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Sample records for absorption distribution excretion

  1. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of peginesatide, a novel erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, in rats

    PubMed Central

    Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Holmes, Christopher P.; Wilson, Susan D.; Fong, Kei-Lai; Press, Randall J.; Moriya, Yuu; Tagawa, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics(PK) (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of peginesatide.a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), was evaluated in rats. The PK profile was evaluated at 0.1-5 mg·kg−1 IV using unlabeled or [14C]-labeled peginesatide. Mass balance, tissue distribution and metabolism were evaluated following IV administration of 5 mg·kg−1 [14C]-peginesatide, with tissue distribution also evaluated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) following an IV dose of 17 mg·kg−1[14C]-peginesatide. Plasma clearance was slow and elimination was biphasic with unchanged peginesatide representing >90% of the total radioactivity of the total radioactive exposure. Slow uptake of the radiolabeled compound from the vascular compartment into the tissues was observed. Biodistribution to bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoietic sites, and to highly vascularized lymphatic and excretory tissues occurred. A predominant degradation event to occur in vivo was the loss of one PEG chain from the branched PEG moiety to generate mono-PEG. Renal excretion was the primary mechanism (41%) of elimination, with parent molecule (67%) the major moiety excreted. In conclusion, elimination of [14C]-peginesatide-derived radioactivity was extended, retention preferentially occurred at sites of erythropoiesis (bone marrow), and urinary excretion was the primary elimination route. PMID:22188389

  2. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Differential Gene Expression Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) parameters represent important connections between exposure to chemicals and the activation of molecular initiating events of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in cellular, tissue, and organ level targets. ADME parameters u...

  3. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Gene Expression Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) impact chemical concentration and activation of molecular initiating events of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in cellular, tissue, and organ level targets. In order to better describe ADME parameters and how they modulat...

  4. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of the Androgen Receptor Inhibitor Enzalutamide in Rats and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Gibbons, Jacqueline A; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Fitzsimmons, Michael E; Nozawa, Kohei; Arai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor that has been approved in several countries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data in animals would facilitate understanding of the efficacy and safety profiles of enzalutamide, but little information has been reported in public. The purpose of this study was to clarify the missing ADME profile in animals. ADME of 14 C-enzalutamide after oral administration as Labrasol solution were investigated in non-fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs. Plasma concentrations of 14 C-enzalutamide peaked in rats and dogs at 6-8 h after a single oral administration. In most tissues, radioactivity concentration peaked at 4 h after administration. Excluding the gastrointestinal tract, tissues with the highest concentration of radioactivity were liver, fat, and adrenal glands. The tissue concentrations of radioactivity declined below the limit of quantitation or <0.89 % of maximum concentration by 168 h post-dose. Two known metabolites (M1 and M2) and at least 15 novel possible metabolites were detected in this study. M1 was the most abundant metabolite in both rats and dogs. Unchanged drug was a minor component in excreta. In intact rats, the mean urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity accounted for 44.20 and 49.80 % of administered radioactivity, respectively. In intact dogs, mean urinary and fecal excretion was 62.00 and 22.30 % of the administered radioactivity, respectively. Rapid oral absorption was observed in rats and dogs when 14 C-enzalutamide was administered as Labrasol solution. Tissue distribution in rats was clarified. The elimination of enzalutamide is mediated primarily by metabolism. Species differences were observed in excretion route.

  5. The absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in mice following different exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Changhui; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Liu, Huiyu; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-03-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are emerging as one of the promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications, but the nanomaterials-body interaction exposed by different administration routes remained poorly understood. In the present study, a systematic investigation of the absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SNs) with the average size of 110 nm after four different exposure routes including intravenous, hypodermic, intramuscular injection and oral administration to mice were achieved. The results showed that a fraction of the SNs administrated by the intramuscular and hypodermic injection could cross different biological barriers into the liver but with a low absorption rate. Exposing by oral administration, SNs were absorbed into the intestinal tract and persisted in the liver. And SNs administrated by intravenous injection were mainly present in the liver and spleen. In addition, SNs could cause inflammatory response around the injection sites after intramuscular and hypodermic injection. It was also found that SNs were mainly excreted through urine and feces after different exposure routes. This study will be helpful for selecting the appropriate exposed routes for the development of nanomaterials-based drug delivery system for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cadmium on absorption, excretion, and distribution of nickel in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Gu, Jun-Ying; Wang, Xian-Wen; Fan, Qiao-Hui; Geng, Yan-Xia; Jiao, Zong-Xian; Hou, Yi-Ping; Wu, Wang-Suo

    2010-06-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd (II)) on absorption, excretion, and distribution of nickel (Ni (II)) were studied in rats using (63)Ni-NiCl(2) as radiotracer in the presence and absence of CdCl(2), through intraperitoneal injection (i.p.). The time-concentration curves in the blood were fitted with a two-compartment model. The peak time (t ((peak))) is 0.31 h in the absence of Cd (II), and it is 5.5 h in the presence of Cd (II). The levels of nickels were higher at 3 h and lower (close to zero) at 24 h in all organs of interest, except kidneys, in the absence of Cd (II). There still residue Ni (II) at 72 h post-injection in the presence of Cd (II). The Cd (II) did effect the total Ni (II) excretion 24 h post-injection. Our study showed that cadmium has a competitive effect on the absorption of nickel and an inhibitory effect on the elimination of it, so cadmium may induce the bioaccumulation of nickel in the body.

  7. Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of Four Forms of Titanium Dioxide Pigment in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Thomas P; Magnuson, Berna

    2017-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a white color additive that has a long history of global approval and use in food. There is, however, considerable confusion regarding the applicability of the biological effects of novel, engineered, nano-sized forms of TiO 2 developed for nonpigmentary applications to the safety of oral exposure to food grade TiO 2 pigment. The objective of this study was to assess the absorption, distribution, and routes of excretion in rats after oral exposure to food grade TiO 2 . Four different grades of TiO 2 (200 ppm) or control (0 ppm) diets were fed to rats for 7 consecutive days, followed by control diet only for 1, 24, or 72 h. Concentrations of titanium in liver, kidney and muscle were mainly below the limit of detection (<0.1 to < 0.2 mg/kg wet weight); tissue concentrations of titanium above the LOD were in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg wet weight for all groups. Whole blood concentrations of titanium were <0.04 mg/L for all groups. Urinary excretion of titanium was equivalent to <2% daily dose/L of urine for all groups and was generally below the limit of quantification (<0.04 mg/L). Feces represented the predominant route of excretion. These results demonstrate that there is no accumulation of titanium in tissues following consumption of diets containing 200 ppm food grade TiO 2 . No differences in systemic absorption of the 4 forms of TiO 2 were observed indicating that the bioavailability of TiO 2 is consistently low for the range of particle sizes and morphologies examined in this study. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Comparative absorption, distribution, and excretion of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2013-03-26

    The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated. Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sample was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. TiO₂ nanoparticles had extremely low absorption, while ZnO nanoparticles had higher absorption and a clear dose-response curve. Tissue distribution data showed that TiO₂ nanoparticles were not significantly increased in sampled organs, even in the group receiving the highest dose (1041.5 mg/kg body weight). In contrast, Zn concentrations in the liver and kidney were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control. ZnO nanoparticles in the spleen and brain were minimally increased. Ti concentrations were not significantly increased in the urine, while Zn levels were significantly increased in the urine, again with a clear dose-response curve. Very high concentrations of Ti were detected in the feces, while much less Zn was detected in the feces. Compared with TiO₂ nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated higher absorption and more extensive organ distribution when administered orally. The higher absorption of ZnO than TiO₂ nanoparticles might be due to the higher dissolution rate in acidic gastric fluid, although more thorough studies are needed.

  9. Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of 14C-Probimane in Mice Bearing Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Da-Yong; Chen, Rui-Ting; Lu, Ting-Ren; Wu, Hong-Ying; Qu, Rong-Xin; Che, Jin-Yu; Xu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous neoplasm metastasis, a fatalist pathological feature of cancer, is a long-evolving, multi-steps process that can now only be treated or controlled by drugs or immuno-modulators. Probimane (Pro), as a representative of the well-known class of antimetastatic agents ‘Bisdioxopiperazine compounds (Biz)’, is systematically studied for its absorption, distribution and excretion in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma by a radioactivity-detective method in this investigation. It is found that the 14C-Pro concentrations in different normal organs of mice at 2 hrs are very high and dramatically declined at 24 and 48 hrs. However, Pro concentrations in metastatic foci are slightly changed at the same time. Almost no change of Pro concentrations is observed in pulmonary metastatic nodules within 48 hrs. This evidence can be used to explain the characteristics of good metastatic inhibition by Biz compounds. The radioactivity in brain is relatively low because Pro can hardly penetrate into the blood-brain-barrier to eliminate brain tumors. The excretion of 14C-Pro is observed at the same ratios from both urine and feces and also at constant rates. These data are much useful for better understanding of the general pharmacological characters and possible antimetastatic mechanisms of actions of probimane and other Biz compounds from a new perspective and research angles. PMID:21179357

  10. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of 3-MCPD 1-Monopalmitate after Oral Administration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Zhang, Zhongfei; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Thomas T Y; Zhang, Yaqiong; Liu, Jie; Yu, Liangli

    2017-03-29

    Fatty acid esters of monochloropropane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD) are processing-induced toxicants and have been detected in several food categories. This study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of 3-MCPD esters in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate as the probe compound. The kinetics of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in plasma was investigated using SD rats, and the results indicated that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was absorbed directly in vivo and metabolized. Its primary metabolites in the liver, kidney, testis, brain, plasma, and urine were tentatively identified and measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after oral administration. Structures were proposed for eight metabolites. 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was converted to free 3-MCPD, which formed the phase II metabolites. All of the metabolites were chlorine-related chemical components; most of them existed in urine, reflecting the excretion pattern of 3-MCPD esters. Understanding the metabolism of 3-MCPD esters in vivo is critical for assessing their toxicities.

  11. Pre-clinical Characterization of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion Properties of TAK-063.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Kimio; Sudo, Miyako; Morohashi, Akio; Kato, Suguru; Takahashi, Junzo; Tagawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-06-01

    TAK-063 is currently being developed to treat schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties of TAK-063 using several paradigms. Following oral administration of TAK-063 at 0.3 mg/kg, bioavailability of TAK-063 was 27.4% in rats and 49.5% in dogs with elimination half-lives of 3.1 hr in rats and 3.7 hr in dogs. TAK-063 is a highly permeable compound without P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or breast cancer resistance protein substrate liability and can be readily absorbed into systemic circulation via the intestine. TAK-063 can also cross the blood-brain barrier. TAK-063 was metabolized mainly by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4/5, while incubation with human liver microsomes produced the major human metabolite, M-I as well as several unknown minor metabolites. Metabolism of TAK-063 to M-I occurs through hydroxylation of the mono-substituted pyrazole moiety. In vitro, TAK-063 was observed to inhibit CYP2C8, CYP2C19 and P-gp with IC 50 values of 8.4, 12 and 7.13 μM, respectively. TAK-063 was primarily excreted in the faeces in rats and dogs with M-I as a predominant component. The pre-clinical data from these ADME studies demonstrate a favourable pharmacokinetic profile for TAK-063 with good brain distribution supporting the feasibility of targeting central nervous system regions involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology. TAK-063 has recently been investigated in a phase 2 clinical trial (NCT02477020). © 2018 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  12. Challenges and opportunities in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies of therapeutic biologics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Vugmeyster, Yulia

    2012-12-01

    With the advancement of biotechnology in the last two decades, optimized and novel modalities and platforms of biologic moieties have emerged rapidly in drug discovery pipelines. In addition, new technologies for delivering therapeutic biologics (e.g., needle-free devices, nanoparticle complexes), as well as novel approaches for disease treatments (e.g., stem cell therapy, individualized medicine), continue to be developed. While pharmacokinetic studies are routinely carried out for therapeutic biologics, experiments that elucidate underlying mechanisms for clearance and biodistribution or identify key factors that govern absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of biologics often are not thoroughly conducted. Realizing the importance of biologics as therapeutic agents, pharmaceutical industry has recently begun to move the research focus from small molecules only to a blended portfolio consisting of both small molecules and biologics. This trend brings many opportunities for scientists working in the drug disposition research field. In anticipation of these opportunities and associated challenges, this review highlights impact of ADME studies on clinical and commercial success of biologics, with a particular focus on emerging applications and technologies and linkage with mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and biomarker research.

  13. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  14. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of decursin and decursinol angelate from Angelica gigas Nakai.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Myo Jeong; Kang, Jae Seon

    2009-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate (D/DA) was investigated in male SD rats following oral and intravenous administration. D/DA and metabolites obtained from in vitro samples were evaluated by LC/MS. The level of D/DA and metabolized decursinol in the blood following oral and intravenous administration declined according to first-order kinetics, with T1/2 values of 56.67, 58.01 and 57.22 h, respectively, being observed after administration of a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. The large intestine was the major site of disposition following oral administration. These data indicate that D/DA is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In in vitro experiment utilizing liver microsomal protein, the major metabolic reaction of D/DA occurred to change decursinol. The cumulative biliary, urinary, and fecal excretion of D/DA in bile duct-cannulated rats was 36.10+/-2.9, 25.35+/-3.8, and 34.20+/-3.2%, respectively, at 72 h after administration. These results indicate that the absorption of D/DA is almost complete, and that its metabolites are primarily excreted into feces through the bile. These results indicate that D/DA is subject to enterohepatic circulation.

  15. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of the Novel Helicase-Primase Inhibitor, Amenamevir (ASP2151), in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Susaki, Yoko; Noguchi, Kiyoshi

    2018-05-10

    The helicase-primase inhibitor amenamevir (ASP2151) is a novel therapeutic agent which has been approved for the treatment of herpes zoster. The present study examined the pharmacokinetic profile of amenamevir in rodents and compared it with data from the literature of past and current established therapies (acyclovir and valaciclovir) to provide additional data to facilitate drug discovery and proper drug use. In situ absorption, blood and plasma radioactivity concentrations, tissue distribution, and excretion were determined using liquid scintillation counting. Plasma amenamevir concentrations were measured using a validated chromatographic method. Chemical structures of in vivo metabolites were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Amenamevir, after single intravenous administration to mice, had an elimination half-life of 2 h. Bioavailability was 40% after single oral administration. In situ absorption data indicated that amenamevir is mainly absorbed in the small intestine. The main component in mouse plasma was amenamevir, accounting for 87.9% of amenamevir-derived components. Our results suggest that the main elimination pathway in mice is oxidative metabolism at a methyl group and a 1,2,3-trisubstituted benzene ring followed by biliary and fecal excretion. Following oral administration of 14 C-amenamevir to mice, 100.63% of the dose (10.06% in urine and 90.46% in feces) was excreted by 96 h post-dose. The underlying mechanism of the improved pharmacokinetic profile of amenamevir was linked to an improved absorption ratio (not hepatic availability) compared to acyclovir, and qualitative differences in elimination (slow metabolism of amenamevir vs rapid urinary excretion of acyclovir/valaciclovir).

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of darbepoetin alfa: absorption, distribution, and excretion after a single intravenous and subcutaneous administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, E; Kato, K; Shindo, H; Mitsuoka, C; Kitajima, S-I; Ogata, H; Misaizu, T

    2007-01-01

    KRN321 is a hyperglycosylated analogue of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO, epoetin alfa), and its absorption, distribution, and excretion have been studied after a single intravenous and subcutaneous administration of 125I-KRN321 at a dose of 0.5 microg kg-1 to male rats. The half-lives of immunoreactive radioactivity in the terminal phase after intravenous and subcutaneous administration were 14.05 and 14.36 h, respectively, and the bioavailability rate after subcutaneous administration was 47%. The total radioactivity in tissues was lower than that in the serum in all tissues excluding the thyroid gland and skin at the injection site (subcutaneous administration). The maximum concentrations were observed in the bone marrow or skin at the injection site followed by the thyroid gland, kidneys, adrenal glands, spleen, lungs, stomach and bladder. The radioactivity found in trichloroacetic acid-precipitated fractions suggested that a high-molecular weight compound, unchanged or mixed with endogenous protein, distributed to the tissues after administration. The whole-body autoradiographic findings in both groups were in agreement with the tissue distribution mentioned above. The blood cell uptake of KRN321 was low for both groups. The excretion ratios of radioactivity into urine and faeces up to 168 h were 71.4 and 14.1% after the intravenous administration and 74.9 and 12.0% after the subcutaneous administration. There was no difference in the excretion profile of radioactivity between the two groups.

  17. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  18. Informing the Selection of Screening Hit Series with in Silico Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity Profiles.

    PubMed

    Sanders, John M; Beshore, Douglas C; Culberson, J Christopher; Fells, James I; Imbriglio, Jason E; Gunaydin, Hakan; Haidle, Andrew M; Labroli, Marc; Mattioni, Brian E; Sciammetta, Nunzio; Shipe, William D; Sheridan, Robert P; Suen, Linda M; Verras, Andreas; Walji, Abbas; Joshi, Elizabeth M; Bueters, Tjerk

    2017-08-24

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has enabled millions of compounds to be assessed for biological activity, but challenges remain in the prioritization of hit series. While biological, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET), purity, and structural data are routinely used to select chemical matter for further follow-up, the scarcity of historical ADMET data for screening hits limits our understanding of early hit compounds. Herein, we describe a process that utilizes a battery of in-house quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to generate in silico ADMET profiles for hit series to enable more complete characterizations of HTS chemical matter. These profiles allow teams to quickly assess hit series for desirable ADMET properties or suspected liabilities that may require significant optimization. Accordingly, these in silico data can direct ADMET experimentation and profoundly impact the progression of hit series. Several prospective examples are presented to substantiate the value of this approach.

  19. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of [14C]-Volixibat in Healthy Men: Phase 1 Open-Label Study.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Nicholas; Palmer, Melissa; Silberg, Debra G; Jennings, Lee; Bliss, Caleb; Martin, Patrick T

    2018-02-01

    Volixibat is a potent inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in development for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This phase 1, open-label study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [ 14 C]-volixibat in heathy men. Eligible men (n = 8) aged 18-50 years (body mass index 18.0-30.0 kg/m 2 ; weight >50 kg) received a single oral dose of [ 14 C]-volixibat 50 mg containing ~5.95 µCi radioactivity. The primary objectives were to assess the pharmacokinetics of [ 14 C]-volixibat and to determine the total radioactivity in whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces at pre-selected time points over 6 days. The secondary objectives were to characterize metabolites and to assess the safety and tolerability. Low concentrations of volixibat (range 0-0.179 ng/mL) were detected in plasma up to 8 h following administration; the pharmacokinetic parameters could not be calculated. No radioactivity was observed in plasma or whole blood. The percentage (mean ± standard deviation) of total radioactivity in urine was 0.01 ± 0.007%. The vast majority (92.3 ± 5.25%) of volixibat was recovered in feces (69.2 ± 33.1% within 24 h). Unchanged volixibat was the only radioactive component detected in feces. Adverse events were mild in severity and mostly gastrointestinal. Changes in laboratory values were not clinically meaningful. Following oral administration, [ 14 C]-volixibat was excreted unchanged from the parent compound almost exclusively via fecal excretion, indicating that the drug is minimally absorbed. Consistent with other studies, adverse events were primarily gastrointestinal in nature. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02571192.

  20. Absorption, distribution and excretion of inhaled hydrogen fluoride in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole body HF exposure for 6 hrs or to nose-only HF exposure for 1 hr. Total and/or ionic fluoride concentrations in selected tissues were determined at various times following exposure. In rats sacrificed 6 hrs after whole body exposure, dose-dependent increases in lung, plasma, and kidney total and ionic fluoride concentration occurred. Rats excreted more fluoride in the urine after whole body exposure than could be explained by the amount of HF inhaled. Considerable evidence suggests that airborne HF deposits on fur and is then ingested due to preening activity. Urinary fluoride excretion was increased bymore » nose-only exposure. The urinary fluoride excretion accounted for approximately twice the fluoride estimated to be inhaled during exposure. Tissue fluoride concentrations were elevated immediately after nose-only exposure. Fluoride concentrations in lung and kidney returned to control levels within 12 hrs. Plasma fluoride concentration was slightly elevated 24 hrs after the start of the 1 hr exposure but was at control levels at 96 hrs. Immediately following nose-only exposure, lung ionic fluoride concentrations were less than plasma ionic fluoride concentrations suggesting that the fluoride in the lung had reached that site via plasma transport rather than by inhalation. A dose-dependent increase in plasma ionic fluoride concentration occurred after upper respiratory tract HF exposure providing strong evidence that fluoride is absorbed systemically from that site. The plasma ionic fluoride concentration after upper respiratory tract exposure was of sufficient magnitude to account for the plasma fluoride concentrations observed in intact nose-only exposed rats. (ERB)« less

  1. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the anti-tuberculosis drug delamanid in rats: Extensive tissue distribution suggests potential therapeutic value for extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masakazu; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Sasahara, Katsunori; Yoda, Noriaki; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mitsunari; Umehara, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Delamanid (OPC-67683, Deltyba™, nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles derivative) is approved for the treatment of adult pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The absorption, distribution and excretion of delamanid-derived radioactivity were investigated after a single oral administration of 14 C-delamanid at 3 mg/kg to rats. In both male and female rats, radioactivity in blood and all tissues reached peak levels by 8 or 24 h post-dose, and thereafter decreased slowly. Radioactivity levels were 3- to 5-fold higher in lung tissue at time to maximum concentration compared with plasma. In addition, radioactivity was broadly distributed in various tissues, including the central nervous system, eyeball, placenta and fetus, indicating that 14 C-delamanid permeated the brain, retinal and placental blood barriers. By 168 h post-dose, radioactivity in almost all the tissues was higher than that in the plasma. Radioactivity was also transferred into the milk of lactating rats. Approximately 6% and 92% of radioactivity was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively, indicating that the absorbed radioactivity was primarily excreted via the biliary route. No significant differences in the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14 C-delamanid were observed between male and female rats. The pharmacokinetic results suggested that delamanid was broadly distributed to the lungs and various tissues for a prolonged duration of time at concentrations expected to effectively target tuberculosis bacteria. These data indicate that delamanid, in addition to its previously demonstrated efficacy in pulmonary tuberculosis, might be an effective therapeutic approach to treating extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of loxoprofen after dermal application of loxoprofen gel to rats.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Ryoko; Kazui, Miho; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    1. Loxoprofen (LX), is a prodrug of the pharmacologically active form, trans-alcohol metabolite (trans-OH form), which shows very potent analgesic effect. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of [(14)C]LX-derived radioactivity after dermal application of [(14)C]LX gel (LX-G) to rats were evaluated. 2. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of radioactivity in the plasma after the dermal application was 13.6% of that of the oral administration (p < 0.05). 3. After the dermal application, the radioactivity remained in the skin and skeletal muscle at the treated site for 168 h, whereas the AUC0-168 h of the radioactivity concentration in every tissue examined except the treated site was statistically lower than that after the oral administration (p < 0.05). 4. The trans-OH form was observed at high levels in the treated skin site at 0.5 h. Metabolite profiles in plasma, non-treated skin site and urine after the dermal application were comparable with those after the oral administration. 5. Renal excretion was the main route of elimination after the dermal application. 6. In conclusion, compared to the oral administration, the dermal application of [(14)C]LX-G showed lower systemic and tissue exposure with higher exposure in the therapeutic target site. The radioactivity revealed similar metabolite profiles in both administration routes.

  3. Absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of radiolabelled compounds in rats after administration of [14C]-L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine.

    PubMed

    Abbiati, G; Fossati, T; Lachmann, G; Bergamaschi, M; Castiglioni, C

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics and metabolism of L-alpha-glycerylphosphoryl-choline (alpha-GPC) were investigated in male and female rats after i.v. (10 mg/kg) and oral doses (100-300 mg/kg). alpha-GPC was labelled with [14C]-glycerol ([14G]-GPC) or [14C]-choline ([14C]-GPC). Different kinetic and metabolic profiles were observed after i.v. and oral administration. It is assumed that alpha-GPC is hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterases in the gut mucosa. The different labelled metabolites have different kinetic properties of absorption, distribution and clearance, leading to different blood concentration-time curves of total radioactivity. Both labelled compounds gave a wide distribution of radioactivity, particularly concentrated in the liver, kidney, lung and spleen compared to blood. Brain concentrations of [14C]-GPC were comparable to ([14G]-GPC) or lower than ([14C]-GPC) total blood radioactivity. The metabolite profile in the perfused brain showed a small amount of choline and two unknown metabolites, probably the same as in blood. In addition, choline was incorporated into brain phospholipids in increasing amounts within 24 h of dosing. In all cases renal and fecal excretion of radioactivity was low and comparable for [14G]-GPC and [14C]-GPC. Mostly the administered radioactivity was exhaled as 14CO2, this degradation being faster and more pronounced for the glycerol-labelled metabolites than for the choline-labelled metabolites for both routes of administration. In all cases the results were the same for male and female rats.

  4. THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

  5. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of the ALK inhibitor alectinib: results from an absolute bioavailability and mass balance study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Peter N; Yu, Li; Bogman, Katrijn; Sato, Mika; Katsuki, Hisakazu; Kawashima, Kosuke; Moore, David J; Whayman, Matt; Nieforth, Keith; Heinig, Katja; Guerini, Elena; Muri, Dieter; Martin-Facklam, Meret; Phipps, Alex

    2017-03-01

    1. Alectinib is a highly selective, central nervous system-active small molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor. 2. The absolute bioavailability, metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of alectinib were studied in a two-period single-sequence crossover study. A 50 μg radiolabelled intravenous microdose of alectinib was co-administered with a single 600 mg oral dose of alectinib in the first period, and a single 600 mg/67 μCi oral dose of radiolabelled alectinib was administered in the second period to six healthy male subjects. 3. The absolute bioavailability of alectinib was moderate at 36.9%. Geometric mean clearance was 34.5 L/h, volume of distribution was 475 L and the hepatic extraction ratio was low (0.14). 4. Near-complete recovery of administered radioactivity was achieved within 168 h post-dose (98.2%) with excretion predominantly in faeces (97.8%) and negligible excretion in urine (0.456%). Alectinib and its major active metabolite, M4, were the main components in plasma, accounting for 76% of total plasma radioactivity. In faeces, 84% of dose was excreted as unchanged alectinib with metabolites M4, M1a/b and M6 contributing to 5.8%, 7.2% and 0.2% of dose, respectively. 5. This novel study design characterised the full absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties in each subject, providing insight into alectinib absorption and disposition in humans.

  6. The in vivo pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion investigation of mesaconine in rats and its in vitro intestinal absorption study using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuxiu; Tang, Minghai; Liu, Taohong; Wang, Chunyan; Tang, Qiaoxin; Xiao, Yaxin; Yang, Ruixin; Chao, Ruobing

    2017-12-27

    1. Mesaconine, an ingredient from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., has been proven to have cardiac effect. For further development and better pharmacological elucidation, the in vivo process and intestinal absorptive behavior of mesaconine should be investigated comprehensively. 2. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of mesaconine in rat plasma, tissue homogenates, urine and feces to investigate the in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and excretion. The intestinal absorptive behavior of mesaconine was investigated using in vitro everted rat gut sac model. 3. Mesaconine was well distributed in tissues and a mass of unchanged form was detected in feces. It was difficultly absorbed into blood circulatory system after oral administration. The insufficient oral bioavailability of mesaconine may be mainly attributed to its low intestinal permeability due to a lack of lipophilicity. The absorption of mesaconine in rat's intestine is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Miri; Chung, Hae-Eun; Yu, Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choy, Jin-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats. Methods Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed. Results The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues. Conclusion ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily absorbed into the bloodstream via the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral dose. The liver, lung, and kidney could be possible target organs for accumulation and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was independent of particle size or gender. ZnO nanoparticles appear to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form due to newly formed Zn-S bonds. The nanoparticles were mainly excreted via the feces, and smaller particles were cleared more rapidly than the larger ones. ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration below 300 mg/kg were distributed in tissues and excreted within 24 hours. These findings provide crucial information on possible acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in potential target organs. PMID:22811602

  8. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  9. A novel double-tracer technique to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of [14C]tofogliflozin after oral administration and concomitant intravenous microdose administration of [13C]tofogliflozin in humans.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Dietmar; Portron, Agnes; Backholer, Zoe; Lausecker, Berthold; Kawashima, Kosuke

    2013-06-01

    observed CL(R) of 25.7 ± 5.0 ml/min was higher than the product of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and fraction unbound in plasma (f(u)) (eGFR × f(u) 15 ml/min), indicating the presence of net active tubular secretion in the renal elimination of tofogliflozin. However, CLR contributed only 15.5 % to the CL of tofogliflozin, suggesting that reductions in CLR by renal impairment won't significantly affect systemic exposure to tofogliflozin. Tofogliflozin and its metabolite M1 were the only major circulating entities accounting for 46 ± 8.6 and 50 ± 8.2 %, respectively, of total circulating drug-related material, while the metabolite M5 was a minor circulating metabolite accounting for 3.0 ± 0.3 % of total circulating drug-related material. Both the M1 and M5 metabolites were excreted into urine and the major metabolite M1 did not exhibit active tubular secretion. These results demonstrate the utility of the double-tracer approach to provide essential pharmacokinetic data and excretion data for drug-related material in one study at the same dosing occasion. The data obtained allowed the characterization of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of tofogliflozin. Tofogliflozin exhibited highly favorable pharmacokinetic properties as demonstrated by its high F, low CL and a low V(ss. The presence of only one major circulating metabolite of tofogliflozin was unambiguously demonstrated. As a drug targeting the kidney, luminal exposure of the kidney is achieved by renal filtration and active tubular secretion.

  10. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Seventy eight out of the 209 possible polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are chiral, nineteen of which exist under ambient conditions as stable rotational isomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. These congeners (C-PCBs) represent up to 6% by weight of technical PCB mixtures and undergo considerable atropisomeric enrichment in wildlife, laboratory animals and humans. The objective of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the processes involved in the absorption, metabolism and excretion of C-PCBs and their metabolites in laboratory animals and humans. C-PCBs are absorbed and excreted by passive diffusion, a process that, like other physicochemical processes, is inherently not atropselective. In mammals, metabolism by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes represents a major route of elimination for many C-PCBs. In vitro studies demonstrate that C-PCBs with a 2,3,6-trichlorosubstituion pattern in one phenyl ring are readily oxidized to hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs) by P450 enzymes, such as rat CYP2B1, human CYP2B6 and dog CYP2B11. The oxidation of C-PCBs is atropselective, thus resulting in a species and congener-dependent atropisomeric enrichment of C-PCBs and their metabolites. This atropisomeric enrichment of C-PCBs and their metabolites likely plays a poorly understood role in the atropselective toxicity of C-PCBs and, therefore, warrants further investigation. PMID:25651810

  11. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rat.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Lun; Chang, Wei-Shan; Lu, Wen-Chien; Wei, Guor-Jien; Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2018-04-01

    Tangeretin, 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone, is one of the major polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) existing in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels of sweet oranges and mandarins. Tangeretin has been reported to possess several beneficial bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and neuroprotective effects. To achieve a thorough understanding of the biological actions of tangeretin in vivo, our current study is designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rats. After oral administration of 50 mg/kg bw tangeretin to rats, the C max , T max and t 1/2 were 0.87 ± 0.33 μg/mL, 340.00 ± 48.99 min and 342.43 ± 71.27 min, respectively. Based on the area under the curves (AUC) of oral and intravenous administration of tangeretin, calculated absolute oral bioavailability was 27.11%. During tissue distribution, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the vital organs occurred at 4 or 8 h after oral administration. The highest accumulation of tangeretin was found in the kidney, lung and liver, followed by spleen and heart. In the gastrointestinal tract, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the stomach and small intestine were found at 4 h, while in the cecum, colon and rectum, tangeretin reached the maximum concentrations at 12 h. Tangeretin excreted in the urine and feces was recovered within 48 h after oral administration, concentrations were only 0.0026% and 7.54%, respectively. These results suggest that tangeretin was mainly eliminated as metabolites. In conclusion, our study provides useful information regarding absorption, distribution, as well as excretion of tangeretin, which will provide a good base for studying the mechanism of its biological effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. KAE609 (Cipargamin), a New Spiroindolone Agent for the Treatment of Malaria: Evaluation of the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of a Single Oral 300-mg Dose of [14C]KAE609 in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Huskey, Su-Er W; Zhu, Chun-qi; Fredenhagen, Andreas; Kühnöl, Jürgen; Luneau, Alexandre; Jian, Zhigang; Yang, Ziping; Miao, Zhuang; Yang, Fan; Jain, Jay P; Sunkara, Gangadhar; Mangold, James B; Stein, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    KAE609 [(1'R,3'S)-5,7'-dichloro-6'-fluoro-3'-methyl-2',3',4',9'-tetrahydrospiro[indoline-3,1'-pyridol[3,4-b]indol]-2-one] is a potent, fast-acting, schizonticidal agent in clinical development for the treatment of malaria. This study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of KAE609 after oral administration of [(14)C]KAE609 in healthy subjects. After oral administration to human subjects, KAE609 was the major radioactive component (approximately 76% of the total radioactivity in plasma); M23 was the major circulating oxidative metabolite (approximately 12% of the total radioactivity in plasma). Several minor oxidative metabolites (M14, M16, M18, and M23.5B) were also identified, each accounting for approximately 3%-8% of the total radioactivity in plasma. KAE609 was well absorbed and extensively metabolized, such that KAE609 accounted for approximately 32% of the dose in feces. The elimination of KAE609 and metabolites was primarily mediated via biliary pathways. M23 was the major metabolite in feces. Subjects reported semen discoloration after dosing in prior studies; therefore, semen samples were collected once from each subject to further evaluate this clinical observation. Radioactivity excreted in semen was negligible, but the major component in semen was M23, supporting the rationale that this yellow-colored metabolite was the main source of semen discoloration. In this study, a new metabolite, M16, was identified in all biologic matrices albeit at low levels. All 19 recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes were capable of catalyzing the hydroxylation of M23 to form M16 even though the extent of turnover was very low. Thus, electrochemistry was used to generate a sufficient quantity of M16 for structural elucidation. Metabolic pathways of KAE609 in humans are summarized herein and M23 is the major metabolite in plasma and excreta. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Children's Menu Diversity: Influence on Fluoride Absorption and Excretion.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Andreany M; Flório, Flávia M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of children's menu diversity on the absorption and excretion of fluoride. The experimental, longitudinal, quantitative study was carried out in a city without fluoridation in water supply. A total of 16 adult volunteers (>63.9 kg) participated in the study who, after a 12-hour fast, ingested two types of children's meals, whose quantity and diversity were determined after weighing the meals best consumed by children at a kindergarten in Campinas, Sao Paulo: Simple child meal (SCM; n = 8) and hearty child meal (HCM; n = 8). The fluoride gel residual after professional application (12,300 ppm, 30.75 mg F, pH = 4.65) was simulated 15 minutes after feeding. Saliva samples (in time intervals of 0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 hours after ingestion of the fluorine solution) and urine of the volunteers were analyzed at 24 hours. Fluoride concentrations were determined using a selective ion electrode. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance for repeated measurements (PROC MIXED)/Tukey-Kramer. The concentrations of fluoride in saliva at 0 and 15 minutes and after 6 hours were the same between groups (p > 0.05). From 30 minutes to 4 hours after ingestion, the SCM group showed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva, which has a higher absorption (p < 0.05). The fluoride concentration in the urine did not differ between groups at both collection times (p > 0.05), and for both, the fluoride concentration in the urine increased in the final measurement (p < 0.05). The children's menu diversity influenced the absorption of fluoride so that the topical application of fluoride should be performed in infants fed preferably after the fuller diet and following the established guidelines to ensure the safety of the procedure. Knowledge of the influence of the children's menu diversity on fluoride metabolism after professional application is important so that the actions of fluoride therapy may be

  14. Absorption, excretion and retention of 51Cr from labelled Cr-(III)-picolinate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Karin; Laschinsky, Niels; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The bioavailability of chromium from Cr-picolinate (CrPic(3)) and Cr-chloride (CrCl(3)) was studied in rats using (51)Cr-labelled compounds and whole-body-counting. The intestinal absorption of Cr was twice as high from CrPic(3) (1.16% vs 0.55%) than from CrCl(3), however most of the absorbed (51)Cr from CrPic(3) was excreted into the urine within 24 h. After i.v. or i.p. injection, the whole-body retention curves fitted well to a multiexponential function, demonstrating that plasma chromium is in equilibrium with three pools. For CrPic(3), a large pool exists with a very rapid exchange (T (1/2) = <0.5 days), suggesting that CrPic(3) is absorbed as intact molecule, from which the main part is directly excreted by the kidney before degradation of the chromium complex in the liver can occur. CrCl(3) is less well absorbed but the rapid exchange pool is much smaller, resulting in even higher Cr concentrations in tissue such as muscle and fat. However, 1-3 days after application, the relative distribution of (51)Cr from both compounds was similar in all tissues studied, indicating that both compounds contribute to the same storage pool. In summary, the bioavailability of CrPic(3) in rats is not superior compared to CrCl(3).

  15. Metabolism of dietary sulphate: absorption and excretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Florin, T; Neale, G; Gibson, G R; Christl, S U; Cummings, J H

    1991-01-01

    Dietary sulphate may affect colonic pathophysiology because sulphate availability determines in part the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in the bowel. The main product of sulphate reducing bacterial oxidative metabolism, hydrogen sulphide, is potentially toxic. Although it is generally believed that the sulphate ion is poorly absorbed, there are no available data on how much sulphate reaches the colon nor on the relative contributions from diet and endogenous sources. To resolve these questions, balance studies were performed on six healthy ileostomists and three normal subjects chosen because they did not have detectable sulphate reducing bacteria in their faeces. The subjects were fed diets which varied in sulphate content from 1.6-16.6 mmol/day. Sulphate was measured in diets, faeces (ileal effluent in ileostomists), and urine by anion exchange chromatography with conductivity detection. Overall there was net absorption of dietary sulphate, with the absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract plateauing at 5 mmol/day in the ileostomists and exceeding 16 mmol/day in the normal subjects. Endogenous secretion of sulphate in the upper gastrointestinal tract was from 0.96-2.6 mmol/day. The dietary contribution to the colonic sulphate pool ranged up to 9 mmol/day, there being linear identity between diet and upper gastrointestinal losses for intakes above 7 mmol/day. Faecal losses of sulphate were trivial (less than 0.5 mmol/day) in the normal subjects at all doses. It is concluded that diet and intestinal absorption are the principal factors affecting the amounts of sulphate reaching the colon. Endogenous secretion of sulphate by colonic mucosa may also be important in determining amounts of sulphate in the colon. PMID:1855683

  16. Distribution and excretion of BisGMA in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Reichl, F X; Seiss, M; Kleinsasser, N; Kehe, K; Kunzelmann, K H; Thomas, P; Spahl, W; Hickel, R

    2008-04-01

    Bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA) is used in many resin-based dental materials. It was shown in vitro that BisGMA was released into the adjacent biophase from such materials during the first days after placement. In this study, the uptake, distribution, and excretion of [(14)C]BisGMA applied via gastric and intravenous administration (at dose levels well above those encountered in dental care) were examined in vivo in guinea pigs to test the hypothesis that BisGMA reaches cytotoxic levels in mammalian tissues. [(14)C]BisGMA was taken up rapidly from the stomach and intestine after gastric administration and was widely distributed in the body following administration by each route. Most [(14)C] was excreted within one day as (14)CO(2). The peak equivalent BisGMA levels in guinea pig tissues examined were at least 1000-fold less than known toxic levels. The peak urine level in guinea pigs that received well in excess of the body-weight-adjusted dose expected in humans was also below known toxic levels. The study therefore did not support the hypothesis.

  17. The babel of the ABCs: novel transporters involved in the regulation of sterol absorption and excretion.

    PubMed

    Ordovas, Jose M; Tai, E Shyong

    2002-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is one of the primary targets of the current recommendations to decrease CHD risk in the population. Whereas, the mechanisms involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis and its uptake by cells via the LDL receptor are well known, we still need better understanding about the mechanisms involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption and excretion. The recent discovery of ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters will significantly improve our understanding of cholesterol trafficking and it will lead to better and new therapeutic strategies to maintain cholesterol homeostasis.

  18. A double-tracer technique to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of [14C]-basimglurant and absolute bioavailability after oral administration and concomitant intravenous microdose administration of [13C6]-labeled basimglurant in humans.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Elena; Schadt, Simone; Greig, Gerard; Haas, Ruth; Husser, Christophe; Zell, Manfred; Funk, Christoph; Hartung, Thomas; Gloge, Andreas; Mallalieu, Navita L

    2017-02-01

    1. The emerging technique of employing intravenous microdose administration of an isotope tracer concomitantly with an [ 14 C]-labeled oral dose was used to characterize the disposition and absolute bioavailability of a novel metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor antagonist under clinical development for major depressive disorder (MDD). 2. Six healthy volunteers received a single 1 mg [ 12 C/ 14 C]-basimglurant (2.22 MBq) oral dose and a concomitant i.v. tracer dose of 100 μg of [ 13 C 6 ]-basimglurant. Concentrations of [ 12 C]-basimglurant and the stable isotope [ 13 C 6 ]-basimglurant were determined in plasma by a specific LC/MS-MS method. Total [ 14 C] radioactivity was determined in whole blood, plasma, urine and feces by liquid scintillation counting. Metabolic profiling was conducted in plasma, urine, blood cell pellet and feces samples. 3. The mean absolute bioavailability after oral administration (F) of basimglurant was ∼67% (range 45.7-77.7%). The major route of [ 14 C]-radioactivity excretion, primarily in form of metabolites, was in urine (mean recovery 73.4%), with the remainder excreted in feces (mean recovery 26.5%). The median t max for [ 12 C]-basimglurant after the oral administration was 0.71 h (range 0.58-1.00) and the mean terminal half-life was 77.2 ± 38.5 h. Terminal half-life for the [ 14 C]-basimglurant was 178 h indicating presence of metabolites with a longer terminal half-life. Five metabolites were identified with M1-Glucuronide as major and the others in trace amounts. There was minimal binding of drug to RBCs. IV pharmacokinetics was characterized with a mean ± SD CL of 11.8 ± 7.4 mL/h and a Vss of 677 ± 229 L. 4. The double-tracer technique used in this study allowed to simultaneously characterize the absolute bioavailability and disposition characteristics of the new oral molecular entity in a single study.

  19. MTBE inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor: uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Benson, J M; Barr, E B; Krone, J R

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of these studies was to extend previous evaluation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)* tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats to include concentrations more relevant to human exposure (4 and 40 ppm) and to determine the effects of coinhalation of the volatile fraction of unleaded gasoline on the tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion of MTBE. Groups of male F344 rats were exposed nose-only for 4 hours to 4, 40, or 400 ppm 14C-MTBE or to 20 or 200 ppm of the light fraction of unleaded gasoline (LFG) containing 4 or 40 ppm 14C-MTBE, respectively. To evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of LFG on MTBE tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion, rats were exposed for 4 hours on each of 7 consecutive days to 20 or 200 ppm LFG with MTBE (4 or 40 ppm) followed on the eighth day by a similar exposure to LFG containing 14C-MTBE. Subgroups of rats were evaluated for respiratory parameters, initial body burdens, rates and routes of excretion, and tissue distribution and elimination. The concentrations of MTBE and its chief metabolite, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), were measured in blood and kidney immediately after exposure, and the major urinary metabolites-2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol (2MePD)-were measured in urine. Inhalation of MTBE alone or as a component of LFG had no concentration-dependent effect on respiratory minute volume. The initial body burdens of MTBE equivalents achieved after 4 hours of exposure to MTBE did not increase linearly with exposure concentration. MTBE equivalents rapidly distributed to all tissues examined, with the largest percentages distributed to liver. The observed initial body burden did not increase linearly between 4 and 400 ppm. At 400 ppm, elimination half-times of MTBE equivalents from liver increased and from lung, kidney, and testes decreased compared with the two smaller doses. Furthermore, at 400 ppm the elimination half-time for volatile organic compounds (VOCs

  20. Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; von Unruh, G E; Hesse, A

    2008-09-01

    To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

  1. P-gp is involved in the intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of afatinib in vitro and in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Zhihao; Meng, Qiang; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Qi; Sun, Pengyuan; Yang, Xiaobo; Sun, Huijun; Ma, Xiaodong; Liu, Kexin

    2018-04-01

    Afatinib is an irreversible multi-targeted TKI, used in the treatment with EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study is to explore the molecular pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying the effect of P-gp inhibitors on the intestinal absorption and biliary excretion and to understand how P-gp inhibitors affect afatinib pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics in vivo, in situ intestinal perfusion, perfused rat liver in situ, Caco-2 cells, P-gp ATPase activity, sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRH) and transfected-cell transport were used in the evaluation. P-gp inhibitor verapamil (Ver) markedly increased the plasma concentrations and significantly decreased the biliary excretion of afatinib in vivo. Ver increased the intestinal absorption and decreased biliary excretion of afatinib in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion studies and in situ perfused rat liver, respectively. The accumulation of afatinib in Caco-2 cells was enhanced by Ver and Cyclosporin A (CsA). The biliary excretion index (BEI) of afatinib in SCRH was decreased by Ver and CsA, respectively. The net efflux ratio of afatinib was 2.3 across vector-/MDR1-MDCKII cell monolayers and was decreased by P-gp inhibitor. The activity of P-gp ATPase was induced by afatinib and the K m and V max were 1.05μM and 59.88nmol ATP/mg hP-gp/min, respectively. At least partly P-gp is involved in increasing the intestinal absorption and decreasing the biliary excretion of afatinib in rats. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary isoflavone absorption, excretion, and metabolism in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Cave, Nicholas J; Ugarte, Claudia E; Waldron, Lucy A; Prasain, Jeevan K; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Thomas, David G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration-time curve, metabolite profile, and urinary and fecal excretion of genistein and daidzein in cheetahs following consumption of isoflavones. Four adult cheetahs were administered a single oral bolus of genistein and daidzein, and five juvenile cheetahs consuming a milk replacer formula found to contain isoflavones were also included. Urine was collected from all animals, and blood and feces were also collected from adult cheetahs following isoflavone exposure. Samples were analyzed for isoflavone metabolite concentration by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sulfate conjugates were the primary metabolites detected of both genistein and daidzein (60-80% of total isoflavones present) in the plasma and urine of cheetahs. A smaller proportion of daidzein was detected as conjugates in the urine of juvenile cheetahs, compared to adult cheetahs. Other metabolites included unconjugated genistein and daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and dihydrodaidzein, but not equol. Only 33% of the ingested genistein dose, and 9% of daidzein, was detected in plasma from adult cheetahs. However, of the ingested dose, 67% of genistein and 45% of daidzein were detected in the feces of adults. This study revealed that cheetahs appear efficient in their conjugation of absorbed dietary isoflavones and only a small fraction of ingested dose is absorbed. However, the capacity of the cheetah to conjugate genistein and daidzein with sulfate moieties appears lower than reported in the domestic cat. This may confer greater opportunity for biologic

  3. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Paek, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. Methods Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. Tissue distribution kinetics, excretion profiles, and fates in tissues were analyzed using elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Results The differently sized silica nanoparticles mainly distributed to kidneys and liver for 3 days post-administration and, to some extent, to lungs and spleen for 2 days post-administration, regardless of particle size or sex. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies in tissues demonstrated almost intact particles in liver, but partially decomposed particles with an irregular morphology were found in kidneys, especially in rats that had been administered 20 nm nanoparticles. Size-dependent excretion kinetics were apparent and the smaller 20 nm particles were found to be more rapidly eliminated than the larger 100 nm particles. Elimination profiles showed 7%–8% of silica nanoparticles were excreted via urine, but most nanoparticles were excreted via feces, regardless of particle size or sex. Conclusion The kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were found to be the target organs of orally-administered silica nanoparticles in rats, and this organ distribution was not affected by particle size or animal sex. In vivo, silica nanoparticles were found to retain their particulate form, although more decomposition was observed in kidneys, especially for 20 nm particles. Urinary and fecal excretion pathways were determined to play roles in the elimination of silica nanoparticles, but 20 nm particles were secreted more rapidly, presumably because they are more easily decomposed. These findings will be of interest to those seeking to predict

  4. The influence of Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5 on the absorption and excretion of methylmercury (MeHg) in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Yasutake, Akira; Kumamoto, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro

    2010-02-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5), previously identified as Chlorella vulgaris CK-5, is a unicellular green algae that has for many years been used as a nutritional supplement. In order to investigate the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) detoxification by Chlorella, we examined the absorption and excretion of MeHg in mice. Female C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into three groups of five, and were housed in metabolism cages. Mice were orally administered MeHg chloride at doses of 5 mg (4 mg Hg)/kg body weight with or without 100 mg/mouse of P. beyerinckii powder (BP), and were assigned to either a MeHg group or MeHg + BP group, accordingly. Twenty-four hr after oral administration, feces and urine were collected, and blood, liver, and kidney samples were obtained. Total mercury contents in the samples obtained were determined using an atomic absorption method. The amounts of Hg excreted in feces and urine of the MeHg + BP group were increased nearly 1.9 and 2.2-fold compared with those of the MeHg group. On the other hand, blood and organ Hg levels were not significantly different between two groups. These results suggest that the intake of BP may induce the excretion of Hg both in feces and urine, although it does not affect MeHg absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of BP on the tissue mercury accumulation may become evident in a long-term experiment.

  5. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  6. Sub-Chronic Oral Exposure to Iridium (III) Chloride Hydrate in Female Wistar Rats: Distribution and Excretion of the Metal

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Pino, Anna; Mattei, Daniela; Bocca, Beatrice; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Iridium tissue distribution and excretion in female Wistar rats following oral exposure to iridium (III) chloride hydrate in drinking water (from 1 to 1000 ng/ml) in a sub-chronic oral study were determined. Samples of urine, feces, blood and organs (kidneys, liver, lung, spleen and brain) were collected at the end of exposure. The most prominent fractions of iridium were retained in kidney and spleen; smaller amounts were found in lungs, liver and brain. Iridium brain levels were lower than those observed in other tissues but this finding can support the hypothesis of iridium capability to cross the blood brain barrier. The iridium kidney levels rose significantly with the administered dose. At the highest dose, important amounts of the metal were found in serum, urine and feces. Iridium was predominantly excreted via feces with a significant linear correlation with the ingested dose, which is likely due to low intestinal absorption of the metal. However, at the higher doses iridium was also eliminated through urine. These findings may be useful to help in the understanding of the adverse health effects, particularly on the immune system, of iridium dispersed in the environment as well as in identifying appropriate biological indices of iridium exposure. PMID:22942873

  7. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  8. Pharmacokinetics, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Omadacycline following a Single Intravenous or Oral Dose of 14C-Omadacycline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Flarakos, Jimmy; Du, Yancy; Hu, Wenyu; He, Handan; Mangold, James; Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of omadacycline, a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, were evaluated in rats. Tissue distribution was investigated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography in male Long-Evans Hooded (LEH) rats. Following an intravenous (i.v.) dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight, radioactivity widely and rapidly distributed into most tissues. The highest tissue-to-blood concentration ratios (t/b) were observed in bone mineral, thyroid gland, and Harderian gland at 24 h post-i.v. dose. There was no evidence of stable accumulation in uveal tract tissue, suggesting the absence of a stable binding interaction with melanin. Following a 90 mg/kg oral dose in LEH rats, the highest t/b were observed in bone mineral, Harderian gland, liver, spleen, and salivary gland. The plasma protein binding levels were 26% in the rat and 15% to 21% in other species. Omadacycline plasma clearance was 1.2 liters/h/kg, and its half-life was 4.6 h; the steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 6.89 liters/kg. Major circulating components in plasma were intact omadacycline and its epimer. Consistent with observations in human, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted into the feces as unchanged omadacycline after i.v. administration. Fecal excretion was primarily the result of biliary excretion (∼40%) and direct gastrointestinal secretion (∼30%). However, urinary excretion (∼30%) was equally prominent after i.v. dosing. PMID:27821446

  9. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is tomore » assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.« less

  10. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the dual reuptake inhibitor [(14)C]-nefopam in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Solon, Eric; Shen, Helen; Modi, Nishit B; Mittur, Aravind

    2016-11-01

    1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C] nefopam in rats after a single oral administration. Blood, plasma, and excreta were analyzed for total radioactivity, nefopam, and metabolites. Metabolites were profiled and identified. Radioactivity distribution was determined by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of total radioactivity and nefopam were similar in male and female rats. Radioactivity partitioned approximately equally between plasma and red blood cells. A majority of the radioactivity was excreted in urine within 24 hours and mass balance was achieved within 7 days. 3. Intact nefopam was a minor component in plasma and excreta. Numerous metabolites were identified in plasma and urine generated by multiple pathways including: hydroxylation/oxidation metabolites (M11, M22a and M22b, M16, M20), some of which were further glucuronidated (M6a to M6c, M7a to M7c, M8a and M8b, M3a to M3d); N-demethylation of nefopam to metabolite M21, which additionally undergoes single or multiple hydroxylations or sulfation (M9, M14, M23), with some of the hydroxylated metabolites further glucuronidated (M2a to M2d). 4. Total radioactivity rapidly distributed with highest concentrations found in the urinary bladder, stomach, liver, kidney medulla, small intestine, uveal tract, and kidney cortex without significant accumulation or persistence. Radioactivity reversibly associated with melanin-containing tissues.

  11. /sup 54/Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interactionmore » between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets.« less

  12. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  13. BILIARY EXCRETION AND TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF CADMIUM-109 ADMINISTERED TO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The difference in the excretion of cadmium in urine and feces was measured in rats with either ligated or intact bile ducts. Three days following a single oral-administration of cadmium-109 plus stabe cadmium chloride, 0.004 percent of the dose was excreted in the urine of rats w...

  14. The tissue distribution and excretion study of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyi; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; James, Asenso; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-09

    Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (code: CP-25) is a novel ester derivative of paeoniflorin (Pae). Compared to Pae, CP-25 has higher lipid solubility, bioavailability and better bioactivity. However, the tissue distribution and excretion of CP-25 still remain unknown. The LC-MS method was applied to investigate the tissue distribution and excretion of CP-25 in rats. As such, 50 mg/kg of CP-25 and Pae were administered to rats in multiple doses via an oral route. CP-25 and Pae were distributed widely and rapidly in all the tested tissues. Compared with Pae, the concentrations of CP-25 were almost increased evidently in most tissues. The highest CP-25 level was found in the liver (1476.33 ± 535.20 ng/g, male; 1970.38 ± 177.21 ng/g, female) at 3 h, and a high concentration of CP-25 was detected in male and female intestine, synovium, muscle, lung, and brain. Following a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg of CP-25 in rats, the total excretion of CP-25 was merely 21.8% (18.40, 3.19 and 0.22% for feces, bile and urine, respectively) in males; and was approximately 21.3% (14.04, 7.16 and 0.14% for feces, bile and urine, respectively) in females. The results indicated that the CP-25 concentration was higher in major tissues than Pae; CP-25 was primarily excreted through the feces; and there were gender-related differences in the tissue distribution and excretion.

  15. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    PubMed

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  16. Kinetics of Satratoxin G Tissue Distribution and Excretion Following Intranasal Exposure in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Amuzie, Chidozie J.; Islam, Zahidul; Kim, Jae Kyung; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Pestka, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Intranasal exposure of mice to satratoxin G (SG), a macrocyclic trichothecene produced by the indoor air mold Stachybotrys chartarum, selectively induces apoptosis in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the nose and brain. The purpose of this study was to measure the kinetics of distribution and clearance of SG in the mouse. Following intranasal instillation of female C57B16 mice with SG (500 μg/kg bw), the toxin was detectable from 5 to 60 min in blood and plasma, with the highest concentrations, 30 and 19 ng/ml, respectively, being observed at 5 min. SG clearance from plasma was rapid and followed single-compartment kinetics (t1/2 = 20 min) and differed markedly from that of other tissues. SG concentrations were maximal at 15–30 min in nasal turbinates (480 ng/g), kidney (280 ng/g), lung (250 ng/g), spleen (200 ng/g), liver (140 ng/g), thymus (90 ng/g), heart (70 ng/g), olfactory bulb (14 ng/g), and brain (3 ng/g). The half-lives of SG in the nasal turbinate and thymus were 7.6 and 10.1 h, respectively, whereas in other organs, these ranged from 2.3 to 4.4 h. SG was detectable in feces and urine, but cumulative excretion over 5 days via these routes accounted for less than 0.3% of the total dose administered. Taken together, SG was rapidly taken up from the nose, distributed to tissues involved in respiratory, immune, and neuronal function, and subsequently cleared. However, a significant amount of the toxin was retained in the nasal turbinate, which might contribute to SG’s capacity to evoke OSN death. PMID:20466779

  17. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  18. A Phase I Study to Investigate the Absorption, Pharmacokinetics, and Excretion of [(14)C]Prucalopride After a Single Oral Dose in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Flach, Stephen; Scarfe, Graeme; Dragone, Jeffrey; Ding, Jie; Seymour, Mark; Pennick, Mike; Pankratz, Todd; Troy, Steven; Getsy, Jay

    2016-09-01

    Chronic constipation is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder globally. It is often treated with medications such as laxatives. Newer therapies to improve gastric motility include the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-4 agonist prucalopride, which is licensed for the treatment of chronic constipation in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties and excretion of prucalopride in healthy individuals, using a microtracer approach with (14)C radioactivity detection using liquid scintillation counting and accelerator mass spectrometry. This was a single-period, open-label, nonrandomized absorption, metabolism, and excretion study of [(14)C]prucalopride. Participants were 6 healthy men aged 18 to 50 years. After screening, participants were administered a single dose of [(14)C]prucalopride succinate 2 mg (~200 nCi). Postadministration, urine, feces, and blood samples were collected over a 10-day period. Safety and adverse event data were also collected. Almost 100% of the administered dose of radioactivity was recovered, with a mean (SD) of 84.2% (8.88%) recovered in urine and 13.3% (1.73%) recovered in feces. The mean blood-to-plasma concentration ratio of 1.9 indicated uptake of prucalopride into blood cells. The renal clearance of prucalopride was 17.0 (2.5) L/h, which is higher than the glomerular filtration rate in healthy individuals, suggesting active renal transport of prucalopride. Prucalopride was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. Prucalopride was well absorbed and excreted mainly by the kidneys, including both passive and active transporter mechanisms. Quantitative recovery of the radioactive dose was achieved. Consistent with previous studies, prucalopride was generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01807000. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of urinary citrate excretion, pH, and net gastrointestinal alkali absorption with diet, diuretic use, and blood glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Perinpam, Majuran; Ware, Erin B; Smith, Jennifer A; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lieske, John C

    2017-10-01

    Urinary citrate (Ucit) protects against urinary stone formation. Acid base status and diet influence Ucit. However, the effect of demographics, diet, and glucose metabolism on Ucit excretion, urinary pH (U-pH) and net gastrointestinal alkali absorption (NAA) are not known. Twenty-four hour urine samples, blood glucose, creatinine, and cystatin C were obtained from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN ( n  = 446; 64.5 ± 9 years; 58% female). Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The impact of blood glucose, demographics and dietary elements on Ucit excretion, U-pH, and NAA were evaluated in bivariate and multivariable models and interaction models that included age, sex, and weight. NAA significantly associated with Ucit and U-pH In multivariate models Ucit increased with age, weight, eGFR C ys , and blood glucose, but decreased with loop diuretic and thiazide use. U-pH decreased with serum creatinine, blood glucose, and dietary protein but increased with dietary potassium. NAA was higher in males and increased with age, weight, eGFR C ys and dietary potassium. Significant interactions were observed for Ucit excretion with age and blood glucose, weight and eGFR C ys, and sex and thiazide use. Blood glucose had a significant and independent effect on U-pH and also Ucit. This study provides the first evidence that blood glucose could influence urinary stone risk independent of urinary pH, potentially providing new insight into the association of obesity and urinary stone disease. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Distribution, metabolism and excretion of a synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone, a potential male-contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pramod Vishwanath; Arumugam, Ramamani; Willman, Mark; Ge, Ren-Shan; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Kumar, Narender

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic androgen 7alpha-Methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) has a potential for therapeutic use in 'androgen replacement therapy' for hypogonadal men or as a hormonal male-contraceptive in normal men. Its tissue distribution, excretion and metabolic enzyme(s) have not been reported. Therefore, the present study tested the distribution and excretion of MENT in Sprague-Dawley rats castrated 24h prior to the injection of tritium-labeled MENT ((3)H-MENT). Rats were euthanized at different time intervals after dosing, and the amount of radioactivity in various tissues/organs was measured following combustion in a Packard oxidizer. The radioactivity (% injected dose) was highest in the duodenal contents in the first 30min of injection. Specific uptake of the steroid was observed in target tissues such as ventral prostate and seminal vesicles at 6h, while in other tissues radioactivity equilibrated with blood. Liver and duodenum maintained high radioactivity throughout, as these organs were actively involved in the metabolism and excretion of most drugs. The excretion of (3)H-MENT was investigated after subcutaneous injection of (3)H-MENT into male rats housed in metabolic cages. Urine and feces were collected at different time intervals (up to 72h) following injection. Results showed that the radioactivity was excreted via feces and urine in equal amounts by 30h. Aiming to identify enzyme(s) involved in the MENT metabolism, we performed in vitro metabolism of (3)H-MENT using rat and human liver microsomes, cytosol and recombinant cytochrome P(450) (CYP) isozymes. The metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three putative metabolites (in accordance with the report of Agarwal and Monder [Agarwal AK, Monder C. In vitro metabolism of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone by rat liver, prostate, and epididymis. Endocrinology 1988;123:2187-93]), [i] 3-hydroxylated MENT by both rat and human liver cytosol; [ii] 16alpha-hydroxylated MENT (a polar metabolite

  1. Metabolism of adiphenine. I. Absorption, distribution and excretion in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Michelot, J; Madelmont, J C; Jordan, D; Mornex, R; Meyniel, G

    1981-02-01

    1. The disposition of adiphenine labelled with 14C in two positions has been investigated in rats and mice after i.v. administration, and has been compared with that of the [14C]diethylethanolamine HCl and of the [14C]diphenylacetic acid. 2. Radioactivity in the blood declined in a biphasic manner. Biliary elimination depended upon the 14C-labelled compound administered: less than 5% dose for the diethylethanolamine moiety, 100% dose for the carboxylic moiety. Of the radioactivity appearing in rat bile, less than 1% is associated with unchanged adiphenine. 3. In preliminary metabolic studies, three major metabolites have been identified: diphenylacetic acid, diethylethanolamine and a diphenylacetic acid glucuronide. 4. Uptake by the brain of [14C]adiphenine shortly after dosing is 15 times greater than that of blood. Radioactivity is also found in the hypophysis, the adrenals and melanoid pigments, with a concn. up to 30 times greater than that found in the blood.

  2. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of 14C-RDX Following Oral Administration to Minipigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-02

    ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT... Covance Laboratories Inc. 3301 Kinsman Boulevard Madison, WI 53704-2595 Covance 7273-121 U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine

  3. Profile of disposition, tissue distribution and excretion of the novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent W-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xin; Dai, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Pu; Lou, Ya-Qing; Lu, Chuang; Liu, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the disposition, distribution, excretion and plasma protein binding of 6-benzyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-5-iodouracil (W-1) in rats. Concentrations of W-1 within biological samples were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. The plasma protein binding of W-1 was examined by equilibrium dialysis method. After oral administration of W-1 (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively) in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system formulation, the pharmacokinetic parameters of W-1 were as follows: the peak plasma concentrations (C max) were 0.42, 1.50 and 2.55 μg/mL, the area under the curve (AUC0-t) were 0.89, 2.27 and 3.96 µg/h mL and the plasma half-life (t 1/2) were 5.15, 3.77 and 3.77 h, respectively. Moreover, the prototype of W-1 was rapidly and extensively distributed into fifteen tissues, especially higher concentrations were detected in intestine, stomach and liver, respectively. The plasma protein binding of W-1 in rat, beagle dog and human were in the range of 97.96-99.13 %. This study suggested that W-1 has an appropriate pharmacokinetics in rats, such as rapid absorption, moderate clearance, and rapid distribution to multiple tissues. Those properties provide important information for further development W-1 as an anti-HIV-1 drug candidate.

  4. Tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of 3, 3′-dichloro-4′-sulfooxy-biphenyl in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; He, Xianran; Teesch, Lynn M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with lower numbers of chlorine atoms exhibit a greater susceptibility to metabolism than their higher-chlorinated counterparts. Following initial hydroxylation of these lower chlorinated PCBs, metabolic sulfation to form PCB sulfates is increasingly recognized as an important component of their toxicology. Since procedures for the quantitative analysis of PCB sulfates in tissue samples have not been previously available, we have now developed an efficient, LC-ESI-MS/MS based, protocol for the quantitative analysis of 4-PCB 11 sulfate in biological samples. This procedure was used to determine the distribution of 4-PCB 11 sulfate in liver, kidney, lung, and brain, as well as its excretion profile, following its intravenous administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following initial uptake of 4-PCB 11 sulfate, its concentration in these tissues and serum declined within the first hour following injection. Although biliary secretion was detected, analysis of 24 hour collections of urine and feces revealed recovery of less than 4% of the administered 4-PCB 11 sulfate. High-resolution LC-MS analysis of bile, urine, and feces showed metabolic products derived from 4-PCB 11 sulfate. Thus, 4-PCB 11 sulfate at this dose was not directly excreted in the urine, but was, instead, re-distributed to tissues and/or subjected to further metabolism. PMID:26046945

  5. Accumulation, organ distribution, and excretion kinetics of ²⁴¹Am in Mayak Production Association workers.

    PubMed

    Suslova, Klara G; Sokolova, Alexandra B; Efimov, Alexander V; Miller, Scott C

    2013-03-01

    Americium-241 (²⁴¹Am) is the second most significant radiation hazard after ²³⁹Pu at some of the Mayak Production Association facilities. This study summarizes current data on the accumulation, distribution, and excretion of americium compared with plutonium in different organs from former Mayak PA workers. Americium and plutonium were measured in autopsy and bioassay samples and correlated with the presence or absence of chronic disease and with biological transportability of the aerosols encountered at different workplaces. The relative accumulation of ²⁴¹Am was found to be increasing in the workers over time. This is likely from ²⁴¹Pu that increases with time in reprocessed fuel and from the increased concentrations of ²⁴¹Am and ²⁴¹Pu in inhaled alpha-active aerosols. While differences were observed in lung retention with exposures to different industrial compounds with different transportabilities (i.e., dioxide and nitrates), there were no significant differences in lung retention between americium and plutonium within each transportability group. In the non-pulmonary organs, the highest ratios of ²⁴¹Am/²⁴¹Am + SPu were observed in the skeleton. The relative ratios of americium in the skeleton versus liver were significantly greater than for plutonium. The relative amounts of americium and plutonium found in the skeleton compared with the liver were even greater in workers with documented chronic liver diseases. Excretion rates of ²⁴¹Am in ‘‘healthy’’ workers were estimated using bioassay and autopsy data. The data suggest that impaired liver function leads to reduced hepatic ²⁴¹Am retention, leading to increased ²⁴¹Am excretion.

  6. Sound propagation and absorption in foam - A distributed parameter model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, L.; Lieberman, S.

    1971-01-01

    Liquid-base foams are highly effective sound absorbers. A better understanding of the mechanisms of sound absorption in foams was sought by exploration of a mathematical model of bubble pulsation and coupling and the development of a distributed-parameter mechanical analog. A solution by electric-circuit analogy was thus obtained and transmission-line theory was used to relate the physical properties of the foams to the characteristic impedance and propagation constants of the analog transmission line. Comparison of measured physical properties of the foam with values obtained from measured acoustic impedance and propagation constants and the transmission-line theory showed good agreement. We may therefore conclude that the sound propagation and absorption mechanisms in foam are accurately described by the resonant response of individual bubbles coupled to neighboring bubbles.

  7. Impact of Proteins on the Uptake, Distribution, and Excretion of Phenolics in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Draijer, Richard; van Dorsten, Ferdi A; Zebregs, Yvonne E; Hollebrands, Boudewijn; Peters, Sonja; Duchateau, Guus S; Grün, Christian H

    2016-12-15

    Polyphenols, a complex group of secondary plant metabolites, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, have been studied in depth for their health-related benefits. The activity of polyphenols may, however, be hampered when consumed together with protein-rich food products, due to the interaction between polyphenols and proteins. To that end we have tested the bioavailability of representatives of a range of polyphenol classes when consumed for five days in different beverage matrices. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study, 35 healthy males received either six placebo gelatine capsules consumed with 200 mL of water, six capsules with 800 mg polyphenols derived from red wine and grape extracts, or the same dose of polyphenols incorporated into 200 mL of either pasteurized dairy drink, soy drink (both containing 3.4% proteins) or fruit-flavoured protein-free drink . At the end of the intervention urine and blood was collected and analysed for a broad range of phenolic compounds using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Liquid Chromatography-Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The plasma and urine concentrations of the polyphenols identified increased with all formats, including the protein-rich beverages. Compared to capsule ingestion, consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages containing either dairy, soy or no proteins had minor to no effect on the bioavailability and excretion of phenolic compounds in plasma (118% ± 9%) and urine (98% ± 2%). We conclude that intake of polyphenols incorporated in protein-rich drinks does not have a major impact on the bioavailability of a range of different polyphenols and phenolic metabolites.

  8. Efficacy, distribution and faecal excretion of copper oxide wire particles in a novel bolus in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Castillo-Alcala, F; Wilson, P R; Molenaar, R; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2007-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of a novel copper oxide wire particle (COWP) formulation in elevating concentrations of copper (Cu) in the liver and serum of red deer (Cervus elaphus), and to investigate the distribution of particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the rate of their excretion in faeces. Mixed-age red deer hinds were allocated to three groups (n=10 per group) on the basis of pre-treatment liver Cu concentrations. Groups 1 and 2 were treated orally with a 10-g COWP bolus on Days 0 and 30, respectively, while the remaining group served as an untreated control. Animals were slaughtered on Day 60, when blood and liver samples were collected for determination of Cu concentrations. An additional group of 18-month-old red deer hinds (n=20) were treated orally with a 10-g COWP bolus, and four were slaughtered on each of Days 1, 5, 15, 30 and 60 after treatment. The gastrointestinal tract was secured between compartments below the oesophagus and contents rinsed until sedimentation of particles was complete. The sediment was oven-dried and COWP were separated and weighed. Faeces were collected continuously from four additional animals held in metabolism cages for 4 days after treatment, sub-sampled daily, and COWP recovered. Mean liver Cu concentrations at slaughter were 80, 597 and 447 micromol/kg for controls and hinds treated 30, and 60 days previously, respectively. Corresponding mean serum Cu concentrations were 7.7, 12.9 and 11.9 micromol/L, respectively. Liver and serum Cu concentrations were higher in both treatment groups than in untreated control animals (p<0.001). COWP were found in all compartments of the gastrointestinal tract measured, for at least 15 days, and in the rumen/reticulum and abomasum for at least 60 days post-administration. The highest rate of recovery overall was from the rumen/reticulum. Mean weight of COWP recovered from faeces was 0.09 g during the first 24 h and 0.94 g over the first 4 days following administration. The COWP bolus

  9. The uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methyl tertiary-butyl ether inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janet M; Tibbetts, Brad M; Barr, Edward B

    2003-06-13

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the tissue uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in rats and to determine the effects of coinhalation of the volatile fraction of unleaded gasoline on these parameters. Male F344 rats were exposed nose-only once for 4 h to 4, 40, or 400 ppm 14C-MTBE and to 20 and 200 ppm of the light fraction of unleaded gasoline (LFG) containing 4 and 40 ppm 14C-MTBE, respectively. To evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of LFG on the fate of inhaled MTBE, rats were exposed for 7 consecutive days to 20 and 200 ppm LFG followed on d 8 by exposure to LFG containing 14C-MTBE. Three subgroups of rats were included for evaluation of respiratory parameters, rates and routes of excretion, and tissue distribution and elimination. MTBE and its chief metabolite, tertiary-butyl alcohol, were quantitated in blood and kidney (immediately after exposure), and the major urinary metabolites, 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid and 2-methyl-1,2- propanediol, were identified and quantified in urine. Inhalation of MTBE alone or as a component of LFG had no concentration-dependent effect on respiratory minute volume. The initial body burdens (IBBs) of MTBE equivalents achieved after 4 h of exposure to MTBE did not increase linearly with exposure concentration. MTBE equivalents rapidly distributed to all tissues examined, with the largest percentages distributed to liver. Between 40 and 400 ppm, there was a significant reduction in percentage of the IBB present in the major organs examined, both immediately and 72 h after exposure. At 400 ppm, the elimination rates of MTBE equivalents from tissues changed significantly. Furthermore, at 400 ppm there was a significant decrease in the elimination half-time of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath and a significant increase in the percentage of the IBB of MTBE equivalents eliminated as VOCs in breath. LFG coexposure significantly decreased the percentage of the

  10. Estimating the population distribution of usual 24-hour sodium excretion from timed urine void specimens using a statistical approach accounting for correlated measurement errors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. A sample of 407 adults, aged 18-39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4-11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from -367 to 284 mg (-7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and -604 to 486 mg (-14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from -338 to 263 mg (-6.9 to 10.4%) and -166 to 153 mg (-4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and merits further investigation in other population subgroups. © 2015 American

  11. Distribution of photon absorption rates across the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Williams, T P; Webbers, J P; Giordano, L; Henderson, R P

    1998-04-15

    1. An investigation into the distribution of light intensity across the rat retina was carried out on excised, intact rat eyes exposed to Ganzfeld illumination from a helium-neon laser (543 nm). 2. Some of the light entering the eyes exits through the sclera where its intensity can be monitored with an optical 'pick-up' that samples the intensity coming from a small region of external sclera and underlying retina. The spatial resolution of the pick-up is such that it samples light that has passed through ca 2 % of the rods in the rat eye. 3. Some of the laser light is absorbed by the rod pigment, rhodopsin, which gradually bleaches. Bleaching in the retina, in turn, causes an exponential increase in intensity emanating from the sclera. By monitoring this intensity increase, we are able to measure two important parameters in a single bleaching run: the local rhodopsin concentration and the local intensity falling on the rods. 4. With an ocular transmission photometer, we have measured both the local intensity and the local rhodopsin concentration across wide regions of rat retina. Both pigmented and albino rats were studied. 5. The distributions of rhodopsin and intensity were both nearly uniform; consequently, the product, (rhodopsin concentration) x (intensity), was similarly nearly equal across the retina. This means that the initial rate of photon absorption is about the same at all retinal locations. 6. Interpreted in terms of photostasis (the regulation of daily photon catch), this means that the rate of photon absorption is about the same in each rod, viz. 14 400 photons absorbed per rod per second. Since this rate of absorption is sufficient to saturate the rod, one possible purpose of photostasis is to maintain the rod system in a saturated state during daylight hours.

  12. COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

  13. Absorption and distribution of lycopene in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Oshima, S; Inakuma, T; Narisawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Colonic absorption and distribution of lycopene, which inhibited rat colon carcinogenesis in our previous studies, were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three groups of six rats each with or without a single-barreled colostomy at the mid colon were given a single intragastric or intracolonic dose of 0.2 mL of corn oil containing 12 mg of lycopene. Twenty-four hours later, all rats were sacrificed and the blood and some tissues were collected. The contents of lycopene in the samples were assayed by HPLC. Lycopene was detected in an appreciable amount in the liver, but only in trace amount in the serum of all rats treated with an intracolonic dose of lycopene and in rats with an intragastric dose. After an intragastric lycopene treatment, lycopene was detected in the mucosa of the proximal colon and of the distal colon of the colostomized rats, whose distal colon had been excluded from the fecal stream. A large amount of lycopene was recovered in the feces. None was detected in any sample from the control rats treated with an intragastric or intracolonic dose of plain corn oil. The results suggest that lycopene is absorbed from the colon and also from the small intestine. It might be concluded that both ways of absorption contribute to a comparative amount of lycopene accumulation in the colon mucosa after ingestion of this carotenoid.

  14. Normal distribution of urinary polyphenol excretion among Egyptian males 7-14 years old and changes following nutritional intervention with tomato juice (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Hussein, Laila; Medina, Alexander; Barrionnevo, Ana; Lammuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The urinary flavonoids are considered a reliable biomarker for the intake of polyphenol-rich foods. To assess the normal distribution of urinary polyphenol [PP] excretion among healthy male children and adolescents on a typical Egyptian diet. To follow up the impact of nutritional intervention with tomato juice on the urinary excretion of [PP]. Forty-nine male subjects 7-14 years old collected a 24-h urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 7-day period. A daily serving of 230 g fresh tomato juice was followed for 18 days in a subgroup. Total urinary [PP] excretions were measured before and after termination of the intervention program. The total urinary [PP] was analyzed after a clean-up solid-phase extraction step by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the 96 micro plates. The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The urinary [PP] excretion averaged 48.6+/-5.5 mg GAE/24 h, equivalent to 89.5+/-8.4 mg GAE/g creatinine. The mean urinary [PP] excretion increased significantly (P<0.05) following the intervention with tomato juice (287.4+/-64.3 mg GAE/g creatinine) compared with the respective mean baseline level (94.5+/-8.92 mg GAE/g creatinine). Clinical laboratory reference limits for urinary polyphenols are presented for Egyptian male children and adolescents. Measuring the urinary polyphenol excretion proved a good biomarker for the dietary polyphenol intake and the results demonstrated that tomato [PP] was highly bioavailable in the human body.

  15. Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants.

    PubMed

    Turski, Michal P; Turska, Monika; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Bartnik, Magdalena; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2011-05-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as well as an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35. In this study, KYNA distribution and synthesis in plants as well as its absorption was researched. KYNA level was determined by means of the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. KYNA was found in leaves, flowers, and roots of tested medicinal herbs: dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), common nettle (Urtica dioica), and greater celandine (Chelidoniummajus). The highest concentration of this compound was detected in leaves of dandelion--a mean value of 0.49 µg/g wet weight. It was shown that KYNA can be synthesized enzymatically in plants from its precursor, L-kynurenine, or absorbed by plants from the soil. Finally, the content of KYNA was investigated in 21 herbal tablets, herbal tea, herbs in sachets, and single herbs in bags. The highest content of KYNA in a maximum daily dose of herbal medicines appeared in St. John's wort--33.75 µg (tablets) or 32.60 µg (sachets). The pharmacological properties of KYNA and its presence in high concentrations in medicinal herbs may suggest that it possesses therapeutic potential, especially in the digestive system and should be considered a new valuable dietary supplement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The influence of age on the distribution, metabolism and excretion of methoxyflurane in Fischer 344 rats: a possible relationship to nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bell, L E; Hitt, B A; Mazze, R I

    1975-10-01

    Age as a factor in methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity was evaluated in Fischer 344 rats of various ages by determination of: 1) serum inorganic fluoride and methoxyflurane concentrations, and urinary inorganic fluoride excretion in methoxyflurane-exposed rats; 2) liver microsomal methoxyflurane defluorinase activity; and 3) distribution of injected sodium fluoride. Only rats in the youngest age group (6 weeks) did not develop nephrotoxicity after anesthesia. Older rats had a biphasic rather than a monophasic decay in serum methoxyflurane concentration and also had increased serum inorganic fluoride concentration and urinary inorganic fluoride excretion. Older rats also excreted a greater proportion of an injected dose of sodium fluoride compared to young rats. Microsomal methoxyflurane defluorinase specific activity was similar among rats of all ages. It is likely that increased availability of methoxyflurane due to its greater storage in fat led to more inorganic fluoride production in older compared to younger rats. Bone sequestration of inorganic fluoride in younger rats probably accounts for decreased serum inorganic fluoride levels in that group. Both factors cause significant differences in renal exposure to inorganic fluoride; thus the risk of nephrotoxicity is less in younger animals.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabelled SNI-2011, a novel muscarinic receptor agonist, in healthy volunteers. Comprehensive understanding of absorption, metabolism and excretion using radiolabelled SNI-2011.

    PubMed

    Washio, Takuo; Kohsaka, Kazuhiro; Arisawa, Hirohiko; Masunaga, Hiroaki; Nagatsuka, Shin-ichiro; Satoh, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of SNI-2011 ((+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine]monohydrochloride hemihydrate, cevimeline, CAS 153504-70-2), a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist developed for the treatment of Sjögen's syndrome, were investigated in six healthy volunteers after a single oral administration of 14C-SNI-2011. After administration, plasma concentrations of the radioactivity and SNI-2011 reached to Cmax at approximately 2 h, and then decreased with t 1/2 of 9 and 4 h, respectively. Cmax and AUC0-infinity of the radioactivity in plasma were 2.2 and 5.0 times higher than those of SNI-2011, respectively. The main excretion route of the radioactivity was urine, and 97.3% of the dose excreted in urine within 168 h, indicating that 14C-SNI-2011 was completely absorbed. The mean recoveries of the metabolites in urine at 24 h after administration were 16.0% for SNI-2011, 35.8% for SNI-2011 trans-sulfoxide (SNI-t-SO), 8.7% for SNI-2011 cis-sulfoxide, 4.1% for SNI-2011 N-oxide, furthermore, two unknown metabolites, UK-1 and UK-2, were detected 14.6% and 7.7%, respectively. LC/MS analysis and hydrolysis studies revealed that UK-1 and UK-2 were glucuronic acid conjugates of SNI-2011 and SNI-t-SO, respectively.

  18. Importance of the regiospecific distribution of long-chain saturated fatty acids on gut comfort, fat and calcium absorption in infants.

    PubMed

    Petit, Valérie; Sandoz, Laurence; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal tolerance and fat and calcium (Ca) absorption are different between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants. Certain components and/or structural particularities in human milk (HM), can contribute to favorable outcomes in BF infants. In HM, the long-chain saturated fatty acid (LCSFA) palmitic acid has a different stereospecific distribution (sn-2 position) compared to most infant formula (IF) (primarily sn-1, 3 positions), which may contribute to unfavorable outcomes. Evidence suggests palmitic acid is important in the formation of stool FA-mineral (or FA-Ca) soaps, associated with harder stools in FF infants. Partial replacement by structured palmitic acid-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs) promotes palmitic acid absorption. However, evidence for stool softening, improved fat absorption and reduced Ca excretion in stools is inconsistent. IFs with less palmitic acid can improve fat and Ca absorption, and stool consistency. The presence of other LCSFAs (myristic and stearic acids) in sn-1, 3 positions may also contribute to reduced absorption of fat and Ca, and stool hardness, in FF infants. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to modifying these other LCSFAs in IF. We review literature comparing the effect of HM and IF with different lipid compositions on stool patterns and/or fat and Ca absorption in healthy, term infants. Based on available data, we estimate a maximum level for sn-1, 3 LCSFAs of 13% of TAGs, under which fat and Ca absorption and stool consistency are improved. IF designed according to this threshold could efficiently improve nutrient absorption and stool patterns in healthy infants who cannot be breast-fed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system (CNS) active alkaloids which bind to the opiat...

  20. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Systems Biology Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ensuring chemical safety and sustainability form a main priority of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This entails efforts on multiple fronts to characterize the potential hazard posed by chemicals currently in use and those to be commercialized in the future. The use of ...

  1. Using open source computational tools for predicting human metabolic stability and additional absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rishi R; Gifford, Eric M; Liston, Ted; Waller, Chris L; Hohman, Moses; Bunin, Barry A; Ekins, Sean

    2010-11-01

    Ligand-based computational models could be more readily shared between researchers and organizations if they were generated with open source molecular descriptors [e.g., chemistry development kit (CDK)] and modeling algorithms, because this would negate the requirement for proprietary commercial software. We initially evaluated open source descriptors and model building algorithms using a training set of approximately 50,000 molecules and a test set of approximately 25,000 molecules with human liver microsomal metabolic stability data. A C5.0 decision tree model demonstrated that CDK descriptors together with a set of Smiles Arbitrary Target Specification (SMARTS) keys had good statistics [κ = 0.43, sensitivity = 0.57, specificity = 0.91, and positive predicted value (PPV) = 0.64], equivalent to those of models built with commercial Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) and the same set of SMARTS keys (κ = 0.43, sensitivity = 0.58, specificity = 0.91, and PPV = 0.63). Extending the dataset to ∼193,000 molecules and generating a continuous model using Cubist with a combination of CDK and SMARTS keys or MOE2D and SMARTS keys confirmed this observation. When the continuous predictions and actual values were binned to get a categorical score we observed a similar κ statistic (0.42). The same combination of descriptor set and modeling method was applied to passive permeability and P-glycoprotein efflux data with similar model testing statistics. In summary, open source tools demonstrated predictive results comparable to those of commercial software with attendant cost savings. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of open source descriptors and the opportunity for their use as a tool for organizations to share data precompetitively, avoiding repetition and assisting drug discovery.

  2. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study.

  3. Application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion studies of Dactylicapnos scandens in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changchuan; Jiang, Yan; Li, Li; Hong, Lan; Wang, Yuqing; Shen, Qian; Lou, Yan; Hu, Haihong; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Zeng, Su

    2013-02-23

    The herbal ingredients of isocorydine and protopine were isolated from Dactylicapnos scandens. This study was aimed at developing a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method to quantify isocorydine and protopine in rat plasma and tissues for pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion studies. Biological samples were processed with ethyl acetate extraction, and corydaline was chosen as the internal standard (IS). The analytes were separated by a C(18) column and detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using positive ion ESI in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 342.0→278.9 for isocorydine, 354.1→188.0 for protopine and 370.0→192.0 for IS, respectively. Excellent linearity was observed over the concentration range between 10 and 3000 ng/mL for isocorydine and 10-300 ng/mL for protopine. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 ng/mL for both isocorydine and protopine. This novel method was rapid, accurate, high sensitive and high selective. It was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution and excretion studies of D. scandens. These preclinical data of D. scandens would be useful for the clinical reference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cation distribution in NiZn-ferrite films via extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.; Williams, C. M.; Zhang, Q.; Abe, M.; Kirkland, J. P.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to study the cation distribution in a series of spin-sprayed NiZn-ferrite films. A least-squares fitting of experimental EXAFS data with theoretical, multiple-scattering, EXAFS data allowed the quantitative determination of site distributions for all transition metal cations.

  5. Laser absorption of carbon fiber reinforced polymer with randomly distributed carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Xu, Hebing; Li, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a non-traditional machining method which has many prospective applications. The laser absorption characteristics of CFRP are analyzed in this paper. A ray tracing model describing the interaction of the laser spot with CFRP is established. The material model contains randomly distributed carbon fibers which are generated using an improved carbon fiber placement method. It was found that CFRP has good laser absorption due to multiple reflections of the light rays in the material’s microstructure. The randomly distributed carbon fibers make the absorptivity of the light rays change randomly in the laser spot. Meanwhile, the average absorptivity fluctuation is obvious during movement of the laser. The experimental measurements agree well with the values predicted by the ray tracing model.

  6. Variation in sensitivity, absorption and density of the central rod distribution with eccentricity.

    PubMed

    Tornow, R P; Stilling, R

    1998-01-01

    To assess the human rod photopigment distribution and sensitivity with high spatial resolution within the central +/-15 degrees and to compare the results of pigment absorption, sensitivity and rod density distribution (number of rods per square degree). Rod photopigment density distribution was measured with imaging densitometry using a modified Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Dark-adapted sensitivity profiles were measured with green stimuli (17' arc diameter, 1 degrees spacing) using a T ubingen manual perimeter. Sensitivity profiles were plotted on a linear scale and rod photopigment optical density distribution profiles were converted to absorption profiles of the rod photopigment layer. Both the absorption profile of the rod photopigment and the linear sensitivity profile for green stimuli show a minimum at the foveal center and increase steeply with eccentricity. The variation with eccentricity corresponds to the rod density distribution. Rod photopigment absorption profiles, retinal sensitivity profiles, and the rod density distribution are linearly related within the central +/-15 degrees. This is in agreement with theoretical considerations. Both methods, imaging retinal densitometry using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and dark-adapted perimetry with small green stimuli, are useful for assessing the central rod distribution and sensitivity. However, at present, both methods have limitations. Suggestions for improving the reliability of both methods are given.

  7. Sulforaphane absorption and excretion following ingestion of a semi-purified broccoli powder rich in glucoraphanin and broccoli sprouts in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jenna M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a chemopreventive isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from the myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucoraphanin, a thioglucoside present in broccoli. Broccoli supplements often contain glucoraphanin but lack myrosinase, putting in question their ability to provide dietary SF. This study compared the relative absorption of SF from air-dried broccoli sprouts rich in myrosinase and a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli powder lacking myrosinase, individually and in combination. Subjects (n=4) each consumed 4 meals consisting of dry cereal and yogurt with 2 g sprouts, 2 g powder, both, or neither. Blood and urine were analyzed for SF metabolites. The 24 h urinary SF recovery was 74%, 49%, and 19% of the dose ingested from broccoli sprouts, combination, and broccoli powder meals, respectively. Urinary and plasma ITC appearance was delayed from the broccoli powder compared to the sprouts and combination. A liver function panel indicated no toxicity from any treatment at 24 h. These data indicate a delayed appearance in plasma and urine of SF from the broccoli powder relative to SF from myrosinase-rich sprouts. Combining broccoli sprouts with the broccoli powder enhanced SF absorption from broccoli powder, offering the potential for development of foods that modify the health impact of broccoli products. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Mercury distribution in the skin of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic and mercury burdens and excretion by moulting.

    PubMed

    Wagemann, R; Kozlowska, H

    2005-12-01

    Beluga and narwhal skin as a whole (in Inuktitut known as "muktuk") is considered to be a delicacy by native Canadian and Greenland people. Individual strata of the skin, and muscle from 27 beluga from the western, and 20 narwhal from the eastern Canadian Arctic, were analyzed for mercury and the thickness and density of each skin layer was measured. Mercury was not uniformly distributed in the skin, but increased outwardly with each layer. The concentration was only 0.29 and 0.16 microg/g (wet wt) in the innermost layer (dermis) of belugas and narwhal respectively, and 1.5 and 1.4 microg/g (wet wt) in the outermost layer (degenerative epidermis) of beluga and narwhal, respectively. There was a significant (alpha=0.05) association between age and mercury concentration in each skin layer, the regression coefficients progressively increasing from the inner layer (dermis) to the outer layer: 0.011-0.063 microg/g year-1; 0.034 microg/g year-1 for skin as a whole; 0.054 microg/g year-1 for muscle. The concentration of total mercury was 0.84 and 0.59 microg/g (wet wt) in skin as a whole (muktuk) of beluga and narwhal respectively, and 0.12 and 0.03 microg/g in blubber, respectively. The average, total mercury concentration in muscle tissue was 1.4 and 0.81 microg/g wet wt, in beluga and narwhal respectively, exceeding (except for blubber) the Canadian Government's Guideline (0.5 microg/g wet wt) for fish export and consumption. The skin surface area of an average-size beluga and narwhal was estimated (6.10 and 6.50 m2, respectively), as were excretions of mercury through moulting (13,861 and 6721 microg year-1; 14 and 7 mg year-1) for belugas and narwhal, respectively. The whole-body mercury burden (699,300 microg; 700 mg) for a 1000 kg beluga and its various tissues were estimated, as was the fraction of mercury excreted by moulting (2-0.42% of the whole-body burden). Annual mercury burden increments in beluga skin, muscle and the whole body were estimated (2750; 17

  9. Tissue distribution, excretion, and the metabolic pathway of 2,2',4,4',5-penta-chlorinated diphenylsulfide (CDPS-99) in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xuesheng; Qin, Li; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-09-15

    The tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolic pathway of 2,2',4,4',5-penta-chlorinated diphenylsulfide (CDPS-99) in ICR mice were investigated after oral perfusion at 10mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Biological samples were extracted and separated and, for the first time, were determined by a novel, sensitive, and specific GC-MS method under the full scan and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes. The results showed that the concentrations of CDPS-99 in the liver, kidneys, and serum reached a maximum after a one-day exposure and that the CDPS-99 concentration in the liver was the highest (3.43μg/g). The increase in the concentration of CDPS-99 in muscle, skin, and adipose tissue was slower, and the concentrations of CDPS-99 achieved their highest levels after 3 days of exposure. It was observed that the CDPS-99 concentration in adipose tissue was still very high (0.71μg/g) after 21 days of exposure, which suggested that CDPS-99 was able to accumulate in adipose tissue. In addition, mouse feces accounted for approximately 75% of the total gavage dose, indicating that CDPS-99 was mainly excreted via mouse feces. Metabolism analysis demonstrated that there were three possible metabolic pathways of CDPS-99 in mice: dechlorination reactions with the formation of tetra-CDPS and hydroxylation and oxidation reactions with the formation of OH-CDPS-99 and chlorinated diphenylsulfone. The present study will help to develop a better understanding of mammalian metabolism of CDPS-99. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing sulforaphane absorption and excretion in healthy men through the combined consumption of fresh broccoli sprouts and a glucoraphanin-rich powder.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jenna M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a chemopreventive isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis by myrosinase, a thioglucoside present in broccoli. The ability of broccoli powders sold as supplements to provide dietary SF is often of concern as many supplements contain GRP, but lack myrosinase. In a previous study, biomarkers of SF bioavailability from a powder rich in GRP, but lacking myrosinase, were enhanced by co-consumption of a myrosinase-containing air-dried broccoli sprout powder. Here, we studied the absorption of SF from the GRP-rich powder used in the previous study, but in combination with fresh broccoli sprouts, which are commercially available and more applicable to the human diet than air-dried sprout powder. A total of four participants each consumed four meals (separated by 1 week) consisting of dry cereal and yogurt with sprouts equivalent to 70 μmol SF, GRP powder equivalent to 120 μmol SF, both or neither. Metabolites of SF were analysed in blood and urine. The 24 h urinary SF-N-acetylcysteine recovery was 65, 60 and 24 % of the dose ingested from combination, broccoli sprout and GRP powder meals, respectively. In urine and plasma, ITC appearance was delayed following the GRP powder meal compared with the sprout and combination meals. Compared with the GRP powder or sprouts alone, combining broccoli sprouts with the GRP powder synergistically enhanced the early appearance of SF, offering insight into the combination of foods for improved health benefits of foods that reduce the risk for cancer.

  11. Tissue uptake, distribution and excretion of brevetoxin-3 after oral and intratracheal exposure in the freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta and the diamondback terrapin Malaclemys terrapin.

    PubMed

    Cocilova, Courtney C; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bossart, Gregory D; Granholm, April A; Milton, Sarah L

    2017-06-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida and can impact both humans and wildlife, resulting in morbidity and increased mortality of marine animals including sea turtles. The key organism in Florida red tides is the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Despite recent mortality events and rehabilitation efforts, still little is known about how the toxin directly impacts sea turtles, as they are not amenable to experimentation and what is known about toxin levels and distribution comes primarily from post-mortem data. In this study, we utilized the freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta and the diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin as model organisms to determine the distribution, clearance, and routes of excretion of the most common form of the toxin, brevetoxin-3, in turtles. Turtles were administered toxin via esophageal tube to mimic ingestion (33.48μg/kg PbTx-3, 3×/week for two weeks for a total of 7 doses) or by intratracheal instillation (10.53μg/kg, 3×/week for four weeks for a total of 12 doses) to mimic inhalation. Both oral and intratracheal administration of the toxin produced a suite of behavioral responses symptomatic of brevetoxicosis. The toxin distributed to all organ systems within 1h of administration but was rapidly cleared out over 24-48h, corresponding to a decline in clinical symptoms. Excretion appears to be primarily through conjugation to bile salts. Histopathological study revealed that the frequency of lesions varied within experimental groups with some turtles having no significant lesions at all, while similar lesions were found in a low number of control turtles suggesting another common factor(s) could be responsible. The overall goal of this research is better understand the impacts of brevetoxin on turtles in order to develop better treatment protocols for sea turtles exposed to HABs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  12. An open-label, single-dose, phase 1 study of the absorption, metabolism and excretion of quizartinib, a highly selective and potent FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in healthy male subjects, for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanga, Madhu; James, Joyce; Marini, Joseph; Gammon, Guy; Hale, Christine; Li, Jianke

    2017-10-01

    1. Quizartinib absorption, metabolism and excretion were characterized in six healthy men receiving a single oral dose of 60 mg (≈100 μCi) of [ 14 C]-quizartinib. Blood, plasma, urine and faeces were collected ≤336 h postdose. 2. Four hours postdose, maximum mean ± SD blood radioactivity concentrations were 296 ± 67.4 ng equivalents/g. A mean ± SD of 1.64 ± 0.482% and 76.3 ± 6.23% of the dose was recovered in urine and faeces, respectively, within 336 h postdose. 3. Radio-detector high-performance liquid chromatography (radio-HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed two main radioactive peaks in plasma, unchanged quizartinib and mono-oxidative metabolite, AC886. Five additional metabolites in plasma were identified by LC-MS, but low levels prevented radio-HPLC detection. Although unchanged quizartinib was the main radioactive component in faeces (mean, 4.0% of administered dose), 15 metabolites representing a mean of 1.0-3.5% of administered dose were found. Quizartinib was predominantly metabolized by phase I biotransformations (oxidation, reduction, dealkylation, deamination, hydrolysis and combinations thereof). 4. This study indicated that quizartinib was rapidly and orally bioavailable, extensively metabolized, with AC886 as the major circulating metabolite, and predominantly eliminated in faeces. Quizartinib was well tolerated in the subjects.

  13. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hanouna, Guillaume; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Letavernier, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48–0.68%, P = NS). In normal subjects undergoing oral water load test, calcium fractional excretion increased significantly from 1.02% to 2.54% (P < 0.05). Patients affected by SIADH had a high calcium fractional excretion at baseline that remained stable during test from 3.30% to 3.33% (P = NS), possibly resulting from a reduced calcium absorption in renal proximal tubule. In both groups, there was a significant correlation between urine output and calcium renal excretion. In humans, dDAVP decreases calcium fractional excretion in the short term. Conversely, water intake, which lowers AVP concentration, increases calcium fractional excretion. The correlation between urine output and calcium excretion suggests that AVP-related antidiuresis increases calcium reabsorption in collecting ducts. PMID:26620256

  14. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND EMISSIVITY REDUCTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui

    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 wheremore » the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.« less

  15. Time-resolved photoion imaging spectroscopy: Determining energy distribution in multiphoton absorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, D. B.; Shi, F. D.; Chen, L.; Martin, S.; Bernard, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, S. F.; Chen, Z. Q.; Zhu, X. L.; Ma, X.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an approach to determine the excitation energy distribution due to multiphoton absorption in the case of excited systems following decays to produce different ion species. This approach is based on the measurement of the time-resolved photoion position spectrum by using velocity map imaging spectrometry and an unfocused laser beam with a low fluence and homogeneous profile. Such a measurement allows us to identify the species and the origin of each ion detected and to depict the energy distribution using a pure Poisson's equation involving only one variable which is proportional to the absolute photon absorption cross section. A cascade decay model is used to build direct connections between the energy distribution and the probability to detect each ionic species. Comparison between experiments and simulations permits the energy distribution and accordingly the absolute photon absorption cross section to be determined. This approach is illustrated using C60 as an example. It may therefore be extended to a wide variety of molecules and clusters having decay mechanisms similar to those of fullerene molecules.

  16. Involvement of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Sulfotransferases in the Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Resveratrol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H.; Vaquero, Javier; Riha, Juliane; Brenner, Stefan; Thalhammer, Theresia; Szekeres, Thomas; Jäger, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its association with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) and sulfotransferase (Sult) genes. Plasma, urine, feces, and various organs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography at up to 8 h after intragastric resveratrol administration. The metabolism of resveratrol was pronounced, leading to the formation of resveratrol glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of resveratrol and its metabolites were high in the gastrointestinal organs, urine, and feces, but low in the liver and kidneys. In lung, heart, thymus, and brain tissues, parent resveratrol levels exceeded the sulfate and glucuronide concentrations. The formation of resveratrol conjugates correlated with the expression of certain Ugt and Sult genes. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed high mRNA expression of Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6a in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, leading to high concentrations of resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide in these organs. Strong correlations of resveratrol-3-O-sulfate and resveratrol-3-O-4′-O-disulfate formation with Sult1a1 mRNA expression were also observed, particularly in the liver and colon. In summary, our data revealed organ-specific expression of Sults and Ugts in mice that strongly affects resveratrol concentrations; this may also be predictive in humans following oral uptake of dietary resveratrol. PMID:29231856

  17. Nutrient Distribution and Absorption in the Colonial Hydroid Podocoryna carnea Is Sequentially Diffusive and Directional.

    PubMed

    Buss, Leo W; Anderson, Christopher P; Perry, Elena K; Buss, Evan D; Bolton, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and absorption of ingested protein was characterized within a colony of Podocoryna carnea when a single polyp was fed. Observations were conducted at multiple spatial and temporal scales at three different stages of colony ontogeny with an artificial food item containing Texas Red conjugated albumin. Food pellets were digested and all tracer absorbed by digestive cells within the first 2-3 hours post-feeding. The preponderance of the label was located in the fed polyp and in a transport-induced diffusion pattern surrounding the fed polyp. After 6 hours post-feeding particulates re-appeared in the gastrovascular system and their absorption increased the area over which the nutrients were distributed, albeit still in a pattern that was centered on the fed polyp. At later intervals, tracer became concentrated in some stolon tips, but not in others, despite the proximity of these stolons either to the fed polyp or to adjacent stolons receiving nutrients. Distribution and absorption of nutrients is sequentially diffusive and directional.

  18. Absorption of Orally Administered Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mamoru; Maeshima, Takuya; Kubota, Takumi; Kurihara, Hitoshi; Masuda, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been utilized as a supplement. However, the absorption of orally administrated HA remains controversial. The degradation and absorption of HA in the intestine were investigated in this study. HA excretion into the feces, degradation in the intestinal tract, absorption through the large intestine, and translocation to the blood and skin were examined. HA administered orally was not detected in rat feces. HA was degraded by cecal content, but not by artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice. Oligosaccharide HA passed through excised large intestine sacs. Furthermore, disaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and polysaccharides HA were distributed to the skin of rats following oral administration of high molecular weight HA (300 kDa). The results of the study suggest that orally administered HA is degraded to oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria, and oligosaccharide HA is absorbed in the large intestine and is subsequently distributed throughout the tissues, including the skin.

  19. Diode-Laser Absorption Sensor for Line-of-Sight Gas Temperature Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Scott T.; Wang, Jian; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2001-08-01

    Line-of-sight diode-laser absorption techniques have been extended to enable temperature measurements in nonuniform-property flows. The sensing strategy for such flows exploits the broad wavelength-scanning abilities ( >1.7 nm ~ 30 cm-1 ) of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to interrogate multiple absorption transitions along a single line of sight. To demonstrate the strategy, a VCSEL-based sensor for oxygen gas temperature distributions was developed. A VCSEL beam was directed through paths containing atmospheric-pressure air with known (and relatively simple) temperature distributions in the 200 -700 K range. The VCSEL was scanned over ten transitions in the R branch of the oxygen A band near 760 nm and optionally over six transitions in the P branch. Temperature distribution information can be inferred from these scans because the line strength of each probed transition has a unique temperature dependence; the measurement accuracy and resolution depend on the details of this temperature dependence and on the total number of lines scanned. The performance of the sensing strategy can be optimized and predicted theoretically. Because the sensor exhibits a fast time response ( ~30 ms) and can be adapted to probe a variety of species over a range of temperatures and pressures, it shows promise for industrial application.

  20. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  1. A quantum perturbative pair distribution for determining interatomic potentials from extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, F.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we develop a technique for determining interatomic potentials in materials in the quantum regime from single-shell extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) spectra. We introduce a pair distribution function, based on ordinary quantum time-independent perturbation theory. In the proposed scheme, the model potential parameters enter the distribution through a fourth-order Taylor expansion of the potential, and are directly refined in the fit of the model signal to the experimental spectrum. We discuss in general the validity of our theoretical framework, namely the quantum regime and perturbative treatment, and work out a simple tool for monitoring the sensitivity of our theory in determining lattice anharmonicities based on the statistical F-test. As an example, we apply our formalism to an EXAFS spectrum at the Ag K edge of AgI at T = 77 K. We determine the Ag-I potential parameters and find good agreement with previous studies.

  2. Distribution and absorption of local anesthetics in inferior alveolar nerve block: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ay, Sinan; Küçük, Dervisşhan; Gümüş, Cesur; Kara, M Isa

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and absorption of local anesthetic solutions in inferior alveolar nerve block using magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers were divided into 4 groups and injected with 1.5 mL for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.3 mL for lingual nerve block. The solutions used for the different groups were 2% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine with 0.125 mg/mL epinephrine, 4% articaine with 0.006 mg/mL epinephrine, and 4% articaine with 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All subjects had axial T2-weighted and fat-suppressed images at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection. The localization, area, and intensity (signal characteristics) of the solutions were analyzed and onset and duration times of the anesthesia were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to the intensity and area of the solutions at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection, but differences were found within each group. No between-group differences were found on magnetic resonance imaging in the distribution and absorption of lidocaine with or without epinephrine and articaine with 0.006 and 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All solutions were noticeably absorbed at 120 minutes after injection. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of potassium excretion: a Paleolithic perspective.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Mitchell L; Cheema-Dhadli, Surinder; Lin, Shih-Hua; Kamel, Kamel S

    2006-07-01

    Regulation of potassium (K) excretion was examined in an experimental setting that reflects the dietary conditions for humans in Paleolithic times (high, episodic intake of K with organic anions; low intake of NaCl), because this is when major control mechanisms were likely to have developed. The major control of K secretion in this setting is to regulate the number of luminal K channels in the cortical collecting duct. Following a KCl load, the K concentration in the medullary interstitial compartment rose; the likely source of this medullary K was its absorption by the H/K-ATPase in the inner medullary collecting duct. As a result of the higher medullary K concentration, the absorption of Na and Cl was inhibited in the loop of Henle, and this led to an increased distal delivery of a sufficient quantity of Na to raise K excretion markedly, while avoiding a large natriuresis. In addition, because K in the diet was accompanied by 'future' bicarbonate, a role for bicarbonate in the control of K secretion via 'selecting' whether aldosterone would be a NaCl-conserving or a kaliuretic hormone is discussed. This way of examining the control of K excretion provides new insights into clinical disorders with an abnormal plasma K concentration secondary to altered K excretion, and also into the pathophysiology of calcium-containing kidney stones.

  4. Enhancement of light absorption in polyazomethines due to plasmon excitation on randomly distributed metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, P.; Antosiewicz, T. J.; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Iwan, A.; Wronkowska, A. A.; Wronkowski, A.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-05-01

    In photovoltaic devices, metal nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor layer allow the enhancement of solar-toelectric energy conversion efficiency due to enhanced light absorption via a prolonged optical path, enhanced electric fields near the metallic inclusions, direct injection of hot electrons, or local heating. Here we pursue the first two avenues. In the first, light scattered at an angle beyond the critical angle for reflection is coupled into the semiconductor layer and confined within such planar waveguide up to possible exciton generation. In the second, light is trapped by the excitation of localized surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles leading to enhanced near-field plasmon-exciton coupling at the peak of the plasmon resonance. We report on results of a numerical experiment on light absorption in polymer- (fullerene derivative) blends, using the 3D FDTD method, where exact optical parameters of the materials involved are taken from our recent measurements. In simulations we investigate light absorption in randomly distributed metal nanoparticles dispersed in polyazomethine-(fullerene derivative) blends, which serve as active layers in bulkheterojunction polymer solar cells. In the study Ag and Al nanoparticles of different diameters and fill factors are diffused in two air-stable aromatic polyazomethines with different chemical structures (abbreviated S9POF and S15POF) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The mixtures are spin coated on a 100 nm thick Al layer deposited on a fused silica substrate. Optical constants of the active layers are taken from spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements using a rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with auto-retarder performed in the wavelength range from 225 nm to 2200 nm. The permittivities of Ag and Al particles of diameters from 20 to 60 nm are assumed to be equal to those measured on 100 to 200 nm thick metal films.

  5. COMPARING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MASS DERIVED FROM CORONAL ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Kucera, Therese

    2011-01-20

    In a previous study, Gilbert et al. derived the column density and total mass of solar prominences using a new technique, which measures how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (195 A) spectral band is absorbed by prominence material, while considering the effects of both foreground and background radiation. In the present work, we apply this method to a sample of prominence observations in three different wavelength regimes: one in which only H{sup 0} is ionized (504 A < {lambda} < 911 A), a second where both H{sup 0} and He{sup 0} are ionized (228 A < {lambda} distribution of the column density from the continuum absorption in each extreme-ultraviolet observation. We find the total prominence mass is consistently lower in the 625 A observations compared to lines in the other wavelength regimes. There is a significant difference in total mass between the 625 A and 195 A lines, indicating the much higher opacity at 625 A is causing a saturation of the continuum absorption and thus, a potentially large underestimation of mass.« less

  6. Comparing Spatial Distributions of Solar Prominence Mass Derived from Coronal Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we extend the use of this mass-inference technique to a sample of prominences observed in at least two coronal lines. This approach, in theory, allows a direct calculation of prominence mass and helium abundance and how these properties vary spatially and temporally. Our motivation is two-fold: to obtain a He(exp 0)/H(exp 0) abundance ratio, and to determine how the relative spatial distribution of the two species varies in prominences. The first of these relies on the theoretical expectation that the amount of absorption at each EUV wavelength is well-characterized. However, in this work we show that due to a saturation of the continuum absorption in the 625 A and 368 A lines (which have much higher opacity compared to 195 A-) the uncertainties in obtaining the relative abundances are too high to give meaningful estimates. This is an important finding because of its impact on future studies in this area. The comparison of the spatial distribution of helium and hydrogen presented here augments previous observational work indicating that cross-field diffusion of neutrals is an important mechanism for mass loss. Significantly different loss timescales for neutral He and H (helium drains much more rapidly than hydrogen) can impact prominence structure, and both the present and past studies suggest this mechanism is playing a role in structure and possibly dynamics. Section 2 of this paper contains a description of the observations and Section 3 summarizes the method used to infer mass along with the criteria imposed in choosing prominences appropriate for this study. Section 3 also contains a discussion of the problems due to limitations of the available data and the implications for determining relative abundances. We present our results in Section 4, including plots of radial-like scans of prominence mass in different lines to show the spatial distribution of the different species. The last section contains a discussion summarizing the importance

  7. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rey-Raap, Natalia; Gallardo, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52±0.4ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16±8.9ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74±0.5ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cation distribution in NiZn-ferrite films determined using x-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.; Williams, C. M.; Zhang, Q.; Abe, M.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to study the cation distribution in a series of spin-sprayed NiZn-ferrite films, Ni0.15ZnyFe2.85-yO4 (y=0.16, 0.23, 0.40, 0.60). The Ni, Zn, and Fe EXAFS were collected from each sample and analyzed to Fourier transforms. Samples of Ni-ferrite, Zn-ferrite, and magnetite were similarly studied as empirical standards. These standards, together with EXAFS data generated from the theoretical EXAFS FEFF codes, allowed the correlation of features in the Fourier transforms with specific lattice sites in the spinel unit cell. We find that the Ni ions reside mostly on the octahedral (B) sites whereas the Zn ions are predominantly on the tetrahedral (A) sites. The Fe ions reside on both A and B sites in a ratio determined by the ratio of Zn/Fe. The addition of Zn displaces a larger fraction of Fe cations onto the B sites serving to increase the net magnetization. The fraction of A site Ni ions is measured to increase peaking at ≊25% for y=0.6. At higher Zn concentrations (y≥0.5) the lattice experiences local distortions around the Zn sites causing a decrease in the superexchange resulting in a decrease in the net magnetization.

  9. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rey-Raap, Natalia; Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix.more » Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.« less

  10. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadeningmore » of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.« less

  11. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  12. Small Quaternary Inhibitors K298 and K524: Cholinesterases Inhibition, Absorption, Brain Distribution, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Hroch, Milos; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may be used in the treatment of various cholinergic deficits, among them being myasthenia gravis (MG). This paper describes the first in vivo data for promising small quaternary inhibitors (K298 and K524): acute toxicity study, cholinesterase inhibition, absorption, and blood-brain barrier penetration. The newly prepared AChE inhibitors (bis-quinolinium and quinolinium compounds) possess a positive charge in the molecule which ensures that anti-AChE action is restricted to peripheral effect. HPLC-MS was used for determination of real plasma and brain concentration in the pharmacokinetic part of the study, and standard non-compartmental analysis was performed. The maximum plasma concentrations were attained at 30 min (K298; 928.76 ± 115.20 ng/ml) and 39 min (K524; 812.40 ± 54.96 ng/ml) after i.m. Both compounds are in fact able to target the central nervous system. It seems that the difference in the CNS distribution profile depends on an active efflux system. The K524 brain concentration was actively decreased to below an effective level; in contrast, K298 progressively accumulated in brain tissue. Peripheral AChE inhibitors are still first-line treatment in the mild forms of MG. Commonly prescribed carbamates have many severe side effects related to AChE carbamylation. The search for new treatment strategies is still important. Unlike carbamates, these new compounds target AChE via apparent π-π or π-cationic interaction aside at the AChE catalytic site.

  13. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  14. Determination of the Tissue Distribution and Excretion by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry of the Nonadecapeptide 14C-Moli1901 in Beagle dogs after Intratracheal Instillation

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, D E; Dingley, K H; Ubick, E

    2004-07-02

    Administration of {sup 14}C-Moli1901 (duramycin, 2622U90), a 19 amino acid polycyclic peptide by intratracheal instillation (approximately 100 {micro}g) into the left cranial lobe of the lung of beagle dogs resulted in retention of 64% of the dose in the left cranial lobe for up to 28 days. In this study, we used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify Moli901 following administration of only 0.045 {micro}Ci of {sup 14}C-Moli901 per dog. Limits of quantitation of AMS were 0.03 (urine) to 0.3 (feces) ng equiv. Moli1901/g. Whole blood and plasma concentrations of {sup 14}C were <5ng/ml at all times after the dose.more » Concentrations of {sup 14}C in whole blood and plasma declined over the first day after the dose and rose thereafter, with the rise in plasma concentrations lagging behind those in whole blood. During the first 3 days after the dose, plasma accounted for the majority of {sup 14}C in whole blood, but after that time, plasma accounted for only 25-30% of the {sup 14}C in whole blood. Tissue (left and right caudal lung lobe, liver, kidney, spleen, brain) and bile concentrations were low, always less than 0.25% the concentrations found in the left cranial lung lobe. Approximately 13% of the dose was eliminated in urine and feces in 28 days, with fecal elimination accounting for about 10% of the dose. The data presented here are consistent with that obtained in other species. Moli1901 is slowly absorbed and excreted from the lung, and it does not accumulate in other tissues. Moli1901 is currently in the clinic and has proven to be safe in single dose studies in human volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients by the inhalation route. No information on the disposition of the compound in humans is available. This study in dogs demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining that information using {sup 14}C-Moli1901 and AMS.« less

  15. Reconstruction of spatial distributions of sound velocity and absorption in soft biological tissues using model ultrasonic tomographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. A.; Zotov, D. I.; Rumyantseva, O. D.

    2014-07-01

    A two-step algorithm is used to reconstruct the spatial distributions of the acoustic characteristics of soft biological tissues-the sound velocity and absorption coefficient. Knowing these distributions is urgent for early detection of benign and malignant neoplasms in biological tissues, primarily in the breast. At the first stage, large-scale distributions are estimated; at the second step, they are refined with a high resolution. Results of reconstruction on the base of model initial data are presented. The principal necessity of preliminary reconstruction of large-scale distributions followed by their being taken into account at the second step is illustrated. The use of CUDA technology for processing makes it possible to obtain final images of 1024 × 1024 samples in only a few minutes.

  16. Comparison of cadmium absorption, translocation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms between two radish cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) absorption and accumulation vary greatly not only among plant species but also among cultivars within the same species. In order to better understand the mechanisms of Cd absorption, transportation and distribution, we examined the differences of Cd absorption, translocation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms between L19, a Cd-tolerant genotype, and H4, a Cd-sensitive genotype, using kinetic analysis and soil culture experiment. Kinetic assays showed that the different Cd concentrations between the two cultivars might be ascribed to root absorption and translocation from root to shoot. The investigations of subcellular distribution and chemical forms verified that Cd concentrations of all subcellular fractions in H4 were all higher than in L19. Meanwhile, most of the Cd was associated with cell walls in the root of H4, but the Cd in the root of L19 and leaf of the two cultivars was mainly stored in soluble fraction, which could be one possible mechanism of tolerance to Cd toxicity. In addition, Cd fractions extracted by 1M NaCl and 2% HAC were predominant in root and leaf of both cultivars and the concentrations and proportions extracted by water and 80% ethanol in root and 1M NaCl in leaf were all higher in H4 than in L19. These results indicate that the Cd in H4 is more active than L19, which could be responsible for the sensitivity of H4 to Cd damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Absorption and distribution of estradiol from male seminal emissions during mating

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol-17β (E2) plays critical roles in female maturation, sexual receptivity, ovulation and fertility. In many mammals, contact with males can similarly affect these female parameters, whereas male excretions contain significant quantities of E2. We administered radiolabeled estradiol ([3H]E2) to male mice in doses representing a small fraction of their endogenous E2. These males were paired with sexually receptive females, and radioactivity was traced into the females’ systems. In Experiment 1, males were given [3H]E2 at 24 and 1 h before mating. Male-to-female [3H]E2 transfer intensified with increasing numbers of intromissions and spiked in the uterus after insemination. In Experiment 2, sexually experienced young males received [3H]E2 at 72 and 24 h before mating, and all mated to ejaculation. The copulatory plug deposited in the female reproductive tract contained substantial levels of radioactivity. The uteri, other tissues and blood serum of females displayed radioactivity indicative of E2 transfer. In Experiment 3, radioactivity was observed 3 and 18 h after insemination in the females’ uteri and other tissues, including parts of the brain. In Experiment 4, we observed substantial levels of radioactivity in semen as well as the copulatory plugs retrieved from the females after mating. Transferred E2 could directly affect abundant estrogen receptors in the female reproductive tract without potential metabolism by the liver. Sexually transferred E2 may facilitate uterine preparation for blastocyst implantation. These data converge with several lines of evidence indicating that male-sourced E2 can transfer to proximate females in bioactive form, contributing to various mammalian pheromonal effects. PMID:27758953

  18. Analyses of absorption distribution of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a Laser-Diode-Array (LDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang; Han, Juhong; Rong, Kepeng; Wang, Shunyan; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-01-01

    A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has been regarded as one of the most potential candidates to achieve high power performances of next generation. In this paper, we investigate the physical properties of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a Laser-Diode-Array (LDA) in this study. As the saturated concentration of a gain medium inside a vapor cell is extremely sensitive to the temperature, the populations of every energy-level of the atomic alkali are strongly relying on the vapor temperature. Thus, the absorption characteristics of a DPAL are mainly dominated by the temperature distribution. In this paper, the temperature, absorption, and lasing distributions in the cross-section of a rubidium cell side-pumped by a LDA are obtained by means of a complicated mathematic procedure. Based on the original end-pumped mode we constructed before, a novel one-direction side-pumped theoretical mode has been established to explore the distribution properties in the transverse section of a rubidium vapor cell by combining the procedures of heat transfer and laser kinetics together. It has been thought the results might be helpful for design of a side-pumped configuration in a high-powered DPAL.

  19. A Population WB-PBPK Model of Colistin and its Prodrug CMS in Pigs: Focus on the Renal Distribution and Excretion.

    PubMed

    Viel, Alexis; Henri, Jérôme; Bouchène, Salim; Laroche, Julian; Rolland, Jean-Guy; Manceau, Jacqueline; Laurentie, Michel; Couet, William; Grégoire, Nicolas

    2018-03-12

    The objective was the development of a whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model for colistin, and its prodrug colistimethate sodium (CMS), in pigs to explore their tissue distribution, especially in kidneys. Plasma and tissue concentrations of CMS and colistin were measured after systemic administrations of different dosing regimens of CMS in pigs. The WB-PBPK model was developed based on these data according to a non-linear mixed effect approach and using NONMEM software. A detailed sub-model was implemented for kidneys to handle the complex disposition of CMS and colistin within this organ. The WB-PBPK model well captured the kinetic profiles of CMS and colistin in plasma. In kidneys, an accumulation and slow elimination of colistin were observed and well described by the model. Kidneys seemed to have a major role in the elimination processes, through tubular secretion of CMS and intracellular degradation of colistin. Lastly, to illustrate the usefulness of the PBPK model, an estimation of the withdrawal periods after veterinary use of CMS in pigs was made. The WB-PBPK model gives an insight into the renal distribution and elimination of CMS and colistin in pigs; it may be further developed to explore the colistin induced-nephrotoxicity in humans.

  20. High Resolution X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Distribution of Matter in and around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert; MIT/CAT Team

    2015-10-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe embraces aspects that reachdeep into modern astrophysics and cosmology. We want to know how present and past matter is affected by various levels and types of nucleo-synthesis and stellar evolution. Three major categories were be identified: 1. The study of pre-mordial star formation including periods of super-massive black hole formation, 2. The embedded evolution of the intergalactic medium IGM, 3. The status and evolution of stars and the interstellar medium ISM in galaxies. Today a fourth category relates to our understanding of dark matter in relationwith these three categories. The X-ray band is particularly sensitive to K- and L-shell absorption and scattering from high abundant elements like C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S,Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni. Like the Lyman alpha forest in the optical band, absorbers in the IGM produce an X-ray line forest along the line of sight in the X-rayspectrum of a background quasar. Similary bright X-ray sources within galaxies and the Milky Way produce a continuum, which is being absorbed by elements invarious phases of the ISM. High resolution X-ray absorption surveys are possible with technologies ready for flight within decade. == high efficiency X-ray optics with optical performance 3== high resolution X-ray gratings with R 3000 for E 1.5 keV== X-ray micro-calorimeters with R 2000 for E 1.5 keV. The vision for the next decade needs to lead to means and strategies which allows us to perform such absorption surveys as effectively as surveys are now or in very near future quite common in astronomy pursued in other wave length bands such as optical, IR, and sub-mm.

  1. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  2. Effects of kaolin application on light absorption and distribution, radiation use efficiency and photosynthesis of almond and walnut canopies.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G; Buchner, Richard P; Fulton, Allan E; Lampinen, Bruce D

    2007-02-01

    Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6.3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on inner-canopy leaves, resulted in an estimated

  3. Determination of Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution by Dye Laser Measurement of Differential Absorption of Elastic Backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, S. A.; Gergely, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of a lidar system which uses tunable organic dye lasers to accurately determine spatial distribution of molecular air pollutants. Also described will be experimental work to date on simultaneous multiwavelength output dye laser sources for this system. Basically the scheme determines the concentration of air pollutants by measuring the differential absorption of an (at least) two wavelength lidar signal elastically backscattered by the atmosphere. Only relative measurements of the backscattered intensity at each of the two wavelengths, one on and one off the resonance absorption of the pollutant in question, are required. The various parameters of the scheme are examined and the component elements required for a system of this type discussed, with emphasis on the dye laser source. Potential advantages of simultaneous multiwavelength outputs are described. The use of correlation spectroscopy in this context is examined. Comparisons are also made for the use of infrared probing wavelengths and sources instead of dye lasers. Estimates of the sensitivity and accuracy of a practical dye laser system of this type, made for specific pollutants, snow it to have inherent advantages over other schemes for determining pollutant spatial distribution.

  4. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  5. Absorption and distribution kinetics of the 13C-labeled tomato carotenoid phytoene in healthy adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid which may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. While phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lyc...

  6. Toxic metals distribution in different components of Pakistani and imported cigarettes by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kazi, T G; Jalbani, N; Arain, M B; Jamali, M K; Afridi, H I; Sarfraz, R A; Shah, A Q

    2009-04-15

    It was extensively investigated that a significant flux of toxic metals, along with other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In present study toxic metals (TMs) (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb) were determined in different components of Pakistani local branded and imported cigarettes, including filler tobacco (FT), filter (before and after normal smoking by a single volunteer) and ash by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Microwave-assisted digestion method was employed. The validity and accuracy of methodology were checked by using certified sample of Virginia tobacco leaves (ICHTJ-cta-VTL-2). The percentages (%) of TMs in different components of cigarette were calculated with respect to their total contents in FT of all branded cigarettes before smoking, while smoke concentration has been calculated by subtracting the filter and ash contents from the filler tobacco content of each branded cigarette. The highest percentage (%) of Al was observed in ash of all cigarettes, with range 97.3-99.0%, while in the case of Cd, a reverse behaviour was observed, as a range of 15.0-31.3% of total contents were left in the ash of all branded cigarettes understudy.

  7. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Objective Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers LDL cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly-mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. Approach and Results In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with LDL cholesterol 100–200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/day or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d5 and sitostanol-d4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30 ± 4.3% (SE, P < 0.0001) and LDL cholesterol 19.8 ± 1.9% (P = 0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6 ± 12.2% (P < 0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7 ± 14.3% (P < 0.0001) while plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2 ± 3.6% (P = 0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Conclusions Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly-mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:28279967

  8. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Laser absorption-scattering technique applied to asymmetric evaporating fuel sprays for simultaneous measurement of vapor/liquid mass distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Nishida, K.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes an Ultraviolet-Visible Laser Absorption-Scattering (UV-Vis LAS) imaging technique applied to asymmetric fuel sprays. Continuing from the previous studies, the detailed measurement principle was derived. It is demonstrated that, by means of this technique, cumulative masses and mass distributions of vapor/liquid phases can be quantitatively measured no matter what shape the spray is. A systematic uncertainty analysis was performed, and the measurement accuracy was also verified through a series of experiments on the completely vaporized fuel spray. The results show that the Molar Absorption Coefficient (MAC) of the test fuel, which is typically pressure and temperature dependent, is the major error source. The measurement error in the vapor determination has been shown to be approximately 18% under the assumption of constant MAC of the test fuel. Two application examples of the extended LAS technique were presented for exploring the dynamics and physical insight of the evaporating fuel sprays: diesel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles and gasoline sprays impinging on an inclined wall.

  10. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  11. [Effects of Fulvic Acid on Absorption and Form Distribution of Heavy Metals on Sediments].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-qing; He, Jiang; Lü, Chang-wei; Fan, Ming-de; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-qing; Xie, Zhi- lei; Wang, Jing-hua; Yu, Bo; En, He; Ding, Tao

    2016-03-15

    Based on the extracted fulvic acid (FA) from Lake Wuliangsuhai sediments by sequential alkali extraction, this work studied the effects of FA on the adsorption and fraction distribution of heavy metals (HM) on sediments using original sediments and sediments treated with 30% H₂O₂ as adsorbents. The results showed both organic matter and FA had effects on the HM adsorption onto sediments; The treatments of FA-free conditions and the sediments treated by H₂O₂ showed relatively strong influence on Cu²⁺ adsorption, which decreased the Cu²⁺ adsorption by 17.85%. With the increasing FA addition, the adsorption percentage of HM on both types of sediments showed gradually decreasing trends, with the order of Cu²⁺ > Cd²⁺ > Zn²⁺ > Pb²⁺; when the FA content was more than 5% , FA became the governing factor on the decreasing adsorption percentage of HM. With increasing FA addition, forms distribution of HM showed significant changes in both types of sediments; i. e. FA additions showed significant negative and positive correlations with percentages of metals bound to carbonates and organic matter, respectively, since the FA addition increased the H⁺ concentration of the system, in which H⁺ could activate the metals bound to carbonate from the sediments. As an organophilic weak element, the fraction percentage of Cd bound to organic matter was the lowest with the minimal changes.

  12. Interplay of biopharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics drug disposition and salivary excretion classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Idkaidek, Nasir M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this commentary is to investigate the interplay of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). BCS first classified drugs based on permeability and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug absorption. Then BDDCS linked permeability with hepatic metabolism and classified drugs based on metabolism and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug disposition. On the other hand, SECS classified drugs based on permeability and protein binding for the purpose of predicting the salivary excretion of drugs. The role of metabolism, rather than permeability, on salivary excretion is investigated and the results are not in agreement with BDDCS. Conclusion The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion based on permeability (not metabolism) and protein binding. PMID:24493977

  13. Ammonia concentration distribution measurements in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel engine based on limited data absorption tomography.

    PubMed

    Stritzke, Felix; van der Kley, Sani; Feiling, Alexander; Dreizler, Andreas; Wagner, Steven

    2017-04-03

    A multichannel tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer is used to measure absolute ammonia concentrations and their distributions in exhaust gas applications with intense CO2 and H2O background. Designed for in situ diagnostics in SCR after treatment systems with temperatures up to 800 K, the system employs a fiber coupled near-infrared distributed feedback diode laser. With the laser split into eight coplanar beams crossing the exhaust pipe, the sensor provides eight concentration measurements simultaneously. Three ammonia ro-vibrational transitions coinciding near 2200.5 nm with rather weak temperature dependency and negligible CO2/H2O interference were probed during the measurements. The line-of-sight averaged channel concentrations are transformed into 2-D ammonia distributions using limited data IR species tomography based on Tikhonov regularization. This spectrometer was successfully applied in the exhaust system of a 340 kW heavy duty diesel engine operated without oxidation catalyst or particulate filter. In this harsh environment the multi-channel sensor achieved single path ammonia detection limits of 25 to 80 ppmV with a temporal resolution of 1 Hz whereas, while operated as a single-channel sensor, these characteristics improved to 10 ppmV and 100 Hz. Spatial averaging of the reconstructed 2-D ammonia distributions shows good agreement to cross-sectional extractive measurements. In contrast to extractive methods more information about spatial inhomogeneities and transient operating conditions can be derived from the new spectrometer.

  14. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  15. Ultrasound enhances calcium absorption of jujube fruit by regulating the cellular calcium distribution and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Huanhuan; Liu, Qiqi; Xu, Juan; Dong, Yu; Liu, Mengpei; Zong, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasound has been applied in fruit pre-washing processes. However, it is not sufficient to protect fruit from pathogenic infection throughout the entire storage period, and sometimes ultrasound causes tissue damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 , 10 g L -1 ) and ultrasound (350 W at 40 kHz), separately and in combination, on jujube fruit quality, antioxidant status, tissue Ca 2+ content and distribution along with cell wall metabolism at 20 °C for 6 days. All three treatments significantly maintained fruit firmness and peel color, reduced respiration rate, decay incidence, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde and preserved higher enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and glutathione) antioxidants compared with the control. Moreover, the combined treatment was more effective in increasing tissue Ca 2+ content and distribution, inhibiting the generation of water-soluble and CDTA-soluble pectin fractions, delaying the solubilization of Na 2 CO 3 -soluble pectin and having lower activities of cell wall-modifying enzymes (polygalacturonase and pectate lyase) during storage. These results demonstrated that the combination of CaCl 2 and ultrasound has potential commercial application to extend the shelf life of jujube fruit by facilitating Ca 2+ absorption and stabilizing the cell wall structure. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NO x emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO 2 concentration at various locationsmore » in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO 2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less

  17. Turpentine oil induced inflammation decreases absorption and increases distribution of phenacetin without altering its elimination process in rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V G N V; Vivek, Ch; Anand Kumar, P; Ravi Kumar, P; Rao, G S

    2015-03-01

    Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of phenacetin, a CYP1A2 substrate were determined in normal and experimentally induced inflamed rats by turpentine oil to know the role of inflammation on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin and formation of its active metabolite (paracetamol) by CYP1A2 in wistar albino rats, weighing about 200-250 g that were randomly divided into two groups consisting six in each group. Rats in group I (control) received phenacetin (150 mg kg(-1), PO) where as group II received phenacetin 12 h after induction of inflammation by turpentine oil (0.4 mL, i.m). Blood samples were collected from retro orbital plexus at pre-determined time intervals prior to and at 0.166, 0.33, 0.67, 1.5, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h post-administration of phenacetin. Plasma was separated and analyzed for phenacetin and its metabolite paracetamol by HPLC assay. Based on plasma concentrations of phenacetin and its metabolite paracetamol, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental methods. C(max) of phenacetin was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased to 19.50 ± 2.74 μg mL(-1) in inflamed conditions compared to 38.13 ± 2.20 μg mL(-1) obtained in normal rats. Except, for significant (p < 0.001) increase in volume of distribution at steady state (V(dss)) from 2.87 ± 0.37 to 8.03 ± 1.26 L kg(-1) and increased the rate of absorption with shorter absorption half-life (t(1/2ka)) for phenacetin in inflammation. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters of either phenacetin or its metabolite paracetamol were affected. It can be concluded that turpentine oil induced inflammation has no role on the activity of CYP1A2 in rats, as the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol were found unaltered.

  18. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    PubMed

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  19. Absorption and distribution of cadmium in mice fed diets containing either inorganic or oyster-incorporated cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Hardy, J.T.; Miller, B.M.

    1984-02-01

    To determine the absorption, organ distribution, and retention of organically bound cadmium (Cd) and the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) on Cd metabolism, groups of mice were fed five different diets. The organic Cd used in the diets was in the form of lyophilized oyster (Crassostrea virginica) that had accumulated radiolabeled 109Cd through a plankton food chain. The mice were fed either a standard basal mouse diet (AIN-76) or diets containing five or eight times the Zn concentration of the basal diet. The source of Zn was either oyster tissue or ZnCO3. The concentration of organic and inorganic Cd providedmore » a dose of approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Diets prepared from oyster tissue probably contained all of the Cd and 85% of the Zn in organic form. Diets prepared with inorganic metals contained about the same Cd and Zn concentrations as the diets prepared with oyster. There was very little difference between the retention of Cd by mice that ingested organic (oyster bound) Cd and those fed inorganic Cd (CdCl2). However, when the Cd retained in the intestine was excluded, retention of organic Cd was significantly greater than that of inorganic Cd. The organ distribution of Cd differed significantly according to the chemical form of Cd fed (organic or inorganic) and the Zn level in the diet. The kidneys of mice fed organically bound Cd retained a higher percentage of the metal than the kidneys of those fed inorganic Cd. On the other hand, the livers of animals fed a low-Zn diet retained a higher percentage of the Cd than the livers of those fed a high-Zn diet, regardless of the dietary source of Cd.« less

  20. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation.

    PubMed

    Rothfuss, K S; Bode, J C; Stange, E F; Parlesak, A

    2006-02-01

    Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. Urine specimens were collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). The results indicate that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG.

  1. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model.

    PubMed

    Liebert, Adam; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Elster, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy allows for depth-selective determination of absorption changes in the adult human head that facilitates separation between cerebral and extra-cerebral responses to brain activation. The aim of the present work is to analyze which combinations of moments of measured distributions of times of flight (DTOF) of photons and source-detector separations are optimal for the reconstruction of absorption changes in a two-layered tissue model corresponding to extra- and intra-cerebral compartments. To this end we calculated the standard deviations of the derived absorption changes in both layers by considering photon noise and a linear relation between the absorption changes and the DTOF moments. The results show that the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper (superficial) layer increases (decreases) with the thickness of the superficial layer. It is confirmed that for the deeper layer the use of higher moments, in particular the variance of the DTOF, leads to an improvement. For example, when measurements at four different source-detector separations between 8 and 35 mm are available and a realistic thickness of the upper layer of 12 mm is assumed, the inclusion of the change in mean time of flight, in addition to the change in attenuation, leads to a reduction of the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper tissue layer by a factor of 2.5. A reduction by another 4% can be achieved by additionally including the change in variance.

  3. Enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser integrated with an electro-absorption modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Jongseong; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2016-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser diode integrated with an electro-absorption modulator. A directly- modulated dual-section laser can provide improved modulation performance under a low bias level ( i.e., below the threshold level) compared with a standard directly-modulated laser. By combining the extinction ratio from a dual-section laser with that from an electro-absorption modulator section, a total extinction ratio of 49.6. dB are successfully achieved.

  4. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  5. Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Ammari, Manel; Mssedi, Dorsaf; Benzerti, Maali; Snoussi, Sana; Abdelly, C

    2010-09-01

    Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.

  6. The excretion and metabolism of oral 14C-pyridostigmine in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Husain, M. A.; Roberts, J. B.; Thomas, B. H.; Wilson, A.

    1968-01-01

    1. Pyridostigmine labelled with carbon-14 in the methyl group of the quaternary nitrogen has been used to investigate the excretion and metabolism of the drug after administration of single doses (500 μg) to the rat by stomach tube. 2. Pyridostigmine is slowly excreted in the urine; the maximum excretion occurs between 1-3 hr after administration. In 24 hr 42% of the dose is excreted in urine and 38.4% is present in faeces and intestinal contents. 3. The peak concentration of radioactivity in liver and blood occurs about 2 hr after administration. 4. About 75% of the radioactivity in urine is present as unchanged pyridostigmine, the remainder as metabolite. 5. The results are compared with those previously obtained after oral administration of neostigmine. 6. It is concluded that after oral administration the absorption of pyridostigmine is greater and the metabolism substantially less than that of neostigmine. PMID:5687596

  7. Measurements of axisymmetric temperature and H2O concentration distributions on a circular flat flame burner based on tunable diode laser absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Huihui; Kan, Ruifeng; Xu, Zhenyu; Liu, Jianguo; He, Yabai; Yang, Chenguang; Chen, Bing; Wei, Min; Yao, Lu; Zhang, Guangle

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the reconstruction of axisymmetric temperature and H2O concentration distributions in a flat flame burner is realized by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. Two H2O absorption transitions (7154.354/7154.353 cm-1 and 7467.769 cm-1) are selected as line pair for temperature measurement, and time division multiplexing technology is adopted to scan this two H2O absorption transitions simultaneously at 1 kHz repetition rate. In the experiment, FBP algorithm can be used for reconstructing axisymmetric distributions of flow field parameters with only single view parallel-beam TDLAS measurements, and the same data sets from the given parallel beam are used for other virtual projection angles and beams scattered between 0° and 180°. The real-time online measurements of projection data, i.e., integrated absorbance both for pre-selected transitions on CH4/air flat flame burner are realized by Voigt on-line fitting, and the fitting residuals are less than 0.2%. By analyzing the projection data from different views based on FBP algorithm, the distributions of temperature and concentration along radial direction can be known instantly. The results demonstrate that the system and the proposed innovative FBP algorithm are capable for accurate reconstruction of axisymmetric temperature and H2O concentration distribution in combustion systems and facilities.

  8. Effects of self-absorption on simultaneous estimation of temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in nanofluid fuel flames using a spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guannan; Liu, Dong

    2018-06-01

    An improved inverse reconstruction model with consideration of self-absorption effect for the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in nanofluid fuel flames was proposed based on the flame emission spectrometry. The effects of self-absorption on the temperature profile and concentration fields were investigated for various measurement errors, flame optical thicknesses and detecting lines numbers. The model neglecting the self-absorption caused serious reconstruction errors especially in the nanofluid fuel flames with large optical thicknesses, while the improved model was used to successfully recover the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles for the flames regardless of the optical thickness. Through increasing detecting lines number, the reconstruction accuracy can be greatly improved due to more flame emission information received by the spectrometer. With the adequate detecting lines number, the estimations for the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in flames with large optical thicknesses were still satisfying even from the noisy radiation intensities with signal to noise ratio (SNR) as low as 46 dB. The results showed that the improved reconstruction model was effective and robust to concurrently retrieve the temperature distribution and volume fraction fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles for the exact and noisy data in nanofluid fuel sooting flames with different optical thicknesses.

  9. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    PubMed

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  10. A three-color absorption/scattering imaging technique for simultaneous measurements on distributions of temperature and fuel concentration in a spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yuyin

    2018-04-01

    A three-color imaging technique was proposed for simultaneous measurements on distributions of fuel/air mixture temperature and fuel vapor/liquid concentrations in evaporating sprays. The idea is based on that the vapor concentration is proportional to the absorption of vapor to UV light, the liquid-phase concentration is related to the light extinction due to scattering of droplet to visible light, and the mixture temperature can be correlated to the absorbance ratio at two absorbing wavelengths or narrow bands. For verifying the imaging system, the molar absorption coefficients of p-xylene at the three narrow bands, which were centered respectively at 265, 289, and 532 nm with FWHM of 10 nm, were measured in a specially designed calibration chamber at different temperatures (423-606 K) and pressure of 3.6 bar. It was found that the ratio of the molar absorption coefficients of p-xylene at the two narrow bands centered at the two UV wavelengths is sensitive to the mixture temperature. On the other hand, the distributions of fuel vapor/liquid concentrations can be obtained by use of absorbance due to ultraviolet absorption of vapor and visible light scattering of droplets. Combining these two methods, a simultaneous measurement on distributions of mixture temperature and fuel vapor/liquid concentrations can be realized. In addition, the temperature field obtained from the ratio of the two absorbing narrow bands can be further used to improve the measurement accuracy of vapor/liquid concentrations, because the absorption coefficients depend on temperature. This diagnostic was applied to an evaporating spray inside a high-temperature and high-pressure constant volume chamber.

  11. Fenofibrate causes elevation of betaine excretion but not excretion of other osmolytes by healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lever, Michael; McEntyre, Christopher J; George, Peter M; Slow, Sandy; Chambers, Stephen T; Foucher, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional data suggest that bezafibrate increases betaine excretion in dyslipidemic patients. We aimed to demonstrate that fenofibrate induces increased betaine excretion in normal subjects and explore whether other 1-carbon metabolites and osmolytes are similarly affected. Urine was collected from 26 healthy adults before and after treatment with fenofibrate (145 mg/day for 6 weeks). Excretions of betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, free choline, myo-inositol, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, carnitine, and acetylcarnitine were measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Fenofibrate increased the median betaine excretion from 7.5 to 25.8 mmol/mole creatinine (median increase 3-fold), P < .001. The median increase in N,N-dimethylglycine excretion was 2-fold (P < .001). Median choline excretion increased 12% (significant, P = .029). Participants with higher initial excretions tended to have larger increases (P < .001 in all 3 cases). Fenofibrate did not significantly change the median excretions of myo-inositol, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and carnitine. The excretion of acetylcarnitine decreased 4-fold on treatment, with no correlation between the baseline and after-treatment excretions. Changes in all urine components tested, except trimethylamine-N-oxide, positively correlated with changes in betaine excretion even when the median excretions before and after were not significantly different. Fibrates increase betaine, and to a lesser extent N,N-dimethylglycine and choline, excretion. Other osmolytes are not elevated. Because the increase in betaine excretion depends on the baseline excretion, large increases in excretion in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes (where baseline excretions are high) could be expected. Replacement with betaine supplements may be considered. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING THE PRODUCTION AND EXCRETION OF CHOLESTEROL IN MAMMALS

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Sanford O.; Friedman, Meyer; Biggs, Max W.; Gunning, Barbara

    1953-01-01

    Accumulation of cholate in plasma is the immediate cause of hypercholesteremia in the rat with bile duct ligation and in the normal rat given intravenous sodium cholate. The hypercholesteremia induced by cholate administration does not appear to be dependent upon any preceding change in the rates of absorption, excretion, synthesis, or redistribution of cholesterol in the tissues of the animal. Cholate administration seems to induce hypercholesteremia by impeding the normal rate of passage of cholesterol from the plasma into the liver; this impedance is probably due to an alteration of the cholesterol-binding power of plasma proteins induced by cholate. The chemical and physiological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:13052817

  13. Structure–activity relationships for biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of atomically precise nanoclusters in a murine model†

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O. Andrea; Hansen, Ryan J.; Ni, Thomas W.; Heinecke, Christine L.; Compel, W. Scott; Gustafson, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of inorganic nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameters between 2 and 20 nm are presently unpredictable. It is unclear whether unpredictable in vivo properties and effects arise from a subset of molecules in a nanomaterials preparation, or if the ADME/PK properties are ensemble properties of an entire preparation. Here we characterize the ADME/PK properties of atomically precise preparations of ligand protected gold nanoclusters in a murine model system. We constructed atomistic models and tested in vivo properties for five well defined compounds, based on crystallographically resolved Au25(SR)18 and Au102(SR)44 nanoclusters with different (SR) ligand shells. To rationalize unexpected distribution and excretion properties observed for several clusters in this study and others, we defined a set of atomistic structure–activity relationships (SAR) for nanoparticles, which includes previously investigated parameters such as particle hydrodynamic diameter and net charge, and new parameters such as hydrophobic surface area and surface charge density. Overall we find that small changes in particle formulation can provoke dramatic yet potentially predictable changes in ADME/PK. PMID:24057086

  14. Absorption of ferulic acid from low-alcohol beer.

    PubMed

    Bourne, L; Paganga, G; Baxter, D; Hughes, P; Rice-Evans, C

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoids and monophenolic compounds have been well-described over recent years for their properties as antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. A number of epidemiological studies implicate a role for flavonoids in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. In particular, the focus has been on flavonol-rich fruit and vegetables and flavonoid-rich beverages, especially tea and red wine. Mechanisms of protection are unclear since the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of dietary phenolics have not yet been extensively investigated. Here we report the bioavailability of ferulic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid, the major hydroxycinnamate in beer. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of urinary excretion of ferulic acid from low alcohol beer consumption in humans have been undertaken. The results show that ferulic acid is absorbed with a peak time for maximal excretion of ca. 8 h and the mean cumulative amount excreted is 5.8 +/- 3.2 mg. These findings are consistent with the uptake of ferulic acid from dietary sources, such as tomatoes, and suggest that ferulic acid is more bioavailable than individual dietary flavonoids and phenolics so far studied.

  15. Depth distribution of secondary phases in kesterite Cu 2ZnSnS 4 by angle-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Just, J.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, O.

    The depth distribution of secondary phases in the solar cell absorber material Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is quantitatively investigated using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis at the K-edge of sulfur at varying incidence angles. Varying information depths from several nanometers up to the full thickness is achieved. A quantitative profile of the phase distribution is obtained by a self-consistent fit of a multilayer model to the XANES spectra for different angles. Single step co-evaporated CZTS thin-films are found to exhibit zinc and copper sulfide secondary phases preferentially at the front or back interfaces of the film.

  16. Depth distribution of secondary phases in kesterite Cu 2ZnSnS 4 by angle-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Just, J.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, O.; ...

    2017-12-12

    The depth distribution of secondary phases in the solar cell absorber material Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is quantitatively investigated using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis at the K-edge of sulfur at varying incidence angles. Varying information depths from several nanometers up to the full thickness is achieved. A quantitative profile of the phase distribution is obtained by a self-consistent fit of a multilayer model to the XANES spectra for different angles. Single step co-evaporated CZTS thin-films are found to exhibit zinc and copper sulfide secondary phases preferentially at the front or back interfaces of the film.

  17. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (λmax), we propose a novel index, "new λmax" (AAC/(λmax of sample rice starches-λmax of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of λmax and "new λmax." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method.

  18. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gang; Tan, Wei; Jia, Mengyuan; Hou, Jiajuan; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wu, Xuechun; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-01

    A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS) instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN). The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz), followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD) (1σ) of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications. PMID:27657082

  19. Vitamin C modulates lead excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Lihm, Hoseob; Kim, Hyun; Chang, Heekyung; Yoon, Myunghee; Lee, Kayoung; Choi, Jongsoon

    2013-12-01

    Lead, one of the most toxic heavy metals, takes longer time to be excreted from the body than other heavy metals. The purpose of this study is, by measuring lead excretion via urine and feces, to find out the effect of vitamin C in lead chelation. Thirty-six rats were randomly assorted into four groups. All 33 rats except for the control group were administered with lead, before orally administered with different doses of vitamin C per kilogram of body weight. The lead excretion levels in urine and feces as well as the survival rate were then measured for each group. The rats with lead administrations (10/13, 76.9%) with lead administrations only, 10/11 rats (90.9%) with lead administrations and low dose of vitamin C, 9/9 rats (100%) with lead administrations and high dose of vitamin C survived. Among the 29 surviving rats, low vitamin C intake group exhibited higher urinary excretion than the lead only group. The urinary excretion level in high dose vitamin C intakegroup was significantly higher than the lead only group. In addition, fecal lead excretion seemed to be increased in the high dose vitamin C intake group, compared to the group with lead administrations only with statistical significance. Through animal experiment, it was found out that administrating high dose of vitamin C accelerated the excretion of lead in body compared to low dose of vitamin C.

  20. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  1. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  2. Urinary isoflavone excretion as a compliance measure in a soy intervention among young girls: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, G; Oshiro, C; Morimoto, Y; Hebshi, S; Novotny, R; Franke, AA

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the compliance of young girls with a soy intervention. Design An 8-week dietary intervention and urine sample collection. Setting Free-living girls. Subjects A convenience sample of 8-to 14-y-old girls (20 started and 17 finished the study) recruited through flyers distributed to staff members and previous study participants. Intervention The girls consumed one daily serving of soymilk, soy nuts, or tofu, completed 3-day food records, kept daily soy intake logs, and collected weekly urine samples. Main outcome measures Compliance with the intervention was evaluated by daily soy intake logs, 3-day food records analyzed by the center’s Food Composition and Food Groups Servings Databases, and weekly urinary isoflavone excretion using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The statistical analysis included paired t-tests, analysis of variance, and Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients. Results Daily soy intake logs indicated a mean intake of 6.28 servings out of a maximum of 7.0 servings per week. The food records revealed a six-fold increase in isoflavone intake during the study period (P < 0.01) which was confirmed by an increase in urinary isoflavone excretion of similar magnitude (23.3–142.1 nmol/mg creatinine, P = 0.02). Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of young girls to consume one daily soy serving and the usefulness of urinary isoflavones as a primary compliance measure. The high urinary isoflavone excretion levels detected in girls as compared to adult women suggest less intestinal degradation and/or greater absorption of isoflavones in nonadult populations. This finding requires further investigations into the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones. PMID:15523482

  3. Combined effects of the drug distribution and mucus diffusion properties of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on the oral absorption of fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Sunazuka, Yushi; Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Tanaka, Yusuke; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2018-05-24

    We present the absorption improvement mechanism of fenofibrate (FFB), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drug, from self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), centered on improving the diffusion of FFB through the unstirred water layer (UWL). Four SMEDDS formulations containing Labrafac™ lipophile WL 1349 (WL1349) or Labrafil ® M 1944CS (M1944) oils and NIKKOL HCO-40 (HCO40) or NIKKOL HCO-60 (HCO60) surfactants were prepared. Every SMEDDS formulation formed microemulsion droplets of approximately 30 nm. In vitro tests showed that the microemulsion droplets containing M1944 had relatively small FFB solubilization capacities, causing larger amounts of FFB to be dissolved in the bulk water phase, compared to the droplets containing WL1349. The diffusivity of the microemulsion droplets through the mucin solution layer was enhanced when using HCO40 compared to HCO60. The oral absorption in rats was the highest when using the SMEDDS formulation containing M1944 and HCO40. High FFB distribution in the bulk water phase and fast diffusion of microemulsion droplets through the mucus layer contributed to the efficient delivery of FFB molecules through the UWL to the epithelial cells, leading to enhanced FFB absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between octanol/water and liposome/water distribution coefficients and drug absorption of a set of pharmacologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.

  5. Cell-based medicinal chemistry optimization of high-throughput screening (HTS) hits for orally active antimalarials. Part 1: challenges in potency and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion/pharmacokinetics (ADME/PK).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arnab K

    2013-10-24

    Malaria represents a significant health issue, and novel and effective drugs are needed to address parasite resistance that has emerged to the current drug arsenal. Antimalarial drug discovery has historically benefited from a whole-cell (phenotypic) screening approach to identify lead molecules. This approach has been utilized by several groups to optimize weakly active antimalarial pharmacophores, such as the quinolone scaffold, to yield potent and highly efficacious compounds that are now poised to enter clinical trials. More recently, GNF/Novartis, GSK, and others have employed the same approach in high-throughput screening (HTS) of large compound libraries to find novel scaffolds that have also been optimized to clinical candidates by GNF/Novartis. This perspective outlines some of the inherent challenges in cell-based medicinal chemistry optimization, including optimization of oral exposure and hERG activity.

  6. EXCRETION OF P$sup 32$ AFTER THERAPY FOR POLYCYTHEMIA RUBRA VERA

    SciTech Connect

    Weijer, D.L.; Duggan, H.E.; Scott, D.B.

    1962-09-01

    Fifteen subjects undergoing treatment for polycythemia rubra vera were given P/sup 32/. Carrier-free P/sup 32/ was administered intravenously in 11 and orally in 6. Total excretion studies were carried out in each case for periods of 5 to 22 days. Average urinary excretion of P/sup 32/, as a percentage of the initial dose to the end of 3 days for the entire series, was 14.3%, with limits of 6.4 and 18.7%. The corresponding 5-day average amounted to 17.8%, with limits of 7.5 and 22.5%. In the six patients treated orally, the average 3-day urinary excretion was 11.2% and for 5more » days was 14.2%. For the 11 patients treated intravenously, the average 3-day excretion was 16.1%, the average 5-day excretion 19.8%. The average fecal excretion as a percentage of the initial dose to the end of 3 days was 1.7%, with limits of 0.1 and 5.5%, and the average 5-day excretion was 2.5%, with limits 0.5 and 5.9%. In the orally treated fasting group the total stool excretion to the end of 3 days was 2.0 and 2.5% at the end of 5 days. Of the 10 polycythemia patients treated intravenously, the stool excretion to the end of 3 days was 1.5% and at 5 days 2.5%. Under fasting conditions (both before and after the administration of P/sup 32/) with little or no carrier added, the fecal excretion of P/sup 32/is small. Thus, the total excretion of P/sup 32/ does not differ significantly for oral and intravenous administration. Hence, despite contrary reports, it appears that under fasting conditions of administration it is not necessary to increase the oral dose of P/ sup 32/ to 4/3 of the intravenous dose in order to obtain equivalent absorption of the administered dose. It is concluded that the P/sup 32/ content of urine in the first 24 hr after therapy, by either route of administration, indicates whether or not a particular patient will retain the dose within normal limits. (BBB)« less

  7. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbarino, S.; Caviglia, G.; Sambuceti, G.; Benvenuto, F.; Piana, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin.

  8. Promises of Machine Learning Approaches in Prediction of Absorption of Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Sharma, Anju; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The Machine Learning (ML) is one of the fastest developing techniques in the prediction and evaluation of important pharmacokinetic properties such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The availability of a large number of robust validation techniques for prediction models devoted to pharmacokinetics has significantly enhanced the trust and authenticity in ML approaches. There is a series of prediction models generated and used for rapid screening of compounds on the basis of absorption in last one decade. Prediction of absorption of compounds using ML models has great potential across the pharmaceutical industry as a non-animal alternative to predict absorption. However, these prediction models still have to go far ahead to develop the confidence similar to conventional experimental methods for estimation of drug absorption. Some of the general concerns are selection of appropriate ML methods and validation techniques in addition to selecting relevant descriptors and authentic data sets for the generation of prediction models. The current review explores published models of ML for the prediction of absorption using physicochemical properties as descriptors and their important conclusions. In addition, some critical challenges in acceptance of ML models for absorption are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Photodissociation dynamics in the first absorption band of pyrrole. II. Photofragment distributions for the 1A2(π σ* ) ←X˜ 1A1(π π ) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) of the photofragments pyrrolyl + H-atom formed in the photodissociation of pyrrole in the low-lying state 1A2(πσ*) is presented. The TKER distributions contain complementary and often more precise information on the fragmentation process than the broad diffuse absorption spectra. The distributions are calculated quantum mechanically for the diabatic state 1A2(πσ*) either isolated or coupled to the ground electronic state at an exit channel conical intersection. The calculations use the novel ab initio quasi-diabatic potential energy matrix constructed in the work of Picconi and Grebenshchikov [J. Chem. Phys. 148, 104103 (2018)]. The approximate overlap integral-based adiabatic mapping approach is introduced with which the quantum mechanical TKER distributions can be efficiently and accurately reproduced. Finally, the calculated TKERs are compared with the experimental results. The main features of the measured vibrationally resolved distributions are reproduced, and the spectral peaks are assigned and interpreted in detail.

  10. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Lieske, John C; Tremaine, William J; De Simone, Claudio; O'Connor, Helen M; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J; Goldfarb, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention.

  11. The H + OCS hot atom reaction - CO state distributions and translational energy from time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Cartland, Harry E.

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy has been used to probe CO internal and translational excitation from the reaction of hot H atoms with OCS. Product distributions should be strongly biased toward the maximum 1.4 eV collision energy obtained from 278 nm pulsed photolysis of HI. Rotations and vibrations are both colder than predicted by statistical density of states theory, as evidenced by large positive surprisal parameters. The bias against rotation is stronger than that against vibration, with measurable population as high as v = 4. The average CO internal excitation is 1920/cm, accounting for only 13 percent of the available energy. Of the energy balance, time-resolved sub-Doppler line shape measurements show that more than 38 percent appears as relative translation of the separating CO and SH fragments. Studies of the relaxation kinetics indicate that some rotational energy transfer occurs on the time scale of our measurements, but the distributions do not relax sufficiently to alter our conclusions. Vibrational distributions are nascent, though vibrational relaxation of excited CO is unusually fast in the OCS bath, with rates approaching 3 percent of gas kinetic for v = 1.

  12. Decomposition of Spectral Signatures of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter Absorption and its Spatial Distribution Along Southeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamed Ashraf, P.; Souda, V. P.; Minu, P.

    2016-02-01

    The process of photosynthesis involves the conversion of inorganic carbon into organic carbon and the light availability is the crucial factor affecting photosynthesis in case 2 waters. Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major competitor for light apart from suspended sediments and phytoplankton. The objective was 1) to understand the spatial, vertical and seasonal variability of CDOM by decomposing spectral signatures of absorption in the UV region and to identify the source of CDOM in the study area. The study was carried out for the period 2013 May to 2014 December on monthly basis. Samples from 9 spatial stations, covering estuarine, barmouth and marine region were collected along coastal waters off Kochi, Southeastern Arabian Sea. Two spectral range from 200nm to 400nm were selected for the study, ie. between 275-295 and 350-400. Slope between 275-295nm (S275-295) showed no variation spatially and seasonally except for estuarine station. But slope between 350-400nm (S350-400) exhibited considerable variations spatially, seasonally and vertically. Lower values of ratio between S275-295 and S350-400 in surface waters during monsoon season indicated presence of CDOM with heavy molecular weight of terrigenous origin. Premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons had higher ratio indicating presence of CDOM with lighter molecular weight. Autocthonous origin and degradation of terrigenous matter produces CDOM with light molecular weight. The ratio is found to be increasing from estuary to offshore stations. Hence it is inferred that, the chemical nature of CDOM is affected by both physical and biological components in dynamically unstable case 2 coastal waters. The results presented here shows difference in spectral slope to estimate optical properties of CDOM which is relevant for the description of underwater optics and to the development of ocean colour remote sensing algorithms in the region.

  13. Dynamics of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): absorption, tissue distribution, and hepatic gene expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Skillman, Ann D; Nagler, James J; Hook, Sharon E; Small, Jack A; Schultz, Irvin R

    2006-11-01

    17alpha-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen identified in sewage effluents. To understand better the absorption kinetics of EE2 and the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, we subjected male rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) to continuous water exposures of 125 ng/L of EE2 for up to 61 d. Trout were either repetitively sampled for blood plasma or serially killed at selected time intervals. Vitellogenin, ERalpha mRNA, and EE2 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. In separate experiments, trout were exposed to EE2 for 7 d, and hepatic gene expression was assessed using a low- and high-density cDNA microarray. The EE2 was rapidly absorbed by the trout, with an apparent equilibrium at 16 h in plasma and liver. The ERalpha mRNA levels also increased rapidly, reaching near-peak levels by 48 h. In contrast, plasma levels of VTG continuously increased for 19 d. After 61 d, tissues with the highest levels of VTG were the liver, kidney, and testes. Microarray-based gene expression studies provided unexpected results. In some cases, known estrogen-responsive genes (e.g., ERalpha) were unresponsive, whereas many of the genes that have no apparent link to estrogen function or EE2 toxicity were significantly altered in expression. Of the two microarray approaches tested in the present study, the high-density array appeared to be superior because of the improved quality of the hybridization signal and the robustness of the response in terms of the number of genes identified as being EE2 responsive.

  14. DYNAMICS OF 17α-ETHYNYLESTRADIOL EXPOSURE IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS): ABSORPTION, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN

    PubMed Central

    Skillman, Ann D.; Nagler, James J.; Hook, Sharon E.; Small, Jack A.; Schultz, Irvin R.

    2008-01-01

    17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen identified in sewage effluents. To understand better the absorption kinetics of EE2 and the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA, we subjected male rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) to continuous water exposures of 125 ng/L of EE2 for up to 61 d. Trout were either repetitively sampled for blood plasma or serially killed at selected time intervals. Vitellogenin, ERα mRNA, and EE2 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, respectively. In separate experiments, trout were exposed to EE2 for 7 d, and hepatic gene expression was assessed using a low- and high-density cDNA microarray. The EE2 was rapidly absorbed by the trout, with an apparent equilibrium at 16 h in plasma and liver. The ERα mRNA levels also increased rapidly, reaching near-peak levels by 48 h. In contrast, plasma levels of VTG continuously increased for 19 d. After 61 d, tissues with the highest levels of VTG were the liver, kidney, and testes. Microarray-based gene expression studies provided unexpected results. In some cases, known estrogen-responsive genes (e.g., ERα) were unresponsive, whereas many of the genes that have no apparent link to estrogen function or EE2 toxicity were significantly altered in expression. Of the two microarray approaches tested in the present study, the high-density array appeared to be superior because of the improved quality of the hybridization signal and the robustness of the response in terms of the number of genes identified as being EE2 responsive. PMID:17089724

  15. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  16. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line indexmore » versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.« less

  17. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  18. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  19. Urinary sodium excretion after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Neil G; Fändriks, Lars; le Roux, Carel W; Hallersund, Peter; Werling, Malin

    2017-09-01

    Gut-kidney signaling is implicated in sodium homeostasis and thus blood pressure regulation. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for morbid obesity confers a pronounced and long-lasting blood pressure lowering effect in addition to significant weight loss. We set out to establish whether RYGB is associated with an intrinsic change in urinary sodium excretion that may contribute to the reported blood pressure lowering effects of the procedure. University hospital METHODS: Five female patients (age range: 28-50 yr) without metabolic or hypertensive co-morbidities were included in a study involving four 24-hour residential visits: once before surgery and 10 days, 3 months, and 20 months after surgery. Creatinine and sodium were measured in fasting plasma samples and 24-hour urine samples and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and indices of urinary sodium excretion were calculated. Fasting and 60-minute postprandial blood samples from each study day were assayed for pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Increases in weight-normalized urinary sodium excretion of up to 2.3-fold in magnitude occurred at 20 months after surgery. Median fractional excretion of sodium at 20 months was double that seen before surgery. Fasting NT-proBNP levels were stable or increased (1.5- to 5-fold). Moreover, a small postprandial increase in NT-proBNP was observed after surgery. Renal fractional excretion of sodium is increased after RYGB. A shift toward increased postoperative basal and meal associated levels of NT-proBNP coincides with increased urinary sodium excretion. The data support a working hypothesis that an enhanced natriuretic gut-kidney signal after RYGB may be of mechanistic importance in the blood pressure lowering effects of this procedure. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavonoid interactions during digestion, absorption, distribution and metabolism: a sequential structure-activity/property relationship-based approach in the study of bioavailability and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Smagghe, Guy; Grootaert, Charlotte; Zotti, Moises; Raes, Katleen; Van Camp, John

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols that provide health-promoting benefits upon consumption. However, poor bioavailability has been a major hurdle in their use as drugs or nutraceuticals. Low bioavailability has been associated with flavonoid interactions at various stages of the digestion, absorption and distribution process, which is strongly affected by their molecular structure. In this review, we use structure-activity/property relationship to discuss various flavonoid interactions with food matrices, digestive enzymes, intestinal transporters and blood proteins. This approach reveals specific bioactive properties of flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract as well as various barriers for their bioavailability. In the last part of this review, we use these insights to determine the effect of different structural characteristics on the overall bioavailability of flavonoids. Such information is crucial when flavonoid or flavonoid derivatives are used as active ingredients in foods or drugs.

  1. Assessment of veterinary drugs in plants using pharmacokinetic approaches: The absorption, distribution and elimination of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in ephemeral vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Ru; Rairat, Tirawat; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Wu, Yu-Chieh; Vickroy, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate novel use of pharmacokinetic approaches to characterize drug behaviors/movements in the vegetables with implications to food safety. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and most importantly, the elimination of tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in edible plants Brassica rapa chinensis and Ipomoea aquatica grown hydroponically were demonstrated and studied using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results revealed drug-dependent and vegetable-dependent pharmacokinetic differences and indicated that ephemeral vegetables could have high capacity accumulating antibiotics (up to 160 μg g-1 for TC and 38 μg g-1 for SMX) within hours. TC concentration in the root (Cmax) could reach 11 times higher than that in the cultivation fluid and 3–28 times higher than the petioles/stems. Based on the volume of distribution (Vss), SMX was 3–6 times more extensively distributed than TC. Both antibiotics showed evident, albeit slow elimination phase with elimination half-lives ranging from 22 to 88 hours. For the first time drug elimination through the roots of a plant was demonstrated, and by viewing the root as a central compartment and continuous infusion without a loading dose as drug administration mode, it is possible to pharmacokinetically monitor the movement of antibiotics and their fate in the vegetables with more detailed information not previously available. Phyto-pharmacokinetic could be a new area worth developing new models for the assessment of veterinary drugs in edible plants. PMID:28797073

  2. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy ofmore » M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.« less

  3. Kinetin increases chromium absorption, modulates its distribution, and changes the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in Mexican Palo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Lopez-Moreno, Martha L.; Ren, Minghua; Saupe, Geoffrey; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    This report shows, for the first time, the effectiveness of the phytohormone kinetin (KN) in increasing Cr translocation from roots to stems in Mexican Palo Verde. Fifteen-day-old seedlings, germinated in soil spiked with Cr(III) and (VI) at 60 and 10 mg kg−1, respectively, were watered every other day for 30 days with a KN solution at 250 μM. Samples were analyzed for catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, Cr concentration, and Cr distribution in tissues. Results showed that KN reduced CAT but increased APOX in the roots of Cr(VI)-treated plants. In the leaves, KN reduced both CAT and APOX in Cr(III) but not in Cr(VI)-treated plants. However, KN increased total Cr concentration in roots, stems, and leaves by 45%, 103%, and 72%, respectively, compared to Cr(III) alone. For Cr(VI), KN increased Cr concentrations in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, by 53%, 129%, and 168%, compared to Cr(VI) alone. The electron probe microanalyzer results showed that Cr was mainly located at the cortex section in the root, and Cr distribution was essentially homogenous in stems. However, proven through X-ray images, Cr(VI)-treated roots and stems had more Cr accumulation than Cr(III) counterparts. KN increased the Cr translocation from roots to stems. PMID:21174467

  4. Prediction of Human Intestinal Absorption of Compounds Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Sharma, Anju; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Information about Pharmacokinetics of compounds is an essential component of drug design and development. Modeling the pharmacokinetic properties require identification of the factors effecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of compounds. There have been continuous attempts in the prediction of intestinal absorption of compounds using various Artificial intelligence methods in the effort to reduce the attrition rate of drug candidates entering to preclinical and clinical trials. Currently, there are large numbers of individual predictive models available for absorption using machine learning approaches. Six Artificial intelligence methods namely, Support vector machine, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Artificial neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis were used for prediction of absorption of compounds. Prediction accuracy of Support vector machine, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Artificial neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis for prediction of intestinal absorption of compounds was found to be 91.54%, 88.33%, 84.30%, 86.51%, 79.07% and 80.08% respectively. Comparative analysis of all the six prediction models suggested that Support vector machine with Radial basis function based kernel is comparatively better for binary classification of compounds using human intestinal absorption and may be useful at preliminary stages of drug design and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm(-1) (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm(-1) (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  6. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  7. The prediction of drug metabolism, tissue distribution, and bioavailability of 50 structurally diverse compounds in rat using mechanism-based absorption, distribution, and metabolism prediction tools.

    PubMed

    De Buck, Stefan S; Sinha, Vikash K; Fenu, Luca A; Gilissen, Ron A; Mackie, Claire E; Nijsen, Marjoleen J

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a physiologically based modeling approach for predicting drug metabolism, tissue distribution, and bioavailability in rat for a structurally diverse set of neutral and moderate-to-strong basic compounds (n = 50). Hepatic blood clearance (CL(h)) was projected using microsomal data and shown to be well predicted, irrespective of the type of hepatic extraction model (80% within 2-fold). Best predictions of CL(h) were obtained disregarding both plasma and microsomal protein binding, whereas strong bias was seen using either blood binding only or both plasma and microsomal protein binding. Two mechanistic tissue composition-based equations were evaluated for predicting volume of distribution (V(dss)) and tissue-to-plasma partitioning (P(tp)). A first approach, which accounted for ionic interactions with acidic phospholipids, resulted in accurate predictions of V(dss) (80% within 2-fold). In contrast, a second approach, which disregarded ionic interactions, was a poor predictor of V(dss) (60% within 2-fold). The first approach also yielded accurate predictions of P(tp) in muscle, heart, and kidney (80% within 3-fold), whereas in lung, liver, and brain, predictions ranged from 47% to 62% within 3-fold. Using the second approach, P(tp) prediction accuracy in muscle, heart, and kidney was on average 70% within 3-fold, and ranged from 24% to 54% in all other tissues. Combining all methods for predicting V(dss) and CL(h) resulted in accurate predictions of the in vivo half-life (70% within 2-fold). Oral bioavailability was well predicted using CL(h) data and Gastroplus Software (80% within 2-fold). These results illustrate that physiologically based prediction tools can provide accurate predictions of rat pharmacokinetics.

  8. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Wallace; Anderson, William H K; Albers, David R; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Langhorst, Marsha L; Hung, Shao-Ching; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Young, Scott A

    2011-10-26

    In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground pizza (PZ), pound cake (PC), or hamburger and fries (BF) supplemented with dietary fiber from either HPMC or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for 3 weeks. We observed greater excretion of SATs and TRANS by both diets supplemented with HPMC or MCC as compared to the feed. SAT, TRANS, and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) contents of feces of the PZ diet supplemented with HPMC were 5-8 times higher than diets supplemented with MCC and tended to be higher in the PC- and BF-HPMC supplemented diets as well. We also observed significant increases in fecal excretion of bile acids (2.6-3-fold; P < 0.05), sterols (1.1-1.5-fold; P < 0.05), and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT, 1.7-4.5-fold; P < 0.05). The animal body weight gain was inversely correlated with the excretion of fecal lipid concentrations of bile acids (r = -0.56; P < 0.005), sterols (r = -0.48; P < 0.005), SAT (r = -0.69; P < 0.005), UNSAT (r = -0.67; P < 0.005), and TRANS (r = -0.62; P < 0.005). Therefore, HPMC may be facilitating fat excretion in a biased manner with preferential fecal excretion of both TRANS and SAT in hamsters fed fast food diets.

  9. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P <0.0001), total cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate

  10. Retrieval of Vertical Aerosol and Trace Gas Distributions from Polarization Sensitive Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Friess, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    An accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols is crucial for our understanding of the chemical and dynamical processes in the lower troposphere. Their accurate determination is typically only possible by means of laborious and expensive airborne in-situ measurements but in the recent decades, numerous promising ground-based remote sensing approaches have been developed. One of them is to infer vertical distributions from "Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy" (DOAS) measurements. DOAS is a technique to analyze UV- and visible radiation spectra of direct or scattered sunlight, which delivers information on different atmospheric parameters, integrated over the light path from space to the instrument. An appropriate set of DOAS measurements, recorded under different viewing directions (Multi-Axis DOAS) and thus different light path geometries, provides information on the atmospheric state. The vertical profiles of aerosol properties and trace gas concentrations can be retrieved from such a set by numerical inversion techniques, incorporating radiative transfer models. The information content of measured data is rarely sufficient for a well-constrained retrieval, particularly for atmospheric layers above 1 km. We showed in first simulations that, apart from spectral properties, the polarization state of skylight is likely to provide a significant amount of additional information on the atmospheric state and thus to enhance retrieval quality. We present first simulations, expectations and ideas on how to implement and characterize a polarization sensitive Multi-Axis DOAS instrument and a corresponding profile retrieval algorithm.

  11. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle-Biomolecule Interactions Influence Oral Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Mi-Rae; Yu, Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in various industrial fields, such as electronics, packaging, food, and cosmetics. Accordingly, concerns about the potential toxicity of TiO2 NPs have increased. In order to comprehend their in vivo behavior and potential toxicity, we must evaluate the interactions between TiO2 NPs and biomolecules, which can alter the physicochemical properties and the fate of NPs under physiological conditions. In the present study, in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of food grade TiO2 (f-TiO2) NPs were evaluated following a single-dose oral administration to rats and were compared to those of general grade TiO2 (g-TiO2) NPs. The effect of the interactions between the TiO2 NPs and biomolecules, such as glucose and albumin, on oral absorption was also investigated, with the aim of determining the surface interactions between them. The intestinal transport pathway was also assessed using 3-dimensional culture systems. The results demonstrate that slightly higher oral absorption of f-TiO2 NPs compared to g-TiO2 NPs could be related to their intestinal transport mechanism by microfold (M) cells, however, most of the NPs were eliminated through the feces. Moreover, the biokinetics of f-TiO2 NPs was highly dependent on their interaction with biomolecules, and the dispersibility was affected by modified surface chemistry. PMID:28335354

  12. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  13. Consumption of a structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids increases fecal fat excretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Makiko; Arishima, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Ryoma; Kohno, Mitsutaka; Kida, Haruyasu; Hirotsuka, Motohiko; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the fecal fat excretion of mildly hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects who ingested soft cookies containing 1(3)-behenoyl-2,3(1)-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO) for 7 days. The subjects included 14 healthy men (average age; 44.9 ± 1.7) whose fasting plasma triacylglycerol level ranged from 150 to 250 mg/dL. Every day for 7 days, the subjects ate 5 soft cookies containing margarine with the BOO-rich experimental oil (BOO intake, 2.46 g/day). The placebo group ate soft cookies containing margarine without BOO. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Feces were collected for 3 days prior to the end of the treatment period, and fecal fat and fatty acid composition were determined. The fecal wet weight was significantly increased in BOO group compared with that in the placebo group. Moreover, fecal fat and fatty acid level were significantly higher in the BOO group than in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in the fecal fatty acid composition of the BOO and placebo groups. These results suggest that dietary BOO increases fecal excretion of dietary fat in humans. However, BOO does not increase the excretion of specific fatty acids; it increases the excretion of all fatty acids of dietary origin, which may lead to lower and delay intestinal absorption of dietary fat.

  14. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption intomore » the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.« less

  15. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    PubMed Central

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  16. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  17. Urban commuting: crowdedness and catecholamine excretion.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, U

    1976-09-01

    Male passengers regularly commuting by train on the Stockholm-Nynäshamn line were investigated on two morning trips to Stockholm. These trips were made under different levels of crowding, before (Trip 1) and after (Trip 2) a period of gas rationing during the oil crisis in 1974. However, seats were available for almost everyone during both trips. One group of subjects boarded the train at its first stop (Nynäshamn), the other midway on its route (Västerhaninge). Physiological reactions were assessed from the rate of catecholamine excretion in urine and subjective experiences were measured by self-ratings. The results showed that feelings of discomfort grew more intense as the train approached Stockholm and the number of passengers increased. Perceived crowdedness increased as the square of the number of passengers. During both trips the subjects from Nynäshamn (longer trip) had a lower rate of adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion on the train than those from Västerhaninge. Furthermore, it was found that the rate of adrenaline excretion was higher for both groups during Trip 2, when the train was more crowded. The results support previous findings indicating that the stress involved in travelling by train varies more with the social and ecological conditions of the trip than with its length or duration.

  18. Percutaneous absorption of selenium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, J.; Skelly, E.M.; Weber, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine selenium levels in the urine of Tinea patients before and after overnight application of a 2.5% selenium sulfide lotion. Selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Hydride generation and carbon rod atomization were studied. It was concluded from this study that selenium is absorbed through intact skin. Selenium is then excreted, at least partially, in urine, for at least a week following treatment. The data show that absorption and excretion of selenium vary on an individual basis. Selenium levels in urine following a single application of selenium sulfide lotion do notmore » indicate that toxic amounts of selenium are being absorbed. Repeated treatments with SeS/sub 2/ result in selenium concentrations in urine which are significantly higher than normal. Significant matrix effects are observed in the carbon rod atomization of urine samples for selenium determinations, even in the presence of a matrix modifier such as nickel. The method of standard additions is required to obtain accurate results in the direct determination of selenium in urine by carbon rod AAS.« less

  19. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P < 0.001) for men compared with women (31-33%) and for persons with a higher body mass index (BMI; 32-35% for obese vs. normal weight) or blood pressure (17-26% for hypertensive vs. normal blood pressure). After adjusting for age, sex, and race-ethnicity, temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.

  20. Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy.

    PubMed

    Kávási, Norbert; Kovács, Tibor; Somlai, János; Jobbágy, Viktor; Nagy, Katalin; Deák, Eszter; Berhés, István; Bender, Tamás; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

    2011-07-01

    Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m(-3), 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm(-3), 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm(-3)), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples.

  1. Nickel absorption and kinetics in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sunderman, F W; Hopfer, S M; Sweeney, K R; Marcus, A H; Most, B M; Creason, J

    1989-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution, and elimination was performed in healthy human volunteers who ingested NiSO4 drinking water (Experiment 1) or added to food (Experiment 2). Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and feces collected during 2 days before and 4 days after a specified NiSO4 dose (12 micrograms of nickel/kg, n = 4; 18 micrograms of nickel/kg, n = 4; or 50 micrograms of nickel/kg, n = 1). In Experiment 1, each of the subjects fasted 12 hr before and 3 hr after drinking one of the specified NiSO4 doses dissolved in water; in Experiment 2, the respective subjects fasted 12 hr before consuming a standard American breakfast that contained the identical dose of NiSO4 added to scrambled eggs. Kinetic analyses, using a compartmental model, provided excellent goodness-of-fit for paired data sets from all subjects. Absorbed nickel averaged 27 +/- 17% (mean +/- SD) of the dose ingested in water vs 0.7 +/- 0.4% of the same dose ingested in food (a 40-fold difference); rate constants for nickel absorption, transfer, and elimination were not significantly influenced by the oral vehicle. The elimination half-time for absorbed nickel averaged 28 +/- 9 hr. Renal clearance of nickel averaged 8.3 +/- 2.0 ml/min/1.73 m2 in Experiment 1 and 5.8 +/- 4.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 in Experiment 2. This study confirms that dietary constituents profoundly reduce the bioavailability of Ni2+ for alimentary absorption; approximately one-quarter of nickel ingested in drinking water after an over-night fast is absorbed from the human intestine and excreted in urine, compared with only 1% of nickel ingested in food. The compartmental model and kinetic parameters provided by this study will reduce the uncertainty of toxicologic risk assessments of human exposures to nickel in drinking water and food.

  2. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  3. Analysis of global and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination gene expression in the progressive stages of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Fisher, Craig D; Jackson, Jonathan P; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Billheimer, D Dean; Klimecki, Walter T; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2011-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by a series of pathological changes that range from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this study is to describe changes in global gene expression associated with the progression of human NAFLD. This study is focused on the expression levels of genes responsible for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Differential gene expression between three clinically defined pathological groups-normal, steatosis, and NASH-was analyzed. Genome-wide mRNA levels in samples of human liver tissue were assayed with Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0ST arrays. A total of 11,633 genes exhibited altered expression out of 33,252 genes at a 5% false discovery rate. Most gene expression changes occurred in the progression from steatosis to NASH. Principal component analysis revealed that hepatic disease status was the major determinant of differential ADME gene expression rather than age or sex of sample donors. Among the 515 drug transporters and 258 drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) examined, uptake transporters but not efflux transporters or DMEs were significantly over-represented in the number of genes down-regulated. These results suggest that uptake transporter genes are coordinately targeted for down-regulation at the global level during the pathological development of NASH and that these patients may have decreased drug uptake capacity. This coordinated regulation of uptake transporter genes is indicative of a hepatoprotective mechanism acting to prevent accumulation of toxic intermediates in disease-compromised hepatocytes.

  4. Excretion of trazodone in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Verbeeck, R K; Ross, S G; McKenna, E A

    1986-01-01

    The excretion of breast milk was studied in six lactating women following the oral administration of a single trazodone tablet (50 mg). The milk/plasma ratio of trazodone based on area under the plasma and milk curves was small: 0.142 +/- 0.045 (mean +/- s.d.). Assuming that the babies would drink 500 ml 12 h-1, they would be exposed to less than 0.005 mg kg-1 as compared to 0.77 mg kg-1 for the mothers. It is concluded that exposure of babies to trazodone via breast milk is very small. PMID:3768252

  5. Small-bowel absorption of D-tagatose and related effects on carbohydrate digestibility: an ileostomy study.

    PubMed

    Normén, L; Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B; Langkilde, A M; Andersson, H

    2001-01-01

    The ketohexose D-tagatose is a new sweetener with a low energy content. This low energy content may be due to either low absorption of the D-tagatose or decreased absorption of other nutrients. The aims of this study were to measure the excretion of D-tagatose from the human small bowel, to calculate the apparent absorption of D-tagatose, and to study the effects of D-tagatose on the small-bowel excretion of other carbohydrates. A controlled diet was served for 2 periods of 2 d during 3 consecutive weeks to 6 ileostomy subjects. In one of the periods, 15 g D-tagatose was added to the diet daily. Duplicate portions of the diet and ileostomy effluents were freeze-dried and analyzed to calculate the apparent net absorption of D-tagatose and carbohydrates. Median D-tagatose excretion was 19% (range: 12-31%), which corresponded to a calculated apparent absorption of 81% (69-88%). Of the total amount of D-tagatose excreted [2.8 g (1.7-4.4 g)], 60% (8-88%) was excreted within 3 h. Between 3 and 5 h, 32% (11-82%) was excreted. Excretion of wet matter increased by 41% (24-52%) with D-tagatose ingestion. Sucrose and D-glucose excretion increased to a small extent, whereas no significant changes were found in the excretion of dry matter, energy, starch, or D-fructose. The apparent absorption of 15 g D-tagatose/d was 81%. D-Tagatose had only a minor influence on the apparent absorption of other nutrients.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and Biliary Excretion of Fisetin in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Chan; Hsueh, Thomas Y; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-06-14

    The hypothesis of this study is that fisetin and phase II conjugated forms of fisetin may partly undergo biliary excretion. To investigate this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment, and their bile ducts were cannulated with polyethylene tubes for bile sampling. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that the average area-under-the-curve (AUC) ratios ( k (%) = AUC conjugate /AUC free-form ) of fisetin, its glucuronides, and its sulfates were 1:6:21 in plasma and 1:4:75 in bile, respectively. Particularly, the sulfated metabolites were the main forms that underwent biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rate ( k BE (%) = AUC bile /AUC plasma ) indicates the amount of fisetin eliminated by biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rates of fisetin, its glucuronide conjugates, and its sulfate conjugates were approximately 144, 109, and 823%, respectively, after fisetin administration (30 mg/kg, iv). Furthermore, biliary excretion of fisetin is mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  7. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  8. Effect of monofluoroacetate on renal H+ excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Simonnet, H; Gauthier, C; Pellet, M V

    1979-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of monofluoroacetate (MFA) on renal H+ excretion, anesthetized rats under mannitol diuresis were given intraperitoneally MFA and some of the acido-basic status parameters were determined. Urinary pH and pCO2 did not change after MFA administration, while urinary flow rate increased. MFA induced a decrease in H+ net excretion and in ammonia excretion. Titratable acidity did not change significantly within the experiment.

  9. Ecdysteroid excretion by adult Hymenolepis diminuta in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mercer, J G; Munn, A E; Arme, C; Rees, H H

    1987-12-01

    Both patent and prepatent adult Hymenolepis diminuta excreted 20-hydroxyecdysone into the culture medium when maintained in vitro. Patent worms also excreted ecdysone and comparatively large quantities of unidentified immunoreactive material of a relatively apolar nature. This latter material was shown to be depleted from the endogenous free ecdysteroids of patent adults during the culture period. Ecdysteroid excretion was affected both qualitatively and quantitatively when culturing conditions were varied.

  10. Gastrointestinal absorption of americium-241 by orally exposed swine: comparison of experimental results with predictions of metabolic models.

    PubMed

    Eisele, G R; Bernard, S R; Nestor, C W

    1987-10-01

    Two groups of 11-week-old swine (40 miniature and 40 domestic swine) received a single oral administration of 1.9 X 10(8) Bq (5.2 mCi) of 241Am citrate, and groups of eight animals, four of each type, were killed and sampled at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and 30 days later. Uptake and excretion patterns of the radioactivity appeared to occur in three phases: rapid uptake, rapid excretion, and then a slower excretion. All animals were systematically dissected, and the eviscerated carcasses were autoclaved for separation of bone and muscle. The predominant site of deposition was bone, and autoclaving had little effect on releasing 241Am from either bone or muscle. The maximum fractional gastrointestinal absorption of 1.1 X 10(-3) occurred 8 h after radionuclide administration. The tissue distribution data suggest partitions of 50, 20, and 30%, for bone, liver, and other soft tissues, respectively. Two metabolic models were evaluated: a modified Mewhinney-Griffith model and the ICRP 30 model to compare the biological data with model predictions. All models underestimated the actual early time data, but the fits to the experimental results were better at later times.

  11. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adults consuming naturally and artificially fluoridated water and the influence of water hardness: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Cabezas, L; Anabalón, M; Rugg-Gunn, A

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether there was any significant difference in the average fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) values among adults consuming (NaF) fluoridated Ca-free water (reference water), naturally fluoridated hard water and an artificially (H2SiF6) fluoridated soft water. Sixty adult females (N=20 for each treatment) participated in this randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental design of this study provided an indirect estimation of the fluoride absorption in different types of water through the assessment of the fractional urinary fluoride excretion of volunteers. Average daily FUFE values (daily amount of fluoride excreted in urine/daily total fluoride intake) were not significantly different between the three treatments (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.62). The average 24-hour FUFE value (n=60) was 0.69; 95% C.I. 0.65-0.73. The results of this study suggest that the absorption of fluoride is not affected by water hardness.

  12. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  13. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  14. Moclobemide excretion in human breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Pons, G; Schoerlin, M P; Tam, Y K; Moran, C; Pfefen, J P; Francoual, C; Pedarriosse, A M; Chavinie, J; Olive, G

    1990-01-01

    1. Six lactating white women, aged 24-36 years, received a single oral dose of 300 mg moclobemide, between 09.00 h and 11.00 h, 3 to 5 days after the delivery of a full term neonate. 2. Complete milk collections were obtained before, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after drug administration by means of a breast pump. Venous blood samples were drawn before, and 0.5, 1, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 12, 24 h post-dosing. 3. Moclobemide, and its major metabolite (Ro 12-8095) were measured in milk and plasma samples using h.p.l.c. The active metabolite (Ro 12-5637) could only be detected in plasma. 4. Moclobemide and its metabolites were not detectable in 24 h plasma samples. Cmax, tmax and t1/2 for moclobemide were (mean +/- s.d.) 2.70 +/- 1.24 mg l-1, 2.03 +/- 1.19 h and 2.26 +/- 0.26 h, respectively. 5. The concentrations of moclobemide and Ro 12-8095 in milk were highest at 3 h after drug administration and the drug and metabolite were not detectable after 12 h. Ro 12-5637 was not detected in any milk sample. The percentages of the dose excreted as moclobemide and Ro 12-8095 were (mean +/- s.d.) 0.057 +/- 0.020% and 0.031 +/- 0.011%, respectively. An average 3.5 kg breast-fed neonate would therefore be exposed to only a 0.05 mg kg-1 moclobemide dose (approximately 1% of the maternal dose on the mg kg-1 basis). The low amount of moclobemide excreted into breast milk is unlikely to be hazardous to suckling infants. PMID:2297459

  15. Design and development of a probe-based multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor for characterizing transient gas-parameter distributions in the intake systems of I.C. engines

    DOE PAGES

    Jatana, Gurneesh; Geckler, Sam; Koeberlein, David; ...

    2016-09-01

    We designed and developed a 4-probe multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor system for gas property measurements on the intake side of commercial multi-cylinder internal-combustion (I.C.) engines; the resulting cycle- and cylinder-resolved concentration, temperature and pressure measurements are applicable for assessing spatial and temporal variations in the recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) distribution at various locations along the intake gas path, which in turn is relevant to assessing cylinder charge uniformity, control strategies, and CFD models. Furthermore, the diagnostic is based on absorption spectroscopy and includes an H 2O absorption system (utilizing a 1.39 m distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser) for measuringmore » gas temperature, pressure, and H 2O concentration, and a CO 2 absorption system (utilizing a 2.7 m DFB laser) for measuring CO 2 concentration. The various lasers, optical components and detectors were housed in an instrument box, and the 1.39- m and 2.7- m lasers were guided to and from the engine-mounted probes via optical fibers and hollow waveguides, respectively. The 5kHz measurement bandwidth allows for near-crank angle resolved measurements, with a resolution of 1.2 crank angle degrees at 1000 RPM. Our use of compact stainless steel measurement probes enables simultaneous multi-point measurements at various locations on the engine with minimal changes to the base engine hardware; in addition to resolving large-scale spatial variations via simultaneous multi-probe measurements, local spatial gradients can be resolved by translating individual probes. Along with details of various sensor design features and performance, we also demonstrate validation of the spectral parameters of the associated CO 2 absorption transitions using both a multi-pass heated cell and the sensor probes.« less

  16. Catecholamine, Corticosteroid and Ketone Excretion in Exercise and Hypoxia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    OHCS excretion tended to be higher during the experimental period and subsequently lower overnight during the hypoxia week. Ketosis occurred in two...subjects. In one of these it could be readily related to previous extraneous stress. Excretion of unidentified ketones in overnight urines was sometimes suspected and occurred beyond doubt following gross ketosis . (Author)

  17. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis decreases urinary oxalate excretion in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Whittamore, Jonathan M.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria significantly increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. Since several bacteria have been shown to metabolize oxalate in vitro, including probiotic bifidobacteria, we focused on the efficiency and possible mechanisms by which bifidobacteria can infuence oxalate handling in vivo, especially in the intestines, and compared these results with the reported effects of Oxalobacter formigenes. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and B. adolescentis ATCC 15703 were administered to wild-type (WT) mice and to mice defcient in the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt−/−, a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria) that were fed an oxalate-supplemented diet. The administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis led to a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion in WT and Agxt−/− mice when compared to treatment with B. adolescent-is. Detection of B. animalis subsp. lactis in feces revealed that 3 weeks after oral gavage with the bacteria 64 % of WT mice, but only 37 % of Agxt−/− mice were colonized. Examining intestinal oxalate fuxes showed there were no significant changes to net oxalate secretion in colonized animals and were therefore not associated with the changes in urinary oxalate excretion. These results indicate that colonization with B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased urinary oxalate excretion by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine but it did not promote enteric oxalate excretion as reported for O. formigenes. Preventive or therapeutic administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis appears to have some potential to beneficially infuence dietary hyperoxaluria in mice. PMID:25269440

  18. Ethosuximide: liver enzyme induction and D-glucaric acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J C; Scott, A K; Galloway, D B; Petrie, J C

    1974-06-01

    1 A study has been carried out to determine if ethosuximide induces liver enzymes. 2 Ethosuximide did not affect the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid by healthy adult subjects nor was the mean daily D-glucaric acid excretion of three epileptic children on long term ethosuximide therapy different from that of three matched controls. 3 Ethosuximide (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg daily) did not influence D-glucaric acid excretion or liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 contents of guinea pigs but at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily in rats it increased liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 without altering D-glucaric acid excretion. 4 These results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses ethosuximide is unlikely to induce liver enzymes. The precise relationship between D-glucaric acid excretion and liver enzyme induction remains in doubt.

  19. Excretion and toxicity evaluation of 131I-Sennoside A as a necrosis-avid agent.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiqi; Sun, Lidan; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Liao, Hong; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    1. Sennoside A (SA) is a newly identified necrosis-avid agent that shows capability for imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy. As a water-soluble compound, 131 I-Sennoside A ( 131 I-SA) might be excreted predominately through the kidneys with the possibility of nephrotoxicity. 2. To further verify excretion pathway and examine nephrotoxicity of 131 I-SA, excretion and nephrotoxicity were appraised. The pharmacokinetics, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity of 131 I-SA were also evaluated to accelerate its possible clinical translation. All these studies were conducted in mice with ethanol-induced muscular necrosis following a single intravenous administration of 131I-SA at 18.5 MBq/kg or 370 MBq/kg. 3. Excretion data revealed that 131 I-SA was predominately (73.5% of the injected dose (% ID)) excreted via the kidneys with 69.5% ID detected in urine within 72 h post injection. Biodistribution study indicated that 131 I-SA exhibited initial high distribution in the kidneys but subsequently a fast renal clearance, which was further confirmed by the results of autoradiography and single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) imaging. The maximum necrotic to normal muscle ratio reached to 7.9-fold at 48 h post injection, which further verified the necrosis avidity of 131 I-SA. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed that 131 I-SA had fast blood clearance with an elimination half-life of 6.7 h. Various functional indexes were no significant difference (p > 0.05) between before administration and 1 d, 8 d, 16 d after administration. Histopathology showed no signs of tissue damage. 4. These data suggest 131 I-SA is a safe and promising necrosis-avid agent applicable in imaging diagnosis and tumor necrosis targeted radiotherapy.

  20. A Study of the Skin Absorption of Ethylbenzene in Man

    PubMed Central

    Dutkiewicz, Tadeusz; Tyras, Halina

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of ethylbenzene through the skin of the hand and the forearm in men was investigated experimentally. Both the absorption of liquid ethylbenzene and the absorption from aqueous solutions were studied. The rate of absorption of liquid ethylbenzene was 22 to 33 mg./cm.2/hr, and the rates from aqueous solutions were 118 and 215 μg./cm.2/hr from mean concentrations of 112 and 156 mg./litre. The mandelic acid excreted in urine was equivalent to about 4·6% of the absorbed dose—much less than after lung absorption. Urinary mandelic acid does not provide a reliable index of absorption when there is simultaneous skin and lung exposure. PMID:6073092

  1. Renal excretion of intravenously infused amoxycillin and ampicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Sjövall, J; Westerlund, D; Alván, G

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether concentration-dependent renal clearance of ampicillin and amoxycillin occurs. The drugs were given as single 20 min i.v. infusions in doses ranging from 1.9 to 2.8 g to nine healthy volunteers using a cross-over design. Plasma and urinary concentrations were determined by a selective liquid chromatographic method using frequent sampling up to 10 and 30 h respectively after termination of the infusion. The renal clearance of the drugs was independent of the plasma concentration. The mean (s.d.) renal clearances of ampicillin and amoxycillin were 167 (24) and 157 (20) ml min-1 1.73 m-2 respectively. The net secretion was about 50% of the total renal clearance of both drugs. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion rate versus time curves indicated a polyexponential decline, which could be described by both a biexponential and a triexponential equation. The former proved to be more reliable, especially in the calculation of micro rate constants. There was a tendency to more sustained plasma concentrations after amoxycillin, also illustrated by a significantly lower mean (s.d.) plasma clearance of this drug, viz. 185 (30) ml min-1 1.73 m-2, as compared to ampicillin, 210 (24) ml min-1 1.73 m-2 (P less than 0.04). There were no major differences in the disposition rate constants and the distribution volumes of ampicillin and amoxycillin. The mean (s.d.) plasma half-life was 1.7 (0.3) h for both drugs. The urinary excretion rate indicated a slower terminal disposition rate however, with ampicillin and amoxycillin half-lives of 3.4 (2.0) and 3.9 (1.2) h respectively. The longer half-life in the terminal phase may be due to increased tubular reabsorption at low urinary concentrations. It was not possible to determine in this study whether the half-life was affected by changes in clearance or volume of distribution. The urinary solubility of the drugs was dependent on pH. This could explain the massive macroscopic

  2. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Yan, Hou; Lee, Shun Fu; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lanas, Fernando; Yusoff, Khalid; Iqbal, Romaina; Ilow, Rafal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gulec, Sadi; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Kruger, Lanthe; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kabali, Conrad; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events. The mean estimated sodium and potassium excretion was 4.93 g per day and 2.12 g per day, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, the composite outcome occurred in 3317 participants (3.3%). As compared with an estimated sodium excretion of 4.00 to 5.99 g per day (reference range), a higher estimated sodium excretion (≥ 7.00 g per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.30), as well as increased risks of death and major cardiovascular events considered separately. The association between a high estimated sodium excretion and the composite outcome was strongest among participants with hypertension (P=0.02 for interaction), with an increased risk at an estimated sodium excretion of 6.00 g or more per day. As compared with the reference range, an estimated sodium excretion that was below 3.00 g per day was also associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.44). As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome. In this study in which sodium intake was estimated on the basis of measured urinary excretion, an estimated sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than was either a higher or lower estimated level of intake. As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was

  3. Micro-pulse, differential absorption lidar (dial) network for measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of water vapor in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, Scott; Repasky, Kevin; Hayman, Matt; Nehrir, Amin

    2018-04-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Montana State Univeristy (MSU) are developing a test network of five micro-pulse differential absorption lidars to continuously measure high-vertical-resolution water vapor in the lower atmosphere. The instruments are accurate, yet low-cost; operate unattended, and eye-safe - all key features to enable the larger network needed to characterize atmospheric moisture variability which influences important processes related to weather and climate.

  4. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  5. Desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria secondary to increased nocturnal osmotic excretion.

    PubMed

    Dehoorne, Jo L; Raes, Ann M; van Laecke, Erik; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan G

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the role of increased solute excretion in children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. A total of 42 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and significant nocturnal polyuria with high nocturnal urinary osmolality (more than 850 mmol/l) were not responding to desmopressin. A 24-hour urinary concentration profile was obtained with measurement of urine volume, osmolality, osmotic excretion and creatinine. The control group consisted of 100 children without enuresis. Based on osmotic excretion patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1 had 24-hour increased osmotic excretion, most likely secondary to a high renal osmotic load. This was probably diet related since 11 of these 12 patients were obese. Group 2 had increased osmotic excretion in the evening and night, probably due to a high renal osmotic load caused by the diet characteristics of the evening meal. Group 3 had deficient osmotic excretion during the day, secondary to extremely low fluid intake to compensate for small bladder capacity. Nocturnal polyuria with high urinary osmolality in our patients with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is related to abnormal increased osmotic excretion. This may be explained by their fluid and diet habits, eg daytime fluid restriction, and high protein and salt intake.

  6. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-03-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  7. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis and Glutamate Excretion in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Broda, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli excreted glutamate into the medium when protein synthesis was blocked in RCrel strains or when it was blocked with chloramphenicol in either RCstr or RCrel strains. Both of these conditions resulted in continued ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in the absence of protein synthesis. Glutamate was also excreted by both RCstr and RCrel strains when RNA synthesis was inhibited by uracil starvation or by treatment with actinomycin D. It is proposed that, in each of these cases, glutamate excretion resulted from an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:4973126

  8. Abnormal Excretion of Corticosteroid Sulphates in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P. C.; Lockwood, E.; Pennington, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    In a preliminary study, the 24-hour urinary excretion of corticosteroid sulphates and free cortisol have been measured in a group of patients with breast cancer and compared with the excretion of the same compounds in a group of normal women of similar age. Excretion of corticosteroid sulphates in the breast cancer group was found to be markedly raised. In a small number of patients with localized cancer of sites other than the breast the level of corticosteroid sulphate was not raised. If proved metastases were present a noticeable rise was observed. Imagesp330-a PMID:4685623

  9. THE USE OF Y$sup 91$ AS AN INERT INDICATOR IN INTESTINAL ABSORPTION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maisterrena, J.A.; Murphy, C.A.; Tovar, E.

    The use of Y/sup 91/ as an inert-indicator in the studies of the intestinal absorption of I/sup 131/-labeled substances is reported, emphasis being given to its clinical advantages. The Y/sup 91/ is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, since recovery in the feces in 22 cases was 96 plus or minus 6.7% (S.D.) of the amount given. The Y/sup 91/ and the I/sup 131/-labeled substances are homogeneously distributed throughout any given stool sample but their rate of excretion is not always parallel. A close correlation was found between the amount of I/sup 131/ excreted as obtained from the complete fecalmore » collection method and that of Y/sup 91/-indicator method in a group of 20 subjects under special supervision. The value of the Y/sup 91/ inert-indicator method where the completeness of the stool collection is doubtful is shown in 23 cases. (auth)« less

  10. Ammonia excretion increased and urea excretion decreased in urine of a new world nectarivorous bat with decreased nitrogen intake.

    PubMed

    Herrera M, L Gerardo; Ramirez P, Nicte; Miron M, Leticia

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effect of water and nitrogen intake on nitrogenous waste composition in the nectarivorous Pallas's long-tongued bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae) to test the hypothesis that bats reduce excretion of urea nitrogen and increase the excretion of ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen intake decreases and water intake decreases. Because changes in urine nitrogen composition are expected only in animals whose natural diets are low in nitrogen and high in water content, we also measured maintenance nitrogen requirements (MNR). We hypothesized that, similar to other plant-eating vertebrates, nectarivorous bats have low MNR. Our nitrogen excretion hypothesis was partly proved correct. There was an increase in the proportion of N excreted as ammonia and a decrease in the proportion excreted as urea in low-nitrogen diets. The proportion of N excreted as ammonia and urea was independent of water intake. Most individuals were ureotelic (n = 28), and only a few were ureo-ammonotelic (n = 3) or ammonotelic (n = 2). According to our nitrogen requirement hypothesis, apparent MNR (60 mg kg(-0.75) d(-1)) and truly digestible MNR (54 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1)) were low. A decrease in urea excretion in low-nitrogen diets may result from urea recycling from liver to the gut functioning as a nitrogen salvage system in nectarivorous bats. This mechanism probably contributes to the low MNR found in Pallas's long-tongued bats.

  11. [Distribution and speciation of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and rhizosphere soil by in situ synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ya-Ting

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate plant reacting mechanism with heavy metal stress in organ and tissue level, synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-SRXRF) was used to determine element distribution characteristics of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb in an Arabidopsis thaliana seedling grown in tailing dam soil taken from a lead-zinc mine exploration area. The results showed a regular distribution characters of K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, while Pb appeared not only in root, but also in a leaf bud which was beyond previously understanding that Pb mainly appeared in plant root. Pb competed with Mn in the distribution of the whole seedling. Pb may cause the increase of oxidative stress in root and leaf bud, and restrict Mn absorption and utilization which explained the phenomenon of seedling death in this tailing damp soil. Speciation of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana and tailing damp rhizosphere soil were also presented after using PbL3 micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES). By comparison of PbL3 XANES peak shape and peak position between standard samples and rhizosphere soil sample, it was demonstrated that the tailing damp soil was mainly formed by amorphous forms like PbO (64.2%), Pb (OH)2 (28.8%) and Pb3O4 (6.3%) rather than mineral or organic Pb speciations. The low plant bioavailability of Pb demonstrated a further research focusing on Pb absorption and speciation conversion is needed, especially the role of dissolve organic matter in soil which may enhance Pb bioavailability.

  12. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2016-02-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (J(urea)) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of J(urea) by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following hatch, whole body urea concentration decreased over time, while J(urea) increased following yolk sac absorption. From 12 to 40 days posthatch (dph), extra-branchial routes of excretion accounted for the majority of J(urea), while the gills became the dominant site for J(urea) only after 55 dph. This represents the most delayed branchial ontogeny of any process studied to date. Urea transporter (UT) gene expression in the gills and skin increased over development, consistent with increases in branchial and extra-branchial J(urea). Following exposure to 25 mmol/l urea, the accumulation and subsequent elimination of exogenous urea was much greater at 55 dph than 12 dph, consistent with increased UT expression. Notably, UT gene expression in the gills of 55 dph larvae increased in response to high urea. In summary, there is a clear increase in urea transport capacity over posthatch development, despite a decrease in OUC activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Updated bioavailability and 48 h excretion profile of flavan-3-ols from green tea in humans.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Luisa Callegari, Maria; Morelli, Lorenzo; Brighenti, Furio

    2012-08-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage, prepared with infusion of unfermented dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, and is one of the most relevant sources of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet. This study reports green tea flavan-3-ol absorption, metabolism and complete urinary excretion up to 48 h in 20 healthy volunteers. Urinary and tea samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Green tea contained monomeric flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins with a total polyphenol content of 728 μmol. A total of 41 metabolites were identified in urines, all present in conjugated forms. Among these, six colonic metabolites of green tea flavan-3-ols were identified for the first time after green tea consumption in humans. The average 48 h bioavailability was close to 62%, major contributors being microbial metabolites. Some volunteer showed a 100% absorption/excretion, whereas some others were unable to efficiently absorb/excrete this class of flavonoids. This suggests that colonic ring fission metabolism could be relevant in the putative bioactivity of green tea polyphenols.

  14. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (Jurea) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of Jurea by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following hatch, whole body urea concentration decreased over time, while Jurea increased following yolk sac absorption. From 12 to 40 days posthatch (dph), extra-branchial routes of excretion accounted for the majority of Jurea, while the gills became the dominant site for Jurea only after 55 dph. This represents the most delayed branchial ontogeny of any process studied to date. Urea transporter (UT) gene expression in the gills and skin increased over development, consistent with increases in branchial and extra-branchial Jurea. Following exposure to 25 mmol/l urea, the accumulation and subsequent elimination of exogenous urea was much greater at 55 dph than 12 dph, consistent with increased UT expression. Notably, UT gene expression in the gills of 55 dph larvae increased in response to high urea. In summary, there is a clear increase in urea transport capacity over posthatch development, despite a decrease in OUC activity. PMID:26608657

  15. Distribution

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  16. Pyruvate production and excretion by the luminous marine bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, E G; Nealson, K H

    1977-01-01

    During aerobic growth on glucose, several species of luminous marine bacteria exhibited an imcomplete oxidative catabolism of substrate. Pyruvate, one of the products of glucose metabolism, was excreted into the medium during exponential growth and accounted for up to 50% of the substrate carbon metabolized. When glucose was depleted from the medium, the excreted pyruvate was promptly utilized, demonstrating that the cells are capable of pyruvate catabolism. Pyruvate excretion is not a general phenomenon of carbohydrate metabolism since it does not occur during the utilization of glycerol or maltose. When cells pregrown on glycerol were exposed to glucose, they began to excrete pyruvate, even if protein synthesis was blocked with chloramphenicol. Glucose thus appears to have an effect on the activity of preexisting catabolic enzymes. PMID:303077

  17. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted formore » by biliary excretion.« less

  18. Absorption, distribution, and milk secretion of the perfluoroalkyl acids PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA by dairy cows fed naturally contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Janine; Ehlers, Susan; Oberhausen, Anja; Tischer, Marion; Fürst, Peter; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2013-03-27

    The transfer of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from feed into tissue and milk of dairy cows was investigated. Holstein cows (n = 6) were fed a PFAA-contaminated feed for 28 days. After the PFAA-feeding period, three cows were slaughtered while the others were fed PFAA-free feed for another 21 days (depuration period). For PFAA analysis plasma, liver, kidney, and muscle tissue, urine, and milk were sampled and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The average daily intake of dairy cows was 3.4 ± 0.7, 4.6 ± 1.0, 7.6 ± 3.7 and 2.0 ± 1.2 μg/kg body weight (bw) for PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA, respectively. Overall, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA showed different kinetics in dairy cows. In plasma, concentrations of PFBS (mean = 1.2 ± 0.8 μg/L) and PFOA (mean = 8.5 ± 5.7 μg/L) were low, whereas PFHxS and PFOS continuously increased during the PFAA-feeding period up to maximal concentrations of 419 ± 172 and 1903 ± 525 μg/L, respectively. PFOS in plasma remained constantly high during the depuration period. PFOS levels were highest in liver, followed by kidney, without significant differences between feeding periods. The highest PFHxS levels were detected in liver and kidney of cows slaughtered on day 29 (61 ± 24 and 98 ± 31 μg/kg wet weight (ww)). The lowest PFAA levels were detected in muscle tissue. At the end of the feeding study, cumulative secretion in milk was determined for PFOS (14 ± 3.6%) and PFHxS (2.5 ± 0.2%). The other two chemicals were barely secreted into milk: PFBS (0.01 ± 0.02%) and PFOA (0.1 ± 0.06%). Overall, the kinetics of PFOA were similar to those of PFBS and substantially differed from those of PFHxS and PFOS. The very low concentration of PFBS in plasma and milk, the relatively high urinary excretion, and only traces of PFBS in liver (0.3

  19. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  20. Plasma potassium and diurnal cyclic potassium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, L; Berlin, R; Yamauchi, H

    1987-12-01

    The relation of the plasma potassium concentration to the daily cyclic variation in potassium excretion was examined in undisturbed, unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a liquid diet in a 12-h light-dark environment. Potassium excretion increased from a light-phase minimum of 16 mu eq/h to a peak of 256 mu eq/h 3 h after the beginning of the dark phase. Plasma potassium concentration in arterial blood, sampled in rats at 90-min intervals during these changes in potassium excretion, showed no significant change and was in the range 4.50-4.99 meq/liter. In adrenalectomized rats receiving aldosterone and dexamethasone at constant basal rates by implanted pumps, the daily cycle of potassium excretion was the same as in the intact rats, and plasma potassium was not significantly different when measured at the time of minimum and maximum rates of potassium excretion (4.79 +/- 0.42 vs 5.16 +/- 0.47 meq/liter, mean +/- SD). These results indicate that plasma potassium concentration is not the efferent factor controlling diurnal cyclic changes in potassium excretion in adrenal intact rats and may not be the only significant factor in adrenalectomized-steroid replaced rats.

  1. Relation of Urinary Calcium and Magnesium Excretion to Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kesteloot†, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R.; Unwin, Robert J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40–59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20–59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels. PMID:21624957

  2. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)in angus cattle (Bos taurus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are environmentally persistent industrial chemicals often found in biosolids. Application of these biosolids to pastures raises concern about accumulation of PFOA in the edible tissues of food animals. Because data on the absorp...

  3. Physiologic effects of ergot alkaloids: What happens when excretion does not equal absorption?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased persistence of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infested with an endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) in forage-based agriculture has led to increased effort in understanding the negative effects caused by consumption of ergot alkaloids by animals co...

  4. Dietary raw versus retrograded resistant starch enhances apparent but not true magnesium absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, M L; van den Berg, G J; Beynen, A C

    1996-09-01

    Dietary raw (RS2) vs. retrograded resistant starch (RS3) raises apparent magnesium absorption in rats. The mechanism proposed is that RS2 enhances magnesium avaibility for absorption; it does this by increasing ileal solubility of magnesium due to a reduction in pH as a consequence of RS2 fermentation in the gut. The mechanism implies that dietary RS2 vs. RS3 would raise true magnesium absorption and stimulate reabsorption of endogenous magnesium, leading to a lower fecal excretion of endogenous magnesium. Dietary lactulose vs. glucose raises apparent magnesium absorption, and the mechanism proposed is similar to that for the stimulatory effect of RS2 vs. RS3. Thus, we measured in rats fed RS3, RS2, glucose or lactulose true magnesium absorption on the basis of the retention of the orally and intraperitoneally administered radiotracer 28Mg. Feeding rats RS2 instead of RS3 significantly enhanced apparent but not true magnesium absorption, because RS2 lowered fecal excretion of endogenous magnesium. When compared with dietary glucose, lactulose significantly raised both apparent and true magnesium absorption, but did not affect fecal excretion of endogenous magnesium. It is suggested that the proposed mechanism by which RS2 and lactulose would enhance magnesium absorption is disproved by the present data.

  5. Influence of hypernatraemia and urea excretion on the ability to excrete a maximally hypertonic urine in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Cheema-Dhadli, Surinder; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2002-01-01

    Rats normally excrete 20-25 mmol of sodium (Na+) + potassium (K+) per kilogram per day. To minimize the need for a large water intake, they must excrete urine with a very high electrolyte concentration (tonicity). Our objective was to evaluate two potential factors that could influence the maximum urine tonicity, hypernatraemia and the rate of urea excretion. Balance studies were carried out in vasopressin-treated rats fed a low-electrolyte diet. In the first series, the drinking solution contained an equivalent sodium chloride (NaCl) load at 150 or 600 mmol l−1. In the second series, the maximum urine tonicity was evaluated in rats consuming 600 mmol l−1 NaCl with an 8-fold range of urea excretion. Hypernatraemia (148 ± 1 mmol l−1) developed in all rats that drank 600 mmol l−1 saline. Although the rate of Na+ + K+ excretion was similar in both saline groups, the maximum urine total cation concentration was significantly higher in the hypernatraemic group (731 ± 31 vs. 412 ± 37 mmol l−1). Only when the rate of excretion of urea was very low, was there a further increase in the maximum urine total cation concentration (1099 ± 118 mmol l−1). Thus hypernatraemia was the most important factor associated with a higher urine tonicity. PMID:12068051

  6. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    SciTech Connect

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentallymore » infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.« less

  7. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-02-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants.

  8. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  9. Identification and chromosomal localization of ecogenetic components of electrolyte excretion.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pierre; Kren, Vladimír; Krenová, Drahomíra; Pravenec, Michal; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2002-02-01

    To determine to what extent urinary excretion of blood pressure-modulating electrolytes is genetically determined, and to identify their chromosomal localization. Twenty-six rat recombinant inbred strains (RIS) originating from reciprocal crosses of normotensive Brown Norway (BN.Lx) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used. A pilot experiment on a subset of strains determined that fasting decreases the impact of environmental noise and increases that of heritability. Twenty-four-hour urinary collections were obtained from fasting rats aged 6-12 weeks (3-8 rats per strain). Sodium (Na), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) excretions were measured, and the Na/K ratio calculated. These phenotypes served as quantitative traits for the search of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by scanning the RIS genome that was mapped with 475 polymorphic markers. Constant Na intake resulted in a low heritability for Na excretion, reflecting the environmental impact (intake = excretion), whereas fasting revealed a gradient among RIS indicative of the genetic component of the traits. In the fasting state, a locus on chromosome 14 was found to be significantly associated with K excretion (Alb, P = 0.00002, r = -0.69, logarithm of the odds score (LOD) 3.9), whereas another locus on chromosome 10 (D10Cebrp97s5, P = 0.0003, r = -0.69, LOD 3.0) and one on chromosome 6 (D6Cebrp97s14, P = 0.0007, r = -0.65, LOD 1.9) were more significantly associated with Na excretion and the Na/K ratio respectively. The observed correlations were all negative for Na, K and Na/K, indicating a higher excretion of Na and K and a greater Na/K ratio in rats bearing BN.Lx alleles at these loci, i.e. salt retention in fasting SHR. These three loci accounted for 47-55% of variance of their associated trait, suggesting that they are the main genetic determinants for these phenotypes in basal fasting conditions. Rats bearing the Y chromosome of SHR origin had significantly higher K excretion that, in turn, led to

  10. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received ∼300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4–5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6 ± 4.8% (P < 0.0001) and phytosterol esters 30.6 ± 3.9% (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content. PMID:19246636

  11. Electronic structure, bonding, charge distribution, and x-ray absorption spectra of the (001) surfaces of fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulis, Paul; Yao, Hongzhi; Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Fluorapatite (FAP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) are two very important bioceramic crystals. The (001) surfaces of FAP and HAP crystals are studied by ab initio density functional calculations using a supercell slab geometry. It is shown that in both crystals, the O-terminated (001) surface is more stable with calculated surface energies of 0.865 and 0.871J/m2 for FAP and HAP, respectively. In FAP, the two surfaces are symmetric. In HAP, the orientation of the OH group along the c axis reduces the symmetry such that the top and bottom surfaces are no longer symmetric. It is revealed that the atoms near the surface and subsurface are significantly relaxed especially in the case of HAP. The largest relaxations occurred via the lateral movements of the O ions at the subsurface level. The electronic structures of the surface models in the form of layer-by-layer resolved partial density of states for all the atoms show systematic variation from the surface region toward the bulk region. The calculated Mulliken effective charge on each type of atom and the bond order values between cations (Ca, P) and anions (O, F) show different charge transfers and bond strength variations from the bulk crystal values. Electron charge density calculations show that the surfaces of both FAP and HAP crystals are mostly positively charged due to the presence of Ca ions at the surface. The positively charged surfaces have implications for the absorption on apatite surfaces of water and other organic molecules in an aqueous environment which are an important part of its bioactivity. The x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra ( Ca-K , O-K , F-K , P-K , and P-L3 edges) of both the surface models and the bulk crystals are calculated and compared. The calculations use a supercell approach which takes into account the electron-core-hole interaction. It is shown that the site-specific XANES spectra show significant differences between atoms near the surface and in the bulk and are very

  12. Correlation of arsenic exposure through drinking groundwater and urinary arsenic excretion among adults in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mubashir; Fatmi, Zafar; Ali, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenic has been associated with manifestation of skin lesions (melanosis/keratosis) and increased risk of internal cancers (lung/bladder). The objective of the study described here was to determine the relationship between exposure of arsenic through drinking groundwater and urinary arsenic excretion among adults > or =15 years of age living in Khairpur district, Pakistan. Total arsenic was determined in drinking groundwater and in spot urine samples of 465 randomly selected individuals through hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between arsenic in drinking groundwater and arsenic excreted in urine. The median arsenic concentration in drinking water was 2.1 microg/L (range: 0.1-350), and in urine was 28.5 microg/L (range: 0.1-848). Positive correlation was found between total arsenic in drinking water and in urine (r = .52, p < .01). Urinary arsenic may be used as a biomarker of arsenic exposure through drinking water.

  13. The Role of Water Distribution Controlled by Transmembrane Potentials in the Cytochrome c-Cardiolipin Interaction: Revealing from Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li; Wu, Lie; Liu, Li; Jiang, Xiue

    2017-11-02

    The interaction of cytochrome c (cyt c) with cardiolipin (CL) plays a crucial role in apoptotic functions, however, the changes of the transmembrane potential in governing the protein behavior at the membrane-water interface have not been studied due to the difficulties in simultaneously monitoring the interaction and regulating the electric field. Herein, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroelectrochemistry is employed to study the mechanism of how the transmembrane potentials control the interaction of cyt c with CL membranes by regulating the electrode potentials of an Au film. When the transmembrane potential decreases, the water content at the interface of the membranes can be increased to slow down protein adsorption through decreasing the hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions, but regulates the redox behavior of CL-bound cyt c through a possible water-facilitated proton-coupled electron transfer process. Our results suggest that the potential drop-induced restructure of the CL conformation and the hydration state could modify the structure and function of CL-bound cyt c on the lipid membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India

    PubMed Central

    Madkaikar, Manisha Rajan; Desai, Mukesh; Taur, Prasad; Nalavade, Uma Prajwal; Sharma, Deepa Kailash; Gupta, Maya; Dalvi, Aparna; Shabrish, Snehal; Kulkarni, Manasi; Aluri, Jahnavi; Deshpande, Jagadish Mohanrao

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014–April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID). We isolated 8 enteroviruses (3 polioviruses and 5 nonpolio enteroviruses) in cell culture of 105 fecal samples collected from 42 patients. Only 1 patient with severe combined immunodeficiency was identified as a long-term VDPV3 excreter (for 2 years after identification of infection). Our results show that the risk of enterovirus excretion among children in India with PID is low; however, systematic screening is necessary to identify long-term poliovirus excreters until the use of oral polio vaccine is stopped. PMID:28930011

  15. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Madkaikar, Manisha Rajan; Desai, Mukesh; Taur, Prasad; Nalavade, Uma Prajwal; Sharma, Deepa Kailash; Gupta, Maya; Dalvi, Aparna; Shabrish, Snehal; Kulkarni, Manasi; Aluri, Jahnavi; Deshpande, Jagadish Mohanrao

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014-April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID). We isolated 8 enteroviruses (3 polioviruses and 5 nonpolio enteroviruses) in cell culture of 105 fecal samples collected from 42 patients. Only 1 patient with severe combined immunodeficiency was identified as a long-term VDPV3 excreter (for 2 years after identification of infection). Our results show that the risk of enterovirus excretion among children in India with PID is low; however, systematic screening is necessary to identify long-term poliovirus excreters until the use of oral polio vaccine is stopped.

  16. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  17. Lowering urinary oxalate excretion to decrease calcium oxalate stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modifications should be considered as a first line approach in the treatment of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The amounts of oxalate and calcium consumed in the diet are significant factors in the development of the disease due to their impact on urinary oxalate excretion. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce oxalate excretion. The consumption of oxalate-rich foods should be avoided and calcium intake adjusted to 1000–1200 mg/day. To encourage compliance it should be emphasized to patients that they be vigilant with this diet as a deviation in any meal or snack could potentially result in significant stone growth. The evidence underlying these two modifications is outlined and other strategies to reduce urinary oxalate excretion are reviewed. PMID:26614109

  18. Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y C; Park, H S; Ha, E H

    2000-06-01

    Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters. 53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by ELISA and the distribution of the genotypes of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 was measured by polymerase chain reaction. The homozygous wild type frequencies of CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were 31.5%, 56.2%, 60.3%, 50.7%, and 53.4%, respectively. The geometric mean of urinary 8-OH-dG was 14.1 ng/mg creatinine in more active firefighters and 12.3 ng/mg creatinine in non-exposed and less active subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of urinary 8-OH-dG were found to be associated with cigarette smoking, and 14% of the variation of 8-OH-dG was explained by cigarettes smoked per day. The CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms were not found to be significantly associated with the urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. However, the subjects carrying the CYP2E1 mutant type excreted higher concentrations of 8-OH-dG and there was a marginally significant interaction of GSTT1 with firefighting activity. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that smoking was the strongest predictor of excretion of 8-OH-dG. Age, body mass index, and firefighting activity were not significant predictive factors for urinary 8-OH-dG. Smoking and CYP2E1 gene polymorphism may be important factors in carcinogenesis and the GSTT1 positive genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor in firefighters who are exposed regularly to various chemical carcinogens.

  19. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  20. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; de Boer, Rudolf A; Brouwers, Frank P; Feskens, Edith Jm; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Joosten, Michel M

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies on dietary potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations. Long-term prospective studies with multiple 24-h urinary samples for accurate estimation of habitual potassium intake, however, are scarce. We examined the association between urinary potassium excretion and risk of blood pressure-related cardiovascular outcomes. We studied 7795 subjects free of cardiovascular events at baseline in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study, a prospective, observational cohort with oversampling of subjects with albuminuria at baseline. Main cardiovascular outcomes were CVD [including ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and vascular interventions], IHD, stroke, and new-onset heart failure (HF). Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-h urine specimens at the start of the study (1997-1998) and midway through follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median urinary potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (IQR: 56-84 mmol/24 h). During a median follow-up of 10.5 y (IQR: 9.9-10.8 y), a total of 641 CVD, 465 IHD, 172 stroke, and 265 HF events occurred. After adjustment for age and sex, inverse associations were observed between potassium excretion and risk [HR per each 26-mmol/24-h (1-g/d) increase; 95% CI] of CVD (0.87; 0.78, 0.97) and IHD (0.86; 0.75, 0.97), as well as nonsignificant inverse associations for risk of stroke (0.85; 0.68, 1.06) and HF (0.94; 0.80, 1.10). After further adjustment for body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and urinary sodium and magnesium excretion, urinary potassium excretion was not statistically significantly associated with risk (multivariable-adjusted HR per 1-g/d increment; 95% CI) of CVD (0.96; 0.85, 1.09), IHD (0.90; 0.81, 1.04), stroke (1.09; 0.86, 1.39), or HF (0.99; 0.83, 1.18). No associations were observed between the sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio and risk of CVD, IHD, stroke, or HF. In this cohort with oversampling of subjects

  1. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. PMID:27468975

  2. Effect of cinnamon and turmeric on urinary oxalate excretion, plasma lipids, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Liebman, Michael

    2008-05-01

    High oxalate intake resulting from consuming supplemental doses of cinnamon and turmeric may increase risk of hyperoxaluria, a significant risk factor for urolithiasis. This study assessed urinary oxalate excretion from supplemental doses of cinnamon and turmeric as well as changes in fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentrations. Eleven healthy subjects, aged 21-38 y, participated in an 8-wk, randomly assigned, crossover study that involved the ingestion of supplemental doses of cinnamon and turmeric for 4-wk periods that provided 55 mg oxalate/d. Oxalate load tests, which entailed the ingestion of a 63-mg dose of oxalate from the test spices, were performed after each 4-wk experimental period and at the study onset with water only (control treatment). Fasting plasma glucose and lipid concentrations were also assessed at these time points. Compared with the cinnamon and control treatments, turmeric ingestion led to a significantly higher urinary oxalate excretion during the oxalate load tests. There were no significant changes in fasting plasma glucose or lipids in conjunction with the 4-wk periods of either cinnamon or turmeric supplementation. The percentage of oxalate that was water soluble differed markedly between cinnamon (6%) and turmeric (91%), which appeared to be the primary cause of the greater urinary oxalate excretion/oxalate absorption from turmeric. The consumption of supplemental doses of turmeric, but not cinnamon, can significantly increase urinary oxalate levels, thereby increasing risk of kidney stone formation in susceptible individuals.

  3. Methodology for detection of carbon monoxide in hot, humid media by telecommunication distributed feedback laser-based tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lathdavong, Lemthong; Shao, Jie; Kluczynski, Pawel; Lundqvist, Stefan; Axner, Ove

    2011-06-10

    Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) in combustion gases by tunable diode laser spectrometry is often hampered by spectral interferences from H2O and CO2. A methodology for assessment of CO in hot, humid media using telecommunication distributed feedback lasers is presented. By addressing the R14 line at 6395.4  cm(-1), and by using a dual-species-fitting technique that incorporates the fitting of both a previously measured water background reference spectrum and a 2f-wavelength modulation lineshape function, percent-level concentrations of CO can be detected in media with tens of percent of water (c(H2O)≤40%) at T≤1000 °C with an accuracy of a few percent by the use of a single reference water spectrum for background correction.

  4. AERONET derived (BC) aerosol absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.

    2015-12-01

    AERONET is a ground-based sun-/sky-photometer network with good annual statistics at more than 400 sites worldwide. Inversion methods applied to these data define all relevant column aerosol optical properties and reveal even microphysical detail. The extracted data include estimates for aerosol size-distributions and for aerosol refractive indices at four different solar wavelengths. Hereby, the imaginary parts of the refractive indices define the aerosol column absorption. For regional and global averages and radiative impact assessment with off-line radiative transfer, these local data have been extended with distribution patterns offered by AeroCom modeling experiments. Annual and seasonal absorption distributions for total aerosol and estimates for component contributions (such as BC) are presented and associated direct forcing impacts are quantified.

  5. Barley β-glucan increases fecal bile acid excretion and short chain fatty acid levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Thandapilly, Sijo J; Ndou, Saymore P; Wang, Yanan; Nyachoti, Charles M; Ames, Nancy P

    2018-06-20

    The cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan has been proposed to be the result of a pleiotropic effect, which involves several biological mechanisms such as gut fermentation, inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased bile acid excretion and its synthesis. However, one of the recent studies from our laboratory indicated that increased bile acid excretion and subsequent increase in its synthesis, but not the inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis might be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. Accordingly, the primary objective of the present study was to investigate the concentration of bile acids (BA), neutral sterols (NS) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) excreted through the feces by mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects who consumed diets containing barley β-glucan with varying molecular weights (MW) and concentrations. In a controlled, four phase, crossover trial, 30 mildly hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high MW (HMW), 5 g low MW (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet for 5 weeks. The concentrations of BA, NS and SCFA in the feces were measured at the end of each treatment phase. Compared to the other treatment groups, 3 g day-1 HMW barley β-glucan consumption resulted in increased lithocholic acid (LCA) excretion (P < 0.001) but not LMW β-glucan, even at the high dose of 5 g day-1. Increased fermentability of fibre was also evident from a significant increase in fecal total SCFA concentrations in response to the 3 g HMW β-glucan diet compared to the 3 g LMW barley β-glucan and control diet (P = 0.0015). In summary, the current results validate our previous report on the role of fecal bile acid excretion in cholesterol lowering through the consumption of barley β-glucan. In addition, increased SCFA concentrations indicate that an increase in β-glucan molecular weight promotes hindgut fermentation

  6. Effect and mechanism of dioscin from Dioscorea spongiosa on uric acid excretion in animal model of hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Jinchang; Wang, Wei; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jian; Chen, Qian; Wang, Tao

    2018-03-25

    Dioscin, a spirostane glycoside, the rhizoma of Dioscorea septemloba (Diocoreacea) is used for diuresis, rheumatism, and joints pain. Given the poor solubility and stability of Dioscin, we proposed a hypothesis that Dioscin's metabolite(s) are the active substance(s) in vivo to contribute to the reducing effects on serum uric acid levels. The aim of this study is to identify the active metabolite(s) of Dioscin in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity. After oral administration of Dioscin in potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia rats and adenine-PO induced hyperuricemia mice models, serum uric acid and creatinine levels, clearance of uric acid and creatinine, fractional excretion of uric acid, and renal pathological lesions were determined were used to evaluate the antihyperuricemic effects. Renal glucose transporter-9 (GLUT-9) and organic anion transporter-1 (OAT-1) expressions were analyzed by western blotting method. Renal uric acid excretion was evaluated using stably urate transporter-1 (URAT-1) transfected human epithelial kidney cell line. Intestinal uric acid excretion was evaluated by measuring the transcellular transport of uric acid in HCT116 cells. In hyperuricemia rats, both 25 and 50mg/kg of oral Dioscin decreased serum uric acid levels over 4h. In the hyperuricemia mice, two weeks treatment of Dioscin significantly decreased serum uric acid and creatinine levels, increased clearance of uric acid and creatinine, increased fractional excretion of uric acid, and reduced renal pathological lesions caused by hyperuricemia. In addition, renal GLUT -9 was significantly down-regulated and OAT-1 was up-regulated in Dioscin treated hyperuricemia mice. Dioscin's metabolite Tigogenin significantly inhibited uric acid re-absorption via URAT1 from 10 to 100μM. Diosgenin and Tigogenin increased uric acid excretion via ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). Decreasing effect of Dioscin on serum uric acid level and

  7. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance: Ammonia Excretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which demonstrates changes in ammonia excretion and urine pH that occur in response to metabolic acidosis (induced by ammonium chloride ingestion) or metabolic alkalosis (produced by sodium bicarbonate ingestion). List of materials needed and background information are included. Typical results are provided and discussed.…

  8. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  10. Increased urinary excretion of acidic mucopolysaccharides in exophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Winand, Roger J.

    1968-01-01

    The excretion of mucopolysaccharides normally found in urine (chondroitin, chondroitin sulfates A and C, keratosulfate, and heparitin sulfate) is increased approximately twofold in patients with progresive exophthalmos. A threefold elevation of total serum mucopolysaccharides is also found. These increases are unrelated to thyroid function. PMID:4235688

  11. Increased leukotriene E4 excretion in systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2010-06-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTE(4) are produced by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. LTE(4) levels have not been reported in systemic mastocytosis, a disorder with a large increase in mast cell numbers. Urinary LTE(4) from patients referred for symptoms potentially due to mast cell degranulation or systemic mastocytosis was measured by a commercial cysteinyl leukotriene enzyme immunoassay kit. The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established using current World Health Organization criteria. Compared with a control group of patients with various potential mast cell-related symptoms (e.g., "spells"), patients with systemic mastocytosis had a significant (P=.01) increase in urinary LTE(4) excretion, whether expressed as LTE(4) ng/g creatinine or as LTE(4) ng/24h. There was a moderate correlation of LTE(4) ng/24h with excretion of N-methyl histamine and serum tryptase but not with urinary 11beta-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (11beta-PGF(2alpha)) excretion. LTE(4) excretion is increased in patients with systemic mastocytosis and potentially contributes to clinical symptoms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Excretion pattern of enrofloxacin after oral treatment of chicken broilers.

    PubMed

    Slana, M; Pahor, V; Cvitkovič Maričič, L; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism and excretion of enrofloxacin were studied when applied as oral solution to chicken broilers for five consecutive days. Sixty 9-day-old broilers were isolated within an intensively rearing poultry farm during enrofloxacin therapy (15.5 mg/kg per day). The excreta of the isolated broilers were collected daily, 9 days after therapy termination, for 13 consecutive days, and analyzed for the presence of enrofloxacin and its metabolites [ciprofloxacin, desethylene-enrofloxacin (DES-EF) and desethylene-ciprofloxacin (DES-CF)]. Enrofloxacin was excreted predominantly in the form of the parent compound between days 1 and 13. Ciprofloxacin was detected in the excreta between days 1 and 6, whereas minor amounts of DES-EF and DES-CF were excreted only between days 1-7 and 1-6, respectively. In conclusion, the analysis of the excreta showed that approximately 74% of orally applied enrofloxacin was excreted as the parent compound, approximately 25% as the main metabolite ciprofloxacin, and approximately 1% as the minor metabolites desethylene-enrofloxacin and desethylene-ciprofloxacin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Efficient simultaneous reverse Monte Carlo modeling of pair-distribution functions and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectra of crystalline disordered materials.

    PubMed

    Németh, Károly; Chapman, Karena W; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Shyam, Badri; Chupas, Peter J; Heald, Steve M; Newville, Matt; Klingler, Robert J; Winans, Randall E; Almer, Jonathan D; Sandi, Giselle; Srajer, George

    2012-02-21

    An efficient implementation of simultaneous reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of pair distribution function (PDF) and EXAFS spectra is reported. This implementation is an extension of the technique established by Krayzman et al. [J. Appl. Cryst. 42, 867 (2009)] in the sense that it enables simultaneous real-space fitting of x-ray PDF with accurate treatment of Q-dependence of the scattering cross-sections and EXAFS with multiple photoelectron scattering included. The extension also allows for atom swaps during EXAFS fits thereby enabling modeling the effects of chemical disorder, such as migrating atoms and vacancies. Significant acceleration of EXAFS computation is achieved via discretization of effective path lengths and subsequent reduction of operation counts. The validity and accuracy of the approach is illustrated on small atomic clusters and on 5500-9000 atom models of bcc-Fe and α-Fe(2)O(3). The accuracy gains of combined simultaneous EXAFS and PDF fits are pointed out against PDF-only and EXAFS-only RMC fits. Our modeling approach may be widely used in PDF and EXAFS based investigations of disordered materials. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  14. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographicmore » sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.« less

  15. Increased Renal Solute Excretion in Rats Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moore, A. L.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Following space flight a diuresis, due to an increase in free water clearance, has been suggested in humans. To assess the effects of space flight on renal function, rats were flown in space for 14 days. Rats were divided into three groups; vivarium controls (V;n=6; housed 2/shoe box cage), flight controls (FC;n=6; group housed in a flight cage), and flight animals (F;n=6). Upon landing all animals were placed into individual metabolic cages. Urine was collected daily for 7 days and every other day for 14 days. Urine output was increased (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) following flight for 3 days. On postflight day 1, flow rates were, V=6.8 plus or minus 0.9, FC=8.711.8 and F=16.6 plus or minus 2.7 microliter/min. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate (V=7.9 plus or minus 0.9, FC=6.1 plus or minus 0.7 and F=13.5 plus or minus 0.7 uOsm/min). Creatinine excretion rate was increased over the first two postflight days. In the absence of changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, or K+ (samples obtained immediately post flight from similar rats compared to Day 14), GFR was increased following space flight. The increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and decreased reabsorption. Osmotic clearance was increased (V=28, FC=27 and F=51 microliter/min), while free water clearance was decreased post flight (V=-21,FC=-18 and F=-34 microliter/min). In rats, the postflight diuresis is the result of an increase in solute (osmotic) excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  16. Recommendation to Exclude Bile-Duct-Cannulated Rats with Hyperbilirubinemia for Proper Conduct of Biliary Drug Excretion Studies.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Katsuya; Ichikawa, Takuya; Yahara, Tohru; Tsuji, Satoshi; Sugiura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) is sometimes encountered following bile-duct cannulation in rats. It possibly originates from the reduced functioning of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and subsequent adaptive alterations in the expression of Mrp3 and the organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Our aim was to clarify the importance of excluding bile-duct-cannulated (BDC) rats with HB for proper conduct of drug excretion studies. We detected HB [serum total bilirubin concentration (TBIL) ≥0.20 mg/dl] in 16% of all BDC rats prepared. The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase were within the respective normal ranges in the BDC rats with mild HB (TBIL, 0.20-0.79 mg/dl), indicating the absence of hepatic failure. In the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, an Oatps/Mrp2 probe drug in the BDC rats, the apparent volume of distribution and the clearance were smaller in the mild HB group as compared with the normal group, suggesting the reduction of apparent hepatic uptake and hepatobiliary elimination. The biliary excretion (percentage of dose) was significantly reduced by 54%, suggesting that the biliary efflux activity via Mrp2 was reduced to a greater extent relative to metabolic activity in hepatocytes. The serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity correlated with TBIL and inversely correlated with biliary excretion of pravastatin, a finding which could serve as a clue to uncover the regulatory system involving cooperation between GGT and Mrp2. In conclusion, BDC rats with HB, however mild, should be excluded from drug excretion studies to avoid the risk of underestimation of the biliary excretion of drugs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bisschop, P H; De Sain-Van Der Velden, M G M; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, A J; Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A

    2003-08-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets with identical protein content and low-carbohydrate/high-fat (2% and 83% of total energy, respectively), intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat (44% and 41% of total energy, respectively), and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (85% and 0% of total energy, respectively) content in six healthy men. Whole body protein metabolism was assessed by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, postabsorptive leucine kinetics, and fibrinogen and albumin synthesis by infusion of [1-(13)C]leucine and [1-(13)C]valine. The low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet resulted in lower absorptive and postabsorptive plasma insulin concentrations, and higher rates of nitrogen excretion compared with the other two diets: 15.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 12.1 +/- 1.1 (P = 0.03) and 10.8 +/- 0.5 g/24 h (P = 0.005), respectively. Postabsorptive rates of appearance of leucine and of leucine oxidation were not different among the three diets. In addition, dietary carbohydrate content did not affect the synthesis rates of fibrinogen and albumin. In conclusion, eucaloric carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-h nitrogen loss but does not affect postabsorptive protein metabolism at the hepatic and whole body level. By deduction, dietary carbohydrate is required for an optimal regulation of absorptive, rather than postabsorptive, protein metabolism.

  18. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  19. Contribution of activity to the circadian rhythm in excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1968-03-01

    Eight subjects were maintained on a standard dietary regimen ingested every four hours for 120 hours. Measurements of the magnesium and calcium excretion in these subjects revealed a circadian periodicity with maximal levels of excretion for both ion...

  20. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, R.; Hauss, H.; Buchholz, F.; Melzner, F.

    2015-10-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  1. Arsenic drinking water exposure and urinary excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza, Maria Mercedes; Kopplin, Michael J; Burgess, Jefferey L; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine arsenic exposure via drinking water and to characterize urinary arsenic excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2001 to May 2002. Study subjects were from the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, residents of four towns with different arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Arsenic exposure was estimated through water intake over 24 h. Arsenic excretion was assessed in the first morning void urine. Total arsenic concentrations and their species arsenate (As V), arsenite (As III), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) were determined by HPLC/ICP-MS. The town of Esperanza with the highest arsenic concentration in water had the highest daily mean intake of arsenic through drinking water, the mean value was 65.5 microg/day. Positive correlation between total arsenic intake by drinking water/day and the total arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) was found. Arsenic excreted in urine ranged from 18.9 to 93.8 microg/L. The people from Esperanza had the highest geometric mean value of arsenic in urine, 65.1 microg/L, and it was statistically significantly different from those of the other towns (P < 0.005). DMA was the major arsenic species in urine (47.7-67.1%), followed by inorganic arsenic (16.4-25.4%), and MMA (7.5-15%). In comparison with other reports the DMA and MMA distribution was low, 47.7-55.6% and 7.5-9.7%, respectively, in the urine from the Yaqui Valley population (except the town of Cocorit). The difference in the proportion of urinary arsenic metabolites in those towns may be due to genetic polymorphisms in the As methylating enzymes of these populations.

  2. Sterol balance and cholesterol absorption in inbred strains of rabbits hypo- or hyperresponsive to dietary cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Beynen, A C; Meijer, G W; Lemmens, A G; Glatz, J F; Versluis, A; Katan, M B; Van Zutphen, L F

    1989-06-01

    In 2 inbred strains of rabbits with high or low response of plasma cholesterol to dietary cholesterol, excretion of steroids in the feces and efficiency of cholesterol absorption were determined. Rates of whole-body cholesterol synthesis, measured as fecal excretion of bile acids and neutral steroids minus cholesterol intake, were similar in hypo- and hyperresponders fed a low-cholesterol (8 mumol/100 g) diet. Transfer of the rabbits to a high-cholesterol (182 mumol/100 g) diet caused an increase in fecal bile acid excretion in hypo- but not in hyperresponders. Dietary cholesterol did not affect neutral steroid excretion in either rabbit strain. Hyperresponders tended to accumulate more cholesterol in their body than did hyporesponders. After the rabbits were switched back from the high- to the low-cholesterol diet, rates of whole-body cholesterol synthesis were significantly higher in the hypo- than in the hyperresponders. With the use of the simultaneous oral administration of [3H]cholesterol and beta-[14C]sitosterol, hyperresponders were found to absorb significantly higher percentages of cholesterol than hyporesponders. It is concluded that the differences in stimulation of bile acid excretion after cholesterol feeding and the efficiency of cholesterol absorption are important determinants of the phenomenon of hypo- and hyperresponsiveness in the 2 inbred rabbit strains.

  3. Urine Potassium Excretion, Kidney Failure, and Mortality in CKD.

    PubMed

    Leonberg-Yoo, Amanda K; Tighiouart, Hocine; Levey, Andrew S; Beck, Gerald J; Sarnak, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    Low urine potassium excretion, as a surrogate for dietary potassium intake, is associated with higher risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease in a general population. Few studies have investigated the relationship of urine potassium with clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Longitudinal cohort study. The MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 840) conducted in 1989 to 1993 to examine the effects of blood pressure control and dietary protein restriction on kidney disease progression in adults aged 18 to 70 years with CKD stages 2 to 4. This post hoc analysis included 812 participants. The primary predictor variable was 24-hour urine potassium excretion, measured at baseline and at multiple time points (presented as time-updated average urine potassium excretion). Kidney failure, defined as initiation of dialysis therapy or transplantation, was determined from US Renal Data System data. All-cause mortality was assessed using the National Death Index. Median follow-up for kidney failure was 6.1 (IQR, 3.5-11.7) years, with 9 events/100 patient-years. Median all-cause mortality follow-up was 19.2 (IQR, 10.8-20.6) years, with 3 deaths/100 patient-years. Baseline mean urine potassium excretion was 2.39±0.89 (SD) g/d. Each 1-SD higher baseline urine potassium level was associated with an adjusted HR of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for kidney failure and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.94) for all-cause mortality. Results were consistent using time-updated average urine potassium measurements. Analyses were performed using urine potassium excretion as a surrogate for dietary potassium intake. Results are obtained from a primarily young, nondiabetic, and advanced CKD population and may not be generalizable to the general CKD population. Higher urine potassium excretion was associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality, but not kidney failure. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  4. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin J; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Poirier, Paul; Wielgosz, Andreas; Morrison, Howard; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Di, Chen; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Oguz, Aytekin; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Ismail, Noorhassim; Lanas, Fernando; Puoane, Thandi; Diaz, Rafael; Kelishadi, Roya; Iqbal, Romaina; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Khatib, Rasha; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen and were used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device. Regression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodium intake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodium excretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hg per gram for <3 g per day; P<0.001 for interaction). The slope of association was steeper for persons with hypertension (2.49 mm Hg per gram) than for those without hypertension (1.30 mm Hg per gram, P<0.001 for interaction) and was steeper with increased age (2.97 mm Hg per gram at >55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg per gram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age; P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertension than for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001). In this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and others.).

  5. Urinary excretion of Citrus flavanones and their major catabolites after consumption of fresh oranges and pasteurized orange juice: A randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Julian K; Riedl, Ken M; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Högel, Josef; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-12-01

    Orange juice contains flavanones including hesperidin and narirutin, albeit at lower concentrations as compared to orange fruit. Therefore, we compared bioavailability and colonic catabolism of flavanones from orange juice to a 2.4-fold higher dose from fresh oranges. Following a randomized two-way cross-over design, 12 healthy subjects consumed a test meal comprising either fresh oranges or pasteurized orange juice, delivering 1774 and 751 μmol of total Citrus flavanones, respectively. Deglucuronidated and desulfated hesperetin, naringenin, and the flavanone catabolites 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, 4-hydroxyhippuric acid, and hippuric acid were quantitated in 24-h urine by UHPLC-MS/MS. Differences in urinary hesperetin excretion were found to be nonsignificant (p = 0.5209) both after consumption of orange fruit (21.6 ± 8.0 μmol) and juice (18.3 ± 7.2 μmol). By analogy, postprandial flavanone catabolite excretions were highly similar between treatments. Excretion of 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid was inversely related to that of hesperetin, illustrating the catabolite/precursor relationship. Despite 2.4-fold higher doses, excretion of flavanones from ingested fresh orange fruit did not differ from that following orange juice consumption, possibly due to a saturation of absorption or their entrapment in the fiber-rich matrix of the fruit. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Urine iodine excretion ın patients with euthyroid noduler disease

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Evrim; Eskioglu, Erdal; Aydin, Yusuf; Ozkan, Selma Karaahmetoglu; Guler, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Different nutritional and environmental factors are responsible for the pathogenesis of goiter, but iodine deficiency is the most important factor. However, little is known about the natural course of benign thyroid nodules in euthyroid patients over time. Few studies have used ultrasonographic evaluation to address this issue, especially in iodine-deficient areas. In this study, we present the long-term follow-up of benign thyroid nodules in a iodine-deficient area. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 62 randomly selected patients with benign euthyroid nodule. Thyroid volume and nodules were measured with sonography. Iodine intake was estimated by patient diet history and by measuring iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Patients were followed one year. RESULTS: Patients were divided into three groups according to level of urine iodine excretion: Group 1: <50μg/L (severe iodine deficiency group), Group 2: 50-100μg/L (mild iodine deficiency group), Group 3: >100 g/L (iodine sufficient group). The presence of additional disease (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure and a history of any medication for chronic disorder) and smoking rates were significantly higher in first group compared to the second and third group. Among groups, no significant difference was observed in either right or left thyroid lobe volume after one year. A clinically significant increase in nodule volume was observed in the first group, while there was a significant decrease in the second and third group. CONCLUSION: In this study, iodine deficiency was associated with an increase in thyroid nodule volumes. Smoking rates were higher in iodine deficient groups. It is thought that smoking impairs iodine intake or absorption consistent with a previous report. PMID:21422654

  7. Demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium excretion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric N; Curhan, Gary C

    2009-12-01

    Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values < or =0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend < or =0.01). Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium.

  8. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  9. Excretion of moxidectin into breast milk and pharmacokinetics in healthy lactating women.

    PubMed

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Gossart, Sophie; Bryson, Philip; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Moxidectin, registered worldwide as a veterinary antiparasitic agent, is currently under development for humans for the treatment of onchocerciasis in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy lactating women, including the excretion into breast milk. Twelve women, ages 23 to 38 years, weighing 54 to 79 kg, all more than 5 months postpartum, were enrolled, following their plan to wean their infants and provision of informed consent. A single 8-mg, open-label dose was administered orally after consumption of a standard breakfast. Complete milk collection was done for approximately 28 days, and plasma samples were collected for 90 days. Moxidectin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, with a validated range of 0.08 to 120 ng/ml. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods were used to find the following results: peak concentration in plasma (C(max)), 87 ± 25 ng/ml; time to C(max) (t(max)), 4.18 ± 1.59 h; terminal-phase elimination half-life (t(1/2)), 832 ± 321 h; total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), 4,046 ± 1,796 ng · h/ml; apparent oral dose clearance (CL/F), 2.35 ± 1.07 l/h; ratio of CL/F to the terminal-phase disposition rate constant, λ(z) (Vλ(z)/F), 2,526 ± 772 liters; percentage of maternal dose excreted in milk, 0.701 ± 0.299%; absolute amount excreted in milk, 0.056 ± 0.024 mg; relative infant dose, 8.73 ± 3.17% of maternal dose assuming complete absorption; clearance in milk (CL(milk)), 0.016 ± 0.009 liter/h. Nine of 12 subjects reported adverse events, all of which were considered treatment emergent but not drug related and were mostly reported during the long outpatient period 8 to 90 days after dose administration. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and nausea (n = 4), oropharyngeal pain (n = 2), rhinitis, viral pharyngitis, and viral upper

  10. THE EXCRETION OF Na$sup 22$ IN SWEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, H.W.; Parsons, J.; Elrick, H.

    A new method for measuring sodium excretion in sweat, utilizing Na/sup 22/, is described. The physical characteristics of the radioisotope are very favorable and the test procedure is simple. The method has been applied to 50 control subjects, 20 patients with chronic lung disease, and 4 patients with fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. The results show a significant elevation of sweat Na excretion in patients with chronic lung disease, but not to the degree seen in patients with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. These findings are compatible with the concept that some patients with chronic lung disease may have amore » form of pancreatic fibrosis not clinically detectable. (auth)« less

  11. Amorphous Silica Based Nanomedicine with Safe Carrier Excretion and Enhanced Drug Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Silu

    With recent development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, a great amount of efforts have been devoted to nanomedicine development. Among various nanomaterials, silica nanoparticle (NP) is generally accepted as non-toxic, and can provide a versatile platform for drug loading. In addition, the surface of the silica NP is hydrophilic, being favorable for cellular uptake. Therefore, it is considered as one of the most promising candidates to serve as carriers for drugs. The present thesis mainly focuses on the design of silica based nanocarrier-drug systems, aiming at achieving safe nanocarrier excretion from the biological system and enhanced drug efficacy, which two are considered as most important issues in nanomedicine development. To address the safe carrier excretion issue, we have developed a special type of selfdecomposable SiO2-drug composite NPs. By creating a radial concentration gradient of drug in the NP, the drug release occurred simultaneously with the silica carrier decomposition. Such unique characteristic was different from the conventional dense SiO2-drug NP, in which drug was uniformly distributed and can hardly escape the carrier. We found that the controllable release of the drug was primarily determined by diffusion, which was caused by the radial drug concentration gradient in the NP. Escape of the drug molecules then triggered the silica carrier decomposition, which started from the center of the NP and eventually led to its complete fragmentation. The small size of the final carrier fragments enabled their easy excretion via renal systems. Apart from the feature of safe carrier excretion, we also found the controlled release of drugs contribute significantly to the drug efficacy enhancement. By loading an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) to the decomposable SiO 2-methylene blue (MB) NPs, we achieved a self-decomposable SiO 2(MB)-Dox nanomedicine. The gradual escape of drug molecules from NPs and their enabled cytosolic release by optical

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  13. Relationship between plasma uridine and urinary urea excretion.

    PubMed

    Ka, Tuneyoshi; Inokuchi, Taku; Tamada, Daisuke; Suda, Michio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Okuda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Asako; Takahashi, Sumio; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the concentration of uridine in plasma is related to the urinary excretion of urea, 45 healthy male subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure were studied after providing informed consent. Immediately after collection of 24-hour urine, blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast except for water. The contents of ingested foods during the 24-hour urine collection period were described by the subjects and analyzed by a dietician. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma uridine was correlated with the urinary excretions of urea (R = 0.41, P < .01), uric acid (R = 0.36, P < .05), and uridine (R = 0.30, P < .05), as well as uric acid clearance (R = 0.35, P < .05) and purine intake (R = 0.30, P < .05). In contrast, multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship only between plasma uridine and urinary excretion of urea. These results suggest that an increase in de novo pyrimidine synthesis leads to an increased concentration of uridine in plasma via nitrogen catabolism in healthy subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A proteolytic modification of AIM promotes its renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Takai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Senda, Yoshie; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nelson, Peter S.; Lucas, Jared M.; Morgan, Andrew; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation. Here we found a physiological AIM-cleavage process that induces destabilization of AIM and its excretion in urine. In blood, IgM-free AIM appeared to be cleaved and reduced in size approximately 10 kDa. Cleaved AIM was unable to bind to IgM and was selectively filtered by the glomerulus, thereby excreted in urine. Amino acid substitution at the cleavage site resulted in no renal excretion of AIM. Interestingly, cleaved AIM retained a comparable potency with full-length AIM in facilitating the clearance of dead cell debris in injured kidney, which is a key response in the recovery of acute kidney injury. Identification of AIM-cleavage and resulting functional modification could be the basis for designing safe and efficient AIM therapy for various diseases. PMID:27929116

  15. Hepatically-metabolized and -excreted artificial oxygen carrier, hemoglobin vesicles, can be safely used under conditions of hepatic impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Miyasato, Mayumi; Ujihira, Hayato

    2010-11-01

    The hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier in which a concentrated Hb solution is encapsulated in lipid vesicles. Our previous studies demonstrated that HbV is metabolized by the mononuclear phagocyte system, and the lipid components are excreted from the liver. It is well-known that many hepatically-metabolized and -excreted drugs show altered pharmaceutics under conditions of liver impairment, which results in adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of HbV causes toxicity in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced liver cirrhosis. Changes in plasma biochemical parameters, histological staining and the pharmacokinetic distribution of HbVmore » were evaluated after an HbV injection of the above model rats at a putative clinical dose (1400 mgHb/kg). Plasma biochemical parameters were not significantly affected, except for a transient elevation of lipase, lipid components and bilirubin, which recovered within 14 days after an HbV infusion. Negligible morphological changes were observed in the kidney, liver, spleen, lung and heart. Hemosiderin, a marker of iron accumulation in organs, was observed in the liver and spleen up to 14 days after HbV treatment, but no evidence of oxidative stress in the plasma and liver were observed. HbV is mainly distributed in the liver and spleen, and the lipid components are excreted into feces within 7 days. In conclusion, even under conditions of hepatic cirrhosis, HbV and its components exhibit the favorable metabolic and excretion profile at the putative clinical dose. These findings provide further support for the safety and effectiveness of HbV in clinical settings.« less

  16. Calculations of B1 Distribution, Specific Energy Absorption Rate, and Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio for a Body-Size Birdcage Coil Loaded with Different Human Subjects at 64 and 128 MHz.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B 1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B 1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.

  17. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  18. Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2) Determines Distribution of Genistein Phase II Metabolites: Reevaluation of the Roles of ABCG2 in the Disposition of Genistein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; Jiang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the improved oral bioavailability of genistein aglycone and conjugates in Bcrp1(−/−) mice is mainly due to increased intestinal absorption of aglycone and subsequent elevated exposure to conjugation enzymes. Here we tested this proposed mechanism and found that intestinal absorption of genistein aglycone did not increase in Bcrp1(−/−) mice compared with wild-type mice using an in situ mouse intestinal perfusion model and that inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in Caco-2 cells also did not significantly increase permeability or intracellular concentration of aglycone. Separately, we showed that 5- to 10-fold increases in exposures of conjugates and somewhat lower fold increases (<2-fold) in exposures of aglycone were apparent after both oral and intraperitoneal administration in Bcrp1(−/−) mice. In contrast, the intestinal and biliary excretion of genistein conjugates significantly decreased in Bcrp1(−/−) mice without corresponding changes in aglycone excretion. Likewise, inhibition of BCRP functions in Caco-2 cells altered polarized excretion of genistein conjugates by increasing their basolateral excretion. We further found that genistein glucuronides could be hydrolyzed back to genistein, whereas sulfates were stable in blood. Because genistein glucuronidation rates were 110% (liver) and 50% (colon) higher and genistein sulfation rates were 40% (liver) and 42% (colon) lower in Bcrp1(−/−) mice, the changes in genistein exposures are not mainly due to changes in enzyme activities. In conclusion, improved bioavailability of genistein and increased plasma area under the curve of its conjugates in Bcrp1(−/−) mice is due to altered distribution of genistein conjugates to the systemic circulation. PMID:22736306

  19. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  20. Gastrointestinal uptake and distribution of copper in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Clearwater, S J; Baskin, S J; Wood, C M; McDonald, D G

    2000-08-01

    A single dose of radioactive copper ((64)Cu or new Cu) was infused into the stomach of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to model dietary copper (Cu) uptake under conditions of a normal nutritional dose and optimum environmental temperature (16 degrees C, 0.117 microg Cu g(-)(1 )body mass). The distribution of new Cu to the gut and internal organs occurred in two phases: rapid uptake by the gut tissues (almost complete by 24 h post-infusion) followed by slower uptake by the internal organs. By 72 h, 60 % of the dose had been excreted, 19 % was still retained in the gut tissue, 10 % remained in the lumen and 12 % had been absorbed across the gut and partitioned amongst the internal organs. A reduction in water temperature of 10 degrees C (to 6 degrees C) significantly retarded components of new Cu distribution (movement of the bolus along the gut and excretion); nonetheless, by 72 h, the fraction absorbed by all the internal organs was similar to that at 16 degrees C. An increase in water temperature of 3 degrees C (to 19 degrees C) caused a pronounced increase in internal organ uptake by 24 h to approximately double the uptake occurring at 16 degrees C. The uptake of new Cu by the gut tissue had a low temperature coefficient (Q(10)<1) consistent with simple diffusion, while the temperature coefficient for transfer of new Cu from gut tissue to the internal organs was high (Q(10)>2), consistent with facilitated transport. Internally, the liver and gall bladder (including bile) were the target organs for dietary Cu partitioning since they were the only organs that concentrated new Cu from the plasma. Individual tissues differed in terms of the exchange of their background Cu pools with new Cu. The background Cu in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract (excluding stomach) exchanged 45-94 % with new Cu from the gut lumen, while tissues such as the stomach, gills, kidney, carcass and fat had 5-7 % exchangeable background Cu. The liver, heart, spleen, ovary, bile and

  1. Cation Ordering in Li[NixMnxCo(1-2x)]O2-Layered Cathode Materials: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Pair Distribution Function, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and Electrochemical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng,D.; Cabana, J.; Breger, J.

    2007-01-01

    Several members of the compositional series Li[NixMnxCo(1-2x)]O2 (0.01 = x = 1/3) were synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction results confirm the presence of the layered a-NaFeO2-type structure, while X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy experiments verify the presence of Ni2+, Mn4+, and Co3+. Their local environment and short-range ordering were investigated by using a combination of 6Li magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, associated with reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) calculations. The 6Li MAS NMR spectra of compounds with low Ni/Mn contents (x = 0.10) show several well-resolved resonances, which start to mergemore » when the amount of Ni and Mn increases, finally forming a broad resonance at high Ni/Mn contents. Analysis of the 6Li MAS NMR 6Li[Ni0.02Mn0.02Co0.96]O2 spectrum, is consistent with the formation of Ni2+ and Mn4+ clusters within the transition-metal layers, even at these low-doping levels. The oxidation state of Ni in this high Co content sample strongly depends upon the Li/transition metal ratio of the starting materials. Neutron PDF analysis of the highest Ni/Mn content sample Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 shows a tendency for Ni cations to be close to Mn cations in the first coordination shell; however, the Co3+ ions are randomly distributed. Analysis of the intensity of the 'LiCoO2' resonance, arising from Li surrounded by Co3+ in its first two cation coordination shells, for the whole series provides further evidence for a nonrandom distribution of the transition-metal cations. The presence of the insulator-to-metal transition seen in the electrochemical profiles of these materials upon charging correlates strongly with the concentration of the 'LiCoO2' resonance.« less

  2. Chloride accumulation vs chloride excretion: Phytoextraction potential of three halophytic grass species growing in a salinized landfill.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Kaitlin A; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    Phragmites australis, Puccinnellia nuttalliana (salt accumulators), and Spartina pectinata (salt excretor) were investigated based on their relative abilities to phytoextract chloride from a cement kiln dust landfill in Bath, ON. Salt tolerance mechanisms were found to affect phytoextraction performance. On the basis of accumulation alone, P. australis had the greatest phytoextraction efficiency compared to the other two species due to its high biomass (despite having the lowest shoot ion concentrations). Conversely, when weekly salt excretion on the leaf surfaces of S. pectinata was accounted for over an eight week period from July to August 2014, removal of Cl - increased by 160% surpassing the extraction ability of P. australis by nearly 60%. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of the excreted salt particles on S. pectinata indicates that they were composed of the plant macronutrient, potassium and micronutrient, chloride. Wind re-distribution of these nutrients may actually have beneficial effects on the environment, as they are required by both plants and animals for various metabolic functions. This is the first study to demonstrate salt excretion for the remediation of an industrially salinized landfill in Canada. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Absorption of zinc from lupin (Lupinus angustifolius)-based foods.

    PubMed

    Petterson, D S; Sandström, B; Cederblad, A

    1994-12-01

    The absorption of Zn from a lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) milk fortified with Ca, a bread containing lupin flour (230 g/kg), a sauce containing lupin flour and a sauce containing a lupin-protein isolate was determined in humans by measuring the whole-body retention of radioisotope from meals labelled with 0.02 MBq 65Zn, allowing for endogenous excretion of Zn, after 14 d. The absorption of Zn from the Ca-enriched milk (16.2%) and the bread made with lupin flour (27.0%) was similar to literature figures for comparable soya-bean products. The absorption from composite meals made with lupin flour (28.2%) and protein isolate (32.7%) was significantly higher than that reported for comparable soya-bean products. In a second experiment the absorption of Zn from a lupin-milk base and a soya-bean-milk base was compared with that from Ca-supplemented bases. The absorption of Zn from the lupin-milk base (26.3%) was significantly higher than from the soya-bean-milk base (17.6%), and neither was significantly altered by the addition of Ca. Overall the absorption of Zn from lupin-protein foods was found to be higher than from comparable soya-bean products. Lupin milk could be an attractive alternative to soya-bean milk for infant formulas.

  4. Impact of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion in regard to their hypolipidemic action in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, E A; Forgbert, K; Rieckhoff, D; Erbersdobler, H F

    1999-01-29

    To examine the impact on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion as a mechanism involved in the lipid-lowering action of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch in comparison to cholestyramine, male golden Syrian hamsters were fed 0% (control), 8% or 12% of beta-cyclodextrin or resistant starch or 1% cholestyramine. Resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations compared to control. Distinct changes in the bile acid profile of gallbladder bile were caused by resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine. While cholestyramine significantly reduced chenodeoxycholate independently of its taurine-glycine conjugation, beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch decreased especially the percentage of taurochenodeoxycholate by -75% and -44%, respectively. As a result, the cholate:chenodeoxycholate ratio was significantly increased by 100% with beta-cyclodextrin and by 550% with cholestyramine while resistant starch revealed no effect on this ratio. beta-Cyclodextrin and resistant starch, not cholestyramine, significantly increased the glycine:taurine conjugation ratio demonstrating the predominance of glycine conjugated bile acids. Daily fecal excretion of bile acids was 4-times higher with 8% beta-cyclodextrin and 19-times with 1% cholestyramine compared to control. beta-Cyclodextrin and cholestyramine also induced a 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol excretion, demonstrating the sterol binding capacity of these two compounds. Resistant starch had only a modest effect on fecal bile acid excretion (80% increase) and no effect on excretion of neutral sterols, suggesting a weak interaction with intestinal steroid absorption. These data demonstrate the lipid-lowering potential of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch. An impaired reabsorption of circulating bile acids and intestinal cholesterol absorption leading to an increase in fecal bile acid and neutral sterol

  5. Whites excrete a water load more rapidly than blacks.

    PubMed

    Weder, Alan B; Gleiberman, Lillian; Sachdeva, Amit

    2009-04-01

    A recent report demonstrated a racial difference in response to furosemide compatible with increased ion reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in blacks. Urinary dilution is another function of the loop-diuretic-sensitive Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, and racial differences in urinary diluting capacity have not been reported previously. We assessed diluting segment (cortical thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule) function in black and white normotensives in 2 studies using a water-loading approach. In both studies, we found that whites excreted a water load more rapidly than blacks. In the first study, the final free water clearance rates (mean+/-SD) were 7.3+/-4.7 mL/min in whites (n=17, 7 females and 10 males) and 3.8+/-3.6 mL/min in blacks (n=14, 9 females and 5 males; P<0.03). In the second study, final free water clearance rates were 8.3+/-2.6 mL/min in whites (n=17, 8 females and 9 males) and 6.4+/-1.8 mL/min in blacks (n=11, 8 females and 3 males; P<0.01). We found no evidence of a racial difference in renal proximal tubular fluid reabsorption as assessed by renal endogenous lithium clearance or in plasma vasopressin level that could explain the difference in free water excretion. We conclude that our observations are most consistent with a lower capacity of ion reabsorption in the renal diluting segment in blacks. Slower excretion of an acute water load may have been an advantage during natural selection of humans living in arid, hot climates.

  6. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  7. Hereditary Orotic Aciduria and the Excretion of Orotidine.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, William L; Gangoiti, Jon A

    2016-12-01

    Objective  Orotic aciduria and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthetase have been observed in a patient, studied over 10 years, who had no megaloblastic anemia. Excretion of orotic acid and orotidine were 8.24 and 0.52 mmol/mol of creatinine. The ratio of 15.85 differed appreciably from that of 6 patients reported with no megaloblastic anemia. Methods  The analysis of orotidine by gas chromotography mass spectrometry was conducted. Conclusion  Patients with orotic aciduria with and without megaloblastic anemia cannot be distinguished by ratio of orotic acid to orotidine. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  9. Branchial ammonia excretion in the Asian weatherloach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Silva, J; Tsui, T K N; Coimbra, J; Vijayan, M M; Ip, Y K; Wilson, J M

    2010-01-01

    The weatherloach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, is a freshwater, facultative air-breathing fish that lives in streams and rice paddy fields, where it may experience drought and/or high environmental ammonia (HEA) conditions. The aim of this study was to determine what roles branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase, and Rhcg have in ammonia tolerance and how the weatherloach copes with ammonia loading conditions. The loach's high ammonia tolerance was confirmed as was evident from its high 96 h LC(50) value and high tissue tolerance to ammonia. The weatherloach does not appear to make use of Na(+)/NH(4)(+)-ATPase facilitated transport to excrete ammonia when exposed to HEA or to high environmental pH since no changes in activity were observed. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, distinct populations of vacuolar (V)-type H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactive cells were identified in branchial epithelia, with apical and basolateral staining patterns, respectively. Rhesus C glycoprotein (Rhcg1), an ammonia transport protein, immunoreactivity was also found in a similar pattern as H(+)-ATPase. Rhcg1 (Slc42a3) mRNA expression also increased significantly during aerial exposure, although not significantly under ammonia loading conditions. The colocalization of H(+)-ATPase and Rhcg1 to the similar non-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactive cell type would support a role for H(+)-ATPase in ammonia excretion via Rhcg by NH(4)(+) trapping. The importance of gill boundary layer acidification in net ammonia excretion was confirmed in this fish; however, it was not associated with an increase in H(+)-ATPase expression, since tissue activity and protein levels did not increase with high environmental pH and/or HEA. However the V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, did decrease net ammonia flux whereas other ion transport inhibitors (amiloride, SITS) had no effect. H(+)-ATPase inhibition also resulted in a consequent elevation in plasma ammonia levels and a decrease in the net acid

  10. Aerosol Absorption and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kinne, Stefan; Boucher, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the shortwave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W m(sup -2) (33%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13W m(sup -2 (72%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19W m(sup -2) (36%) clear-sky and of 0.12W m(sup -2) (92%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05W m(sup -2) and a positive TOA forcing perturbation of 0

  11. Oxalate and Sucralose Absorption in Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Jiang, Juquan; Wood, Kyle D.; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Oxalate has been hypothesized to undergo absorption in the large and small intestine by both paracellular and transepithelial transport. Sucralose is a chlorinated sugar that is absorbed by paracellular mechanisms. This study's objective was to better understand intestinal oxalate transport by correlating oxalate and sucralose absorption in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Methods Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers were recruited to provide urine specimens on both a self-selected diet and following a meal containing 90 mg of 13C2-oxalate and 5 grams of sucralose, and a stool sample for determination of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization. The 24 hour urine collections were fractionated into the first 6 hours and the subsequent 18 hours. Sucralose and oxalate excretion were measured during these periods and used to estimate absorption. Results A total of 38 subjects were evaluated. The majority of both the 13C2-oxalate and sucralose absorption occurred within the 0-6 hour collection. The 13C2-oxalate and sucralose absorptions were significantly correlated at the 0-6 hour, the 6-24 hour, and the total 24 hour time periods (p<0.04). All five oxalate hyperabsorbers(> 15% absorption) also absorbed significantly more sucralose during the 0-6 hour and whole 24 hour time points (p<0.04). Oxalobacter formigenes colonization did not significantly alter oxalate absorption. Conclusion The results suggest that the majority of oxalate is absorbed in the proximal portion of the gastrointestinal tract and that paracelluar transport is involved. Augmented paracellular transport, as evidenced by increased sucralose absorption, may also influence oxalate absorption. PMID:21676449

  12. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  13. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  14. Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans.

    PubMed

    Calani, Luca; Brighenti, Furio; Bruni, Renato; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-12-15

    This study evaluated the absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin isomers (all together known as silymarin) in humans. Fourteen volunteers consumed an extract of milk thistle and urine was collected up to 48 h after consumption. Thirty-one metabolites were identified in urine by means of HPLC-MS/MS, monoglucuronides being the most common excreted form, followed by sulphate-glucuronides and diglucuronides, respectively. The excretion of monoglucuronides peaked 2 h after consumption, whereas sulphate-glucuronide and diglucuronide excretion peaked at 8 h. The bioavailability of milk thistle flavanolignans was 0.45±0.28% (mean±SD). In conclusion, milk thistle flavonolignans are extensively modified after ingestion and recovered in urine as sulpho- and glucuronyl-conjugates, indicating a strong affinity for hepatic phase II enzymes. All future studies (in vitro and in vivo) dealing with the effects of milk thistle should start by considering the modification of its flavonolignans after ingestion by humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Bile pigment pharmacokinetics and absorption in the rat: therapeutic potential for enteral administration

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, AC; Coombes, JS; Blanchfield, JT; Toth, I; Fassett, RG; Taylor, SM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bilirubin and biliverdin possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their exogenous administration protects against the effects of inflammation and trauma in experimental models. Despite the therapeutic potential of bile pigments, little is known about their in vivo parenteral or enteral absorption after exogenous administration. This study investigated the absorption and pharmacokinetics of bile pigments after i.v., i.p. and intraduodenal (i.d.) administration in addition to their metabolism and routes of excretion. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anaesthetized Wistar rats had their bile duct, jugular and portal veins cannulated. Bile pigments were infused and their circulating concentrations/biliary excretion were measured over 180 min. KEY RESULTS After i.v. administration of unconjugated bilirubin, biliverdin and bilirubin ditaurate, their plasma concentrations decreased exponentially over time. Subsequently, native and metabolized compounds appeared in the bile. When administered i.p., their absolute bioavailabilities equalled 14.0, 16.1 and 33.1%, respectively, and correspondingly 38, 28 and 34% of the same bile pigment doses were excreted in the bile. Administration of unconjugated bilirubin and bilirubin ditaurate i.d. increased their portal and systemic concentrations and their systemic bioavailability equalled 1.0 and 2.0%, respectively. Correspondingly, 2.7 and 4.6%, of the doses were excreted in the bile. Biliverdin was rapidly metabolized and these products were absorbed and excreted via the urine and bile. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Bile pigment absorption from the peritoneal and duodenal cavities demonstrate new routes of administration for the treatment of inflammatory and traumatic pathology. Oral biliverdin administration may lead to the production of active metabolite that protect from inflammation/complement activation. PMID:21486273

  16. Nandrolone excretion in sedentary vs physically trained young women.

    PubMed

    Enea, C; Boisseau, N; Bayle, M L; Flament, M M; Grenier-Loustalot, M F; Denjean, A; Diaz, V; Dugué, B

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effects of the menstrual cycle, oral contraception and physical training on exhaustive exercise-induced changes in the excretion of nandrolone metabolites [19-norandrosterone (19-NA), and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE)] in young women. Twenty-eight women were allocated to an untrained group (n=16) or a trained group (n=12), depending on their physical training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-), while the trained group was entirely composed of OC+ subjects. Three laboratory sessions were conducted in a randomized order: a prolonged exercise test, a short-term exercise test and a control session. Urine specimens were collected before and 30, 60 and 90 min after the exercise test and at the same times of the day during the control session. Urinary concentrations of nandrolone metabolites were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Urinary concentrations of 19-NA and 19-NE ranged from undetectable levels to 1.14 and 0.47 ng/mL, respectively. Nandrolone excretion was not affected by the menstrual cycle phase (early follicular vs mid-luteal), prior physical training, oral contraception or acute physical exercise. Therefore, a urinary concentration of 2 ng/mL of 19-NA appears to be fair as the upper acceptable limit in doping control tests for female athletes.

  17. Longitudinal fecal steroid excretion in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Velloso, A L; Wasser, S K; Monfort, S L; Dietz, J M

    1998-10-01

    This study used a fecal steroid monitoring technique to evaluate reproductive cycles in male (4) and female (15) maned wolves, endangered South American canids. A radiolabeled testosterone infusion on a male revealed a fast and predominantly fecal route of excretion for this steroid. Testosterone was also excreted as eight unidentified metabolites, which was not the primary form of this steroid quantified in our assays. Fecal steroid concentrations (estradiol, E2; progestins, P; testosterone, T) in males and acyclic, nonpregnant (pseudo-pregnant), and pregnant females were monitored over four breeding seasons (October-January). Significant differences were detected between longitudinal P profiles of cyclic and acyclic females during estrus, luteal phase, and after birth/end of pseudo-pregnancy. Concentrations of P were also significantly higher in pregnant, compared to nonpregnant females, from proestrus to the end of the pregnant luteal phase. Although levels of T were higher in males than in females throughout the breeding season, no cyclicity in male fecal T concentrations was detected. Values of fecal P, T, and the ratio P/T were useful for differentiating gender and detecting pregnancy in females. Similarities to available data on other canids and the management and conservation implications of these findings were discussed. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans in the various forms of gargoylism

    PubMed Central

    Manley, G.; Williams, U.

    1969-01-01

    The urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans in 28 cases of gargoylism, embracing the Hurler, Hunter, Sanfilippo, Morquio, and Scheie syndromes (McKusick, 1966), has been examined using the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) turbidity test, the uronic acid/creatinine ratio, and the electrophoretic pattern of urine concentrates, as routine procedures. Ion-exchange column chromatographic techniques were also employed for the fractionation of glycosaminoglycans and aminosugars. Molecular weights were investigated by gel filtration and ultracentrifugation. The CPC turbidity test was positive in every case. The uronic acid/creatinine ratio provided a sensitive index of increased glycosaminoglycan excretion. Cases of the Hurler syndrome showed the highest, and cases of the Morquio and Scheie syndromes the lowest, ratios. A correlation was observed between the uronic acid/creatinine ratio and the clinical severity of the disease. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis differentiated clearly between the two major forms of gargoylism, the Hurler and Sanfilippo syndromes, but differentiation between the Hurler, Hunter, and Scheie syndromes was more difficult on electrophoretic data alone. Results obtained with cases diagnosed as the Morquio syndrome were disappointing. The existence of formes frustes of the Sanfilippo syndrome among the mentally subnormal is predicted. Errors caused by bacterial contamination of urine samples are emphasized. The atypical behaviour of urinary glycosaminoglycans in analytical procedures is discussed. Molecular weight studies suggested heterogeneity. The nature of the basic defect in gargoylism is discussed. Images PMID:4239429

  19. Metabolism and Excretion of Trichloroethylene after Inhalation by Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bartoníček, V.

    1962-01-01

    Eight volunteers were exposed to trichloroethylene vapour (1,042 μg./l.) for five hours; 51 to 64% of the inhaled trichloroethylene was retained. The concentration of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid in the urine was studied daily for a three-week period; on the third day both metabolites were determined in faeces, sweat, and saliva. The concentration of trichloroacetic acid in plasma and red blood cells was studied on alternate days. Of the trichloroethylene retained, 38·0 to 49·7% was excreted in the urine as trichloroethanol and 27·4 to 35·7% as trichloroacetic acid. Of both metabolites 8·4% was excreted in the faeces. Sweat collected on the third day of the experiment contained 0·10 to 1·92 mg./100 ml. trichloroethanol and 0·15 to 0·35 mg./100 ml. trichloroacetic acid. In saliva the concentrations were 0·09 to 0·32 mg./100 ml. trichloroethanol and 0·10 to 0·15 mg./100 ml. trichloroacetic acid. The value of the expression trichloroethanol/trichloroacetic acid calculated in the urine within 22 days was within the range 1·15 to 1·81. PMID:13865497

  20. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  1. Disposition and excretion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brewster, D W; Birnbaum, L S

    1987-09-15

    The disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), a highly toxic environmental contaminant which accumulates in human tissues, was examined in the male Fischer rat after iv and oral exposure. Greater than 70% of an oral dose of 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mumol PeCDF/kg body wt was absorbed by the gastrointestinal system. After either oral or iv administration of 0.1 mumol/kg, the dibenzofuran was rapidly removed from the blood and accumulated in the liver and adipose tissue and to a lesser extent in the skin and muscle. Three days after administration, 70% of the iv dose of PeCDF was found in the liver, 7% in the fat, 1% in the skin, and 0.5% in the muscle. Route of exposure had little effect on tissue distribution. TLC analyses indicated that greater than 99% of the [14C]-PeCDF-derived radioactivity which had accumulated in the liver and adipose tissue was unmetabolized PeCDF which was eliminated very slowly (t1/2 = 193 and 69 days, respectively). The whole body half-life calculated from the daily fecal excretion rate was approximately 64 days. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces. No radioactivity was detected in expired air and less than 0.02% was detected in the urine. TLC analysis of fecal extracts indicated greater than 90% of the [14C]PeCDF-derived radioactivity in the feces was polar metabolites of the parent compound. Pretreatment with 500 micrograms PeCDF/kg body wt caused biliary excretion to nearly double. Treatment of bile with beta-glucuronidase or arylsulfatase had little effect on the chromatographic profile. Therefore, PeCDF was readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, concentrated primarily in the liver, and was slowly eliminated from the body as polar metabolites. The long half-life and high body burden of PeCDF suggest that the toxicity of this chemical may be enhanced due to bioaccumulation upon chronic low-level exposure.

  2. Lime powder treatment reduces urinary excretion of total protein and transferrin but increases uromodulin excretion in patients with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Kulpradit, Pimsuda; Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Ungjareonwattana, Wattanachai; Kalpongnukul, Nuttiya; Ratchanon, Supoj; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2018-06-01

    Our previous study has shown that lime powder (LP) had an inhibitory effect against calcium oxalate stone formation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such beneficial effect remained unclear. Our present study thus aimed to address the effect of LP on excretory level and compositions of urinary proteins using a proteomics approach. From a total of 80 calcium oxalate stone formers recruited into our 2-year randomized clinical trial of LP effect, 10 patients with comparable age and clinical parameters were selected for this proteomic study. 24-h urine specimens were collected from all subjects, at baseline (before) and after LP treatment for 6 months, and then subjected to quantitative proteomics analysis and subsequent validation by ELISA. Total urinary protein excretion was significantly decreased by LP treatment, but unaffected by placebo. Nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) followed by quantitative analysis revealed 17 proteins whose levels were significantly altered (16 decreased and 1 increased) exclusively by LP treatment. Among these, the decrease of transferrin and increase of uromodulin were validated by ELISA. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between microalbuminuria and urinary transferrin level by Pearson's correlation test. In summary, LP treatment caused significant reduction in total urinary protein excretion and changes in urinary protein compositions that could be linked to stone inhibitory effects and might be relevant mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of LP to prevent kidney stone formation and recurrence.

  3. Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J. Donald

    1967-01-01

    A technique is described for preparation in the guinea pig of an in situ, isolated, vascularized gall bladder that exhibits normal absorptive functions. Absorption of labeled bile pigments from the gall bladder was determined by the subsequent excretion of radioactivity in hepatic bile. Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin-14C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen-3H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt. Bilirubin absorption was not impaired by iodoacetamide, 1.5 mM, or dinitrophenol, 1.0 mM, even though water transport was affected. This indicated that absorption of bilirubin was not dependent upon water transport, nor upon energy-dependent processes. The linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigment at low concentrations in bile salt solutions suggested that pigment was transferred by passive diffusion. At higher pigment concentrations or in whole bile, this simple relationship was modified by interactions of pigment with bile salts and other constituents of bile. These interactions did not necessarily involve binding of bilirubin in micelles. The slow absorption of the more polar conjugates and photo-oxidative derivatives of bilirubin suggested that bilirubin was absorbed principally by nonionic, and partially, by ionic diffusion. Concentrations of pure conjugated bile salts above 3.5 mM were found to be injurious to the gall bladder mucosa. This mucosal injury did not affect the kinetics of bilirubin absorption. During in vitro incubation of bile at 37°C, decay of bilirubin and hydrolysis of the conjugate proceeded as first-order reactions. The effects of these processes on the kinetics of bilirubin absorption, and their possible role in the formation of “white bile” and in the demonstrated appearance of unconjugated bilirubin in hepatic bile, are discussed

  4. Estimation of the percutaneous absorption of styrene in an industrial situation.

    PubMed

    Limasset, J C; Simon, P; Poirot, P; Subra, I; Grzebyk, M

    1999-01-01

    This field study was designed to compare the level of styrene absorbed percutaneously with that absorbed by inhalation in a real situation in the fiberglass-reinforced polyester industry. The study protocol consisted of comparisons of the patterns of urinary excretion of styrene metabolites by four groups of workers, all of whom performed the same task at the same time in the same workshop but wore the following different protective equipment: total protection with an insulating suit and mask, respiratory equipment only, percutaneous protection only, and no protection. The urinary excretion level of the group with total protection did not significantly differ from that of the group with respiratory protection only. Precutaneous absorption is not a particularly important pathway for styrene absorption during stratification work in the polyester industry. Completely insulating personal protective equipment provides no greater level of protection than does a respirator at positive pressure alone.

  5. Biosorption of metal elements by exopolymer nanofibrils excreted from Leptothrix cells.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kusano, Yoshihiro; Itadani, Atsushi; Ando, Kota; Matsumoto, Syuji; Tamura, Katsunori; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Leptothrix species, aquatic Fe-oxidizing bacteria, excrete nano-scaled exopolymer fibrils. Once excreted, the fibrils weave together and coalesce to form extracellular, microtubular, immature sheaths encasing catenulate cells of Leptothrix. The immature sheaths, composed of aggregated nanofibrils with a homogeneous-looking matrix, attract and bind aqueous-phase inorganics, especially Fe, P, and Si, to form seemingly solid, mature sheaths of a hybrid organic-inorganic nature. To verify our assumption that the organic skeleton of the sheaths might sorb a broad range of other metallic and nonmetallic elements, we examined the sorption potential of chemically and enzymatically prepared protein-free organic sheath remnants for 47 available elements. The sheath remnants were found by XRF to sorb each of the 47 elements, although their sorption degree varied among the elements: >35% atomic percentages for Ti, Y, Zr, Ru, Rh, Ag, and Au. Electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron and x-ray diffractions, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of sheath remnants that had sorbed Ag, Cu, and Pt revealed that (i) the sheath remnants comprised a 5-10 nm thick aggregation of fibrils, (ii) the test elements were distributed almost homogeneously throughout the fibrillar aggregate, (iii) the nanofibril matrix sorbing the elements was nearly amorphous, and (iv) these elements plausibly were bound to the matrix by ionic binding, especially via OH. The present results show that the constitutive protein-free exopolymer nanofibrils of the sheaths can contribute to creating novel filtering materials for recovering and recycling useful and/or hazardous elements from the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. Relationship between timed and spot urine collections for measuring phosphate excretion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sven-Jean; Smith, Edward R; Cai, Michael M X; Holt, Stephen G; Hewitson, Tim D; Toussaint, Nigel D

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary phosphate excretion (UPE) reflects intestinal phosphate absorption in steady state and may be more informative than serum phosphate (sPi) when assessing phosphate homoeostasis clinically. Timed urine collections are cumbersome and prone to collection errors. Spot urine phosphate/creatinine ratio (uPiCr) may be a useful, simple surrogate for 24-h UPE, but requires further validation. This study aimed to determine the relationship between uPiCr and 24-h UPE. This single-centre cross-sectional study examined contemporaneous serum, spot urine and 24-h urine. Serum biochemistry was analysed. Urine phosphate concentration (uPi) and creatinine concentration (uCr) were measured in spot and 24-h urine collections. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between spot uPiCr and UPE. Backward multivariate analysis was undertaken for UPE prediction. One hundred and sixteen participants (77 with kidney disease and 39 healthy volunteers) were studied. Seventy-four (63.8 %) were male. Median (IQR) age was 61(49-71) years. Median (IQR) spot uPiCr and total UPE were 1.7 (1.3-2.2) mmol/mmol and 25.8 (19.9-35.0) mmol/d, respectively. There was no correlation between spot uPiCr and 24-h UPE (R = 0.064, P = 0.51) but spot uPi significantly correlated with 24-h UPE (R = 0.385, P < 0.001). Although spot and 24-h measures of phosphate handling correlated (all P < 0.001), Bland-Altman analysis revealed bias between collection techniques. UPE prediction model using the independent variables of eGFR, sPi, albumin and spot uPi provided R (2) = 0.443. No direct correlation was noted between spot uPiCr and 24-h UPE. Normalization of uPi to uCr on spot urine samples may be inappropriate when evaluating urinary phosphate excretion in adults and thus, a spot uPiCr is not a suitable surrogate for measuring UPE. A UPE prediction model utilising spot urine biochemistry cannot be advocated at present.

  10. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  11. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  12. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  13. Variability of urinary salt excretion estimated by spot urine in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Sakata, Satoko; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Among the several methods used to assess salt intake, estimating 24 h urinary salt excretion by spot urine seems appropriate for clinical practice. In this study, we investigated variability in urinary salt excretion using spot urine in hypertensive outpatients. Participants included 200 hypertensive patients who underwent spot urinary salt excretion at least three times during the observation period. Mean urinary salt excretion and the coefficient of the variation were 8.62 ± 1.96 g/day and 19.0 ± 10.2%, respectively. In the analysis of participants who underwent assessment of urinary salt excretion at least eight times (n = 54), a significant reduction in mean urinary salt excretion was found at the 5th measurement. On the contrary, the coefficient of the variation of urinary salt excretion continued to increase until the 5th measurement, and became stable thereafter. Mean urinary salt excretion was positively correlated with mean clinic diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.27, p < 0.05). Clinic diastolic blood pressure in the high urinary salt excretion group (≥ 10 g/day) was significantly higher than that of the low group (76.2 ± 7.5 vs 73.4 ± 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.05). Mean urinary salt excretion in summer was significantly lower than that of the other seasons (7.75 ± 1.94 vs 9.09 ± 2.68 (spring), 8.72 ± 2.12 (autumn), 8.92 ± 2.17 (winter) g/day, p < 0.01). In conclusion, repeated measurements of urinary salt excretion using spot urine are required to assess daily salt intake of hypertensive patients.

  14. Marine, freshwater and aerially acclimated mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) use different strategies for cutaneous ammonia excretion

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Wilson, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are ammonia gas (NH3) channels known to be involved in ammonia transport in animals. Because of the different osmoregulatory and ionoregulatory challenges faced by teleost fishes in marine and freshwater (FW) environments, we hypothesized that ammonia excretion strategies would differ between environments. Also, we hypothesized that cutaneous NH3 volatilization in air-acclimated fish is facilitated by base secretion. To test these hypotheses, we used the skin of the euryhaline amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). The skin excretes ammonia and expresses Rh glycoproteins. Serosal-to-mucosal cutaneous ammonia flux was saturable (0–16 mmol/l ammonia, Km of 6.42 mmol/l). In FW, ammonia excretion increased in response to low mucosal pH but decreased with pharmacological inhibition of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and H+ ATPase. Conversely, in brackish water (BW), lowering the mucosal pH significantly decreased ammonia excretion. Inhibitors of NHE also decreased ammonia excretion in BW fish. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that both the Rh isoform, Rhcg1, and NHE3 proteins colocalized in Na+/K+ ATPase expressing mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills, kidney, and skin. We propose that the mechanisms of cutaneous ammonia excretion in FW K. marmoratus are consistent with the model for branchial ammonia excretion in FW teleost fish. NH4+ excretion appeared to play a stronger role in BW. NH4+ excretion in BW may be facilitated by apical NHE and/or diffuse through paracellular pathways. In aerially acclimated fish, inhibition of NHE and H+ ATPase, but not the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, significantly affected cutaneous surface pH, suggesting that direct base excretion is not critical for NH3 volatilization. Overall, K. marmoratus use different strategies for excreting ammonia in three different environments, FW, BW, and air, and Rh glycoproteins and NHE are integral to all. PMID:23389109

  15. The New Nordic Diet: phosphorus content and absorption.

    PubMed

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne K; Rix, Marianne; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne

    2016-04-01

    High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part of a post hoc analysis of data acquired from a 26-week controlled trial. We used the fractional phosphorus excretion as a measurement of phosphorus absorption. Mean baseline fractional phosphorus excretion was 20.9 ± 6.6 % in the NND group (n = 82) and 20.8 ± 5.5 % in the ADD group (n = 50) and was decreased by 2.8 ± 5.1 and 3.1 ± 5.4 %, respectively, (p = 0.6) at week 26. At week 26, the mean change in plasma phosphorus was 0.04 ± 0.12 mmol/L in the NND group and -0.03 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the ADD group (p = 0.001). Mean baseline phosphorus intake was 1950 ± 16 mg/10 MJ in the NND group and 1968 ± 22 mg/10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p < 0.298). Contrary to expectations, the NND had a high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption.

  16. I-131 rose bengal excretion test is not dead

    SciTech Connect

    Antico, V.F.; Denhartog, P.; Ash, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    One hundred and thirty I-131 Rose Bengal Excretion Studies (RBI) were performed on 84 patients over nine years. In 90% (56/60) of cases with biliary atresia, the 72-hour RBI was less than or equal to 7%. In only 12.5% (3/24) of cases with neonatal hepatitis was the 72-hour RBI less than or equal to 7%. The accuracy of the test was 91% with a specificity of 88%. Thirty patients later were studied following a Kasai procedure. The RBI test reliably predicted the patency of the anastomosis. The authors conclude that the 72-hour RBI is a reliable test in the diagnosismore » of biliary atresia and in the documentation of biliary patency following surgery, provided adequate care is taken in stool collection and measurement.« less

  17. Changes of catecholamine excretion during long-duration confinement.

    PubMed

    Kraft, N; Inoue, N; Ohshima, H; Sekiguchi, C

    2002-06-01

    Simulation studies have become the main source of data about small group interactions during prolonged isolation, from which it should be possible to anticipate crew problems during actual space missions. International Space Station (ISS) astronauts and cosmonauts will form one international crew, although living in different national modules. They will have joint flight protocols, and at the same time, fulfill a number of different tasks in accord with their national flight programs. Consistent with these concepts, we studied two simultaneously functioning groups in a simulation of ISS flight. The objective of this study was to investigate physiological parameters (such as catecholamine excretions) related to long-duration confinement in the hermetic chamber, simulating International Space Station flight conditions. We also planned to evaluate the relationship between epinephrine/norepinephrine with group dynamics and social events to predict unfavorable changes in health and work capability of the subjects related to psychological interaction in the isolation chamber.

  18. Urinary excretion of orally ingested gastrografin on CT.

    PubMed

    Apter, S; Gayer, G; Amitai, M; Hertz, M

    1998-01-01

    Renal excretion of orally ingested gastrografin has rarely been reported on computed tomography (CT). We studied the unenhanced scans of 82 patients with bowel disorders or perforation to assess the prevalence of urinary contrast material (CM) in various bowel diseases. We also assessed the clinical significance of this sign. In addition, we reviewed the unenhanced CT scans of 100 randomly selected patients without bowel diseases as a control group. Twenty-nine of the 58 patients with bowel diseases, six of nine with free perforation, and one of 15 with covered perforation had CM in the urinary tract. None of the 100 without bowel disease showed urinary CM. Statistical analysis was done by using the Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of urinary CM was highest in inflammatory bowel disease, radiation enteritis, and free perforation (p < 0. 0001). This study shows that the CT finding of orally ingested gastrografin in the urinary tract differentiates patients with bowel disease from those without.

  19. [In vitro absorption mechanism of strychnine and the transport interaction with liquiritin in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-jun; Liao, Xiao-huan; Ye, Min; Chen, Yong

    2010-09-01

    To study the effect of liquiritin (Liq) on the transport of strychnine (Str) in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the transport parameters of Str, such as apparent permeability coefficient (P app (B-->A) and P app (A-->B)) and cumulative transport amount (TRcum), were determined and comparatively analyzed when Str was used solely and co-used with Liq. The effect of drug concentrations, conveying times, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil and conveying liquor pH values on the transport of Str were also investigated. The results indicated that the absorption of Str in Caco-2 cell monolayer model was well and the passive transference was the main intestinal absorption mechanism of Str in the Caco-2 monolayer model, along with the excretion action mediated by P-gp. Liq enhanced the absorption of Str. Meanwhile, conveying liquor pH value had significant influence on the excretion transport of Str.

  20. Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029

  1. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  2. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  3. Internal dose assessment of 210Po using biokinetic modeling and urinary excretion measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gerstmann, Udo; Giussani, Augusto; Oeh, Uwe; Paretzke, Herwig G.

    2007-01-01

    The mysterious death of Mr. Alexander Litvinenko who was most possibly poisoned by Polonium-210 (210Po) in November 2006 in London attracted the attention of the public to the kinetics, dosimetry and the risk of this high radiotoxic isotope in the human body. In the present paper, the urinary excretion of seven persons who were possibly exposed to traces of 210Po was monitored. The values measured in the GSF Radioanalytical Laboratory are in the range of natural background concentration. To assess the effective dose received by those persons, the time-dependence of the organ equivalent dose and the effective dose after acute ingestion and inhalation of 210Po were calculated using the biokinetic model for polonium (Po) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the one recently published by Leggett and Eckerman (L&E). The daily urinary excretion to effective dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation were evaluated based on the ICRP and L&E models for members of the public. The ingestion (inhalation) effective dose per unit intake integrated over one day is 1.7 × 10−8 (1.4 × 10−7) Sv Bq−1, 2.0 × 10−7 (9.6 × 10−7) Sv Bq−1 over 10 days, 5.2 × 10−7 (2.0 × 10−6) Sv Bq−1 over 30 days and 1.0 × 10−6 (3.0 × 10−6) Sv Bq−1 over 100 days. The daily urinary excretions after acute ingestion (inhalation) of 1 Bq of 210Po are 1.1 × 10−3 (1.0 × 10−4) on day 1, 2.0 × 10−3 (1.9 × 10−4) on day 10, 1.3 × 10−3 (1.7 × 10−4) on day 30 and 3.6 × 10−4 (8.3 × 10−5) Bq d−1 on day 100, respectively. The resulting committed effective doses range from 2.1 × 10−3 to 1.7 × 10−2 mSv by an assumption of ingestion and from 5.5 × 10−2 to 4.5 × 10−1 mSv by inhalation. For the case of Mr. Litvinenko, the mean organ absorbed dose as a function of time was calculated using both the above stated models. The red bone marrow, the

  4. Internal dose assessment of 210Po using biokinetic modeling and urinary excretion measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Gerstmann, Udo; Giussani, Augusto; Oeh, Uwe; Paretzke, Herwig G

    2008-02-01

    The mysterious death of Mr. Alexander Litvinenko who was most possibly poisoned by Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in November 2006 in London attracted the attention of the public to the kinetics, dosimetry and the risk of this high radiotoxic isotope in the human body. In the present paper, the urinary excretion of seven persons who were possibly exposed to traces of (210)Po was monitored. The values measured in the GSF Radioanalytical Laboratory are in the range of natural background concentration. To assess the effective dose received by those persons, the time-dependence of the organ equivalent dose and the effective dose after acute ingestion and inhalation of (210)Po were calculated using the biokinetic model for polonium (Po) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the one recently published by Leggett and Eckerman (L&E). The daily urinary excretion to effective dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation were evaluated based on the ICRP and L&E models for members of the public. The ingestion (inhalation) effective dose per unit intake integrated over one day is 1.7 x 10(-8) (1.4 x 10(-7)) Sv Bq(-1), 2.0 x 10(-7) (9.6 x 10(-7)) Sv Bq(-1) over 10 days, 5.2 x 10(-7) (2.0 x 10(-6)) Sv Bq(-1) over 30 days and 1.0 x 10(-6) (3.0 x 10(-6)) Sv Bq(-1) over 100 days. The daily urinary excretions after acute ingestion (inhalation) of 1 Bq of (210)Po are 1.1 x 10(-3) (1.0 x 10(-4)) on day 1, 2.0 x 10(-3) (1.9 x 10(-4)) on day 10, 1.3 x 10(-3) (1.7 x 10(-4)) on day 30 and 3.6 x 10(-4) (8.3 x 10(-5)) Bq d(-1) on day 100, respectively. The resulting committed effective doses range from 2.1 x 10(-3) to 1.7 x 10(-2) mSv by an assumption of ingestion and from 5.5 x 10(-2) to 4.5 x 10(-1) mSv by inhalation. For the case of Mr. Litvinenko, the mean organ absorbed dose as a function of time was calculated using both the above stated models. The red bone marrow, the kidneys and the liver were considered as the critical organs. Assuming a

  5. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  6. Consumption of retrograded (RS3) but not uncooked (RS2) resistant starch shifts nitrogen excretion from urine to feces in cannulated piglets.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, M L; Beynen, A C

    1997-09-01

    To study the effect of resistant starch (RS) on the route of nitrogen excretion, we fed three groups of six cannulated piglets each a diet containing either uncooked resistant starch (RS2 ), retrograded resistant starch (RS3 ) or glucose. The use of piglets with a cannula at the end of the ileum allowed measurement of the amount of nitrogen that entered the colon. Ileal digesta, urine and feces were collected quantitatively and weighed, and dry matter, starch and nitrogen content were determined. We hypothesized that RS2 would lower colonic absorption of nitrogen when compared with RS3 , because RS2 may be more fermentable than RS3 , thus trapping more nitrogen in bacteria. The piglets fed RS3 had a significantly higher production of ileal digesta and feces than the piglets fed glucose or RS2 . In the piglets fed RS2 , 44% of the amount of RS fed was recovered in the ileal digesta; in the piglets fed RS3 , 71% was recovered. Thus, more fermentable material entered the colon in the RS3 -fed piglets than in the RS2 -fed piglets. Virtually no starch was recovered in the feces of any dietary group. Replacement of glucose by either RS2 or RS3 did not affect nitrogen retention but increased fecal nitrogen excretion. Compared with glucose, RS3 but not RS2 reduced urinary nitrogen excretion, mainly in the form of urea, and reduced the amount of nitrogen absorbed by the colon when expressed as a percentage of the amount of nitrogen entering the colon. This study provides evidence that RS3 , but not RS2 , shifts nitrogen excretion from urine to feces in cannulated piglets.

  7. Sodium and potassium excretion are related to bone mineral density in women with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kirsty M; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2015-04-01

    Women with coeliac disease may have a lower bone mineral density due to the malabsorption of calcium before diagnosis. A high sodium excretion is associated with increased calcium and bone loss. Our aim was to describe the bone mineral density (BMD) and sodium excretion in women with coeliac disease. In a cross-sectional study BMD of the lumbar spine and hip was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sodium, potassium and calcium excretion were measured from a 24 h urine collection. In 33 women (51 ± 16 yr) BMD was 1.14 ± 0.19 g/cm(2) and 0.94 ± 0.14 g/cm(2) at the lumbar spine and hip respectively. Age matched Z-scores were -0.1 ± 1.2 and -0.3 ± 1.1 at lumbar spine and hip respectively. Sodium excretion was 107 ± 51 mmol/d; 14 (42%) had a sodium excretion >100 mmol Na/d (145 ± 45 mmol/d). Potassium and calcium excretion were 87 ± 25 mmol/d and 4.1 ± 2.0 mmol/d respectively. In women with Na excretion >100 mmol Na/d, Ca excretion was significantly greater than those with <100 mmol/d (4.9 ± 2.0 vs 3.4 ± 1.8, p < 0.05). Sodium excretion and BMI were positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.001) as were sodium and calcium excretion (r = 0.43, p < 0.05). Sodium excretion was inversely related to femoral neck BMD (t = -2.4 p = 0.023) after adjustment for weight, age, years since diagnosis and potassium excretion. Weight, but no other variable, was a predictor of BMD at the lumbar spine (t = 2.58 p = 0.018). Sodium excretion was inversely related and potassium excretion positively related to femoral neck density which was similar to age matched women without coeliac disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism of boldenone in man: gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric identification of urinary excreted metabolites and determination of excretion rates.

    PubMed

    Schänzer, W; Donike, M

    1992-01-01

    Urinary metabolites of boldenone (androsta-1,4-dien-17 beta-ol-3-one) following oral administration of boldenone (doses from 11 to 80 mg) to man were isolated from urine via XAD-2 adsorption and enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli. The isolated metabolites were derivatized with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltri- fluoroacetamide/trimethyliodosilane and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with electron impact (EI) ionization at 70 eV. Boldenone (I) and four metabolites were identified after hydrolysis of the urine with beta-glucuronidase: 5 beta-androst-1-en-17 beta-ol-3-one (II), 5 beta-androst-1-ene-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (III), 5 beta-androst-1-en-3 alpha-ol-17-one (IV) and 5 beta-androst-1-en-6 beta-ol-3,17-dione (V). Five further metabolites in low concentration were identified without enzymatic hydrolysis after treatment of the urine with potassium carbonate: 5 beta-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione (VI), 5 alpha-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione (VII), androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (VIII), androsta-1,4-diene-6 beta,17 beta-diol-3-one (IX) and androsta-1,4-dien-6 beta-ol-3,17-dione (X). The identification of the metabolites is based on the gas chromatography retention index, high-performance liquid chromatography retention, EI mass spectrum, chemical reactions of the isolated metabolites, and synthesis of metabolites II, III, IV, VI and VII. The EI mass spectra of the bis-trimethylsilyl derivatives of boldenone and its metabolites display all intense molecular ions, M-15 ions and fragment ions originating from cleavage of the B-ring. The excreted metabolites can be separated in basic extractable labile conjugates and in stable conjugates. More than 95% of metabolites are excreted as stable conjugates.

  9. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Yin, X M; Zhang, X; Wang, Q Z

    2000-12-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  10. Melatonin reduces lead levels in blood, brain and bone and increases lead excretion in rats subjected to subacute lead treatment.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo; Quiroz-Compeán, Fátima; Ramírez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Barrientos, Eunice Yáñez; Rodríguez-Morales, Nadia M; Flores, Alberto; Wrobel, Katarzina; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Méndez, Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Robles, Juvencio; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva

    2015-03-04

    Melatonin, a hormone known for its effects on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects of melatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatonin had lower lead levels in blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increases lead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we first assessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMR analysis showed no evidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effects of MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonin directly affects lead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictable "individual differences" in uptake and excretion of gases and lipid soluble vapours simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiserova-Bergerova, V; Vlach, J; Cassady, J C

    1980-01-01

    A five-compartment pharmacokinetic model with two excretory pathways, exhalation and metabolism, based on first order kinetics is used to outline the effect of body build, pulmonary ventilation, and lipid content in blood on uptake, distribution, and clearance of low solubility gases and lipid soluble vapours during and after exposure. The model shows the extent that individual differences have on altering uptake and distribution, with consequent changes in blood concentration, rate of excretion, and toxicity, even when variations in these parameters are within physiological ranges. The model is also used to describe the concentration variation of inhaled substances in tissues of subjects exposed to concentrations with permitted excursions. During the same course of exposure, the tissue concentrations of low solubility gases fluctuate much more than tissue concentrations of lipid soluble vapours. The fluctuation is reduced by metabolism of inhaled substance. These conclusions are recommended for consideration whenever evaluating the effect of excursions above the threshold limit values used in the control of industrial exposures (by excursion factors). PMID:7370192

  12. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  13. A search for intervening HI absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Sarah N.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Allison, James R.; Koribalski, Baerbel S.; Curran, Stephen J.

    2013-03-01

    HI absorption-line studies provide a unique probe of the gas distribution and kinematics in galaxies well beyond the local universe (z ≳ 0.3). HI absorption-line surveys with next-generation radio telescopes will provide the first large-scale studies of HI in a redshift regime which is poorly understood. However, we currently lack the understanding to infer galaxy properties from absorption-line observations alone. To address this issue, we are conducting a search for intervening HI absorption in a sample of 20 nearby galaxies. Our aim is to investigate how the detection rate varies with distance from the galaxy. We target sight-lines to bright continuum sources, which intercept known gas-rich galaxies, selected from the HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (Koribalski et al. 2004). In our pilot sample, six galaxies with impact parameters < 20 kpc, we do not detect any absorption lines - although all are detected in 21cm emission. This indicates that an absorption non-detection cannot simply be interpreted as an absence of neutral gas - see Fig. 1. Our detection rate is low compared to previous surveys e.g. Gupta et al. (2010). This is, at least partially, due to the high resolution of the observations reducing the flux of the background source, which will also be an issue in future surveys, such as ASKAP-FLASH.

  14. [Influence of mineral water on absorption of oral alendronate in rats].

    PubMed

    Akagi, Yuuki; Sakaue, Tomoyuki; Yoneyama, Eiji; Aoyama, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Alendronate, an oral bisphosphonate (e.g., Fosamax(®)), is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis, and the Fosamax(®) package insert advises that the bioavailability is reduced when taken with mineral water containing high levels of metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), etc.). However, standards regarding the water used when taking alendronate are unclear. In this study, the influence of mineral water on the absorption of oral alendronate was investigated based on urinary excretion of its unchanged form in rats. Alendronate was diluted in each water sample and administered orally (0.7 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats after 24-hour fast. Urine samples were collected until 24 h after dosing. Urine samples were alkalinized, and alendronate in urine was precipitated as a calcium salt, followed by loading on an anion exchange cartridge. Eluted alendronate was derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chloride and determined by HPLC with fluorescent detection. Cumulative urinary excretion recoveries of alendronate were calculated from the amounts of urinary excretion. Alendronate was rapidly excreted in the first 6 h, and similar elimination rate constants were seen (from 0.28 to 0.45 h(-1/2)) among the water samples. Cumulative urinary excretion recoveries with tap water, evian(®) and 100% deep ocean water were 0.98±0.17%, 0.80±0.18% and 1.01±0.16% (mean±S.E., n=4). Those with Contrex(®) (0.33±0.07%) were significantly lower when compared with ultrapure water (1.56±0.35%, p<0.01). These findings suggest that the absorption of alendronate decreases based on the calcium concentration of mineral water. In conclusion, mineral water containing high levels of calcium is not recommended when alendronate is taken.

  15. Reduced Hepatic Uptake and Intestinal Excretion of Organic Cations in Mice with a Targeted Disruption of the Organic Cation Transporter 1 (Oct1 [Slc22a1]) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Johan W.; Wagenaar, Els; Mol, Carla A. A. M.; Buitelaar, Marije; Koepsell, Hermann; Smit, Johan W.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

    2001-01-01

    The polyspecific organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1 [SLC22A1]) mediates facilitated transport of small (hydrophilic) organic cations. OCT1 is localized at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the liver, kidney, and intestine and could therefore be involved in the elimination of endogenous amines and xenobiotics via these organs. To investigate the pharmacologic and physiologic role of this transport protein, we generated Oct1 knockout (Oct1−/−) mice. Oct1−/− mice appeared to be viable, healthy, and fertile and displayed no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. The role of Oct1 in the pharmacology of substrate drugs was studied by comparing the distribution and excretion of the model substrate tetraethylammonium (TEA) after intravenous administration to wild-type and Oct1−/− mice. In Oct1−/− mice, accumulation of TEA in liver was four to sixfold lower than in wild-type mice, whereas direct intestinal excretion of TEA was reduced about twofold. Excretion of TEA into urine over 1 h was 53% of the dose in wild-type mice, compared to 80% in knockout mice, probably because in Oct1−/− mice less TEA accumulates in the liver and thus more is available for rapid excretion by the kidney. In addition, we found that absence of Oct1 leads to decreased liver accumulation of the anticancer drug metaiodobenzylguanidine and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium. In conclusion, our data show that Oct1 plays an important role in the uptake of organic cations into the liver and in their direct excretion into the lumen of the small intestine. PMID:11463829

  16. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. Both PFOS and PFOA are found in biosolids, and the application of these contaminated biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about possi...

  17. Potassium bicarbonate attenuates the urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanies an increase in dietary protein and may promote calcium absorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicar...

  18. Incidence of fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows before and after the enrolment in the Québec voluntary program.

    PubMed

    Arango-Sabogal, J C; Paré, J; Labrecque, O; Côté, G; Roy, J P; Buczinski, S; Wellemans, V; Fecteau, G

    2017-12-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic and contagious enteric disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This disease of worldwide distribution is responsible for significant economic losses and the bacteria itself has been linked to human Crohn's disease. Paratuberculosis control programs focus on reducing MAP transmission by implementing better management practices that target infection routes. In Québec, a Voluntary Paratuberculosis Prevention and Control Program (QVPPCP) was launched in 2007. The objectives of this prospective cohort study were threefold. The first was to describe the changes in the incidence of fecal excretion of MAP in cows born before and after farm enrolment in the QVPPCP. The second was to estimate the impact of the risk of within-herd transmission of MAP (measured by the risk assessment score (RAS)) on the incidence of fecal excretion of MAP. And the third was to evaluate the impact of calf rearing practices on the incidence of fecal excretion of MAP. Eighteen MAP-positive herds were visited annually from 2011 to 2015. At each visit, individual fecal samples from all adult cows were collected. MAP was cultured using liquid media and an automated system. A risk assessment questionnaire was completed upon enrolment in the QVPPCP and at each visit. The RAS of the farm was attributed to each cow according to its birthdate. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for the exposure variables. Herd clustering was taken into account using robust standard errors. A total of 2158 cows were included (cohort born before n=919; cohort born after n=1239). The incidence and hazard of fecal excretion were significantly lower for the cohort-after than the cohort-before (incidence rate ratio=0.38; 95% CI: 0.18-0.78 and HR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.23-0.98). The HR of fecal excretion for cows exposed to a high RAS was 2.20 times (95% CI: 1.21-3.99) that of cows exposed to a low RAS. Poor calving cow

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  20. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  1. Revisiting the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: Differences in Long-Term Biodistribution and Excretion.

    PubMed

    Lancelot, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for years for magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Because of their rapid blood clearance, they were considered as very safe products until some of them were shown to induce nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal failure and hypersignals on T1-weighted unenhanced brain scans of patients with normal renal function. To date, these adverse effects have been related almost exclusively to the use of low-stability linear agents, which are more prone to release free gadolinium. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to ascertain the existence of a deep compartment for gadolinium storage in the body and to assess whether all the GBCAs present the same toxicokinetic profile. Applying a systematic literature search methodology, all clinical and preclinical studies reporting time-dependent plasma concentrations and renal excretion data of gadolinium were identified and analyzed. Since the individual data were not available, the analysis focused on the average values per groups of subjects or animals, which had received a given GBCA at a given dose. The rate constants of the distribution phase (α), rapid elimination phase (β), and residual excretion phase (γ) of gadolinium were determined in each group from the plasma concentration (Cp) time curves and the relative urinary excretion rate (rER) time curves, taking the 2-hour time point as a reference. Moreover, as bone may represent a reservoir for long-term gadolinium accumulation and slow release into the blood stream, the time curves of the relative concentration in the bone (rCB) of Gd-labeled GBCAs in mice or rats were analyzed taking day 1 concentrations as a reference. The ratio of gadolinium concentrations in the bone marrow (CBM) as compared with the bone (CB) was also calculated. The relative urinary excretion rate (rER) plots revealed a prolonged residual excretion phase of gadolinium in healthy volunteers, consistent with the existence of

  2. A method for assessing carbohydrate energy absorption and its application to premature infants.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Sumners, J E; Stetina, J S; Heimler, R; Grausz, J P

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed for assessing indirectly the fecal excretion of carbohydrate-derived energy. Then, eight healthy premature infants (28 to 32 wk gestation, postnatal age 12 to 30 days) were randomly assigned to receive one of two formulas that differed only in the carbohydrate source: 100% lactose or 50% lactose: 50% glucose polymer (lactose + glucose polymer). Excreta collections were analyzed for total nitrogen, urea nitrogen, ammonia, fat, and total energy. Carbohydrate energy absorption was calculated. The formulas were well tolerated and stool frequency, energy intake, weight gain, and nitrogen balance were not different in the two formula groups. Also, there were no significant intergroup (lactose versus lactose + glucose polymer) differences in the coefficients (%) (x +/- SD) of fat absorption (90 +/- 6 versus 93 +/- 5) or carbohydrate energy absorption (96 +/- 1 versus 95 +/- 3). Thus, net carbohydrate-energy absorption appeared normal in these premature infants who showed no clinical formula intolerance.

  3. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A.; Åman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management. PMID:24358035

  4. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  5. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  6. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  7. Characterization of the Pharmacokinetics of Vilaprisan: Bioavailability, Excretion, Biotransformation, and Drug-Drug Interaction Potential.

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus-Hillert; Höchel, Joachim; Prien, Olaf; Zimmermann, Torsten; Brooks, Ashley; Bush, Jim; Rottmann, Antje

    2018-01-12

    In-vitro data suggest that clearance of vilaprisan is mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (oxidation) and aldoketoreductases (reduction). To fully understand the elimination and biotransformation pathways of vilaprisan, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, and to quantify the impact of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of vilaprisan, two clinical studies in healthy postmenopausal women were conducted. In study 1, pharmacokinetics, mass balance, and metabolite patterns were determined after single oral administration of 5 mg of [ 14 C]-labeled vilaprisan in six subjects. In study 2, pharmacokinetics were determined after single oral administration of 4 mg of vilaprisan without and with concomitant administration of the strong cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor itraconazole (200 mg/day) in 14 subjects. In addition, a microtracer dose of vilaprisan was given intravenously to determine absolute bioavailability, clearance, and volume of distribution. The dominant single compound in plasma was vilaprisan. No plasma metabolites exceeding 10% of total drug-related area under the concentration-time curve were detected. The absolute oral bioavailability of vilaprisan was ~ 60%. The mean clearance was ~ 7 L/h and the volume of distribution at steady state was ~ 360 L. Excretion occurred primarily via feces (73.5 ± 3.70% of dose; urine: 13.1 ± 1.71%; total recovery: 86.6 ± 2.81%), mostly in a metabolized form. Only small amounts of the parent drug were found in excreta. When vilaprisan was administered together with itraconazole, exposure to vilaprisan was increased 6.2-fold (90% confidence interval 5.4-7.2). Vilaprisan is predominantly metabolized in the liver to a complex variety of metabolites, which are mainly excreted with feces. The pivotal role of cytochrome P450 3A4 in the metabolism of vilaprisan was confirmed. EudraCT numbers 2013-000707-16 (mass balance study) and 2014-004929-41 (drug-drug interaction/microtracer study); NCT

  8. Urinary excretion of mutagens in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Clonfero, E; Granella, M; Marchioro, M; Barra, E L; Nardini, B; Ferri, G; Foà, V

    1995-03-01

    The influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary mutagenic activity was assessed in 75 coke oven workers, using a highly sensitive bacterial mutagen technique (extraction with C18 resin and liquid micro-preincubation test on strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolizing and deconjugating enzymes). Exposure to PAHs was assessed according to the urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol; the main confounding factors were checked by the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the levels of nicotine and its metabolites in urine, or by ascertaining whether recommended dietary restrictions had been followed. Of the 20 urine samples which turned out to be positive (producing at least double the number of spontaneous revertants), 19 (95%) belonged to smokers. Only one non-smoker had obvious urinary mutagenic activity, and was highly exposed occupationally to PAHs (urinary 1-pyrenol of 3.930 mumol/mol of creatinine). Of the five urine samples from subjects who had not followed the recommended diet, two (40%) were clearly mutagenic. Multiple regression analysis (n = 67) showed that the presence of samples positive for urinary mutagenic activity depended only on smoking habits, if this confounding factor was assessed according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, while the significant influence of exposure to PAH could be shown when the confounding factor was objectively estimated according to the urinary levels of nicotine and its metabolites. Assessment of the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts (net revertants/mmol creatinine) confirmed the strong influence of smoking habits on urinary mutagenic activity (all smokers 2156 +/- 2691 versus non-smokers 939 +/- 947 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P < 0.01). In smokers highly exposed to PAHs, greater excretion of mutagens with respect to low-exposure smokers was revealed (3548 +/- 4009 versus 1552 +/- 1227 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann

  9. Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans.

    PubMed

    Mullen, William; Borges, Gina; Donovan, Jennifer L; Edwards, Christine A; Serafini, Mauro; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2009-06-01

    Cocoa drinks containing flavan-3-ols are associated with many health benefits, and conflicting evidence exists as to whether milk adversely affects the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols. The objective was to determine the effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites. Nine human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 d before drinking 250 mL of a cocoa beverage, made with water or milk, that contained 45 micromol (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin. Plasma and urine samples were collected for 24 h, and flavan-3-ol metabolites were analyzed by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. Milk affected neither gastric emptying nor the transit time through the small intestine. Two flavan-3-ol metabolites were detected in plasma and 4 in urine. Milk had only minor effects on the plasma pharmacokinetics of an (epi)catechin-O-sulfate and had no effect on an O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate. However, milk significantly lowered the excretion of 4 urinary flavan-3-ol metabolites from 18.3% to 10.5% of the ingested dose (P = 0.016). Studies that showed protective effects of cocoa and those that showed no effect of milk on bioavailability used products that have a much higher flavan-3-ol content than does the commercial cocoa used in the present study. Most studies of the protective effects of cocoa have used drinks with a very high flavan-3-ol content. Whether similar protective effects are associated with the consumption of many commercial chocolate and cocoa products containing substantially lower amounts of flavan-3-ols, especially when absorption at lower doses is obstructed by milk, remains to be determined.

  10. Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    PubMed

    Lütjohann, Dieter; Meyer, Sven; von Bergmann, Klaus; Stellaard, Frans

    2018-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are considered health-promoting; however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigate the link between vegetarian-diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. We study male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption, and fecal sterol excretion are measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols. These serve as markers for cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and catabolism. The biliary cholesterol secretion rate is estimated. Flux data are related to body weight. Individual vegetarian diet groups are statistically compared to the omnivore group. Lacto vegetarians absorb 44% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 22% more cholesterol, and show no differences in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Vegan subjects absorb 90% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 35% more cholesterol, and have a similar plasma total cholesterol, but a 13% lower plasma LDL cholesterol. No diet-related differences in biliary cholesterol secretion and absorption are observed. Total cholesterol absorption is lower only in vegans. Total cholesterol input is similar under all vegetarian diets. Unaltered biliary cholesterol secretion and higher cholesterol synthesis blunt the lowered dietary cholesterol intake in vegetarians. LDL cholesterol is significantly lower only in vegans. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The effect of poorly absorbed solute on intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Menzies, I S; Jenkins, A P; Heduan, E; Catt, S D; Segal, M B; Creamer, B

    1990-12-01

    To determine the effects of poorly absorbed solute on intestinal absorption, the urinary recovery of ingested lactulose, L-rhamnose, D-xylose, and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was measured after simultaneous ingestion of various 'loads' of mannitol given in iso-osmolar solution. Mannitol reduced intestinal uptake of the poorly absorbed test sugars, lactulose and L-rhamnose; uptake of D-xylose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, which are absorbed by carrier-mediated transport largely from the jejunum, was less affected. The dose-response effect of mannitol on the absorption of L-rhamnose was approximately exponential; doses of 5, 10, and 20 g mannitol reduced the average urinary excretion of L-rhamnose by 34.7%, 51.7%, and 61.2%, respectively. In this respect, an osmotically equivalent load of lactulose, ingested as 'solute', was approximately twice as effective as mannitol in reducing L-rhamnose absorption, probably because lactulose is more poorly absorbed than mannitol (less than 1.0% versus 32-41%). Ingestion of other poorly absorbed solutes such as raffinose, sorbitol, xylitol, magnesium sulphate, and sodium sulphate also significantly depressed the absorption of L-rhamnose; in contrast, more efficiently absorbed solutes, such as sodium chloride, glucose, glycerol, and urea had little effect.

  12. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  13. The co-solvent Cremophor EL limits absorption of orally administered paclitaxel in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Malingré, M M; Schellens, J H; Van Tellingen, O; Ouwehand, M; Bardelmeijer, H A; Rosing, H; Koopman, F J; Schot, M E; Ten Bokkel Huinink, W W; Beijnen, J H

    2001-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the co-solvents Cremophor EL and polysorbate 80 on the absorption of orally administered paclitaxel. 6 patients received in a randomized setting, one week apart oral paclitaxel 60 mg m(-2) dissolved in polysorbate 80 or Cremophor EL. For 3 patients the amount of Cremophor EL was 5 ml m(-2), for the other three 15 ml m(-2). Prior to paclitaxel administration patients received 15 mg kg(-1) oral cyclosporin A to enhance the oral absorption of the drug. Paclitaxel formulated in polysorbate 80 resulted in a significant increase in the maximal concentration (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of paclitaxel in comparison with the Cremophor EL formulations (P = 0.046 for both parameters). When formulated in Cremophor EL 15 ml m(-2), paclitaxel C(max) and AUC values were 0.10 +/- 0.06 microM and 1.29 +/- 0.99 microM h(-1), respectively, whereas these values were 0.31 +/- 0.06 microM and 2.61 +/- 1.54 microM h(-1), respectively, when formulated in polysorbate 80. Faecal data revealed a decrease in excretion of unchanged paclitaxel for the polysorbate 80 formulation compared to the Cremophor EL formulations. The amount of paclitaxel excreted in faeces was significantly correlated with the amount of Cremophor EL excreted in faeces (P = 0.019). When formulated in Cremophor EL 15 ml m(-2), paclitaxel excretion in faeces was 38.8 +/- 13.0% of the administered dose, whereas this value was 18.3 +/-15.5% for the polysorbate 80 formulation. The results show that the co-solvent Cremophor EL is an important factor limiting the absorption of orally administered paclitaxel from the intestinal lumen. They highlight the need for designing a better drug formulation in order to increase the usefulness of the oral route of paclitaxel

  14. The New MODIS-Terra, and the Proposed COBRA Mission: First Global Aerosol Distribution and Properties Over Land and Ocean, and Plans to Measure Global Black Carbon Absorption Over the Ocean Glint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Martins, Vanderlei; Schoeberl, Mark; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS instrument was launched on the NASA Terra satellite in Dec. 1999. Since last Oct, the sensor and the aerosol algorithm reached maturity and provide global daily retrievals of aerosol optical thickness and properties. MODIS has 36 spectral channels in the visible to IR with resolution down to 250 m. This allows accurate cloud screening and multi-spectral aerosol retrievals. We derive the aerosol optical thickness over the ocean and most of the land areas, distinguishing between fine (mainly man-made aerosol) and coarse (mainly natural) aerosol particles. New methods to derive the aerosol absorption of sunlight are also being developed. These measurements are use to track different aerosol sources, transport and the radiative forcing at the top and bottom of the atmosphere. However MODIS or any present satellite sensor cannot measure absorption by Black Carbon over the oceans, a critical component in studying climate change and human health. For this purpose we propose the COBRA mission that observes the ocean at glint and off glint simultaneously measuring the spectral polarized light and deriving precisely the aerosol absorption.

  15. Increased urinary excretion rates of serotonin and metabolites during bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platen, Petra; Lebenstedt, Marion; Schneider, Myriam; Boese, Andrea; Heer, Martina

    2005-05-01

    Astronauts are often on a voluntarily reduced energy intake during space missions, possibly caused by a metabolic or emotional stress response with involvement of the central serotonergic system (SES). We investigated 24 h urinary excretion (24 h-E) of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindol acidic acid as indicators of the SES in healthy males under two different normocaloric conditions: normal physical activity (NPA) and -6∘ head-down-tilt (HDT). HDT or NPA were randomly arranged with a recovery period of 6 months in between. 24 h-E of hormones varied widely among individuals. Values were higher in HDT compared to NPA. Assuming that the 24 h-E values are, beside being indicators for alterations in the number and metabolism of platelets, Also indicators of central SES, HDT condition seems to activate central SES in a higher degree compared to NPA. Therefore, changes in central SES might be involved in the mechanisms associated with space flight or microgravity, including possible maladaptations such as voluntary undernutrition.

  16. Effect of Diuretics on Urinary Excretion of Cephalothin in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tice, Alan D.; Barza, Michael; Bergeron, Michel G.; Brusch, John L.; Weinstein, Louis

    1975-01-01

    Diuretics and antibiotics are frequently used concomitantly. The possibility of drug interactions led us to study the effects of several diuretics on the renal elimination of cephalothin. Five healthy volunteers received a constant infusion of 500 mg of sodium cephalothin per h for 9 h on 4 consecutive days. Each day, after the third hour of infusion, the subjects were given one of the following in varying order: (i) furosemide (1 mg/kg, intravenous), (ii) mercaptomerin (250 mg, intramuscular), (iii) mannitol (25 g, intravenous), or (iv) no diuretic (control day). Fluid losses were replaced hourly. Serum and complete urine collections were obtained each hour and assayed for creatinine and cephalothin (bioassay). Clearances (milliliter per minute) and urinary excretions (milligram per hour) of cephalothin did not differ either when the diuretic day values were compared with control day, or when pre- and postdiuretic results on the same day were compared. Creatinine clearances were not affected by diuretics except for a transient rise after furosemide. PMID:1137368

  17. Trace metal excretion in patients with homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G E; Blewet, R; Rodgers, A L; Wood, L; Jacobs, P

    1999-07-01

    In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia regular therapeutic apheresis is acknowledged to have long-term benefit. A previously unrecognised complication of such intervention is the development of anaemia that reflects a sub-optimal dietary iron intake coupled with accelerated loss of this trace metal in the fluid discarded after each procedure. Additional contributions result from enhanced urinary excretion as a result of chelation to citrate used as an anticoagulant and frequent blood sampling. The underlying pathophysiologic process appears to be reduced deformability. We now document similar and significant losses of zinc, copper and chromium in these circumstances. In the case of the latter three elements, no associated clinical syndromes have thus far been identified, probably because deficiency states are less well-recognised than that due to iron loss and, additionally, because critical reductions are avoided by their replenishment during a normal food intake. These studies are, nevertheless, relevant since they are the basis for recommending prophylactic supplementation during this form of management.

  18. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  19. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium‐treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium‐treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium‐treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium‐treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg. PMID:25501430

  20. Greater bile acid excretion with soy bean than with cow milk in infants.

    PubMed

    Potter, J M; Nestel, P J

    1976-05-01

    The excretion of fecal sterols and bile acids was measured in five infants from the 1st week of life to 2 or 3 months of age as the composition of their diet was changed from cow milk to soy bean milk. Bile acid excretion, adjusted for body weight, was initially lower during the 1st than during the 3rd week, when it reached adult values. The average excretion of bile acids was 6.8 mg/kg per day with soy bean milk and 3.6 mg/kg per day with cow milk. Net sterol excretion (total sterol output minus cholesterol intake) was also twice as high with soy bean milk and probably reflected enhancement of cholesterol re-excretion as well as of synthesis since the cholesterol content of soy beans is nil. However, net sterol excretion remained higher with soy bean than with cow milk even when egg yolk cholesterol was added to the soy bean milk. It is concluded that the substitution of soy bean milk for cow milk, which lowered the plasma cholesterol in all infants (even in the presence of dietary cholesterol) leads to an increase in bile acids and probably also in cholesterol excretion in young infants.

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  2. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion levels of preschool children: Individual, daily, and seasonal differences.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Nagafuchi, Mikako; Izu, Ryoji; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Imai, Katsumi; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the authors measured sodium and potassium concentrations in spot urine samples of preschool children on multiple days, and evaluated individual, daily, and seasonal effects. A total of 104 healthy preschool children aged 4 to 5 years were studied. Urine samples were collected from the first urine of the day after waking for three consecutive days (Monday-Wednesday) four times a year (spring, summer, autumn, winter). The authors estimated the daily urine volume as 500 mL and daily creatinine excretion as 300 mg, and used these to calculate daily sodium and potassium excretion levels. Daily sodium and potassium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were highly variable. The coefficient variant in the children's excretion levels were also high within and between individuals. Sodium excretion levels and sodium to potassium ratios were higher on Monday (weekend sodium intakes) than Tuesday. Season had no effect on sodium or potassium excretion levels, but the sodium to potassium ratio was higher in summer than in winter. In conclusion, levels of urinary sodium excretion are comparatively high and those of potassium are low in preschool students, with high variability within and between individuals. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genomic study of the absorption mechanism of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun-jie; Zhu, Chun-yan

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac disease has emerged as the leading cause of death worldwide, and food rich in phenolic acids has drawn much attention as sources of active substances of hypolipidemic drug. Ananas comosus L. (pineapple) is one of the most popular tropical and subtropical fruits. Isolated from pineapple leaves, EAL(Extract of Ananas Comosus L. Leaves) is rich in phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and other phenolics, highly relevant to the putative cardiovascular-protective effects, which suggests its potential to be a new plant medicine for treatment of cardiac disease, but little is known about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of EAL in animals or human beings. In this study, we employed cDNA microarray, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat intestinal model to explore the absorption behavior of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in EAL. The permeation of 2 substances was concentration and time dependent. Results also indicated that monocarboxylic acid transporter was involved in the transepithelial transport of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The relationship between sodium excretion and blood pressure, urine albumin, central retinal arteriolar equivalent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Yu, Peng; Yuan, Yin; Li, Qiaowei; Lin, Fan; Gao, Zhonghai; Chen, Falin; Zhu, Pengli

    2016-10-11

    Many studies showed an association between dietary salt intake, blood pressure and increased CVD risk. The potential reason may be related to vascular structural and functional changes, through alterations in endothelial function. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent and urinary albumin reflected vascular endothelial dysfunction in different part of the body. The urinary sodium-creatinine ratio of causal urine specimens could represent the 24-h urinary sodium intake to estimate sodium intake. The 24-h sodium excretion was estimated by urinary sodium-creatinine ratio. Urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), reflecting renal arterial damage, was also determined. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) was detected by fundus photography and was further analyzed by semi-quantitative software. Participants included 951 hypertensive patients with the average sodium excretion of 11.62 ± 3.01 g. The sodium excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the hypertensive as compared to that of the non-hypertensive participants. Prevalence of hypertension was increased with increasing sodium excretion. The sodium excretion was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively (r = 0.20 and 0.14; P < 0.01). Furthermore, UACR and CRAE were significantly (P < 0.01) different within the sodium excretion quartiles (Q1-Q4). After adjusting the confounding variables, such as age and sex, the binary logistic regression analysis showed that sodium excretion was an independent factor of UACR and CRAE (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that sodium excretion in the hypertensive participants were higher. The high sodium excretion was related with the renal arterial damage as well as retinal arteriolar changes.

  5. Comparison of endogenous and radiolabeled bile acid excretion in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, L.R.; Bilhartz, L.E.; Santa Ana, C.A.

    Fecal recovery of radioactivity after ingestion of a bolus of radiolabeled bile acid is abnormally high in most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. To evaluate the significance of this malabsorption, concurrent fecal excretion of both exogenous radiolabeled bile acid and endogenous (unlabeled) bile acid were measured in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Subjects received a 2.5-microCi oral dose of taurocholic acid labeled with 14C in the 24th position of the steroid moiety. Endogenous bile acid excretion was measured by a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase assay on a concurrent 72-h stool collection. Both radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion were abnormally high inmore » most patients with chronic diarrhea compared with normal subjects, even when equivoluminous diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by ingestion of osmotically active solutions. The correlation between radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion was good. However, neither radiolabeled nor endogenous bile acid excretion was as abnormal as is typically seen in patients with ileal resection, and none of these diarrhea patients responded to treatment with cholestyramine with stool weights less than 200 g. These results suggest (a) that this radiolabeled bile acid excretion test accurately reflects excess endogenous bile acid excretion; (b) that excess endogenous bile acid excretion is not caused by diarrhea per se; (c) that spontaneously occurring idiopathic chronic diarrhea is often associated with increased endogenous bile acid excretion; and (d) that bile acid malabsorption is not likely to be the primary cause of diarrhea in most of these patients.« less

  6. Excretion, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics of CP-945,598, a selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist, in rats, mice, and dogs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhuang; Scott, Dennis O; Griffith, David A; Day, Robert; Prakash, Chandra

    2011-12-01

    1-(8-(2-Chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl)-4-(ethylamino)piperidine-4-carboxamide (CP-945,598) is an orally active antagonist of the cannabinoid CB-1 receptor that progressed into phase 3 human clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we investigated the metabolic fate and disposition of CP-945,598 in rats, Tg-RasH2 mice, and dogs after oral administration of a single dose of [(14)C]CP-945,598. Total mean recoveries of the radioactive dose were 97.7, 97.8, and 99.3% from mice, rats, and dogs, respectively. The major route of excretion in all three species was via the feces, but on the basis of separate studies in bile duct-cannulated rats and dogs, this probably reflects excretion in bile rather than incomplete absorption. CP-945,598 underwent extensive metabolism in all three species, because no unchanged parent compound was detected in the urine across species. The primary metabolic pathway of CP-945,598 involved N-deethylation to form an N-desethyl metabolite (M1). M1 was subsequently metabolized by amide hydrolysis, oxidation, and ribose conjugation to numerous novel and unusual metabolites. The major circulating and excretory metabolites were species-dependent; however, several common metabolites were observed in more than one species. In addition to parent compound, M1, M3, M4, and M5 in rats, M1, M3, and M4 in mice, and M1 and M2 in dogs were identified as the major circulating metabolites. Gender-related differences were also apparent in the quantitative and qualitative nature of the metabolites in rats. An unprecedented metabolite, M4, formed by deamidation of M1 or M3 (N-hydroxy-M1), but not by decarboxylation of M2, was identified in all species. M4 was nonenzymatically converted to M5.

  7. Excretion of Zinc and Copper Increases in Men during 3 Weeks of Bed Rest, with or without Artificial Gravity12

    PubMed Central

    Heacox, Hayley N; Gillman, Patricia L; Zwart, Sara R; Smith, Scott M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions. Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis. Methods: Zinc and copper balances were studied in 15 men [mean ± SD age: 29 ± 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.4 ± 2.2] before, during, and after 21 d of head-down tilt BR, during which 8 of the participants were subjected to artificial gravity (AG) by centrifugation for 1 h/d. Control subjects were transferred onto the centrifuge but were not exposed to centrifugation. The study was conducted in a metabolic ward; all urine and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Urinary zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 33% and 14%, respectively, higher during BR than before BR, and fecal zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 36% and 19%, respectively, higher during BR, resulting in 67% and 82% lower net zinc balances for controls and AG, respectively (both P < 0.01), despite lower nutrient intake during BR. Fecal copper values for control and AG groups were 40% and 33%, respectively, higher during BR than before BR (P < 0.01 for both). Urinary copper did not change during BR, but a 19% increase was observed after BR compared with before BR in the AG group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The increased fecal excretion of copper and zinc by men during BR suggests that their absorption of these minerals from the diet was reduced, secondary to the release of minerals from bone and muscle. These findings highlight the importance of determining dietary requirements for astronauts on space

  8. Excretion of Zinc and Copper Increases in Men during 3 Weeks of Bed Rest, with or without Artificial Gravity.

    PubMed

    Heacox, Hayley N; Gillman, Patricia L; Zwart, Sara R; Smith, Scott M

    2017-06-01

    Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions. Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis. Methods: Zinc and copper balances were studied in 15 men [mean ± SD age: 29 ± 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 26.4 ± 2.2] before, during, and after 21 d of head-down tilt BR, during which 8 of the participants were subjected to artificial gravity (AG) by centrifugation for 1 h/d. Control subjects were transferred onto the centrifuge but were not exposed to centrifugation. The study was conducted in a metabolic ward; all urine and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by 2-factor repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Urinary zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 33% and 14%, respectively, higher during BR than before BR, and fecal zinc excretion values for control and AG groups were 36% and 19%, respectively, higher during BR, resulting in 67% and 82% lower net zinc balances for controls and AG, respectively (both P < 0.01), despite lower nutrient intake during BR. Fecal copper values for control and AG groups were 40% and 33%, respectively, higher during BR than before BR ( P < 0.01 for both). Urinary copper did not change during BR, but a 19% increase was observed after BR compared with before BR in the AG group ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: The increased fecal excretion of copper and zinc by men during BR suggests that their absorption of these minerals from the diet was reduced, secondary to the release of minerals from bone and muscle. These findings highlight the importance of determining dietary requirements for astronauts on

  9. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  10. Decrease in laminin content and protein excretion rate after five sixths nephrectomy and low-dose irradiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Aunapuu, Marina; Arend, Andres; Kolts, Ivo; Egerbacher, Monika; Ots, Mai

    2004-04-01

    The effect of low-dose irradiation on laminin distribution and urine protein excretion in the remnant rat kidney has been studied. The rat remnant kidney formed after 5/6 nephrectomy is an experimental model of chronic renal failure. In the remnant kidney, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is developed characterized by focal or segmental sclerosis in glomeruli, alterations in the tubules and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Low dose irradiation has been presumed to suppress sclerotic processes. In this study 24 male Wistar rats were subdivided into the nephrectomized group, nephrectomized and irradiated groups (1 or 3 Grey), and healthy control group. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after beginning the experiment. Laminin immunohistochemical staining was found along the tubular and glomerular basement membranes in all experimental groups, but with varying intensity. Laminin content in the basement membranes was decreased in early stages (week 2), especially after irradiation followed by increase during the later stages with relatively high levels at the end of the experiment (week 8). Irradiation at a dose of 3 Grey decreased protein excretion compared to the nephrectomized rats at all stages, while 1 Grey dose was ineffective. Based on decreased proteinuria we conclude that moderate low-dose irradiation has beneficial effects on the rat remnant kidney and that laminin in basement membranes is probably not the most crucial component in regulating membrane permeability.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Distribution and Permeability of Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Selvan; Suthar, Jitendra Kumar; Rokade, Rutuja; Deshpande, Pooja; Singh, Pooja; Pratinidhi, Ashutosh; Khambadkhar, Rajeshree; Utekar, Srushti

    2018-01-01

    Medical application of nanotechnology is termed as Nanomedicine and is widely used in healthcare industries. Nanotechnology has helped Physicians, Scientists and Technologists to understand the changes in cellular levels to develop nanomedicines and address the challenges faced by the healthcare sectors. Nanoparticles with less than 1nm in size have been used as drug delivery and gene delivery systems to accelerate the drug action in humans. Size of nanomaterials is akin to that of biomolecules and expected to have better interactions. Hence, its utility for various biomedical applications is explored. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, permeability, distribution and elimination studies of nanoparticles are essential to understand its potency, toxicity threshold and confirm its safe use in humans. Reports were available for toxicity studies on nanoparticles, but work on metabolism, pharmacokinetics, distribution and permeability of nanomedicine is limited. Hence, the main focus of this review article is about metabolism, pharmacokinetics, permeability and biodistribution of nanomaterials used in nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is increasingly becoming important in the treatment of diseases and diagnosis. Size of the particle plays an important role. As the particle size decreases its effect to cure the disease increases. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, half-life, metabolism, biodistribution and permeability of nanomedicine were found to be better than that of microsized drugs. In vitro and In vivo ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) studies are mandatory for pharmaceutical organic drugs. Similarly, nanomaterials should be subjected to both in vitro and in vivo ADME studies. Thus, nanomedicine can assist in the development of safe personalized medicine in humans. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Percutaneous excretion of iron and ferritin (through Al-hijamah) as a novel treatment for iron overload in beta-thalassemia major, hemochromatosis and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Baghdadi, Hussam; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy

    2014-08-01

    Iron overload is a big challenge when treating thalassemia (TM), hemochromatosis and sideroblastic anemia. It persists even after cure of TM with bone marrow transplantation. Iron overload results from increased iron absorption and repeated blood transfusions causing increased iron in plasma and interstitial fluids. Iron deposition in tissues e.g. heart, liver, endocrine glands and others leads to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Iron chelation therapy and phlebotomy for iron overload have treatment difficulties, side effects and contraindications. As mean iron level in skin of TM patients increases by more than 200%, percutaneous iron excretion may be beneficial. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) is a simple, safe and economic treatment. WCT is a familiar treatment modality in some European countries and in Chinese hospitals in treating different diseases. WCT was reported to clear both blood plasma and interstitial spaces from causative pathological substances (CPS). Standard WCT method is Al-hijamah (cupping, puncturing and cupping, CPC) method of WCT that was reported to clear blood and interstitial fluids better than the traditional WCT (puncturing and cupping method, PC method of WCT). In other word, traditional WCT may be described as scarification and suction method (double S technique), while Al-hijamah may be described as suction, scarification and suction method (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive treatment modality that includes all steps and therapeutic benefits of traditional dry cupping therapy and WCT altogether according to the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). During the first cupping step of Al-hijamah, a fluid mixture is collected inside skin uplifting due to the effect of negative pressure inside sucking cups. This fluid mixture contains collected interstitial fluids with CPS (iron, ferritin and hemolyzed RBCs in thalassemia), filtered fluids (from blood capillaries) with iron and hemolyzed blood cells (hemolyzed

  13. CONGENER-DEPENDENT DISTRIBUTION AND EXCRETION: A COMPARISON OF BDES 47, 99, 100, AND 153 TOXICOKINETICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) represent a novel class of chemicals used as flame retardants predominantly in textiles, furniture, and electronics. Evidence demonstrating the bioaccumulation of these brominated flame retardants in humans has spurred research into potenti...

  14. Tissue Distribution, Excretion, and Hepatic Biotransformation of Microcystin-LR in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-09

    TO 900709 43 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD...GROUP SUB-GROUP Imicrocystin-LR, pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, protein binding 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block...the column measured with blue dextrin . Fig. 6. Econo-Pac 1ODG desalting column profile of hepatic- cytosolic radiolabel under denaturing conditions

  15. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  16. Controlling enhanced absorption in graphene metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qihui; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Genghui

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a controllable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MA) is designed with the circuit analog method. Taking advantage of the patterned graphene on SiO2/doped Si/polyimide substrates with a gold reflector, the controllable MA achieves perfect absorption at 0.75 THz. The chemical potential of graphene is regulated by controlling the voltage between graphene and doped Si layers. As the chemical potential varies from 0 eV to 0.5 eV, the MA is changed from reflection (<0.37) to absorption (>0.99). The distributions of surface current and electric field are illustrated to analyze the resonant characteristic of patterned graphene. According to the resonant characteristic, we introduce patterned graphene elements with different dimension in a unit cell, which effectively extends the effective absorption bandwidth (absorption > 0 . 9) from 0.67-0.93 THz to 0.52-0.95 THz. Moreover, replacing part of the graphene structure with gold, the switchable MA is turned into a frequency tunable MA. The absorption peak moves from 0.62 THz to 0.92 THz as the chemical potential increases from 0.1 eV to 0.5 eV. These designs overcome limitation of traditional absorbers and exhibit great potentials in many practical applications.

  17. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  18. Starch blockers--their effect on calorie absorption from a high-starch meal.

    PubMed

    Bo-Linn, G W; Santa Ana, C A; Morawski, S G; Fordtran, J S

    1982-12-02

    It has been known for more than 25 years that certain plant foods, such as kidney beans and wheat, contain a substance that inhibits the activity of salivary and pancreatic amylase. More recently, this antiamylase has been purified and marketed for use in weight control under the generic name "starch blockers." Although this approach to weight control is highly popular, it has never been shown whether starch-blocker tablets actually reduce the absorption of calories from starch. Using a one-day calorie-balance technique and a high-starch (100 g) meal (spaghetti, tomato sauce, and bread), we measured the excretion of fecal calories after normal subjects had taken either placebo or starch-blocker tablets. If the starch-blocker tablets had prevented the digestion of starch, fecal calorie excretion should have increased by 400 kcal. However, fecal calorie excretion was the same on the two test days (mean +/- S.E.M., 80 +/- 4 as compared with 78 +/- 2). We conclude that starch-blocker tablets do not inhibit the digestion and absorption of starch calories in human beings.

  19. Catecholamine excretion rates in relation to life-styles in the male population of Otmoor, Oxfordshire.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, V; Jenner, D A; Palmer, C D; Harrison, G A

    1981-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the number of analyses of aspects of life-style and dietary patterns of members of the Otmoor population, in relation to their catecholamine excretion rates. The data reported here are restricted to males. Feelings of boredom were associated with low adrenaline excretion rates. Reported physical tiredness was associated with low adrenaline levels, while mental tiredness seems to be related to high adrenaline levels. People who regarded themselves as having a competitive personality, as being faced by a large number of life challenges, as having to meet self-set deadlines, as choosing to focus on more than one task at the same time, or as being under time pressure had high rates. Cigarette smoking and coffee consumption were related to high adrenaline excretion rates. Taken together these variables can explain 16-20% of variance in adrenaline excretion. Smoking and coffee consumption are of primary importance. The results of similar analyses of noradrenaline are reported.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FACTORS BEYOND DIRECT EXCRETION TO SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combined excretion of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via urine and feces is considered the primary route by which APIs from human pharmaceuticals enter the environment. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondar...

  1. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  2. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Juretzko, Annett; Steinbach, Antje; Hannemann, Anke; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Friedrich, Nele; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Rettig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD). As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909) vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0) pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155) vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148) pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01) and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01) were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by

  3. Excretion of common neutral steroids in healthy subjects as estimated by multi-column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, P

    1978-01-01

    Excretion data for common neutral urinary steroids from a total of 330 healthy subjects from different parts of the world and of different sex and age are given. The estimations, which have been performed by multi-column liquid chromatography, include 24 h excretion values for both common 17-oxosteroids and the common metabolites of cortisol, including the cortolones and the cortols. Comparisons are made with values from the world literature and with isotope experiments.

  4. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  5. Role of renal metabolism and excretion in 5-nitrofuran-induced uroepithelial cancer in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Spry, L A; Zenser, T V; Cohen, S M; Davis, B B

    1985-01-01

    5-Nitrofurans have been used in the study of chemical carcinogenesis. There is substantial evidence that N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl] formamide (FANFT) is deformylated to 2-amino-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole (ANFT) in the process of FANFT-induced bladder cancer. Paradoxically, ANFT is less potent as a uroepithelial carcinogen than FANFT when fed to rats. Feeding aspirin with FANFT to rats decreases the incidence of bladder cancer. Isolated kidneys were perfused with 5-nitrofurans to determine renal clearances and whether aspirin acts to decrease urinary excretion of the carcinogen. In FANFT-perfused kidneys, FANFT was deformylated to ANFT and excreted (1.06 +/- 0.22 nmol/min) at a rate eightfold higher than excretion of FANFT. In kidneys perfused with equimolar ANFT, excretion of ANFT was 0.25 +/- 0.05 nmol/min, which suggests a coupling of renal deformylation of FANFT to excretion of ANFT in FANFT-perfused kidneys. Neither aspirin nor probenecid altered the urinary excretion or half-life of FANFT or ANFT. In rats fed 0.2% FANFT as part of their diet, coadministration of aspirin (0.5%) increased urinary excretion of ANFT during a 12-wk feeding study, which suggests decreased tissue binding or metabolism of ANFT. Kidney perfusion with acetylated ANFT (NFTA), a much less potent uroepithelial carcinogen, resulted in no ANFT excretion or accumulation, which indicates the specificity of renal deformylase. Renal deformylase activity was found in broken cell preparations of rat and human kidney. These data describe a unique renal metabolic/excretory coupling for these compounds that appears to explain the differential carcinogenic potential of the 5-nitrofurans tested. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aspirin decreases activation of ANFT by inhibiting prostaglandin H synthase. PMID:4044826

  6. Cichorium intybus L. promotes intestinal uric acid excretion by modulating ABCG2 in experimental hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Nie, Anzheng; Bian, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Excessive production and/or reduced excretion of uric acid could lead to hyperuricemia, which could be a major cause of disability. Hyperuricemia has received increasing attention in the last few decades due to its global prevalence. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is a perennial herb of the asteraceae family. It was previously shown to exert potent hypouricemic effects linked with decreasing uric acid formation in the liver by down-regulating the activity of xanthine oxidase, and increasing uric acid excretion by up-regulating the renal OAT3 mRNA expression. The present study aimed to evaluate its extra-renal excretion and possible molecular mechanism underlying the transporter responsible for intestinal uric acid excretion in vivo. Chicory was administered intragastrically to hyperuricemic rats induced by drinking 10% fructose water. The uricosuric effect was evaluated by determining the serum uric acid level as well as the intestinal uric acid excretion by HPLC. The location and expression levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2) in jejunum and ileum were analyzed. The administration of chicory decreased the serum uric acid level significantly and increased the intestinal uric acid excretion obviously in hyperuricemic rats induced by 10% fructose drinking. Staining showed that ABCG2 was expressed in the apical membrane of the epithelium and glands of the jejunum and ileum in rats. Further examination showed that chicory enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of ABCG2 markedly in a dose-dependent manner in jejunum and ileum. These findings indicate that chicory increases uric acid excretion by intestines, which may be related to the stimulation of intestinal uric acid excretion via down-regulating the mRNA and protein expressions of ABCG2.

  7. Excretion of Avenanthramides, Phenolic Acids and their Major Metabolites Following Intake of Oat Bran

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Manuel Y.; Corona, Giulia; Soycan, Gulten; Dine, Clemence; Kristek, Angelika; Alsharif, Sarah N. S.; Behrends, Volker; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Scope Wholegrain has been associated with reduced chronic disease mortality, with oat intake particularly notable for lowering blood cholesterol and glycemia. To better understand the complex nutrient profile of oats, we studied urinary excretion of phenolic acids and avenanthramides after ingestion of oat bran in humans. Methods and results After a 2‐d (poly)phenol‐low diet, seven healthy men provided urine 12 h before and 48 h after consuming 60 g oat bran (7.8 μmol avenanthramides, 139.2 μmol phenolic acids) or a phenolic‐low (traces of phenolics) control in a crossover design. Analysis by ultra‐high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)–MS/MS showed that oat bran intake resulted in an elevation in urinary excretion of 30 phenolics relative to the control, suggesting that they are oat bran‐derived. Mean excretion levels were elevated between 0–2 and 4–8 h, following oat bran intake, and amounted to a total of 33.7 ± 7.3 μmol total excretion (mean recovery: 22.9 ± 5.0%), relative to control. The predominant metabolites included: vanillic acid, 4‐ and 3‐hydroxyhippuric acids, and sulfate‐conjugates of benzoic and ferulic acids, which accounted collectively for two thirds of total excretion. Conclusion Oat bran phenolics follow a relatively rapid urinary excretion, with 30 metabolites excreted within 8 h of intake. These levels of excretion suggest that bound phenolics are, in part, rapidly released by the microbiota. PMID:29024323

  8. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+. PMID:25955856

  10. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+.

  11. Behavioral and perceived stressor effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Meredith R; Steele, Matthew S; Bereiter, David A; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    The effects of perceptions and behaviors related to culturally patterned socioeconomic obligations on catecholamine excretion rates were studied in a cross-sectional sample of Samoan adults. A total of 378 participants, ages 29-62 years, from 9 villages throughout Samoa, provided timed overnight urine specimens, and self-reported perceptions and behaviors associated with contributions to one's family, aiga, and chief, matai, and communal gift exchanges, fa'alavelave. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Age (≤40 vs. >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with catecholamine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who view their contribution to their matai to be "just right," had significantly higher residence-adjusted norepinephrine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who consider their contribution to their aiga not to be a burden, had higher epinephrine excretion. Older men who contribute more to their aiga and who perceive their contribution to their aiga to be "just right" had increased residence-adjusted epinephrine excretion. Individual-level perceptions and behaviors related to traditional socioeconomic obligations are a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates. Higher excretion rates may be attributed to psychosocial stress arousal associated with a discordance between personal desires for upward social mobility, and family and community-based socioeconomic obligations. Changes in patterns of individual-level psychosocial stress arousal may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Effective absorption correction for energy dispersive X-ray mapping in a scanning transmission electron microscope: analysing the local indium distribution in rough samples of InGaN alloy layers.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Chauvat, M-P; Ruterana, P; Walther, T

    2017-12-01

    We have applied our previous method of self-consistent k*-factors for absorption correction in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to quantify the indium content in X-ray maps of thick compound InGaN layers. The method allows us to quantify the indium concentration without measuring the sample thickness, density or beam current, and works even if there is a drastic local thickness change due to sample roughness or preferential thinning. The method is shown to select, point-by-point in a two-dimensional spectrum image or map, the k*-factor from the local Ga K/L intensity ratio that is most appropriate for the corresponding sample geometry, demonstrating it is not the sample thickness measured along the electron beam direction but the optical path length the X-rays have to travel through the sample that is relevant for the absorption correction. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. The Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Creatinine Excretion in Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnami, N. A.; Prima, A.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to examine the effect of concentrates supplementation on creatinine excretion in lambs and sheep. The study used 8 male thin tailed lambs (aged ±3-4 months, weighed ±15.20 kg) and 8 sheep (aged ±1 year and weighed ±22.71kg). The animals were fed the diet contained 100% napier grass (100G) and 50% napier grass 50% concentrate as much as 3.5% of body weight (50G50C). This study used a complete randomized nested design. The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI) and creatinine excretion. The results showed that the diet significantly affect (P<0.05) DMI. The consumption of 100G was lower than that of 50G50C both lambs (0.32 vs 0.62 kg/d) and sheep (0.47 vs 0.88 kg/d). On the other hand, the diet did not affect the creatinine excretion (P 0.05) either G100 or G50C50 in lambs or sheep. However, the creatinine excretion in sheep (185.66 mg/d) was higher than that of lambs (299.1 md/d) (P<0.05). It can be concluded that concentrate supplementation of grass diet increased DMI but did not affect creatinine excretion. The creatinine excretion of sheep was higher than that of lambs .

  14. Short-term starvation effects on nitrogen and phosphorus excretion by the chaetognath Sagitta enflata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyper, James P.

    1981-12-01

    Freshly captured Sagitta enflata exhibited specific excretion rates of ammonium and phosphate (expressed as percentage body content of N or P per hour) that were not significantly related to the size of individual animals. The degree of crowding in experimental vessels was positively correlated with specific excretion rates of ammonium. Excretion rates, under conditions that precluded feeding, decreased sharply during the first several hours' incubation time, approaching the rates exhibited by animals starved overnight. The practice of holding freshly captured zooplankton for a time before determining excretion rates may seriously affect those rates, if the animals are unable to feed. Animals captured during the day in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, having no food items in their guts, had mean specific excretion rates (± S.D.) of 0·81±0·51% body content of N h -1 for ammonium, and 1·29±1·24% body content of P h -1 for phosphate. Minimal estimates of natural excretion rates, made from the first hour of incubation in further experiments, were 1·19±0·47% h -1 for nitrogen and 3·8±3·95% h -1 for phosphorus. Sagitta is not a large contributor to nutrient regeneration in Kaneohe Bay.

  15. Screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from the surface of brown algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zhaojie; Wang, Xuejiang; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2017-12-01

    Alginate lyase is a biocatalyst that degrades alginate to produce oligosaccharides, which have many bioactive functions and could be used as renewable biofuels. Here we report a simple and sensitive plate assay for screening alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from brown algae. Brown algae Laminaria japonica, Sargassum horneri and Sargassum siliquatrum were cultured in sterile water. Bacteria growing on the surface of seaweeds were identified and their capacity of excreting alginate lyase was analyzed. A total of 196 strains were recovered from the three different algae samples and 12 different bacterial strains were identified capable of excreting alginate lyases. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that these alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to eight genera: Paenibacillus (4/12), Bacillus (2/12), Leclercia (1/12), Isoptericola (1/12), Planomicrobium (1/12), Pseudomonas (1/12), Lysinibacillus (1/12) and Sphingomonas (1/12). Further analysis showed that the LJ-3 strain (Bacillus halosaccharovorans) had the highest enzyme activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report regarding alginate lyase-excreting strains in Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium and Leclercia. We believe that our method used in this study is relatively easy and reliable for large-scale screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms.

  16. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I David; Mitch, William E; Sands, Jeff M

    2015-08-07

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Mitch, William E.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance. PMID:25078422

  18. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming themore » control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.« less

  19. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus ® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  20. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique. PMID:28771193

  1. Effects of diet on titratable acid-base excretion in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Frazier, M R; Harrison, J F; Behmer, S T

    2000-01-01

    Despite the potential for diet to affect organismal acid-base status, especially in herbivores, little is known about the effects of diet on acid-base loading and excretion. We tested the effects of diet on acid-base loading and excretion in grasshoppers by (a) comparing the fecal acid-base content of 15 grasshopper species collected from the field and (b) comparing fecal acid-base excretion rates of Schistocerca americana grasshoppers fed vegetable diets that differed in their ashed and raw acid-base contents. The field experiments indicated that grass-feeding species excrete fairly neutral fecal pellets, while forb/mixed-feeding species vary widely in their fecal acid-base contents. In the laboratory experiment, acid-base excretion rates were positively correlated with dietary ashed base intake rates but were not correlated with the acid-base content of raw, unashed diet or feeding rate. These experiments suggest that some diets could strongly challenge the acid-base homeostasis of herbivores; in some grasshoppers, dietary acid-base loads could produce certainly lethal 1-unit changes in average body pH within 6 h if they were not excreted.

  2. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  3. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in rats by sesamin.

    PubMed

    Hirose, N; Inoue, T; Nishihara, K; Sugano, M; Akimoto, K; Shimizu, S; Yamada, H

    1991-04-01

    The effects of sesamin, a lignan from sesame oil, on various aspects of cholesterol metabolism were examined in rats maintained on various dietary regimens. When given at a dietary level of 0.5% for 4 weeks, sesamin reduced the concentration of serum and liver cholesterol significantly irrespective of the presence or absence of cholesterol in the diet, except for one experiment in which the purified diet free of cholesterol was given. On feeding sesamin, there was a decrease in lymphatic absorption of cholesterol accompanying an increase in fecal excretion of neutral, but not acidic, steroids, particularly when the cholesterol-enriched diet was given. Sesamin inhibited micellar solubility of cholesterol, but not bile acids, whereas it neither bound taurocholate nor affected the absorption of fatty acids. Only a marginal proportion (ca. 0.15%) of sesamin administered intragastrically was recovered in the lymph. There was a significant reduction in the activity of liver microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase after feeding sesamin, although the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, drug metabolizing enzymes, and alcohol dehydrogenase remained uninfluenced. Although the weight and phospholipid concentration of the liver increased unequivocally on feeding sesamin, the histological examination by microscopy showed no abnormality, and the activity of serum GOT and GPT remained unchanged. Since sesamin lowered both serum and liver cholesterol levels by inhibiting absorption and synthesis of cholesterol simultaneously, it deserves further study as a possible hypocholesterolemic agent of natural origin.

  4. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  5. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  6. SeHCAT absorption: a simple test of ileal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fagan, E A; Chadwick, V S; Baird, I M

    1983-01-01

    A new selenium-labelled synthetic bile salt SeHCAT (taurine conjugate of 23-[75Se]-25-homocholic acid) was assessed as a test of ileal dysfunction in 20 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whole body retention of SeHCAT was compared with tests of vitamin B12 absorption (Schilling test and whole body retention) and the cholylglycine-1-14C breath test and faecal isotope excretion. Clear differentiation, with no overlap was obtained between 10 normal subjects and patients with ileal disease/resection in the SeHCAT 7-day retention results. The Schilling test was more sensitive; enabling discrimination between patients with limited and extensive ileal disease/resection. An unexpected rise in SeHCAT retention was observed in patients with colonic IBD. The 7-day SeHCAT retention is a safe, simple screening test for ileal dysfunction and has practical advantages compared with the Schilling test.

  7. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  8. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  9. Association of urinary calcium excretion with serum calcium and vitamin D levels.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred; Burnier, Michel; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-06

    Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root-transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15-95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein-corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, -0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, -0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Early effects of synthetic bovine parathyroid hormone and synthetic salmon calcitonin on urinary excretion of cyclic AMP, phosphate and calcium in man.

    PubMed

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P; Nuti, R; Galli, M

    1976-04-20

    Bovine synthetic parathyroid hormone infused intravenously in man increased both the urinary excretion of cyclic AMP and the urinary excretion of phosphate whereas a Salmon synthetic calcitonin infusion increased the urinary excretion of phosphate without change in urinary excretion of cyclic AMP. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that different renal mechanisms are involved in the response to each hormone.

  11. Do we still need to collect stool? Evaluation of visualized fatty acid absorption: experimental studies using rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, T; Ohi, R

    1998-01-01

    Short-gut syndrome is likely to impair enteric fat utilization. This study was undertaken to develop a clinical test of lipid absorption without fecal collection. The absorption of enterally fed radioactive long-chain fatty acid, beta-methyl-p-(123I)-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid was investigated with continuous chyle collection in rats. The changes in excretion and time-dependent biodistribution of radioactivity of the enterally fed agent were assessed in normal control animals. Similarly, sequential urinary excretion and biodistribution were studied along with scintigraphy using sham-operated and short-gut animals. Approximately 64% of the enterally fed radioactivity was recovered in the collected chyle (24 hours). A comparison of normal control, sham-operated, and short-gut animals showed significantly less urinary and greater fecal excretions of radioactivity in short-gut animals. With the use of sequential scintigraphy, the small intestine, whole-body soft tissues, and urinary bladder were well visualized in sham-operated animals, whereas the large intestine and feces were demonstrated earlier in short-gut animals. Our results suggest that enteral feeding of the agent might be feasible for determining lipid absorption from the the dynamic changes of radioactivity in visualized abdominal organs and in urine.

  12. Meta-analysis to estimate the load of Leptospira excreted in urine: beyond rats as important sources of transmission in low-income rural communities.

    PubMed

    Barragan, Veronica; Nieto, Nathan; Keim, Paul; Pearson, Talima

    2017-01-28

    Leptospirosis is a major zoonotic disease with widespread distribution and a large impact on human health. Carrier animals excrete pathogenic Leptospira primarily in their urine. Infection occurs when the pathogen enters a host through mucosa or small skin abrasions. Humans and other animals are exposed to the pathogen by direct contact with urine, contaminated soil or water. While many factors influence environmental cycling and the transmission of Leptospira to humans, the load of pathogenic Leptospira in the environment is likely to play a major role. Peridomestic rats are often implicated as a potential source of human disease; however exposure to other animals is a risk factor as well. The aim of this report is to highlight the importance of various carrier animals in terms of the quantity of Leptospira shed into the environment. For this, we performed a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis of the amount of pathogen that various animal species shed in their urine. The quantity of pathogen has been reported for cows, deer, dogs, humans, mice, and rats, in a total of 14 research articles. We estimated the average Leptospira per unit volume shed by each animal species, and the daily environmental contribution by considering the total volume of urine excreted by each carrier animal. Rats excrete the highest quantity of Leptospira per millilitre of urine (median = 5.7 × 10 6  cells), but large mammals excrete much more urine and thus shed significantly more Leptospira per day (5.1 × 10 8 to 1.3 × 10 9  cells). Here we illustrate how, in a low-income rural Ecuadorian community, host population demographics, and prevalence of Leptospira infection can be integrated with estimates of shed Leptospira to suggest that peridomestic cattle may be more important than rats in environmental cycling and ultimately, transmission to humans.

  13. ttm-1 Encodes CDF Transporters That Excrete Zinc from Intestinal Cells of C. elegans and Act in a Parallel Negative Feedback Circuit That Promotes Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyun Cheol; Collier, Sara; Deshmukh, Krupa; Guthrie, James; Robertson, J. David; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal involved in a wide range of biological processes, and aberrant zinc metabolism is implicated in human diseases. The gastrointestinal tract of animals is a critical site of zinc metabolism that is responsible for dietary zinc uptake and distribution to the body. However, the role of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc excretion remains unclear. Zinc transporters are key regulators of zinc metabolism that mediate the movement of zinc ions across membranes. Here, we identified a comprehensive list of 14 predicted Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family zinc transporters in Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstrated that zinc is excreted from intestinal cells by one of these CDF proteins, TTM-1B. The ttm-1 locus encodes two transcripts, ttm-1a and ttm-1b, that use different transcription start sites. ttm-1b expression was induced by high levels of zinc specifically in intestinal cells, whereas ttm-1a was not induced by zinc. TTM-1B was localized to the apical plasma membrane of intestinal cells, and analyses of loss-of-function mutant animals indicated that TTM-1B promotes zinc excretion into the intestinal lumen. Zinc excretion mediated by TTM-1B contributes to zinc detoxification. These observations indicate that ttm-1 is a component of a negative feedback circuit, since high levels of cytoplasmic zinc increase ttm-1b transcript levels and TTM-1B protein functions to reduce the level of cytoplasmic zinc. We showed that TTM-1 isoforms function in tandem with CDF-2, which is also induced by high levels of cytoplasmic zinc and reduces cytoplasmic zinc levels by sequestering zinc in lysosome-related organelles. These findings define a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes zinc homeostasis and advance the understanding of the physiological roles of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc metabolism in animals. PMID:23717214

  14. The distribution of lithium and its effects on the distribution and excretion of other ions in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Birch, N. J.; Jenner, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    1. In rats, lithium (ca 1 mEquiv/kg body weight) decreased brain sodium and magnesium, bone sodium and calcium and increased muscle calcium, plasma magnesium, urinary calcium and urine volume. 2. Lithium was particularly concentrated in bone. PMID:4730833

  15. Influence of delivery mode on the urinary excretion of nandrolone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Watson, Phillip; Houghton, Ed; Grace, Philip B; Judkins, Catherine; Dunster, Paula M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the influence of a supplement matrix on the excretion pattern of nandrolone metabolites in response to ingestion of a trace amount of 19-norandrostenedione. Ten male and nine female volunteers (mean ± SD: age = 26 ± 3 yr, height = 1.71 ± 0.09 m, body mass = 70.9 ± 13.2 kg) were recruited. On two occasions, subjects entered the laboratory in the morning after an overnight fast. After an initial urine collection, subjects ingested either 500 mL of plain water or a commercially available energy bar; 10 µg of 19-norandrostenedione was added to each. The volume of each urine sample passed during the next 24 h was measured, and an aliquot was retained for analysis. All samples were analyzed for the metabolites 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total volume of urine passed was higher in the water trial (2.10 ± 0.52 L) than in the bar trial (1.85 ± 0.55 L; P = 0.040). Baseline urinary 19-NA concentrations were all below the limit of quantification for the assay. Peak urinary 19-NA was lower (P = 0.002) in the water trial (4.80 ± 2.84 ng·mL(-1)) than in the bar trial (8.46 ± 4.44 ng·mL(-1)). The time elapsed between ingestion of the supplement and the peak urinary 19-NA concentration was longer (P = 0.023) on the bar trial (4.6 ± 2.4 h) than on the water trial (2.8 ± 1.9 h). There was no difference in the total recovery of 19-NA + 19-NE between the liquid and solid supplements (water 30 ± 10%; bar 28 ± 12%; P < 0.140). Peak 19-NA concentrations were higher, and occurred later, when the 19-norandrostenedione was added to a solid supplement. This may be due to a slower rate of absorption and/or a reduced diuresis, resulting in a longer period for the metabolites to accumulate in the urine.

  16. Plasma disposition and faecal excretion of oxfendazole, fenbendazole and albendazole following oral administration to donkeys.

    PubMed

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Akar, Ferda; McKellar, Quintin A

    2006-07-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ), oxfendazole (fenbendazole sulphoxide, FBZSO), and albendazole (ABZ) were administered orally to donkeys at 10mg/kg bodyweight. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 1 to 120 h post-treatment. The plasma and faecal samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The parent molecule and its sulphoxide and sulphone (FBZSO(2)) metabolites did not reach detectable concentrations in any plasma samples following FBZ administration. ABZ was also not detected in any plasma samples, but its sulphoxide and sulphone metabolites were detected, demonstrating that ABZ was completely metabolised by first-pass mechanisms in donkeys. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) of FBZSO (0.49microg/mL) and FBZSO(2) (0.60microg/mL) were detected at (t(max)) 5.67 and 8.00h, respectively, following administration of FBZSO. The area under the curve (AUC) of the sulphone metabolite (10.33microg h/mL) was significantly higher than that of the parent drug FBZSO (5.17microg h/mL). C(max) of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) (0.08g/mL) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO(2)) (0.04microg/mL) were obtained at 5.71 and 8.00h, respectively, following ABZ administration. The AUC of the sulphoxide metabolite (0.84microg h/mL) of ABZ was significantly higher than that of the sulphone metabolite (0.50microg h/mL). The highest dry-faecal concentrations of parent molecules were detected at 32, 34 and 30h for FBZSO, FBZ and ABZ, respectively. The sulphide metabolite was significantly higher than the parent molecule after FBZSO administration. The parent molecule was predominant in the faecal samples following FBZ administration. After ABZ administration, the parent molecule was significantly metabolised, probably by gastrointestinal microflora, to its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZSO) that showed a similar excretion profile to the parent molecule in the faecal samples. The AUC of the parent FBZ was significantly higher than that of FBZSO and ABZ in faeces. It is

  17. Inappropriate phosphate excretion in idiopathic hypercalciuria: the key to a common cause and future treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C P; Child, D F; Hudson, P R; Soysa, L D; Davies, G K; Davies, M G; De Bolla, A R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To present experimental evidence in support of a proposed common cause for absorptive hypercalciuria, renal hypercalciuria, renal phosphate leak and enhancement of 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D concentrations in patients presenting with renal stone disease; and to suggest further investigation with a view to new management. METHODS: An oral calcium loading test was administered to 15 patients with renal stones and 10 normal controls in the fasting state: urine and blood were collected hourly. After the second urine sample, 400 mg calcium dissolved in water was administered orally. Serum calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and phosphate were measured together with urine calcium clearance and urinary phosphate from which the TmPO4/glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ratio was calculated. Serum 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D was measured in the first serum sample. In addition, 24 hour urine calcium results were collected retrospectively from the patients' case notes over the previous 18 months. RESULTS: In the basal state, renal stone patients had an overall greater phosphaturia (lower TmPO4/GFR: median 1.72 compared with 2.10 in controls) and increased calcium clearance. Serum corrected calcium and PTH concentrations did not differ between the groups. After calcium loading, serum calcium and urine calcium clearance rose in both groups, with patients with renal stones experiencing a greater percentage fall in phosphaturia. In both groups TmPO4/GFR fell (greater phosphaturia) with increased serum corrected calcium, with the patients showing notably greater phosphaturia for any given calcium concentration. Patients also had notably greater phosphaturia compared with the serum calcium concentration for any given PTH value. Serum 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D was higher in patients than controls and for any 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D concentration phosphaturia measured against serum calcium was greater in patients than controls. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D did not correlate with phosphaturia relative

  18. Urinary excretion of platinum from South African precious metals refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Linde, Stephanus J L; Franken, Anja; du Plessis, Johannes L

    2018-03-30

    Urinary platinum (Pt) excretion is a reliable biomarker for occupational Pt exposure and has been previously reported for precious metals refinery workers in Europe but not for South Africa, the world's largest producer of Pt. This study aimed to quantify the urinary Pt excretion of South African precious metals refinery workers. Spot urine samples were collected from 40 workers (directly and indirectly exposed to Pt) at two South African precious metals refineries on three consecutive mornings prior to their shifts. Urine samples were analysed for Pt using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and were corrected for creatinine content. The urinary Pt excretion of workers did not differ significantly between sampling days. Urinary Pt excretions ranged from <0.1 to 3.0 µg Pt/g creatinine with a geometric mean of 0.21 µg Pt/g creatinine (95% CI 0.17 to 0.26 µg Pt/g creatinine). The work area (P=0.0006; η 2 =0.567) and the number of years workers were employed at the refineries (P=0.003; η 2 =0.261) influenced their urinary Pt excretion according to effect size analyses. Directly exposed workers had significantly higher urinary Pt excretion compared with indirectly exposed workers (P=0.007). The urinary Pt excretion of South African precious metals refinery workers reported in this study is comparable with that of seven other studies conducted in precious metals refineries and automotive catalyst plants in Europe. The Pt body burden of workers is predominantly determined by their work area, years of employment in the refineries and whether they are directly or indirectly exposed to Pt. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Genetic variation underlying renal uric acid excretion in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    PubMed

    Chittoor, Geetha; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Laston, Sandra; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Butte, Nancy F; Voruganti, V Saroja

    2017-01-17

    Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We performed a genome-wide association analysis for 24-h urinary excretion measures such as urinary uric acid/urinary creatinine ratio, uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, and glomerular load of uric acid in SOLAR, while accounting for non-independence among family members. All renal urate excretion measures were significantly heritable (p <2 × 10 -6 ) and ranged from 0.41 to 0.74. Empirical threshold for genome-wide significance was set at p <1 × 10 -7 . We observed a strong association (p < 8 × 10 -8 ) of uric acid clearance with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in zinc finger protein 446 (ZNF446) (rs2033711 (A/G), MAF: 0.30). The minor allele (G) was associated with increased uric acid clearance. Also, we found suggestive associations of uric acid clearance with SNPs in ZNF324, ZNF584, and ZNF132 (in a 72 kb region of 19q13; p <1 × 10 -6 , MAFs: 0.28-0.31). For the first time, we showed the importance of 19q13 region in the regulation of renal urate excretion in Hispanic children. Our findings indicate differences in inherent genetic architecture and shared environmental risk factors between our cohort and other pediatric and adult populations.

  20. An improved methodology of asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry for the determination of size distribution of gold nanoparticles in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Mudalige, Thilak K; Qu, Haiou; Linder, Sean W

    2015-11-13

    Engineered nanoparticles are available in large numbers of commercial products claiming various health benefits. Nanoparticle absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity in a biological system are dependent on particle size, thus the determination of size and size distribution is essential for full characterization. Number based average size and size distribution is a major parameter for full characterization of the nanoparticle. In the case of polydispersed samples, large numbers of particles are needed to obtain accurate size distribution data. Herein, we report a rapid methodology, demonstrating improved nanoparticle recovery and excellent size resolution, for the characterization of gold nanoparticles in dietary supplements using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with visible absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A linear relationship between gold nanoparticle size and retention times was observed, and used for characterization of unknown samples. The particle size results from unknown samples were compared to results from traditional size analysis by transmission electron microscopy, and found to have less than a 5% deviation in size for unknown product over the size range from 7 to 30 nm. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Peculiarities of light absorption by spherical microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yurii E.; Panina, Ekaterina K.; Zemlyanov, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    Optical radiation absorption in the poly-layer spherical microparticles simulating the inorganic/organic polyshell absorbing microcapsules is considered. With the aim of the finite-difference time-domain technique, the spatial distribution of the absorbed light power in microcapsules of various sizes and internal structure is numerically calculated. For the purpose of light absorption enhancement, we have engineered the optimal structure of a capsule consisting of a strong-refracting transparent outer coating and an absorbing layer which covers a liquid core. The proposed microcapsule prototype provides for a manifold increase in the absorbed light power density in comparison with the usual single-layer absorbing capsule. We show that for light-wavelengths-scaled microcapsules it is optimal to use a material with the refractive index larger than two as an outer shell, for example, titanium dioxide (TiO2). The highest values of the absorbed power density can be obtained in microcapsules with absorbing shell thickness of approximately a tenth of a laser wavelength. When laser radiation is scattered by a dimer constituted by two identical absorbing microcapsules the absorbed power density can be maximized by the choosing of proper dimer spatial configuration. In the case of strongly absorbing particles, the absorption maximum corresponds to a shift of the capsules to a distance of about their diameter, and in the case of weakly absorbing particles the absorption is maximal when particles are in geometrical shades of each other.

  2. Tripartite counterfactual entanglement distribution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Gu, Xuemei; Jiang, Dong; Xie, Ling; Chen, Lijun

    2015-08-10

    We propose two counterfactual schemes for tripartite entanglement distribution without any physical particles travelling through the quantum channel. One scheme arranges three participators to connect with the absorption object by using switch. Using the "chained" quantum Zeno effect, three participators can accomplish the task of entanglement distribution with unique counterfactual interference probability. Another scheme uses Michelson-type interferometer to swap two entanglement pairs such that the photons of three participators are entangled. Moreover, the distance of entanglement distribution is doubled as two distant absorption objects are used. We also discuss the implementation issues to show that the proposed schemes can be realized with current technology.

  3. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  4. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  5. Urinary 24-h creatinine excretion in adults and its use as a simple tool for the estimation of daily urinary analyte excretion from analyte/creatinine ratios in populations.

    PubMed

    Johner, S A; Boeing, H; Thamm, M; Remer, T

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of urinary excretion of specific nutrients (e.g. iodine, sodium) is frequently used to monitor a population's nutrient status. However, when only spot urines are available, always a risk of hydration-status-dependent dilution effects and related misinterpretations exists. The aim of the present study was to establish mean values of 24-h creatinine excretion widely applicable for an appropriate estimation of 24-h excretion rates of analytes from spot urines in adults. Twenty-four-hour creatinine excretion from the formerly representative cross-sectional German VERA Study (n=1463, 20-79 years old) was analysed. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the most important influencing factors of creatinine excretion. In a subsample of the German DONALD Study (n=176, 20-29 years old), the applicability of the 24-h creatinine excretion values of VERA for the estimation of 24-h sodium and iodine excretion from urinary concentration measurements was tested. In the VERA Study, mean 24-h creatinine excretion was 15.4 mmol per day in men and 11.1 mmol per day in women, significantly dependent on sex, age, body weight and body mass index. Based on the established 24-h creatinine excretion values, mean 24-h iodine and sodium excretions could be estimated from respective analyte/creatinine concentrations, with average deviations <10% compared with the actual 24-h means. The present mean values of 24-h creatinine excretion are suggested as a useful tool to derive realistic hydration-status-independent average 24-h excretion rates from urinary analyte/creatinine ratios. We propose to apply these creatinine reference means routinely in biomarker-based studies aiming at characterizing the nutrient or metabolite status of adult populations by simply measuring metabolite/creatinine ratios in spot urines.

  6. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  7. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  8. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  9. Nonequilibrium quantum absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Fu-Lin

    2018-06-01

    We study a quantum absorption refrigerator, in which a target qubit is cooled by two machine qubits in a nonequilibrium steady-state. It is realized by a strong internal coupling in the two-qubit fridge and a vanishing tripartite interaction among the whole system. The coherence of a machine virtual qubit is investigated as quantumness of the fridge. A necessary condition for cooling shows that the quantum coherence is beneficial to the nonequilibrium fridge, while it is detrimental as far as the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) and the COP at maximum power are concerned. Here, the COP is defined only in terms of heat currents caused by the tripartite interaction, with the one maintaining the two-qubit nonequilibrium state being excluded. The later can be considered to have no direct involvement in extracting heat from the target, as it is not affected by the tripartite interaction.

  10. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  11. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13–24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 0.5, 0.2, and 67.7 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.9, 1.1, and 43.9 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05–0.06, AUC=0.565–0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small. PMID:24901088

  12. cGMP stimulates bile acid-independent bile formation and biliary bicarbonate excretion.

    PubMed

    Myers, N C; Grune, S; Jameson, H L; Sawkat-Anwer, M

    1996-03-01

    The effect of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) on hepatic bile formation was studied in isolated perfused rat livers and rat hepatocytes. Studies in isolated perfused rat livers showed that infusion of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP, 3 micromol/min or 100 microM) 1) increased bile flow without affecting biliary excretion of simultaneously infused taurocholate, 2) increased biliary concentration and excretion of HCO3(-) but did not affect biliary excretion of glutathione, and 3) increased net perfusate H+ efflux without affecting hepatic O2 uptake. Studies in isolated rat hepatocytes showed that 1) 8-BrcGMP increased intracellular pH in the presence (but not in the absence) of extracellular HCO-3, and effect inhibited by 4,4' -diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and Na+ replacement, 2) 8-BrcGMP did not affect taurocholate uptake and intracellular [Ca2+], and 3) bile acids, like ursodeoxycholate and cholate, did not increase cellular cGMP. Taken together, these results indicate that cGMP stimulates bile acid-independent bile formation, in part by stimulating biliary HCO3- excretion. cGMP may increase HCO3- excretion by stimulating sinusoidal Na+ - HCO3- cotransport, but not Na+/H+ exchange. cGMP, unlike adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, may not regulate hepatic taurocholate transport, and bile acid-induced HCO3- rich choleresis may not be mediated via cGMP.

  13. Predicting nutrient excretion of aquatic animals with metabolic ecology and ecological stoichiometry: a global synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Michael J; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES) are both prominent frameworks for understanding energy and nutrient budgets of organisms. We tested their separate and joint power to predict nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion rates of ectothermic aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate animals (10,534 observations worldwide). MTE variables (body size, temperature) performed better than ES variables (trophic guild, vertebrate classification, body N:P) in predicting excretion rates, but the best models included variables from both frameworks. Size scaling coefficients were significantly lower than predicted by MTE (<0.75), were lower for P than N, and varied greatly among species. Contrary to expectations under ES, vertebrates excreted both N and P at higher rates than invertebrates despite having more nutrient-rich bodies, and primary consumers excreted as much nutrients as carnivores despite having nutrient-poor diets. Accounting for body N:P hardly improved upon predictions from treating vertebrate classification categorically. We conclude that basic data on body size, water temperature, trophic guild, and vertebrate classification are sufficient to make general estimates of nutrient excretion rates for any animal taxon or aquatic ecosystem. Nonetheless, dramatic interspecific variation in size-scaling coefficients and counter-intuitive patterns with respect to diet and body composition underscore the need for field data on consumption and egestion rates. Together, MTE and ES provide a powerful conceptual basis for interpreting and predicting nutrient recycling rates of aquatic animals worldwide. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Intercalated cell-specific Rh B glycoprotein deletion diminishes renal ammonia excretion response to hypokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jesse M.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E.; Han, Ki-Hwan; Verlander, Jill W.

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg), is an ammonia-specific transporter heavily expressed in the kidney and is necessary for the normal increase in ammonia excretion in response to metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia is a common clinical condition in which there is increased renal ammonia excretion despite the absence of metabolic acidosis. The purpose of this study was to examine Rhbg's role in this response through the use of mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhbg deletion (IC-Rhbg-KO). Hypokalemia induced by feeding a K+-free diet increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. In mice with intact Rhbg expression, hypokalemia increased Rhbg protein expression in intercalated cells in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and in the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD). Deletion of Rhbg from intercalated cells inhibited hypokalemia-induced changes in urinary total ammonia excretion significantly and completely prevented hypokalemia-induced increases in urinary ammonia concentration, but did not alter urinary pH. We conclude that hypokalemia increases Rhbg expression in intercalated cells in the cortex and outer medulla and that intercalated cell Rhbg expression is necessary for the normal increase in renal ammonia excretion in response to hypokalemia. PMID:23220726

  15. Fractional excretion of urea in pre-eclampsia: a clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Zar, Tausif; Kohn, Orly F; Kaplan, Andre A

    2011-11-01

    Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. It occurs in 7% of all the pregnancies and accounts for 80% of the cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, proteinuria, and hypertension is a dilemma. The fractional excretion of urea has been described as a marker for renal perfusion. Since pre-eclampsia is associated with a marked decline in renal perfusion, we explored the utility of the fractional excretion of urea as a marker for pre-eclampsia. Urine and serum chemistries were evaluated in 6 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia on their first visit, immediately prior to delivery, and postpartum. For each of these three measurements, the fractional excretion of urea was calculated and proteinuria was assessed by random urine protein-creatinine ratio or 24-hour urine protein studies. In patients diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, the fractional excretion of urea decreased substantially from higher values obtained during the 3rd trimester to values consistent with renal hypoperfusion (< 35%) just prior to delivery, and it rapidly normalized immediately after delivery. Alterations in fractional excretion of urea, which suggest a decreased renal perfusion, may be a useful tool in supporting the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  16. Relationships between urinary electrolytes excretion and central hemodynamics, and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Weizhong; Han, Xiao; Sun, Ningling; Chen, Yunchao; Jiang, Shiliang; Li, Min

    2017-08-01

    High sodium intake plays an important role in the onset and exacerbation of hypertension. However, the relationships between urinary electrolytes excretion and central hemodynamics and between urinary electrolyte excretion and arterial stiffness are still the subject of debate. This study sought to clarify the associations of salt intake with central aortic pressure and arterial stiffness indicators. A total of 431 untreated hypertensive individuals were recruited into the study. Twenty-four-hour urinary samples were collected to measure the excretion of urinary electrolytes. Central hemodynamics parameters and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured. We evaluated the independent relationship between urinary sodium or potassium excretion and the abovementioned indices. The mean 24-h urinary sodium of all subjects was 166.6±70.0 mmol/24 h. With increases in urinary sodium excretion, central blood pressure and baPWV values markedly increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that urinary sodium was independently associated with increases in central systolic blood pressure, central diastolic blood pressure, the augmentation index, and baPWV. Significant correlations were identified between high dietary sodium and central hemodynamics and between high dietary sodium and arterial elasticity. Prospective interventional studies in hypertensive patients may be required to determine the effect of salt intake on central hemodynamics.

  17. Reference limits for urinary fractional excretion of electrolytes in adult non-racing Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S L; Abraham, L A; Anderson, G A; Holloway, S A; Parry, B W

    2006-11-01

    To determine reference limits for urinary fractional excretion of electrolytes in Greyhound dogs. Urinary fractional excretion was calculated using a spot clearance method preceded by a 16 to 20 hour fast in 48 Greyhound dogs. Raw data analysed using the bootstrap estimate was used to calculate the reference limits. The observed range for urinary fractional excretion in Greyhound dogs was 0.0 to 0.77% for sodium, 0.9 to 14.7% for potassium, 0 to 0.66% for chloride, 0.03 to 0.22% for calcium and 0.4 to 20.1% for phosphate. Expressed as percentages, the suggested reference limits for fractional excretion in Greyhound dogs are as follows: sodium < or = 0.72, potassium < or = 12.2, chloride < or = 0.55, calcium < or = 0.13 and phosphate < or = 16.5. Veterinary practitioners may use these reference limits for urinary electrolyte fractional excretion when investigating renal tubular disease in Greyhound dogs.

  18. Metabolism of isotretinoin. Biliary excretion of isotretinoin glucuronide in the rat.

    PubMed

    Meloche, S; Besner, J G

    1986-01-01

    The biliary metabolites of isotretinoin were examined after iv administration of 4-20-mg/kg doses to vitamin A-normal bile duct-cannulated rats. Analysis of bile by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that injection of isotretinoin is followed by a rapid excretion of metabolites in bile. Isotretinoin glucuronide was identified as the major metabolite in bile. A specific high performance liquid chromatography method based on the assay of generated isotretinoin in beta-glucuronidase-treated bile was developed for the determination of isotretinoin glucuronide in bile samples. The excretion rate of isotretinoin glucuronide increased rapidly to reach a maximum 55 min after dosing and then declined exponentially. After 330 min of collection, biliary excretion of isotretinoin glucuronide was almost complete, and the metabolite accounted for 34.8-37.9% of the dose. These results indicate that conjugation with glucuronic acid represents a major pathway for the metabolism of pharmacological doses of isotretinoin. The maximum excretion rate of isotretinoin glucuronide in bile increased in a linear manner with the dose of isotretinoin, and no delay was observed after the larger doses. These data suggest that glucuronidation and biliary excretion are not saturated at high pharmacological doses of isotretinoin.

  19. Effect of route of administration and biliary excretion on the pharmacokinetics of isotretinoin in the dog.

    PubMed

    Cotler, S; Chen, S; Macasieb, T; Colburn, W A

    1984-01-01

    Oral, intraportal, iv doses of isotretinoin were administered to dogs before and after bile duct cannulation to determine the effect of route of administration and biliary excretion on the pharmacokinetics of this compound. Blood and bile samples were collected and analyzed for isotretinoin using a gradient elution high performance liquid chromatographic method. Blood concentrations were decreased after bile duct cannulation. Decreases in the area under the blood concentration-time curves were greatest following oral dosing, intermediate following intraportal dosing, and least following iv dosing. These results indicate that biliary excretion impacts on the blood profile of isotretinoin as a function of route of administration and that the differences are the result of differences in first pass clearance. In addition, the apparent bioavailability of isotretinoin was 14% in bile cannulated dogs and 54% in the intact (uncannulated) animals, suggesting that enterohepatic recycling of isotretinoin may contribute to its oral bioavailability. Isotretinoin was excreted in the bile; predominantly as a conjugate. The largest percentage (approximately 27%) of the dose was excreted in the bile following intraportal infusion, an intermediate percentage (approximately 8.5%) after iv dosing, and the smallest percentage (approximately 3.3%) after oral dosing. When the amount of drug excreted in bile as intact drug and conjugate is divided by the area under the systemic blood concentration--time curve, the resulting apparent biliary clearances following oral and intraportal administration were almost identical whereas the apparent biliary clearance after iv dosing was substantially less.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Urinary Angiotensinogen Excretion Level Is Associated With Elevated Blood Pressure in the Normotensive General Population.