedure recently proposed by Averbukh and co-workers within the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction approach. Pilot results are reported for the atoms He, Ne, and Ar and for the molecules H2, H2O, NH3, HF, CO, and CO2. PMID:24028098

  5. High-temperature measurements of VUV-absorption cross sections of CO2 and their application to exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venot, O.; Fray, N.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Hébrard, E.; Larcher, G.; Schwell, M.; Dobrijevic, M.; Selsis, F.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Aims: Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We also investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of some exoplanets. Methods: We performed these measurements with synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source for the 115-200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195-230 nm range, we used a deuterium lamp and a 1.5 m Jobin-Yvon spectrometer and we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. Results: For λ > 170 nm, the wavelength dependence of ln(σCO2(λ,T) × 1/(Qv(T))) can be parametrized with a linear law. Thus, we can interpolate σCO2(λ,T) at any temperature between 300 and 800 K. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. Conclusions: The absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot

  6. Total absorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor between 100 and 1000 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, G. N.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor are reported at a large number of discrete wavelengths between 100 and 1000 A with an estimate error of + or - 3 percent in regions free from any discrete structure. The double ionization chamber technique utilized is described. Recent calculations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the present data.

  7. Measurements of cross sections and charged pion spectra in proton-carbon interactions at 31 GeV/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Andrieu, B.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Asryan, A. G.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogusz, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Busygina, O.; Cetner, T.; Choi, K.-U.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.; di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Garrido, X.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katryńska, N.; Kiełczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kim, J.-H.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Lagoda, J.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Mackowiak, M.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A. I.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Naumenko, P. A.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Płaneta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadała, M.; Puławski, S.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sissakian, A. N.; Skrzypczak, E.; Słodkowski, M.; Sorin, A. S.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szaflik, P.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tsenov, R.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek, A.; Yi, J.-G.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zipper, W.

    2011-09-01

    Interaction cross sections and charged pion spectra in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c were measured with the large-acceptance NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. These data are required to improve predictions of the neutrino flux for the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan. A set of data collected during the first NA61/SHINE run in 2007 with an isotropic graphite target with a thickness of 4% of a nuclear interaction length was used for the analysis. The measured p+C inelastic and production cross sections are 257.2 ± 1.9 ± 8.9 and 229.3 ± 1.9 ± 9.0 mb, respectively. Inclusive production cross sections for negatively and positively charged pions are presented as functions of laboratory momentum in ten intervals of the laboratory polar angle covering the range from 0 up to 420 mrad. The spectra are compared with predictions of several hadron production models.

  8. Quantitative infrared absorption cross-sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-04-25

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Produced by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, the OH- and O3-initiated oxidations of isoprene are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, however, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via stand-off infrared or in situ detection. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm−1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in amore » 19.94 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm−1 resolution, using a Bruker 66v FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures at each temperature and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atmosphere.« less

  9. Monte Carlo Calculation of Thermal Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Section Uncertainties by Sampling Perturbed Phonon Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jesse Curtis

    Nuclear data libraries provide fundamental reaction information required by nuclear system simulation codes. The inclusion of data covariances in these libraries allows the user to assess uncertainties in system response parameters as a function of uncertainties in the nuclear data. Formats and procedures are currently established for representing covariances for various types of reaction data in ENDF libraries. This covariance data is typically generated utilizing experimental measurements and empirical models, consistent with the method of parent data production. However, ENDF File 7 thermal neutron scattering library data is, by convention, produced theoretically through fundamental scattering physics model calculations. Currently, there is no published covariance data for ENDF File 7 thermal libraries. Furthermore, no accepted methodology exists for quantifying or representing uncertainty information associated with this thermal library data. The quality of thermal neutron inelastic scattering cross section data can be of high importance in reactor analysis and criticality safety applications. These cross sections depend on the material's structure and dynamics. The double-differential scattering law, S(alpha, beta), tabulated in ENDF File 7 libraries contains this information. For crystalline solids, S(alpha, beta) is primarily a function of the material's phonon density of states (DOS). Published ENDF File 7 libraries are commonly produced by calculation and processing codes, such as the LEAPR module of NJOY, which utilize the phonon DOS as the fundamental input for inelastic scattering calculations to directly output an S(alpha, beta) matrix. To determine covariances for the S(alpha, beta) data generated by this process, information about uncertainties in the DOS is required. The phonon DOS may be viewed as a probability density function of atomic vibrational energy states that exist in a material. Probable variation in the shape of this spectrum may be

  10. High resolution absorption cross sections for the A2Pi-X2Pi system of ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Philen, D. L.; Davis, D. D.; Watson, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution ultraviolet absorption cross-sections for the ClO molecule are obtained, with the aim of facilitating studies of ozone depletion resulting from the injection of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. The spectroscopic analysis, which involves a frequency-doubled tunable dye laser with a bandwidth of 0.015 A, is described. Studies of the rotational lines of the ClO A 2Pi 3/2-X2Pi 3/2 9-10 band were conducted. Peak cross-sections for the P and R lines of the 9-0 band are found to be 10.0, 9.6, 8.6, 10.6, 10.3, and 9.2 times ten to the negative seventeenth power cm squared, with estimated accuracy of plus or minus 25%. Problems in distinguishing between Cl-35 and Cl-37 absorption are also considered.

  11. Electron Double Ionization Cross Section in Sodium Obtained from Kαh Hypersatellite Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1983-05-01

    The Kαh hypersatellite spectrum of Na metal has been measured in electron excitation with voltages from 4 to 25 kV. The spectrum shows lines with initial K-2 (Kα2h) and K-2 L-1 holes. The energies of these lines as well as the K2 binding energy have been determined and compared with theoretical calculations. The intensity of the line group with K-2 L-1 initial configuration relative to the K-2 group has been measured and found to be in agreement with simple shake-off calculation. The electron double ionization cross section (EDC) of the K-shell has been determined from both thick and thin target measurements using the method developed by Saijonmaa and Keski-Rahkonen, and found to yield equivalent results. The EDC has also been calculated theoretically using classical and quantum mechanical binary encounter approximations as devised by Saijonmaa. Theory reproduces fairly well the magnitude and the atomic number dependence of the EDC whereas the shape of the EDC-curve as function of energy deviates clearly from observed values.

  12. Cross section and γ-ray spectra for U238(n,γ) measured with the DANCE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krtička, M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of the U238(n,γ) cross section is important for developing theoretical nuclear reaction models and for applications. However, capture cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and often must be measured. Purpose: We seek to confirm previous measurements and test cross-section calculations with an emphasis on the unresolved resonance region from 1 to 500 keV. Method: Cross sections were measured from 10 eV to 500 keV using the DANCE detector array at the LANSCE spallation neutron source. The measurements used a thin target, 48 mg/cm2 of depleted uranium. Gamma cascade spectra were also measured to provide an additional constraint on calculations. The data are compared to cross-section calculations using the code CoH3 and cascade spectra calculations made using the code dicebox. Results: This new cross-section measurement confirms the previous data. The measured gamma-ray spectra suggest the need for additional low-lying dipole strength in the radiative strength function. New Hauser-Feshbach calculations including this strength accurately predict the capture cross section without renormalization. Conclusions: The present cross-section data confirm previous measurements. Including additional low-lying dipole strength in the radiative strength function may lead to more accurate cross-section calculations in nuclei where <Γγ> has not been measured.

  13. Reengineering the optical absorption cross-section of photosynthetic reaction centers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Palash K; Lin, Su; Loskutov, Andrey; Levenberg, Symon; Jun, Daniel; Saer, Rafael; Beatty, J Thomas; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao; Woodbury, Neal W

    2014-03-26

    Engineered cysteine residues near the primary electron donor (P) of the reaction center from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides were covalently conjugated to each of several dye molecules in order to explore the geometric design and spectral requirements for energy transfer between an artificial antenna system and the reaction center. An average of 2.5 fluorescent dye molecules were attached at specific locations near P. The enhanced absorbance cross-section afforded by conjugation of Alexa Fluor 660 dyes resulted in a 2.2-fold increase in the formation of reaction center charge-separated state upon intensity-limited excitation at 650 nm. The effective increase in absorbance cross-section resulting from the conjugation of two other dyes, Alexa Fluor 647 and Alexa Fluor 750, was also investigated. The key parameters that dictate the efficiency of dye-to-reaction center energy transfer and subsequent charge separation were examined using both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as transient absorbance spectroscopy techniques. An understanding of these parameters is an important first step toward developing more complex model light-harvesting systems integrated with reaction centers. PMID:24568563

  14. High resolution absolute absorption cross sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig

    2015-12-28

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The absolute absorption cross sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands.

  15. High-Resolution Temperature-Dependent Photoabsorption Cross Section Measurements of S2, with Application to HST UV Spectra of SL9/Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV spectra of Jupiter after the collision of Comet SL9 show predominantly molecular features of S2, CS2, NH3, and H2S in the 1800-3200 A region. The HST observations were made under various phases of impact conditions which gave temperatures higher than 1000 K. It is thus clear that temperature-dependent laboratory cross section data are required in order to determine the molecular abundances in Jupiter's atmosphere after the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The required high-resolution temperature dependent S2 absorption cross sections have not been directly measured in the laboratory. To provide the required data for modelers our objective is to accurately measure the high-resolution (FWHM = 0.003 A) and medium resolution (FWHM - 0.08 A) temperature dependent S2 in the 2450-3200 A region. Using the experimental setup we have obtained absorbtion spectra of S2 under various temperature conditions.

  16. High resolution absorption cross sections in the transmission window region of the Schumann-Runge bands and Herzberg continuum of O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements, conducted in the wavelength region 180-195 nm, and at different pressures of oxygen (between 2.5-760 torr) in order to separate the pressure-dependent absorption from the main cross sections, of the absorption cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands in the window region between the rotational lines of S-R bands of O2. The present cross sections supersede the earlier published cross sections (Yoshino et al., 1983). The combined cross sections are presented graphically; they are available at wavenumber intervals of about 0.1/cm from the National Space Science Data Center. The Herzberg continuum cross sections are derived after subtracting calculated contributions from the Schumann-Runge bands. These are significantly smaller than any previous measurements.

  17. Off-Resonant Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Section Enhancement of an Organic Chromophore on Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Sivapalan, Sean T.; Vella, Jarrett H.; Yang, Timothy K.; Dalton, Matthew J.; Haley, Joy E.; Cooper, Thomas M.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Tan, Loon-Seng; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-plasmon-initiated interference effects of polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods on the two-photon absorption of an organic chromophore were investigated. With polyelectrolyte bearing gold nanorods of 2,4,6 and 8 layers, the role of the plasmonic fields as function of distance on such effects was examined. An unusual distance dependence was found: enhancements in the two-photon cross-section were at a minimum at an intermediate distance, then rose again at a further distance. The observed values of enhancement were compared to theoretical predictions using finite element analysis and showed good agreementdue to constructive and destructive interference effects. PMID:23687561

  18. Investigation of the formaldehyde differential absorption cross section at high and low spectral resolution in the simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauers, T.; Bossmeyer, J.; Dorn, H.-P.; Schlosser, E.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Wahner, A.

    2007-07-01

    The results from a simulation chamber study on the formaldehyde (HCHO) absorption cross section in the UV spectral region are presented. We performed 4 experiments at ambient HCHO concentrations with simultaneous measurements of two DOAS instruments in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich. The two instruments differ in their spectral resolution, one working at 0.2 nm (broad-band, BB-DOAS), the other at 2.7 pm (high-resolution, HR-DOAS). Both instruments use dedicated multi reflection cells to achieve long light path lengths of 960 m and 2240 m, respectively, inside the chamber. During two experiments HCHO was injected into the clean chamber by thermolysis of well defined amounts of para-formaldehyde reaching mixing rations of 30 ppbV at maximum. The HCHO concentration calculated from the injection and the chamber volume agrees with the BB-DOAS measured value when the absorption cross section of Meller and Moortgat (2000) and the temperature coefficient of Cantrell (1990) were used for data evaluation. In two further experiments we produced HCHO in-situ from the ozone + ethene reaction which was intended to provide an independent way of HCHO calibration through the measurements of ozone and ethene. However, we found an unexpected deviation from the current understanding of the ozone + ethene reaction when CO was added to suppress possible oxidation of ethene by OH radicals. The reaction of the Criegee intermediate with CO could be 240 times slower than currently assumed. Based on the BB-DOAS measurements we could deduce a high-resolution cross section for HCHO which was not measured directly so far.

  19. Quantification of Brown Carbon Mass Absorption Cross Section from Sources through the Application of Physical and Mathematical Segregation of Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M.; Van Rooy, P.; Dietenberger, M.; Short, K.; Zhan, Y.; Schauer, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption of particulate matter emissions was measured from combustion of wood, agricultural biomass, coals, leaf litter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings. Aethalometer corrected BC absorption was segregated mathematically from the total light extinction to estimate the BrC absorption from individual sources. Results were compared to elemental carbon (EC)/organic carbon (OC) concentrations to determine composition's impact on light absorption. The bulk carbonaceous aerosol and BrC Mass absorption cross section (MAC) were variable across source types and light wavelengths. Sources such as incense and peat emissions showed ultraviolet wavelength (370nm) BrC absorption over 175 and 80 times (respectively) the BC absorption but only 21 and 11 times (respectively) at 520nm wavelength. The bulk EC MACEC, λ (average at 520nm=9.0±3.7 m2 g-1; with OC fraction <0.85 = ~7.5 m2 g-1) and the BrC OC mass absorption cross sections (MACBrC,OC,λ) were calculated; at 370 nm ultraviolet wavelengths; the MACBrC,OC,λ ranged from 0.8 m2 g-1 to 2.29 m2 g-1 (lowest peat, highest kerosene), while at 520nm wavelength MACBrC,OC,λ ranged from 0.07 m2 g-1 to 0.37 m2 g-1 (lowest peat, highest kerosene/incense mixture). Samples from the same combustions sources were water and organic solvent extracted, filtered to physically remove BC, and the extracts were re-aerosolized in a controlled suspension chamber. The MACBrC,OC,λ derived from the re-suspended OC were compared to the mathematically derived MACBrC,OC,λ and were shown to have similar absorption spectra, however variability between the methods were observed, likely due to variations in particle size distributions, particle mixing state, and uncertainty associated with the OC quantification. The

  20. Optical absorption spectra of palladium doped gold cluster cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kaydashev, Vladimir E.; Janssens, Ewald Lievens, Peter

    2015-01-21

    Photoabsorption spectra of gas phase Au{sub n}{sup +} and Au{sub n−1}Pd{sup +} (13 ≤ n ≤ 20) clusters were measured using mass spectrometric recording of wavelength dependent Xe messenger atom photodetachment in the 1.9–3.4 eV photon energy range. Pure cationic gold clusters consisting of 15, 17, and 20 atoms have a higher integrated optical absorption cross section than the neighboring sizes. It is shown that the total optical absorption cross section increases with size and that palladium doping strongly reduces this cross section for all investigated sizes and in particular for n = 14–17 and 20. The largest reduction of optical absorption upon Pd doping is observed for n = 15.

  1. In vivo estimation of pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section by spectroradiometry in four aquatic photosynthetic micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Méléder, Vona; Laviale, Martin; Jesus, Bruno; Mouget, Jean Luc; Lavaud, Johann; Kazemipour, Farzaneh; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate in vivo pigment composition and to retrieve absorption cross-section values, a(∗), of photosynthetic micro-organisms using a non-invasive technique of reflectance spectrometry. To test the methodology, organisms from different taxonomical groups and different pigment composition were used (Spirulina platensis a Cyanophyta, Porphyridium cruentum a Rhodophyta, Dunaliella tertiolecta a Chlorophyta and Entomoneis paludosa a Bacillariophyta) and photoacclimated to two different irradiance levels: 25 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (Low Light, LL) and 500 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (High Light, HL). Second derivative spectra from reflectance were used to identify pigment in vivo absorption bands that were linked to specific pigments detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas some absorption bands such as those induced by Chlorophyll (Chl) a (416, 440, 625 and around 675 nm) were ubiquous, others were taxonomically specific (e.g. 636 nm for Chl c in E. paludosa) and/or photo-physiological dependent (e.g. 489 nm for zeaxanthin in the HL-acclimated S. platensis). The optical absorption cross-section, a(∗), was retrieved from reflectance data using a radiative transfer model previously developed for microphytobenthos. Despite the cellular Chl a decrease observed from LL to HL (up to 88% for S. platensis), the a(∗) increased, except for P. cruentum. This was attributed to a 'package effect' and to a greater absorption by photoprotective carotenoids that did not contribute to the energy transfer to the core Chl a.

  2. In vivo estimation of pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section by spectroradiometry in four aquatic photosynthetic micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Méléder, Vona; Laviale, Martin; Jesus, Bruno; Mouget, Jean Luc; Lavaud, Johann; Kazemipour, Farzaneh; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate in vivo pigment composition and to retrieve absorption cross-section values, a(∗), of photosynthetic micro-organisms using a non-invasive technique of reflectance spectrometry. To test the methodology, organisms from different taxonomical groups and different pigment composition were used (Spirulina platensis a Cyanophyta, Porphyridium cruentum a Rhodophyta, Dunaliella tertiolecta a Chlorophyta and Entomoneis paludosa a Bacillariophyta) and photoacclimated to two different irradiance levels: 25 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (Low Light, LL) and 500 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (High Light, HL). Second derivative spectra from reflectance were used to identify pigment in vivo absorption bands that were linked to specific pigments detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas some absorption bands such as those induced by Chlorophyll (Chl) a (416, 440, 625 and around 675 nm) were ubiquous, others were taxonomically specific (e.g. 636 nm for Chl c in E. paludosa) and/or photo-physiological dependent (e.g. 489 nm for zeaxanthin in the HL-acclimated S. platensis). The optical absorption cross-section, a(∗), was retrieved from reflectance data using a radiative transfer model previously developed for microphytobenthos. Despite the cellular Chl a decrease observed from LL to HL (up to 88% for S. platensis), the a(∗) increased, except for P. cruentum. This was attributed to a 'package effect' and to a greater absorption by photoprotective carotenoids that did not contribute to the energy transfer to the core Chl a. PMID:24211563

  3. Broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with 1- and 2-photon excitations: Relaxation paths and cross sections of a triphenylamine dye in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.; Dobryakov, A. L.; Hecht, S. E-mail: skovale@chemie.hu-berlin.de; Kovalenko, S. A. E-mail: skovale@chemie.hu-berlin.de; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.

    2015-07-14

    1-photon (382 nm) and 2-photon (752 nm) excitations to the S{sub 1} state are applied to record and compare transient absorption spectra of a push-pull triphenylamine (TrP) dye in solution. After 1-photon excitation, ultrafast vibrational and structural molecular relaxations are detected on a 0.1 ps time scale in nonpolar hexane, while in polar acetonitrile, the spectral evolution is dominated by dipolar solvation. Upon 2-photon excitation, transient spectra in hexane reveal an unexpected growth of stimulated emission (SE) and excited-state absorption (ESA) bands. The behavior is explained by strong population transfer S{sub 1} → S{sub n} due to resonant absorption of a third pump photon. Subsequent S{sub n} → S{sub 1} internal conversion (with τ{sub 1} = 1 ps) prepares a very hot S{sub 1} state which cools down with τ{sub 2} = 13 ps. The pump pulse energy dependence proves the 2-photon origin of the bleach signal. At the same time, SE and ESA are strongly affected by higher-order pump absorptions that should be taken into account in nonlinear fluorescence applications. The 2-photon excitation cross sections σ{sup (2)} = 32 ⋅ 10{sup −50} cm{sup 4} s at 752 nm are evaluated from the bleach signal.

  4. Absorption enhancement by matching the cross-section of plasmonic nanowires to the field structure of tightly focused beams.

    PubMed

    Normatov, Alexander; Spektor, Boris; Leviatan, Yehuda; Shamir, Joseph

    2011-04-25

    Nanostructured materials, designed for enhanced light absorption, are receiving increased scientific and technological interest. In this paper we propose a physical criterion for designing the cross-sectional shape of plasmonic nanowires for improved absorption of a given tightly focused illumination. The idea is to design a shape which increases the matching between the nanowire plasmon resonance field and the incident field. As examples, we design nanowire shapes for two illumination cases: a tightly focused plane wave and a tightly focused beam containing a line singularity. We show that properly shaped and positioned silver nanowires that occupy a relatively small portion of the beam-waist area can absorb up to 65% of the total power of the incident beam. PMID:21643100

  5. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  6. One-group fission cross sections for plutonium and minor actinides inserted in calculated neutron spectra of fast reactor cooled with lead-208 or lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, G. L.; Blokhin, A. I.

    2012-07-01

    The paper is dedicated to one-group fission cross sections of Pu and MA in LFRs spectra with the aim to increase these values by choosing a coolant which hardens neutron spectra. It is shown that replacement of coolant from Pb-Bi with Pb-208 in the fast reactor RBEC-M, designed in Russia, leads to increasing the core mean neutron energy. As concerns fuel Pu isotopes, their one-group fission cross sections become slightly changed, while more dramatically Am-241 one-group fission cross section is changed. Another situation occurs in the lateral blanket containing small quantities of minor actinides. It is shown that as a result of lateral blanket mean neutron energy hardening the one-group fission cross sections of Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 increases up to 8-11%. This result allows reducing the time of minor actinides burning in FRs. (authors)

  7. PSI-LHCI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Increasing the absorption cross section without losing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Le Quiniou, Clotilde; Tian, Lijin; Drop, Bartlomiej; Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Oort, Bart; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is an essential component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite the high sequence and structural homologies, its absorption properties differ substantially in algae, plants and cyanobacteria. In particular it is characterized by the presence of low-energy chlorophylls (red forms), the number and the energy of which vary in different organisms. The PSI-LHCI (PSI-light harvesting complex I) complex of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C.r.) is significantly larger than that of plants, containing five additional light-harvesting complexes (together binding≈65 chlorophylls), and contains red forms with higher energy than plants. To understand how these differences influence excitation energy transfer and trapping in the system, we studied two PSI-LHCI C.r. particles, differing in antenna size and red-form content, using time-resolved fluorescence and compared them to plant PSI-LHCI. The excited state kinetics in C.r. shows the same average lifetime (50 ps) as in plants suggesting that the effect of antenna enlargement is compensated by higher energy red forms. The system equilibrates very fast, indicating that all Lhcas are well-connected, despite their long distance to the core. The differences between C.r. PSI-LHCI with and without Lhca2 and Lhca9 show that these Lhcas bind red forms, although not the red-most. The red-most forms are in (or functionally close to) other Lhcas and slow down the trapping, but hardly affect the quantum efficiency, which remains as high as 97% even in a complex that contains 235 chlorophylls. PMID:25681242

  8. PSI-LHCI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Increasing the absorption cross section without losing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Le Quiniou, Clotilde; Tian, Lijin; Drop, Bartlomiej; Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Oort, Bart; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is an essential component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite the high sequence and structural homologies, its absorption properties differ substantially in algae, plants and cyanobacteria. In particular it is characterized by the presence of low-energy chlorophylls (red forms), the number and the energy of which vary in different organisms. The PSI-LHCI (PSI-light harvesting complex I) complex of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C.r.) is significantly larger than that of plants, containing five additional light-harvesting complexes (together binding≈65 chlorophylls), and contains red forms with higher energy than plants. To understand how these differences influence excitation energy transfer and trapping in the system, we studied two PSI-LHCI C.r. particles, differing in antenna size and red-form content, using time-resolved fluorescence and compared them to plant PSI-LHCI. The excited state kinetics in C.r. shows the same average lifetime (50 ps) as in plants suggesting that the effect of antenna enlargement is compensated by higher energy red forms. The system equilibrates very fast, indicating that all Lhcas are well-connected, despite their long distance to the core. The differences between C.r. PSI-LHCI with and without Lhca2 and Lhca9 show that these Lhcas bind red forms, although not the red-most. The red-most forms are in (or functionally close to) other Lhcas and slow down the trapping, but hardly affect the quantum efficiency, which remains as high as 97% even in a complex that contains 235 chlorophylls.

  9. Apparent PS II absorption cross-section and estimation of mean PAR in optically thin and dense suspensions of Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of effective mean PAR in optically dense samples is complicated by various optical effects, including light scattering and reflections. Direct information on the mean rate of photon absorption by PS II is provided by the kinetics of the fluorescence rise induced upon onset of strong actinic illumination (O-I1 rise). A recently introduced kinetic multi-color PAM fluorometer was applied to study the relationship between initial slope and cell density in the relatively simple model system of suspensions of Chlorella. Use of a curve fitting routine was made which was originally developed for assessment of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross-section of PS II, σ II(λ), in dilute suspensions. The model underlying analysis of the O-I1 rise kinetics is outlined and data on the relationship between fitted values of σ II(λ) and PAR in dilute samples are presented. With increasing cell density, lowering of apparent cross-section, <σ>(λ), with respect to σ II(λ), relates to a decrease of effective mean PAR, (λ), relative to incident PAR(λ). When ML and AL are applied in the same direction, the decline of <σ>(λ)/σ II(λ) with increasing optical density is less steep than that of the theoretically predicted (λ)/PAR(λ). It approaches a value of 0.5 when the same colors of ML and AL are used, in agreement with theory. These observations open the way for estimating mean PAR in optically dense samples via measurements of <σ>(λ)/σ II(λ)).

  10. The application of reduced absorption cross section on the identification of the compounds with similar function-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Zuo, Jian; Mu, Kai-jun; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Lei-wei; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful tool for materials investigation. The low frequency vibrations were usually investigated by means of absorption coefficient regardless of the refractive index. It leads to the disregard of some inherent low-frequency vibrational information of the chemical compounds. Moreover, due to the scattering inside the sample, there are some distortions of the absorption features, so that the absorption dependent material identification is not valid enough. Here, a statistical parameter named reduced absorption cross section (RACS) is introduced. This can not only help us investigate the molecular dynamics but also distinguish one chemical compound with another which has similar function-groups. Experiments are carried out on L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine and the different mass ratios of their mixtures as an example of the application of RACS. The results come out that the RACS spectrum of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine reserve the spectral fingerprint information of absorption spectrum. The log plot of RACSs of the two amino acids show power-law behavior σR(~ν) ~ (ν~α), and there is a linear relation between the wavenumber and the RACS in the double logarithmic plot. The exponents α, at the same time, are the slopes of the RACS curves in the double logarithmic plot. The big differences of the exponents α between the two amino acids and their mixtures can be seen visually from the slopes of the RACS curves. So we can use RACS analytical method to distinguish some complex compounds with similar function-groups and mixtures from another which has similar absorption peaks in THz region.

  11. Wavelengths, f-Values, and Cross Sections in the UV Spectra of Astrophysical Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Phil (Technical Monitor); Raymond, John C.; Parkinson, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Improved UV wavelengths, energy levels, and f-values for iron group ions. Update of Kurucz database of wavelengths and f-values. Publication of improved UV photodissociation cross sections for H2O. UV photoabsorption cross sections for CO bands. Service Activities and Data Outreach.

  12. Temperature dependence of the gas and liquid phase ultraviolet absorption cross sections of HCFC-123 (CF3CHCl2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CF2Cl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Akshaya K.; Buckley, Thomas J.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Fahr, Askar

    1996-04-01

    The absorption cross sections for HCFC-123 (CF3CHCl2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CF2Cl) have been measured in the gas and liquid phases over the temperature range of about 220-330 K. The liquid phase results were converted into effective gas phase cross sections using a wavelength shift procedure, thereby extending the gas phase cross sections to longer wavelengths. The results are compared with other available data and lend increased confidence in atmospheric lifetime calculations for these important industrial alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons.

  13. On the photochemistry of IONO2: absorption cross section (240-370 nm) and photolysis product yields at 248 nm.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D M; Ashworth, S H; Plane, J M C

    2007-11-01

    The absolute absorption cross section of IONO(2) was measured by the pulsed photolysis at 193 nm of a NO(2)/CF(3)I mixture, followed by time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near-UV. The resulting cross section at a temperature of 296 K over the wavelength range from 240 to 370 nm is given by log(10)(sigma(IONO(2))/cm(2) molecule(-1)) = 170.4 - 3.773 lambda + 2.965 x 10(-2)lambda(2)- 1.139 x 10(-4)lambda(3) + 2.144 x 10(-7)lambda(4)- 1.587 x 10(-10)lambda(5), where lambda is in nm; the cross section, with 2sigma uncertainty, ranges from (6.5 +/- 1.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 240 nm to (5 +/- 3) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 350 nm, and is significantly lower than a previous measurement [J. C. Mössinger, D. M. Rowley and R. A. Cox, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2002, 2, 227]. The photolysis quantum yields for IO and NO(3) production at 248 nm were measured using laser induced fluorescence of IO at 445 nm, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO(3) at 662 nm, yielding phi(IO)

  14. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Haight, Robert Cameron; Jandel, Marian; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.; Becker, John A.; Wu, Ching-Yen; Krticka, Milan

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  15. Photonuclear absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity in photonuclear reactions; invariance of classical electromagnetism; momentum transfer models in ion collisions; cosmic ray electromagnetic interactions; quadrupole excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisons and Y-89 interactions with relativistic nuclei; and the Weizsacker-Williams theory for nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed.

  16. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration.

  17. Inclusive proton spectra and total reaction cross sections for proton-nucleus scattering at 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Current applications of multiple scattering theory to describe the elastic scattering of medium energy protons from nuclei have been shown to be quite successful in reproducing the experimental cross sections. These calculations use the impulse approximation, wherein the scattering from individual nucleons in the nucleus is described by the scattering amplitude for a free nucleon. Such an approximation restricts the inelastic channels to those initiated by nucleon-nucleon scattering. As a first step in determining the nature of p + nucleus scattering at 800 MeV, both total reaction cross sections and (p,p') inclusive cross sections were measured and compared to the free p + p cross sections for hydrogen, deuterium, calcium 40, carbon 12, and lead 208. It is concluded that as much as 85% of all reactions in a nucleus proceed from interactions with a single nucleon in the nucleus, and that the impulse approximation is a good starting point for a microscopic description of p + nucleus interactions at 800 MeV.

  18. Absorption cross sections of surface-adsorbed H2O in the 295-370 nm region and heterogeneous nucleation of H2O on fused silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Huang, Li; Zhu, Lei

    2013-09-12

    We have determined absorption cross sections of a monolayer of H2O adsorbed on the fused silica surfaces in the 295-370 nm region at 293 ± 1 K by using Brewster angle cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Absorption cross sections of surface-adsorbed H2O vary between (4.66 ± 0.83) × 10(-20) and (1.73 ± 0.52) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule over this wavelength range, where errors quoted represent experimental scatter (1σ). Our experimental study provides direct evidence that surface-adsorbed H2O is an absorber of the near UV solar radiation. We also varied the H2O pressure in the surface study cell over the 0.01-17 Torr range and obtained probe laser absorptions at 295, 340, and 350 nm by multilayer of adsorbed H2O molecules until the heterogeneous nucleation of water occurred on fused silica surfaces. The average absorption cross sections of multilayer adsorbed H2O are (2.17 ± 0.53) × 10(-20), (2.48 ± 0.67) × 10(-21), and (2.34 ± 0.59) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule at 295, 340, and 350 nm. The average absorption cross sections of transitional H2O layer are (6.06 ± 2.73) × 10(-20), (6.48 ± 3.85) × 10(-21), and (8.04 ± 4.92) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule at 295, 340, and 350 nm. The average thin water film absorption cross sections are (2.39 ± 0.50) × 10(-19), (3.21 ± 0.81) × 10(-20), and (3.37 ± 0.94) × 10(-20) cm(2)/molecule at 295 nm, 340 nm, and 350 nm. Atmospheric implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Classical Calculations of Scattering Signatures from a Gravitational Singularity or the Scattering and Absorption Cross-Sections of a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, Felix C.

    2012-09-01

    Within the context of general relativity theory we calculate, analytically, scattering signatures around a gravitational singularity: angular and time distributions of scattered massive objects and photons and the time and space modulation of Doppler effects. Additionally, the scattering and absorption cross sections for the gravitational interactions are calculated. The results of numerical simulations of the trajectories are compared with the analytical results.

  20. o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption: syntheses and uncaging cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Aujard, Isabelle; Benbrahim, Chouaha; Gouget, Marine; Ruel, Odile; Baudin, Jean-Bernard; Neveu, Pierre; Jullien, Ludovic

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the o-nitrobenzyl platform for designing photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption that could be photolyzed upon one- and two-photon excitation. Several synthetic pathways to build different conjugated o-nitrobenzyl backbones, as well as to vary the benzylic position, are reported. Relative to the reference 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl group, several o-nitrobenzyl derivatives exhibit a large and red-shifted one-photon absorption within the near-UV range. Uncaging after one-photon excitation was studied by measuring UV-visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence emission on model caged ethers and esters. In the whole series investigated, the caged substrates were released cleanly upon photolysis. Quantum yields of uncaging after one-photon absorption lie within the 0.1-1 % range. We observed that these drop as the maximum wavelength absorption of the o-nitrobenzyl protecting group is increased. A new method based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) after two-photon excitation was used to measure the action uncaging cross section for two-photon excitation. The series of o-nitrobenzyl caged fluorescent coumarins investigated exhibit values within the 0.1-0.01 Goeppert-Mayer (GM) range. Such results are in line with the low quantum yields of uncaging associated with cross-sections of 1-50 GM for two-photon absorption. Although the cross-sections for one- and two-photon absorption of o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups can be readily improved, we emphasize the difficulty in enlarging the corresponding action uncaging cross-sections in view of the observed trend of their quantum yield of uncaging.

  1. o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption: syntheses and uncaging cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Aujard, Isabelle; Benbrahim, Chouaha; Gouget, Marine; Ruel, Odile; Baudin, Jean-Bernard; Neveu, Pierre; Jullien, Ludovic

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the o-nitrobenzyl platform for designing photolabile protecting groups with red-shifted absorption that could be photolyzed upon one- and two-photon excitation. Several synthetic pathways to build different conjugated o-nitrobenzyl backbones, as well as to vary the benzylic position, are reported. Relative to the reference 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl group, several o-nitrobenzyl derivatives exhibit a large and red-shifted one-photon absorption within the near-UV range. Uncaging after one-photon excitation was studied by measuring UV-visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence emission on model caged ethers and esters. In the whole series investigated, the caged substrates were released cleanly upon photolysis. Quantum yields of uncaging after one-photon absorption lie within the 0.1-1 % range. We observed that these drop as the maximum wavelength absorption of the o-nitrobenzyl protecting group is increased. A new method based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) after two-photon excitation was used to measure the action uncaging cross section for two-photon excitation. The series of o-nitrobenzyl caged fluorescent coumarins investigated exhibit values within the 0.1-0.01 Goeppert-Mayer (GM) range. Such results are in line with the low quantum yields of uncaging associated with cross-sections of 1-50 GM for two-photon absorption. Although the cross-sections for one- and two-photon absorption of o-nitrobenzyl photolabile protecting groups can be readily improved, we emphasize the difficulty in enlarging the corresponding action uncaging cross-sections in view of the observed trend of their quantum yield of uncaging. PMID:16763952

  2. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  3. Reduced mass absorption cross section of black carbon under an extremely polluted condition in southern suburb of Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Hua, Y.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, B.; Xing, J.; Jiang, S.; Cai, R.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), as one of the most important climate-warming agent, has been the focus of extensive studies in recent years. Mass absorption cross section (MAC) is a key parameter to assess the radiative forcing by linking the mass concentration with the radiation effect. In this study, we conducted a two-month field campaign in Beijing, the capital city of China, in a October and November, a period that severe PM2.5 pollution occurred. PM2.5 offline samples were collected daily onto quartz fiber filters by a Partisol 2300 Speciation Sampler. Size-segregated aerosol samples of the size ranged from 0.056 - 10 µm with 11 bins were collected onto quartz fiber filters by a cascade impactor developed by National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). A DRI Model 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer were used to analyze the samples. The MAC of BC is measured by a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. In contrast to previous studies, we found that after "shadow effect" has been corrected, the MAC is reduced from 14 m2/g to 5 m2/g with the increase of BC concentrations. There was no significant correlation between MAC with secondary inorganic aerosols. Such unexpected reduction in MAC of BC is possibly associated with the microphysical property of BC modulated under serious pollution condition. The study of size-segregated species concentrations shows that the size distribution of BC is unimodal, with the peak around 0.56-1.8 µm. The results also show the proportion of BC larger than 0.56 µm is significant increased. Additionally, "soot superaggregate", as distinct from conventional sub-micron aggregates, was found in the bins of BC with size ranged from 1 to1.8 µm. Such high carbon aerosol proportion and large BC size distribution suggests that emissions from residential biomass burning is dominant during this episode. This study suggests that the optical property for BC from different emission sectors should be considered in the estimation of radiative forcing.

  4. Determination of Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Section of Noble Gases for Calibration of Laser Spectroscopic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M. I. de la; Perez, C.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Fuentes, L. M.

    2008-10-22

    The objective of our work is to apply two-photon polarization spectroscopy as a new calibration method for the determination of two-photon excitation cross-sections of noble gases, like Xe and Kr, which are commonly used for calibrations of MP-LIF techniques in other laboratories.

  5. Theoretical X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across Li (i=1-3) absorption edges of Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-01

    The X-ray production (XRP) cross sections, σLk (k = l, η, α, β6, β1, β3, β4, β9,10, γ1,5, γ2,3) have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the Li(i=1-3) absorption edge energies of 35Br using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model, and two sets of the photoionisation cross sections based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (RHFS) model and the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, in order to highlight the importance of electron exchange effects at photon energies in vicinity of absorption edge energies.

  6. Filter-based measurements of UV-vis mass absorption cross sections of organic carbon aerosol from residential biomass combustion: Preliminary findings and sources of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.

    2016-10-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels is a major source of household energy in developing nations. Black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are the major PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollutants co-emitted during burning of these fuels. While the optical nature of BC is well characterized, very little is known about the properties of light-absorbing OC (LAOC). Here, we report our preliminary findings on the mass-based optical properties of LAOC emitted from the combustion of four commonly used solid biomass fuels - fuel-wood, agricultural residue, dung-cake, and mixed - in traditional Indian cookstoves. As part of a pilot field study conducted in central India, PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed for their absorbance spectra in the 300-900 nm wavelengths at 1 nm resolution using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The mean mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of the emitted PM2.5 and OC, at 550 nm, were 0.8 and 0.2 m2 g-1, respectively, each with a factor of ~2.3 uncertainty. The mean absorption Ångström exponent (AǺE) values for PM2.5 were 3±1 between 350 and 550 nm, and 1.2±0.1 between 550 and 880 nm. In the 350-550 nm range, OC had an AǺE of 6.3±1.8. The emitted OC mass, which was on average 25 times of the BC mass, contributed over 50% of the aerosol absorbance at wavelengths smaller than 450 nm. The overall OC contribution to visible solar light (300-900 nm) absorption by the emitted particles was 26-45%. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively and accurately address: (i) the climatic impacts of light absorption by OC from cookstove emissions, and (ii) the uncertainties and biases associated with variability in biomass fuel types and combustion conditions, and filter-based measurement artifacts during determination of MAC values.

  7. High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nanometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, G.; Yoshino, K.; Smith, Peter L.; Ito, K.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of the abundance and excitation of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds require accurate data on the vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the molecule. The 6.65 m spectrometer at the Photon Factory synchrotron light source was used to measure photoabsorption cross sections of CO features between 91.2 and 100.4 nm. These data were recorded at a resolving power of 170,000, more than 20 times greater than that used in previous work.

  8. Non-mass dependent photodissociation rates of ozone isotopologues from ab-initio absorption cross sections and experimental actinic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndengué, Steve; Jost, Rémy; Gatti, Fabien; Schinke, Reinhard; Madronich, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    The absorption cross sections (XSs) of eighteen isotopologues of the ozone molecule have been calculated in the range of the Chappuis-Huggins-Hartley bands: 15000-55000 cm-1 with special emphasis to those of atmospheric interest: symmetric 16O3, 16O17O16O, and 16O18O16O and asymmetric 17O16O2 and 18O16O2. We have used the MCTDH code which is based on the time propagation of the X(0,0,0) ground state initial wavepacket on the excited state PESs. The XSs have been obtained as the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of this wavepacket. The calculations have been performed only for zero total angular momentum and the rotational structure has been modeled numerically. The isotopologue dependence of the overall XSs has been characterized differently in each of the three bands: in the Chappuis band (15000-27000 cm-1) and in the Hartley band (33000-55000 cm-1), the XSs are weakly structured and the isotopologue dependence is globally weak. In contrast, in the Huggins band (27000 to 33000 cm-1) the different XSs are highly structured and their peaks are significantly shifted from those of the 16O3 absolute XS which has been chosen as reference. The Hartley band of each isotopologue can be approximated by a bell shape envelop modeled by a modified Gaussian depending on only four parameters: amplitude, centre, width and asymmetry. The isotopologue dependence of the Hartley band resumes only into tiny differences between these parameters. The dependence of the Chappuis band is also weak. The isotopologue shifts of peaks in the Huggins bands induce a significant dependence of the photodissociation rates because these rates are the integral of the product of the XS by the actinic flux. Below 30 km, the actinic flux displays a tremendous attenuation in the range of the Hartley band because the solar flux is strongly absorbed by the stratospheric ozone, almost exclusively by the 16O3 isotopologue. This implies two consequences: a) the actinic flux reproduces

  9. The 4He Total Photo-Absorption Cross Section With Two- Plus Three-Nucleon Interactions From Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P

    2007-03-09

    The total photo-absorption cross section of {sup 4}He is evaluated microscopically using two- (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) interactions based upon chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT). The calculation is performed using the Lorentz integral transform method along with the ab initio no-core shell model approach. An important feature of the present study is the consistency of the NN and NNN interactions and also, through the Siegert theorem, of the two- and three-body current operators. This is due to the application of the {chi}EFT framework. The inclusion of the NNN interaction produces a suppression of the peak height and enhancement of the tail of the cross section. We compare to calculations obtained using other interactions and to representative experiments. The rather confused experimental situation in the giant resonance region prevents discrimination among different interaction models.

  10. Size-dependent optical absorption modulation of Si/Ge and Ge/Si core/shell nanowires with different cross-sectional geometries.

    PubMed

    Luo, S; Yu, W B; He, Y; Ouyang, G

    2015-02-27

    We present an atomic-level and quantitative study of the absorption properties in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core/shell nanowires (CSNWs) along [110] direction with different cross-sectional geometries using the atomic bond relaxation method. We find that the strain existing in self-equilibrium state of CSNWs and associated with elastic energy originating from interface mismatch and surface relaxation affect the band shift and absorption properties. Compared to the CSNWs with tetragonal, hexagonal and circular shapes, the triangular CSNWs have the largest band gap shift at a fixed strain and the smallest absorption coefficient at a determinate incident light wavelength. The tunable absorption property, realized by controlling the size and geometry structure, could be helpful for nanoelectronic applications. PMID:25649268

  11. Toward Improving Atmospheric Models and Ozone Projections: Laboratory UV Absorption Cross Sections and Equilibrium Constant of ClOOCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmouth, D. M.; Klobas, J. E.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, and despite comprehensive international agreements being in place to phase out CFCs and halons, polar ozone losses generally remain severe. The relevant halogen compounds have very long atmospheric lifetimes, which ensures that seasonal polar ozone depletion will likely continue for decades to come. Changes in the climate system can further impact stratospheric ozone abundance through changes in the temperature and water vapor structure of the atmosphere and through the potential initiation of solar radiation management efforts. In many ways, the rate at which climate is changing must now be considered fast relative to the slow removal of halogens from the atmosphere. Photochemical models of Earth's atmosphere play a critical role in understanding and projecting ozone levels, but in order for these models to be accurate, they must be built on a foundation of accurate laboratory data. ClOOCl is the centerpiece of the catalytic cycle that accounts for more than 50% of the chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss in the Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere every spring, and so uncertainties in the ultraviolet cross sections of ClOOCl are particularly important. Additionally, the equilibrium constant of the dimerization reaction of ClO merits further study, as there are important discrepancies between in situ measurements and lab-based models, and the JPL-11 recommended equilibrium constant includes high error bars at atmospherically relevant temperatures (~75% at 200 K). Here we analyze available data for the ClOOCl ultraviolet cross sections and equilibrium constant and present new laboratory spectroscopic results.

  12. TSAR: a program for automatic resonance assignment using 2D cross-sections of high dimensionality, high-resolution spectra.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Billeter, Martin

    2012-09-01

    While NMR studies of proteins typically aim at structure, dynamics or interactions, resonance assignments represent in almost all cases the initial step of the analysis. With increasing complexity of the NMR spectra, for example due to decreasing extent of ordered structure, this task often becomes both difficult and time-consuming, and the recording of high-dimensional data with high-resolution may be essential. Random sampling of the evolution time space, combined with sparse multidimensional Fourier transform (SMFT), allows for efficient recording of very high dimensional spectra (≥4 dimensions) while maintaining high resolution. However, the nature of this data demands for automation of the assignment process. Here we present the program TSAR (Tool for SMFT-based Assignment of Resonances), which exploits all advantages of SMFT input. Moreover, its flexibility allows to process data from any type of experiments that provide sequential connectivities. The algorithm was tested on several protein samples, including a disordered 81-residue fragment of the δ subunit of RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis containing various repetitive sequences. For our test examples, TSAR achieves a high percentage of assigned residues without any erroneous assignments. PMID:22806130

  13. Temperature dependent emission and absorption cross section of Yb3+ doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (YLO) ceramic and its application in diode pumped amplifier.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Saumyabrata; Koerner, Joerg; Siebold, Mathias; Yang, Qiuhong; Ertel, Klaus; Mason, Paul D; Phillips, P Jonathan; Loeser, Markus; Zhang, Haojia; Lu, Shenzhou; Hein, Joachim; Schramm, Ulrich; Kaluza, Malte C; Collier, John L

    2013-07-01

    Temperature dependent absorption and emission cross-sections of 5 at% Yb(3+) doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (Yb:YLO) ceramic between 80K and 300 K are presented. In addition, we report on the first demonstration of ns pulse amplification in Yb:YLO ceramic. A pulse energy of 102 mJ was extracted from a multi-pass amplifier setup. The amplification bandwidth at room temperature confirms the potential of Yb:YLO ceramic for broad bandwidth amplification at cryogenic temperatures.

  14. Pre-equilibrium, Statistical Nuclear-Model Code System for Calculation Cross Sections and Emission Spectra, Version gn9cp8.

    2007-02-02

    Version 00 GNASH provides a flexible method by which reaction and level cross sections, isomer ratios, and emission spectra (neutron, gamma-ray, and charged-particle) resulting from particle- and photon-induced reactions can be calculated. The September 1991 release of GNASH incorporated an additional option for calculating gamma-ray strength functions and transmission coefficients by including the Kopecky-Uhl model. In addition, improvements were made to the output routines, particularly regarding gamma-ray strength function information. Major improvements in the 1995more » FKK-GNASH release include added capabilities: to read in externally calculated preequilibrium spectrum from, e.g., Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory, to do multiple preequilibrium calculations, to calculate appropriate spin distributions for nuclear states formed in preequilibrium reactions, and to do incident-photon calculations. In the 1998 release improvements were made in the accuracy of the exciton model and other calculations, and provision was made for including energy-dependent renormalization of the reaction cross section and energy-dependent exciton model parameterization (for data evaluation purposes). The sample problems provided here are the same as those that were given in the 1998 release; however, the calculations were run using the current version of GNASH (gn9cp8). The major differences between this version and the previous one released in 1998 are as follows: 1. A serious buffering error that affected stored state populations resulting when multiple reactions lead to the same compound nucleus is corrected. This error only affects cases with INPOPT=-1, normally used for high-energy calculations. It is the reason that the present outputs for the p + Zr90 test case (described below) are significantly different from the 1998 results for the same p + Zr90 test case. 2. Minor errors were corrected in estimating preequilibrium contributions to discrete states; interpolating the spin

  15. Wavelengths, f-Values, and Cross Sections in the UV Spectra of Astrophysical, Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Data analysis for Fe III was completed in 2004. The new spectra give wavelengths and some energy levels for Fe III that are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than values in the literature. However, the data set is missing - because they are outside the wavelength range that we can study at Imperial College or with ancillary FT spectroscopy measurements at NIST - important transitions that would allow all energy levels to be determined with improved accuracy. We are assessing collaborations at other labs. We have made test runs with a number of cathodes (pure metals and alloys) in the Penning discharge source and selected four iron group (3d) elements, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni, for further measurements. Cathodes of pure Cr and Co and an alloy of Ni were found to be best. Mn has not nm stably yet, and other cathode geometries or alloys may need to be assessed. Optimum Penning discharge (PD) lamp conditions (buffer gas, gas pressure, and current/voltage) were established for Co, and investigations are underway for Cr and Ni. Definitive measurements for Co await purchase of new mirrors and photomultiplier tubes that will improve signal to noise ratio. Our plan for the next year is to continue evaluating cathodes and operating conditions through March 05, and then to begin definitive measurements. The UV wavelength measurements made at Imperial College with the unique UV FT spectrometer will be complemented by visible and near IR range measurements at NIST in June and/or July. Approximately one year from now, we intend to visit Lund University to collaborate on lifetime measurements that will allow our branching ration data to be used to determine f-values.

  16. Theoretical X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across L{sub i} (i=1-3) absorption edges of Br

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production (XRP) cross sections, σ{sub Lk} (k = l, η, α, β{sub 6}, β{sub 1}, β{sub 3}, β{sub 4}, β{sub 9,10}, γ{sub 1,5}, γ{sub 2,3}) have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the L{sub i}(i=1-3) absorption edge energies of {sub 35}Br using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the L{sub i}(i=1-3) sub-shell the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model, and two sets of the photoionisation cross sections based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (RHFS) model and the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, in order to highlight the importance of electron exchange effects at photon energies in vicinity of absorption edge energies.

  17. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  18. Evolution of wavelength-dependent mass absorption cross sections of carbonaceous aerosols during the 2010 DOE CARES campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Subramanian, R.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Jobson, B. T.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing require process level optical property models that are built on precise and accurate field observations. Evolution of aerosol optical properties for urban influenced carbonaceous aerosol undergoing transport and mixing with rural air masses was a focal point of the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects (CARES) campaign near Sacramento, CA in summer 2010. Urban aerosol was transported from Sacramento, CA (T0) to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to a rural site located near Cool, CA (T1). Aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients were measured at the T0 and T1 sites using integrated photoacoustic acoustic/nephelometer instruments (PASS-3 and PASS-UV) at 781, 532, 405, and 375 nm. Single particle soot photometry (SP2) instrumentation was used to monitor black carbon (BC) mass at both sites. Combining data from these sensors allows estimate of the wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficient (MAC(λ)) and partitioning of MAC(λ) into contributions from the BC core and from enhancements from coating of BC cores. MAC(λ) measured in this way is free of artifacts associated with filter-based aerosol absorption measurements and takes advantage of the single particle sensitivity of the SP2 instrument, allowing observation of MAC(λ) on 10 minute and faster time scales. Coating was observed to enhance MAC(λ) by 20 - 30 % and different wavelength dependence for MAC(λ) was observed for urban and biomass burning aerosol. Further, T0 - T1 evolution of MAC(λ) was correlated with separately measured NO/NOy ratios and CO/CO2 ratios to understand the effects of aging & transport on MAC(λ) and the implications of aerosol processing that links air quality to radiative forcing on a regional scale. Aircraft observations made from the Gulfstream-1 during CARES are also analyzed to enhance process level understanding of the optical properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosol in the urban-rural interface.

  19. Tailoring surface plasmon resonance and dipole cavity plasmon modes of scattering cross section spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Lim, Chee Ming; Lee, Chuanyo; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Yoong, Voo Nyuk; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-09-01

    Tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dipole cavity plasmon modes of the scattering cross section (SCS) spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod have been numerically investigated by using the finite element method. Various effects, such as the influence of SCS spectra under x- and y-polarizations on the surface of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod, are discussed in detail. With the single gold-shell nanorod, one can independently tune the relative SCS spectrum width by controlling the rod length and rod diameter, and the surface scattering by varying the shell thickness and polarization direction, as well as the dipole peak energy. These behaviors are consistent with the properties of localized SPRs and offer a way to optically control and produce selected emission wavelengths from the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod. The electric field and magnetic distributions provide us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod on plasmon resonance.

  20. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  1. Novel 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-based red-fluorescent dyes with enhanced two-photon absorption cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Shigeiwa, Motoyuki; Gorohmaru, Hideki; Maeda, Shuuichi; Ishi-i, Tsutomu; Mataka, Shuntaro

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the two-photon absorbing and orange-red fluorescence emitting properties of a series of new 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD)-based D-pi-A-pi-D-type and star-burst-type fluorescent dyes. In the D-pi-A-pi-D-type dyes 1-6, a central BTD core was connected with two terminal N,N-disubstituted amino groups via various pi-conjugated spacers. The star-burst-type dyes 8 and 10 have a three-branched structure composed of a central core (benzene core in 8 and triphenylamine core in 10) and three triphenylamine-containing BTD branches. All the BTD-based dyes displayed intense orange-red color fluorescence in a region of 550-689 nm, which was obtained by single-photon excitation with good fluorescent quantum yield up to 0.98 as well as by two-photon excitation. Large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections (110-800 GM) of these BTD dyes were evaluated by open aperture Z-scan technique with a femtosecond Ti/sapphire laser. The TPA cross-sections of D-pi-A-pi-D-type dyes 2-6 with a benzene, thiophene, ethene, ethyne, and styrene moiety, respectively, as an additional pi-conjugated spacer are about 1.5-2.5 times larger than that of 1c with only a benzene spacer. The TPA cross-sections significantly increased in three-branched star-burst-type BTDs 8 (780 GM) with a benzene core and 10 (800 GM) with a triphenylamine core, which are about 3-5 times larger than those of the corresponding one-dimensional sub-units 9 (170 GM) and 11 (230 GM), respectively. The ratios of sigma/e(pi) between three-branched and one-dimensional dyes were 6.5:3.8 (for 8 and 9) and 6.0:4.0 (for 10 and 11), which are larger than those predicted simply on the basis of the chromophore number density (1:1), according to a cooperative enhancement of the two-photon absorbing nature in the three-branched system.

  2. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Jeys, T. H.

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1. A relatively compact (<2'x2'x2'), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double-pass laser and double-sided collection was used for these measurements. Two Raman modes are observed at 934 and 967 cm-1 in NH3. Three Raman modes are observed in Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm-1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm-1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10-32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10-36 m2/sr), 1.37 ± 0.10x10-30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10-34 m2/sr), 3.25 ± 0.23x10-31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10-35 m2/sr), 1.63 ± 0.14x10-30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10-34 m2/sr), and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-34 m2/sr) were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm-1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm-1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm-1 mode of H2S, 570 cm-1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10-31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10-35 m2/sr) for the 1285 cm-1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  3. A Novel Algorithm Applied to Common Thermal-Optical Transmission Data for Determining Mass Absorption Cross Sections of Atmospheric Black Carbon: Applications to the Indian Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, A.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Gustafsson, O.

    2010-12-01

    High wintertime concentrations of black carbon aerosols (BCA) over South Asia and the Northern Indian Ocean are thought to have a large impact on the regional climate. Direct absorption of sunlight by BCAs causes heating of the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. To quantify such effects it is important to characterize a number of different properties of the aerosols. Here we present a novel application of the thermal-optical (OCEC) instrument in which the laser beam is used to obtain optical information about the aerosols. In particular, the novel algorithm accounts for non-carbon contributions to the light extinction. Combining these light extinction coefficients with the simultaneously constrained Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations, the Mass Absorption Cross Section (MAC) is computed. Samples were collected during a continuous 14-month campaign Dec 2008 - Mar 2009 at Sinaghad in Western India and on Hanimaadhoo, the Northernmost Island in the Maldives. This data set suggests that the MAC of the BCAs are variable, sometimes by a factor of 3 compared to the mean. This observation adds to the complexity of calculating the radiative forcing for BCAs, reinforcing previous observations that parameters such as aerosol mixing state and sources need to be taken into account.

  4. Large Femtosecond Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Sections of Fullerosome Vesicle Nanostructures Derived from Highly Photoresponsive Amphiphilic C60-Light-Harvesting Fluorene Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Nalla, Venkatram; Jeon, Seaho; Mamidala, Venkatesh; Ji, Wei; Tan, Loon-Seng; Cooper, Thomas; Chiang, Long Y.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated ultrafast femtosecond nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption characteristics of bilayered fullerosome vesicle nanostructures derived from molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic oligo(ethylene glycolated) C60-(light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna). Fullerene conjugates were designed to enhance photoresponse in a femtosecond time scale by applying an isomerizable periconjugation linker between the C60 cage and diphenylaminofluorene antenna subunit in an intramolecular contact distance of only < 3.0 Å. Morphology of C60(>DPAF-EG12C1)-based fullerosome nanovesicles in H2O was characterized to consist of a bilayered shell with a sphere diameter of 20–70 nm and a chromophore shell-width of 9.0–10 nm, fitting well with a head-to-head packing configuration of the molecular length. At the estimated effective nanovesicle concentration as low as 5.5 × 10−8 MV (molecular molar concentration of 5.0 × 10−4 M) in H2O, two-photon absorption (2PA) phenomena were found to be the dominating photophysical events showing a large molar concentration-insensitive 2PA cross-section value equivalent to 8500 GM in a form of nanovesicles, on average. The observed NLO characteristics led to a sharp trend of efficient light-transmittance intensity reduction at the input laser intensity above 100 GW/cm2. PMID:22022620

  5. Optical transitions, absorption intensities, and intermanifold emission cross sections of Pr3+(4f2) in Ca5(PO4)3F crystal host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Russell, Charles C.

    2004-05-01

    A spectroscopic Judd-Ofelt investigation has been performed on Pr3+ ions doped in calcium fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, belonging to the apatite structure family. The standard Judd-Ofelt analysis was applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Pr3+ transitions to determine the phenomenological intensity parameters: Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6. Values of the intensity parameters were subsequently used to determine the decay rates (emission probabilities), radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios of the principal intermanifold transitions of Pr3+ from the 3P2, 1D2, and 3P0 manifold states to the lower-lying manifolds. In addition, the room temperature fluorescence lifetimes and emission cross sections of the 3P2→3H5, 1D2→3H4, and 3P0→3F2 transitions were measured; these values were compared with those of Nd3+:yttritium-aluminum-garnet and Pr3+:Sr5(PO4)3 (known as S-FAP).

  6. Climatology of aerosol optical properties and black carbon mass absorption cross section at a remote high-altitude site in the western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Ripoll, A.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol light scattering (σsp), backscattering (σbsp) and absorption (σap) were measured at Montsec (MSC; 42°3' N, 0°44' E, 1570 m a.s.l.), a remote high-altitude site in the western Mediterranean Basin. Mean (±SD) σsp, σbsp and σap were 18.9 ± 20.8, 2.6 ± 2.8 and 1.5 ± 1.4 Mm-1, respectively at 635 nm during the period under study (June 2011-June 2013). Mean values of single-scattering albedo (SSA, 635 nm), the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE, 450-635 nm), backscatter-to-scatter ratio (B / S, 635 nm), asymmetry parameter (g, 635 nm), black carbon mass absorption cross section (MAC, 637 nm) and PM2.5 mass scattering cross section (MSCS, 635 nm) were 0.92 ± 0.03, 1.56 ± 0.88, 0.16 ± 0.09, 0.53 ± 0.16, 10.9 ± 3.5 m2 g-1 and 2.5 ± 1.3 m2 g-1, respectively. The scattering measurements performed at MSC were in the medium/upper range of values reported by Andrews et al. (2011) for other mountaintop sites in Europe due to the frequent regional recirculation scenarios (SREG) and Saharan dust episodes (NAF) occurring mostly in spring/summer and causing the presence of polluted layers at the MSC altitude. However, the development of upslope winds and the possible presence of planetary boundary layer air at MSC altitude in summer may also have contributed to the high scattering observed. Under these summer conditions no clear diurnal cycles were observed for the measured extensive aerosol optical properties (σsp, σbsp and σap). Conversely, low σsp and σap at MSC were measured during Atlantic advections (AA) and winter regional anticyclonic episodes (WREG) typically observed during the cold season in the western Mediterranean. Therefore, a season-dependent decrease in the magnitude of aerosol extensive properties was observed when MSC was in the free troposphere, with the highest free-troposphere vs. all-data difference observed in winter and the lowest in spring/summer. The location of MSC station allowed for a reliable characterization of aerosols

  7. Stability properties of wines by absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larena, A.; Vega, J.

    1986-03-01

    The temporal evolution of absorption spectra (370-700 nm) of different spanish wines has been studied by us under the influence of air presence, and the light exposition. In particular, we have exposed the wines to a magenta light. Nevertheless, the color coordinates of wine show a little relative variation (0.1-1 %)

  8. Measurement of the 238U neutron-capture cross section and gamma-emission spectra from 10 eV to 100 keV using the DANCE detector at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John L; Couture, A J; Keksis, A L; Vieira, D J; O' Donnell, J M; Jandel, M; Haight, R C; Rundberg, R S; Kawano, T; Chyzh, A; Baramsai, B; Wu, C Y; Mitchell, G E; Becker, J A; Krticka, M

    2010-01-01

    A careful new measurement of the {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}) cross section from 10 eV to 100 keV has been made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. DANCE is a 4{pi} calorimetric scintillator array consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} crystals. Measurements were made on a 48 mg/cm{sup 2} depleted uranium target. The cross sections are in general good agreement with previous measurements. The gamma-ray emission spectra, as a function of gamma multiplicity, were also measured and compared to model calculations.

  9. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  10. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  11. Constraining the N2O5 UV absorption cross-section from spectroscopic trace gas measurements in the tropical mid-stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritten, L.; Butz, A.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Dhomse, S.; Hossaini, R.; Oelhaf, H.; Prados-Roman, C.; Wetzel, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2014-02-01

    The absorption cross-section of N2O5, σN2O5(λ, T), which is known from laboratory measurements with the uncertainty of a factor of 2 (Table 4-2 in JPL-2011, Sander et al., 2011), was investigated by balloon-borne observations of the relevant trace gases in the tropical mid-stratosphere. The method relies on the observation of the diurnal variation of NO2 supported by detailed photochemical modelling of NOy (NOx(= NO + NO2) + NO3 + 2N2O5 + ClONO2 + HO2NO2 +BrONO2 + HNO3) photochemistry. Simulations are initialised with O3 measured by direct sun observations, the NOy partitioning from MIPAS-B (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding-Balloon) observations in similar air masses at nighttime, and all other relevant species from simulations of the SLIMCAT chemical transport model (CTM). Best agreement between the simulated and observed diurnal increase of NO2 is found if the σN2O5(λ, T) is scaled by a factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 in the UV-C (200-260 nm) and by a factor of 0.9 ± 0.26 in the UV-B/A (260-350 nm), compared to current recommendations. In consequence, at 30 km altitude, the N2O5 lifetime against photolysis becomes a factor of 0.77 shorter at solar zenith angle (SZA) of 30° than using the recommended σN2O5 (λ, T), and stays more or less constant at SZAs of 60°. Our scaled N2O5 photolysis frequency slightly reduces the lifetime (0.2-0.6%) of ozone in the tropical mid- and upper stratosphere, but not to an extent to be important for global ozone.

  12. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients as a function of temperature and IR absorption cross sections for CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf), potential replacement of CF3CH2F (HFC-134a).

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Jiménez, Elena; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    CF3CH=CH2 (hydrofluoroolefin, HFO-1243zf) is a potential replacement of high global-warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a, CF3CFH2). Both the atmospheric lifetime and the radiative efficiency of HFO-1243zf are parameters needed for estimating the GWP of this species. Therefore, the aim of this work is (i) to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1243zf from the reported OH rate coefficients, k OH, determined under tropospheric conditions and (ii) to calculate its radiative efficiency from the reported IR absorption cross sections. The OH rate coefficient at 298 K also allows the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)). The pulsed laser photolysis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to determine k OH for the reaction of OH radicals with HFO-1243zf as a function of pressure (50-650 Torr of He) and temperature (263-358 K). Gas-phase IR spectra of HFO-1243zf were recorded at room temperature using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer between 500 and 4,000 cm(-1). At all temperatures, k OH did not depend on bath gas concentration (i.e., on the total pressure between 50 and 650 Torr of He). A slight but noticeable T dependence of k OH was observed in the temperature range investigated. The observed behavior is well described by the following Arrhenius expression: k OH(T) = (7.65 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) exp [(165 ± 10) / T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Negligible IR absorption of HFO-1243zf was observed at wavenumbers greater than 1,700 cm(-1). Therefore, IR absorption cross sections, [Formula: see text], were determined in the 500-1,700 cm(-1) range. Integrated [Formula: see text] were determined between 650 and 1,800 cm(-1) for comparison purposes. The main diurnal removal pathway for HFO-1243zf is the reaction with OH radicals, which accounts for 64% of the overall loss by homogeneous reactions at 298 K. Globally, the lifetime due to OH reaction (τ OH) was estimated to be 8.7 days under

  13. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients as a function of temperature and IR absorption cross sections for CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf), potential replacement of CF3CH2F (HFC-134a).

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Jiménez, Elena; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    CF3CH=CH2 (hydrofluoroolefin, HFO-1243zf) is a potential replacement of high global-warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a, CF3CFH2). Both the atmospheric lifetime and the radiative efficiency of HFO-1243zf are parameters needed for estimating the GWP of this species. Therefore, the aim of this work is (i) to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1243zf from the reported OH rate coefficients, k OH, determined under tropospheric conditions and (ii) to calculate its radiative efficiency from the reported IR absorption cross sections. The OH rate coefficient at 298 K also allows the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)). The pulsed laser photolysis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to determine k OH for the reaction of OH radicals with HFO-1243zf as a function of pressure (50-650 Torr of He) and temperature (263-358 K). Gas-phase IR spectra of HFO-1243zf were recorded at room temperature using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer between 500 and 4,000 cm(-1). At all temperatures, k OH did not depend on bath gas concentration (i.e., on the total pressure between 50 and 650 Torr of He). A slight but noticeable T dependence of k OH was observed in the temperature range investigated. The observed behavior is well described by the following Arrhenius expression: k OH(T) = (7.65 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) exp [(165 ± 10) / T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Negligible IR absorption of HFO-1243zf was observed at wavenumbers greater than 1,700 cm(-1). Therefore, IR absorption cross sections, [Formula: see text], were determined in the 500-1,700 cm(-1) range. Integrated [Formula: see text] were determined between 650 and 1,800 cm(-1) for comparison purposes. The main diurnal removal pathway for HFO-1243zf is the reaction with OH radicals, which accounts for 64% of the overall loss by homogeneous reactions at 298 K. Globally, the lifetime due to OH reaction (τ OH) was estimated to be 8.7 days under

  14. Constraining the N2O5 UV absorption cross section from spectroscopic trace gas measurements in the tropical mid-stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritten, L.; Butz, A.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Dhomse, S.; Hossaini, R.; Oelhaf, H.; Prados-Roman, C.; Wetzel, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2014-09-01

    The absorption cross section of N2O5, σN2O5(λ, T), which is known from laboratory measurements with the uncertainty of a factor of 2 (Table 4-2 in (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) JPL-2011; the spread in laboratory data, however, points to an uncertainty in the range of 25 to 30%, Sander et al., 2011), was investigated by balloon-borne observations of the relevant trace gases in the tropical mid-stratosphere. The method relies on the observation of the diurnal variation of NO2 by limb scanning DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) measurements (Weidner et al., 2005; Kritten et al., 2010), supported by detailed photochemical modelling of NOy (NOx(= NO + NO2) + NO3 + 2N2O5 + ClONO2 + HO2NO2 + BrONO2 + HNO3) photochemistry and a non-linear least square fitting of the model result to the NO2 observations. Simulations are initialised with O3 measured by direct sun observations, the NOy partitioning from MIPAS-B (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon-borne version) observations in similar air masses at night-time, and all other relevant species from simulations of the SLIMCAT (Single Layer Isentropic Model of Chemistry And Transport) chemical transport model (CTM). Best agreement between the simulated and observed diurnal increase of NO2 is found if the σN2O5(λ, T) is scaled by a factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 in the UV-C (200-260 nm) and by a factor of 0.9 ± 0.26 in the UV-B/A (260-350 nm), compared to current recommendations. As a consequence, at 30 km altitude, the N2O5 lifetime against photolysis becomes a factor of 0.77 shorter at solar zenith angle (SZA) of 30° than using the recommended σN2O5(λ, T), and stays more or less constant at SZAs of 60°. Our scaled N2O5 photolysis frequency slightly reduces the lifetime (0.2-0.6%) of ozone in the tropical mid- and upper stratosphere, but not to an extent to be important for global ozone.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-IMPACT EMISSION SPECTRA AND VIBRATIONAL EMISSION CROSS SECTIONS FROM 330-1100 nm FOR N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mangina, Rao S.; Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Dziczek, Dariusz

    2011-09-01

    Electron-impact emission cross sections for N{sub 2} were measured in the wavelength range of 330-1100 nm at 25 eV and 100 eV impact energies. Cross sections of several molecular emission bands of the first positive band system B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and the second positive band system C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} ({nu}'') of N{sub 2}, the first negative band (1NB) system B {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and Meinel band system A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') of N{sub 2} {sup +} ions as well as line emissions of N (N I) and N{sup +} (N II) in the visible-optical-near-IR wavelength range reported in this work were measured for the first time in a single experimental setup at high spectral resolving power ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 10000) under single-collision-scattering geometry and optically thin conditions. Rotational emission lines of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2} {sup +} were observed for strong emission bands at a gas temperature of about 300 K. The absolute cross section of the strongest (0,0) vibrational band at 391.43 nm of 1NB was determined using the standard H{sub {alpha}} emission cross sections of H{sub 2} by electron impact at both 25 eV and 100 eV electron-impact energies, and the cross sections for the remainder of the emissions were determined using (0,0) 1NB value. A comparison of the present emission cross sections with the earlier published data from both electron energy loss and electron-impact-induced fluorescence emission is discussed.

  16. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina. P.

    2016-05-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σa,en) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μen/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  17. MANTA. An Integral Reactor Physics Experiment to Infer the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Actinides and Fission Products in Fast and Epithermal Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel

    2015-10-01

    Neutron cross-sections characterize the way neutrons interact with matter. They are essential to most nuclear engineering projects and, even though theoretical progress has been made as far as the predictability of neutron cross-section models, measurements are still indispensable to meet tight design requirements for reduced uncertainties. Within the field of fission reactor technology, one can identify the following specializations that rely on the availability of accurate neutron cross-sections: (1) fission reactor design, (2) nuclear fuel cycles, (3) nuclear safety, (4) nuclear safeguards, (5) reactor monitoring and neutron fluence determination and (6) waste disposal and transmutation. In particular, the assessment of advanced fuel cycles requires an extensive knowledge of transuranics cross sections. Plutonium isotopes, but also americium, curium and up to californium isotope data are required with a small uncertainty in order to optimize significant features of the fuel cycle that have an impact on feasibility studies (e.g. neutron doses at fuel fabrication, decay heat in a repository, etc.). Different techniques are available to determine neutron cross sections experimentally, with the common denominator that a source of neutrons is necessary. It can either come from an accelerator that produces neutrons as a result of interactions between charged particles and a target, or it can come from a nuclear reactor. When the measurements are performed with an accelerator, they are referred to as differential since the analysis of the data provides the cross-sections for different discrete energies, i.e. σ(Ei), and for the diffusion cross sections for different discrete angles. Another approach is to irradiate a very pure sample in a test reactor such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after

  18. Absolute photoionization cross sections of the ions Ca+ Ni+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Martins, M.; West, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the singly charged ions in the sequence Ca to Ni are presented, focussing on the 3p → 3d resonance region. Major differences are found in both spectral structure and cross section as the 3d shell is filled progressively. The behaviour of the total oscillator strength is studied as well as its relation to the collapse of the 3d orbital. The 3p53d 1P term is found to have an influence on the spectra even when further 3d electrons are added and this dependence combined with the effect of Hund's rule leads to a considerable simplification in the structure of the absorption spectra before the half-filled 3d shell, while from the half-filled 3d shell Hund's rule is the main simplifying effect.

  19. The use of NO2 absorption cross section temperature sensitivity to derive NO2 profile temperature and stratospheric/tropospheric column partitioning from visible direct sun DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinei, E.; Cede, A.; Swartz, W. H.; Herman, J.; Mount, G. H.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a TEmperature SEnsitivity Method (TESEM) to accurately calculate total vertical NO2 column, atmospheric slant NO2 profile-weighted temperature (T), and to separate stratospheric and tropospheric columns from direct-sun (DS) ground-based measurements using the retrieved T. TESEM is based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) fitting of the linear temperature-dependent NO2 absorption cross section, σ (T), regression model (Vandaele et al., 2003). The direct result of the DOAS spectral fitting retrieval is NO2 differential slant column density (Δ SCD) at the actual atmospheric NO2 T. Atmospheric NO2 T is determined from the DOAS fitting results after SCD in the reference spectrum is estimated using the Minimum Langley Extrapolation method (MLE). Since NO2 is mostly distributed between the lower troposphere and middle stratosphere and direct sun measurements have almost equal sensitivity to stratospheric and tropospheric absorption at solar zenith angles < 75° with a well known photon path, we assume that the retrieved total column NO2 T can be represented as a sum of the NO2 stratospheric and tropospheric Ts multiplied by the corresponding stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the total SCDNO2. We use Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model (CTM) simulations to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variability of stratospheric and tropospheric NO2 T over two northern middle latitude sites in 2011. GMI simulations reveal that stratospheric NO2 T over northern middle latitudes can be estimated with an error of less than 3 K by the simulated temperature at 27 km from April to October. During November-March months the error can reach as high as 10 K. The tropospheric NO2 T can be approximated by the surface temperature within 3-5 K according to GMI simulations. Traditionally, either σ (NO2) is fitted at a single estimated NO2 T, or two predetermined (stratospheric and tropospheric) temperatures. Use of a single T

  20. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices. PMID:26555184

  1. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices.

  2. Two-photon excitation and excited-state absorption cross sections for H2 E,F 1Sigma sub g (v=6) - Measurement and calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Jesse D.; Robie, Daniel C.; Hickman, A. P.; Bamford, Douglas J.; Bischel, William K.

    1989-04-01

    Observations of the E,F 1Sigma sub g (+) (v-prime=6)-to-B 1Sigma sub u (+) (v-double-prime=0) fluorescence transition at about 750 nm have been conducted to determine the absolute two-photon excitation cross section for the H2 E,F 1Sigma sub g (v-prime=6)-from-X 1Sigma sub g (v-double-prime=0) Q(1) transition at 193 nm. The 2.0 + or - 0.9 x 10 to the -36th cm exp 4 integrated two-photon excitation cross-section obtained is in good agreement with Huo and Jaffe's (1983) theoretical calculation result of 2.8 x 10 to the -36th cm exp 4.

  3. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2015-02-01

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  4. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2015-02-14

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  5. Optical absorption spectra of dications of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, J.A.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-04-04

    Quantitative optical absorption spectra of the cation radicals and the dications of canthaxanthin (I), {beta}carotene (II), 7`-cyano-7`-ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`,7`-dimethyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) in dichloromethane solution are reported. Exclusive formation of dications occurs when the carotenoids are oxidized with ferric chloride. Addition of neutral carotenoid to the dications results in equilibrium formation of cation radicals. Oxidation with iodine in dichloromethane affords only cation radicals; electrochemical oxidation under suitable conditions yields both dications and cation radicals. Values of the optical parameters depend on the nature of the oxidative medium. The oscillator strengths calculated for gas phase cation radicals and dications of I-IV using the INDO/S method show the same trend as the experimental values. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  7. Laboratory absorption spectra of molecules at interstellar cloud temperatures - First measurements on CO at about 97 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Yoshino, K.; Stark, G.; Ito, K.; Stevens, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    In the 91-100 nm spectral region, where absorption of photons by interstellar CO usually leads to dissociation, laboratory spectra obtained at 295 K show that most CO bands are both overlapped and perturbed. Reliable band oscillator strengths cannot be extracted from such spectra. As a consequence, synthetic extreme-ultraviolet absorption spectra for CO at the low temperatures that prevail in interstellar clouds are uncertain. A supersonic expansion technique has been used to cool CO to 30 K and three bands in the 97-nm region have been studied with high spectral resolution. The measured spectrum at 30 K is in reasonable agreement with some published modeled spectra, but the ratios of integrated cross sections are somewhat different from those determined from low resolution spectra obtained at 295 K, in which the bands are blended.

  8. Total quadruple photoionization cross section of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanouilidou, Agapi

    2007-11-15

    In a quasiclassical framework, we formulate the quadruple ionization by single-photon absorption of the Coulomb five-body problem. We present the quadruple photoionization total cross section of the ground state of beryllium for energies up to 620 eV. Our results for energies close to threshold are in agreement with the Wannier threshold law for four-electron escape. In addition, the agreement of our results with a shape formula provides support for the overall shape of our total quadruple cross section. Finally, we find that the photon energy where the maximum of the total photoionization cross section occurs for single, double, triple, and quadruple photoionization of H, He, Li, and Be, respectively, seems to follow a linear relation with the threshold energy for complete breakup of the respective element.

  9. Measurement of Gas and Aerosol Phase Absorption Spectra across the Visible and Near-IR Using Supercontinuum Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Radney, James G; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a method to measure the absorption spectra of gas and aerosol species across the visible and near-IR (500 to 840 nm) using a photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer and a pulsed supercontinuum laser source. Measurements of gas phase absorption spectra were demonstrated using H2O(g) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The measured absorption intensities and peak shapes were able to be quantified and compared to spectra calculated using the 2012 High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN2012) database. Size and mass selected nigrosin aerosol was used to measure absorption spectra across the visible and near-IR. Spectra were measured as a function of aerosol size/mass and show good agreement to Mie theory calculations. Lastly, we measured the broadband absorption spectrum of flame generated soot aerosol at 5% and 70% RH. For the high RH case, we are able to quantifiably separate the soot and water absorption contributions. For soot, we observe an enhancement in the mass specific absorption cross section ranging from 1.5 at 500 nm (p < 0.01) to 1.2 at 840 nm (p < 0.2) and a concomitant increase in the absorption Ångström exponent from 1.2 ± 0.4 (5% RH) to 1.6 ± 0.3 (70% RH). PMID:26098142

  10. Spectra, Emission Yields, Cross Sections, and Kinetic Energy Distributions of Hydrogen Atoms from H2 X 1Eg+-d 3IIu Excitation by Electron Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianming; Shemansky, Donald E.; Yoshii, Jean; Johnson, Paul V.; Malone, Charles P.; Ajello, Joseph M.

    2016-02-01

    Electron-impact excitation of H2 triplet states plays an important role in the heating of outer planet upper thermospheres. The {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state is the third ungerade triplet state, and the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ emission is the largest cascade channel for the a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ state. Accurate energies of the d{}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-(v, J) levels are calculated from an ab initio potential energy curve. Radiative lifetimes of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u(v, J) levels are obtained by an accurate evaluation of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ transition probabilities. The emission yields are determined from experimental lifetimes and calculated radiative lifetimes and are further verified by comparing experimental and synthetic {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ spectra at 20 eV impact energy. Spectral analysis revealed that multipolar components beyond the dipolar term are required to model the {X}1{{{Σ }}}g+-{d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u excitation, and significant cascade excitation occurs at the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u(v = 0,1) levels. Kinetic energy (Ek) distributions of H atoms produced via predissociation of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state and the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+-b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ cascade dissociative emission are obtained. Predissociation of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state produces H atoms with an average Ek of 2.3 ± 0.4 eV/atom, while the Ek distribution of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+-b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ channel is similar to that of the {X}1{{{Σ }}}g+-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+-b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ channel and produces H(1s) atoms with an average Ek of 1.15 ± 0.05 eV/atom. On average, each H2 excited to the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state in an H2-dominated atmosphere deposits 3.3 ± 0.4 eV into the atmosphere, while each H2 directly excited to the a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ state gives 2.2-2.3 eV to the atmosphere. The spectral distribution of the calculated a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ -b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ continuum emission due to the {X}1{{{Σ }}}g+-{d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u excitation is significantly different from

  11. Maternal post-absorptive leucine kinetics during late pregnancy in US women with HIV taking antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cade, W. Todd; Singh, Gautam K.; Holland, Mark R.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Overton, E. Turner; Cibulka, Nancy; Bahow, Karen; Presti, Rachel; Stephens, Andrea; Cahill, Alison G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, infants exposed to cART in utero frequently are born smaller and have mild cardiac abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for lower birth weight and cardiac abnormalities in children exposed to cART are unclear but could be related to dysregulation of maternal amino acid metabolism during pregnancy. Previous data in HIV(−) women have shown a relationship between abnormal maternal protein metabolism during pregnancy and low infant birth weight and animal data demonstrate a relationship between altered maternal protein metabolism and increased risk for offspring cardiovascular abnormalities. Objective The objectives of this study were to: characterize post-absorptive maternal leucine kinetics during late pregnancy and examine the relationships between maternal leucine kinetics and offspring birth weight and cardiac function. Design Post-absorptive maternal leucine kinetics (evaluated by using stable isotope tracer methodology) in 16 HIV(+) women receiving cART and 14 HIV(−) US women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy were compared. Relationships between post-absorptive maternal leucine kinetics, cardiac function (echocardiography) and birth weight were statistically examined. Results Maternal plasma leucine concentration (HIV(−): 82.8 ± 10.7 vs. HIV(+): 72.3 ± 13.5 μM, p=0.06) and leucine oxidation rate (HIV(−): 6.1 ± 1.6 vs. HIV(+): 4.9 ± 1.8 μmol/kgBW/min, p=0.03) were lower in HIV+ women compared to controls. Total leucine turnover rate, non-oxidative leucine disposal rate and post-absorptive maternal glucose and palmitate kinetics did not differ between groups. Left ventricular fractional shortening tended to be lower in children born to HIV(+) compared to controls (HIV(−): 42 ± 1 vs. HIV+: 36 ± 5 %, p=0.08) and associated with lower maternal plasma leucine concentration (r= 0.43, p=0.08). Conclusions

  12. Temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section above 298 K and determination of the equilibrium constant for NO3 + NO2 <--> N2O5 at atmospherically relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Osthoff, Hans D; Pilling, Michael J; Ravishankara, A R; Brown, Steven S

    2007-11-21

    The reaction NO3 + NO2 <--> N2O5 was studied over the 278-323 K temperature range. Concentrations of NO3, N2O5, and NO2 were measured simultaneously in a 3-channel cavity ring-down spectrometer. Equilibrium constants were determined over atmospherically relevant concentration ranges of the three species in both synthetic samples in the laboratory and ambient air samples in the field. A fit to the laboratory data yielded Keq = (5.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(-27) x e((10871 +/- 46)/7) cm3 molecule(-1). The temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section at 662 nm was investigated over the 298-388 K temperature range. The line width was found to be independent of temperature, in agreement with previous results. New data for the peak cross section (662.2 nm, vacuum wavelength) were combined with previous measurements in the 200 K-298 K region. A least-squares fit to the combined data gave sigma = [(4.582 +/- 0.096) - (0.00796 +/- 0.00031) x T] x 10(-17) cm2 molecule(-1).

  13. Saturation Dynamics Measures Absolute Cross Section and Generates Contrast within a Neuron.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Aditya; Singh, Vijay R; George, Jude B; Balaji, J

    2016-09-20

    The intensity required to optically saturate a chromophore is a molecular property that is determined by its absorption cross section (σ) and the excited state lifetime. We present an analytical description of such a system and show that fluorescence around the onset of saturation is characterized by product of absorption cross section and lifetime. Using this approach we formulate a generalized method for measuring the multiphoton cross section of fluorophores and use it to obtain the absolute three-photon cross-section spectra of tryptophan. We find that the tryptophan three-photon cross section ranges from 0.28 S.I. units (m(6)s(2)photon(-2)) at 870 nm to 20 S.I. units at 740 nm. Further, we show that the product of molecular rate of excitation and de-excitation, denoted as β, serves as a vital contrasting agent for imaging local environment. Our contrast parameter, β, is related to fraction of the population present in the excited state and is independent of the fluorophore concentration. We show that β-imaging can be carried out in a regular two-photon microscope setup through a series of intensity scans. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fluorescence from the brain slices of Thy-1 EGFP transgenic mice, we show that there is an inherent, concentration independent, variation in contrast across the soma and the dendrite.

  14. Saturation Dynamics Measures Absolute Cross Section and Generates Contrast within a Neuron.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Aditya; Singh, Vijay R; George, Jude B; Balaji, J

    2016-09-20

    The intensity required to optically saturate a chromophore is a molecular property that is determined by its absorption cross section (σ) and the excited state lifetime. We present an analytical description of such a system and show that fluorescence around the onset of saturation is characterized by product of absorption cross section and lifetime. Using this approach we formulate a generalized method for measuring the multiphoton cross section of fluorophores and use it to obtain the absolute three-photon cross-section spectra of tryptophan. We find that the tryptophan three-photon cross section ranges from 0.28 S.I. units (m(6)s(2)photon(-2)) at 870 nm to 20 S.I. units at 740 nm. Further, we show that the product of molecular rate of excitation and de-excitation, denoted as β, serves as a vital contrasting agent for imaging local environment. Our contrast parameter, β, is related to fraction of the population present in the excited state and is independent of the fluorophore concentration. We show that β-imaging can be carried out in a regular two-photon microscope setup through a series of intensity scans. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fluorescence from the brain slices of Thy-1 EGFP transgenic mice, we show that there is an inherent, concentration independent, variation in contrast across the soma and the dendrite. PMID:27653491

  15. Optical absorption spectra of pairs of small metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinten, M.; Kreibig, U.; Schönauer, D.; Genzel, L.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of plasma resonance coupling in small Au particle pairs on their optical properties was calculated including retardation effects. The latter prove to be important for sizes above 15 nm. For pairs of smaller particles a Maxwell-Garnett formula is derived and absorption spectra are calculated explicitly. Comparison with optical absorption spectra measured on aggregated Au particle hydrosols, gives good agreement concerning the splitting up of the dipolar single-particle plasma resonance band.

  16. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  17. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köroğlu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-02-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH3-CH2-CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750-3300 cm-1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm-1 and at seven different pressures (4-33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde.

  18. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072

  19. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  20. Optical absorption and energy-loss spectra of aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vidal, F. J.; Pitarke, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    Optical-absorption cross-sections and energy-loss spectra of aligned multishell carbon nanotubes are investigated, on the basis of photonic band-structure calculations. A local graphite-like dielectric tensor is assigned to every point of the tubules, and the effective transverse dielectric function of the composite is computed by solving Maxwell's equations in media with tensor-like dielectric functions. A Maxwell-Garnett-like approach appropriate to the case of infinitely long anisotropic tubules is also developed. Our full calculations indicate that the experimentally measured macroscopic dielectric function of carbon nanotube materials is the result of a strong electromagnetic coupling between the tubes. An analysis of the electric-field pattern associated with this coupling is presented, showing that in the close-packed regime the incident radiation excites a very localized tangential surface plasmon.

  1. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Tudora, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  2. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  3. Identification of THz absorption spectra of chemicals using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan; Liang, Meiyan; Chen, Sijia

    2007-09-01

    Absorption spectra in the range from 0.2 to 2.6 THz of chemicals such as illicit drugs and antibiotics obtaining from Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique were identified successfully by artificial neural networks. Back Propagation (BP) and Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOM) were investigated to do the identification or classification, respectively. Three-layer BP neural networks were employed to identify absorption spectra of nine illicit drugs and six antibiotics. The spectra of the chemicals were used to train a BP neural network and then the absorption spectra measured in different times were identified by the trained BP neural network. The average identification rate of 76% was achieved. SOM neural networks, another important neural network which sorts input vectors by their similarity, was used to sort 60 absorption spectra from 6 illicit drugs. The whole network was trained by setting a 20×20 and a 16×16 grid, and both of them had given satisfied clustering results. These results indicate that it is feasible to apply BP and SOM neural networks model in the field of THz spectra identification.

  4. FTIR measurements of mid-IR absorption spectra of gaseous fatty acid methyl esters at T=25-500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. F.; Freeman, K. G.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Gas-phase mid-infrared (IR) absorption spectra (2500-3400 cm-1) for eleven fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have been quantitatively measured at temperatures between 25 and 500 °C using an FTIR spectrometer with a resolution of 1 cm-1. Using these spectra, the absorption cross section at 3.39 μm, corresponding to the monochromatic output of a helium-neon laser, is reported for each of these fuels as a function of temperature. The data indicate that the 3.39 μm cross section values of saturated FAMEs vary linearly with the logarithm of the number of Csbnd H bonds in the molecule.

  5. Demonstrating Absorption Spectra Using Commercially Available Incandescent Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.

    In introductory astronomy courses, I typically introduce the three types of spectra: continuous, absorption line, and emission line. It is standard practice to use an ordinary incandescent light bulb to demonstrate the production of a continuous spectrum, and gas discharge tubes to demonstrate the production of an emission line spectrum. The concept of an absorption spectrum is more difficult for students to grasp. A variety of commercially available light bulbs can be used to demonstrate absorption spectra. Here I discuss the use of specialty incandescent light bulbs to demonstrate the phenomenon of absorption of the continuous spectrum produced by a hot tungsten filament. The bulbs examined include the GE Reveal bulb, yellow anti-insect lights, colored party bulbs, and an incandescent "black light" bulb. The bulbs can be used in a lecture or laboratory setting.

  6. Analytical approximations for x-ray cross sections III

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, F; Lighthill, R

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energiesgreater than or equal to10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically. 100 graphs, 1 tab.

  7. [Transient UV absorption spectra of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Jun; Ping, Li; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Xue, Jun-Peng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-03-01

    UV absorption spectrum of artemisinin and transient absorption spectra of various concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide were measured by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The exposure time of each spectrum was 0.1 ms. Results indicate that artemisinin has an obvious UV absorption band centered at 212.52 nm and can react with sodium hydroxide easily. All absorption spectra of different concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide have the similar changes, but the moment at which the changes happened is different. After adding sodium hydroxide into artemisinin in ethanol solution, there was a new absorption band centered at 288 nm appearing firstly. As reaction went on, the intensity of another absorption band centered at 260 nm increased gradually. At the end of the reaction, a continuous absorption band from 200 to 350 nm with the peak at 245 nm formed finally. No other transient absorption spectral data are available on the reaction of artemisinin with sodium hydroxide currently. The new spectral information obtained in this experiment provides very important experimental basis for understanding the properties of artemisinin reacting with alkaline medium and is useful for correctly using of artemisinin as a potential anticancer drug.

  8. Theoretical study on absorption and emission spectra of adenine analogues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Song, Qixia; Yang, Yan; Li, Yan; Wang, Haijun

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention in studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids in recent years. In the present work, we use theoretical calculations to investigate the structural and optical properties of four adenine analogues (termed as A1, A2, A3, and A4), and also consider the effects of aqueous solution and base pairing. The results show that the fluorescent adenine analogues can pair with thymine to form stable H-bonded WC base pairs. The excited geometries of both adenine analogues and WC base pairs are similar to the ground geometries. The absorption and emission maxima of adenine analogues are greatly red shifted compared with nature adenine, the oscillator strengths of A1 and A2 are stronger than A3 and A4 in both absorption and emission spectra. The calculated low-energy peaks in the absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. In general, the aqueous solution and base pairing can slightly red-shift both the absorption and emission maxima, and can increase the oscillator strengths of absorption spectra, but significantly decrease the oscillator strengths of A3 in emission spectra.

  9. IR absorption spectra of cellulose obtained from ozonated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Autlov, S. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Bazarnova, N. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic curves of ozone absorption by aspen wood were obtained. Processing of wood with peracetic acid gave cellulose samples. The yields of ozonated wood, water-soluble compounds, and cellulose were determined for the samples corresponding to different consumptions of ozone. The IR absorption spectra of wood and cellulose isolated from ozonated wood were analyzed. The supramolecular structure of cellulose can be changed by varying the conditions of wood ozonation.

  10. A Simple Demonstration of Absorption Spectra Using Tungsten Holiday Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birriel, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper submitted to the Demonstrations section (Birriel 2008, "Astronomy Education Review," 7, 147), I discussed using commercially available incandescent light bulbs for the purpose of demonstrating absorption spectra in the classroom or laboratory. This demonstration solved a long-standing problem that many of astronomy instructors…

  11. On the cyclo-synchrotron cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, M.; Bodo, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Trussoni, E.

    1996-06-01

    The study of the synchrotron and cyclotron absorption processes and their relative cross-sections, recently analysed by Ghisellini & Svensson, is extended to the case of photons propagating along the direction of the magnetic field. In the relativistic regime we follow a quantum approach, which requires first the derivation of the particle emissivity for the assumed configuration. The expression for the cross-section coincides with that obtained through a classical treatment of the problem in the non-relativistic regime. In the frequency range where absorption is important, the cross-section is larger than the Thomson cross-section by several orders of magnitude, implying a strong coupling between radiation and magnetized plasma. The possible atrophysical implications of this process are briefly discussed; in particular, in a magnetized plasma the Eddington luminosity for synchrotron interaction can be much lower than the standard value.

  12. Excited state cross sections for Er-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemon, Stanley A.; Lambert, Gary M.; Miniscalco, William J.; Davies, Richard W.; Hall, Bruce T.; Folweiler, Robert C.; Wei, Ta-Sheng; Andrews, Leonard J.; Singh, Mahendra P.

    1991-01-01

    Excited-state-absorption (ESA) cross sections were determined for the region between 760 and 900 nm for Er-doped fluorophosphate phosphate and silicate glasses. Measurements were performed on multimode fibers pumping at 647 nm with powers 1 . 5 Wto invert the population into the saturation regime. Over much of the 800-nm band ground-state-absorption (GSA) cross sections are equal to or greater than ESA cross sections. For comparison ESA was also measured for singlemode Al/P-doped silica fiber. The cross sections were incorporated into an amplifier model and the phosphate and fluorophosphate glasses were found to provide higher gain than silica for pumping in the 800-nm band. Photoexcited fluorozirconates were found to have substantial populations in the first four excited states and ESA transitions originating from these states are identified.

  13. The use of NO2 absorption cross section temperature sensitivity to derive NO2 profile temperature and stratospheric-tropospheric column partitioning from visible direct-sun DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinei, E.; Cede, A.; Swartz, W. H.; Herman, J.; Mount, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a temperature sensitivity method (TESEM) to accurately calculate total vertical NO2 column, atmospheric slant NO2 profile-weighted temperature (T), and to separate stratospheric and tropospheric columns from direct-sun (DS), ground-based measurements using the retrieved T. TESEM is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) fitting of the linear temperature-dependent NO2 absorption cross section, σ (T), regression model (Vandaele et al., 2003). Separation between stratospheric and tropospheric columns is based on the primarily bimodal vertical distribution of NO2 and an assumption that stratospheric effective temperature can be represented by temperature at 27 km ± 3 K, and tropospheric effective temperature is equal to surface temperature within 3-5 K. These assumptions were derived from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model (CTM) simulations over two northern midlatitude sites in 2011. TESEM was applied to the Washington State University Multi-Function DOAS instrument (MFDOAS) measurements at four midlatitude locations with low and moderate NO2 anthropogenic emissions: (1) the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (JPL-TMF), CA, USA (34.38° N/117.68° W); (2) Pullman, WA, USA (46.73° N/117.17° W); (3) Greenbelt, MD, USA (38.99° N/76.84° W); and (4) Cabauw, the Netherlands (51.97° N/4.93° E) during July 2007, June-July 2009, July-August and October 2011, November 2012-May 2013, respectively. NO2 T and total, stratospheric, and tropospheric NO2 vertical columns were determined over each site.

  14. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  15. Absorption spectra of crystalline limestones experimentally deformed or tectonised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelle, B.; ChayéD'Albissin, M.; Gouet, G.; Visocekas, R.

    1982-11-01

    Diffuse-reflectance spectra have been measured for a series of samples of Carrara marble experimentally deformed under different cylindrical stress ( P = 0, 100, 250, 500, 980 bars). The creation of point defects that results has been shown up classically by irradiation with β rays (40 krads), thus producing a typical blue coloration linked with the formation of colour centres. The diffuse-reflectance spectra, measured on powders with a microscope-spectrometer in the visible range (400-800 nm), allow the determination of the absorption spectra by means of the Kubelka-Munk function. These absorption spectra have been measured for each of the deformed samples, as well as for different fractions of a very deformed specimen subsequently heated at temperatures between 100 and 500° C for a fixed time. In the same way, tectonised crystalline limestones, of various origins, were studied without any other treatment than the irradiation with β rays. From this study the following preliminary conclusions have been drawn: (1) The absorption spectrum of an undeformed but merely irradiated specimen of crystalline limestone is practically monotonous, but in the deformed specimens a broad band of absorption appears, having a maximum at 620 nm with several shoulders, the chief of which is at 520 nm. (2) This absorption band shows the existence of colour centres, the density of which can be estimated relatively by means of the chromaticity coordinates x and y of the C.I.E. obtained from the diffuse-reflectance spectra (C.I.E. = Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage). (3) An overgrinding of calcite generates defects that have the same spectra as those produced during the experimental deformation. Consequently, in obtaining the powders of grain size 50-80 μm needed for the diffuse spectrometry, great care must be exercised. (4) For a given confining pressure, the defect density is proportional to the deformation rate. (5) One can calibrate the effect of the annealing of

  16. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  17. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  18. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  19. Infrared absorption spectra of metal carbides, nitrides and sulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammori, O.; Sato, K.; Kurosawa, F.

    1981-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of 12 kinds of metal carbides, 11 kinds of nitrides, and 7 kinds of sulfides, a total of 30 materials, were measured and the application of the infrared spectra of these materials to analytical chemistry was discussed. The measurements were done in the frequency (wave length) range of (1400 to 400/cm (7 to 25 mu). The carbides Al4C3, B4C, the nitrides AlN, BN, Si3N4, WB, and the sulfides Al2S3, FeS2, MnS, NiS and PbS were noted to have specific absorptions in the measured region. The sensitivity of Boron nitride was especially good and could be detected at 2 to 3 micrograms in 300 mg of potassium bromide.

  20. EPR and electronic absorption spectra of copper bearing turquoise mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K. B. N.; Moorthy, L. R.; Reddy, B. J.; Vedanand, S.

    1988-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectra of turquoise have been studied both at room and low temperatures. It is concluded from the EPR spectra that the ground state of Cu 2+ ion in turquoise is 2A g(d x2- y2) and it is sited in an elongated rhombic octahedron (D 2π). The observed absorption bands at 14970 and 18354 cm -1 are assigned at 2A g→ 2B 1 g( dx2- y2→ xy) and 2A g→[ su2B 3g(d x 2-y 2→d yz) respectively assuming D 2π symmetry which are inconsistent with EPR studies. The three bands in the NIR region are attributed to combinations of fundamental modes of the H 2O molecule present in the sample.

  1. Electron impact excitation of SO2 - Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of SO2 was investigated. Differential, integral, and inelastic momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative measurements to the elastic cross sections. The cross sections are given for seven spectral ranges of the energy-loss spectra extending from the lowest electronic state to near the first ionization limit. Most of the regions represent the overlap of several electronic transitions. No measurements for these cross sections have been reported previously.

  2. Theoretical investigations of absorption and fluorescence spectra of protonated pyrene.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2016-05-25

    The equilibrium geometry and 75 vibrational normal-mode frequencies of the ground and first excited states of protonated pyrene isomers were calculated and characterized in the adiabatic representation by using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. Electronic absorption spectra of solid neon matrixes in the wavelength range 495-415 nm were determined by Maier et al. and they were analyzed using time-dependent density functional theory calculations (TDDFT). CASSCF calculations and absorption and emission spectra simulations by one-photon excitation equations were used to optimize the excited and ground state structures of protonated pyrene isomers. The absorption band was attributed to the S0 → S1 electronic transition in 1H-Py(+), and a band origin was used at 20580.96 cm(-1). The displaced harmonic oscillator approximation and Franck-Condon approximation were used to simulate the absorption spectrum of the (1) (1)A' ← X[combining tilde](1)A' transition of 1H-Py(+), and the main vibronic transitions were assigned for the first ππ* state. It shows that the vibronic structures were dominated by one of the eight active totally symmetric modes, with ν15 being the most crucial. This indicates that the electronic transition of the S1((1)A') state calculated in the adiabatic representation effectively includes a contribution from the adiabatic vibronic coupling through Franck-Condon factors perturbed by harmonic oscillators. The present method can adequately reproduce experimental absorption and fluorescence spectra of a gas phase. PMID:27181017

  3. Absorption Features in Spectra of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Suleimanov, V.; Hambaryan, V.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Pavlov, G. G.; Adelsberg, M. van; Werner, K.

    2011-09-21

    The X-ray spectra of some magnetized isolated neutron stars (NSs) show absorption features with equivalent widths (EWs) of 50-200 eV, whose nature is not yet well known.To explain the prominent absorption features in the soft X-ray spectra of the highly magnetized (B{approx}10{sup 14} G) X-ray dim isolated NSs (XDINSs), we theoretically investigate different NS local surface models, including naked condensed iron surfaces and partially ionized hydrogen model atmospheres, with semi-infinite and thin atmospheres above the condensed surface. We also developed a code for computing light curves and integral emergent spectra of magnetized neutron stars with various temperature and magnetic field distributions over the NS surface. We compare the general properties of the computed and observed light curves and integral spectra for XDINS RBS 1223 and conclude that the observations can be explained by a thin hydrogen atmosphere above the condensed iron surface, while the presence of a strong toroidal magnetic field component on the XDINS surface is unlikely.We suggest that the harmonically spaced absorption features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the central compact object (CCO) 1E 1207.4-5209 (hereafter 1E 1207) correspond to peaks in the energy dependence of the free-free opacity in a quantizing magnetic field, known as quantum oscillations. To explore observable properties of these quantum oscillations, we calculate models of hydrogen NS atmospheres with B{approx}10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} G(i.e., electron cyclotron energy E{sub c,e}{approx}0.1-1 keV) and T{sub eff} = 1-3 MK. Such conditions are thought to be typical for 1E 1207. We show that observable features at the electron cyclotron harmonics with EWs {approx_equal}100-200 eV can arise due to these quantum oscillations.

  4. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  5. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  6. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  7. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Transient absorption spectra of the laser-dressed hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of transient absorption spectra of laser-dressed hydrogen atoms, based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The timing of absorption is controlled by the delay between an extreme ultra violet (XUV) pulse and an infrared (IR) laser field. The XUV pulse is isolated and several hundred attoseconds in duration, which acts as a pump to drive the ground-state electron to excited p states. The subsequent interaction with the IR field produces dressed states, which manifest as sidebands between the 1s-np absorption spectra separated by one IR-photon energy. We demonstrate that the population of dressed states is maximized when the timing of the XUV pulse coincides with the zero crossing of the IR field, and that their energies can be manipulated in a subcycle time scale by adding a chirp to the IR field. An alternative perspective to the problem is to think of the XUV pulse as a probe to detect the dynamical ac Stark shifts. Our results indicate that the accidental degeneracy of the hydrogen excited states is removed while they are dressed by the IR field, leading to large ac Stark shifts. Furthermore, we observe the Autler-Townes doublets for the n=2 and 3 levels using the 656 nm dressing field, but their separation does not agree with the prediction by the conventional three-level model that neglects the dynamical ac Stark shifts.

  9. Effects of compositional variation on absorption spectra of lunar pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.

    1978-01-01

    Polarized absorption spectra of lunar pyroxenes with a range of iron, calcium, magnesium, titanium and chromium contents were measured on polished, oriented single crystals; spectral data on pure synthetic FeSiO3 were also recorded. The bands at 1 and 2 microns were found to vary significantly in position with composition within the pyroxene quadrilateral; wavelengths increased with increasing calcium and iron. In the visible region, a weak band at 640 nm correlates in intensity with Cr2O3, but not with titanium as had been previously suggested. The 505-nm ferrous iron peak is a sharp doublet in most low-calcium pyroxenes but a singlet in augites. A peak at 475 nm and an intense absorption edge below 700 nm correlated with titanium content.

  10. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  11. Observational Cosmology Using Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaee, A.

    2016-09-01

    Distant, highly luminous quasars are important cosmological probes for a variety of astrophysical questions: the first generation of galaxies, the star formation history and metal enrichment in the early Universe, the growth of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs), the role of feedback from quasars and SMBHs in galaxy evolution, the epoch of reionization, etc. In addition, they are used as background illuminating source that reveal any object located by chance on the line of sight. I will present our group works in these issues that can be done using absorption lines in the quasar spectra.

  12. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  13. Detection of water vapour absorption around 363nm in measured atmospheric absorption spectra and its effect on DOAS evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, Johannes; Polyansky, Oleg. L.; Kyuberis, Alexandra A.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Lodi, Lorenzo; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water vapour is known to absorb light from the microwave region to the blue part of the visible spectrum at a decreasing magnitude. Ab-initio approaches to model individual absorption lines of the gaseous water molecule predict absorption lines until its dissociation limit at 243 nm. We present first evidence of water vapour absorption at 363 nm from field measurements based on the POKAZATEL absorption line list by Polyansky et al. (2016) using data from Multi-Axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Longpath (LP)-DOAS measurements. The predicted absorptions contribute significantly to the observed optical depths with up to 2 × 10‑3. Their magnitude correlates well (R2 = 0.89) to simultaneously measured well-established water vapour absorptions in the blue spectral range from 452-499 nm, but is underestimated by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.6 in the ab-initio model. At a spectral resolution of 0.5nm this leads to a maximum absorption cross-section value of 5.4 × 10‑27 cm2/molec at 362.3nm. The results are independent of the employed cross-section data to compensate for the overlayed absorption of the oxygen dimer O4. The newly found absorption can have a significant impact on the spectral retrieval of absorbing trace-gas species in the spectral range around 363 nm. Its effect on the spectral analysis of O4, HONO and OClO are discussed.

  14. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  15. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  16. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  17. Measurement of a metastability-exchange cross section in krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Brechignac, C.; Vetter, R.

    1980-08-01

    The metastability-exchange cross section between (/sup 3/P/sub 2/)Kr atoms and (/sup 1/S/sub 0/)Kr atoms is measured by means of a two-laser saturated-absorption experiment performed on the lambda=557-nm transition. A study of velocity changes occurring in pure /sup 86/Kr and in (/sup 86/Kr--/sup 78/Kr) discharges leads to a value for the cross section Q75=(plus-or-minus10) A/sup 2/.

  18. Photoabsorption cross-section measurements of 32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S sulfur dioxide from 190 to 220 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Yoshiaki; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Ueno, Yuichiro; Hattori, Shohei; Johnson, Matthew S.; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2015-03-01

    The ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the SO2 isotopologues are essential to understanding the photochemical fractionation of sulfur isotopes in planetary atmospheres. We present measurements of the absorption cross sections of 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2, and 36SO2, recorded from 190 to 220 nm at room temperature with a resolution of 0.1 nm (~25 cm-1) made using a dual-beam photospectrometer. The measured absorption cross sections show an apparent pressure dependence and a newly developed analytical model shows that this is caused by underresolved fine structure. The model made possible the calculation of absorption cross sections at the zero-pressure limit that can be used to calculate photolysis rates for atmospheric scenarios. The 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 cross sections improve upon previously published spectra including fine structure and peak widths. This is the first report of absolute absorption cross sections of the 36SO2 isotopologue for the C1B2-X1A2 band where the amplitude of the vibrational structure is smaller than the other isotopologues throughout the spectrum. Based on the new results, solar UV photodissociation of SO2 produces 34ɛ, 33Ε, and 36Ε isotopic fractionations of +4.6 ± 11.6‰, +8.8 ± 9.0‰, and -8.8 ± 19.6‰, respectively. From these spectra isotopic effects during photolysis in the Archean atmosphere can be calculated and compared to the Archean sedimentary record. Our results suggest that broadband solar UV photolysis is capable of producing the mass-independent fractionation observed in the Archean sedimentary record without involving shielding by specific gaseous compounds in the atmosphere including SO2 itself. The estimated magnitude of 33Ε, for example, is close to the maximum Δ33S observed in the geological record.

  19. Coherent to incoherent cross section ratio for 59.54 keV gamma rays at scattering angle of 110°

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. P.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B. S.; Sharma, Amandeep

    2015-08-28

    The coherent (Rayleigh) to incoherent (Compton) scattering cross-section ratio of elements, in the range 13 ≤ Z ≤ 82, are determined experimentally for 59.54 keV incident gamma photons. An HPGe (High purity germanium) semiconductor detector is employed, at scattering angle of 110°, to record the spectra originating from interactions of incident gamma photons with the target under investigation. The intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattered peaks observed in the recorded spectra, and corrected for photo-peak efficiency of gamma detector and absorption of photons in the target and air, along with the other required parameters provides the differential cross-section ratio. The measured values of cross-section ratio are found to agree with theoretical predictions based upon non-relativistic form factor, relativistic form factor, modified form factor and S-matrix theory.

  20. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  1. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.

  2. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  3. A Parallel Iterative Method for Computing Molecular Absorption Spectra.

    PubMed

    Koval, Peter; Foerster, Dietrich; Coulaud, Olivier

    2010-09-14

    We describe a fast parallel iterative method for computing molecular absorption spectra within TDDFT linear response and using the LCAO method. We use a local basis of "dominant products" to parametrize the space of orbital products that occur in the LCAO approach. In this basis, the dynamic polarizability is computed iteratively within an appropriate Krylov subspace. The iterative procedure uses a matrix-free GMRES method to determine the (interacting) density response. The resulting code is about 1 order of magnitude faster than our previous full-matrix method. This acceleration makes the speed of our TDDFT code comparable with codes based on Casida's equation. The implementation of our method uses hybrid MPI and OpenMP parallelization in which load balancing and memory access are optimized. To validate our approach and to establish benchmarks, we compute spectra of large molecules on various types of parallel machines. The methods developed here are fairly general, and we believe they will find useful applications in molecular physics/chemistry, even for problems that are beyond TDDFT, such as organic semiconductors, particularly in photovoltaics.

  4. Substitution effects on the absorption spectra of nitrophenolate isomers.

    PubMed

    Wanko, Marius; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Suhr Kirketerp, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Rubio, Angel

    2012-10-01

    Charge-transfer excitations highly depend on the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor groups. Nitrophenolates are simple examples of charge-transfer systems where the degree of coupling differs between ortho, meta and para isomers. Here we report the absorption spectra of the isolated anions in vacuo to avoid the complications of solvent effects. Gas-phase action spectroscopy was done with two different setups, an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer. The results are interpreted on the basis of CC2 quantum chemical calculations. We identified absorption maxima at 393, 532, and 399 nm for the para, meta, and ortho isomer, respectively, with the charge-transfer transition into the lowest excited singlet state. In the meta isomer, this π-π* transition is strongly redshifted and its oscillator strength reduced, which is related to the pronounced charge-transfer character, as a consequence of the topology of the conjugated π-system. Each isomer's different charge distribution in the ground state leads to a very different solvent shift, which in acetonitrile is bathochromic for the para and ortho, but hypsochromic for the meta isomer.

  5. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  6. Elastic photonuclear cross sections for bremsstrahlung from relativistic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Sørensen, Allan H.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we provide a procedure to calculate the bremsstrahlung spectrum for virtually any relativistic bare ion with charge 6e or beyond, Z ⩾ 6 , in ultraperipheral collisions with target nuclei. We apply the Weizsäcker-Williams method of virtual quanta to model the effect of the distribution of nuclear constituents on the interaction of the ion with the radiation target. This leads to a bremsstrahlung spectrum peaking at 2 γ times the energy of the giant dipole resonance (γ is the projectile energy in units of its rest energy). A central ingredient in the calculation is the cross section for elastic scattering of photons on the ion. This is only available in the literature for a few selected nuclei and, usually, only in a rather restricted parameter range. Hence we develop a procedure applicable for all Z ⩾ 6 to estimate the elastic scattering. The elastic cross section is obtained at low to moderate photon energies, somewhat beyond the giant dipole resonance, by means of the optical theorem, a dispersion relation, and data on the total absorption cross section. The cross section is continued at higher energies by invoking depletion due to loss of coherence in the scattering. Our procedure is intended for any ion where absorption data is available and for moderate to high energies, γ ≳ 10 .

  7. Difference in effect of temperature on absorption and Raman spectra between all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guan-Nan; Li, Shuo; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Yong-Ling; Sun, Shang; Shan, Xiao-Ning; Men, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Wei; Li, Zuo-Wei; Gao, Shu-Qin

    2012-12-01

    Temperature dependencies (81 °C-18 °C) ofvisible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol extremely diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide are investigated in order to clarify temperature effects on different polyenes. Their absorption spectra are identified to be redshifted with temperature decreasing. Moreover, all-trans-β-carotene is more sensitive to temperature due to the presence of a longer length of conjugated system. The characteristic energy responsible for the conformational changes in all-trans-β-carotene is smaller than that in all-trans-retinol. Both of the Raman scattering cross sections increase with temperature decreasing. The results are explained with electron—phonon coupling theory and coherent weakly damped electron—lattice vibrations model.

  8. Silicon Detector System for Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials it is necessary to know cosmic ray particles are broken up as they pass though these materials. The breakup of cosmic ray particles is characterized by the nuclear fragmentation cross sections, i.e. an effective geometrical cross section assigned to each target nucleus that represents its apparent size for fragmenting the incident particle. The values of these cross sections depend on the details of nuclear physics and cannot be calculated from first principles owing to the many-body nature of the interactions. The only way to determine them is to measure them. Once a sufficient number of cross sections have been measured, the systematic nature of the interactions allows other cross-sections to be estimated. The number of cross sections that contribute to the estimation of shielding effectiveness is very large 10,000. Fortunately most make minor contributions. These can be estimated from nuclear systematics. Only those who's uncertainties make significant contributions to the error in the shielding effectiveness estimations need to be measured. In the past it has proven difficult to measure light fragment production cross sections from the interactions of heavy cosmic rays owing to the size of the detectors used. We have developed a highly pixilated silicon (Si) detector system that can individually identify these light fragments while making efficient use of costly accelerator time. This system is an outgrowth of detector technology developed under a CDDF and a Code S sponsored cosmic ray experiment.

  9. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  10. Differential cross-sections with hard targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, J. L.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2005-09-01

    When the concept of scattering differential cross-section is introduced in classical mechanics textbooks, usually it is first supposed that the target is a fixed, hard sphere. In this paper we calculate the scattering differential cross-section in the case of the hard target being a fixed figure of revolution of any shape. When the target is a paraboloid of revolution, we find the well-known formula corresponding to Rutherford's scattering. In addition, we analyse the inverse problem, i.e. given a differential cross-section, what is the profile of the corresponding hard target?

  11. Constraining The Reionization History With QSO Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallerani, S.; Choudhury, T. R.; Ferrara, A.

    2006-08-01

    We use a semi-analytical approach to simulate absorption spectra of QSOs at high redshifts with the aim of constraining the cosmic reionization history. We consider two physically motivated and detailed reionization histories: (i) an Early Reionization Model (ERM) in which the intergalactic medium is reionized by PopIII stars at z~14, and (ii) a more standard Late Reionization Model (LRM) in which overlapping, induced by QSOs and normal galaxies, occurs at z~6. An example of simulated spectra is provided by FIG.1. From the analysis of current Lyα forest data at z<6, we conclude that it is impossible to disentangle the two scenarios, which fit equally well the observed Gunn-Peterson optical depth, flux probability distribution function and dark gap width distribution. At z>6, however, clear differences start to emerge which are best quantified by the dark gap width distribution. We find that 35 (zero) per cent of the lines of sight within 5.750Å in the rest frame of the QSO if re-ionization is not (is) complete at z>~6 (FIG.2). Similarly, the ERM predicts peaks of width ~1Å in 40 per cent of the lines of sight in the redshift range 6.0-6.6; in the same range, LRM predicts no peaks of width >0.8Å (FIG.3). We conclude that the dark gap and peak width statistics represent superb probes of cosmic reionization if about ten QSOs can be found at z>6.

  12. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500 cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460 K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5 cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460 K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975 cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy.

  13. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  14. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  15. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  16. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Measurements of cross sections relevant to. gamma. -ray line astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K.T.; Norman, E.B.; Larimer, R.M.; Crane, S.G.

    1986-06-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections have been measured for the ..gamma..-ray lines which are mostly strongly excited in the proton bombardment of C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe targets of natural isotopic composition. High resolution germanium detectors were used to collect ..gamma..-ray spectra at proton bombarding energies of 20, 30, 33, 40 and 50 MeV. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  18. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  19. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  20. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  1. Infrared absorption spectra of various doping states in cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, K.; Bishop, A.R.; Lorenzana, J.

    1992-02-01

    Doping states in a two-dimensional three-band extended Peierls-Hubbard model was investigated within inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock and random phase approximation. They are very sensitive to small changes of interaction parameters and their distinct vibrational and optical absorption spectra can be used to identify different doping states. For electronic parameters relevant to cuprate superconductors, as intersite electron-phonon interaction strength increases, the doping state changes from a Zhang-Rice state to a covalent molecular singlet state accompanied by local quenching of the Cu magnetic moment and large local lattice distortion in an otherwise undistorted antiferromagnetic background. In a region where both intersite electron-phonon interaction and on-site electron-electron repulsion are large, we obtain new stable global phases including a bond-order-wave state and a mixed state of spin-Peierls bonds and antiferromagnetic Cu spins, as well as many metastable states. Doping in the bond-order-wave region induces separation of spin and charge. 9 refs.

  2. Infrared absorption spectra of various doping states in cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, K.; Bishop, A.R. ); Lorenzana, J. )

    1992-01-01

    Doping states in a two-dimensional three-band extended Peierls-Hubbard model was investigated within inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock and random phase approximation. They are very sensitive to small changes of interaction parameters and their distinct vibrational and optical absorption spectra can be used to identify different doping states. For electronic parameters relevant to cuprate superconductors, as intersite electron-phonon interaction strength increases, the doping state changes from a Zhang-Rice state to a covalent molecular singlet state accompanied by local quenching of the Cu magnetic moment and large local lattice distortion in an otherwise undistorted antiferromagnetic background. In a region where both intersite electron-phonon interaction and on-site electron-electron repulsion are large, we obtain new stable global phases including a bond-order-wave state and a mixed state of spin-Peierls bonds and antiferromagnetic Cu spins, as well as many metastable states. Doping in the bond-order-wave region induces separation of spin and charge. 9 refs.

  3. Molecular structures and absorption spectra assignment of corrole NH tautomers.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Wichard; Presselt, Martin; Ngo, Thien H; Dehaen, Wim; Maes, Wouter; Kruk, Mikalai

    2014-02-01

    The individual absorption spectra of the two NH tautomers of 10-(4,6-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)-5,15-dimesitylcorrole are assigned on the basis of the Gouterman four-orbital model and a quantum chemical TD-DFT study. The assignment indicates that the red-shifted T1 tautomer is the one with protonated pyrrole nitrogen atoms N(21), N(22) and N(23), whereas the blue-shifted T2 tautomer has pyrrole nitrogen atoms N(21), N(22) and N(24) protonated. A wave-like nonplanar distortion of the macrocycle in the ground state is found for both NH tautomers, with the wave axis going through the pyrroles containing N(22) and N(24). The 7C plane determined by the least-squares distances to the carbon atoms C1, C4, C5, C6, C9, C16, and C19 is suggested as a mean corrole macrocycle plane for the analysis of out-of-plane distortions. The magnitude of these distortions is distinctly different for the two NH tautomers, leading to substantial perturbations of their acid-base properties, which are rationalized by the interplay of the degree of out-of-plane distortion of the macrocycle as a whole and the tendency of the pyrrole nitrogen atoms toward pyramidalization, with the former leading to a basicity increase whereas the latter enhances the acidity.

  4. UV optical absorption spectra analysis of spodumene crystals from Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotani, Sadao; Watari, Kazunori; Mizukami, Akiyoshi; Bonventi, Waldemar; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2007-04-01

    The spectral decomposition analysis was applied to the optical absorption spectra of spodumene crystals from the Brazilian eastern pegmatitic province. The analyzed samples were natural, treated at 400 °C for 24 h and those irradiated with γ rays of 60Co with doses up to 5 MGy. The attributions of the lines were made taking in account highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The heated sample had only three lines, which were not affected by irradiation. One of them at 7.58 eV was attributed to an oxygen vacancy defect and the other two at 5.07 and 4.64 eV to a peroxy-type defect. The analysis of the growth of the lines with the irradiation showed that they belong to two groups of defects. The first group of lines at 4.2, 5.3 and 5.9 eV was attributed to a silanone-type defect. The other group of lines at 1.36, 2.0, 2.6, 3.6 and 5.0 eV was attributed to a type of Mn 3+ defect. The natural and irradiated samples also showed a line at 2.3 eV, which was attributed to another type of diamagnetic Mn 3+ defect.

  5. Photoionization cross sections and oscillator strengths of neutral cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, S. U.; Nadeem, Ali; Nawaz, M.

    2012-11-01

    The absolute photoionization cross sections from the 6p 2P1/2 excited state of cesium at threshold and above the threshold region have been measured using the saturation absorption technique. The photoionization cross section at the ionization threshold is determined as 22.6±3.6 Mb, whereas in the region above threshold its value ranges from 22 to 20 Mb for photoelectron energies up to 0.1 eV. A comparison of the photoionization cross sections with earlier reported theoretical and experimental data have been presented and are in good agreement within the uncertainty. In addition, the oscillator strengths of the 6p 2P1/2→n d 2D3/2 (21≤n≤60) Rydberg transitions of cesium have been calibrated using the threshold value of the photoionization cross section. A complete picture of the oscillator strengths from the present work and previously reported data from n=5-60 is presented.

  6. Laser-Induced Optical Pumping Measurements of Cross Section for Fine- and Hyperfine-Structure Transitions in Sodium Induced by Collisions with Helium and Argon Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Sung, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    Optical pumping of the ground states of sodium can radically alter the shape of the laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating measurements of temperature, pressure, etc., which are based on these spectra. Modeling of the fluorescence using rate equations for the eight hyperfine states of the sodium D manifolds can be used to quantify the contribution to the ground state pumping of transitions among the hyperfine excited states induced by collisions with buffer gas atoms. This model is used here to determine, from the shape of experimental spectra, cross sections lor DELTA.F transitions of the P(sub 3/2) state induced by collisions with helium and argon atoms, for a range of values assumed for the P(sub 1/2), DELTA.F cross sections. The hyperfine cross sections measured using this method, which to our knowledge is novel, are compared with cross sections for transitions involving polarized magnetic substates m(sub F) measured previously using polarization sensitive absorption. Also, fine-structure transition cross sections were measured in the pumped vapor, giving agreement with previous measurements made in the absence of pumping.

  7. Laser Induced Optical Pumping Measurements of Cross Sections for Fine and Hyperfine Structure Transitions in Sodium Induced by Collisions with Helium Argon Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Sung, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical pumping of the ground states of sodium can radically alter the shape of the laser induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating measurements of temperature, pressure, etc., which are based on these spectra. Modeling of the fluorescence using rate equations for the eight hyperfine states of the sodium D manifolds can be used to quantify the contribution to the ground state pumping of transitions among the hyperfine excited states induced by collisions with buffer gas atoms. This model is used here to determine, from the shape of experimental spectra, cross sections for (Delta)F transitions of the P(sub 3/2) state induced by collisions with helium and argon atoms, for a range of values assumed for the P(sub 1/2), (Delta)F cross sections. The hyperfine cross sections measured using this method, which is thought to be novel, are compared with cross sections for transitions involving polarized magnetic substates, m(sub F), measured previously using polarization sensitive absorption. Also, fine structure transition ((Delta)J) cross sections were measured in the pumped vapor, giving agreement with previous measurements made in the absence of pumping.

  8. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J. W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Constraining the reionization history with QSO absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallerani, S.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Ferrara, A.

    2006-08-01

    We use a semi-analytical approach to simulate absorption spectra of QSOs at high redshifts with the aim of constraining the cosmic reionization history. We consider two physically motivated and detailed reionization histories: (i) an early reionization model (ERM) in which the intergalactic medium is reionized by Pop III stars at z ~ 14, and (ii) a more standard late reionization model (LRM) in which overlapping, induced by QSOs and normal galaxies, occurs at z ~ 6. From the analysis of current Lyα forest data at z < 6, we conclude that it is impossible to disentangle the two scenarios, which fit equally well the observed Gunn-Peterson optical depth, flux probability distribution function and dark gap width distribution. At z > 6, however, clear differences start to emerge which are best quantified by the dark gap and peak width distributions. We find that 35 (0) per cent of the lines of sight (LOS) within 5.7 < z < 6.3 show dark gaps of widths >50Å in the rest frame of the QSO if reionization is not (is) complete at z >~ 6. Similarly, the ERM predicts peaks of width ~1Å in 40 per cent of the LOS in the redshift range 6.0-6.6 in the same range, LRM predicts no peaks of width >0.8Å. We conclude that the dark gap and peak width statistics represent superb probes of cosmic reionization if about ten QSOs can be found at z > 6. We finally discuss strengths and limitations of our method.

  10. Report on 238Pu(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Henderson, R A; Scielzo, N D; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Gostic, J; Bleuel, D; Weideking, M; Bernstein, L A

    2010-03-31

    The goal of this year's effort is to measure the {sup 238}Pu(n,f) and {sup 238}Pu(n,2n) cross section from 100 keV to 20 MeV. We designed a surrogate experiment that used the reaction {sup 239}Pu(a,a{prime}x) as a surrogate for {sup 238}Pu(n,x). The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in January 2010. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis is given. In order to obtain a reliable {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section we designed the experiment using the surrogate ratio technique. This technique allows one to measure a desired, unknown, cross section relative to a known cross section. In the present example, the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section of interest is determined relative to the known {sup 235}U(n,x) cross section. To increase confidence in the results, and to reduce overall uncertainties, we are also determining the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section relative to the known {sup 234}U(n,x) cross section. The compound nuclei of interest for this experiment were produced using inelastic alpha scattering. For example, {sup 236}U(a,a{prime}x) served as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,x); analogous reactions were considered for the other cross sections. Surrogate experiments determine the probabilities for the decay of the compound nuclei into the various channels of interest (fission, gamma decay) by measuring particle-fission (p-f) or particle?gamma (p?g) reaction spectra. By comparing the decay probabilities associated with the unknown cross section to that of a known cross section it is possible to obtain the ratio of these cross sections and thus determine the unknown, desired cross section.

  11. [Decomposition of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into absorption spectra of prosthetic group and apoprotein by means of an additive model].

    PubMed

    Lavrinenko, I A; Vashanov, G A; Artyukhov, V G

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition pathways of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into the absorption spectra of the protein and non-protein components are proposed and substantiated by means of an additive model. We have established that the heme component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 269.2 nm (ε = 97163) and the apoprotein component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 278.4 nm (ε = 48669) for the wavelength range from 240.0 to 320.0 nm. An integral relative proportion of absorption for the heme fraction (78.8%) and apoprotein (21.2%) in the investigating wavelength range is defined.

  12. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  13. Photodisintegration Cross Section of 241Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity of 240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  14. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  15. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  16. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  17. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  18. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  19. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  20. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  1. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  2. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  3. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  4. [Study for differential cross section of ring effect].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Chen, Liang-fu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jin-hua; Li, Shen-shen; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zi-feng

    2010-08-01

    The Ring effect is a significant limitation to the accuracy of the retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere, while using satellite data with differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The Ring effect refers to the filling in of Fraunhofer lines, known as solar absorption lines, caused almost entirely by rotational Raman scattering. The inelastic component of the molecular scattering results in a net increase in radiance in the line because more radiation is shifted to the wavelength of an absorption line than shifted from this wavelength to other wavelengths. The rotational Raman scattering by N2 and Oz in the atmosphere is the main factor that leads to Ring effect. Basically, the Ring effect is considered as a pseudo-absorption process in retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere. The solar spectrum measured by OMI/AURA is convolved with rotational Raman cross sections of N2 and O2, divided by the original solar spectrum, with a cubic polynomial subtracted off, to create differential Ring spectrum. This method has been suggested in order to obtain an effective differential Ring cross-section for the DOAS fitting process. The differential Ring spectrum could be used to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of the trace gases concentration. The results in this paper have been in basic agreement with the corresponding results calculated with RTM, and the R2 Statistic is 0. 966 3. PMID:20939324

  5. FT-IR measurements of cold C3H8 cross sections at 7-15 μm for Titan atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2013-11-01

    We present absorption cross sections of propane (C3H8) at temperatures from 145 K to 297 K in the 690-1550 cm-1 region. Pure and N2-broadened spectra were measured at pressures from 3 Torr to 742 Torr using a Bruker IFS125 FT-IR spectrometer at JPL. The gas absorption cell, developed at Connecticut College, was cooled by a closed-cycle helium refrigerator. The cross sections were measured and compiled for individual spectra recorded at various experimental conditions covering the planetary atmosphere and Titan. In addition to the cross sections, a propane pseudoline list with a frequency grid of 0.005 cm-1, was fitted to the 34 laboratory spectra. Line intensities and lower state energies were retrieved for each line, assuming a constant width. Validation tests showed that the pseudoline list reproduces discrete absorption features and continuum, the latter contributed by numerous weak and hot band features, in most of the observed spectra within 3%. Based on the pseudoline list, the total intensity in the 690-1550 cm-1 region was determined to be 52.93 (±3%) × 10-19 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 296 K; this value is within 3% of the average from four earlier studies. Finally, the merit of the pseudoline approach is addressed for heavy polyatomic molecules in support of spectroscopic observation of atmospheres of Titan and other planets. The cold cross sections will be submitted to the HITRAN database (hitran.harvard.edu), and the list of C3H8 pseudolines will be available from a MK-IV website of JPL (http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo).

  6. Femtosecond pump-probe microscopy generates virtual cross-sections in historic artwork

    PubMed Central

    Villafana, Tana Elizabeth; Brown, William P.; Delaney, John K.; Palmer, Michael; Warren, Warren S.; Fischer, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    The layering structure of a painting contains a wealth of information about the artist's choice of materials and working methods, but currently, no 3D noninvasive method exists to replace the taking of small paint samples in the study of the stratigraphy. Here, we adapt femtosecond pump-probe imaging, previously shown in tissue, to the case of the color palette in paintings, where chromophores have much greater variety. We show that combining the contrasts of multispectral and multidelay pump-probe spectroscopy permits nondestructive 3D imaging of paintings with molecular and structural contrast, even for pigments with linear absorption spectra that are broad and relatively featureless. We show virtual cross-sectioning capabilities in mockup paintings, with pigment separation and nondestructive imaging on an intact 14th century painting (The Crucifixion by Puccio Capanna). Our approach makes it possible to extract microscopic information for a broad range of applications to cultural heritage. PMID:24449855

  7. Interpretation of NO2 absorption in twilight sky spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, B. B.

    1984-07-01

    A multiple scattering model has been developed to calculate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) absorption in the light from the zenith sky during twilight. Model studies show that this absorption is not very sensitive to the atmospheric temperature profile or to tropospheric NO2. The model was used to interpret some ground-based measurements of NO2 sky absorption. Values for the total stratospheric column amount vary from 2 to 12 x 10 to the 15th molec/sq cm, and the mean altitude of the stratospheric concentration profile is around 35 km. These observations are in broad agreement with those of other workers.

  8. Determination of band oscillator strengths of atmospheric molecules from high resolution vacuum ultraviolet cross section measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of progress in work on (1) the determination of band oscillator strengths of the Schumann-Runge absorption bands of (16)O2 and (18)O2 from cross section measurements conducted at 79 K; (2) the determination of the absolute absorption cross section of the Schumann-Runge bands of (16)O(18)O from optical depth measurements performed on mixtures of (16)O2, (18)O2 and (16)O(18)O at 79K; and (3) the influence of Schumann-Runge linewing contributions on the determination of the Herzberg continuum absorption cross section of (16)O2 in the wavelength region 194 to 204 nm. The experimental investigations are effected at high resolution with a 6.65 m scanning spectrometer which is, by virtue of its small instrumental width (EWHM = 0.0013 nm), uniquely suitable for cross section measurements of molecular bands with discrete rotational structure. Absolute cross sections, which are independent of the instrumental function and from which band oscillator strengths are directly determined, are measured for the absorption bands that are most predissociated. Such measurements are needed for (1) accurate calculations of the stratospheric production of atomic oxygen and heavy ozone formed following the photopredissociation of (18)O(16)O by solar radiation penetrating between the absorption lines of (16)O2; (2) elucidation of the mechanism of predissociation of the upper state of the Schumann-Runge bands; and (3) determination of the true shape of the Herzberg continuum cross section.

  9. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  10. Absorption spectra of graphene nanoribbons in a composite magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; Wu, M. F.; Hsieh, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The low-frequency optical absorption properties of graphene nanoribbons in a composite magnetic field are investigated by using the gradient approximation. The spectral function exhibits symmetric delta-function like prominent peaks structure in a uniform magnetic field, and changes to asymmetric square-root divergent peaks structure when subjecting to a composite field. These asymmetric divergent peaks can be further classified into principal and secondary peaks. The spectral intensity and frequency of the absorption peaks depend sensitively on the strength and modulation period of the composite field. The transition channels of the absorption peaks are also analyzed. There exists an optical selection rule which is caused by the orthogonal properties of the sublattice wave functions. The evolution of the spectral frequency of the absorption peaks with the field strength is explored.

  11. Assignment of benzodiazepine UV absorption spectra by the use of photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostenko, O. G.; Tzeplin, E. E.; Lomakin, G. S.

    2002-04-01

    Correlations between singlet transition energies and energy gaps of corresponding pairs of occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals were revealed in a series of benzodiazepines. The occupied orbital energies were taken from the photoelectron spectra of the compound investigated, the unoccupied ones were obtained from MNDO/d calculations, and the singlet energies were taken from the UV absorption spectra. The correspondence of the singlet transitions to certain molecular orbitals was established using MNDO/d calculations and comparing between UV and photoelectron spectra. It has been concluded that photoelectron spectroscopy can be applied for interpretation of UV absorption spectra of various compounds on the basis of similar correlations.

  12. Effects of lowly ionized ions on silicon K-shell absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. G.; Shi, J. R.; Liang, G. Y.; Wang, F. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Zhao, G.

    2016-05-01

    Context. In both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, K-shell absorption spectra have become powerful diagnostic tools to investigate electron density and temperature. These spectra are also widely used to verify the opacity codes in laboratory settings. Aims: We report the effects of the low ionization silicon ions, namely from Si I to Si V, which have rarely been considered in previous models, on the K-shell silicon absorption spectra. Methods: The Si K-shell atomic data were calculated with the flexible atomic code, which is a fully relativistic atomic program with configuration interaction taken into consideration. Detailed level accounting models were employed to calculate the absorption spectra. Results: We calculate the Si absorption spectra in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions with temperature and density ranges of 20-70 eV and ~1020 cm-3 to ~1022 cm-3, respectively, and show the contributions of the lowly ionized ions to the K-shell absorption spectra of silicon. We also investigate the effects of the different atomic data on the absorption spectra. We find good agreement between our results and these from OPLIB. Conclusions: We find that the contributions from these lowly ionized ions cannot be neglected at relative low temperatures. Accurate experimental measurements are needed to benchmark the theoretical calculations.

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear Model Code, Nucleons, Ions, Induced Cross-Sections

    2002-09-27

    EMPIRE-II is a flexible code for calculation of nuclear reactions in the frame of combined op0tical, Multistep Direct (TUL), Multistep Compound (NVWY) and statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) models. Incident particle can be a nucleon or any nucleus (Heavy Ion). Isomer ratios, residue production cross sections and emission spectra for neutrons, protons, alpha- particles, gamma-rays, and one type of Light Ion can be calculated. The energy range starts just above the resonance region for neutron induced reactions andmore » extends up to several hundreds of MeV for the Heavy Ion induced reactions.« less

  14. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  15. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  16. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation.

  17. Inclusive jet cross section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The authors report preliminary measurements of the central inclusive jet cross section at 1.8 TeV by the D0 and the CDF collaborations at the p{anti p} Fermilab collider. They are based on an integrated luminosity of 92 and 87 pb-1, respectively. The cross sections are measured as a function of jet transverse energy in the pseudorapidity interval 0.1 < 1,711 < 0.7 (CDF), and the two pseudorapidity ranges 1,711 < 0.5 and 0.1 < Inj < 0.7 (D0). D0 reports good agreement with the Next-to-Leading Order QCD predictions currently available. CDF observes an excess above 200 GeV, which can be accommodated with a modification in the gluon distribution function at high x.

  18. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  19. Cross Section and Analyzing Power Measurements for Neutron Scattering from Aluminum and Cobalt and Spin - Cross Section Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagadi, Mahmoud Mohamud

    Differential cross sections and analyzing power data have been measured for ^{27} Al and ^{59}Co at 15.5 MeV. Cross section data was also measured for ^{59}Co at 10, 12, 14, 17, and 19 MeV using standard time-of-flight techniques at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Absolute normalization of the sigma(theta) data was performed using n-p scattering measurements. Both sigma(theta) and rm A_{y}(theta) were corrected for finite geometry, attenuation, relative efficiency, and multiple scattering effects using Monte Carlo techniques. A large data base was formed from our data and the existing data on ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. This data base was used to develop a Dispersive Optical Model (DOM) and a Coupled Channels Model (CCM). The DOM model describes the data quite well above 8 MeV for ^{27 }Al and ^{59}Co. However, for data below 8 MeV the model is not as satisfactory, perhaps because of angular momentum l-dependencies in the absorptive potential. The CCM improved the description of the data over the DOM, but still does not describe the data well at low energies. The DOM and CCM for ^{27} Al and ^{59}Co were used to describe the spin-spin cross section data for ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. We obtained a good fit for the spin-spin cross section with both the DOM and CCM with the spin-spin real surface parameters of V _{rm ss} = 0.80 MeV, r _{rm ss} = 1.00 fm and a _{rm ss} = 0.654 for both ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. A surprising relation between the spin-spin cross section and the derivative of the total cross section with respect to energy, was discovered: sigma_{ss } = c {dsigma_{T} over dE} where c is a constant related to the slope of the real central potential and spin-spin potential strength. This observation is not yet understood.

  20. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  1. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  2. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  3. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  4. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  5. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  6. Nonperturbative corrections in resummed cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemsky, Gregory P.; Sterman, George

    1995-02-01

    We show that the resummation of large perturbative corrections in QCD leads to ambiguities in high energy cross sections that are suppressed by powers of large momentum scales. These ambiguities are caused by infrared renormalons, which are a general feature of resummed hardscattering functions in perturbative QCD, even though these functions are infrared safe order-by-order in perturbation theory. As in the case of the operator product expansion, the contributions of infrared renormalons to coefficient functions may be absorbed into the definition of higher-dimensional operators, which induce nonperturbative corrections that are power-suppressed at high energies. The strength of the suppression is determined by the location of the dominant infrared renormalon, which may be identified explicitly in the resummed series. In contrast to the operator product expansion, however, the relevant operators in factorized hadron-hadron scattering and jet cross sections are generally nonlocal in QCD, although they may be expressed as local operators in an effective theory for eikonalized quarks. In this context, we verify and interpret the presence of 1 / Q corrections to the inclusive Drell-Yan cross section with Q the pair mass. In a similar manner, we find exp (- b2 In Q) corrections in the impact parameter space of the transverse momentum distributions of the Drell-Yan process and e +6 - annihilation. We also show that the dominant nonperturbative corrections to cone-based jet cross sections behave as 1 /( Qδ), with δ the opening angle of the jet and Q the center of mass energy.

  7. KLOE results on hadronic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Archilli, F.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C; . Bocchetta, S.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Kluge, W.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lukin, P.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S; . Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Spadaro, T.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.; Babusci, D.; Badoni, D.; Bocci, V.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S. A; .; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Campana, P.; Dané, E.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Giardina, G.; Gonnella, F.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iafolla, L.; Iarocci, E.; Johansson, T.; Kowalewska, A.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Loddo, F.; Mandaglio, G.; Mascolo, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Ranieri, A.; Redmer, C. F.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciubba, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.; KLOE/KLOE-2 Collaborations

    2012-03-01

    The KLOE experiment at the phi - factory DAΦNE is the first to have exploited Initial State Radiation (ISR) to precisely determine the e+e- → π+π-(γ) cross section below 1 GeV, representing the 70% of the leading order contribution to the muon anomaly. The leading order contribution ahloμ is presently the main source of uncertainty in the theoretical evaluation of the muon anomaly, and it can be evaluated by dispersion integral using the experimental measurement of hadronic cross section. A persistent discrepancy of about 3 σ between standard model (SM) prediction and experimental measurements of the muon anomalous magnetic moment has been up to now observed. The KLOE collaboration published two measurements of the π+π- cross section with the photon in the initial state emitted at small polar angle in Phys. Lett. B vol. 606 pg. 12 and vol. 670 pg. 285, and an independent measurement with the photon emitted at large polar angle in Phys. Lett. B vol. 700 pg. 102. These measurements were normalized to the DAΦNE luminosity. Recently, a new analysis deriving the pion form factor directly from measuring the bin-by-bin π+πγ and μ+μγ final states ratio has been performed. In this paper, the preliminary results of this new measurement and the comparison to the previous published ones, the impact on the evaluation of the hadronic contribution to the muon anomaly, the preliminary μ+μγ cross section measurement and the comparison with the PHOKHARA-MC prediction are presented.

  8. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  9. Applications of principal component analysis to breath air absorption spectra profiles classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of application principal component analysis to absorption spectra of breath air of patients with pulmonary diseases are presented. Various methods of experimental data preprocessing are analyzed.

  10. Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.

  11. A method for normalization of X-ray absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.-C.; Waldo, G.S.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.

    2010-07-20

    Accurate normalization of X-ray absorption data is essential for quantitative analysis of near-edge features. A method, implemented as the program MBACK, to normalize X-ray absorption data to tabulated mass absorption coefficients is described. Comparison of conventional normalization methods with MBACK demonstrates that the new normalization method is not sensitive to the shape of the background function, thus allowing accurate comparison of data collected in transmission mode with data collected using fluorescence ion chambers or solid-state fluorescence detectors. The new method is shown to have better reliability and consistency and smaller errors than conventional normalization methods. The sensitivity of the new normalization method is illustrated by analysis of data collected during an equilibrium titration.

  12. Vibronic Structures in Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of Firefly Oxyluciferin in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Miyabi; Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kenta; Koga, Nobuaki

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the factors determining the spectral shapes and widths of the absorption and fluorescence spectra for keto and enol oxyluciferin and their conjugate bases in aqueous solutions, the intensities of vibronic transitions between their ground and first electronic excited states were calculated for the first time via estimation of the vibrational Franck-Condon factors. The major normal modes, overtones and combination tones in absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar for all species. The theoretical full widths at half maximum of absorption spectra are 0.4-0.7 eV and those for the fluorescence spectra are 0.4-0.5 eV, except for phenolate-keto that exhibits exceptionally sharp peak widths due to the dominance of the 0-0' or 0'-0 band. These spectral shapes and widths explain many relevant features of the experimentally observed spectra. PMID:25946599

  13. A test of the possibility of calculating absorption spectra by mixed quantum-classical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Kenneth; Metiu, Horia

    1992-10-01

    Some of the most efficient methods for studying systems having a large number of degrees of freedom treat a few degrees of freedom quantum mechanically and the remainder classically. Here we examine how these methods fare when used to calculate the cross section for photon absorption by a quantum system imbedded in a medium. To test the method, we study a model which has two degrees of freedom and mimicks the properties of a one-dimensional alkali atom-He dimer. We treat the electron motion quantum mechanically and the distance between the He atom and the alkali ion classically. Light absorption occurs because the electron is coupled to radiation. The calculation of the absorption cross section by quantum-classical methods fails rather dramatically-at certain frequencies, the absorption coefficient is negative. By comparing with exact quantum calculations, we show that this failure takes place because the time evolution of the classical variables influences the dynamics of the quantum degree of freedom through the Hamiltonian only; important information, which a fully quantum treatment would put in the wave function, is missing. To repair this flaw, we experiment with a method which uses a swarm of classical trajectories to generate a ``classical wave function.'' The results are encouraging, but require substantial computer time when the number of classical variables is large. We argue that in the limit of many classical degrees of freedom, accurate calculations can be performed by using the time-dependent Hartree method and treating some degrees of freedom by exact numerical methods (e.g., a fast Fourier transform procedure) and the others by Gaussian wave packets or any other propagation method that is accurate for a very short time. This procedure leads to a simple time domain picture of dephasing and line broadening in the case of a localized quantum system imbedded in a medium with heavy atoms.

  14. Infrared absorption spectra of methylidene radicals in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2014-07-28

    Infrared absorption lines of methylidene--(12)C(1)H, (13)C(1)H, and (12)C(2)H--dispersed in solid neon at 3 K, recorded after photolysis of methane precursors with vacuum-ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm, serve as signatures of these trapped radicals.

  15. Principles and procedures for determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Zetner, P. W.; Shen, G.; Trajmar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures and calibration techniques for measuring the absolute elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on molecular (atomic) species are described and illustrated by examples. The elastic DCS for the molecule under study is first determined by calibration against helium using the relative flow technique. The second step involves the production of energy-loss spectra for the instrument response function, the unfolding of overlapping inelastic structures and the normalization of inelastic intensities to the elastic cross sections. It is concluded that this method of determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections is generally applicable and provides reliable results.

  16. Excitation and Charge Exchange Phenomena in Astronomical Objects: Measurement of Cross Sections and Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Smith, S.; Lozano, J.; Cadez, I.; Greewnood, J.; Mawhovter, R.; Williams, I.; Niimura, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document addresses extreme ultraviolet radiation and X-ray emissions from comets, planets and heliospheric gases focusing on the measurement of charge-exchange cross sections and radiative lifetimes. Highly-charged heavy ions present in the solar wind, and their abundance relative to the total oxygen-ion abundance are detailed. The plan for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory high-charge ion facility is outlined detailing its ability to measure absolute collisional excitation cross sections, absolute charge-exchange cross sections, lifetimes of metastable ion levels, and X-ray emission spectra following charge changes.

  17. Two-photon excitation cross-section in light and intermediate atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method of explicit summation over the intermediate states is used along with LS coupling to derive an expression for two-photon absorption cross section in light and intermediate atoms in terms of integrals over radial wave functions. Two selection rules, one exact and one approximate, are also derived. In evaluating the radial integrals, for low-lying levels, the Hartree-Fock wave functions, and for high-lying levels, hydrogenic wave functions obtained by the quantum defect method are used. A relationship between the cross section and the oscillator strengths is derived. Cross sections due to selected transitions in nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine are given. The expression for the cross section is useful in calculating the two-photon absorption in light and intermediate atoms.

  18. Data processing of absorption spectra from photoionized plasma experiments at Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, I. M.; Durmaz, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.

    2010-10-15

    We discuss the processing of x-ray absorption spectra from photoionized plasma experiments at Z. The data was recorded with an imaging spectrometer equipped with two elliptically bent potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals. Both time-integrated and time-resolved data were recorded. In both cases, the goal is to obtain the transmission spectra for quantitative analysis of plasma conditions.

  19. Calculation of polarized IR absorption spectra for trans-1,4-polyisoprenes of various conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulov, Kh. Sh.

    2008-07-01

    Polarized IR spectra for two conformations of trans-1,4-polyisoprene (α-and β-gutta-percha) were calculated. The IR dichroism of the absorption bands was calculated for both conformations. The computed results for polarized IR spectra and IR dichroism agree reasonably well with the respective experiment data.

  20. The absorption spectra of the complexes of uranium (VI) with some β-diketones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, H.I.

    1956-01-01

    The absorption spectra of the complexes of uranium (VI) with four β-dike tones were determined under various conditions of pH, concentration of uranium, and alcohol concentration. Under optimum conditions, the maximum molar absorptivity (31,200) is obtained using 2-furoyltrifluoroacetone. This compares with about 4,000 and 19,000 for the thiocyanate and dibenzoylmethane complexes, respectively.

  1. Deep inelastic neutron scattering from orthorhombic ordered HCl: Short-time proton dynamics and anomalous neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Senesi, R.; Colognesi, D.; Pietropaolo, A.; Abdul-Redah, T.

    2005-08-01

    Deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements from orthorhombic ordered HCl are presented and analyzed in order to clarify the problem of an anomalous deficit in the neutron-proton cross section found in previous experiments on various materials. A reliable model for the HCl short-time single-particle dynamics, including atomic vibrational anisotropies and deviations from the impulsive approximation, is set up. The model HCl response function is transformed into simulated time-of-flight spectra, taking carefully into account the effects of instrumental resolution and the filter absorption profile used for neutron energy analysis. Finally, the experimental values of the anomalous reduction factor for the neutron-proton cross section are extracted by comparing simulated and experimental data. Results show a 34% reduction of the H cross section, varying with the scattering angle in a range centered at 53 deg. In addition, the same approximate procedure used in earlier studies is also employed, providing results in reasonable agreement with the more rigorous ones, and confirming the substantial reliability of the past work on this subject.

  2. Infrared absorption spectra of human malignant tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skornyakov, I. V.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Butra, V. A.

    2008-05-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study the molecular structure of tissues from human organs removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material from breast, thyroid, and lung are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, a change occurs in the hydrogen bonds of protein macromolecules found in the tissue of the studied organs. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathology.

  3. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2011-09-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  4. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  5. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Menodza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra towards the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pileup effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain: a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 x 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); ionization parameter of log xi = .2.70 +/- 0.023; oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689(exp +0.015./-0.010); and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval (1998), a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. (2009) yields A(sub O) = 0.952(exp +0.020/-0.013, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines.K-alpha , K-beta, and K-gamma in O I and O II; and K-alpha in O III, O VI, and O VII--last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated to ISM cold absorption.

  6. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium:. [The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Angstrom broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Angstroms) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the xstar code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 × 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); an ionization parameter of log xi = -2.70 +/- 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689 (+0.015/-0.010); and ionization fractions of O(sub I)/O = 0.911, O(sub II)/O = 0.077, and O(sub III)/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse & Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A(sub O) = 0.952(+0.020/-0.013), a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard.We identify several atomic absorption lines-K(alpha), K(beta), and K(gamma) in O(sub I) and O(sub II) and K(alpha) in O(sub III), O(sub VI), and O(sub VII)-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  7. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF OXYGEN K ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: THE CHANDRA GRATING SPECTRA OF XTE J1817-330

    SciTech Connect

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; Garcia, J.; Lohfink, A.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: alohfink@astro.umd.edu E-mail: michael.c.witthoeft@nasa.gov E-mail: palmeri@umons.ac.be

    2013-05-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N{sub H} = 1.38 {+-} 0.01 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}; an ionization parameter of log {xi} = -2.70 {+-} 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A{sub O}= 0.689{sup +0.015}{sub -0.010}; and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A{sub O}=0.952{sup +0.020}{sub -0.013}, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines-K{alpha}, K{beta}, and K{gamma} in O I and O II and K{alpha} in O III, O VI, and O VII-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n > 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  8. Terahertz absorption spectra of oxidized polyethylene and their analysis by quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Marina; Hosobuchi, Masashi; Xie, Xiaojun; Cheng, Yonghong; Furukawa, Yukio; Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2014-09-01

    Low-density polyethylene, either cross-linked or not, was oxidized and its absorption spectra were measured in the terahertz (THz) range and infrared range. The absorption was increased by the oxidation in the whole THz range. In accord with this, infrared absorption due to carbonyl groups appears. Although these results indicate that the increase in absorption is induced by oxidation, its attribution to resonance or relaxation is unclear. To clarify this point, the vibrational frequencies of three-dimensional polyethylene models with and without carbonyl groups were quantum chemically calculated. As a result, it was clarified that optically inactive skeletal vibrations in polyethylene become active upon oxidation. Furthermore, several absorption peaks due to vibrational resonances are induced by oxidation at wavenumbers from 20 to 100 cm-1. If these absorption peaks are broadened and are superimposed on each other, the absorption spectrum observed experimentally can be reproduced. Therefore, the absorption is ascribable to resonance.

  9. Thermal neutron cross-section libraries for aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantargi, F.; Granada, J. R.

    2010-08-01

    Solid phases of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture by volume of mesitylene and toluene, were studied as potential moderator materials for a cold neutron source. Existing information on the (lattice) translational and rotational modes of the different molecular species was used to produce generalized frequency spectra; the latter included the internal vibrational modes which in turn involved the analysis of the weights of the different modes. Cross-section libraries were generated in ENDF and ACE formats for hydrogen bounded in those materials at several temperatures, and were used in Monte Carlo calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with standard cryogenic materials like liquid hydrogen and solid methane, the best moderators in terms of cold neutron production. In particular, cross-section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. It was found that those aromatic hydrocarbons produce neutron spectra which are slightly warmer than that of solid methane while presenting a high resistance to radiation, conforming in this way a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials.

  10. Cross sections of high-energy hadron interactions in LLA QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryskin, M. G.; Shabelski, Yu. M.

    1992-06-01

    Total, total elastic and diffraction dissociation cross sections ofpp(bar pp) interactions are calculated in the leading logarithmic approximation of QCD in the energy regionsqrt s = 0.05 - 200TeV accounting for absorption effects at the quark level. Our calculations with very large intercept of bare pomeron (Δ>1/2) are in qualitative agreement with the data; however, we predict comparatively large cross section of double-diffraction dissociation.

  11. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  12. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.

    PubMed

    Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J

    1989-11-10

    Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  13. Kennard-Stepanov relation connecting absorption and emission spectra in an atomic gas.

    PubMed

    Moroshkin, Peter; Weller, Lars; Sass, Anne; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The Kennard-Stepanov relation describes a thermodynamic, Boltzmann-type scaling between the absorption and emission spectral profiles of an absorber, which applies in many liquid state dye solutions as well as in semiconductor systems. Here we examine absorption and emission spectra of rubidium atoms in a dense argon buffer gas environment. We demonstrate that the Kennard-Stepanov relation between absorption and emission spectra is well fulfilled in the collisionally broadened atomic gas system. Our experimental findings are supported by a simple theoretical model.

  14. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  15. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  16. Artifacts in Absorption Measurements of Organometal Halide Perovskite Materials: What Are the Real Spectra?

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuxi; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2015-09-01

    Organometal halide (OMH) perovskites have attracted lots of attention over the last several years due to their very promising performance as the materials for solar cells and light-emitting devices. Photophysical processes in these hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors are still heavily debated. To know precise absorption spectra is absolutely necessary for quantitative understanding of the fundamental properties of OMH perovskites. We show that to measure the absorption of perovskite materials correctly is a difficult task which could be easily overlooked by the community. Many of the published absorption spectra exhibit a characteristic step-like featureless shape due to light scattering, high optical density of individual perovskite crystals and poor coverage of the substrate. We show how to recognize these artifacts, to avoid them, and to use absorption spectra of films for estimation of the surface coverage ratio. PMID:27120683

  17. Autophaser: an algorithm for automated generation of absorption mode spectra for FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, David P A; Wills, Rebecca; Qi, Yulin; O'Connor, Peter B

    2013-04-16

    Phase correction of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry data allows the spectra to be presented in absorption mode. Absorption mode spectra offer superior mass resolving power (up to a factor of 2), mass accuracy, and sensitivity over the conventional magnitude mode. Hitherto, the use of absorption mode in FT-ICR mass spectrometry has required either specially adapted instrumentation or a manually intensive process of phase correction or has ignored the potentially significant effects of image charge and the associated frequency shifts. Here we present an algorithm that allows spectra recorded on unadapted FT-ICR mass spectrometers to be phase corrected, their baseline deviations removed, and then an absorption mode spectrum presented in an automated manner that requires little user interaction. PMID:23373960

  18. Autophaser: an algorithm for automated generation of absorption mode spectra for FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, David P A; Wills, Rebecca; Qi, Yulin; O'Connor, Peter B

    2013-04-16

    Phase correction of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry data allows the spectra to be presented in absorption mode. Absorption mode spectra offer superior mass resolving power (up to a factor of 2), mass accuracy, and sensitivity over the conventional magnitude mode. Hitherto, the use of absorption mode in FT-ICR mass spectrometry has required either specially adapted instrumentation or a manually intensive process of phase correction or has ignored the potentially significant effects of image charge and the associated frequency shifts. Here we present an algorithm that allows spectra recorded on unadapted FT-ICR mass spectrometers to be phase corrected, their baseline deviations removed, and then an absorption mode spectrum presented in an automated manner that requires little user interaction.

  19. Accurate convergence of transient-absorption spectra using pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Brazard, Johanna; Bizimana, Laurie A; Turner, Daniel B

    2015-05-01

    Transient-absorption spectroscopy is a common and well-developed technique for measuring time-dependent optical phenomena. One important aspect, especially for measurements using pulsed lasers, is how to average multiple data acquisition events. Here, we use a mathematical analysis method based on covariance to evaluate various averaging schemes. The analysis reveals that the baseline and the signal converge to incorrect values without balanced detection of the probe, shot-by-shot detection, and a specific method of averaging. Experiments performed with sub-7 fs pulses confirm the analytic results and reveal insights into molecular excited-state vibrational dynamics.

  20. The Infrared Spectra and Absorption Intensities of Amorphous Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Our research group is carrying out new IR measurements of icy solids relevant to the outer solar system and to the interstellar medium, with an emphasis on amorphous and crystalline ices below ~ 120 K. Our goal is to update and add to the relatively meager literature on this subject and to provide electronic versions of state-of-the-art data, since the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate reference spectra and IR band strengths. In the past year, we have focused on three of the simplest and most abundant components of interstellar and solar-system ices: methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methanol (CH3OH). Infrared spectra from ˜ 4500 to 500 cm-1 have been measured for each of these molecules in μm-thick films at temperatures from 10 to 120 K. All known amorphous and crystalline phases have been reproduced and, for some, presented for the first time. We also report measurements of the index of refraction at 670 nm and the mass densities for each ice phase. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible. Electronic versions of our new results are available at http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/691/cosmicice/ constants.html.

  1. The Infrared Spectra and Absorption Intensities of Amorphous Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Our research group is carrying out new IR measurements of icy solids relevant to the outer solar system and to the interstellar medium, with an emphasis on amorphous and crystalline ices below ~ 120 K. Our goal is to update and add to the relatively meager literature on this subject and to provide electronic versions of state-of-the-art data, since the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate reference spectra and IR band strengths. In the past year, we have focused on three of the simplest and most abundant components of interstellar and solar-system ices: methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methanol (CH3OH). Infrared spectra from ∼ 4500 to 500 cm-1 have been measured for each of these molecules in μm-thick films at temperatures from 10 to 120 K. All known amorphous and crystalline phases have been reproduced and, for some, presented for the first time. We also report measurements of the index of refraction at 670 nm and the mass densities for each ice phase. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible. Electronic versions of our new results are available at http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/691/cosmicice/ constants.html.

  2. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  3. Absorption spectra and speciation of plutonium(VI) with phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, H.T.; Reed, D.

    1996-02-01

    Plutonium(VI)-phosphate species in aqueous solution, at pH < 2.4, formed two species: PuO{sub 2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +} (characterized by an 835 nm absorption band) and the solid phase PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The stability constant {beta} for the PuO{sub 2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +} species was determined to be log {beta} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 (ionic strength = 0.6--0.9 M) and log {beta}{sup T} = 2.6 {+-} 0.15 (zero ionic strength). Four Pu(VI)-phosphate species (absorption bands at 842, 846, 857, and 866 nm) formed at pH = 2.4 to 12.2 and are characterized by polynuclear behavior, the formation of precipitates, and colloidal properties. The 842 and 846 nm species are believed to be [PuO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub m}]{sub n} and [PuO{sub 2}(NaPO{sub 4}){sub m}]{sub n}. The 857 and 866 nm species area as yet unidentified. The speciation of plutonium with phosphate is of interest to radionuclide migration studies because phosphate is present in many groundwaters and may be used as an actinide getter in nuclear waste disposal. An actinide getter is a complexing agent that forms insoluble phases with actinides, thereby reducing their migration.

  4. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  5. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  6. Chemical Sensitivity of the Sulfur K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectra of Organic Disulfides.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Ingrid J; Barney, Monica; Cotelesage, Julien J H; Vogt, Linda; Pushie, M Jake; Nissan, Andrew; Prince, Roger C; George, Graham N

    2016-09-22

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy increasingly is used as a tool to provide speciation information about the sulfur chemical form in complex samples, with applications ranging from fossil fuels to soil science to health research. As part of an ongoing program of systematic investigations of the factors that affect the variability of sulfur K near-edge spectra, we have examined the X-ray absorption spectra of a series of organic symmetric disulfide compounds. We have used polarized sulfur K-edge spectra of single crystals of dibenzyl disulfide to confirm the assignments of the major transitions in the spectrum as 1s → (S-S)σ* and 1s → (S-C)σ*. We also have examined the solution spectra of an extended series of disulfides and show that the spectra change in a systematic and predictable manner with the nature of the external group. PMID:27571342

  7. Absorption spectra of shocked liquid CS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Dallman, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of shock initiation of high explosives (HE) was understood as early as 1863 when Alfred Nobel introduced the detonator as a means of detonating nitroglycerine. The critical pressure rise times required to achieve shock initiation and steady propagation of detonation are determined by the chemical and mechanical properties of an explosive. Although progress has been made in the understanding of the effects of mechanical properties, the detailed effects of high pressures on chemical reaction mechanisms are still only poorly understood. This paper reports the results of two experiments using CS/sub 2/, which is known to undergo electronic state transitions when shocked to high pressures. The goal of these experiments was to examine the known shock-generated expansion of CS/sub 2/ absorption bands while generating the shocks with a flyer plate system driven by high explosives.

  8. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ~103-105 cm-3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage. Based on data collected at Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile in programs 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0474(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0461(A), 69.A-0204(A), 70.B-0522(A), 072.A-0346(A), 076.A-0860(A), 079.B-0469(A), and 166.A-0106(A).

  9. Simultaneous Fitting of Absorption Spectra and Their Second Derivatives for an Improved Analysis of Protein Infrared Spectra.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Li, Chenge; Eremina, Nadejda; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Barth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool in protein science due to its sensitivity to changes in secondary structure or conformation. In order to take advantage of the full power of infrared spectroscopy in structural studies of proteins, complex band contours, such as the amide I band, have to be decomposed into their main component bands, a process referred to as curve fitting. In this paper, we report on an improved curve fitting approach in which absorption spectra and second derivative spectra are fitted simultaneously. Our approach, which we name co-fitting, leads to a more reliable modelling of the experimental data because it uses more spectral information than the standard approach of fitting only the absorption spectrum. It also avoids that the fitting routine becomes trapped in local minima. We have tested the proposed approach using infrared absorption spectra of three mixed α/β proteins with different degrees of spectral overlap in the amide I region: ribonuclease A, pyruvate kinase, and aconitase. PMID:26184143

  10. Measurement and feature analysis of absorption spectra of four algal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Zhou, Hongli; Han, Bing; Li, Tongji

    2016-04-01

    Two methods for particulate pigments (i.e., quantitative filter technique, QFT, and in vivo measurement, InVivo, respectively) and two methods for dissolved pigments (i.e., Acetone Extracts, AceEx, and high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, respectively) were used to obtain the optical absorption coefficient spectra for cultures of four typical algal species. Through normalization and analysis of the spectra, it is shown that (1) the four methods are able to measure optical absorption spectra of particulate and/or dissolved pigments; (2) that the optical absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved pigments were consistent in terms of the peak position in the blue wavelength, and the difference of the peak position in the near infrared wavelength was ~10 nm between each other; and (3) that the leveling effect of the absorption spectra of particulate pigments was significant. These four methods can all effectively measure the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton pigments, while each one has its unique advantages in different applications. Therefore, appropriate method should be carefully selected for various application due to their intrinsic difference.

  11. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    DOE PAGES

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used inmore » the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.« less

  12. Simple Monte Carlo methods to estimate the spectra evaluation error in differential-optical-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, M; Brandenburger, U; Brauers, T; Dorn, H P

    1999-01-20

    Differential-optical-absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) permits the sensitive measurement of concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere. DOAS is a technique of well-defined accuracy; however, the calculation of a statistically sound measurement precision is still an unsolved problem. Usually one evaluates DOAS spectra by performing least-squares fits of reference absorption spectra to the measured atmospheric absorption spectra. Inasmuch as the absorbance from atmospheric trace gases is usually very weak, with optical densities in the range from 10(-5) to 10(-3), interference caused by the occurrence of nonreproducible spectral artifacts often determines the detection limit and the measurement precision. These spectral artifacts bias the least-squares fitting result in two respects. First, spectral artifacts to some extent are falsely interpreted as real absorption, and second, spectral artifacts add nonstatistical noise to spectral residuals, which results in a significant misestimation of the least-squares fitting error. We introduce two new approaches to investigate the evaluation errors of DOAS spectra accurately. The first method, residual inspection by cyclic displacement, estimates the effect of false interpretation of the artifact structures. The second method applies a statistical bootstrap algorithm to estimate properly the error of fitting, even in cases when the condition of random and independent scatter of the residual signal is not fulfilled. Evaluation of simulated atmospheric measurement spectra shows that a combination of the results of both methods yields a good estimate of the spectra evaluation error to within an uncertainty of ~10%.

  13. Resonance analysis and evaluation of the sup 235 U neutron induced cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.

    1990-06-01

    Neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei are of considerable interest for the understanding of parameters such as resonance absorption, resonance escape probability, resonance self-shielding,and the dependence of the reactivity on temperature. In the present study, new techniques for the evaluation of the {sup 235}U neutron cross sections are described. The Reich-Moore formalism of the Bayesian computer code SAMMY was used to perform consistent R-matrix multilevel analyses of the selected neutron cross-section data. The {Delta}{sub 3}-statistics of Dyson and Mehta, along with high-resolution data and the spin-separated fission cross-section data, have provided the possibility of developing a new methodology for the analysis and evaluation of neutron-nucleus cross sections. The results of the analysis consists of a set of resonance parameters which describe the {sup 235}U neutron cross sections up to 500 eV. The set of resonance parameters obtained through a R-matrix analysis are expected to satisfy statistical properties which lead to information on the nuclear structure. The resonance parameters were tested and showed good agreement with the theory. It is expected that the parametrization of the {sub 235}U neutron cross sections obtained in this dissertation represents the current state of art in data as well as in theory and, therefore, can be of direct use in reactor calculations. 44 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. FT-IR Measurements of Cross Sections of Cold C3H8 in the 7 - 15 µm for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L. R.; Toon, G. C.; Mantz, A. W.; Smith, M. A. H.

    2012-10-01

    To support atmospheric remote sensing of Titan, the absorption cross sections of N2-broadened C3H8 were obtained at temperatures between 145 and 296 K. For this, 17 spectra of pure- and N2-broadened propane were recorded in the 690 to 1550 cm-1 region using a Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory configured with a 20.38 cm long temperature-stabilized cryogenic absorption cell. The coolable cell was developed at Connecticut College and described previously [1]. We report the absorption cross sections at the various cold temperatures for nine strong propane bands (v26, v8, v21, v20, v7, v19, v18, v4, v24). In addition, we present results from ‘pseudo-line generation’, which includes positions, intensities, and effective lower state energies’ determined from high-resolution laboratory spectra, (see http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo/Readme). The resulting compilation will be compared to earlier work, including the C3H8+N2 spectra recorded at PNNL [2] and available line-by-line predictions [3,4]. Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, NASA Langley Research Center, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. References [1] K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, M. A. H. Smith, et al., J Mol Spectrosc 262, 122, 2010. [2] S. W. Sharpe, et al., Appl Spectrosc 58, 1452, 2004. [3] J. M. Flaud et al., Mol Phys 108, 699, 2010. [4] J. M. Flaud et al., J Chem Phys 114, 9361, 2001.

  15. Absorption spectra of typical space materials in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop a data base for potential optical degradation of space vacuum ultraviolet instruments, the collected volatile condensed material (CVCM) transmittance was measured in the wavelength region from 115 nm to 300 nm. The parent outgassing materials included: the adhesives, Ablebond 36-2, Trabond BB-2116, EA-9309, and Scotchweld 2216; the paints, Chemglaze Z-306, Z-306 over 9922 primer, Z-306 over AP-131 primer, Cat-A-Lac 463-3-8, 463-3-8 over primer, 3M Nextel 401-C10, and 401-C10 over 901-P1 primer; the resins, Fiberite 934, Solithane 113/C113-300 Formulation no. 1, and 113/C113-300 Formulation no. 8; the lubricants, Lube-Lok 4306 and RT/Duroid 5813; and the double-sided adhesive tape 3M-415. The effect of thermal vacuum conditioning of selected materials was also studied. The transmittance measurements were used to calculate the absorption coefficient for each of 28 different source materials versus wavelength.

  16. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  17. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  18. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  19. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  20. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  1. New Absorption Spectra of CH_2 Near 780 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ju; Wang, Zhong; Sears, Trevor J.

    2009-06-01

    The near infrared and visible spectrum (tilde{b}^1B_1 - tilde{a}^1A_1) of singlet CH_2 has been the subject of much study. However, the region between the red end of the visible part of the spectrum and about 800 nm has not been recorded since the pioneering work of Herzberg and Johns. We have remeasured the absorption spectrum between approximately 769 and 806 nm at near shot-noise-limited sensitivity and Doppler-limited resolution using a frequency-modulated extended cavity diode laser source. Rotational branches in 7 vibronic bands involving K_a = 0-4 have been assigned using known ground state combination differences. Most of them have not previously been observed and some reassignments of the Herzberg and Johns analysis have been made. Comparison with the most complete available calculated ro-vibronic energy level structure helped considerably in making the assignments, and the observed vibronic levels are assigned to levels of both tilde{a} and tilde{b} electronic character. The calculated energy levels show moderate, up to 10 cm^{-1}, apparently random, differences from the observed levels The new data will certainly help to refine the singlet potential and also provide additional avenues for future kinetics and dynamics studies of the radical. G. Herzberg and J. W. C. Johns Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 295, 107 (1966) J. -P. Gu, G. Hirsch, R J Buenker, M. Brumm, G. Osmann, P. R. Bunker and P. Jensen J. Molec. Struc., 517-8, 247 (2000) Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Ju Xin acknowledges support from the Faculty and Student Teams program of the Educational Programs Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  2. Dipole-exchange spin wave spectrum in an anisotropic ferromagnetic waveguide with a rectangular cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. Yu.; Popov, D. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2014-09-01

    A theory has been constructed that strictly describes the spectrum of dipole-exchange spin waves in an arbitrarily magnetized anisotropic ferrite waveguide with a rectangular cross section. The theory takes into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field in the waveguide cross section. The influence of parameters of the ferrite waveguide on the distribution of the internal magnetic field in the waveguide cross section is analyzed. The dispersion characteristics of two waveguide types most widely used in practice are investigated. The dipole-exchange spin wave spectra calculated for a transversely magnetized waveguide are presented and the distributions of the dynamic magnetization in the waveguide cross section for several types of volume and localized spin-wave modes are constructed.

  3. NASA-Lewis experiences with multigroup cross sections and shielding calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor shield analysis procedures employed at NASA-Lewis are described. Emphasis is placed on the generation, use, and testing of multigroup cross section data. Although coupled neutron and gamma ray cross section sets are useful in two dimensional Sn transport calculations, much insight has been gained from examination of uncoupled calculations. These have led to experimental and analytic studies of areas deemed to be of first order importance to reactor shield calculations. A discussion is given of problems encountered in using multigroup cross sections in the resolved resonance energy range. The addition to ENDF files of calculated and/or measured neutron-energy-dependent capture gamma ray spectra for shielding calculations is questioned for the resonance region. Anomalies inherent in two dimensional Sn transport calculations which may overwhelm any cross section discrepancies are illustrated.

  4. Theoretical studies on absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra of Coumarin 343 isomers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenpeng; Cao, Zexing; Zhao, Yi

    2012-03-21

    The vibrationally resolved spectral method and quantum chemical calculations are employed to reveal the structural and spectral properties of Coumarin 343 (C343), an ideal candidate for organic dye photosensitizers, in vacuum and solution. The results manifest that the ground-state energies are dominantly determined by different placements of hydrogen atom in carboxylic group of C343 conformations. Compared to those in vacuum, the electronic absorption spectra in methanol solvent show a hyperchromic property together with the redshift and blueshift for the neutral C343 isomers and their deprotonated anions, respectively. From the absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra, it is found that the maximal absorption and emission come from low-frequency modes whereas the high-frequency modes have high Raman activities. The detailed spectra are further analyzed for the identification of the conformers and understanding the potential charge transfer mechanism in their photovoltaic applications.

  5. Separation of scattering and absorption contributions in UV/visible spectra of resonant systems.

    PubMed

    Micali, N; Mallamace, F; Castriciano, M; Romeo, A; Scolaro, L M

    2001-10-15

    Resonance light scattering (RLS) is a phenomenon due to an enhancement of the scattered light in close proximity to an absorption band. The effect is easily detectable in the case of strongly absorbing chromophores, which are able to interact, thus leading to large aggregates (Pasternack, R. F.; Collings, P. J. Science 1995, 269, 935). The measurement of absorption spectra from solutions containing such resonant systems can lead to misleading results. In this paper, a simple method is described to obtain absorption spectra of aggregated species with a fairly good correction of the scattering component. The RLS spectrum, obtained using a common spectrofluorimeter, is correlated to the extinction spectrum of the same sample, allowing for an estimation of the scattering contribution to the total extinction spectrum. The method has been successfully applied both on real samples containing aggregated chromophores, such as porphyrins, chlorophyll a and gold colloids, and by simulating extinction spectra.

  6. Photoionization research on atomic beams. 2: The photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comes, F. J.; Speier, F.; Elzer, A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment to determine the absolute value of the photo-ionization cross section of atomic oxygen is described. The atoms are produced in an electrical discharge in oxygen gas with 1% hydrogen added. In order to prevent recombination a crossed beam technique is employed. The ions formed are detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The concentration of oxygen atoms in the beam is 57%. The measured photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen is compared with theoretical data. The results show the participation of autoionization processes in ionization. The cross section at the autoionizing levels detected is considerably higher than the absorption due to the unperturbed continuum. Except for wavelengths where autoionization occurs, the measured ionization cross section is in fair agreement with theory. This holds up to 550 A whereas for shorter wavelengths the theoretical values are much higher.

  7. Reassignment of the Iron (3) Absorption Bands in the Spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption features in the near-infrared and visible region reflectance spectra of Mars have been assigned to specific Fe (3+) crystal-field and o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge transfer transitions. Recently, near-ultraviolet absorption spectra of iron oxides were obtained and the energies of o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge-transfer (LMCT) transitions were determined from accurate SCF-X # alpha-SW molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)(9-) and (FeO4)(5-) clusters. Both the theoretical and experimental results, together with existing data in the literature, show that some of the previous Fe(3+) band assignments in the spectra of Mars need to be revised. The theory of Fe(3+) spectra in minerals is discussed and applied to the spectrum of Mars.

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF CERTAIN PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Calvin B.; Stone, Florence M.; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1936-01-01

    1. The absorption spectra of a number of proteins in the region 2500 to 3000 A. have been found to comprise from six to nine narrow bands. In consequence of variation in the relative intensity of these bands from protein to protein, the absorption curve has a characteristic configuration for each protein. 2. These bands correspond closely in position with the narrow bands which appear in the absorption spectra of tryptophan, tyrosin, and phenylalanine. Tryptophan and tyrosin each present three bands, phenylalanine shows nine. 3. The bands in the proteins are accordingly attributed to these amino acids. In the proteins the bands are displaced from the positions which they occupy in the uncombined amino acids, in most instances, by 10 to 35 A. toward longer wavelengths. 4. The absorption spectrum of Pneumococcus Type I antibody resembles that of normal pseudoglobulin but shows characteristic differences. PMID:19872958

  9. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  10. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  11. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  12. Soft X-ray absorption excess in gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra: Absorption by turbulent ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, M.; Schady, P.; Gatto, A.; Greiner, J.; Krause, M. G. H.; Diehl, R.; Savaglio, S.; Walch, S.

    2016-10-01

    Two-thirds of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show soft X-ray absorption in excess of the Milky Way. The column densities of metals inferred from UV and optical spectra differ from those derived from soft X-ray spectra, at times by an order of magnitude, with the latter being higher. The origin of the soft X-ray absorption excess observed in GRB X-ray afterglow spectra remains a heavily debated issue, which has resulted in numerous investigations on the effect of hot material both internal and external to the GRB host galaxy on our X-ray afterglow observations. Nevertheless, all models proposed so far have either only been able to account for a subset of our observations (i.e. at z> 2), or they have required fairly extreme conditions to be present within the absorbing material. In this paper, we investigate the absorption of the GRB afterglow by a collisionally ionised and turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). We find that a dense (3 cm-3) collisionally ionised ISM could produce UV/optical and soft X-ray absorbing column densities that differ by a factor of 10. However the UV/optical and soft X-ray absorbing column densities for such sightlines are 2-3 orders of magnitude lower in comparison to the GRB afterglow spectra. For those GRBs with a larger soft X-ray excess by up to an order of magnitude, the contribution in absorption from a turbulent ISM as considered here would ease the required conditions of additional absorbing components, such as the GRB circumburst medium and intergalactic medium.

  13. Theoretical study of absorption and fluorescence spectra of firefly luciferin in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kenta; Koga, Nobuaki

    2012-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of firefly luciferin, which is an analog of oxyluciferin, are investigated by performing the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, especially focusing on the experimentally unassigned peaks. Time-dependent DFT calculations are performed for the excited states of firefly luciferin and its conjugate acids and bases. We find that (1) the peaks in the experimental absorption spectra correspond to the excited states of not only (6'O(-), 4COO(-)) and (6'OH, 4COO(-)), but also (6'OH, 4COOH) and (6'OH, 3H(+), 4COOH); (2) the peaks in the experimental fluorescence spectra correspond to the excited states of not only (6'O(-), 4COO(-)), but also (6'OH, 4COO(-)), (6'O(-), 4COOH), (6'OH, 4COOH) and (6'OH, 3H(+), 4COOH); (3) the unassigned peak near 400 nm in the experimental absorption spectra at pH 1 is assigned to the absorption from the equilibrium ground state to the first excited state of (6'OH, 3H(+), 4COOH); and (4) the unassigned peak at 610 nm in the experimental fluorescence spectra corresponds to the transition from the equilibrium first excited state to the ground state of (6'OH, 4COO(-)). PMID:22364397

  14. A Novel Acoustic Sensor Approach to Classify Seeds Based on Sound Absorption Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Gasso-Tortajada, Vicent; Ward, Alastair J.; Mansur, Hasib; Brøchner, Torben; Sørensen, Claus G.; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A non-destructive and novel in situ acoustic sensor approach based on the sound absorption spectra was developed for identifying and classifying different seed types. The absorption coefficient spectra were determined by using the impedance tube measurement method. Subsequently, a multivariate statistical analysis, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), was performed as a way to generate a classification of the seeds based on the soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) method. The results show that the sound absorption coefficient spectra of different seed types present characteristic patterns which are highly dependent on seed size and shape. In general, seed particle size and sphericity were inversely related with the absorption coefficient. PCA presented reliable grouping capabilities within the diverse seed types, since the 95% of the total spectral variance was described by the first two principal components. Furthermore, the SIMCA classification model based on the absorption spectra achieved optimal results as 100% of the evaluation samples were correctly classified. This study contains the initial structuring of an innovative method that will present new possibilities in agriculture and industry for classifying and determining physical properties of seeds and other materials. PMID:22163455

  15. Infrared absorption spectra of molecular crystals: Possible evidence for small-polaron formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Željko; Čevizović, Dalibor; Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the position of the so-called anomalous band peaked at 1650cm in the IR-absorption spectrum of crystalline acetanilide (ACN) is theoretically investigated within the small-polaron theory. Its pronounced shift towards the position of the normal band is predicted with the rise of temperature. Interpretation of the IR-absorption spectra in terms of small-polaron model has been critically assessed on the basis of these results.

  16. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  17. Wide-range photoabsorption cross-sections of simple metals: large basis-set OPW calculations for sodium.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Hikaru

    2013-02-13

    Photoabsorption cross-sections of simple metals are formulated through a solid-state band theory based on the orthogonalized-plane-wave (OPW) method in Slater's local-exchange approximation, where interband transitions of core and conduction electrons are evaluated up to the soft x-ray regime by using large basis sets. The photoabsorption cross-sections of a sodium crystal are computed for a wide photon energy range from 3 to 1800 eV. It is found that the numerical results reproduce the existing x-ray databases fairly well for energies above the L(2,3)-edge (31 eV), verifying a consistency between solid-state and atomic models for inner-shell photoabsorption; additional oscillatory structures in the present spectra manifest solid-state effects. Our computed results in the vacuum ultraviolet regime (6-30 eV) are also in better agreement with experimental data compared to earlier theories, although some discrepancies remain in the range of 20-30 eV. The influence of the core eigenvalues on the absorption spectra is examined. PMID:23334229

  18. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  19. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  20. Secondary neutron-production cross sections from heavy-ioninteractions in composite targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase,H.; Murakami, T.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ronningen, R.M.; Ieki, K.; Gudowska, I.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2005-12-19

    Secondary neutron-production cross-sections have been measured from interactions of 290 MeV/nucleon C and 600 MeV/nucleon Ne in a target composed of simulated Martian regolith and polyethylene, and from 400 MeV/nucleon Ne interactions in wall material from the International Space Station. The data were measured between 5 and 80 deg in the laboratory. We report the double-differential cross sections, angular distributions, and total neutron-production cross sections from all three systems. The spectra from all three systems exhibit behavior previously reported in other heavy-ion, neutron production experiments; namely, a peak at forward angles near the energy corresponding to the beam velocity, with the remaining spectra generated by pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes. The double differential cross sections are fitted with a moving-source parameterization. Also reported are the data without corrections for neutron flux attenuation in the target and other intervening materials, and for neutron production in non-target materials near the target position. These uncorrected spectra are compared with SHIELD-HIT and PHITS transport model calculations. The transport model calculations reproduce the spectral shapes well, but, on average, underestimate the magnitudes of the cross sections.

  1. Zenith sky and molecular cross section measurements with the flight-model of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voors, R.; Dobber, M.; Dirksen, R.; Mount, G.; Levelt, P.

    2003-04-01

    In August and September 2002 measurements with the OMI flight instrument were conducted by KNMI under flight-representative pressure and temperature environmental conditions. During this period two days of clear zenith sky measurements were peformed as well as three days of absorption gas cell measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, the two most important Earth atmosphere gases that OMI will observe in orbit. The main objective of the zenith sky and absorption gas cell measurements is to verify instrument sensitivity, measurement capability and spectral characterisation with a geophysical source and gas retrieval feasibility for the future in-orbit Earth observations. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric total slant column abundances were successfully measured during the zenith sky period. The total ozone column remained virtually constant, whereas the nitrogen dioxide slant columns displayed the expected low AM - high PM abundances. Evidence of local NOx pollution was evident in the data. The absorption gas cell measurements are also of good quality and confirm the assumption that trace gas retrievals from atmospheric spectra work equally well using either instrument convolved high resolution laboratory cross sections or direct absorption gas cell measurements with the OMI flight model itself. This is a non-trivial point, since the instrument slit function of OMI must be determined to very high precision across the entire CCD in order to properly convolve laboratory cross sections. The zenith sky and absorption gas cell measurements have shown that the OMI flight model is capable of measuring ozone and nitrogen dioxide from space with the required accuracies and that the anticipated Earth atmospheric trace gas retrieval techniques will work properly.

  2. The correction of pebble bed reactor nodal cross sections for the effects of leakage and depletion history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Nathanael Harrison

    An accurate and computationally fast method to generate nodal cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) was presented. In this method, named Spectral History Correction (SHC), a set of fine group microscopic cross section libraries, pre-computed at specified depletion and moderation states, was coupled with the nodal nuclide densities and group bucklings to compute the new fine group spectrum for each node. The relevant fine group cross-section library was then recollapsed to the local broad group cross-section structure with this new fine group spectrum. This library set was tracked in terms of fuel isotopic densities. Fine group modulation factors (to correct the homogeneous flux for heterogeneous effects) and fission spectra were also stored with the cross section library. As the PBR simulation converges to a steady state fuel cycle, the initial nodal cross section library becomes inaccurate due to the burnup of the fuel and the neutron leakage into and out of the node. Because of the recirculation of discharged fuel pebbles with fresh fuel pebbles, a node can consist of a collection of pebbles at various burnup stages. To account for the nodal burnup, the microscopic cross sections were combined with nodal averaged atom densities to approximate the fine group macroscopic cross-sections for that node. These constructed, homogeneous macroscopic cross sections within the node were used to calculate a numerical solution for the fine group spectrum with B1 theory. This new fine spectrum was used to collapse the pre-computed microscopic cross section library to the broad group structure employed by the fuel cycle code. This SHC technique was developed and practically implemented as a subroutine within the PBR fuel cycle code PEBBED. The SHC subroutine was called to recalculate the broad group cross sections during the code convergence. The result was a fast method that compared favorably to the benchmark scheme of cross section calculation with the lattice

  3. Search for CO absorption bands in IUE far-ultraviolet spectra of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, Susan E.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the red supergiant (M2 Iab) alpha Ori with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided an unambiguous detection of a far-ultraviolet (far-UV) chromospheric continuum on which are superposed strong molecular absorption bands. The absorption bands have been identified by Carpenter et al. (1994) with the fourth-positive A-X system of CO and are likely formed in the circumstellar shell. Comparison of these GHRS data with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of alpha Ori indicates that both the continuum and the CO absorption features can be seen with IUE, especially if multiple IUE spectra, reduced with the post-1981 IUESIPS extraction procedure (i.e., with an oversampling slit), are carefully coadded to increase the signal to noise over that obtainable with a single spectrum. We therefore initiated a program, utilizing both new and archival IUE Short Wavelength Prime (SWP) spectra, to survey 15 cool, low-gravity stars, including alpha Ori, for the presence of these two new chromospheric and circumstellar shell diagnostics. We establish positive detections of far-UV stellar continua, well above estimated IUE in-order scattered light levels, in spectra of all of the program stars. However, well-defined CO absorption features are seen only in the alpha Ori spectra, even though spectra of most of the program stars have sufficient signal to noise to allow the dectection of features of comparable magnitude to the absorptions seen in alpha Ori. Clearly if CO is present in the circumstellar environments of any of these stars, it is at much lower column densities.

  4. Absorption spectra of wide-gap semiconductors in their transparency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imangholi, Babak; Hasselbeck, Michael P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2003-11-01

    The linear absorption spectra of GaP, TiO 2, ZnSe, and ZnS are measured in their transparency range using a two-color, excite-probe Z-scan. ZnS has the lowest absorption coefficient (˜10 -5 cm -1) in the wavelength range 840-900 nm, making it an excellent material for use as a luminescence extracting lens in semiconductor laser cooling experiments. Direct observation of two-photon absorption in ZnSe using only low power, continuous laser beams is also reported.

  5. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  6. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriani, B.; KLOE Collaboration

    2004-04-01

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure the hadronic cross section e+e- → π +- at DANE. Theemission of one or more hard photons in the initial state ( ISR) reduces the collision energy, otherwise fixed at 1020 MeV, and allows to perform an effective scan of the two pions invariant mass squared, sπ, in the whole sπ, region from threshold to mφ2. An extremely accurate knowledge of experimental systematics, background, luminosity and, on the theoretical side, a precise description of initial state radiation are needed to perform a competitive measurement. We present here the status of the analysis of 140 pb -1 collected in 2001. A preliminary evaluation of the hadronic contribution to aμ in the sπ range between 0.37 GeV 2 and 0.93 GeV 2 yields aμ = 378.4 ± 0.8 stat ± 4.5 syst ± 3.0 theo ± 3.8 FSR, consistent with the CMD-2 result and confirming the present discrepancy between e+e - and τ data.

  7. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  8. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  9. Secondary Neutron-Production Cross Sections from Heavy-IonInteractions between 230 and 600 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, L.H.; Zeitlin, C.J.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.; Iwase,H.; Nakamura, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Sato, H.; Yashima, H.; Ronningen, R.M.; Ieki, K.

    2006-10-04

    Secondary neutron-production cross-sections have beenmeasured from interactions of 230 MeV/nucleon He, 400 MeV/nucleon N, 400MeV/nucleon Kr, 400 MeV/nucleon Xe, 500 MeV/nucleon Fe, and 600MeV/nucleon Ne interacting in a variety of elemental and compositetargets. We report the double-differential production cross sections,angular distributions, energy spectra, and total cross sections from allsystems. Neutron energies were measured using the time-of-flighttechnique, and were measured at laboratory angles between 5 deg and 80deg. The spectra exhibit behavior previously reported in otherheavy-ion-induced neutron production experiments; namely, a peak atforward angles near the energy corresponding to the beam velocity, withthe remaining spectra generated by preequilibrium and equilibriumprocesses. The double-differential spectra are fitted with amoving-source parameterization. Observations on the dependence of thetotal cross sections on target and projectile mass arediscussed.

  10. Electron-impact-ionization cross section for the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Fang, D.; Wang, Y.; Yang, F.

    1994-02-01

    A distorted-wave Born exchange approximation was used to calculate the cross section for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atoms. Both the integral and energy-differential cross section were calculated. The results were compared with the latest experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Comparison shows that the calculations agree with differential cross-section measurements in general. For integral cross sections the calculation shows a better agreement with an earlier measurement [M.B. Shah, D. S. Elliott, and H. B. Gilbody, J. Phys. B 20, 3501 (1987)] in which the cross sections are normalized to the first Born approximation.

  11. Ionization yield and absorption spectra reveal superexcited Rydberg state relaxation processes in H2O and D2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillion, J.-H.; Dulieu, F.; Baouche, S.; Lemaire, J.-L.; Jochims, H. W.; Leach, S.

    2003-07-01

    The absorption cross section and the ionization quantum yield of H2O have been measured using a synchrotron radiation source between 9 and 22 eV. Comparison between the two curves highlights competition between relaxation processes for Rydberg states converging to the first tilde A 2A 1 and to the second tilde B 2B 2 excited states of H2O+. Comparison with D2O absorption and ionization yields, derived from Katayama et al (1973 J. Chem. Phys. 59 4309), reveals specific energy-dependent deuteration effects on competitive predissociation and autoionization relaxation channels. Direct ionization was found to be only slightly affected by deuteration.

  12. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  13. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  14. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  15. Absorption Band Modeling in Reflectance Spectra: Availability of the Modified Gaussian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunshine, J. M.; Pieters, C. M.; Pratt, S. F.; McNaron-Brown, K. S.

    1999-03-01

    The modified Gaussian model, a physically based description of absorption bands in spectra, has been updated to provide compatibility with most computer systems. These new versions, written in MATLAB and IDL, are available at the RELAB Website (www.planetary.brown.edu).

  16. Oxygen K-edge absorption spectra of small molecules in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.X.; Kirz, J.; Sham, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    The absorption spectra of O/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/ and OCS have been recorded in a transmission mode in the energy region from 500 to 950 eV. Recent observation of EXAFS in these molecules is confirmed in this study. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) Oligomers: An ab Initio Simulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) oligomers with up to seven repeat units were theoretically investigated using the algebraic diagrammatic construction method to second order, ADC(2), combined with the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approach. The ground and first excited state geometries of the oligomers were fully optimized. Vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths of the first four transitions were computed. The vibrational broadening of the absorption and fluorescence spectra was studied using a semiclassical nuclear ensemble method. After correcting for basis set and solvent effects, we achieved a balanced description of the absorption and fluorescence spectra by means of the ADC(2) approach. This fact is documented by the computed Stokes shift along the PPV series, which is in good agreement with the experimental values. The experimentally observed band width of the UV absorption and fluorescence spectra is well reproduced by the present simulations showing that the nuclear ensemble generated should be well suitable for consecutive surface hopping dynamics simulations. PMID:25415930

  18. Measurements of neutron capture cross section for {sup 207,208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Toh, Y.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Fukahori, T.; Iwamoto, N.; Iwamoto, O.; Oshima, M.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Igashira, M.; Kamada, S.; Tajika, M.

    2014-05-02

    The neutron capture cross sections for {sup 207,208}Pb have been measured in the neutron energy region from 10 to 110 keV. The γ-rays cascaded from a capture state to the ground state or low-lying states of {sup 208,209}Pb were observed for the first time, using an anti-Compton Nal(Tl) spectrometer and a TOF method. The observed discrete γ-ray energy spectra enabled us to determine neutron capture cross sections for {sup 207,208}Pb with small systematic errors, since we could distinguish γ-ray of {sup 207,208}Pb(n,γ) reactions from background γ-ray with use of the γ-ray spectra. The obtained cross sections include both contributions of resonance and direct capture components different from the previous TOF measurements.

  19. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  20. Validation of Cross Sections for Monte Carlo Simulation of the Photoelectric Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Han Sung; Pia, Maria Grazia; Basaglia, Tullio; Batic, Matej; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Several total and partial photoionization cross section calculations, based on both theoretical and empirical approaches, are quantitatively evaluated with statistical analyses using a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature to identify the state of the art for modeling the photoelectric effect in Monte Carlo particle transport. Some of the examined cross section models are available in general purpose Monte Carlo systems, while others have been implemented and subjected to validation tests for the first time to estimate whether they could improve the accuracy of particle transport codes. The validation process identifies Scofield's 1973 non-relativistic calculations, tabulated in the Evaluated Photon Data Library(EPDL), as the one best reproducing experimental measurements of total cross sections. Specialized total cross section models, some of which derive from more recent calculations, do not provide significant improvements. Scofield's non-relativistic calculations are not surpassed regarding the compatibility with experiment of K and L shell photoionization cross sections either, although in a few test cases Ebel's parameterization produces more accurate results close to absorption edges. Modifications to Biggs and Lighthill's parameterization implemented in Geant4 significantly reduce the accuracy of total cross sections at low energies with respect to its original formulation. The scarcity of suitable experimental data hinders a similar extensive analysis for the simulation of the photoelectron angular distribution, which is limited to a qualitative appraisal.

  1. Calibration and analysis of spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectra from a nonuniform plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2012-07-15

    We report here the calibration and analysis techniques used to obtain spatially resolved density and temperature measurements of a pair of imploding aluminum wires from x-ray absorption spectra. A step wedge is used to measure backlighter fluence at the film, allowing transmission through the sample to be measured with an accuracy of {+-}14% or better. A genetic algorithm is used to search the allowed plasma parameter space and fit synthetic spectra with 20 {mu}m spatial resolution to the measured spectra, taking into account that the object plasma nonuniformity must be physically reasonable. The inferred plasma conditions must be allowed to vary along the absorption path in order to obtain a fit to the spectral data. The temperature is estimated to be accurate to within {+-}25% and the density to within a factor of two. This information is used to construct two-dimensional maps of the density and temperature of the object plasma.

  2. Local environment of metal ions in phthalocyanines: K-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; d'Acapito, F; Amidani, L; Boscherini, F; Pedio, M

    2016-09-14

    We report a detailed study of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of four transition metal phthalocyanines (MPc, M = Fe, Co, Cu and Zn). We identify the important single and multiple scattering contributions to the spectra in the extended energy range and provide a robust treatment of thermal damping; thus, a generally applicable model for the interpretation of X-ray absorption fine structure spectra is proposed. Consistent variations of bond lengths and Debye Waller factors are found as a function of atomic number of the metal ion, indicating a variation of the metal-ligand bond strength which correlates with the spatial arrangement and occupation of molecular orbitals. We also provide an interpretation of the near edge spectral features in the framework of a full potential real space multiple scattering approach and provide a connection to the local electronic structure. PMID:27510989

  3. Calculation of Electronic Absorption Spectra with Account of Thermal Geometry Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzha, Maris V.; Svitenkov, Andrew I.

    2016-08-01

    An influence of thermal fluctuations of molecule's geometry on calculated electronic-absorption Vis/Uv spectra is considered. Paper presents the quantum chemical modeling of the electronic-absorption spectra for the collection of graphene samples (44, 56, 60, 68 atoms). The calculations were performed by time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at T=300 K. The noticeable changing of spectra relative to single point TDDFT calculation was discovered for two of four structures. We associate achieved results with perturbation of hydrogen and carbon atoms on the edges of the structures. We believe that suggested methodology will be useful in application engineering researches of novel molecules and molecular complexes.

  4. Local environment of metal ions in phthalocyanines: K-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; d'Acapito, F; Amidani, L; Boscherini, F; Pedio, M

    2016-09-14

    We report a detailed study of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of four transition metal phthalocyanines (MPc, M = Fe, Co, Cu and Zn). We identify the important single and multiple scattering contributions to the spectra in the extended energy range and provide a robust treatment of thermal damping; thus, a generally applicable model for the interpretation of X-ray absorption fine structure spectra is proposed. Consistent variations of bond lengths and Debye Waller factors are found as a function of atomic number of the metal ion, indicating a variation of the metal-ligand bond strength which correlates with the spatial arrangement and occupation of molecular orbitals. We also provide an interpretation of the near edge spectral features in the framework of a full potential real space multiple scattering approach and provide a connection to the local electronic structure.

  5. Possible spinel absorption bands in S-asteroid visible reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Vilas, F.; Sunshine, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Minor absorption bands in the 0.55 to 0.7 micron wavelength range of reflectance spectra of 10 S asteroids have been found and compared with those of spinel-group minerals using the modified Gaussian model. Most of these S asteroids are consistently shown to have two absorption bands around 0.6 and 0.67 micron. Of the spinel-group minerals examined in this study, the 0.6 and 0.67 micron bands are most consistent with those seen in chromite. Recently, the existence of spinels has also been detected from the absorption-band features around 1 and 2 micron of two S-asteroid reflectance spectra, and chromite has been found in a primitive achondrite as its major phase. These new findings suggest a possible common existence of spinel-group minerals in the solar system.

  6. Radiatively driven winds for different power law spectra. [for explaining narrow and broad quasar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltrametti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The analytic solutions for radiatively driven winds are given for the case in which the winds are driven by absorption of line and continuum radiation. The wind solutions are analytically estimated for different parameters of the central source and for different power law spectra. For flat spectra, three sonic points can exist; it is shown, however, that only one of these sonic points is physically realistic. Parameters of the central source are given which generate winds of further interest for explaining the narrow and broad absorption lines in quasars. For the quasar model presented here, winds which could give rise to the narrow absorption lines are generated by central sources with parameters which are not realistic for quasars.

  7. Absorption spectra of PTCDI: A combined UV-Vis and TD-DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltean, Mircea; Calborean, Adrian; Mile, George; Vidrighin, Mihai; Iosin, Monica; Leopold, Loredana; Maniu, Dana; Leopold, Nicolae; Chiş, Vasile

    2012-11-01

    Absorption spectra of PTCDI (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide) have been investigated in chloroform, N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). While no signature of assembled PTCDI molecules is observed in chloroform solution, distinct bands assigned to their aggregation have been identified in DMF and DMSO solutions. PTCDI monomers show very similar absorption patterns in chloroform and DMSO solutions. Experimental data, including the vibronic structure of the absorption spectra were explained based on the Franck-Condon approximation and quantum chemical results obtained at PBE0-DCP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Geometry optimization of the first excited state leads to a nice agreement between the calculated adiabatic transition energies and experimental data.

  8. Ft-Ir Measurements of Cold Cross Sections of Benzene (C_6H_6) for Cassini/cirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda; Toon, Geoffrey C.

    2014-06-01

    Titan's stratosphere is abundant in hydrocarbons (CxHy) producing highly complicated and crowded features in the spectra of Cassini/CIRS. Among these, benzene (C_6H_6) is the heaviest hydrocarbon ever seen in the Titan and cold planets. For this reason, a series of pure and N_2-broadened C6H6 spectra were recorded in the 640 to 1540 wn region at gas temperatures down to 231 K using a Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We report temperature dependent absorption cross sections for three strong fundamental bands (νb{4}, νb{14}, νb{13}). We also derived pseudo-line parameters, which include mean intensities and effective lower state energies on a 0.005 wn frequency grid, obtained by fitting all the laboratory spectra simultaneously. For the pseudoline generation, details can be found in a JPL MK-IV website, http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo). The resulting pseudolines of the strong bands reproduce observed cross sections to within ˜3 %. These new results are compared to earlier work, including the C6H6+N2 spectra recorded at PNNL. S. W. Sharpe, et al., Appl Spectrosc 58, 1452-1461 (2004); C. P. Rinsland, et al. JQSRT, 109, 2511-2522 (2008). Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. A Code to Produce Cell Averaged Cross Sections for Fast Critical Assemblies and Fast Power Reactors.

    1987-05-14

    Version 00 SLAROM solves the neutron integral transport equations to determine the flux distribution and spectra in a fast reactor lattice and calculates cell averaged effective cross sections. The code uses multigroup data of the type in DLC-111/JFS that use Bondarenko factors for resonance effects.

  10. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  11. Measurement of K Shell Photoelectric Cross Sections at a K Edge--A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, S. V.; Badiger, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe in this paper a new method for measuring the K shell photoelectric cross sections of high-Z elemental targets at a K absorption edge. In this method the external bremsstrahlung (EB) photons produced in the Ni target foil by beta particles from a weak[superscript 90]Sr-[superscript 90]Y beta source are passed through an elemental target…

  12. Temperature and pH effects on myoglobin optical absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, Wayne A.; Arakaki, Lorilee S. L.; Schenkman, Kenneth A.

    2005-03-01

    Myoglobin is an important intracellular oxygen transport molecule in muscle. Oxygen binding to myoglobin can be determined spectroscopically due to differences in absorption of oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin. Myoglobin oxygenation can be used as a measure of intracellular oxygen tension in muscle. We sought to determine the effects of differences in temperature and pH on myoglobin absorption spectra in the near-infrared spectral region. Transmission spectra were taken of pure solutions of oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin at 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40°C at pH values of 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 (n=4). In second derivative spectra at 40°C, the deoxymyoglobin peak near 760 nm was shifted by 0.9-1.2 nm toward longer wavelengths relative to 10°C at constant pH. Differences in pH did not result in statistically significant shifts in this peak at constant temperature. Estimations of myoglobin saturation from myoglobin spectra with intermediate saturations were obtained by least squares (LS) and partial least squares (PLS) analyses. Both algorithms estimate myoglobin saturation with small root mean square errors (<1e-6) when component spectra and calibration set spectra are at the same temperature as test spectra (n=100). However, when spectra at 20°C or 40°C were used as component spectra in LS with test spectra at 30°C (all at pH 7.0), errors were 0.8% and 1.4%, respectively. PLS analysis of 30°C test spectra using 20°C or 40°C calibration set spectra yielded errors of 1.6% and 1.5%, respectively. When the PLS analysis is endpoint corrected, these errors become vanishingly small. These results demonstrate that peak shifts due to temperature are potential sources of error if calibration and test spectra differ by 10°C. These errors can be minimized by appropriate spectral analytic methods.

  13. Alpha Induced Reaction Cross Section Calculations of Tantalum Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Ugur, F. A.; Gokce, A. A.

    2013-04-01

    The fusion energy is attractive as an energy source because the fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and so fusion will not contribute to environmental problems, such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. The fusion reaction does not produce radioactive nuclides and it is not self-sustaining, as is a fission reaction when a critical mass of fissionable material is assembled. Since the fusion reaction is easily and quickly quenched the primary sources of heat to drive such an accident are heat from radioactive decay and heat from chemical reactions. Both the magnitude and time dependence of the generation of heat from radioactive decay can be controlled by proper selection and design of materials. Tantalum is one of the candidate materials for the first wall of fusion reactors and for component parts of irradiation chambers. Accurate experimental cross-section data of alpha induced reactions on Tantalum are also of great importance for thermonuclear reaction rate determinations since the models used in the study of stellar nucleosynthesis are strongly dependent on these rates (Santos et al. in J Phys G 26:301, 2000). In this study, neutron-production cross sections for target nuclei 181Ta have been investigated up to 100 MeV alpha energy. The excitation functions for (α, xn) reactions (x = 1, 2, 3) have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. And also neutron emission spectra for 181Ta (α, xn) reactions at 26.8 and 45.2 MeV have been calculated. The mean free path multiplier parameters has been investigated. The pre-equilibrium results have been calculated by using the hybrid model, the geometry dependent hybrid (GDH) model. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in literature.

  14. Optical properties and cross-sections of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrush, E.; Brown, D. M.; Salciccioli, N.; Gomes, J.; Brown, A.; Siegrist, K.; Thomas, M. E.; Boggs, N. T.; Carter, C. C.

    2010-04-01

    There is an urgent need to develop standoff sensing of biological agents in aerosolized clouds. In support of the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System (JBSDS) program, lidar systems have been a dominant technology and have shown significant capability in field tests conducted in the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The release of biological agents in the open air is forbidden. Therefore, indirect methods must be developed to determine agent cross-sections in order to validate sensor against biological agents. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and liquid suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index of refraction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long wave infrared (LWIR). Using that result and the aerosols' particle size distribution as inputs to Mie calculations yields the backscatter and extinction cross-sections as a function of wavelength. Recent efforts to model field measurements from the UV to the IR have been successful. Measurements with aerodynamic and geometric particle sizers show evidence of particle clustering. Backscatter simulations of these aerosols show these clustered particles dominate the aerosol backscatter and depolarization signals. In addition, these large particles create spectral signatures in the backscatter signal due to material absorption. Spectral signatures from the UV to the IR have been observed in simulations of field releases. This method has been demonstrated for a variety of biological simulant materials such as Ovalbumin (OV), Erwinia (EH), Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and male specific bacteriophage (MS2). These spectral signatures may offer new methods for biological discrimination for both stand-off sensing and point detection systems.

  15. Modeling absorption spectra for detection of the combustion products of jet engines by laser remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovskaya, Olga K; Kashirskii, Danila E; Egorov, Oleg V; Shefer, Olga V

    2016-05-10

    The absorption spectra of exhaust gases (H2O, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) and aerosol (soot and Al2O3) particles were modeled at different temperatures for the first time and suitable spectral ranges were determined for conducting laser remote sensing of the combustion products of jet engines. The calculations were conducted on the basis of experimental concentrations of the substances and the sizes of the aerosol particles. The temperature and geometric parameters of jet engine exhausts were also taken from the literature. The absorption spectra were obtained via the line-by-line method, making use of the spectral line parameters from the authors' own high-temperature databases (for NO2 and SO2 gases) and the HITEMP 2010 database, and taking into account atmospheric transmission. Finally, the theoretical absorption spectra of the exhaust gases were plotted at temperatures of 400, 700, and 1000 K, and the impact of aerosol particles on the total exhaust spectra was estimated in spectral ranges suitable for remote sensing applications. PMID:27168298

  16. THERMAL ABSORPTION AS THE CAUSE OF GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA IN PULSARS AND MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, Wojciech; Rożko, Karolina; Kijak, Jarosław; Melikidze, George I.

    2015-07-20

    We present a model that explains the observed deviation of the spectra of some pulsars and magnetars from the power-law spectra that are seen in the bulk of the pulsar population. Our model is based on the assumption that the observed variety of pulsar spectra can be naturally explained by the thermal free–free absorption that takes place in the surroundings of the pulsars. In this context, the variety of the pulsar spectra can be explained according to the shape, density, and temperature of the absorbing media and the optical path of the line of sight across it. We have put specific emphasis on the case of the radio magnetar SGR J1745–2900 (also known as the Sgr A* magnetar), modeling the rapid variations of the pulsar spectrum after the outburst of 2013 April as due to the free–free absorption of the radio emission in the electron material ejected during the magnetar outburst. The ejecta expands with time and consequently the absorption rate decreases and the shape of the spectrum changes in such a way that the peak frequency shifts toward the lower radio frequencies. In the hypothesis of an absorbing medium, we also discuss the similarity between the spectral behavior of the binary pulsar B1259–63 and the spectral peculiarities of isolated pulsars.

  17. C IV Broad Absorption Line Variability in QSO spectra from SDSS I-III Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, D.; Brandt, W. N.; Paolillo, M.; Grier, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our study of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability in the spectra of more than 1500 QSO's from several SDSS I-III surveys. Absorption lines in QSO spectra are due to outflowing winds which originate from the accretion disk, at a distance on the order of 1/100 - 1/10 pc from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). Winds trigger the accretion mechanism onto the SMBH removing angular momentum from the disk and, since they evacuate gas from the host galaxy, they are believed to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Absorption lines can be classified on the basis of their width and of the observed transitions, and their equivalent width can change on timescales from months to years, due to variations in the covering factor and/or in the ionization level. We analyzed the largest sample ever used for such kind of studies. We find that the fraction of disappearing BALs is three times larger than the one found in previous works. Strong evidence is found for a coordinated variability in spectra with multiple BAL troughs which may be interpreted in terms of disk-wind rotation, and/or variations in the physical status of the shielding gas. We also find that, in spectra with multiple BAL troughs, the disappearing ones are generally those with the highest central velocity.

  18. Modeling absorption spectra for detection of the combustion products of jet engines by laser remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovskaya, Olga K; Kashirskii, Danila E; Egorov, Oleg V; Shefer, Olga V

    2016-05-10

    The absorption spectra of exhaust gases (H2O, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) and aerosol (soot and Al2O3) particles were modeled at different temperatures for the first time and suitable spectral ranges were determined for conducting laser remote sensing of the combustion products of jet engines. The calculations were conducted on the basis of experimental concentrations of the substances and the sizes of the aerosol particles. The temperature and geometric parameters of jet engine exhausts were also taken from the literature. The absorption spectra were obtained via the line-by-line method, making use of the spectral line parameters from the authors' own high-temperature databases (for NO2 and SO2 gases) and the HITEMP 2010 database, and taking into account atmospheric transmission. Finally, the theoretical absorption spectra of the exhaust gases were plotted at temperatures of 400, 700, and 1000 K, and the impact of aerosol particles on the total exhaust spectra was estimated in spectral ranges suitable for remote sensing applications.

  19. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  20. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  1. Interpretation of the absorption and circular dichroic spectra of oriented purple membrane films.

    PubMed Central

    Muccio, D D; Cassim, J Y

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and circular dichroic (CD) spectra of purple membrane films in which the plane of the membranes is oriented perpendicular to the incident beam are compared with the solution spectra. This enables one to relate structural features of the purple membrane to a coordinate system as defined by a normal to the membrane plane and two mutually perpendicular in-plane axes. The film and solution absorption spectra were similar except for a relative depression in the 200 - 225-nm region of the film spectrum. However, the CD spectra showed significant differences in the visible region, where the biphasic band in the solution spectrum was replaced by a single positive band at 555 nm in the film spectrum and in the far ultraviolet region, where the 208-nm band was deleted from the film spectra of the native and regenerated membranes. Moreover, a small shoulder occurred at 208 nm in the film spectrum of the bleached membrane. The near ultraviolet spectra also showed differences, whereas the 317-nm band remained essentially the same for both spectra. Based on excitonic interpretations of the visible and far ultraviolet spectra the following conclusions were reached: (a) a relatively strong in-plane monomeric interaction occurs between te retinyl chromophore and apoprotein; (b) the helical axes of the native and regenerated membrane proteins are oriented primarily normal to the membrane plane; and (c) the helical axes of the bleached membrane proteins are tilted more in-plane than the axes of the native or regenerated membrane. Additional conclusions were that an interaction occurs between an in-plane magnetic dipole moment of the retinyl chromophore and probably an in-plane electric dipole moment of a nearby aromatic amino acid(s), and that although the membrane is anisotropic with respect to coupling between electric and magnetic moments of the aromatic amino acids, the transition dipole moments of the aromatic amino acids are not preferentially oriented in either

  2. S0 → Sn and S1 → Sn absorption spectra of thio-distyrylbenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, Ivan; Ginocchietti, Gabriella; Mazzucato, Ugo; Spalletti, Anna

    2007-08-01

    The molecular structures and the S0 → Sn and S1 → Sn absorption spectra of 1,4-distyrylbenzene and four thio-analogues, where the side phenyl rings are replaced by 2'-thienyl or 3'-thienyl groups and the central benzene ring is replaced by a 2,5-disubstituted thiophene ring, have been investigated by a combined theoretical and experimental approach. The rotational isomerism of these flexible molecules has been analyzed by ab initio quantum chemistry methodologies. The S0 → Sn one-photon absorption spectra and the S1 → Sn transient spectra have been calculated using the CS INDO S-CI and SDT-CI procedures. The calculations on conformational isomers indicate that the stable molecular structures are those where the quasi-single bonds of the vinylene groups have almost planar s-trans configuration. In the 1,4-compounds, there may be an equilibrium between two molecular forms of C2h and C2v symmetry in the model of planar conformations. As concerns the UV-vis absorption spectra, the importance of the cis band, as probe to investigate the molecular structure of the 2,5-compounds, has been pointed out, and the presence of an equilibrium between two rotamers in the compound bearing side 3'-thienyl groups has been confirmed. The S1 → Sn absorption spectra are interpretable only with configuration interaction calculations including the multiple excited configurations. In this respect, the role played by the H2 → L2 double excitation has been emphasized.

  3. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  4. Cross-Section Measurements in the Fast Neutron Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plompen, Arjan

    2006-04-01

    Generation IV focuses research for advanced nuclear reactors on six concepts. Three of these concepts, the lead, gas and sodium fast reactors (LFR, GFR and SFR) have fast neutron spectra, whereas a fourth, the super-critical water reactor (SCWR), can be configured to have a fast spectrum. Such fast neutron spectra are essential to meet the sustainability objective of GenIV. Nuclear data requirements for GenIV concepts will therefore emphasize the energy region from about 1 keV to 10 MeV. Here, the potential is illustrated of the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility and the Van de Graaff laboratory at IRMM to measure the relevant nuclear data in this energy range: the total, capture, fission and inelastic-scattering cross sections. In particular, measurement results will be shown for lead and bismuth inelastic scattering for which the need was recently expressed in a quantitative way by Aliberti et al. for Accelerator Driven Systems. Even without completion of the quantitative assessment of the data needs for GenIV concepts at ANL it is clear that this particular effort is of relevance to LFR system studies.

  5. Absorption spectra and light penetration depth of normal and pathologically altered human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Volotovskaya, A. V.; Ulashchik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    A three-layered skin model (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and engineering formulas for radiative transfer theory are used to study absorption spectra and light penetration depths of normal and pathologically altered skin. The formulas include small-angle and asymptotic approximations and a layer-addition method. These characteristics are calculated for wavelengths used for low-intensity laser therapy. We examined several pathologies such as vitiligo, edema, erythematosus lupus, and subcutaneous wound, for which the bulk concentrations of melanin and blood vessels or tissue structure (for subcutaneous wound) change compared with normal skin. The penetration depth spectrum is very similar to the inverted blood absorption spectrum. In other words, the depth is minimal at blood absorption maxima. The calculated absorption spectra enable the power and irradiation wavelength providing the required light effect to be selected. Relationships between the penetration depth and the diffuse reflectance coefficient of skin (unambiguously expressed through the absorption coefficient) are analyzed at different wavelengths. This makes it possible to find relationships between the light fields inside and outside the tissue.

  6. Ab Initio Simulation of the Absorption Spectra of Photoexcited Carriers in TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nunzi, Francesca; De Angelis, Filippo; Selloni, Annabella

    2016-09-15

    We investigate the absorption spectra of photoexcited carriers in a prototypical anatase TiO2 nanoparticle using hybrid time dependent density functional theory calculations in water solution. Our results agree well with experimental transient absorption spectroscopy data and shed light on the character of the transitions. The trapped state is always involved, so that the SOMO/SUMO is the initial/final state for the photoexcited electron/hole absorption. For a trapped electron, final states in the low energy tail of the conduction band correspond to optical transitions in the IR, while final states at higher energy correspond to optical transitions in the visible. For a trapped hole, the absorption band is slightly blue-shifted and narrower in comparison to that of the electron, consistent with its deeper energy level in the band gap. Our calculations also show that electrons in shallow traps exhibit a broad absorption in the IR, resembling the feature attributed to conductive electrons in experimental spectra. PMID:27569530

  7. Theoretical electronic absorption and natural circular dichroism spectra of (-)-trans-cyclooctene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Koch, Henrik

    2000-02-01

    Using the random phase approximation and coupled cluster singles and doubles linear response theory in conjunction with two basis sets of augmented double-zeta quality and two nuclear geometries, we have calculated electronic absorption and natural circular dichroism spectra of (-)-trans-cyclooctene. We present a density functional theory optimized nuclear geometry whose ground state electric dipole moment and harmonic vibrational spectrum compare well with experimental data. The coupled cluster results obtained with this nuclear geometry are in good agreement with experimental electronic spectra, although the original interpretation of the most intense low-lying band as a π→π* transition is contradicted.

  8. Two-dimensional J-spectra with absorption-mode lineshapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Andrew J.; Keeler, James

    2007-12-01

    Two-dimensional J-spectroscopy offers the possibility of a complete separation of chemical shifts and J-couplings. However, the usefulness of the experiment is considerably reduced by the fact that peaks in the spectra have the phase-twist lineshape. We present a simple new spectroscopic method for recording J-spectra in which the peaks are both in the absorption mode and retain their natural intensities, albeit at the cost of a considerable reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio. No special data-processing is required. The method is tested on quinine, and the steroid dehydroisoandrosterone.

  9. Absorption spectra of HCFC-22 around 829/cm at atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, Prasad

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of HCFC-22 have been measured around 829/cm in the laboratory at various temperature-pressure combinations chosen to represent tangent heights (as in solar-occultation experiments) or layers in the atmosphere. The data measured employing the Doppler-limited spectra resolution (about 10 exp -4/cm) of a tunable diode laser spectrometer are free of instrumental distortion and are more practical in this case than the spectral line parameters adapted in conventional line-by-line procedures for analyzing atmospheric spectra. The present data obtained with N2 as the broadening gas are shown to be directly applicable to the real atmosphere.

  10. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  11. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  12. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  13. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  14. Photoionization cross sections of E levels in electron-irradiated n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitskii, D.L.; Kirov, M.A.; Popova, E.A.

    1986-11-01

    The spectral change of the photoionization cross sections of E/sub 1/-E/sub 2/ levels and the low-energy part of the photoionization cross sections of E/sub 4/ and E/sub 5/ levels are determined. It has been shown that radiation defects with which these levels are associated are characterized be a strong lattice relaxation of magnitude approx. = 0.5 eV. The red absorption edge for these levels in p-type GaAs has been found to lie at photon energies greater than E/sub g/ (except, possibly, level E/sub 5/)

  15. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  16. Flow in Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    In this thesis steady, laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of non-circular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (a) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (b) to consider non-circular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (c) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent -shaped cross sections and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the

  17. Documentation of Uncertainties in Experimental Cross Sections for EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-06-15

    Documentation of uncertainties and covariances in experimental nuclear reaction cross sections has been assessed. Following consideration of the importance of covariances for nuclear data in various nuclear applications, and presentation of a simple numerical example to demonstrate this point, the minimum basic concepts (mean, covariance, standard derivation, partial uncertainties, micro- and macro-correlation coefficients) are introduced. A deterministic approach to propagating the covariances in primary measured parameters (e.g., counts) to the derived cross sections is discussed, using a neutron-induced activation cross section measurement as an example. Finally, various approaches to documentation (publication, compilation) of experimental cross sections to facilitate their use in future evaluations are mentioned.

  18. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  19. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of 22Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.

    2009-01-01

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important 22Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched 22Ne and CH4 were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7±0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  20. Theoretical calculations on the electron absorption spectra of selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Ping

    1993-01-01

    As a theoretical component of the joint effort with the laboratory of Dr. Lou Allamandola to search for potential candidates for interstellar organic carbon compound that are responsible for the visible diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIB's), quantum mechanical calculations were performed on the electron absorption spectra of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives. In the completed project, 15 different species of naphthalene, its hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives, and corresponding cations and anions were studied. Using semiempirical quantum mechanical method INDO/S, the ground electronic state of each species was evaluated with restricted Hartree-Fock scheme and limited configuration interaction. The lowest energy spin state for each species was used for electron absorption calculations. Results indicate that these calculations are accurate enough to reproduce the spectra of naphthalene cation and anion observed in neon matrix. The spectral pattern of the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives predicted based on these results indicate that the electron configuration of the pi orbitals of these species is the dominant determinant. A combined list of 19 absorptions calculated from 4500 A to 10,400 A were compiled and suggested as potential candidates that are relevant for the DIB's absorptions. Continued studies on pyrene and derivatives revealed the ground state symmetries and multiplicities of its neutral, anionic, and cationic species. Spectral calculations show that the cation (B(sub 3g)-2) and the anion (A(sub u)-2) are more likely to have low energy absorptions in the regions between 10 kK and 20 kK, similar to naphthalene. These absorptions, together with those to be determined from the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives of pyrene, can be used to provide additional candidates and suggest experimental work in the search for interstellar compounds that are responsible for DIB's.

  1. Impact of different visible light spectra on oxygen absorption and surface discoloration of bologna sausage.

    PubMed

    Böhner, Nadine; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several visible light spectra in various intensities on the oxygen absorption and surface color of sliced bologna. Sausage samples were stored in a gastight model packaging system and illuminated at 5°C with six single-colored LEDs covering the main part of the visible light spectrum. The initial oxygen level was set at 0.5% in order to simulate common residual oxygen amounts in conventional packaging. The oxygen absorption and the discoloration measured as changes in CIE a*-value were dependent from the applied light intensity. The color stability of bologna was differently affected by light of various wavelengths. The results show that the use of suitable LEDs with specific spectra for display illumination can help to reduce the light induced deterioration of cured sausages in retail markets. PMID:27343458

  2. Observationally determined Fe II oscillator strengths. [interstellar and quasar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Steenberg, M.; Shull, J. M.; Seab, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for 21 Fe II resonance lines, have been determined using a curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar data from the Copernicus and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. In addition to slight changes in strengths of the far-UV lines, new f-values are reported for wavelength 1608.45, a prominent line in interstellar and quasar absorption spectra, and for wavelength 2260.08, a weak, newly identified linen in IUE interstellar spectra. An upper limit on the strength of the undetected line at 2366.867 A (UV multiplet 2) is set. Using revised oscillator strengths, Fe II column densities toward 13 OB stars are derived. The interstellar depletions, (Fe/H), relative to solar values range between factors of 10 and 120.

  3. Impact of different visible light spectra on oxygen absorption and surface discoloration of bologna sausage.

    PubMed

    Böhner, Nadine; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several visible light spectra in various intensities on the oxygen absorption and surface color of sliced bologna. Sausage samples were stored in a gastight model packaging system and illuminated at 5°C with six single-colored LEDs covering the main part of the visible light spectrum. The initial oxygen level was set at 0.5% in order to simulate common residual oxygen amounts in conventional packaging. The oxygen absorption and the discoloration measured as changes in CIE a*-value were dependent from the applied light intensity. The color stability of bologna was differently affected by light of various wavelengths. The results show that the use of suitable LEDs with specific spectra for display illumination can help to reduce the light induced deterioration of cured sausages in retail markets.

  4. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption Fourier Transform mid infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, T.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry is considered a precise and accurate method for the observation of trace gases in the atmosphere. The precision and accuracy of such measurements are dependent on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness reduce the precision and accuracy of the trace gas concentrations, but cannot always be avoided. Thus, a strong effort is made within the community to reduce the impact of source brightness fluctuations by applying a correction on the spectra following the measurements. So far, it could be shown that the precision and accuracy of CO2 total column concentrations could be improved by applying a source brightness fluctuation correction to spectra in the near infrared spectral region. The analysis of trace gas concentrations obtained from spectra in the mid infrared spectral region is fundamental. However, spectra below 2000 cm-1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents a source brightness fluctuation correction. Here, we show a method of source brightness fluctuation correction, which can be applied on spectra in the whole infrared spectral region including spectra measured with a MCT detector. We present a solution to remove the unknown offset in MCT interferograms allowing MCT spectra for an application of source brightness fluctuation correction. This gives an improvement in the quality of MCT spectra and we demonstrate an improvement in the retrieval of O3 profiles and total column concentrations. For a comparison with previous studies, we apply our source brightness fluctuation correction method on spectra in the near infrared spectral region and show an improvement in the retrieval of CO2 total column concentrations.

  5. Emission and absorption spectra of some bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, J. M.; Pathirana, R. N.; Stibbard, J. H. A.

    Absorption spectra in neutral and acidic media are reported for a series of bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines, which are unable to tautomerize. Comparison is made with non-bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines capable of tautomeric rearrangement. Both bridged and non-bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines are essentially non-fluorescent due to the "proximity effect" of interaction between singlet ηπ* and ππ* states of similar energy, a phenomenon previously recognised in six-membered nitrogen heterocycles.

  6. PHOTOELECTRIC CROSS-SECTIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Bethell, T. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2011-10-10

    We provide simple polynomial fits to the X-ray photoelectric cross-sections (0.03 keV < E < 10 keV) for mixtures of gas and dust found in protoplanetary disks. Using the solar elemental abundances of Asplund et al., we treat the gas and dust components separately, facilitating the further exploration of evolutionary processes such as grain settling and gain growth. We find that blanketing due to advanced grain growth (a{sub max} > 1 {mu}m) can reduce the X-ray opacity of dust appreciably at E{sub X} {approx} 1 keV, coincident with the peak of typical T Tauri X-ray spectra. However, the reduction of dust opacity by dust settling, which is known to occur in protoplanetary disks, is probably a more significant effect. The absorption of 1-10 keV X-rays is dominated by gas opacity once the dust abundance has been reduced to about 1% of its diffuse interstellar value. The gas disk establishes a floor to the opacity at which point X-ray transport becomes insensitive to further dust evolution. Our choice of fitting function follows that of Morrison and McCammon, providing a degree of backward compatibility.

  7. Measurements of niobium absorption spectra in plasmas with nearly full M-shell configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Harris, J. W. O.; Graham, P.; Davidson, S. J.; James, S. F.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Clark, E. L.; Smith, C. C.; Upcraft, L.

    2007-10-01

    A systematic study has been carried out on the changes in the L-shell absorption structure of niobium as a result of changing the population of the n = 3 shell from full to having vacancies in the 3d level. The niobium spectra were measured in the 2-3 keV frequency range, which spanned the 2p-nd transitions where 3 ≤ n ≤ 11. In addition to the detailed structure in these arrays the data also show 2s-4p and 2p-4s transitions and the bound-free L edge. The frequencies and widths of transition arrays, transmission between arrays, and the absorption due to the bound-free edge, can be seen in the data. The sample conditions were found from a combination of two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations using the AWE NYM code and flux measurements using X-ray diodes, measurements of 1s-2p absorption spectra in aluminium and mixed aluminium/niobium samples. The electron temperature error, inferred from the modelling, is ±2 eV, with a density error of 30%. The data were recorded over the temperature range from ˜28 to 45 eV and show marked changes in the spectra over this range. The data were compared to spectra predicted by the AWE CASSANDRA [B.J.B. Crowley, J.W.O. Harris, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71 (2000) p. 257] opacity code. The calculated spectra were able to reproduce the measurements reasonably well. However, there are some differences in line positions that cannot be accounted for by gradients and there are differences in the array structure in the prediction and the measurements, with additional structure predicted but not seen in the measurements. There is also lower transmission on the blue side of the 2p-3d transition arrays compared to prediction.

  8. Thermal neutron capture cross section for the K isomer {sup 177}Lu{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Belier, G.; Roig, O.; Daugas, J.-M.; Giarmana, O.; Meot, V.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Foucher, Y.; Aupiais, J.; Abt, D.; Jutier, Ch.; Le Petit, G.; Bettoni, C.; Gaudry, A.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Trama, J.-Ch.

    2006-01-15

    The thermal neutron radiative capture cross section for the K isomeric state in {sup 177}Lu has been measured for the first time. Several {sup 177}Lu{sup m} targets have been prepared and irradiated in various neutron fluxes at the Lauee Langevin Institute in Grenoble and at the CEA reactors OSIRIS and ORPHEE in Saclay. The method consists of measuring the {sup 178}Lu activity by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The values obtained in four different neutron spectra have been used to calculate the resonance integral of the radiative capture cross section for {sup 177}Lu{sup m}. In addition, an indirect method leads to the determination of the {sup 177}Lu{sup g} neutron radiative capture cross section.

  9. Code System to Calculate Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections by Evaporation Model.

    2000-11-27

    Version: 00 Both STAPRE and STAPREF are included in this package. STAPRE calculates energy-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions with emission of particles and gamma rays and fission. The models employed are the evaporation model with inclusion of pre-equilibrium decay and a gamma-ray cascade model. Angular momentum and parity conservation are accounted for. Major improvement in the 1976 STAPRE program relates to level density approach, implemented in subroutine ZSTDE. Generalized superfluid model is incorporated, boltzman-gasmore » modeling of intrinsic state density and semi-empirical modeling of a few-quasiparticle effects in total level density at equilibrium and saddle deformations of actinide nuclei. In addition to the activation cross sections, particle and gamma-ray production spectra are calculated. Isomeric state populations and production cross sections for gamma rays from low excited levels are obtained, too. For fission a single or a double humped barrier may be chosen.« less

  10. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm- 1 with a resolution of 0.08 cm- 1 using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm- 1 and 8100-8230 cm- 1. No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database.

  11. [Study on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ethylene glycol and glycerol].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zhu, Tuo; Yu, Rui-Peng

    2007-07-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of ethylene glycol and glycerol solution induced by UV light were studied respectively in the present paper. The most intense absorption wavelength for both of them was located at 198 nm. Moreover, fluorescence was detected when induced by suitable UV light, and the corresponding fluorescence spectra were listed. But there is no obvious relationship found between the fluorescence intensity and the excited wavelength, and a further research should be done. From the first derivative fluorescence spectra of ethylene glycol, it was concluded that under the UV light of 210 nm, the variation speed for relative intensity proved to be the fastest. In contrast, when excited by 225 nm, the speed proved to be the slowest. In addition, based on the quantum calculation and the transition from HOMO to LUMO of electronics in one-dimensional quantum well, the authors attempted to give out the value of absorption wavelength. In consideration of the bond-length variety brought out by the chain processing, the error between the experimental and calculation values should be apprehensible, and the latter can serve as some reference value in theory.

  12. The use of commercial glass as a potential gamma accidental dosimeter through the absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.; Bakr, S.

    2012-05-01

    Various types of commercial glass (ordinary windows, cathode ray tubes, glass kitchenware) have been studied as potential accidental radiation dosimeters. The proposed method utilizes the changes in the glasses' absorption spectra as a result of irradiation. A 60Co gamma irradiation cell has been used to irradiate samples with doses ranging from 5 to 200 Gy. The transmittance was measured using a photospectrometer (UV-visible spectrometry). The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra of most of the glass samples change in linear proportion to the exposure dose. Moreover, the study considers the fading effect on the absorption spectra of the irradiated samples for fading times up to 100 days at room temperature. The results of this work demonstrate that several widely used types of glass can be used as high-dose accidental dosimeters for doses ranging between 8 and 200 Gy. A reasonable calibration line can be established for any irradiated glass sample by heating, re-irradiating with standard doses and measuring the related absorption coefficient. Further investigations are needed to decrease the minimum detectable dose of the proposed method and to study the effect of glass composition on radiation response.

  13. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  14. Hot Experimental Absorption Spectra of CH_4 in the Pentad and Octad Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F.

    2014-06-01

    We present comprehensive line lists of CH_4 at high temperatures for the pentad and octad region (2400-5000 wn). These spectra improve on our previous emission measurements for this region by using a new quartz sample cell in conjunction with a tube furnace (pictured). Ten temperatures have been recorded from room temperature up to 1000°C and our technique involves the acquisition of four separate Fourier transform infrared spectra at each temperature, thus accounting for both the emission and absorption of the molecule and the cell. By combining these four spectra we obtain true transmission spectra of hot CH_4 in this region. Analysis of this set of spectra enables the production of a line list that includes the position, intensity and empirical lower state energy. Our spectra and line lists can be used directly to model planetary atmospheres and brown dwarfs. Hargreaves, R.J., Beale, C.A., Michaux, L., Irfan, M., & Bernath, P.F. 2012, ApJ, 757, 46

  15. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  16. Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Chang-Dae; Jang, Kiwan; Park, Sang-An; Kim, Duck-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2006-09-01

    Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys were investigated in the composition region of 0.0 x 0.4 and in the wavelength region of 300 to 2500 nm at 4.8 K and 290 K. We observed several absorption bands in the wavelength regions corresponding to the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4P) transition and the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4F) transition of Co2+ at a tetrahedral Td point symmetry point in the host crystals, as well as unknown absorption bands. The several absorption bands were analyzed in the framework of the crystal-field theory along with the second-order spin-orbit coupling. The unknown absorption bands were assigned as due to phonon-assisted absorption bands. We also investigated the variations of the crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameter B with composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system. The results showed that the crystal-field parameter (Dq ) increases, on the other hand, the Racah parameter (B ) decreases with increasing composition x, which may be connected with an increase in the covalency of the metal-ligand bond with increasing composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system.

  17. Twin-peaks absorption spectra of excess electron in ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musat, Raluca M.; Kondoh, Takafumi; Yoshida, Yoichi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    The solvated electron in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been the subject of several investigations and several reports exist on its nature and absorption spectrum. These studies concluded that the solvated electron exhibits an absorption spectrum peaking in the 1000-1400 nm region; a second absorption band peaking in the UV region has been assigned to the hole or dication radicals simultaneously formed in the system. Here we report on the fate of the excess electron in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, P14+/NTf2- using nanosecond pulse radiolysis. Scavenging experiments allowed us to record and disentangle the complex spectrum measured in P14+/NTf2-. We identified a bi-component absorption spectrum, due to the solvated electron, the absorption maxima located at 1080 nm and around 300 nm, as predicted by previous ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations for the dry excess electron. We also measured the spectra using different ionic liquids and confirmed the same feature of two absorption peaks. The present results have important implications for the characterization of solvated electrons in ionic liquids and better understanding of their structure and reactivity.

  18. Intelligent information extraction from reflectance spectra Absorption band positions. [application to laboratory and earth-based telescope spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, R. L.; Jones, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A multiple high-order derivative analysis algorithm has been developed which can automatically extract absorption band positions from low-quality reflectance spectra with little degredation of accuracy. Overlapping bands with comparable widths and intensities can be resolved whose centers are as close as 0.3-0.5 W, with safer resolution limits of 0.6-1.0 W band center separations suggested for overlapping bands that are dissimilar. The segment length for smoothing is continually adjusted to about 0.5 W to minimize signal distortion, and a spectral pattern recognition algorithm predicts the signal spectrum and calculates approximate W across the spectrum using its second derivative. A single-pass cubic spline is applied to the smoothed data, and a sliding segment sixth-order polynomial is fit to the spectrum, with the length of the segment being continuously locally adjusted to 1.0 W across the spectrum. Good reliability and consistency of the algorithm is demonstrated with application to laboratory and earth-based telescope spectra.

  19. Photon-photon absorption and the uniqueness of the spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the feedback of e(+)-e(-) pair reinjection in a plasma due to photon-photon absorption of its own radiation was examined. Under the assumption of continuous electron injection with a power law spectrum E to the minus gamma power and Compton losses only, it is shown that for gamma 2 the steady state electron distribution function has a unique form independent of the primary injection spectrum. This electron distribution function can, by synchrotron emission, reproduce the general characteristics of the observed radio to optical active galactic nuclei spectra. Inverse Compton scattering of the synchrotron photons by the same electron distribution can account for their X-ray spectra, and also implies gamma ray emission from these objects. This result is invoked to account for the similarity of these spectra, and it is consistent with observations of the diffuse gamma ray background.

  20. TDDFT prediction of UV-vis absorption and emission spectra of tocopherols in different media.

    PubMed

    Bakhouche, Kahina; Dhaouadi, Zoubeida; Lahmar, Souad; Hammoutène, Dalila

    2015-06-01

    We use the TDDFT/PBE0/6-31+G* method to determine the electronic absorption and emission energies, in different media, of the four forms of tocopherol, which differ by the number and the position of methyl groups on the chromanol. Geometries of the ground state S0 and the first singlet excited state S1 were optimized in the gas phase, and various solvents. The solvent effect is evaluated using an implicit solvation model (IEF-PCM). Our results are compared to the experimental ones obtained for the vitamin E content in several vegetable oils. For all forms of tocopherols, the HOMO-LUMO first vertical excitation is a π-π* transition. Gas phase and non-polar solvents (benzene and toluene) give higher absorption wavelengths than polar solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol, DMSO, and water); this can be interpreted by a coplanarity between the O-H group and the chroman, allowing a better electronic resonance of the oxygen lone pairs and the aromatic ring, and therefore giving an important absorption wavelength, whereas the polar solvents give high emission wavelengths comparatively to gas phase and non-polar solvents. Fluorescence spectra permit the determination, the separation, and the identification of the four forms of tocopherols by a large difference in emission wavelength values. Graphical Abstract Scheme from process methodological to obtain the absorption and emission spectra for tocopherols.

  1. Time-resolved Absorption Spectra of the Laser-dressed Hydrogen Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.

    2013-05-01

    A theoretical study of the transient absorption spectra for the laser-dressed hydrogen atom based on the accurate numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is presented. The timing of absorption is controlled by the time delay between an isolated extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse and a dressing infrared (IR) field. We identify two different kinds of physical processes in the spectra. One is the formation of dressed states, signified by the appearance of sidebands between the XUV absorption lines separated by one IR-photon energy. We show that their population is maximized when the XUV pulse coincides with the zero-crossing of the IR field, and that their energy can be manipulated by using a chirped IR field. The other process is the dynamical AC Stark shift induced by the IR field and probed by the XUV pulse. Our calculations indicate that the accidental degeneracy of the hydrogen atom leads to the multiple splittings of each XUV absorption line whose separations change in response to a slowly-varying IR envelope. Furthermore, we observe the Autler-Townes doublets for the n=2 and 3 states using the 656 nm dressing field, but their separation does not agree with the prediction by the conventional 3-level model that neglects the dynamical AC Stark effects.

  2. Absorption spectra and photoresponse observation of Cu2O thin film photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Endri; Garuthara, Rohana

    2014-03-01

    Electrodeposition was used to deposit Cu2O thin films on ITO substrates. The deposited Cu2O films were characterized by photocurrent, absorption and reflectance spectroscopy. Photoresponse of the film clearly indicated n-type behavior of Cu2O in photoelectrochemical cells. The effects of chlorine doped photoanodes deposited in different solution pH on the magnitude of their photocurrent are studied. The low temperature absorption spectra of chlorine doped Cu2O films are found to depend on the solution pH in the range 10.0-7.5. Optical absorption spectra of Cu2O films were measured in the temperature range 79K - 295K. The Urbach's tail was observed for n-type conductive Cu2O films in the temperature range 79K to 295K. The Urbach's energy as a function of temperature for Cu2O films were studied. The results will be discussed with emphasis on the reflectance, absorption and photoresponse observation.

  3. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Aquatic Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, aCDOM, and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of aCDOM measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of aCDOM for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5 m-1. At low CDOM concentrations spectrophotometric aCDOM were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples.

  4. Nonlinear fitting of absorption edges in K-edge densitometry spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.; Hsue, Sin-Tao

    1997-11-01

    A new method for analyzing absorption edges in K-Edge Densitometry (KED) spectra is introduced. This technique features a nonlinear function that specifies the empirical form of a broadened K-absorption edge. Nonlinear fitting of the absorption edge can be used to remove broadening effects from the KED spectrum. This allows more data near the edge to be included in the conventional KED fitting procedure. One possible benefit is enhanced precision of measured uranium and plutonium concentrations. Because no additional hardware is required, several facilities that use KED may eventually benefit from this approach. Applications of nonlinear KED fitting in the development of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hybrid K-edge/x-ray fluorescence (XRF) densitometer system are described.

  5. Near Threshold Excitation of Molecular Nitrogen: Benchmarking Cross Sections for Upper Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Hein, J. D.; Grisanti, B.; Khakoo, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Molecular nitrogen is the major component in the atmospheres of Earth, Titan, and Triton. The airglow emissions of N2 from the atmospheres of Earth and planetary satellites have been extensively observed. Accurate, consistent cross section data is a necessity for accurate models of how upper atmospheres behave. We present electron energy-loss (EEL) derived excitation cross sections for near-threshold electron impact of N2. Differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) were obtained by unfolding EEL spectra in the ~6-11eV range for the A 3Σu+, B 3Πg, W 3Δu, B‧ 3Σu-, a‧ 1Σu-, a 1Πg, w 1Δu, and C 1Πu electronic states over the ~15-130° scattering angular range. Vibrationally-resolved DCSs and ICSs were obtained for stronger vibronic transitions, including the a 1Πg state, which generates the atmospherically important Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emissions. The summed near-threshold excitation cross sections (A+...+C) generally are larger than previous measurements. Acknowledgement: This work was performed at CSUF and JPL, Caltech, under contract with NASA. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through NASA's PATM and GEO programs and NSF-PHY-RUI-0965793.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study on electron interactions with chlorobenzene: Shape resonances and differential cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Sanchez, Sergio d'A.; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7∘ to 110∘. From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study on electron interactions with chlorobenzene: Shape resonances and differential cross sections.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T do N; Sanchez, Sergio d'A; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H F

    2016-08-28

    In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7(∘) to 110(∘). From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene. PMID:27586926

  8. Influence of cross sectional geometry on surface plasmon polariton propagation in gold nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nauert, Scott; Paul, Aniruddha; Zhen, Yu-Rong; Solis, David; Vigderman, Leonid; Chang, Wei-Shun; Zubarev, Eugene R; Nordlander, Peter; Link, Stephan

    2014-01-28

    We investigated the effects of cross sectional geometry on surface plasmon polariton propagation in gold nanowires (NWs) using bleach-imaged plasmon propagation and electromagnetic simulations. Chemically synthesized NWs have pentagonally twinned crystal structures, but recent advances in synthesis have made it possible to amplify this pentagonal shape to yield NWs with a five-pointed-star cross section and sharp end tips. We found experimentally that NWs with a five-pointed-star cross section, referred to as SNWs, had a shorter propagation length for surface plasmon polaritons at 785 nm, but a higher effective incoupling efficiency compared to smooth NWs with a pentagonal cross section, labeled as PNWs. Electromagnetic simulations revealed that the electric fields were localized at the sharp ridges of the SNWs, leading to higher absorptive losses and hence shorter propagation lengths compared to PNWs. On the other hand, scattering losses were found to be relatively uncorrelated with cross sectional geometry, but were strongly dependent on the plasmon mode excited. Our results provide insight into the shape-dependent waveguiding properties of chemically synthesized metal NWs and the mode-dependent loss mechanisms that govern surface plasmon polariton propagation. PMID:24308802

  9. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  10. Electron impact on atmospheric gases. I - Updated cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, C. H.; Garvey, R. H.; Green, A. E. S.

    1977-01-01

    The analytic characterizations of electron impact cross sections for important atmospheric gases (namely, O2, N2, O, CO, CO2, and He) are updated. With these cross sections it is simple to communicate massive quantities of experimental and theoretical results. In addition, these forms are convenient for applications in energy degradation calculations, including a new approach described in a companion paper.

  11. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  12. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  13. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-01

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  14. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  15. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  16. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  17. The effect of implanting boron on the optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Stesmans, A.; Weeks, R. A.; Weller, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Silica samples (type III, Corning 7940) were implanted with B using multiple energies to produce a layer ˜600 nm thick in which the concentration of B ranged from 0.034 to 2.04 at. %. Optical absorption spectra were measured from 1.8 to 6.5 eV. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were generally made at ˜20.3 and 33 GHz for sample temperatures ranging from 77 to 100 K. Based on the EPR spectra three types of defects, namely, Eγ', the E'-type 73 G split doublet (E73'), and the peroxyradical (POR) were identified. No oxygen-associated hole centers (OHCs) nor specific B-associated paramagnetic defects were detected, not even at the largest B concentration of 2.04 at. %. Unlike previous assignments, there was no correlation between the 4.83 eV optical absorption band and the observed PORs. From these results, we infer that in addition to POR, there is at least one additional Si-related state absorbing in the 4.8-4.9 eV range that is likely diamagnetic. The 5.85 eV optical absorption band is found to be due to the Eγ' and E73' centers, with, in average, quite similar oscillator strengths inferred as before. Both the optical absorption and the electron spin resonance data can be satisfactorily explained without the need for specific B-associated defect site (s). As no OHCs are detected by ESR, these do not seem to make a detectable contribution to the optical spectra.

  18. Energy and optical absorption spectra of endohedral metallofullerenes with Gd or Ho as strongly correlated π-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, V. P.; Kareev, I. E.; Lobanov, B. V.; Murzashev, A. I.; Nekrasov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    Isomerically pure endohedral metallofullerenes Gd@C82(C2v), Ho@C82( C 2 v ), and their monoanions have been synthesized and separated. The optical absorption spectra of solutions of obtained compounds in o-dichlorobenzene have been studied. Within the Hubbard model, the energy spectrum of isomer of C 2 v symmetry (no. 9) of fullerene C82 has been calculated. Based on the obtained spectrum, optical absorption spectra of endohedral metallofullerenes Gd@C82 and Ho@C82 and their monoanions have been simulated. The calculated optical absorption spectra have been compared with experimental ones; it has been found that qualitative agreement between them is observed.

  19. Narrow C IV absorption doublets on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Zhou, Luwenjia; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our work of Papers I and II, which are assigned to systematically survey C IV λλ1548,1551 narrow absorption lines (NALs) with zabs ≪ zem on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) to collect C IV NALs with zabs ≈ zem from blue to red wings of C IV λ1549 emission lines. Together with Papers I and II, we have collected a total number of 41 479 C IV NALs with 1.4544 ≤ zabs ≤ 4.9224 in surveyed spectral region redward of Lyα until red wing of C IV λ1549 emission line. We find that the stronger C IV NALs tend to be the more saturated absorptions, and associated systems (zabs ≈ zem) seem to have larger absorption strengths when compared to intervening ones (zabs ≪ zem). The redshift density evolution behaviour of absorbers (the number of absorbers per redshift path) is similar to the history of the cosmic star formation. When compared to the quasar-frame velocity (β) distribution of Mg II absorbers, the β distribution of C IV absorbers is broader at β ≈ 0, shows longer extended tail, and exhibits a larger dispersion for environmental absorptions. In addition, for associated C IV absorbers, we find that low-luminosity quasars seem to exhibit smaller β and stronger absorptions when compared to high-luminosity quasars.

  20. Real-time atmospheric absorption spectra for in-flight tuning of an airborne dial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombrowski, M.; Walden, H.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Milrod, J.; Korb, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time measurements of atmospheric absorption spectra are displayed and used to precisely calibrate and fix the frequency of an Alexandrite laser to specific oxygen absorption features for airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature. The DIAL system used contains two narrowband tunable Alexandrite lasers: one is electronically scanned to tune to oxygen absorption features for on-line signals while the second is used to obtain off-line (nonabsorbed) atmospheric return signals. The lidar operator may select the number of shots to be averaged, the altitude, and altitude interval over which the signals are averaged using single key stroke commands. The operator also determines exactly which oxygen absorption lines are scanned by comparing the line spacings and relative strengths with known line parameters, thus calibrating the laser wavelength readout. The system was used successfully to measure the atmospheric pressure profile on the first flights of this lidar, November 20, and December 9, 1985, aboard the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft.

  1. [Time resolved UV-Vis absorption spectra of quercetin reacting with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Jun; Li, Ping; Gao, Yan-Jun; Li, Hui-Feng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-06-01

    A real time investigation of chemical reaction process of quercetin with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide was performed by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The time resolved UV-Vis absorption spectra of 5 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) quercetin respectively reacting with sodium hydroxide at concentrations of 2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04 and 0.02 mol x L(-1) were acquired. A total of 200 spectra with the same exposure time of 0.1 ms for each spectrum but different time interval between two consecutive spectra were recorded for each reaction. The first 50 spectra have the time interval of 20 ms, the next 50 have 1 s, and the last 100 have 2 s. Results indicate that quercetin reacted with sodium hydroxide easily and there was an intermediate product formed during the reaction, with different concentrations of reactants, the changes of absorption bands were the same, but the moments at which the changes happened were different and the total reaction time was various from 1 s to 100 s. Spectra recorded showed the disappearing process of the typical bands centered at 254 and 374 nm of pure quercetin, the growing and disappearing processes of a new band centered at 427 nm of the intermediate product, and the growing process of the new band centered at 314 nm of the final product obviously. No other transient spectroscopic data are currently available on the reaction of quercrtin with sodium hydroxide, the results obtained in the present work provide useful experimental data for the study of the microscopic process of the reaction.

  2. UV-Vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy for Determination of Nanoparticle and Molecular Optical Cross Sections.

    PubMed

    Nettles, Charles B; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-03-01

    Demonstrated herein is a UV-vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopic (R2S2, pronounced as "R-two-S-two" for simplicity) technique where the R2S2 spectrum is obtained by dividing the resonance synchronous spectrum of a NP-containing solution by the solvent resonance synchronous spectrum. Combined with conventional UV-vis measurements, this R2S2 method enables experimental quantification of the absolute optical cross sections for a wide range of molecular and nanoparticle (NP) materials that range optically from pure photon absorbers or scatterers to simultaneous photon absorbers and scatterers, simultaneous photon absorbers and emitters, and all the way to simultaneous photon absorbers, scatterers, and emitters in the UV-vis wavelength region. Example applications of this R2S2 method were demonstrated for quantifying the Rayleigh scattering cross sections of solvents including water and toluene, absorption and resonance light scattering cross sections for plasmonic gold nanoparticles, and absorption, scattering, and on-resonance fluorescence cross sections for semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). On-resonance fluorescence quantum yields were quantified for the model molecular fluorophore Eosin Y and fluorescent Qdots CdSe and CdSe/ZnS. The insights and methodology presented in this work should be of broad significance in physical and biological science research that involves photon/matter interactions.

  3. Complex polarization propagator approach in the restricted open-shell, self-consistent field approximation: the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of allyl and copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Linares, Mathieu; Stafström, Sven; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ågren, Hans; Norman, Patrick

    2011-05-12

    A presentation of the complex polarization propagator in the restricted open-shell self-consistent field approximation is given. It rests on a formulation of a resonant-convergent, first-order polarization propagator approach that makes it possible to directly calculate the X-ray absorption cross section at a particular frequency without explicitly addressing the excited states. The quality of the predicted X-ray spectra relates only to the type of density functional applied without any separate treatment of dynamical relaxation effects. The method is applied to the calculation of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of allyl and copper phthalocyanine. Comparison is made between the spectra of the radicals and those of the corresponding cations and anions to assess the effect of the increase of electron charge in the frontier orbital. The method offers the possibility for unique assignment of symmetry-independent atoms. The overall excellent spectral agreement motivates the application of the method as a routine precise tool for analyzing X-ray absorption of large systems of technological interest.

  4. Assignment of bacteriochlorophyll a ligation state from absorption and resonance raman spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, P.M.; Cotton, T.M.

    1987-11-11

    Absorption and Soret excitation resonance Raman (RR) spectra have been obtained for a series of coordination forms on monomeric bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a). Strong and moderate intensity bands are observed in the RR spectrum at 1609 and 1530 cm/sup -1/ for five-coordinate species, which shift to 1595 and 1512 cm/sup -1/, respectively, in the six-coordinate form. These coordination-sensitive vibrations are independent of the nature of the axial ligand and are suggested to have significant C/sub a/ C/sub m/ character, while several other less intense coordination-sensitive bands at 1463, 1444, and 1375 cm/sup -1/ are considered to arise from C/sub b/C/sub b/ and C/sub a/N stretching vibrations. These coordination-sensitive RR bands were used to determine BChl a ligation state in the solvents used, and structure correlations based on absorption maxima have been developed. The Q/sub x/ absorption band position is sensitive not only to BChl a Mg/sup 2 +/ coordination number but also to the nature of the axial ligand, i.e., oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Q/sub x/ maxima are observed at 570, 575-580, and 582 nm for five-coordinate oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen ligands, respectively, and at 590-595 and 605-612 nm, for six-coordinate oxygen and nitrogen species, respectively. The Q/sub y/ absorption maximum is insensitive to coordination number changes but is dependent on the nature of the axial ligand: 770 nm for oxygen ligand(s) and 775 nm for nitrogen ligand(s). A similar series of absorption and Soret excitation RR spectra were obtained for the demetalated form of BChl a, BPheo a.

  5. Calculation of UV attenuation and colored dissolved organic matter absorption spectra from measurements of ocean color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, S. C.; Miller, W. L.; Cullen, J. J.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation by colored or chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) drives much of marine photochemistry. It also affects the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UV) into the water column and can confound remote estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Measurements of ocean color from satellites can be used to predict UV attenuation and CDOM absorption spectra from relationships between visible reflectance, UV attenuation, and absorption by CDOM. Samples were taken from the Bering Sea and from the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and water types ranged from turbid, inshore waters to the Gulf Stream. We determined the following relationships between in situ visible radiance reflectance, Lu/Ed (λ) (sr-1), and diffuse attenuation of UV, Kd(λ) (m-1): Kd(323nm) = 0.781[Lu/Ed(412)/Lu/Ed(555)]-1.07; Kd(338nm) = 0.604[Lu/Ed(412)/Lu/Ed(555)]-1.12; Kd(380 nm) = 0.302[Lu/Ed(412)/Lu/Ed(555)]-1.24. Consistent with published observations, these empirical relationships predict that the spectral slope coefficient of CDOM absorption increases as diffuse attenuation of UV decreases. Excluding samples from turbid bays, the ratio of the CDOM absorption coefficient to Kd is 0.90 at 323 nm, 0.86 at 338 nm, and 0.97 at 380 nm. We applied these relationships to SeaWiFS images of normalized water-leaving radiance to calculate the CDOM absorption and UV attenuation in the Mid-Atlantic Bight in May, July, and August 1998. The images showed a decrease in UV attenuation from May to August of approximately 50%. We also produced images of the areal distribution of the spectral slope coefficient of CDOM absorption in the Georgia Bight. The spectral slope coefficient increased offshore and changed with season.

  6. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  7. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissé, P.; Bergeron, J.; Prochaska, J. X.; Péroux, C.; York, D. G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of five distant sources were assembled, for which two spectra are available, either VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES, which were taken several years apart. Methods: We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behaviour of a broad variety of absorption line systems by sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lyα systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results: Intervening absorption lines from Mg ii, Fe ii, or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of (moderately ionised) gas appear in general to be remarkably stable (1σ upper limits as low as 10% for some components on scales in the range 10-100 au), even for systems at zabs ≈ ze. Marginal variations are observed for Mg ii lines towards PKS 1229-021 at zabs = 0.83032; however, we detect no systems that display any change as large as those reported in low resolution SDSS spectra. The lack of clear variations for low β Mg ii systems does not support the existence of a specific population of absorbers made of swept-up gas towards blazars. In neutral or diffuse molecular media, clear changes are seen for Galactic Na i lines towards PKS 1229-02 (decrease in N by a factor of four for one of the five components over 9.7 yr), corresponding to structure on a scale of about 35 au, in good agreement with known properties of the Galactic interstellar medium. Tentative variations are detected for H2J = 3 lines towards FBQS J2340-0053 at zabs = 2.05454 (≃35% change in column density, N, over 0.7 yr in the rest frame), suggesting

  8. The Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectra of Neutral PAHs in Dense Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe and are expected to be present in dense interstellar clouds. In these environments, some P.4Hs may be present in the gas phase, but most should be frozen into ice mantles or adsorbed onto dust grains and their spectral features are expected to be seen in absorption. Here we extend our previous work on the infrared spectral properties of the small PAH naphthalene (C10H8) in several media to include the full mid-infrared laboratory spectra of 11 other PAHs and related aromatic species frozen in H2O ices. These include the molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, anthracene, 9,1O-dihydroanthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, pentacene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene. These results demonstrate that PAHs and related molecules, as a class, show the same spectral behaviors as naphthalene when incorporated into H2O-rich matrices. When compared to the spectra of these same molecules isolated in inert matrices (e.g., Ar or N2), the absorption bands produced when they are frozen in H2O matrices are broader (factors of 3-10), show small position shifts in either direction (usually < 4/cm, always < 10/cm), and show variable changes in relative band strengths (typically factors of 1-3). There is no evidence of systematic increases or decreases in the absolute strengths of the bands of these molecules when they are incorporated in H2O matrices. In H2O-rich ices, their absorption bands are relatively insensitive to concentration over the range of 10 < H2O/PAH < 200): The absorption bands of these molecules are also insensitive to temperature over the 10 K < T < 125 K range, although the spectra can show dramatic changes as the ices are warmed through the temperature range in which amorphous H2O ice converts to its cubic and hexagonal crystalline forms (T > 125 Kj. Given the small observed band shifts cause by H2O, the current database of spectra from Ar matrix

  9. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  10. Effect of solvent on absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. L.; Zheng, Z. R.; Liu, Z. G.; Zhu, R. B.; Wu, W. Z.; Li, A. H.; Yang, Y. Q.; Dai, Z. F.; Su, W. H.

    2008-03-28

    The absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene in n-hexane and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) solutions are measured under high pressure at ambient temperature. The common redshift and broadening in the spectra are observed. Simulation of the absorption spectra was performed by using the time-domain formula of the stochastic model. The pressure dependence of the 0-0 band wavenumber is in agreement with the Bayliss theory at pressure higher than 0.2 GPa. The deviation of the linearity at lower pressure is ascribed to the reorientation of the solvent molecules. Both the redshift and broadening are stronger in CS{sub 2} than that in n-hexane because of the more sensitive pressure dependence of dispersive interactions in CS{sub 2} solution. The effect of pressure on the transition moment is explained with the aid of a simple model involving the relative dimension, location, and orientation of the solute and solvent molecules. The implication of these results for light-harvesting functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is also discussed.

  11. The effect of ionization on the infrared absorption spectra of PAHs: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, Doug J.; Miller, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The emission lines observed in many interstellar IR sources at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7, and 11.3 microns are theorized to originate from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These assignments are based on analyses of lab IR spectra of neutral PAHs. However, it is likely that in the interstellar medium that PAHs are ionized, i.e., are positively charged. Besides, as pointed out by Allamandola et al., although the IR emission band spectrum resembles what one might expect from a mixture of PAHs, it does not match in details such as frequency, band profile, or relative intensities predicted from the absorption spectra of any known PAH molecule. One source of more information to test the PAH theory is ab initio molecular orbital theory. It can be used to compute, from first principles, the geometries, vibrational frequencies, and vibrational intensities for model PAH compounds which are difficult to study in the lab. The Gaussian 86 computer program was used to determine the effect of ionization on the infrared absorption spectra of several small PAHs: naphthalene and anthracene. A preliminary report is presented of the results of these calculations.

  12. Measurability of Kinetic Temperature from Metal Absorption-Line Spectra Formed in Chaotic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Agafonova, Irina I.

    1999-06-01

    We present a new method for recovering the kinetic temperature of the intervening diffuse gas to an accuracy of 10%. The method is based on the comparison of unsaturated absorption-line profiles of two species with different atomic weights. The species are assumed to have the same temperature and bulk motion within the absorbing region. The computational technique involves the Fourier transform of the absorption profiles and the consequent entropy-regularized χ2-minimization (ERM) to estimate the model parameters. The procedure is tested using synthetic spectra of C+, Si+, and Fe+ ions. The comparison with the standard Voigt fitting analysis is performed, and it is shown that the Voigt deconvolution of the complex absorption-line profiles may result in estimated temperatures that are not physical. We also successfully analyze Keck telescope spectra of C II λ1334 and Si II λ1260 lines observed at the redshift z=3.572 toward the quasar Q1937-1009 by Tytler et al. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is jointly operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Effects of Spectralon absorption on reflectance spectra of typical planetary surface analog materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Jin, Weidong; Liu, Chujian; Hsu, Weibiao

    2014-09-01

    Acquiring accurate visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) reflectance values of atmosphereless celestial bodies is very important in inferring the physical and geological properties of their surficial materials. When a calibration target with inherent non-trivial absorption features is used, the calibrated reflectance would essentially always contain spurious spectral features and the spectroscopic data may easily be misinterpreted if the artifact is not properly taken care of. We demonstrate with laboratory reflectance measurements that the VisNIR spectra of three typical planetary surface analog materials, lunar simulant JSC-1A, olivine and pyroxene grains, have an artificial peak at 2.1 µm when Spectralon-type plaque made of polytetrafluoroethylene is used as the calibration target in the NIR region. The degree of severity of this artifact is dependent on the strength of the 2.0 µm absorption feature of the mineral. Empirical methods are proposed to remove this artifact to bring the spectra close to that calibrated by a gold mirror which does not have any conspicuous absorption features in the NIR region. The correction methods may be applied to reflectance data acquired by the VisNIR imaging spectrometer onboard the Yutu Rover of the Chinese Chang'E 3 lunar mission which employed an onboard Spectralon-type calibration target. PMID:25321507

  14. Effects of Spectralon absorption on reflectance spectra of typical planetary surface analog materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yazhou; Jin, Weidong; Liu, Chujian; Hsu, Weibiao

    2014-09-01

    Acquiring accurate visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) reflectance values of atmosphereless celestial bodies is very important in inferring the physical and geological properties of their surficial materials. When a calibration target with inherent non-trivial absorption features is used, the calibrated reflectance would essentially always contain spurious spectral features and the spectroscopic data may easily be misinterpreted if the artifact is not properly taken care of. We demonstrate with laboratory reflectance measurements that the VisNIR spectra of three typical planetary surface analog materials, lunar simulant JSC-1A, olivine and pyroxene grains, have an artificial peak at 2.1 µm when Spectralon-type plaque made of polytetrafluoroethylene is used as the calibration target in the NIR region. The degree of severity of this artifact is dependent on the strength of the 2.0 µm absorption feature of the mineral. Empirical methods are proposed to remove this artifact to bring the spectra close to that calibrated by a gold mirror which does not have any conspicuous absorption features in the NIR region. The correction methods may be applied to reflectance data acquired by the VisNIR imaging spectrometer onboard the Yutu Rover of the Chinese Chang'E 3 lunar mission which employed an onboard Spectralon-type calibration target.

  15. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  16. Modeling elastic momentum transfer cross-sections from mobility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitović, Ž. D.; Stojanović, V. D.; Raspopović, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this letter we present a new method to simply obtain the elastic momentum transfer cross-section which predicts a maximum of reduced mobility and its sensitivity to the temperature variation at low energies. We first determined the transport cross-section which resembles mobility data for similar closed-shell systems by using the Monte Carlo method. Second, we selected the most probable reactive processes and compiled cross-sections from experimental and theoretical data. At the end, an elastic momentum transfer cross-section is obtained by subtracting the compiled cross-sections from the momentum transfer cross-section, taking into account the effects of the angular scattering distributions. Finally, the cross-section set determined in such a way is used as an input in a final Monte Carlo code run, to calculate the flux and bulk reduced mobility for Ne+ + CF4 which were discussed as functions of the reduced electric field E/N (N is the gas density) for the temperature T = 300 K.

  17. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH2) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  18. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  19. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  20. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7