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Sample records for absorption feature appears

  1. Combining appearance and geometric features for facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for facial expression recognition combining appearance and geometric facial features. The proposed framework consistently combines multiple facial representations at both global and local levels. First, covariance descriptors are computed to represent regional features combining various feature information with a low dimensionality. Then geometric features are detected to provide a general facial movement description of the facial expression. These appearance and geometric features are combined to form a vector representation of the facial expression. The proposed method is tested on the CK+ database and shows encouraging performance.

  2. BUILDING ROBUST APPEARANCE MODELS USING ON-LINE FEATURE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    PORTER, REID B.; LOVELAND, ROHAN; ROSTEN, ED

    2007-01-29

    In many tracking applications, adapting the target appearance model over time can improve performance. This approach is most popular in high frame rate video applications where latent variables, related to the objects appearance (e.g., orientation and pose), vary slowly from one frame to the next. In these cases the appearance model and the tracking system are tightly integrated, and latent variables are often included as part of the tracking system's dynamic model. In this paper we describe our efforts to track cars in low frame rate data (1 frame/second) acquired from a highly unstable airborne platform. Due to the low frame rate, and poor image quality, the appearance of a particular vehicle varies greatly from one frame to the next. This leads us to a different problem: how can we build the best appearance model from all instances of a vehicle we have seen so far. The best appearance model should maximize the future performance of the tracking system, and maximize the chances of reacquiring the vehicle once it leaves the field of view. We propose an online feature selection approach to this problem and investigate the performance and computational trade-offs with a real-world dataset.

  3. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices. PMID:26555184

  4. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices.

  5. Automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation with shape and appearance features from MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja'S.; Corso, Jason J.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2010-03-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation is a major reason for lower back pain (LBP), which is the second most common neurological ailment in the United States. Automation of herniated disc diagnosis reduces the large burden on radiologists who have to diagnose hundreds of cases each day using clinical MRI. We present a method for automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation using appearance and shape features. We jointly use the intensity signal for modeling the appearance of herniated disc and the active shape model for modeling the shape of herniated disc. We utilize a Gibbs distribution for classification of discs using appearance and shape features. We use 33 clinical MRI cases of the lumbar area for training and testing both appearance and shape models. We achieve over 91% accuracy in detection of herniation in a cross-validation experiment with specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 94%.

  6. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  7. Interpretation of appearance: the effect of facial features on first impressions and personality.

    PubMed

    Wolffhechel, Karin; Fagertun, Jens; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Majewski, Wiktor; Hemmingsen, Astrid Sofie; Larsen, Catrine Lohmann; Lorentzen, Sofie Katrine; Jarmer, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Appearance is known to influence social interactions, which in turn could potentially influence personality development. In this study we focus on discovering the relationship between self-reported personality traits, first impressions and facial characteristics. The results reveal that several personality traits can be read above chance from a face, and that facial features influence first impressions. Despite the former, our prediction model fails to reliably infer personality traits from either facial features or first impressions. First impressions, however, could be inferred more reliably from facial features. We have generated artificial, extreme faces visualising the characteristics having an effect on first impressions for several traits. Conclusively, we find a relationship between first impressions, some personality traits and facial features and consolidate that people on average assess a given face in a highly similar manner.

  8. Absorption Features in Spectra of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Suleimanov, V.; Hambaryan, V.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Pavlov, G. G.; Adelsberg, M. van; Werner, K.

    2011-09-21

    The X-ray spectra of some magnetized isolated neutron stars (NSs) show absorption features with equivalent widths (EWs) of 50-200 eV, whose nature is not yet well known.To explain the prominent absorption features in the soft X-ray spectra of the highly magnetized (B{approx}10{sup 14} G) X-ray dim isolated NSs (XDINSs), we theoretically investigate different NS local surface models, including naked condensed iron surfaces and partially ionized hydrogen model atmospheres, with semi-infinite and thin atmospheres above the condensed surface. We also developed a code for computing light curves and integral emergent spectra of magnetized neutron stars with various temperature and magnetic field distributions over the NS surface. We compare the general properties of the computed and observed light curves and integral spectra for XDINS RBS 1223 and conclude that the observations can be explained by a thin hydrogen atmosphere above the condensed iron surface, while the presence of a strong toroidal magnetic field component on the XDINS surface is unlikely.We suggest that the harmonically spaced absorption features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the central compact object (CCO) 1E 1207.4-5209 (hereafter 1E 1207) correspond to peaks in the energy dependence of the free-free opacity in a quantizing magnetic field, known as quantum oscillations. To explore observable properties of these quantum oscillations, we calculate models of hydrogen NS atmospheres with B{approx}10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} G(i.e., electron cyclotron energy E{sub c,e}{approx}0.1-1 keV) and T{sub eff} = 1-3 MK. Such conditions are thought to be typical for 1E 1207. We show that observable features at the electron cyclotron harmonics with EWs {approx_equal}100-200 eV can arise due to these quantum oscillations.

  9. Quasi-similar decameter emission features appearing in the solar and jovian dynamic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, G. V.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Panchenko, M.; Dorovsky, V. V.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Rucker, H. O.; Vinogradov, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the dynamic spectra of the Sun and jovian decametric radiation obtained by the authors with the radio telescopes UTR-2 and URAN-2 (Kharkov, Poltava, Ukraine). We focus on the similar structures that appear on the dynamic spectra of those objects: S-bursts, drifting pairs, absorption bursts and zebra patterns. Similarity in structures allows us to assume that the plasma processes in the solar corona and in the jovian magnetosphere might have similar properties. We analyze and compare the main parameters of those structures and describe briefly some mechanisms of their generation that have already discussed in publications. We selected the mechanisms which, in our opinion, most completely and consistently explain the properties of the structures under consideration.

  10. Wavelength calibration of imaging spectrometer using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2012-11-01

    Imaging spectrometer is a promising remote sensing instrument widely used in many filed, such as hazard forecasting, environmental monitoring and so on. The reliability of the spectral data is the determination to the scientific communities. The wavelength position at the focal plane of the imaging spectrometer will change as the pressure and temperature vary, or the mechanical vibration. It is difficult for the onboard calibration instrument itself to keep the spectrum reference accuracy and it also occupies weight and the volume of the remote sensing platform. Because the spectral images suffer from the atmospheric effects, the carbon oxide, water vapor, oxygen and solar Fraunhofer line, the onboard wavelength calibration can be processed by the spectral images themselves. In this paper, wavelength calibration is based on the modeled and measured atmospheric absorption spectra. The modeled spectra constructed by the atmospheric radiative transfer code. The spectral angle is used to determine the best spectral similarity between the modeled spectra and measured spectra and estimates the wavelength position. The smile shape can be obtained when the matching process across all columns of the data. The present method is successful applied on the Hyperion data. The value of the wavelength shift is obtained by shape matching of oxygen absorption feature and the characteristics are comparable to that of the prelaunch measurements.

  11. Spectral calibration of hyperspectral imagery using atmospheric absorption features.

    PubMed

    Guanter, Luis; Richter, Rudolf; Moreno, José

    2006-04-01

    One of the initial steps in the preprocessing of remote sensing data is the atmospheric correction of the at-sensor radiance images, i.e., radiances recorded at the sensor aperture. Apart from the accuracy in the estimation of the concentrations of the main atmospheric species, the retrieved surface reflectance is also influenced by the spectral calibration of the sensor, especially in those wavelengths mostly affected by gaseous absorptions. In particular, errors in the surface reflectance appear when a systematic shift in the nominal channel positions occurs. A method to assess the spectral calibration of hyperspectral imaging spectrometers from the acquired imagery is presented in this paper. The fundamental basis of the method is the calculation of the value of the spectral shift that minimizes the error in the estimates of surface reflectance. This is performed by an optimization procedure that minimizes the deviation between a surface reflectance spectrum and a smoothed one resulting from the application of a low-pass filter. A sensitivity analysis was performed using synthetic data generated with the MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code for several values of the spectral shift and the water vapor column content. The error detected in the retrieval is less than +/- 0.2 nm for spectral shifts smaller than 2 nm, and less than +/- 1.0 nm for extreme spectral shifts of 5 nm. A low sensitivity to uncertainties in the estimation of water vapor content was found, which reinforces the robustness of the algorithm. The method was successfully applied to data acquired by different hyperspectral sensors. PMID:16608005

  12. Detection of Variable Gaseous Absorption Features in the Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    2012-10-01

    We present medium resolution (R = 60,000) absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K line observed towards five nearby A-type stars (49 Ceti, 5 Vul, ι Cyg, 2 And, and HD 223884) suspected of possessing circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were observed on a nightly basis during a six night observing run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas. We have detected nightly changes in the absorption strength of the Ca II K line observed near the stellar radial velocity in three of the stars (49 Ceti, i Cyg and HD 223884). Such changes in absorption suggest the presence of a circumstellar (atomic) gas disk around these stars. In addition to the absorption changes in the main Ca II K line profile, we have also observed weak transient absorption features that randomly appear at redshifted velocities in the spectra of 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And. These absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of falling evaporated bodies (exo-comets) that liberate evaporating gas on their approach to the central star. This now brings the total number of systems in which exocomet activity has been observed at Ca II or Na I wavelengths on a nightly basis to seven (β Pic, HR 10, HD 85905, β Car, 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And), with 2 And exhibiting weaker and less frequent changes. All of the disk systems presently known to exhibit either type of short-term variability in Ca II K line absorption are rapidly rotating A-type stars (V sin i > 120 km s-1). Most exhibit mid-IR excesses, and many of them are very young (< 20 Myr), thus supporting the argument that many of them are transitional objects between Herbig Ae and "Vega-like" A-type stars with more tenuous circumstellar disks. No mid-IR excess (due to the presence of a dust disk) has yet been detected around either 2 And or HD 223884, both of which have been classified as λ Boötis-type stars. This may indicate that the observed changes in gas absorption for these two

  13. Development of a chronic canine model for measurement of absorption by substrate appearance in portal venous blood.

    PubMed

    Heberer, M; Iwatschenko, P; Bodoky, A; Gale, J; Behrens, D; Landmann, J; Harder, F

    1985-09-01

    Research in absorption physiology requires animal models which closely resemble the in vivo situation. The description of a new canine model satisfying these requirements is the objective of this report. Dogs were instrumented with indwelling portal vein and carotid artery catheters, a catheter jejunostomy and an electromagnetic flow measuring probe around the portal vein enabling continuous flow recordings. Following intrajejunal infusion of nutritive substrates in the conscious animal, absorption was measured as the product of porto-arterial substrate difference and portal venous flow. The model was validated in five mongrel dogs: (1) Catheters and flow measuring device function over several months. (2) The sensitivity of the method was evaluated following intrajejunal infusion of l-glycine-l-tyrosine and its constituent amino acids. A significant portoarterial concentration difference of both amino acids enabling quantitative measurement of absorption resulted when the peptide was infused at 4 mmoles/hour (20 mM solution, 200 ml/h). (3) Infusion of complete nutritive formulas caused a significant increase in portal venous flow whereas neither saline nor the amino acids or the peptides investigated had a comparable effect. (4) A validation experiment by implantation of a second flow probe distal to the chronically implanted device provided evidence that granulomatous tissue forming around the probe does not alter the accuracy of the flow recording. In summary, this method permits for the first time quantitative measurement of absorption by appearance rates in portal venous blood instead of by disappearance from the intestinal lumen.

  14. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  15. Empathic Features and Absorption in Fantasy Role-Playing.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).

  16. High-Velocity Absorption Features in FUSE Spectra of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Iping, R. C.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G.

    2002-12-01

    Numerous broad (200 to 1000 km/sec) features in the FUSE spectrum (905-1187 A) of eta Carinae are identified as absorption by a forest of high-velocity narrow lines formed in the expanding circumstellar envelope. These features were previously thought to be P-Cygni lines arising in the wind of the central star. The features span a heliocentric velocity range of -140 to -580 km/sec and are seen prominently in low-ionization ground-state transitions (e.g. N I 1134-35, Fe II 1145-42, 1133, 1127-22, P II 1153, C I 1158) in addition to C III] 1176 A. The high-velocity components of the FUSE transitions have depths about 50% below the continuum. The identifications are consistent with the complex velocity structures seen in ground- and excited-state transitions of Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, V II, etc observed in STIS/E230H spectra (see accompanying posters by Gull, Vieira, and Danks). The origin of other broad features of similar width and depth in the FUSE spectrum, but without low-velocity ISM absorption, are unidentified. However, they are suspected of being absorption of singly-ionized iron-peak elements (e.g. Fe II, V II, Cr II) out of excited levels 1,000 to 20,000 cmE-1 above the ground state. The high-velocity features seen in Fe II 1145 are also present in Fe II 1608 (STIS/E140M), but are highly saturated in the latter. Since these transitions have nearly identical log (flambda) (1.998 vs. 2.080), the differences in the profiles are attributable to the different aperture sizes used (30x30 arcsec for FUSE, 0.2x0.2 arcsec for STIS/E140M). The high-velocity gas appears to be very patchy or has a small covering factor near the central star. Eta Carinae has been observed several times by FUSE over the past three years. The FUSE flux levels and spectral features in eta Car are essentially unchanged over the 2000 March to June 2002 period, establishing a baseline far-UV spectrum in advance of the predicted spectroscopic miniumum in 2003.

  17. High-Velocity Absorption Features in FUSE Spectra of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Iping, R. C.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous broad (200 to 1000 km/sec) features in the FUSE spectrum (905-1187 A) of eta Carinae are identified as absorption by a forest of high-velocity narrow lines formed in the expanding circumstellar envelope. These features were previously thought to be P-Cygni lines arising in the wind of the central star. The features span a heliocentric velocity range of -140 to -580 km/sec and are seen prominently in low-ionization ground-state transitions (e.g. N I 1134-35, Fe II 1145-42, 1133, 1127- 22, P II 1153, C I 1158) in addition to C III] 1176 A. The high-velocity components of the FUSE transitions have depths about 50% below the continuum. The identifications are consistent with the complex velocity structures seen in ground- and excited-state transitions of Mg I, Mg 11, Fe II, V II, etc observed in STIS/E230H spectra. The origin of other broad features of similar width and depth in the FUSE spectrum, but without low-velocity ISM absorption, are unidentified. However, they are suspected of being absorption of singly-ionized iron-peak elements (e.g. Fe II, V II, Cr II) out of excited levels 1,000 to 20,000 cmE-l above the ground state. The high-velocity features seen in Fe II 1145 are also present in Fe II 1608 (STIS/E140M), but are highly saturated in the latter. Since these transitions have nearly identical log (flambda) (1.998 vs. 2.080), the differences in the profiles are attributable to the different aperture sizes used (30 x 30 arcsec for FUSE, 0.2 x 0.2 arcsec for STIS/E140M). The high-velocity gas appears to be very patchy or has a small covering factor near the central star. Eta Carinae has been observed several times by FUSE over the past three years. The FUSE flux levels and spectral features in eta Car are essentially unchanged over the 2000 March to June 2002 period, establishing a baseline far-UV spectrum in advance of the predicted spectroscopic minimum in 2003.

  18. Modelling of the X-ray broad absorption features in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porquet, Delphine; Mouchet, Martine; Dumont Anne-Marie

    2000-09-01

    We investigate the origin of the broad absorption features detected near 1-1.4 keV in several Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies, by modelling the absorbing medium with various physical parameters, using the ionization code PEGAS. The observed properties of the X-ray absorption features can be reproduced by taking into account the peculiar soft X-ray excess which is well fitted by a blackbody plus an underlying power law. We equally stress that the emission coming from the absorbing medium (related to the covering factor) has a strong influence on the resulting X-ray spectrum, in particular on the apparent position and depth of the absorption features. A non-solar iron abundance may be required to explain the observed deep absorption. We also investigate the influence of an additional collisional ionization process ("hybrid case") on the predicted absorption features.

  19. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthey, Guy; Faber, S. M.; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Burstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previously defined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. Following Gorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that give index strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and (Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predicting index strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations of different ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable for stellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appear to be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. A complete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available in computer-readable form.

  20. External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Quartz Tuning Fork Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Broad Absorption Features

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2007-05-01

    We demonstrate mid-infrared spectroscopy of large molecules with broad absorption features using a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. Absorption spectra for two different Freons are measured over the range 1130-1185 cm-1 with 0.2 cm-1 resolution via laser photoacoustic spectroscopy with quartz tuning forks as acoustic transducers. The measured spectra are in excellent agreement with published reference absorption spectra.

  1. Using high spectral resolution spectrophotometry to study broad mineral absorption features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally telescopic measurements of mineralogic absorption features have been made using relatively low to moderate (R=30-300) spectral resolution. Mineralogic absorption features tend to be broad so high resolution spectroscopy (R greater than 10,000) does not provide significant additional compositional information. Low to moderate resolution spectroscopy allows an observer to obtain data over a wide wavelength range (hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers) compared to the several wavenumber intervals that are collected using high resolution spectrometers. However, spectrophotometry at high resolution has major advantages over lower resolution spectroscopy in situations that are applicable to studies of the Martian surface, i.e., at wavelengths where relatively weak surface absorption features and atmospheric gas absorption features both occur.

  2. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.

    PubMed

    Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J

    1989-11-10

    Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  3. Spatially Resolved HCN Absorption Features in the Circumnuclear Region of NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Kameno, Seiji; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Hyo-Ryoung; Hwang, Ju-Yeon

    2016-10-01

    We present the first VLBI detection of HCN molecular absorption in the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 1052. Utilizing the 1 mas resolution achieved by the Korean VLBI Network, we have spatially resolved the HCN absorption against a double-sided nuclear jet structure. Two velocity features of HCN absorption are detected significantly at the radial velocity of 1656 and 1719 km s‑1, redshifted by 149 and 212 km s‑1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The column density of the HCN molecule is estimated to be 1015–1016 cm‑2, assuming an excitation temperature of 100–230 K. The absorption features show high optical depth localized on the receding jet side, where the free–free absorption occurred due to the circumnuclear torus. The size of the foreground absorbing molecular gas is estimated to be on approximately one-parsec scales, which agrees well with the approximate size of the circumnuclear torus. HCN absorbing gas is likely to be several clumps smaller than 0.1 pc inside the circumnuclear torus. The redshifted velocities of the HCN absorption features imply that HCN absorbing gas traces ongoing infall motion inside the circumnuclear torus onto the central engine.

  4. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  5. Features in optical absorption and photocurrent spectra of organic solar cells due to organic/organic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    We surprisingly found that, organic/organic interface had a direct and pronounced impact on optical absorption and photocurrent spectra of organic solar cell at a favorable wavelength region of the visible solar spectrum. The organic/organic interface was formed as a result of connection between coumarin 6 (C6): [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films and indium-tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrode. Optical absorption measurement was carried out for ITO/PEDOT:PSS/C6:PCBM films, while external quantum efficiency measurement was carried out for ITO/PEDOT:PSS/C6:PCBM/Al solar cells, with varying C6:PCBM blend concentration. We found that, the C6:PCBM blend in the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/C6:PCBM films had an additional feature in the absorption spectra at the wavelength range of 520-800 nm, at which the C6 dye, PCBM, PEDOT:PSS, and ITO were transparent. An additional feature, also, appeared in photocurrent spectra of the C6:PCBM films in the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/C6:PCBM/Al solar cells at the same wavelength range. The new features in the optical absorption and photocurrent spectra of the investigated solar cells originated, in all probability, due to optically induced sup-band transitions in the C6:PCBM blend films at the interface with ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrode. Thus, the C6:PCBM blend films produced a charge carrier generation interface due to connection with ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrode. As a result of this charge carrier generation interface, the power conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cell is improved. Taking into consideration these new findings, the high-band-gap organic materials will take more importance as sensitizers in organic optoelectronic applications.

  6. The origin of collapse features appearing in a migrating parabolic dune along the southern coast of Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyilan, Erin P.; Avis, Peter G.; Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Morris, Charles C.

    2015-12-01

    Dune decomposition chimneys are collapse features formed when migrating dunes encroach on a forest and buried trees subsequently decay, leaving a temporarily stable open hole. The recent appearance of holes on the stoss slope of Mount Baldy at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore provided an opportunity for study of such features. Mount Baldy is a large parabolic dune that is rapidly migrating onshore over a late Holocene landscape with stabilized relict parabolic dunes that supported oak (Quercus spp.) trees visible on the 1939 aerial photo. Individual holes were mapped to locations on the dune surface that would directly overlie the arm of a buried relict parabolic dune. Analyses of buried trees and surrounding sediment indicated that saprotrophic wood decay fungi continue to actively decompose trees after burial and biomineralization of a calcium-carbonate-rich cement occurs at the contact between organic material and sands. Scanning electron microscopy of the cement showed neoformed authigenic minerals and organic structures consistent in morphology with fungal hyphae. We propose that, within the dune, portions of the decayed trees progressively collapse and infill, and open holes are temporarily stabilized by the calcium-carbonate-rich cement. Further, holes can exist undetected at the surface, covered by a thin veneer of sand. Migrating dune systems are observed in many coastal and inland areas. Ongoing work must address the relative contributions of individual environmental factors on the formation of dune decomposition chimneys, including the biomineralization of cement, sand mineralogy, rate of dune movement, tree species, climate, and the composition of fungal communities.

  7. Measurement of Broad Absorption Features Using a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

    2007-09-25

    We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm-1 range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 3-5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm-1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

  8. Measurement of broad absorption features using a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

    2007-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm -1range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 2-4.5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm -1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

  9. Investigations on the 1.7 micron residual absorption feature in the vegetation reflection spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdebout, J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.; Sieber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and interpretation of the weak absorption features associated with the biochemical components of vegetation is of great potential interest to a variety of applications ranging from classification to global change studies. This recent subject is also challenging because the spectral signature of the biochemicals is only detectable as a small distortion of the infrared spectrum which is mainly governed by water. Furthermore, the interpretation is complicated by complexity of the molecules (lignin, cellulose, starch, proteins) which contain a large number of different and common chemical bonds. In this paper, we present investigations on the absorption feature centered at 1.7 micron; these were conducted both on AVIRIS data and laboratory reflectance spectra of leaves.

  10. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  11. Absorption features in the 5-8 micron spectra of protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bregman, J.; Goebel, J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Dhendecourt, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio spectra in the range of 5-8 microns of four sources embedded in molecular clouds are examined using low-temperature laboratory measurements of the 5-8-micron spectra of simple molecules and their mixtures. The absorption, apparent in all four sources, is characterized by highly distinct features ranging from two relatively narrow bands at 6.0 and 6.8 microns in W33A to a broad, shallow, and partially structured feature extending from 5.2 to 7.8 microns in Mon R2-IRS2, BN, and NGC2264. The first feature (W33A) is explained by the OH bending mode in H2O and the CH deformation modes in saturated hydrocarbons; while the second feature (Mon R2-IRS2-type) is explained by the presence of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons possibly containing strongly electronegative groups.

  12. Iron K Features in the Quasar E 1821+643: Evidence for Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We report a Chandra high-energy grating detection of a narrow, redshifted absorption line superimposed on the red wing of a broad Fe K line in the z = 0.297 quasar E 1821+643. The absorption line is detected at a confidence level, estimated by two different methods, in the range approx. 2 - 3 sigma. Although the detection significance is not high enough to exclude a non-astrophysical origin, accounting for the absorption feature when modeling the X-ray spectrum implies that the Fe-K emission line is broad, and consistent with an origin in a relativistic accretion disk. Ignoring the apparent absorption feature leads to the conclusion that the Fe-K emission line is narrower, and also affects the inferred peak energy of the line (and hence the inferred ionization state of Fe). If the absorption line (at approx. 6.2 keV in the quasar frame) is real, we argue that it could be due to gravitationally redshifted Fe XXV or Fe XXVI resonance absorption within approx. 10 - 20 gravitational radii of the putative central black hole. The absorption line is not detected in earlier ASCA and Chandra low-energy grating observations, but the absorption line is not unequivocally ruled out by these data. The Chandra high-energy grating Fe-K emission line is consistent with an origin predominantly in Fe I-XVII or so. In an ASCA observation eight years earlier, the Fe-K line peaked at approx. 6.6 keV, closer to the energies of He-like Fe triplet lines. Further, in a Chandra low-energy grating observation the Fe-K line profile was double-peaked, one peak corresponding to Fe I-XVII or so, the other peak to Fe XXVI Ly alpha. Such a wide range in ionization state of Fe is not ruled out by the HEG and ASCA data either, and is suggestive of a complex structure for the line-emitter.

  13. THE 217.5 nm BAND, INFRARED ABSORPTION, AND INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W. W.; Hu, Anming E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-12-20

    We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under ''slow'' deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp {sup 2}/sp {sup 3} ratio Almost-Equal-To 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

  14. Spectroscopic Character and Spatial Distribution of Hydroxyl and Water Absorption Features Measured on the Lunar Surface by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Pieters, C. M.; Goswami, J.; Clark, R. N.; Annadurai, M.; Boardman, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Combe, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Head, J. W.; Hibbitts, C.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R. L.; Kramer, G. Y.; Kumar, S.; Livo, K. E.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J. F.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Runyon, C. J.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has a broad spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm. By design, the range was specified to extend to 3000 nm to allow for possible detection of trace volatile compounds that possess absorption bands near 3000 nm. Soon after acquisition and calibration of a large fraction of the lunar surface in early February 2009, absorption features in the 2700 to 3000 nm region were detected over unexpectedly large regional areas. This extraordinary discovery has withstood extensive re-analysis and falsification efforts. We have concluded these absorption features are fundamentally present in the M3 measurements and are indicators of extensive hydroxyl and water-bearing materials occurring on the surface of the Moon. Based on current analyses, these absorption features appear strongest at high latitudes, but also occur in association with several fresh feldspathic craters. Interestingly, the distribution of these absorption features are not directly correlated with existing neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data for the sunlight surface. This may indicate that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water is an active process largely restricted to the upper most surface. We present the detailed spectroscopic character of these absorption features in the 2700 to 3000 nm spectral region, including selected examples through all levels of measurement processing from raw data to calibrated apparent surface reflectance. In summary we show the measured strength and latitudinal distribution of the absorptions as well as selected localized occurrences in association with fresh feldspathic craters. The presence of hydroxyl and water bearing material over extensive regions of the lunar surface provides a new and unexpected source of volatiles. Options for harvesting these elements directly from the regolith may provide an alternate supply of volatiles for long term human exploration objectives.

  15. Detection of the 2175 Å Dust Feature in Mg II Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta

    1997-10-01

    The broad absorption bump at 2175 Å due to dust, which is ubiquitous in the Galaxy and is seen in the Magellanic clouds, is also seen in a composite spectrum of Mg II absorbers. The composite absorber spectrum is obtained by taking the geometric mean of 92 quasar spectra after aligning them in the rest frame of 96 absorbers. By aligning the spectra according to absorber redshifts, we reinforce the spectral features of the absorbers and smooth over possible bumps and wiggles in the emission spectra as well as small features in the flat-fielding of the spectra. The width of the observed absorption feature is 200-300 Å (FWHM), or 0.4-0.6 μm-1, and the central wavelength is 2240 Å. These are somewhat different from the central wavelength of 2176 Å and FWHM = 0.8-1.25 μm-1 found in the Galaxy. Simulations show that this discrepancy between the properties of the 2175 Å feature in Mg II absorbers and the Galactic interstellar medium can be mostly explained by the different methods used to measure them.

  16. Absorption features in the x-ray spectrum of an ordinary radio pulsar.

    PubMed

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Durant, Martin; Misanovic, Zdenka; Pavlov, George G

    2012-08-24

    The vast majority of known nonaccreting neutron stars (NSs) are rotation-powered radio and/or γ-ray pulsars. So far, their multiwavelength spectra have all been described satisfactorily by thermal and nonthermal continuum models, with no spectral lines. Spectral features have, however, been found in a handful of exotic NSs and were thought to be a manifestation of their unique traits. Here, we report the detection of absorption features in the x-ray spectrum of an ordinary rotation-powered radio pulsar, J1740+1000. Our findings bridge the gap between the spectra of pulsars and other, more exotic, NSs, suggesting that the features are more common in the NS spectra than they have been thought so far.

  17. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state.

  18. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state. PMID:23345324

  19. Ultrafast transient absorption revisited: Phase-flips, spectral fingers, and other dynamical features.

    PubMed

    Cina, Jeffrey A; Kovac, Philip A; Jumper, Chanelle C; Dean, Jacob C; Scholes, Gregory D

    2016-05-01

    We rebuild the theory of ultrafast transient-absorption/transmission spectroscopy starting from the optical response of an individual molecule to incident femtosecond pump and probe pulses. The resulting description makes use of pulse propagators and free molecular evolution operators to arrive at compact expressions for the several contributions to a transient-absorption signal. In this alternative description, which is physically equivalent to the conventional response-function formalism, these signal contributions are conveniently expressed as quantum mechanical overlaps between nuclear wave packets that have undergone different sequences of pulse-driven optical transitions and time-evolution on different electronic potential-energy surfaces. Using this setup in application to a simple, multimode model of the light-harvesting chromophores of PC577, we develop wave-packet pictures of certain generic features of ultrafast transient-absorption signals related to the probed-frequency dependence of vibrational quantum beats. These include a Stokes-shifting node at the time-evolving peak emission frequency, antiphasing between vibrational oscillations on opposite sides (i.e., to the red or blue) of this node, and spectral fingering due to vibrational overtones and combinations. Our calculations make a vibrationally abrupt approximation for the incident pump and probe pulses, but properly account for temporal pulse overlap and signal turn-on, rather than neglecting pulse overlap or assuming delta-function excitations, as are sometimes done. PMID:27155654

  20. Features of Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic field, auroral luminosity, and Riometer absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Samsonov, S. N.; Lorentsen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous morning Pc5 pulsations ( f ~ 3-5 mHz) in the geomagnetic field, aurora intensities (in the 557.7 and 630.0 nm oxygen emissions and the 471.0 nm nitrogen emission), and riometer absorption, were studied based on the CARISMA, CANMOS, and NORSTAR network data for the event of January 1, 2000. According to the GOES-8 satellite observations, these Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations are observed as incompressible Alfvén waves with toroidal polarization in the magnetosphere. Although the Pc5 pulsation frequencies in auroras, the geomagnetic field, and riometer absorption are close to one another, stable phase relationships are not observed between them. Far from all trains of geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations are accompanied by corresponding auroral pulsations; consequently, geomagnetic pulsations are primary with respect to auroral pulsations. Both geomagnetic and auroral pulsations propagate poleward, and the frequency decreases with increasing geomagnetic latitude. When auroral Pc5 pulsations appear, the ratio of the 557.7/630.0 nm emission intensity sharply increases, which indicates that auroral pulsations result from not simply modulated particle precipitation but also an additional periodic acceleration of auroral electrons by the wave field. A high correlation is not observed between Pc5 pulsations in auroras and the riometer absorption, which indicates that these pulsations have a common source but different generation mechanisms. Auroral luminosity modulation is supposedly related to the interaction between Alfvén waves and the region with the field-aligned potential drop above the auroral ionosphere, and riometer absorption modulation is caused by the scattering of energetic electrons by VLF noise pulsations.

  1. Studying Absorption Line Feature in the Relativistic Jet Source GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 is among the most interesting objects in our Galaxy. It is subject to erratic accretion instabilities with energization of relativistic jets producing X-ray, optical and radio emission. This source was observed by ASCA on Sept. 27, 1994, April 20, 1995, October 23, 1996 and April 25, 1997 as part of a long timescale investigation. We detected strong variability of the source, and in particular the existence of burst/dip structure in October 1996 and April 1997. Clear evidence of transient absorption features at 6.7, 7.0 and 8.0 keV was obtained for the first time in September 1994 and April 1995. Given the phenomenology of plasmoid energization and ejection, these transient spectral features might be produced by material entrained in the radio jets or in other high-velocity outflows. Our contribution to the interpretation is to incorporate these observations into a overall theoretical picture for GRS 1915+105 also taking into account other observations by XTE and BSAX. The emerging picture is complex. The central source is subject to (most likely) super-Eddington instabilities mediated by magnetic field build-up, reconnection and dissipation in the form of blobs that eventually leads to the formation of transient spectral features from the surrounding of the plasmoid emitting region. A comprehensive theoretical investigation is in progress.

  2. Dark Hearts in the Perseus Cluster Galaxies: A Study of Dust Absorption Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; Wojtaszek, M.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Indicators of a cool interstellar medium, such as dust features and HI emission, are more prevalent in early type galaxies than once thought. Yet it is still difficult to understand their presence in the cores of massive clusters. The hot intracluster medium can strip low-density gas from infalling galaxies via ram pressure or can heat the gas past its escape velocity. Nevertheless, galaxies with cool ISM in the form of dust do exist in the Coma Cluster. Here we report on several such systems observed near the core of the Perseus Cluster, the nearest massive cluster of galaxies (D = 70 Mpc). Perseus is an optically unrelaxed cluster with an extensive hot ICM. It also contains several high-velocity galaxies, including a system infalling towards NGC 1275 at a relative speed of ~3000 km/sec, which suggests a continued accretion of systems from the cluster's surroundings. We detect dust features in early-type galaxies through the presence of optical absorption, visible in the form of very circular rings, dark spiral arms and disk systems, or both. These features range in size from 50 to 1700 parsecs. We suggest that these components may be remnants of evolutionary pre-processing in groups that occurs as objects fall into the Perseus cluster. We also discuss their existence in terms of survival time scales for cold ISM in the early-type members of a rich galaxy cluster.

  3. Effect of cell-size on the energy absorption features of closed-cell aluminium foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammi, S. K.; Edwards, G.; Shirvani, H.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of cell-size on the compressive response and energy absorption features of closed-cell aluminium (Al) foam were investigated by finite element method. Micromechanical models were constructed with a repeating unit-cell (RUC) which was sectioned from tetrakaidecahedra structure. Using this RUC, three Al foam models with different cell-sizes (large, medium and small) and all of same density, were built. These three different cell-size pieces of foam occupy the same volume and their domains contained 8, 27 and 64 RUCs respectively. However, the smaller cell-size foam has larger surface area to volume ratio compared to other two. Mechanical behaviour was modelled under uniaxial loading. All three aggregates (3D arrays of RUCs) of different cell-sizes showed an elastic region at the initial stage, then followed by a plateau, and finally, a densification region. The smaller cell size foam exhibited a higher peak-stress and a greater densification strain comparing other two cell-sizes investigated. It was demonstrated that energy absorption capabilities of smaller cell-size foams was higher compared to the larger cell-sizes examined.

  4. Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features.

    PubMed

    Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Guanter, Luis; Cogliati, Sergio; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Migliavacca, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Rossini, Micol; Colombo, Roberto

    2010-05-20

    The accurate spectral characterization of high-resolution spectrometers is required for correctly computing, interpreting, and comparing radiance and reflectance spectra acquired at different times or by different instruments. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the spectral characterization of field spectrometer data using sharp atmospheric or solar absorption features present in the measured data. The algorithm retrieves systematic shifts in channel position and actual full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the instrument by comparing data acquired during standard field spectroscopy measurement operations with a reference irradiance spectrum modeled with the MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code. Measurements from four different field spectrometers with spectral resolutions ranging from 0.05 to 3.5nm are processed and the results validated against laboratory calibration. An accurate retrieval of channel position and FWHM has been achieved, with an average error smaller than the instrument spectral sampling interval.

  5. Detection of a deep 3-microm absorption feature in the spectrum of Amalthea (JV).

    PubMed

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-24

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula.

  6. Detection of a Deep 3-μm Absorption Feature in the Spectrum of Amalthea (JV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J.; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-01

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula.

  7. Detection of a deep 3-microm absorption feature in the spectrum of Amalthea (JV).

    PubMed

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-24

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula. PMID:15618511

  8. Revealing spectral features in two-photon absorption spectrum of Hoechst 33342: a combined experimental and quantum-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Robert; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Ågren, Hans; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Samoc, Marek

    2013-10-10

    We present the results of wide spectral range Z-scan measurements of the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectrum of the Hoechst 33342 dye. The strongest 2PA of the dye in aqueous solution is found at 575 nm, and the associated two-photon absorption cross section is 245 GM. A weak but clearly visible 2PA band at ∼850 nm is also observed, a feature that could not be anticipated from the one-photon absorption spectrum. On the basis of the results of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations, we put forward a notion that the long-wavelength feature observed in the two-photon absorption spectrum of Hoechst 33342 is due to the formation of dye aggregates. PMID:24016295

  9. A universal feature in the optical absorption spectrum associated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A dimensionless joint density of states analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevaril, Jasmin J.; O'Leary, Stephen K.

    2016-10-01

    Using a dimensionless joint density of states formalism for the quantitative characterization of the optical response associated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a critical comparative analysis of a large number of different optical absorption data sets is considered. When these data sets are cast into this dimensionless framework, we observe a trend that is almost completely coincident for all of the data sets considered. This suggests that there is a universal feature associated with the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

  10. The origin of blueshifted absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of PG 1211+143: outflow or disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, L. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    In some radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), high-energy absorption features in the X-ray spectra have been interpreted as ultrafast outflows (UFOs) - highly ionized material (e.g. Fe XXV and Fe XXVI) ejected at mildly relativistic velocities. In some cases, these outflows can carry energy in excess of the binding energy of the host galaxy. Needless to say, these features demand our attention as they are strong signatures of AGN feedback and will influence galaxy evolution. For the same reason, alternative models need to be discussed and refuted or confirmed. Gallo and Fabian proposed that some of these features could arise from resonance absorption of the reflected spectrum in a layer of ionized material located above and corotating with the accretion disc. Therefore, the absorbing medium would be subjected to similar blurring effects as seen in the disc. A priori, the existence of such plasma above the disc is as plausible as a fast wind. In this work, we highlight the ambiguity by demonstrating that the absorption model can describe the ˜7.6 keV absorption feature (and possibly other features) in the quasar PG 1211+143, an AGN that is often described as a classic example of a UFO. In this model, the 2-10 keV spectrum would be largely reflection dominated (as opposed to power law dominated in the wind models) and the resonance absorption would be originating in a layer between about 6 and 60 gravitational radii. The studies of such features constitute a cornerstone for future X-ray observatories like Astro-H and Athena+. Should our model prove correct, or at least important in some cases, then absorption will provide another diagnostic tool with which to probe the inner accretion flow with future missions.

  11. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  12. A search for absorption features in the afterglow of the unusual GRB 130925A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Eric

    2012-09-01

    GRB 130925A produced several emission episodes triggering Swift-BAT, Fermi-GBM, and MAXI. The extraordinary length of this emission--over 10^4 seconds--would give GRB 130925A one of the highest total durations ever observed for a gamma-ray burst. While the initial bursting phase was similar to that of the the relativistic tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, starting at 10^4 seconds after the trigger this event has entered a steady decay phase without new bursts (www.swift.ac.uk/xrt_curves/00571830/). Its classification is thus uncertain, as neither the long GRB class nor Swift J1644 provide direct parallels. Our NuSTAR spectroscopy during the decay phase has revealed evidence for a broad absorption feature never previously observed for either GRB afterglows or for tidal disruption events. Chandra observations will enable searches for lower-energy lines which may constrain the ionization state of this unprecedented event.

  13. A variable absorption feature in the X-ray spectrum of a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Tiengo, Andrea; Esposito, Paolo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Turolla, Roberto; Nobili, Luciano; Gastaldello, Fabio; Götz, Diego; Israel, Gian Luca; Rea, Nanda; Stella, Luigi; Zane, Silvia; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2013-08-15

    Soft-γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating, isolated neutron stars that sporadically undergo episodes of long-term flux enhancement (outbursts) generally accompanied by the emission of short bursts of hard X-rays. This behaviour can be understood in the magnetar model, according to which these sources are mainly powered by their own magnetic energy. This is supported by the fact that the magnetic fields inferred from several observed properties of SGRs and AXPs are greater than-or at the high end of the range of-those of radio pulsars. In the peculiar case of SGR 0418+5729, a weak dipole magnetic moment is derived from its timing parameters, whereas a strong field has been proposed to reside in the stellar interior and in multipole components on the surface. Here we show that the X-ray spectrum of SGR 0418+5729 has an absorption line, the properties of which depend strongly on the star's rotational phase. This line is interpreted as a proton cyclotron feature and its energy implies a magnetic field ranging from 2 × 10(14) gauss to more than 10(15) gauss. PMID:23955229

  14. A variable absorption feature in the X-ray spectrum of a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Tiengo, Andrea; Esposito, Paolo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Turolla, Roberto; Nobili, Luciano; Gastaldello, Fabio; Götz, Diego; Israel, Gian Luca; Rea, Nanda; Stella, Luigi; Zane, Silvia; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2013-08-15

    Soft-γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating, isolated neutron stars that sporadically undergo episodes of long-term flux enhancement (outbursts) generally accompanied by the emission of short bursts of hard X-rays. This behaviour can be understood in the magnetar model, according to which these sources are mainly powered by their own magnetic energy. This is supported by the fact that the magnetic fields inferred from several observed properties of SGRs and AXPs are greater than-or at the high end of the range of-those of radio pulsars. In the peculiar case of SGR 0418+5729, a weak dipole magnetic moment is derived from its timing parameters, whereas a strong field has been proposed to reside in the stellar interior and in multipole components on the surface. Here we show that the X-ray spectrum of SGR 0418+5729 has an absorption line, the properties of which depend strongly on the star's rotational phase. This line is interpreted as a proton cyclotron feature and its energy implies a magnetic field ranging from 2 × 10(14) gauss to more than 10(15) gauss.

  15. The initial mass functions of M31 and M32 through far red stellar absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.

    2015-09-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we investigate radial variations of several initial mass function (IMF) dependent absorption features in M31 and M32. We obtain high signal-to-noise spectra at six pointings along the major axis of M31 out to ˜700 arcsec (2.7 kpc) and a single pointing of the central 10 pc for M32. In M31 the sodium Na I λ8190 index shows a flat equivalent width profile at ˜0.4 Å through the majority of the bulge, with a strong gradient up to 0.8 Å in the central 10 arcsec (38 pc); the Wing-Ford FeH λ9916 index is measured to be constant at 0.4 Å for all radii; and calcium triplet CaT λλ8498, 8542, 8662 shows a gradual increase through the bulge towards the centre. M32 displays flat profiles for all three indices, with FeH at ˜0.5 Å, very high CaT at ˜0.8 Å and low Na I at ˜0.1 Å. We analyse these data using stellar population models. We find that M31 is well described on all scales by a Chabrier IMF, with a gradient in sodium enhancement of [Na/Fe] ˜ +0.3 dex in the outer bulge, rising within the central 10 arcsec to perhaps [Na/Fe] ˜ +1.0 dex in the nuclear region. We find M32 is described by a Chabrier IMF and young stellar age in line with other studies. Models show that CaT is much more sensitive to metallicity and [α/Fe] than to IMF. We note that the centres of M31 and M32 have very high stellar densities and yet we measure Chabrier IMFs in these regions.

  16. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum.

  17. Measurement and feature analysis of absorption spectra of four algal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Zhou, Hongli; Han, Bing; Li, Tongji

    2016-04-01

    Two methods for particulate pigments (i.e., quantitative filter technique, QFT, and in vivo measurement, InVivo, respectively) and two methods for dissolved pigments (i.e., Acetone Extracts, AceEx, and high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, respectively) were used to obtain the optical absorption coefficient spectra for cultures of four typical algal species. Through normalization and analysis of the spectra, it is shown that (1) the four methods are able to measure optical absorption spectra of particulate and/or dissolved pigments; (2) that the optical absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved pigments were consistent in terms of the peak position in the blue wavelength, and the difference of the peak position in the near infrared wavelength was ~10 nm between each other; and (3) that the leveling effect of the absorption spectra of particulate pigments was significant. These four methods can all effectively measure the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton pigments, while each one has its unique advantages in different applications. Therefore, appropriate method should be carefully selected for various application due to their intrinsic difference.

  18. 4.6 micron absorption features due to solid phase CO and cyano group molecules toward compact infrared sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, J. H.; Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Van De Bult, C. E. P.; Persson, S. E.; Mcgregor, P. J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Geballe, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    Spectra obtained at a resolving power of 840, for seven protostellar sources in the region of the 4.67-micron fundamental vibrational band of CO, indicate that the deep absorption feature in W33A near 4.61 microns consists of three features which are seen in other sources, but with varying relative strength. UV-irradiation laboratory experiments with 'dirty ice' temperature cycling allow the identification of two of the features cited with solid CO and CO complexed to other molecules. Cyano group-containing molecules have a lower vapor pressure than CO, and can therefore survive in much warmer environments. The formation and location of the CO- and CN-bearing grain mantles and sources of UV irradiation in cold molecular clouds are discussed. Plausible UV light sources can produce the observed cyano group features, but only under conditions in which local heat sources do not cause evaporation of the CO molecules prior to their photoprocessing.

  19. Preparation of Honeycomb SnO₂ Foams and Configuration-Dependent Microwave Absorption Features.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Fan, Bingbing; Xu, Yawei; Shao, Gang; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Wanyu; Zhang, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Ordered honeycomb-like SnO2 foams were successfully synthesized by means of a template method. The honeycomb SnO2 foams were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), laser Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). It can be found that the SnO2 foam configurations were determined by the size of polystyrene templates. The electromagnetic properties of ordered SnO2 foams were also investigated by a network analyzer. The results reveal that the microwave absorption properties of SnO2 foams were dependent on their configuration. The microwave absorption capabilities of SnO2 foams were increased by increasing the size of pores in the foam configuration. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave absorption was also correlated with the pore contents in SnO2 foams. The large and high amounts pores can bring about more interfacial polarization and corresponding relaxation. Thus, the perfect ordered honeycomb-like SnO2 foams obtained in the existence of large amounts of 322 nm polystyrene spheres showed the outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption properties. The minimal reflection loss (RL) is -37.6 dB at 17.1 GHz, and RL less than -10 dB reaches 5.6 GHz (12.4-18.0 GHz) with thin thickness of 2.0 mm. The bandwidth (<-10 dB, 90% microwave dissipation) can be monitored in the frequency regime of 4.0-18.0 GHz with absorber thickness of 2.0-5.0 mm. The results indicate that these ordered honeycomb SnO2 foams show the superiorities of wide-band, high-efficiency absorption, multiple reflection and scatting, high antioxidation, lightweight, and thin thickness.

  20. Determination of the in-flight spectral calibration of AVIRIS using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) as data are acquired in flight is essential to quantitative analysis of the measured upwelling spectral radiance. In each spectrum measured by AVIRIS in flight, there are numerous atmospheric gas absorption bands that drive this requirement for accurate spectral calibration. If the surface and atmospheric properties are measured independently, these atmospheric absorption bands may be used to deduce the in-flight spectral calibration of an imaging spectrometer. Both the surface and atmospheric characteristics were measured for a calibration target during an in-flight calibration experiment held at Lunar Lake, Nevada on April 5, 1994. This paper uses upwelling spectral radiance predicted for the calibration target with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to validate the spectral calibration of AVIRIS in flight.

  1. Specific features of optical absorption in rare-earth orthoaluminate DyAlO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, U. V.; Gruber, J. B.; Rakhimov, Sh. A.

    2003-04-01

    Polarization spectra of optical absorption of the 4 f-4 f transition 6 H 15/2 → 6 F 3/2 in the rare-earth orthoaluminate DyAlO3 are theoretically and experimentally studied at the temperature T=78 K. It is shown that the nontrivial character of the anisotropy of the polarization absorption spectra at low temperatures can be explained by the J-J mixing of excited multiplets of the 4 f 9 configuration of Dy3+ ions in a low-symmetry crystal field of the orthoaluminate structure. The energy and wave functions of the Stark sublevels within the excited 6 F 5/2 multiplet in the 4 f 9 configuration of the Dy3+ rare-earth ion in the crystal field of C s symmetry are numerically calculated.

  2. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-11-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  3. High-velocity ultraviolet iron, silicon, oxygen, and sulfur absorption features associated with the remnant of SN 1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Wu, Chi-Chao; Leventhal, Marvin; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    1988-01-01

    New low-dispersion IUE spectra of a faint sdOb star located in a direction near the center of the SN 1006 remnant are presented. The UV spectrum of the star exhibits several strong absorption features which are uncharacteristic of its optical sdOB star classification. The identification by Wu et al. (1983) of very broad absorption features at 1610, 2370, 2600 A as Fe II gas associated with the SN 1006 remnant is supported. The observed Fe II line profiles indicate a concentration of Fe(+) toward the remnant's center with a radial velocity range on the order of + or - 5000 km/s. Strong absorption lines at 1281, 1331, and 1420 A are interpreted as originating from clumps of O-, Si- and S-rich ejecta with central radial velocities in the range 5000-6500 km/s. The presence in the SN 1006 remnant of an expanding sphere of iron-rich ejecta interior to O-, Si-, and S-rich clumps of ejecta having velocities over the maximum seen for the Fe II absorbing gas is consistent with type Ia Sn observations and carbon deflagration models.

  4. Cryptography based on the absorption/emission features of multicolor semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Chang, Shoude; Grover, Chander

    2004-06-28

    Further to the optical coding based on fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), a concept of using mixtures of multiple single-color QDs for creating highly secret cryptograms based on their absorption/emission properties was demonstrated. The key to readout of the optical codes is a group of excitation lights with the predetermined wavelengths programmed in a secret manner. The cryptograms can be printed on the surfaces of different objects such as valuable documents for security purposes.

  5. Remote sensing of forage nutrients: Combining ecological and spectral absorption feature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Heitkönig, Ignas M. A.; Slotow, Rob; van der Waal, Cornelis; de Boer, William F.

    2012-08-01

    Forage quality in grassland-savanna ecosystems support high biomass of both wild ungulates and domestic livestock. Forage quality is however variable in both space and time. In this study findings from ecological and laboratory studies, focused on assessing forage quality, are combined to evaluate the feasibility of a remote sensing approach for predicting the spatial and temporal variations in forage quality. Spatially available ecological findings (ancillary data), and physically linked spectral data (absorption data) are evaluated in this study and combined to create models which predict forage quality (nitrogen, phosphorus and fibre concentrations) of grasses collected in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and analysed in both dry and wet seasons. Models were developed using best subsets regression modelling. Ancillary data alone, could predict forage components, with a higher goodness of fit and predictive capability, than absorption data (Ancillary: Radj2=0.42-0.74 compared with absorption: Radj2=0.11-0.51, and lower RMSE values for each nutrient produced by the ancillary models). Plant species and soil classes were found to be ecological variables most frequently included in prediction models of ancillary data. Models in which both ancillary and absorption variables were included, had the highest predictive capabilities ( Radj2=0.49-0.74 and lowest RMSE values) compared to models where data sources were derived from only one of the two groups. This research provides an important step in the process of creating biochemical models for mapping forage nutrients in savanna systems that can be generalised seasonally over large areas.

  6. Time variations of an absorption feature in the spectrum of the gamma-ray burst on 1980 April 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Orwig, L. E.; Desai, U.; Cline, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    The photon number spectrum integrated over the impulsive part of the event is shown to fit a thermal bremsstrahlung function with a temperature of 330 + or - 70 keV at energies between 151 and 487 keV. At lower energies, the data points lie considerably below this function, indicating a broad absorption feature extending down to values less than or equal to 28 keV, the lowest energy measured. The upper energy of this absorption feature varies from 100 to 150 keV on a time scale less than or equal to 0.5 s. This event is interpreted as a typical gamma ray burst, even though it is still considered remotely possible that it is of solar origin. The spectral features, together with their variability, are interpreted in terms of electron interactions at the cyclotron resonance frequency in magnetic fields of 10 to the 12th - 10 to the 13th gauss close to the surface of a neutron star.

  7. Mapping vegetation types with the multiple spectral feature mapping algorithm in both emission and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Koch, Christopher; Ager, Cathy

    1992-01-01

    Vegetation covers a large portion of the Earth's land surface. Remotely sensing quantitative information from vegetation has proven difficult because in a broad sense, all vegetation is similar from a chemical viewpoint, and most healthy plants are green. Plant species are generally characterized by the leaf and flower or fruit morphology, not by remote sensing spectral signatures. But to the human eye, many plants show varying shades of green, so there is direct evidence for spectral differences between plant types. Quantifying these changes in a predictable manner has not been easy. The Clark spectral features mapping algorithm was applied to mapping spectral features in vegetation species.

  8. Lanthanides and other spectral oddities in a Centauri. Ce III, Nd III, Kr II, and broad absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.

    2010-11-01

    Context. There is considerable interest in the helium variable a Cen as a bridge between helium-weak and helium-strong CP stars. Aims: We investigate Ce iii and other possible lanthanides in the spectrum the of hottest chemically peculiar (CP) star in which these elements have been found. A Kr ii line appears within a broad absorption which we suggest may be due to a high-level transition in C ii. Methods: Wavelengths and equivalent widths are measured on high-resolution UVES spectra, analyzed, and their phase-variations investigated. Results: New, robust identifications of Ce iii and Kr ii are demonstrated. Nd iii is likely present. A broad absorption near λ4619 is present at all phases of a Cen, and in some other early B stars. Conclusions: The presence of lanthanides in a Cen strengthens the view that this star is a significant link between the cooler CP stars and the hotter helium-peculiar stars. Broad absorptions in a Cen are not well explained. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 65.L-0316(A), 073.D-0504(A), and 076.B-0055(A)).

  9. Magnetic feature and near-infrared absorption of a [Pt(mnt)2]--based H-bond supramolecular crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cui-Ping; Nie, Li; Pei, Wen-Bo; Li, Li; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Liu, Jian-Lan; Gao, Xu-Sheng; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2016-11-01

    A new salt [H2DABCO][Pt(mnt)2]2 (1) (mnt2-=maleonitriledithiolate and H2DABCO2+ is diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) has been synthesized; its crystal structure, magnetic and near-IR absorption properties have been investigated. Two different [Pt(mnt)2]- anions form the strong π-dimers, labeled as Pt(1)-dimer and Pt(2)-dimer, with quite shorter Pt…Pt and S…S distances and molecular plane-to-plane distance (<3.5 Å) within a dimer. The [Pt(mnt)2]22- π-dimers are connected through the cations in the strong H-bond manner to form three-dimensional H-bond supramolecular crystal. The salt shows weak paramagnetism in 1.99-300 K and this is due to the existence of strong antiferromagnetic coupling within a π-dimer. In addition, a small thermal hysteresis loop is observed at ca. 120 K, indicating that a phase transition probably occurs that is further confirmed by variable-temperature IR spectra. Another fascinating functionality of 1 is the intense near-IR absorption in the region of 750-2500 nm, and this near-IR absorption feature makes it to be a promising optical material.

  10. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  11. Evidence for cyclotron absorption from spectral features in gamma-ray bursts seen with Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.; Fujii, M.; Hayashida, K.; Itoh, M.; Nishimura, J.

    1988-01-01

    New observations by the gamma-ray burst detector on board the Ginga satellite, which has two well-calibrated detectors covering a wide energy range of 1.5 to 375 keV, are reported. The spectral features obtained are consistent with first and second cyclotron harmonics. This finding is taken as strong evidence for the magnetized neutron star model of gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Far-IR Absorption Features of Titan Aerosol Analogs Produced from Aromatic Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebree, Joshua; Trainer, M. G.; Anderson, C. M.; Loeffler, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The arrival of the Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn has led to the discovery of benzene (C6H6) at ppm levels, as well as large positive ions in Titan’s atmosphere, tentatively identified as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).[1] The presence of aromatic molecules, which are photolytically active in the ultraviolet, may be an important part of the formation of aerosol particles in Titan’s haze layers, even at these low concentrations. To date, there have been no laboratory experiments in the literature exploring this area of study. The analysis of data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini has recently uncovered a broad emission feature centered at 140 cm-1 in the far-IR that is unique to the aerosol layers of Titan’s atmosphere.[2] Current optical constants from laboratory-generated aerosol analogs have been unable to reproduce this feature.[3,4] From the broadness of this feature, we speculate that the emission is a blended composite of low-energy vibrations of large molecules such as PAHs and their nitrogen containing counterparts, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs). We hypothesize that the inclusion of trace amounts of aromatic precursors will aid in the production of these large structures in the laboratory-generated aerosols. In this study, we perform UV irradiation of several aromatic precursors, both with and without nitrogen heteroatoms, to understand their influence on the observable characteristics of the aerosol. Measured optical and chemical properties will be compared to those formed from CH4/N2 mixtures [5,6] as well as to those from Cassini observations. [1] Waite, J. H., et al. (2007) Science 316 870-875. [2] Anderson, C.M, et al. (2011) Icarus 212 762-778. [3] Khare, B.N., et al. (1984) Icarus 60 127-137. [4] Imanaka, H., et al. (2012) Icarus 218 247-261. [5] Trainer, M.G., et al. (2006) PNAS 103 18035-18042. [6] Trainer, M.G., et al. (2012) Astrobiology 12 315-326.

  13. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  14. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  15. On the Putative Detection of z > 0 X-Ray Absorption Features in the Spectrum of Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits; Herder, Jan Willem den; Kaastra, Jelle; de Vries, Cor

    2007-02-01

    In a series of papers, Nicastro et al. have reported the detection of z>0 O VII absorption features in the spectrum of Mrk 421 obtained with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS). We evaluate this result in the context of a high-quality spectrum of the same source obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on XMM-Newton. The data comprise over 955 ks of usable exposure time and more than 2.6×104 counts per 50 mÅ at 21.6 Å. We concentrate on the spectrally clean region (21.3 <λ<22.5 ), where sharp features due to the astrophysically abundant O VII may reveal an intervening, warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). We do not confirm detection of any of the intervening systems claimed to date. Rather, we detect only three unsurprising, astrophysically expected features down to the log(Ni)~14.6 (3 σ) sensitivity level. Each of the two purported WHIM features is rejected with a statistical confidence that exceeds that reported for its initial detection. While we cannot rule out the existence of fainter, WHIM related features in these spectra, we suggest that previous discovery claims were premature. A more recent paper by Williams et al. claims to have demonstrated that the RGS data we analyze here do not have the resolution or statistical quality required to confirm or deny the LETGS detections. We show that our analysis resolves the issues encountered by Williams et al. and recovers the full resolution and statistical quality of the RGS data. We highlight the differences between our analysis and those published by Williams et al. as this may explain our disparate conclusions.

  16. Detection of narrow C 4 and Si 4 absorption features in spectra of stars within 200 pc f the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molaro, P.; Beckman, J. E.; Franco, M.; Morossi, C.; Ramella, M.

    1984-01-01

    Detection of narrow (Beta lambda 0.5 A) absorption features in C 4 at lambda lambda 1548 and 1550 have been made in the spectra of 4 late B dwarfs within 200 pc of the Sun; the Si4 doublet at lambda lambda 1393 and 1403 shows up in two of them. It is argued that it is difficult to account for the strengths, widths, shapes, and C IV/Si IV ratios in terms consistent with a circumstellar origin except possibly for an asymmetric C IV component in one star (HD 185037). The most probable source is semi-torrid gas in the 50,000 K range forming the interfaces between cooler H 1 clouds and the ambient medium at coronal temperatures. Late B rapid rotators are used for local interstellar medium probing of this kind.

  17. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  18. 11 CFR 300.64 - Exemption for attending, speaking, or appearing as a featured guest at fundraising events (2 U.S...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... featured guest at a fundraising event for a State, district, or local committee of a political party... featured guest at fundraising events (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(3)). Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 100.24... funds are raised. In light of the foregoing: (a) State, district, or local committees of a...

  19. Features of the absorption of 2-to 40-TeV cosmic-ray hadrons in lead

    SciTech Connect

    Sveshnikova, L. G. Yakovlev, V. I.; Turundaevskii, A. N.; Galkin, V. I.; Nazarov, S. I.; Podorozhnyi, D. M.; Popova, N. S.; Roganova, T. M.

    2006-02-15

    For the first time, experimental data on 2-to 40-TeV hadronic cascades recorded by a lead ionization calorimeter at the Tien-Shan mountain station of the Lebedev Institute of Physics (Moscow) are compared with the results of a present-day simulation based on the GEANT 3.21 code and performed with allowance for the detection procedure. The conclusion that along-flying component appears in high-energy hadronic cascades was drawn previously on the basis of these data. Some special features of the procedure for recording TeV-range hadrons in the calorimeter are considered. It is shown that the averaged hadronic cascades and various features of single cascades having energies below 10 TeV are simulated adequately by using the QGSJET + FLUKA generators of nuclear interactions, but that they are not described by using the GHEISHA generator at lower energies. Some features of the experimentally observed cascades could not be described for cascade energies above 10 TeV.

  20. Radial Trends in IMF-sensitive Absorption Features in Two Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Abundance-driven Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Lu, Jessica R.; Mann, Andrew W.

    2016-04-01

    Samples of early-type galaxies show a correlation between stellar velocity dispersion and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as inferred from gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the galaxies’ central regions. To search for spatial variations in the IMF, we have observed two early-type galaxies with Keck/LRIS and measured radial gradients in the strengths of absorption features from 4000-5500 Å and 8000-10000 Å. We present spatially resolved measurements of the dwarf-sensitive spectral indices {Na} {{I}} (8190 Å) and Wing-Ford {{FeH}} (9915 Å), as well as indices for species of H, C2, CN, Mg, Ca, {{TiO}}, and Fe. Our measurements show a metallicity gradient in both objects, and Mg/Fe consistent with a shallow gradient in α-enhancement, matching widely observed trends for massive early-type galaxies. The {Na} {{I}} index and the CN1 index at 4160 Å exhibit significantly steeper gradients, with a break at r˜ 0.1 {r}{{eff}} (r˜ 300 pc). Inside this radius, {Na} {{I}} strength increases sharply toward the galaxy center, consistent with a rapid central rise in [Na/Fe]. In contrast, the ratio of the {{FeH}} to Fe index strength decreases toward the galaxy center. This behavior cannot be reproduced by a steepening IMF inside of 0.1 {r}{{eff}} if the IMF is a single power law. While gradients in the mass function above ˜ 0.4 {M}⊙ may occur, exceptional care is required to disentangle these IMF variations from the extreme variations in individual element abundances near the galaxies’ centers.

  1. Variability, absorption features, and parent body searches in "spectrally featureless" meteorite reflectance spectra: Case study - Tagish Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, M. R. M.; Craig, M. A.; Applin, D. M.; Sanchez, J. A.; Reddy, V.; Le Corre, L.; Mann, P.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2015-07-01

    Reflectance spectra of many asteroids and other Solar System bodies are commonly reported as "featureless". Here, we show that weak but consistently detectable absorption bands are observable in 200-2500 nm spectra of the Tagish Lake meteorite, a likely compositional and spectral analogue for low-albedo, "spectrally-featureless" asteroids. Tagish Lake presents a rare opportunity to study multiple lithologies within a single meteorite. Reflectance spectra of Tagish Lake display significant variation between different lithologies. The spectral variations are due in part to mineralogical variations between different Tagish Lake lithologies. Ultraviolet reflectance spectra (200-400 nm), few of which have been reported in the literature to date, reveal albedo and spectral ratio variations as a function of mineralogy. Similarly visible-near infrared reflectance spectra reveal variations in albedo, spectral slope, and the presence of weak absorption features that persist across different lithologies and can be attributed to various phases present in Tagish Lake. These observations demonstrate that significant spectral variability may exist between different lithologies of Tagish Lake, which may affect the interpretation of potential source body spectra. It is also important to consider the spectral variability within the meteorite before excluding compositional links between possible parent bodies in the main belt and Tagish Lake. Tagish Lake materials may also be spectral-compositional analogues for materials on the surfaces of other dark asteroids, including some that are targets of upcoming spacecraft missions. Tagish Lake has been proposed as a spectral match for 'ultra-primitive' D or P-type asteroids, and the variability reported here may be reflected in spatially or rotationally-resolved spectra of possible Tagish Lake parent bodies and source objects in the Near-Earth Asteroid population. A search for objects with spectra similar to Tagish Lake has been carried

  2. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  3. Absolute calibration and atmospheric versus mineralogic origin of absorption features in 2.0 to 2.5 micron Mars spectra obtained during 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Pollack, James B.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Freedman, Richard

    1994-01-01

    We obtained new high resolution reflectance spectra of Mars during the 1993 opposition from Mauna Kea Observatory using the UKIRT CGS4 spectrometer. Fifty spectra of 1600-2000 km surface regions and a number of standard star spectra were obtained in the 2.04 to 2.44 micron wavelength region on 4 February 1993 UT. Near-simultaneous observations of bright standard stars were used to perform terrestrial atmospheric corrections and an absolute flux calibration. Using the known magnitude of the stars and assuming blackbody continuum behavior, the flux from Mars could be derived. A radiative transfer model and the HITRAN spectral line data base were used to compute atmospheric transmission spectra for Mars and the Earth in order to simulate the contributions of these atmospheres to our observed data. Also, we examined the ATMOS solar spectrum in the near-IR to try to identify absorption features in the spectrum of the Sun that could be misinterpreted as Mars features. Eleven absorption features were detected in our Mars spectra. Our data provide no conclusive identification of the mineralogy responsible for the absorption features we detected. However, examination of terrestrial spectral libraries and previous high spectral resolution mineral studies indicates that the most likely origin of these features is either CO3(sup 2-), HCO3(-), or HSO4(-) anions in framework silicates or possibly (Fe, Mg)-OH bonds in sheet silicates.

  4. Measurement of atmospheric NO3 1. Improved removal of water vapour absorption features in the analysis for NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliwell, S. R.; Jones, R. L.

    Atmospheric measurements of the nitrate radical generally detect its absorption of visible radiation in the band near 662 nm. This band is negatively correlated with strong absorptions due to tropospheric water vapour which must therefore be fitted in the spectral analysis to reduce the spectral residual to the level at which sufficient sensitivity to NO3 can be obtained. Previously this had been fitted using a cross-section typically derived from spectra obtained just before sunset or just after sunrise which took no account of the diurnal variation in temperature and water vapour column amounts. An improved method of accounting for water vapour absorptions is presented here. When fitted together with their temperature dependence, water vapour cross-sections calculated using a line-by-line approach gave a more accurate fitting of water vapour absorptions, thus improving the analysis for NO3.

  5. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB. [spectrogoniometer for planetary and lunar surface composition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  6. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.; Cunningham, N. J.; Hain, M. J.

    2012-01-15

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported.

  7. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) featuring a low cost webcam based prism spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Engstrom, Julia; Wong, Donald; Islam, Meez; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2013-11-01

    Cavity enhanced techniques enable high sensitivity absorption measurements in the liquid phase but are typically more complex, and much more expensive, to perform than conventional absorption methods. The latter attributes have so far prevented a wide spread use of these methods in the analytical sciences. In this study we demonstrate a novel BBCEAS instrument that is sensitive, yet simple and economical to set up and operate. We use a prism spectrometer with a low cost webcam as the detector in conjunction with an optical cavity consisting of two R = 0.99 dielectric mirrors and a white light LED source for illumination. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements were made on samples contained in 1 cm quartz cuvettes placed at normal incidence to the light beam in the optical cavity. The cavity enhancement factor (CEF) with water as the solvent was determined directly by phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy (PS-CRDS) and also by calibration with Rhodamine 6G solutions. Both methods yielded closely matching CEF values of ~60. The minimum detectable change in absorption (αmin) was determined to be 6.5 × 10(-5) cm(-1) at 527 nm and was limited only by the 8 bit resolution of the particular webcam detector used, thus offering scope for further improvement. The instrument was used to make representative measurements on dye solutions and in the determination of nitrite concentrations in a variation of the widely used Griess Assay. Limits of detection (LOD) were ~850 pM for Rhodamine 6G and 3.7 nM for nitrite, respectively. The sensitivity of the instrument compares favourably with previous cavity based liquid phase studies whilst being achieved at a small fraction of the cost hitherto reported, thus opening the door to widespread use in the community. Further means of improving sensitivity are discussed in the paper. PMID:24049768

  8. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) featuring a low cost webcam based prism spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Engstrom, Julia; Wong, Donald; Islam, Meez; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2013-11-01

    Cavity enhanced techniques enable high sensitivity absorption measurements in the liquid phase but are typically more complex, and much more expensive, to perform than conventional absorption methods. The latter attributes have so far prevented a wide spread use of these methods in the analytical sciences. In this study we demonstrate a novel BBCEAS instrument that is sensitive, yet simple and economical to set up and operate. We use a prism spectrometer with a low cost webcam as the detector in conjunction with an optical cavity consisting of two R = 0.99 dielectric mirrors and a white light LED source for illumination. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements were made on samples contained in 1 cm quartz cuvettes placed at normal incidence to the light beam in the optical cavity. The cavity enhancement factor (CEF) with water as the solvent was determined directly by phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy (PS-CRDS) and also by calibration with Rhodamine 6G solutions. Both methods yielded closely matching CEF values of ~60. The minimum detectable change in absorption (αmin) was determined to be 6.5 × 10(-5) cm(-1) at 527 nm and was limited only by the 8 bit resolution of the particular webcam detector used, thus offering scope for further improvement. The instrument was used to make representative measurements on dye solutions and in the determination of nitrite concentrations in a variation of the widely used Griess Assay. Limits of detection (LOD) were ~850 pM for Rhodamine 6G and 3.7 nM for nitrite, respectively. The sensitivity of the instrument compares favourably with previous cavity based liquid phase studies whilst being achieved at a small fraction of the cost hitherto reported, thus opening the door to widespread use in the community. Further means of improving sensitivity are discussed in the paper.

  9. An Introduction To Appearance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, Richard W.

    1983-11-01

    The appearance of a manufactured product, given that it will fulfill its intended purpose, is its most important attribute. Appearance often determines the acceptability of a product to its seller, and ultimately to the consumer or end-user. The quality of the appearance of a product is psychologically related to its expected performance and useful life. It therefore determines its reception by potential purchasers. This paper describes the interaction of light with objects; reflection, absorption, transmission, or a combination of these phenomena, which result in the perception of the objects, and how measurements that correspond to the way the eye sees color may be made.

  10. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    SciTech Connect

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C.; Silva, A. M.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N.

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  11. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  12. L-Asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Gottfried, C; Silva, A M; Caetano, E W S; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p-carboxyl, C 2p-side chain, and C 2p-carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  13. THE 3-5 {mu}m SPECTRUM OF NGC 1068 AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION: DISTRIBUTION OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES ACROSS THE NUCLEAR CONTINUUM SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Rodriguez-Ardila, A.; Axon, D. J.

    2009-08-20

    We report moderate resolution 3-5 {mu}m spectroscopy of the nucleus of NGC 1068 obtained at 0.''3 (20 pc) resolution with the spectrograph slit aligned approximately along the ionization cones of the active galactic nucleus. The deconvolved full width at half-maximum of the nuclear continuum source in this direction is 0.''3. Four coronal lines of widely different excitations were detected; the intensity of each peaks near radio knot C, approximately 0.''3 north of the infrared continuum peak, where the radio jet changes direction. Together with the broadened line profiles observed near that location, this suggests that shock ionization is the dominant excitation mechanism of the coronal lines. The depth of the 3.4 {mu}m hydrocarbon absorption is maximum at and just south of the continuum peak, similar to the 10 {mu}m silicate absorption. That and the similar and rapid variations of the optical depths of both features across the nucleus suggest that substantial portions of both arise in a dusty environment just in front of the continuum source(s). A new and tighter limit is set on the column density of CO. Although clumpy models of the dust screen might explain the shallowness of the silicate feature, the presence of the 3.4 {mu}m feature and the absence of CO are strongly reminiscent of Galactic diffuse cloud environments and a consistent explanation for them and the observed silicate feature is found if all three phenomena occur in such an environment, existing as close as 10 pc to the central engine.

  14. Saliency Changes Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kerzel, Dirk; Schönhammer, Josef; Burra, Nicolas; Born, Sabine; Souto, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the deployment of attention is linked to saliency. In contrast, very little is known about how salient objects are perceived. To probe the perception of salient elements, observers compared two horizontally aligned stimuli in an array of eight elements. One of them was salient because of its orientation or direction of motion. We observed that the perceived luminance contrast or color saturation of the salient element increased: the salient stimulus looked even more salient. We explored the possibility that changes in appearance were caused by attention. We chose an event-related potential indexing attentional selection, the N2pc, to answer this question. The absence of an N2pc to the salient object provides preliminary evidence against involuntary attentional capture by the salient element. We suggest that signals from a master saliency map flow back into individual feature maps. These signals boost the perceived feature contrast of salient objects, even on perceptual dimensions different from the one that initially defined saliency. PMID:22162760

  15. Absorption features in the quasar HS 1603 + 3820 II. Distance to the absorber obtained from photoionisation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, A.; Nikołajuk, M.; Czerny, B.; Dobrzycki, A.; Hryniewicz, K.; Bechtold, J.; Ebeling, H.

    2014-04-01

    We present the photoionisation modelling of the intrinsic absorber in the bright quasar HS 1603 + 3820. We constructed the broad-band spectral energy distribution using the optical/UV/X-ray observations from different instruments as inputs for the photoionisation calculations. The spectra from the Keck telescope show extremely high CIV to HI ratios, for the first absorber in system A, named A1. This value, together with high column density of CIV ion, place strong constraints on the photoionisation model. We used two photoionisation codes to derive the hydrogen number density at the cloud illuminated surface. By estimating bolometric luminosity of HS 1603 + 3820 using the typical formula for quasars, we calculated the distance to A1. We could find one photoionization solution, by assuming either a constant density cloud (which was modelled using CLOUDY), or a stratified cloud (which was modelled using TITAN), as well as the solar abundances. This model explained both the ionic column density of CIV and the high CIV to HI ratio. The location of A1 is 0.1 pc, and it is situated even closer to the nucleus than the possible location of the Broad Line Region in this object. The upper limit of the distance is sensitive to the adopted covering factor and the carbon abundance. Photoionisation modelling always prefers dense clouds with the number density n0 = 1010 - 1012 cm-3, which explains intrinsic absorption in HS 1603 + 3820. This number density is of the same order as that in the disk atmosphere at the implied distance of A1. Therefore, our results show that the disk wind that escapes from the outermost accretion disk atmosphere can build up dense absorber in quasars.

  16. Modelling the Emission And/or Absorption Features in the High Resolution Spectra of the Southern Binary System: HH Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseoglu, Dogan; Bakış, Hicran

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution spectra (R=48000) of the southern close binary system, HH Car, has been analyzed with modern analysis techniques. Precise absolute parameters were derived from the simultaneous solution of the radial velocity, produced in this study and the light curves, published. According to the results of these analyses, the primary component is an O9 type main sequence star while the secondary component is a giant/subgiant star with a spectral type of B0. Hα emissions can be seen explicitly in the spectra of HH Car. These features were modelled using the absolute parameters of the components. Since components of HH Car are massive early-type stars, mass loss through stellar winds can be expected. This study revealed that the components of HH Car have stellar winds and the secondary component loses mass to the primary. Stellar winds and the gas stream between the components were modelled as a hot shell around the system. It is determined that the interaction between the winds and the gas stream leads to formation of a high temperature impact region.

  17. The soft gamma-ray spectrum of A0535+26: Detection of an absorption feature at 110 keV by OSSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, J. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Kinzer, R. L.; Starr, C. H.; Jung, G. V.; Kendziorra, E.; Maisack, M.; Staubert, R.

    1995-01-01

    We present soft gamma-ray observations by the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) of the transient X-ray binary pulsar A0535+26. The observations were made 1994 February 8-17, immediately prior to the peak of a giant outburst. The phase averaged spectrum is complex and cannot be described by a single-component model. We find that structure in the spectrum above 100 keV can best be modeled by an absorption feature near 110 keV, which we interepret as the signature of cyclotron resonant scattering. Because of OSSE's 45 keV threshold, we are unable to make a definitive statement on the presence of a 55 keV absorption line; however, we can conclude that if this line does exist, it must have a smaller optical depth than the line at 110 keV. A first harmonic (=fundamental) cyclotron resonance at 110 keV corresponds to a magnetic field strength at the surface of the neutron star of approximately 1 x 10(exp 13) G (approximately 5 x 10(exp 12) G if the first harmonic is at 55 keV).

  18. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  19. Measurement of appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Helen; Pointer, Michael

    2002-06-01

    The visual appearance can be one of the most critical parameters affecting customer choise and, therefore, it needs to be quantifiable to ensure uniformity and reproducibility. A starting point in assessing the appearance of a consumer product might be the measurement of its colour. The description of its total appearance, however, cannot be achieved by the definition of color alone; other attributes of the material from which it is fabricated contribute to the overall appearance. The texture of a surface, for example, will cause changes in colour depending on the lighting direction; the freshness of food is judged by its overall appearance, but in a way that is much more subtle than by just its color; and novel effects such as pearlescence are added to products to enhance their attractiveness. For some products, such as cosmetics, it is not only their own appearance characteristics that are important, but also the visual effect after they have been applied to the skin, nails, hair, etc. It is clear, therefore, that the interest of industry in the measurement of appearance goes beyond simply surface color.

  20. CT appearance of splenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT.

  1. Distributional Learning of Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lewis D.; Wahab, M. Husni; Newell, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunities for associationist learning of word meaning, where a word is heard or read contemperaneously with information being available on its meaning, are considered too infrequent to account for the rate of language acquisition in children. It has been suggested that additional learning could occur in a distributional mode, where information is gleaned from the distributional statistics (word co-occurrence etc.) of natural language. Such statistics are relevant to meaning because of the Distributional Principle that ‘words of similar meaning tend to occur in similar contexts’. Computational systems, such as Latent Semantic Analysis, have substantiated the viability of distributional learning of word meaning, by showing that semantic similarities between words can be accurately estimated from analysis of the distributional statistics of a natural language corpus. We consider whether appearance similarities can also be learnt in a distributional mode. As grounds for such a mode we advance the Appearance Hypothesis that ‘words with referents of similar appearance tend to occur in similar contexts’. We assess the viability of such learning by looking at the performance of a computer system that interpolates, on the basis of distributional and appearance similarity, from words that it has been explicitly taught the appearance of, in order to identify and name objects that it has not been taught about. Our experiment tests with a set of 660 simple concrete noun words. Appearance information on words is modelled using sets of images of examples of the word. Distributional similarity is computed from a standard natural language corpus. Our computation results support the viability of distributional learning of appearance. PMID:23460927

  2. Appearances, Stigma, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the practical aspects of clothing are compared to effective practices in special education. Actual competence is more important than the appearance, or cloak, of competence. It is argued that speaking openly about disability will do more to reduce its stigma than will euphemisms. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  4. The hot DOA1 degenerate HZ 21 - A search for circumstellar/photospheric metals and peculiar absorption at He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, M. L.; Leckenby, H.; Sion, E. M.; Vauclair, G.; Liebert, J.

    1990-01-01

    A high-resolution IUE spectrum of the hot DO1 degenerate HZ 21 was obtained by combining US1 + European 2 low-background observing shifts. The SWP image reveals a rich spectrum of interstellar absorption lines with an average velocity in the line of sight to HZ 21 of -30 km/s. However, there is no clear evidence of any highly or lowly ionized metal features which could be attributed to circumstellar, wind, or photospheric absorption. There is, however, a broad absorption trough at He II (1640) which was not unexpected, given the clear presence of He II (4686) absorption in this star's optical spectrum. The velocity width of He II (1640) appears consistent with photospheric absorption wings which appear to flank the geocoronal Ly-alpha emission feature. The He II (1640) feature reveals what appears to be a broad (310 km/s) emission reversal. Evidence is provided that the emission reversal is probably real.

  5. Neutral atomic-carbon quasar absorption-line systems at z> 1.5. Sample selection, H i content, reddening, and 2175 Å extinction feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for cold gas at high redshift along quasar lines of sight carried out without any a priori assumption on the neutral atomic-hydrogen content of the absorption-line systems. To do this, we systematically looked for neutral-carbon (C i) λλ1560, 1656 transition lines in 41 696 low-resolution quasar spectra (1.5 < zem < 4.46) from the SDSS-II - Data Release 7 - database. C i absorption lines should indeed probe the shielded gas in the neutral interstellar medium of galaxies more efficiently than traditional tracers such as neutral atomic-hydrogen (H i) damped Lyman-α (DLA) and/or Mg ii systems. We built up a sample of 66 C i absorbers with redshifts in the range 1.5 < z < 3.1 and rest-frame equivalent widths 0.1 21 (atoms cm-2) compared to systematic DLA surveys. Whilst the dust content

  6. Does Antimatter Appear Dark?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Walton

    2014-03-01

    According to Standard Model the photon is an elementary particle and a gauge boson. However, there is another model of the photon with very interesting properties. In 1932 de Broglie suggested that the photon is a composite particle formed of a neutrino-antineutrino pair. This theory, now known as the ``neutrino theory of light,'' has evolved over the years. It still has problems in that it requires massless 2-component neutrinos, while there are indications that neutrinos have mass. In the composite photon theory the photon is γ =νLν̲R (electron neutrinos), while the antiphoton is γ ̲ =νRν̲L , two particles that have never been observed. Since the neutrino-electron interaction is V-A, the antiphoton neutrinos have the wrong helicity to interact with electrons, rendering the antiphotons undetectable. Conversely, in an antimatter world, for which the neutrino-positron interaction is V+A, photons do not interact with positrons. Thus, antimatter stars and galaxies would appear dark to us, and they would not even reflect light from matter stars.

  7. CAN GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES DETECT THE OXYGEN 1.27 {mu}m ABSORPTION FEATURE AS A BIOMARKER IN EXOPLANETS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hajime; Matsuo, Taro; Takami, Michihiro; Fujii, Yuka; Kotani, Takayuki; Tamura, Motohide; Murakami, Naoshi; Guyon, Olivier

    2012-10-10

    The oxygen absorption line imprinted in the scattered light from Earth-like planets has been considered the most promising metabolic biomarker for exolife. We examine the feasibility of the detection of the 1.27 {mu}m oxygen band from habitable exoplanets, in particular, around late-type stars observed with a future instrument on a 30 m class ground-based telescope. We analyzed the night airglow around 1.27 {mu}m with the IRCS/echelle spectrometer on Subaru and found that the strong telluric emission from atmospheric oxygen molecules declines by an order of magnitude by midnight. By compiling nearby star catalogs combined with the sky background model, we estimate the detectability of the oxygen absorption band from an Earth twin, if it exists, around nearby stars. We find that the most dominant source of photon noise for the oxygen 1.27 {mu}m band detection comes from the night airglow if the contribution of the stellar point-spread function (PSF) halo is suppressed enough to detect the planet. We conclude that the future detectors, for which the detection contrast is limited by photon noise, can detect the oxygen 1.27 {mu}m absorption band of Earth twins for {approx}50 candidates of the late-type star. This paper demonstrates the importance of deploying a small inner working angle as an efficient coronagraph and extreme adaptive optics on extremely large telescopes, and clearly shows that doing so will enable the study of potentially habitable planets.

  8. CONFIRMATION OF ENHANCED DWARF-SENSITIVE ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE SPECTRA OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR A NON-UNIVERSAL INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2011-07-01

    We recently found that massive cluster elliptical galaxies have strong Na I {lambda}8183, 8195 and FeH {lambda}9916 Wing-Ford band absorption, indicating the presence of a very large population of stars with masses {approx}< 0.3 M{sub sun}. Here we test this result by comparing the elliptical galaxy spectra to those of luminous globular clusters associated with M31. These globular clusters have similar metallicities, abundance ratios, and ages as massive elliptical galaxies but their low dynamical mass-to-light ratios rule out steep stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). From high-quality Keck spectra we find that the dwarf-sensitive absorption lines in globular clusters are significantly weaker than in elliptical galaxies and consistent with normal IMFs. The differences in the Na I and Wing-Ford indices are 0.027 {+-} 0.007 mag and 0.017 {+-} 0.006 mag, respectively. We directly compare the two classes of objects by subtracting the averaged globular cluster spectrum from the averaged elliptical galaxy spectrum. The difference spectrum is well fit by the difference between a stellar population synthesis model with a bottom-heavy IMF and one with a bottom-light IMF. We speculate that the slope of the IMF may vary with velocity dispersion, although it is not yet clear what physical mechanism would be responsible for such a relation.

  9. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  10. The Excessive Appearance of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, Rod

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages the appearance of disability in contemporary Western culture. Rather than taking disability for granted as a biomedical condition, I interrogate how disability is made to appear in our culture, including its appearance as a biomedical condition. Fundamentally, disability appears to us as a trouble and, as such, cultural…

  11. Io's Non-SO2 Spectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, W. D.; Soderblom, L. A.; Nelson, R. M.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: Several absorptions have been identified in the Galileo NIMS spectra of Io that are not related to SO_2. [1,2]. These absorptions have band centers at 2.97, 3.15, 3.85, and 3.91 microns. There are also broad absorptions in the regions 1-1.3 and 3-3.4 microns. "Patterning" noise in wavelength registration, arising from the pushbroom imaging and grating motion of the NIMS instrument have previously inhibited reliable mapping of weak absorptions. Recent improvements in techniques to remove the coherent pattern noise from the NIMS dataset have been made by Soderblom. This greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and enables mapping of weak spectral signatures such as the 3.15 micron absorption on Io. The 3.15μ feature: The 3.15μ feature is a very weak band having an apparent band depth of less than 4% of the continuum - in contrast to many of the SO_2 features, which have apparent band depths ranging from 15-70%. The 3.15μ feature is reasonably ubiquitous on the surface of Io so it was seen in global average spectra obtained early in the Galileo mission [2]. The feature has not been identified but has been attributed variously to H_2S, H_2O, or OH stretch [2,3]. A map of this feature shows a variety of correlations. The feature is strongly present at lower latitudes, which suggests that it may be associated with a material less volatile than SO_2. However the absorption does appear above 30 degrees (north and south), suggesting its presence in not strictly a thermal issue. It is interesting that the absorption moves north of the equator above Pele apparently avoiding Pele's large plume deposit, is not present at Culann, yet covers Prometheus completely. The distribution at Prometheus suggests that the material leading to the 3.15μ absorption may be associated with the Prometheus SO_2 reservoir - but it is difficult to reconcile that with the behavior of the absorption about Pele and Culann. There is a reasonably good correlation with visibly white

  12. Is color appearance matching necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.

    1994-05-01

    An analysis of why people are willing to spend more money to buy color systems versus monochrome systems shows that the colorimetric methods used in today's color management systems are insufficient. To fulfill the user's requirements, it is necessary to preserve the appearance of color when an electronic image is reproduced. After proposing formal definitions for color perception and for color appearance, I will present two problems requiring an appearance model to solve: the color selection problem, and gamut mapping.

  13. Multi-scale Material Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongzhi

    Modeling and rendering the appearance of materials is important for a diverse range of applications of computer graphics - from automobile design to movies and cultural heritage. The appearance of materials varies considerably at different scales, posing significant challenges due to the sheer complexity of the data, as well the need to maintain inter-scale consistency constraints. This thesis presents a series of studies around the modeling, rendering and editing of multi-scale material appearance. To efficiently render material appearance at multiple scales, we develop an object-space precomputed adaptive sampling method, which precomputes a hierarchy of view-independent points that preserve multi-level appearance. To support bi-scale material appearance design, we propose a novel reflectance filtering algorithm, which rapidly computes the large-scale appearance from small-scale details, by exploiting the low-rank structures of Bidirectional Visible Normal Distribution Functions and pre-rotated Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions in the matrix formulation of the rendering algorithm. This approach can guide the physical realization of appearance, as well as the modeling of real-world materials using very sparse measurements. Finally, we present a bi-scale-inspired high-quality general representation for material appearance described by Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our representation is at once compact, easily editable, and amenable to efficient rendering.

  14. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  15. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  16. Appearance can be deceiving: using appearance models in color imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Garrett M.

    2007-01-01

    As color imaging has evolved through the years, our toolset for understanding has similarly evolved. Research in color difference equations and uniform color spaces spawned tools such as CIELAB, which has had tremendous success over the years. Research on chromatic adaptation and other appearance phenomena then extended CIELAB to form the basis of color appearance models, such as CIECAM02. Color difference equations such as CIEDE2000 evolved to reconcile weaknesses in areas of the CIELAB space. Similarly, models such as S-CIELAB were developed to predict more spatially complex color difference calculations between images. Research in all of these fields is still going strong and there seems to be a trend towards unification of some of the tools, such as calculating color differences in a color appearance space. Along such lines, image appearance models have been developed that attempt to combine all of the above models and metric into one common framework. The goal is to allow the color imaging research to pick and choose the appropriate modeling toolset for their needs. Along these lines, the iCAM image appearance model framework was developed to study a variety of color imaging problems. These include image difference and image quality evaluations as well gamut mapping and high-dynamic range (HDR) rendering. It is important to stress that iCAM was not designed to be a complete color imaging solution, but rather a starting point for unifying models of color appearance, color difference, and spatial vision. As such the choice of model components is highly dependent on the problem being addressed. For example, with CIELAB it clearly evident that it is not necessary to use the associated color difference equations to have great success as a deviceindependent color space. Likewise, it may not be necessary to use the spatial filtering components of an image appearance model when performing image rendering. This paper attempts to shed some light on some of the

  17. An unidentified absorption in the spectra of C-S stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybski, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    An absorption feature in the low-dispersion red spectrograms of carbon Mira variables and C-S stars shown to exhibit strikingly different behavior in these similarly appearing carbon and carbonlike stars. Evidence is presented that in the carbon Miras the feature may be due to unresolved bandheads of the (0,0) system of calcium iodide. In this group of stars the feature exhibits a temperature sensitivity similar to absorptions due to calcium chloride and to the neutral sodium doublet. No identification is suggested for the feature appearing among the C-S stars, though there is evidence against it being composed partially of a zero-volt line of neutral scandium.

  18. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Bent, C L; Sahdev, A; Rockall, A G; Singh, N; Sohaib, S A; Reznek, R H

    2009-04-01

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm(3)) and mucinous (6358.2 cm(3)) subtypes (p=0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  19. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  20. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  1. Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

    The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.

  2. Appearance comparison in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and controls.

    PubMed

    Anson, Martin; Veale, David; Miles, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Research investigating appearance comparison in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) remains very limited, despite the fact that this is one of the most commonly observed behaviors in individuals with the disorder. The present study investigated the self-reported extent and nature of appearance comparison in 35 BDD participants relative to 45 controls using a newly devised and a standardized appearance comparison measure. The results showed that BDD participants reported significantly higher levels of appearance comparison than controls. Individuals with BDD also reported greater levels of comparing in terms of the specific feature(s) of their appearance they were most concerned about as compared to overall appearance, whilst controls showed the opposite pattern. Levels of comparing in BDD participants increased as targets increased in terms of attractiveness, and individuals with BDD rated themselves as being markedly less attractive than targets, and feeling markedly less satisfied with their appearance after comparing. Cognitive-behavioral treatment implications are discussed. PMID:26379252

  3. Appearance comparison in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and controls.

    PubMed

    Anson, Martin; Veale, David; Miles, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Research investigating appearance comparison in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) remains very limited, despite the fact that this is one of the most commonly observed behaviors in individuals with the disorder. The present study investigated the self-reported extent and nature of appearance comparison in 35 BDD participants relative to 45 controls using a newly devised and a standardized appearance comparison measure. The results showed that BDD participants reported significantly higher levels of appearance comparison than controls. Individuals with BDD also reported greater levels of comparing in terms of the specific feature(s) of their appearance they were most concerned about as compared to overall appearance, whilst controls showed the opposite pattern. Levels of comparing in BDD participants increased as targets increased in terms of attractiveness, and individuals with BDD rated themselves as being markedly less attractive than targets, and feeling markedly less satisfied with their appearance after comparing. Cognitive-behavioral treatment implications are discussed.

  4. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  5. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets.

  6. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  7. Juvenile xanthogranuloma with lichenoid appearance.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Kozo; Demitsu, Toshio; Kubota, Yasuo

    2012-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranulomas are benign histiocytic cell tumors that develop mainly in infancy and early childhood and then spontaneously regress. We report a 2-year-old boy who presented with generalized eruption of a mixture of micronodular and macronodular juvenile xanthogranuloma with a large number of widely distributed lichenoid papules. Light microscopic and immunocytochemical analyses of the lesion were consistent with juvenile xanthogranuloma. Abdominal ultrasonography did not detect any visceral lesions, and brain magnetic resonance imaging did not detect any mass lesions. We decided to observe the course without treatment in this case because there are no internal masses of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Regular follow up has therefore been scheduled. To our knowledge, this is the third report of a case demonstrating juvenile xanthogranuloma with lichenoid appearance. Future analyses of various cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or tumor necrosis factor-α in juvenile xanthogranuloma lesions should be of great help in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:21980990

  8. Effect of in-material losses on terahertz absorption, transmission, and reflection in photonic crystals made of polar dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Serebryannikov, Andriy E.; Nojima, S.; Alici, K. B.; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-10-07

    The effect of the material absorption factor on terahertz absorption (A), transmittance (T), and reflectance (R) for slabs of PhC that comprise rods made of GaAs, a polar dielectric, is studied. The main goal was to illustrate how critical a choice of the absorption factor for simulations is and to indicate the importance of the possible modification of the absorption ability by using either active or lossy impurities. The spectra of A, T, and R are strongly sensitive to the location of the polaritonic gap with respect to the photonic pass and stop bands connected with periodicity that enables the efficient combination of the effects of material and structural parameters. It will be shown that the spectra can strongly depend on the utilized value of the material absorption factor. In particular, both narrow and wide absorption bands may appear owing to a variation of the material parameters with a frequency in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. The latter are often achieved at wideband suppression of transmission, so that an ultra-wide stop band can appear as a result of adjustment of the stop bands having different origin. The results obtained at simultaneous variation of the absorption factor and frequency, and angle of incidence and frequency, indicate the possibility of the existence of wide ranges of tolerance, in which the basic features do remain. This allows for mitigating the accuracy requirements for the absorption factor in simulations and promises the efficient absorption of nonmonochromatic waves and beams with a wide angular spectrum. Suppression of narrowband effects in transmission is demonstrated at rather large values of the absorption factor, when they appear due to either the defect modes related to structural defects or dispersion inspired variations of the material parameters in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. Comparison with auxiliary structures helps one to detect the common features and differences of homogeneous slabs and slabs of a

  9. 17 CFR 10.62 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearances. 10.62 Section 10... § 10.62 Appearances. (a) Who may appear. The parties may appear in person, by counsel or by other..., dealing with appearance and practice before the Commission. (b) Effect of failure to appear. (1) If...

  10. THE ABSORPTION OF ADRENALIN

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, D. Murray

    1923-01-01

    1. Adrenalin solution given subcutaneously is usually rapidly absorbed, probably by lymphatic channels. 2. The speed of this process may be influenced by the circulation rate. 3. The relative amounts of adrenalin at any moment unabsorbed at the site of inoculation, carried in the circulating fluids, and taken up by the reacting tissues can be calculated from figures extracted from the curve of the blood pressure changes. The relative rates of transference of adrenalin into the blood and from the circulation into the tissues can also be estimated. 4. When absorption takes place rapidly a large quantity of the drug comes into action at once and the maximum occurs early, the curve of blood pressure reaches a considerable height, and subsides quickly. When absorption is slow the apex appears later and does not reach so high a level. 5. The response to adrenalin bears a logarithmic relationship to the dose employed and a method of allowing for this is indicated. PMID:19868816

  11. Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.

    2014-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.

  12. Magnetic field control of the optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductor rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olendski, Oleg; Barakat, Thabit

    2014-03-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers m as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results which allow clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency, is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening. Authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group no RGP-VPP-217.

  13. Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings

    SciTech Connect

    Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.

    2014-02-28

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.

  14. Small quantum absorption refrigerator with reversed couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by "reversing" the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nanoscale thermal machines.

  15. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  16. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  17. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  18. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  19. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  20. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  1. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  2. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  3. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  4. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  5. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  6. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  7. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  8. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  9. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  10. Absorption bands in the spectrum of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Jones, T. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra of Io in the region from 2.8 to 4.2 microns are reported which show distinct absorption features, the most notable at 4.1 microns. Frozen volatiles or atmospheric gases cannot account for these absorptions, nor do they resemble those seen in common silicate rocks. Several candidate substances, most notably nitrate and carbonate salts, show absorption features in this spectral region; the deepest band in the spectrum may be a nitrate absorption. The satellite surface is shown to be anhydrous, as indicated by the absence of the 3-micron bound water band.

  11. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  12. Absorption of Solar Energy in the Atmosphere: Discrepancy Between Model and Observations

    PubMed

    Arking

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model, which assimilates data from daily observations of temperature, humidity, wind, and sea-level air pressure, was compared with a set of observations that combines satellite and ground-based measurements of solar flux. The comparison reveals that the model underestimates by 25 to 30 watts per square meter the amount of solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. Contrary to some recent reports, clouds have little or no overall effect on atmospheric absorption, a consistent feature of both the observations and the model. Of several variables considered, water vapor appears to be the dominant influence on atmospheric absorption. PMID:8670414

  13. Absorption of Solar Energy in the Atmosphere: Discrepancy Between Model and Observations

    PubMed

    Arking

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model, which assimilates data from daily observations of temperature, humidity, wind, and sea-level air pressure, was compared with a set of observations that combines satellite and ground-based measurements of solar flux. The comparison reveals that the model underestimates by 25 to 30 watts per square meter the amount of solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. Contrary to some recent reports, clouds have little or no overall effect on atmospheric absorption, a consistent feature of both the observations and the model. Of several variables considered, water vapor appears to be the dominant influence on atmospheric absorption.

  14. Percutaneous nitroglycerin absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Horhota, S T; Fung, H L

    1979-05-01

    Percutaneous nitroglycerin absorption was studied in shaved rats by monitoring unchanged plasma drug concentrations for up to 4 hr. Drug absorption from the neat liquid state or from an alcoholic solution was considerably poorer than that from a commercial ointment. This observation was unanticipated since the driving force for percutaneous drug absorption was assumed to be drug thermodynamics. Potential artifacts such as drug volatilization from the skin, reduction of surface area through droplet formation, and vehicle occlusion were investigated, but they did not appear to be responsible for the observed results. Two experimental aqueous nitroglycerin gels were prepared with polyethylene glycol 400. One gel contained just sufficient polyethylene glycol to solubilize the nitroglycerin; the other had excess polyethylene glycol to solubilize nitroglycerin far below saturation. Both gels gave extremely low plasma nitroglycerin levels. The composite data suggested that percutaneous nitroglycerin absorption is highly vehicle dependent and that this dependency cannot be explained by simple consideration of drug thermodynamic activity.

  15. Spectral Deception: Understanding Misleading Spectral Features Using Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton

    2016-01-01

    Quasar absorption line studies are our primary source of information for revealing the state of the intergalactic and circumgalacic media (IGM and CGM). Using quasars as bright background sources, tenuous intervening gas clouds imprint absorption features in the resulting spectra providing clues to the clouds' density, temperature, metallicity, and ionization state. Correctly interpreting these spectra is crucial to understanding the distribution of baryons in the universe.Using the Trident code to generate synthetic spectra from high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we examine how spectral noise, instrument smoothing, and certain configurations of gas can mask the true nature of gas absorbers. We demonstrate how cold gas filaments can create broad spectral features mimicking hot absorbers, and chimneys of hot gas viewed side-on appear as narrow, cold absorbers. Understanding how commonly these conditions occur is critical for correctly characterizing the physical conditions in the media galactic.

  16. 49 CFR 1103.4 - Initial appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial appearances. 1103.4 Section 1103.4... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS General Information § 1103.4 Initial appearances... behalf they appear at the time of making an initial appearance, in all proceedings. This requirement...

  17. 8 CFR 292.4 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances. 292.4 Section 292.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REPRESENTATION AND APPEARANCES § 292.4 Appearances. (a) An appearance shall be filed on the appropriate form by the attorney or...

  18. 34 CFR 101.11 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearance. 101.11 Section 101.11 Education Regulations... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 100 OF THIS TITLE Appearance and Practice § 101.11 Appearance. A party may appear in person or by counsel and participate fully in any proceeding. A...

  19. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305.10 Appearances. Any party may appear in person or by counsel or other representative. A partner...

  20. 46 CFR 502.21 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearance. 502.21 Section 502.21 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Commission § 502.21 Appearance. (a) Parties. A party may appear in person or by...

  1. 47 CFR 1.703 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances. 1.703 Section 1.703..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.703 Appearances. (a) Hearings. Except as otherwise... written statement indicating intent to appear need be filed in advance of actual appearance at any...

  2. 21 CFR 12.40 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearance. 12.40 Section 12.40 Food and Drugs... HEARING Appearance and Participation § 12.40 Appearance. (a) A person who has filed a notice of... person's appearance for violation of the rules of conduct in § 12.90....

  3. 45 CFR 81.11 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearance. 81.11 Section 81.11 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Appearance and Practice § 81.11 Appearance. A party may appear in person or...

  4. 16 CFR 1502.15 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance. 1502.15 Section 1502.15... PROCEDURES FOR FORMAL EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Appearance and Participation § 1502.15 Appearance. (a) A... issues. (b) The presiding officer may strike a person's appearance for violation of the...

  5. 38 CFR 18b.13 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearance. 18b.13... AND PROCEDURE UNDER TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND PART 18 OF THIS CHAPTER Appearance and Practice § 18b.13 Appearance. A party may appear in person or by counsel and participate fully...

  6. 39 CFR 957.14 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 957.14 Section 957.14 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.14 Appearances. (a) A Respondent may appear and be heard in person or by... the attorney. (d) All counsel shall promptly file notices of appearance. Changes of...

  7. 15 CFR 904.5 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances. 904.5 Section 904.5... § 904.5 Appearances. (a) A party may appear in person or by or with counsel or other representative. (b... forfeiture proceeding, that attorney or other representative shall file a Notice of Appearance with...

  8. 45 CFR 672.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances. 672.6 Section 672.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.6 Appearances. (a) Appearances. Any party may appear in person or by counsel or...

  9. 40 CFR 22.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 22.10 Section 22.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING... PERMITS Parties and Appearances § 22.10 Appearances. Any party may appear in person or by counsel or...

  10. Sound absorption in metallic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. J.; Hess, Audrey; Ashby, M. F.

    1999-06-01

    The sound absorption capacity of one type of aluminum alloy foams—trade name Alporas—is studied experimentally. The foam in its as-received cast form contains closed porosities, and hence does not absorb sound well. To make the foam more transparent to air motion, techniques based on either rolling or hole drilling are used. Under rolling, the faces of some of the cells break to form small sharp-edged cracks as observed from a scanning electronic microscope. These cracks become passage ways for the in-and-out movement of air particles, resulting in sound absorption improvement. The best performance is nevertheless achieved via hole drilling where nearly all of the sound can be absorbed at selected frequencies. Combining rolling with hole drilling does not appear to lend additional benefits for sound absorption. Image analysis is carried out to characterize the changes in cell morphologies due to rolling/compression, and the drop in elastic modulus due to the formation of cracks is recorded. The effects of varying the relative foam density and panel thickness on sound absorption are measured, and optimal relative density and thickness of the panel are identified. Analytical models are used to explain the measured increase in sound absorption due to rolling and/or drilling. Sound absorbed by viscous flow across small cracks appears to dominate over that dissipated via other mechanisms.

  11. Colour appearance descriptors for image browsing and retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Aniza; Martinez, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the development of whole-scene colour appearance descriptors for classification to be used in browsing applications. The descriptors can classify a whole-scene image into various categories of semantically-based colour appearance. Colour appearance is an important feature and has been extensively used in image-analysis, retrieval and classification. By using pre-existing global CIELAB colour histograms, firstly, we try to develop metrics for whole-scene colour appearance: "colour strength", "high/low lightness" and "multicoloured". Secondly we propose methods using these metrics either alone or combined to classify whole-scene images into five categories of appearance: strong, pastel, dark, pale and multicoloured. Experiments show positive results and that the global colour histogram is actually useful and can be used for whole-scene colour appearance classification. We have also conducted a small-scale human evaluation test on whole-scene colour appearance. The results show, with suitable threshold settings, the proposed methods can describe the whole-scene colour appearance of images close to human classification. The descriptors were tested on thousands of images from various scenes: paintings, natural scenes, objects, photographs and documents. The colour appearance classifications are being integrated into an image browsing system which allows them to also be used to refine browsing.

  12. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    PubMed

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  13. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... copy of the Notice of Appearance on the Service as required by 8 CFR 3.32(a). Such Notice of Appearance... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 1103.4 - Initial appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... behalf they appear at the time of making an initial appearance, in all proceedings. This requirement can... appropriate space on an application form; (b) Signing any complaint, petition, protest, reply or other... the proceeding must also be identified at the time of the initial appearance....

  15. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... copy of the Notice of Appearance on the Service as required by 8 CFR 3.32(a). Such Notice of Appearance... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a)...

  16. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... copy of the Notice of Appearance on the Service as required by 8 CFR 3.32(a). Such Notice of Appearance... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a)...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... copy of the Notice of Appearance on the Service as required by 8 CFR 3.32(a). Such Notice of Appearance... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a)...

  18. 8 CFR 1003.17 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... copy of the Notice of Appearance on the Service as required by 8 CFR 3.32(a). Such Notice of Appearance... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.17 Appearances. (a)...

  19. 8 CFR 244.8 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance. 244.8 Section 244.8 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.8 Appearance. The applicant may be required to appear in person before...

  20. 39 CFR 952.16 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 952.16 Section 952.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.16 Appearances. (a) A respondent may appear and be heard in person or...

  1. 36 CFR 1150.14 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearance. 1150.14 Section... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Parties, Complainants, Participants § 1150.14 Appearance.... (d) Withdrawal of appearance of any representative is effective when a written notice of...

  2. 47 CFR 1.26 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances. 1.26 Section 1.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure Parties, Practitioners, and Witnesses § 1.26 Appearances. Rules relating to appearances are...

  3. 40 CFR 179.45 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearance. 179.45 Section 179.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS FORMAL EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Participation and Appearance; Conduct § 179.45 Appearance. (a) A party to a hearing...

  4. 39 CFR 959.15 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 959.15 Section 959.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.15 Appearances. (a) A respondent may appear and be heard in person or by attorney. (b)...

  5. 39 CFR 963.5 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 963.5 Section 963.5 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.5 Appearances. (a) Petitioner. A petitioner may... entry of the attorney's appearance shall be mailed to the attorney. A petitioner must promptly...

  6. 14 CFR 302.21 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances. 302.21 Section 302.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL... Proceedings § 302.21 Appearances. (a) Any party to a proceeding may appear and be heard in person or by...

  7. Early appearance of hypokalemia in Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Fabiana; Bettinelli, Alberto; Cattarelli, Donatella; Cavazza, Alessandra; Colombo, Carla; Syrén, Marie-Louise; Tedeschi, Silvana; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2010-10-01

    Inactivating mutations in the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive co-transporter causes Gitelman syndrome. The main features of this syndrome include normal or low blood pressure, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and hyperreninemia. These patients are at low risk for preterm birth and do not present with symptoms before school age. As a consequence, the condition is usually diagnosed in late childhood or in adult life. We report on four patients, two pairs of prematurely born twins, in whom hypokalemia was demonstrated early in life. In these children, a tendency towards hypokalemia was first noted during the third week of life. Overt hypokalemia subsequently appeared associated with normal blood pressure, hypochloremia, hyperreninemia, and an inappropriately high fractional excretion of potassium and chloride. Molecular biology studies failed to detect mutations in the SLC12A1, KCNJ1, and CLCNKB genes responsible for the Bartter syndromes type I, II and III, respectively. Compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC12A3 gene were detected in both pairs of twins: a frameshift mutation in exon 10 (c.1196_1202dup7bp), leading to the truncated protein p.Ser402X, and a missense mutation in exon 11, p.Ser475Cys (c.1424C>G) in the first pair; two missense mutations, p.Thr392Ile (c.1175C>T) in exon 9 and p.Ser615Leu in exon 15 (c.1844C>T), in the second pair. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome deserves consideration in infants with unexplained hypokalemia. PMID:20552229

  8. Automated Volumetric Breast Density derived by Shape and Appearance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-22

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r(2) = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  9. Automated volumetric breast density derived by shape and appearance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r2 = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  10. Automated Volumetric Breast Density derived by Shape and Appearance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-22

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r(2) = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted. PMID:25083119

  11. Onychomatricoma with misleading features.

    PubMed

    Fayol, J; Baran, R; Perrin, C; Labrousse, F

    2000-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumour of the nail matrix with peculiar clinical and histological features and electron microscopic findings. We report on 5 cases with appearances which were misleading. Three presented as longitudinal melanonychia, a previously unreported observation. One case had the appearance of a cutaneous horn. In 3 of the 5 cases the tumour was associated with an onychomycosis and this may thus have been a predisposing factor in the secondary fungal infestation. Onychomatricoma appears as a multi-faceted tumour which can be mimicked by longitudinal melanonychia and/or onychomycosis. PMID:11200837

  12. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  13. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  14. The Cost of Keeping Up Appearances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This issue focuses on the costs of keeping up appearances by landscaping the environment. Although insects can be a threat to plant health, much of the injury they cause will only threaten plant appearance. The study comes from a survey of two groups, landscape specialists and homeowners, who were asked to identify which plants in a photograph…

  15. 47 CFR 1.703 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... written statement to that effect setting forth the reasons for his interest in the matter. The Commission... written statement indicating intent to appear need be filed in advance of actual appearance at any hearing..., any party who wishes to participate in the oral argument shall file a written statement...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission online as a Principal Account Holder, or signs a paper filed with the Commission, his/her personal appearance, online submission, or signature, shall constitute a representation to the Commission that he/she... appearing before or transacting business with the Commission in a representative capacity may be required...

  17. 41 CFR 60-30.16 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances. 60-30.16 Section 60-30.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.16 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties or...

  18. 41 CFR 60-30.16 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances. 60-30.16 Section 60-30.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.16 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties or...

  19. 41 CFR 60-30.16 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Appearances. 60-30.16 Section 60-30.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.16 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties or...

  20. 41 CFR 60-30.16 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Appearances. 60-30.16 Section 60-30.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.16 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties or...

  1. 41 CFR 60-30.16 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearances. 60-30.16 Section 60-30.16 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.16 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties or...

  2. 39 CFR 953.7 - Default; Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default; Appearances. 953.7 Section 953.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.7 Default; Appearances. If a timely reply to the appeal is not filed, the presiding officer...

  3. 14 CFR 13.33 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances. 13.33 Section 13.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.33 Appearances. Any party to...

  4. 29 CFR 6.7 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearances. 6.7 Section 6.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS ENFORCING LABOR STANDARDS IN FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 6.7 Appearances....

  5. 39 CFR 954.13 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 954.13 Section 954.13 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.13 Appearances. (a) The General Counsel of...

  6. 29 CFR 301.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 301.8 Section 301.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL RAILROAD ADJUSTMENT BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 301.8 Appearances. Parties may be heard either in person, by counsel, or by other representatives, as they may respectively elect....

  7. 29 CFR 417.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 417.8 Section 417.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... and Bylaws for Removal of Officers of Local Labor Organizations § 417.8 Appearances. The Department...

  8. 29 CFR 1921.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 1921.10 Section 1921.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED...' COMPENSATION ACT Hearing and Related Matters § 1921.10 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties may...

  9. 8 CFR 1244.8 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance. 1244.8 Section 1244.8 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.8 Appearance. The applicant may...

  10. Ultrasonographic appearance of orthotopic ureterocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, M; Yasuda, J; Ochiai, K; Morita, Y; Hashimoto, A

    1997-01-01

    A three-year-old, intact male, Siberian husky was evaluated for a two day history of dysuria. Sonographically there was an anechoic cyst-like structure in the urinary bladder. The abnormality appeared to be a 'cyst within a cyst', which is a characteristic ultrasonographic feature of ureterocele in humans. Ultrasonography may be a useful means of establishing a diagnosis of ureterocele in dogs.

  11. Combining facial dynamics with appearance for age estimation.

    PubMed

    Dibeklioglu, Hamdi; Alnajar, Fares; Ali Salah, Albert; Gevers, Theo

    2015-06-01

    Estimating the age of a human from the captured images of his/her face is a challenging problem. In general, the existing approaches to this problem use appearance features only. In this paper, we show that in addition to appearance information, facial dynamics can be leveraged in age estimation. We propose a method to extract and use dynamic features for age estimation, using a person's smile. Our approach is tested on a large, gender-balanced database with 400 subjects, with an age range between 8 and 76. In addition, we introduce a new database on posed disgust expressions with 324 subjects in the same age range, and evaluate the reliability of the proposed approach when used with another expression. State-of-the-art appearance-based age estimation methods from the literature are implemented as baseline. We demonstrate that for each of these methods, the addition of the proposed dynamic features results in statistically significant improvement. We further propose a novel hierarchical age estimation architecture based on adaptive age grouping. We test our approach extensively, including an exploration of spontaneous versus posed smile dynamics, and gender-specific age estimation. We show that using spontaneity information reduces the mean absolute error by up to 21%, advancing the state of the art for facial age estimation. PMID:25781877

  12. 48 CFR 6101.5 - Appearances; notice of appearance [Rule 5].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances; notice of appearance . 6101.5 Section 6101.5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.5 Appearances; notice of appearance ....

  13. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1absorption (FW20) lies in the range 63 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1

  14. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appearing before or transacting business with the Commission in a representative capacity may be required by... before the Commission shall conform to the standards of ethical conduct required of practitioners in...

  15. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appearing before or transacting business with the Commission in a representative capacity may be required by... before the Commission shall conform to the standards of ethical conduct required of practitioners in...

  16. INTERSTELLAR SILICATE DUST IN FIVE QUASAR ABSORPTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Som, Debopam; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    We report on a study of interstellar silicate dust in five quasar absorption systems at 0.44 < z{sub abs} < 1.31 toward quasars Q0235+164, 3C196, Q0852+3435, Q0937+5628, and Q1203+0634, using data from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the absorbers toward Q0235+164, 3C196, Q0852+3435, and Q0937+5628, the 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature is detected in absorption at {approx}5{sigma}-10{sigma} significance, with rest-frame equivalent widths of {approx}0.2-0.5 {mu}m. For Q1203+0634, the noisy data allow us to make only a 3.6{sigma} detection of absorption at 10 {mu}m. Fits to the redshifted 9.7 {mu}m features with four possible template profiles indicate that the laboratory amorphous olivine profile generally provides the best fit, with inferred peak optical depths of {tau}{sub 9.7} {approx} 0.08-0.18. For three of the quasars with optical spectra available from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Large Magellanic Cloud supershell extinction curve provides the best formal fits, with E(B - V) of 0.34-0.54 mag. A 2175 A extinction bump at the absorber redshift (known to exist in Q0235+164) appears to be present at >2.8{sigma} level in Q0852+3435, >2.5{sigma} level in Q1203+0634, and marginally at nearly 2{sigma} level in Q0937+5628. We briefly explore possible correlations between {tau}{sub 9.7} and the color excess, the strength of the 2175 A bump, and the metallicity (which appears to be relatively high for these absorbers, in the range of {approx}>0.1 solar to supersolar). While our measurements are consistent with a linear relation between {tau}{sub 9.7} and E(B - V), the {tau}{sub 9.7}/E(B - V) ratios for these quasar absorbers appear to be higher than those for diffuse interstellar clouds in the Milky Way, closer to values observed for the Galactic center. Some of these quasar sightlines may trace regions in the bulges of the galaxies responsible for the absorption systems.

  17. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  18. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  19. The appearance culture between friends and adolescent appearance-based rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS) is the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to signs of rejection based on one's appearance, and is associated with a number of psychological and social problems (Park, 2007). This study of 380 adolescents (Mage = 13.84) examined a model linking the appearance culture between friends with appearance-RS in adolescent boys and girls, via internalisation of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. Gender differences were also tested. Consistent with expectations, appearance-focused characteristics of the friendship context were associated with heightened appearance-RS via internalization of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. The appearance-focused friend characteristics that were associated with appearance-RS included exposure to friends' appearance conversations, appearance teasing that caused distress, and perceived pressure to be attractive. Notably, associations rarely differed for boys and girls, with one exception: the association between BMI and body dissatisfaction was stronger in girls than in boys.

  20. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  1. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-21

    This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

  2. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits. PMID:19762717

  3. Dust in MG II Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    The dust absorption feature at 2175 AA is detected in a composite spectrum of Mg II absorbers. The composite absorber spectrum is obtained by taking the geometric mean of 92 quasar spectra after aligning them in the rest-frame of 96 absorbers. By aligning the spectra according to absorber redshifts we reinforce the spectral features of the absorbers, and smooth over possible bumps and wiggles in the emission spectra. The width of the observed absorption feature is 200-300 AA (FWHM), or 0.4-0.6 microns^{-1} and the central wavelength is 2240 AA. The Galactic dust feature has a central wavelength of 2176 AA and FWHM = 0.8-1.25 microns^{-1}. Simulations show that this discrepancy between the properties of the 2175 AA feature in Mg II absorbers and Galactic ISM can be mostly explained by the different methods used to measure them (cf. Malhotra 1997).

  4. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    PubMed

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  5. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    PubMed Central

    McCann, John J.; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  6. Young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals: The prospective role of appearance investment.

    PubMed

    Kling, Johanna; Rodgers, Rachel F; Frisén, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Appearance investment has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction. Despite this, few studies have explored men's investment in their appearance. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine appearance investment as a prospective predictor of young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals. A community sample of 187 young men participated in a study at ages 21 and 24. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that appearance investment, as hypothesized, was a prospective predictor of increases in leanness orientation, media-ideal internalization, and muscularity behaviors. However, appearance investment did not predict increases in muscularity dissatisfaction. The present findings highlight the importance of including appearance investment in sociocultural models of the development of men's body image, and suggest that appearance investment may be an important target variable to consider when designing body dissatisfaction prevention and intervention programs tailored to young men. PMID:26523688

  7. Young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals: The prospective role of appearance investment.

    PubMed

    Kling, Johanna; Rodgers, Rachel F; Frisén, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Appearance investment has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction. Despite this, few studies have explored men's investment in their appearance. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine appearance investment as a prospective predictor of young men's endorsement and pursuit of appearance ideals. A community sample of 187 young men participated in a study at ages 21 and 24. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that appearance investment, as hypothesized, was a prospective predictor of increases in leanness orientation, media-ideal internalization, and muscularity behaviors. However, appearance investment did not predict increases in muscularity dissatisfaction. The present findings highlight the importance of including appearance investment in sociocultural models of the development of men's body image, and suggest that appearance investment may be an important target variable to consider when designing body dissatisfaction prevention and intervention programs tailored to young men.

  8. Coherent Absorption of N00N States.

    PubMed

    Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:27447505

  9. Coherent Absorption of N00N States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging.

  10. Personality of social robots perceived through the appearance.

    PubMed

    Chee, Benedict Tay Tiong; Taezoon, Park; Xu, Qianli; Ng, Jamie; Tan, Odelia

    2012-01-01

    Past research showed that people are able to perceive the personality of others at zero acquaintances. There are two main ways, verbal and non-verbal methods, which play an important role for one in perceiving personality of others. Extensive research was conducted in relating personality with verbal, paralinguistic and gestures cues. However, there are not much research, to our knowledge, that relates the appearance and perceived personality of robots. The main objective of this research is to relate individual design features with big five perceived personality of the robots. We used the results of rated perceptions across 100 pictorial images of robots and relate the results with the 40 individual design features using General Linear Model (GLM). The initial results of the GLM analysis showed that participants' rating of personality of robot fell along the dimension of perceived friendliness which is a common rotation of extroversion and agreeableness. Some relationships were found between humanlike design features and perceived friendliness of robots. Since participants are more familiar with humans, participants perceived robots with humanlike features friendlier than the others. Some other findings such as color and surface material were found related with participants' perceived friendliness as well. In the future, we will work on the analysis of the main and interaction effects of individual features on user's perceived friendliness.

  11. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  12. Appearance of breast cysts in planar geometry photoacoustic mammography using 1064-nm excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; Maartens, Erik; Huisman, Erik J. J.; van den Engh, Frank M.; Klaase, Joost M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-12-01

    In the search for improved imaging modalities for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, a high negative prediction value is also important. Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging is a relatively new technique that has high potential for visualizing breast malignancies, but little is known about the photoacoustic appearance of benign lesions. In this work, we investigate the visibility of benign breast cysts in forward-mode photoacoustic mammography using 1064-nm light, as currently applied in the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope. Results from (Monte Carlo and k-wave) simulations and phantom measurements were used to interpret results from patient measurements. There was a strong agreement among the results from simulations, phantom, and patient measurements. Depending on the absorption contrast between cyst and breast tissue, cysts were visible as either one or two confined high-contrast areas representing the front and the back of the cyst, respectively. This edge enhancement is most likely the consequence of the local sudden change in the absorbed energy density and Grüneisen coefficients. Although the current forward-mode single-wavelength photoacoustic mammoscope cannot always unambiguously discriminate cysts from malignancies, this study reveals specific features of cysts compared to malignancies, which can be exploited for discrimination of the two abnormalities in future modifications of the imager.

  13. 45 CFR 672.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appearances. 672.6 Section 672.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING... intervene, making specific reference to the factors set forth in the foregoing sentence and paragraph (c)...

  14. 45 CFR 672.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appearances. 672.6 Section 672.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING... section, a statement of good cause for the failure to file in a timely manner. Agreements,...

  15. 8 CFR 1292.4 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearances. 1292.4 Section 1292.4 Aliens... otherwise provided in § 103.2(b) of 8 CFR chapter I, a party to a proceeding or his attorney or... with § 103.10 of 8 CFR chapter I, obtain copies of Service records or information therefrom and...

  16. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  17. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  18. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  19. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  20. 40 CFR 164.30 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances. 164.30 Section 164.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  1. 16 CFR 4.1 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.1 Appearances. (a) Qualifications—(1) Attorneys. (i) U.S.-admitted. Members of the bar of a Federal court or of... existence of an important Federal interest. See 5 CFR 2637.201(c)(4). For example, where a former...

  2. 16 CFR 4.1 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.1 Appearances. (a) Qualifications—(1) Attorneys—(i) U.S.-admitted. Members of the bar of a Federal court or of... existence of an important Federal interest. See 5 CFR 2637.201(c)(4). For example, where a former...

  3. Neurofibromatosis types I and II: radiological appearance.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, C A; Cavallin, L I

    1998-02-01

    The neurocutaneous disorders frequently involve the central nervous system. This, the first in a pair of articles which describe and illustrate the radiological appearances of the central nervous system manifestations of the most common neurocutaneous disorders, looks at neurofibromatosis types I and II.

  4. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  5. 7 CFR 15.65 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance. 15.65 Section 15.65 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION Rules of Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 General Information § 15.65...

  6. 29 CFR 417.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances. 417.8 Section 417.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of...

  7. 29 CFR 417.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances. 417.8 Section 417.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of...

  8. 29 CFR 417.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances. 417.8 Section 417.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of...

  9. 29 CFR 417.8 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances. 417.8 Section 417.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine Adequacy of...

  10. On the Ammonia Absorption on Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; Karimov, A. M.; Lyssenko, P. G.; Kharitonova, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    The ammonia absorption bands centered at wavelengths of 645 and 787 nm in the visible spectrum of Saturn are very weak and overlapped with more strong absorption bands of methane. Therefore, the allocation of these bands is extremely difficult. In fact, the NH3 band 787 nm is completely masked by methane. The NH3 645 nm absorption band is superimposed on a relatively weak shortwave wing of CH4 band, in which the absorption maximum lies at the wavelength of 667 nm. In 2009, during the equinox on Saturn we have obtained the series of zonal spectrograms by scanning of the planet disk from the southern to the northern polar limb. Besides studies of latitudinal variation of the methane absorption bands we have done an attempt to trace the behavior of the absorption of ammonia in the band 645 nm. Simple selection of the pure NH3 profile of the band was not very reliable. Therefore, after normalizing to the ring spectrum and to the level of the continuous spectrum for entire band ranging from 630 to 680 nm in the equivalent widths were calculated for shortwave part of this band (630-652 nm), where the ammonia absorption is present, and a portion of the band CH4 652-680 nm. In any method of eliminating the weak part of the methane uptake in the short wing show an increased ammonia absorption in the northern hemisphere compared to the south. This same feature is observed also in the behavior of weak absorption bands of methane in contrast to the more powerful, such as CH4 725 and 787 nm. This is due to the conditions of absorption bands formation in the clouds at multiple scattering. Weak absorption bands of methane and ammonia are formed on the large effective optical depths and their behavior reflects the differences in the degree of uniformity of the aerosol component of the atmosphere of Saturn.

  11. Optimal Appearance Model for Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuru; Jiang, Longkui; Liu, Qiaoyuan; Yin, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    Many studies argue that integrating multiple cues in an adaptive way increases tracking performance. However, what is the definition of adaptiveness and how to realize it remains an open issue. On the premise that the model with optimal discriminative ability is also optimal for tracking the target, this work realizes adaptiveness and robustness through the optimization of multi-cue integration models. Specifically, based on prior knowledge and current observation, a set of discrete samples are generated to approximate the foreground and background distribution. With the goal of optimizing the classification margin, an objective function is defined, and the appearance model is optimized by introducing optimization algorithms. The proposed optimized appearance model framework is embedded into a particle filter for a field test, and it is demonstrated to be robust against various kinds of complex tracking conditions. This model is general and can be easily extended to other parameterized multi-cue models. PMID:26789639

  12. FAME--a flexible appearance modeling environment.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, Mikkel B; Ersbøll, Bjarne K; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-10-01

    Combined modeling of pixel intensities and shape has proven to be a very robust and widely applicable approach to interpret images. As such the active appearance model (AAM) framework has been applied to a wide variety of problems within medical image analysis. This paper summarizes AAM applications within medicine and describes a public domain implementation, namely the flexible appearance modeling environment (FAME). We give guidelines for the use of this research platform, and show that the optimization techniques used renders it applicable to interactive medical applications. To increase performance and make models generalize better, we apply parallel analysis to obtain automatic and objective model truncation. Further, two different AAM training methods are compared along with a reference case study carried out on cross-sectional short-axis cardiac magnetic resonance images and face images. Source code and annotated data sets needed to reproduce the results are put in the public domain for further investigation.

  13. Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    1999-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  14. Optimal Appearance Model for Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuru; Jiang, Longkui; Liu, Qiaoyuan; Yin, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    Many studies argue that integrating multiple cues in an adaptive way increases tracking performance. However, what is the definition of adaptiveness and how to realize it remains an open issue. On the premise that the model with optimal discriminative ability is also optimal for tracking the target, this work realizes adaptiveness and robustness through the optimization of multi-cue integration models. Specifically, based on prior knowledge and current observation, a set of discrete samples are generated to approximate the foreground and background distribution. With the goal of optimizing the classification margin, an objective function is defined, and the appearance model is optimized by introducing optimization algorithms. The proposed optimized appearance model framework is embedded into a particle filter for a field test, and it is demonstrated to be robust against various kinds of complex tracking conditions. This model is general and can be easily extended to other parameterized multi-cue models.

  15. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  16. Laser modulation of optical absorption in ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The possibility of producing and detecting laser induced modulation of absorption (LIMA) in ZnSe crystals using a moderate laser intensity of about 6 mw output was investigated. The modulation is smaller than that previously obtained with higher laser photon flux, but is not too difficult to detect. Modulation of the order of a few parts in 10 to the 5th power, up to one part in 10 to the 4th power appears typical at the present. LIMA pulse shapes were recorded with varying system resolutions at a half dozen wavelengths in the visible, from 4800 A to 6000 A. Detailed data were taken, particularly at 5000 A, for a range of time intervals following laser pulse turn-on. Quantitative study of the excitation and decay kinetics of these is underway, though analysis is not complete. Major features are discussed with attention centered upon the detailed measurements made most recently at 5000 A.

  17. Adrenal hemangioma: computed tomogram and angiogram appearances.

    PubMed

    Wang, J H; Chiang, J H; Chang, T

    1992-08-01

    Adrenal hemangiomas are rare. To our knowledge, about 22 cases have been reported in the literature, of which 13 cases were surgically removed. We report probably the first case of CT and angiographically diagnosed and surgically confirmed adrenal hemangioma in Taiwan. We concluded that characteristic appearances on computed tomogram and angiogram associated with phlebolith-like calcification in the tumor may allow the radiologists to make correct preoperative diagnosis. PMID:1327475

  18. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  19. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    PubMed

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  20. Monitoring Emergent Absorption Troughs in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Patrick; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola; Brandt, W. Niel; Rogerson, Jesse; Filiz Ak, Nur; Chajet, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Outflows from luminous AGN are important ingredients in galaxy formation. These outflows manifest as broad absorption line (BAL) troughs in quasar spectra. Trough variability can be used to constrain the physical parameters of these absorbing structures through comparison to models and simulations of accretion disk winds. Monitoring appearing/disappearing BAL troughs can constrain the distribution of BAL trough lifetimes along our line of sight. By comparing spectra from the SDSS Data Release (DR) 7 and DR 9, we identified 68 quasars in whose spectra new absorption troughs have appeared over 300-1200 restframe days, including one trough outflowing at v=60,000 km/s. We propose to complete our third-epoch GMOS spectroscopy of the brightest of those quasars (48 in 2013AB and 9 proposed here) to measure the absorption strength in newly appeared troughs <=365 restframe days after their previous measurement. Preliminary 2013AB results indicate that troughs are not on average still strengthening between SDSS and Gemini epochs; we therefore propose observations of 40 targets to probe shorter rest-frame time separations. We also target 8 objects showing simultaneous absorption variations in multiple ionization states, to help develop methods to distinguish absorption variations from cloud motion vs. those from ionization changes within clouds.

  1. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line.

  2. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line. PMID:25910116

  3. Globally, unrelated protein sequences appear random

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Daniel T.; Pearson, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: To test whether protein folding constraints and secondary structure sequence preferences significantly reduce the space of amino acid words in proteins, we compared the frequencies of four- and five-amino acid word clumps (independent words) in proteins to the frequencies predicted by four random sequence models. Results: While the human proteome has many overrepresented word clumps, these words come from large protein families with biased compositions (e.g. Zn-fingers). In contrast, in a non-redundant sample of Pfam-AB, only 1% of four-amino acid word clumps (4.7% of 5mer words) are 2-fold overrepresented compared with our simplest random model [MC(0)], and 0.1% (4mers) to 0.5% (5mers) are 2-fold overrepresented compared with a window-shuffled random model. Using a false discovery rate q-value analysis, the number of exceptional four- or five-letter words in real proteins is similar to the number found when comparing words from one random model to another. Consensus overrepresented words are not enriched in conserved regions of proteins, but four-letter words are enriched 1.18- to 1.56-fold in α-helical secondary structures (but not β-strands). Five-residue consensus exceptional words are enriched for α-helix 1.43- to 1.61-fold. Protein word preferences in regular secondary structure do not appear to significantly restrict the use of sequence words in unrelated proteins, although the consensus exceptional words have a secondary structure bias for α-helix. Globally, words in protein sequences appear to be under very few constraints; for the most part, they appear to be random. Contact: wrp@virginia.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19948773

  4. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2010-11-01

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a ~ 1.

  5. Porcelain gallbladder: ultrasound and CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.A.; Jacobs, R.; Katz, J.; Costello, P.

    1984-07-01

    Nine patients with calcification of the gallbladder wall (porcelain gallbladder) were analyzed by ultrasound and the appearance correlated with the CT, radiographic, clinical, and surgical findings. Three distinct patterns were identified: (a) a hyperechoic similunar structure with acoustic shadowing posteriorly, simulating a stone-filled gallbladder devoid of bile, which was seen in 5 patients; (b) a biconvex, curvilinear echogenic structure with variable acoustic shadowing, seen in all 3 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder; and (c) an irregular clump of echoes with posterior acoustic shadowing, seen in 1 patient. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of gallbladder calcification are presented, and the association between calcification and cancer is emphasized.

  6. Appearance, cosmetics, and body art in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    2000-10-01

    Appearance in adolescents is a means of communication, a language expressing self identity. Teenagers explore fashions to make personal statements. Teenagers are significant consumers of various toiletry and skin care products that fill their cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective needs. They also are enthusiastic consumers of products aimed at adolescent fads, such as decorative hair and nail cosmetics. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is achieved through body art, such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  7. Omental cakes: unusual aetiologies and CT appearances.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Mark Daniel; Vansonnenberg, Eric; Shankar, Sridhar; Silverman, Stuart G

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Omental cakes typically are associated with ovarian carcinoma, as this is the most common malignant aetiology. Nonetheless, numerous other neoplasms, as well as infectious and benign processes, can produce omental cakes. METHODS: A broader knowledge of the various causes of omental cakes is valuable diagnostically and to direct appropriate clinical management. RESULTS: We present a spectrum of both common and unusual aetiologies that demonstrate the variable computed tomographic appearances of omental cakes. CONCLUSION: The anatomy and embryology are discussed, as well as the importance of biopsy when the aetiology of omental cakes is uncertain.

  8. First detection of ionized helium absorption lines in infrared K band spectra of O-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Block, David L.; Geballe, T. R.; Hanson, Margaret M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained high SNR, moderate-resolution K band spectra of two early O-type main sequence stars, HD 46150 O5 V, and HD 46223 O4 V, in the Rosette Nebula. We report the detection, for the first time, of the 2.189 micron He II line in O-type stars. Also detected is the 2.1661 micron Br-gamma line in absorption. The 2.058 micron He I line appears to be present in absorption in both stars, although its appearance at our resolution is complicated by atmospheric features. These three lines can form the basis for a spectral classification system for hot stars in the K band that may be used at infrared wavelengths to elucidate the nature of those luminous stars in otherwise obscured H II and giant H II regions.

  9. Rapid material appearance acquisition using consumer hardware.

    PubMed

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2014-01-01

    A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF) capturing a material's appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited. PMID:25340451

  10. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2014-01-01

    A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF) capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited. PMID:25340451

  11. Enhanced tau neutrino appearance through invisible decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, Giulia; Di Marco, Natalia; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The decay of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to a change of the conversion and survival probability of neutrino flavor eigenstates. Exploiting the recent results released by the long-baseline OPERA experiment we perform the statistical investigation of the neutrino invisible decay hypothesis in the νμ→ντ appearance channel. We find that the neutrino decay provides an enhancement of the expected tau appearance signal with respect to the standard oscillation scenario for the long-baseline OPERA experiment. The increase of the νμ→ντ conversion probability by the decay of one of the mass eigenstates is due to a reduction of the "destructive interference" among the different massive neutrino components. Despite data showing a very mild preference for invisible decays with respect to the oscillations only hypothesis, we provide an upper limit for the neutrino decay lifetime in this channel of τ3/m3≳1.3 ×10-13 s /eV at the 90% confidence level.

  12. Anisotropic materials appearance analysis using ellipsoidal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír.

    2015-03-01

    Many real-world materials exhibit significant changes in appearance when rotated along a surface normal. The presence of this behavior is often referred to as visual anisotropy. Anisotropic appearance of spatially homogeneous materials is commonly characterized by a four-dimensional BRDF. Unfortunately, due to simplicity most past research has been devoted to three dimensional isotropic BRDFs. In this paper, we introduce an innovative, fast, and inexpensive image-based approach to detect the extent of anisotropy, its main axes and width of corresponding anisotropic highlights. The method does not rely on any moving parts and uses only an off-the-shelf ellipsoidal reflector with a compact camera. We analyze our findings with a material microgeometry scan, and present how results correspond to the microstructure of individual threads in a particular fabric. We show that knowledge of a material's anisotropic behavior can be effectively used in order to design a material-dependent sampling pattern so as the material's BRDF could be measured much more precisely in the same amount of time using a common gonioreflectometer.

  13. Flux appearance and disappearance rates in the solar internetwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosic, Milan; Bellot Rubio, Luis; Del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos; Orozco Suarez, David; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The solar internetwork contains weak and highly dynamic magnetic fields that are essential to understanding the solar magnetism at small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, it is important to determine how these fields are maintained on the solar surface. Using unique Hinode observations, we follow the evolution of individual magnetic elements in the interior of two supergranular cells at the disk center. From up to 38 hr of continuous measurements, we show that magnetic flux appears in internetwork regions at a rate of 120±3 Mx cm-2 day-1 (3.7±0.4 × 1024 Mx day-1 over the entire solar surface). Flux disappears from the internetwork at a rate of 125±6 Mx cm-2 day-1 (3.9±0.5 × 1024 Mx day-1) through fading of magnetic elements, cancellation between opposite-polarity features, and interactions with network patches, which converts internetwork elements into network features. The removal of flux from supergranules occurs mainly through fading and interactions with network, at nearly the same rate of about 50 Mx cm-2 day-1. Our results demonstrate that the sources and sinks of internetwork magnetic flux are well balanced, reflecting the steady-state nature of the quiet Sun. Using the instantaneous flux appearance and disappearance rates, we successfully reproduce, for the first time, the temporal evolution of the total unsigned flux in the interior of supergranular cells.

  14. Image feature localization by multiple hypothesis testing of Gabor features.

    PubMed

    Ilonen, Jarmo; Kamarainen, Joni-Kristian; Paalanen, Pekka; Hamouz, Miroslav; Kittler, Josef; Kälviäinen, Heikki

    2008-03-01

    Several novel and particularly successful object and object category detection and recognition methods based on image features, local descriptions of object appearance, have recently been proposed. The methods are based on a localization of image features and a spatial constellation search over the localized features. The accuracy and reliability of the methods depend on the success of both tasks: image feature localization and spatial constellation model search. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm for image feature localization. The method is based on complex-valued multi resolution Gabor features and their ranking using multiple hypothesis testing. The algorithm provides very accurate local image features over arbitrary scale and rotation. We discuss in detail issues such as selection of filter parameters, confidence measure, and the magnitude versus complex representation, and show on a large test sample how these influence the performance. The versatility and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on two profoundly different challenging problems (faces and license plates).

  15. Imaging electronic trap states in perovskite thin films with combined fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-22

    Charge carrier trapping degrades the performance of organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. To characterize the locations of electronic trap states in a heterogeneous photoactive layer, a spatially resolved approach is essential. Here, we report a comparative study on methylammonium lead tri-iodide perovskite thin films subject to different thermal annealing times using a combined photoluminescence (PL) and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) approach to spatially map trap states. This approach coregisters the initially populated electronic excited states with the regions that recombine radiatively. Although the TAM images are relatively homogeneous for both samples, the corresponding PL images are highly structured. Themore » remarkable variation in the PL intensities as compared to transient absorption signal amplitude suggests spatially dependent PL quantum efficiency, indicative of trapping events. Furthermore, detailed analysis enables identification of two trapping regimes: a densely packed trapping region and a sparse trapping area that appear as unique spatial features in scaled PL maps.« less

  16. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  17. Search for Electron Neutrino Appearance in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Orchanian, Mhair; /Caltech

    2011-09-01

    The MINOS Collaboration continues its search for {nu}{sub e} appearance in the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam at Fermilab. Neutrinos in the beam interact in the Near Detector, located 1 km from the beam source, allowing us to characterize the backgrounds present in our analysis. In particular, we can estimate the number of {nu}{sub e} candidate events we expect to see in the Far Detector (735 km away, in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota) in the presence or absence of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillation. Recent efforts to improve the sensitivity of the analysis, including upgrades to the event identification algorithm and fitting procedure, are discussed, and the latest results from the search are presented.

  18. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life.

  19. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT.

  20. Modelling the appearance of heritage metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L.; Hindmarch, J.; Robson, S.; Terras, M.

    2014-06-01

    Polished metallic surfaces exhibit a high degree of specularity, which makes them difficult to reproduce accurately. We have applied two different techniques for modelling a heritage object known as the Islamic handbag. Photogrammetric multi-view stereo enabled a dense point cloud to be extracted from a set of photographs with calibration targets, and a geometrically accurate 3D model produced. A new method based on photometric stereo from a set of images taken in an illumination dome enabled surface normals to be generated for each face of the object and its appearance to be rendered, to a high degree of visual realism, when illuminated by one or more light sources from any angles. The specularity of the reflection from the metal surface was modelled by a modified Lorentzian function.

  1. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    PubMed

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone.

  2. Career Appearance Education for Women Who Aspired to White-Collar Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Eleanor A.; Anselmo, Deborah C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to develop and test the effectiveness of a business college teaching unit designed to provide career appearance education for black and white females from working class families. (The unit covered six conceptual areas of career appearance: First impressions, work roles, total look, clothing features, grooming, and…

  3. Appearance questions can be misleading: a discourse-based account of the appearance-reality problem.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mikkel B; Markman, Ellen M

    2005-05-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 412 years of age fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about likely reality. Study 1 analyzed everyday conversations from the CHILDES database and documented that 2 and 3-year-olds are familiar with these two different uses of the locution. To disambiguate the meaning of "looks like," Study 2 clarified that reality was shared knowledge as part of the appearance question, e.g., "What does the sponge look like?" Study 3 used a non-linguistic measure to emphasize the shared knowledge of the reality in the appearance question. Study 4 asked children on their own to articulate the contrast between appearance and reality. At 91%, 85%, and 81% correct responses, children were at near ceiling levels in each of our manipulations while they failed the standard versions of the tasks. Moreover, we show how this discourse-based explanation accounts for findings in the literature. Thus children master the appearance-reality distinction by the age of 3 but the standard task masks this understanding because of the discourse structure involved in talking about appearances. PMID:15826611

  4. Bicarbonate secretion and solute absorption in forestomach of the llama.

    PubMed

    Rübsamen, K; Engelhardt, W V

    1978-07-01

    Bicarbonate appearance in the lumen and its relationship to solute absorption were studied in a Pavlov pouch in the cardiac region of the first compartment of the llama forestomach. HCO3- appearance showed no diurnal variation. HCO3- accumulation was highly dependent on the pH of the solution used. The HCO3- ion probably is formed from CO2 diffusing into the lumen from the serosal side, as a result of cell metabolism and of OH- ions. HCO3- accumulation was closely related to volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption. The ratio of HCO3- appearance to VFA absorption depended on the pH of the solution. At a pH of 6.6, about 0.1 mol HCO3- and, at a pH of 7.8, 0.9 mol HCO3- appeared per mole absorbed VFA, indicating that at slightly alkaline pH nearly all H+ ions required for the nonionic absorption of VFA appeared to be delivered from the dissociation of H2CO3. Bicarbonate gain and VFA absorption were increased when animals were not fed for 48 h. Sodium absorption was related to VFA as well as water absorption. PMID:677305

  5. Implications of high-velocity interstellar H I absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L.; York, D. G.; Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to the interstellar H I column density at high velocities from immediate postshock gas and from the cooling gas behind a shock are compared. The detection of high-velocity H I in L-epsilon and L-delta for Iota Ori is reported and interpreted as cooling gas behind a shock of 100 km/s velocity. The immediate postshock gas should be observable for shock velocities greater than 200 km/s and permits direct determination of the velocities of adiabatic shocks in the interstellar medium. It is pointed out that interstellar L-alpha and L-beta lines may not have purely Lorentzian profiles if high-velocity H I is a widespread phenomenon.

  6. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  7. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  8. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  9. Residential Radon Appears to Prevent Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2011-01-01

    Residential radon has been found to be associated with lung cancer in epidemiological/ecological studies and the researchers have inappropriately concluded that residential radon causes lung cancer. Their conclusion relates to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis-based, risk-assessment paradigm; however, the LNT hypothesis has been invalidated in numerous studies. It is shown in this paper that our hormetic relative risk (HRR) model is consistent with lung cancer data where detailed measurements of radon in each home were carried out. Based on the HRR model, low-level radon radioactive progeny is credited for activated natural protection (ANP) against lung cancer including smoking-related lung cancer. The proportion B(x) (benefit function) of ANP beneficiaries increases as the average radon level x increases to near the Environmental Protection Agency’s action level of 4 picocuries/L (approximately 150 Bq m−3). As the average level of radon increases to somewhat above the action level, ANP beneficiaries progressively decrease to zero (B(x) decreases to 0), facilitating the occurrence of smoking-related lung cancers as well as those related to other less important risk factors. Thus, residential radon does not appear to cause lung cancer but rather to protect, in an exposure-level-dependent manner, from its induction by other agents (e.g., cigarette-smoke-related carcinogens). PMID:22461755

  10. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  11. How To Control Color Appearance With Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Margaret E.

    1980-05-01

    Colorimetry, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination, is the measurement of colors, made possible by the properties of the eye and based on a set of conventions. Instrumentation for measuring object color, therefore, must be based on a human observer. The intent is to design an instrument that in effect responds as a person would, so that research development, production control and quality control areas have some means of assessing the acceptability of the appearance of a product. Investigations of a human observer's psychological response to color, and the manner in which visual observations are made, give the instrument designer and manufacturer data necessary to answer two questions: a. How can we put numbers (instrument read-out) on a perception that occurs in the brain of the observer? b. What can we learn from examination of a visual observing situation that will guide us in our design of an instrumental simulation of this situation? Involving as it does our own daily, almost unconscious, practice of making judgments concerning the things we see, the design and manufacture of color measurement instruments is an exceedingly interesting field. The advances being made concurrently today in research concerning human color vision and in optical and electronic technology will make possible increasingly useful instrumentation for quality control of product color.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. II - Data calibration and absorption-line selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Saxe, David H.; Weymann, Ray J.; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    We present the observational and data processing aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Topics discussed include the observational technique, calibration of the data, software that simulates the data, the automated procedure used to identify and characterize the absorption features, and the determination of the sensitivity limits of the survey.

  13. Absorption characteristics of vapor transport equilibrated Er:LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Pun, E. Y. B.; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yan; Jin, Yue-Han; Zhu, Deng-Song; Wu, Zhong-Kang

    2002-04-01

    The visible and infrared transmission spectra of vapor transport equilibration (VTE) treated Er:LiNbO3 crystals, which have different doping levels (0.2%, 0.4%, and 2.0% Er per cation site), different cut orientation (X and Z cut) and different VTE duration (80, 120, 150, and 180 h), were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range of 250-3700 nm. All of 2.0 mol % doped VTE crystals have precipitated whether X cut or Z cut, while the others have not. Their absorption characteristics were summarized and discussed in contrast to those of corresponding as-grown crystals. The OH- absorption feature of VTE treated Er:LiNbO3 is found to be different from that of pure VTE LiNbO3 crystal. The significant reduction of OH- absorption band implies that the hydrogen content in the VTE crystals has been reduced substantially whether the crystal precipitates or not. The electron transition absorption characteristics of the lower-doped, not precipitated crystals mainly include the higher transmittance, slight shift of peak or band position, slight absorption intensity change, the appearance of some additional peaks or bands, the narrowing of the peak width (full width at half maximum), and the definite blueshift of the optical absorption edge. The spectral changes are associated with the redistribution of Er3+ spectroscopic sites induced by the VTE procedure. In comparison with those lower-doped VTE crystals, the highly doped VTE crystals display more significant absorption characteristics: the significant enhancement of 1480 nm pumping band and the obvious weakening of 1531 nm peak, the appearance of many additional peaks in the infrared region, and the interesting evolution of the transmittance with the wavelength. These substantial spectral changes are unambiguously conducted with the formation of a precipitate ErNbO4 induced by the VTE treatment in these crystals. The mechanism for the formation of the precipitate has been tentatively explained from the viewpoint of

  14. The Surprising Absence of Absorption in the Far-ultraviolet Spectrum of Mrk 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Trippe, M.; Hamann, F.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Tripp, T. M.; Netzer, H.; Lutz, D.; Sembach, K. R.; Krug, H.; Teng, Stacy H.; Genzel, R.; Maiolino, R.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mrk 231, the nearest (z = 0.0422) quasar, hosts both a galactic-scale wind and a nuclear-scale iron low-ionization broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) outflow. We recently obtained a far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of this object covering approx. 1150-1470A with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. This spectrum is highly peculiar, highlighted by the presence of faint (< or approx.2% of predictions based on H(alpha)), broad (> or approx.10,000 km/s at the base), and highly blueshifted (centroid at approx. 3500 km/s) Ly(aplpha) emission. The FUV continuum emission is slightly declining at shorter wavelengths (consistent with F(sub lambda) Alpha Lambda(sup 1.7)) and does not show the presence of any obvious photospheric or wind stellar features. Surprisingly, the FUV spectrum also does not show any unambiguous broad absorption features. It thus appears to be dominated by the AGN, rather than hot stars, and virtually unfiltered by the dusty FeLoBAL screen. The observed Ly(alpha) emission is best explained if it is produced in the outflowing BAL cloud system, while the Balmer lines arise primarily from the standard broad emission line region seen through the dusty (Av approx. 7 mag) broad absorption line region. Two possible geometric models are discussed in the context of these new results.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  18. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

      Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the ... in a CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Vertical Feature Mask feature classification flag value. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) ...

  19. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  20. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  1. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  2. "Appearance potent"? A content analysis of UK gay and straight men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Fawkner, Helen; Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-09-01

    With little actual appraisal, a more 'appearance potent' (i.e., a reverence for appearance ideals) subculture has been used to explain gay men's greater body dissatisfaction in comparison to straight men's. This study sought to assess the respective appearance potency of each subculture by a content analysis of 32 issues of the most read gay (Attitude, Gay Times) and straight men's magazines (Men's Health, FHM) in the UK. Images of men and women were coded for their physical characteristics, objectification and nudity, as were the number of appearance adverts and articles. The gay men's magazines featured more images of men that were appearance ideal, nude and sexualized than the straight men's magazines. The converse was true for the images of women and appearance adverts. Although more research is needed to understand the effect of this content on the viewer, the findings are consistent with a more appearance potent gay male subculture. PMID:25129685

  3. "Appearance potent"? A content analysis of UK gay and straight men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Fawkner, Helen; Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-09-01

    With little actual appraisal, a more 'appearance potent' (i.e., a reverence for appearance ideals) subculture has been used to explain gay men's greater body dissatisfaction in comparison to straight men's. This study sought to assess the respective appearance potency of each subculture by a content analysis of 32 issues of the most read gay (Attitude, Gay Times) and straight men's magazines (Men's Health, FHM) in the UK. Images of men and women were coded for their physical characteristics, objectification and nudity, as were the number of appearance adverts and articles. The gay men's magazines featured more images of men that were appearance ideal, nude and sexualized than the straight men's magazines. The converse was true for the images of women and appearance adverts. Although more research is needed to understand the effect of this content on the viewer, the findings are consistent with a more appearance potent gay male subculture.

  4. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Holin, Anna Maria

    2010-02-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which sends a high intensity muon neutrino beam through two functionally identical detectors, a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, 1km from the beam source, and a Far detector, 734km away, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. MINOS may be able to measure the neutrino mixing angle parameter sin213 for the rst time. Detector granularity, however, makes it very hard to distinguish any e appearance signal events characteristic of a non-zero value of θ 13 from background neutral current (NC) and short-track vμ charged current (CC) events. Also, uncertainties in the hadronic shower modeling in the kinematic region characteristic of this analysis are relatively large. A new data-driven background decomposition method designed to address those issues is developed and its results presented. By removing the long muon tracks from vμ-CC events, the Muon Removed Charge Current (MRCC) method creates independent pseudo-NC samples that can be used to correct the MINOS Monte Carlo to agree with the high-statistics Near detector data and to decompose the latter into components so as to predict the expected Far detector background. The MRCC method also provides an important cross-check in the Far detector to test the background in the signal selected region. MINOS finds a 1.0-1.5 σ ve-CC excess above background in the Far detector data, depending on method used, for a total exposure of 3.14 x 1020 protons-on-target. Interpreting this excess as signal, MINOS can set limits on sin213. Using the MRCC method, MINOS sets a limit of sin2 2 θ 13 < 0.265 at the 90% confidence limit for a CP-violating phase δ = 0.

  5. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  6. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  7. Crowding, grouping, and object recognition: A matter of appearance

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michael H.; Sayim, Bilge; Chicherov, Vitaly; Manassi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, the perception of a target strongly deteriorates when neighboring elements are presented. Crowding is usually assumed to have the following characteristics. (a) Crowding is determined only by nearby elements within a restricted region around the target (Bouma's law). (b) Increasing the number of flankers can only deteriorate performance. (c) Target-flanker interference is feature-specific. These characteristics are usually explained by pooling models, which are well in the spirit of classic models of object recognition. In this review, we summarize recent findings showing that crowding is not determined by the above characteristics, thus, challenging most models of crowding. We propose that the spatial configuration across the entire visual field determines crowding. Only when one understands how all elements of a visual scene group with each other, can one determine crowding strength. We put forward the hypothesis that appearance (i.e., how stimuli look) is a good predictor for crowding, because both crowding and appearance reflect the output of recurrent processing rather than interactions during the initial phase of visual processing. PMID:26024452

  8. Crowding, grouping, and object recognition: A matter of appearance.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Michael H; Sayim, Bilge; Chicherov, Vitaly; Manassi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, the perception of a target strongly deteriorates when neighboring elements are presented. Crowding is usually assumed to have the following characteristics. (a) Crowding is determined only by nearby elements within a restricted region around the target (Bouma's law). (b) Increasing the number of flankers can only deteriorate performance. (c) Target-flanker interference is feature-specific. These characteristics are usually explained by pooling models, which are well in the spirit of classic models of object recognition. In this review, we summarize recent findings showing that crowding is not determined by the above characteristics, thus, challenging most models of crowding. We propose that the spatial configuration across the entire visual field determines crowding. Only when one understands how all elements of a visual scene group with each other, can one determine crowding strength. We put forward the hypothesis that appearance (i.e., how stimuli look) is a good predictor for crowding, because both crowding and appearance reflect the output of recurrent processing rather than interactions during the initial phase of visual processing.

  9. Loop Closing Detection in RGB-D SLAM Combining Appearance and Geometric Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    A kind of multi feature points matching algorithm fusing local geometric constraints is proposed for the purpose of quickly loop closing detection in RGB-D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The visual feature is encoded with BRAND (binary robust appearance and normals descriptor), which efficiently combines appearance and geometric shape information from RGB-D images. Furthermore, the feature descriptors are stored using the Locality-Sensitive-Hashing (LSH) technique and hierarchical clustering trees are used to search for these binary features. Finally, the algorithm for matching of multi feature points using local geometric constraints is provided, which can effectively reject the possible false closure hypotheses. We demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms by real-time RGB-D SLAM with loop closing detection in indoor image sequences taken with a handheld Kinect camera and comparative experiments using other algorithms in RTAB-Map dealing with a benchmark dataset. PMID:26102492

  10. Loop Closing Detection in RGB-D SLAM Combining Appearance and Geometric Constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yanli; Tan, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    A kind of multi feature points matching algorithm fusing local geometric constraints is proposed for the purpose of quickly loop closing detection in RGB-D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The visual feature is encoded with BRAND (binary robust appearance and normals descriptor), which efficiently combines appearance and geometric shape information from RGB-D images. Furthermore, the feature descriptors are stored using the Locality-Sensitive-Hashing (LSH) technique and hierarchical clustering trees are used to search for these binary features. Finally, the algorithm for matching of multi feature points using local geometric constraints is provided, which can effectively reject the possible false closure hypotheses. We demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms by real-time RGB-D SLAM with loop closing detection in indoor image sequences taken with a handheld Kinect camera and comparative experiments using other algorithms in RTAB-Map dealing with a benchmark dataset. PMID:26102492

  11. Appearance(s) before Academic Review and Promotions: Any Personality Differences in Medical Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, R. Stephen; Borges, Nicole J.; Atwood, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Despite medical schools having some system in place to review student progress and promote students (referred to hereafter as academic review and promotions; ARP), little research has been done with the purpose of understanding personality characteristics of the students who appear before an ARP committee or governing body. A recent study…

  12. Appearance Questions Can Be Misleading: A Discourse-Based Account of the Appearance-Reality Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, M.B.; Markman, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, ''What is this really?'' and ''What does this look like?'' Children below 412 years of age fail saying that the object not only is a sponge…

  13. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mario; Masip, David; Todorov, Alexander; Vitria, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance) can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a) derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b) predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations) and classification rules (4 rules) suggest that a) prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b) the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c) for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  14. Cartilaginous bone extremities of growing monotremes appear unique.

    PubMed

    Thorp, B H; Dixon, J M

    1991-04-01

    Cartilage canals are present in the epiphyseal cartilage of most mammals and birds. They are considered necessary for the maintenance of chondrocytes and for the formation of epiphyseal ossification centers. The epiphyseal cartilage of marsupials was recently shown not to contain cartilage canals, and placental rats appear not to have cartilage canals, although some confusion exists in the literature. The present study examines the cartilaginous epiphyses and physes from the knee and hip of the rat and the two Australian monotremes (platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus and echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus). In all three species, cartilage canals were absent. Vessels to epiphyseal ossification centers were present, however. In the center of the cartilaginous femoral head of the echidna, but not in the platypus or rat, there was a large cavity, which contained connective tissue and was lined by an endochondrium of chondroproginator cells. These appeared to be contributing to growth of the cartilaginous epiphysis. No similar structure has previously been described in the cartilaginous epiphysis of other species. There was no ligament of the femoral head in the hip joints of the monotremes, and it is suggested the absence of a ligament may be significant in the development of the cavity. It was noted in all specimens that despite being avascular the epiphyseal and physeal cartilage appeared viable and functionally normal. The small size of the cartilaginous epiphyses of the rat may account for their avascularity; but the epiphyses of the monotremes were much larger, especially the echidna, yet still avascular. These features provide strong evidence for fundamental differences between the avascular cartilage of monotremes and the vascular cartilage of most mammals.

  15. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  16. Learning Human Actions by Combining Global Dynamics and Local Appearance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guan; Yang, Shuang; Tian, Guodong; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of human action recognition through combining global temporal dynamics and local visual spatio-temporal appearance features. For this purpose, in the global temporal dimension, we propose to model the motion dynamics with robust linear dynamical systems (LDSs) and use the model parameters as motion descriptors. Since LDSs live in a non-Euclidean space and the descriptors are in non-vector form, we propose a shift invariant subspace angles based distance to measure the similarity between LDSs. In the local visual dimension, we construct curved spatio-temporal cuboids along the trajectories of densely sampled feature points and describe them using histograms of oriented gradients (HOG). The distance between motion sequences is computed with the Chi-Squared histogram distance in the bag-of-words framework. Finally we perform classification using the maximum margin distance learning method by combining the global dynamic distances and the local visual distances. We evaluate our approach for action recognition on five short clips data sets, namely Weizmann, KTH, UCF sports, Hollywood2 and UCF50, as well as three long continuous data sets, namely VIRAT, ADL and CRIM13. We show competitive results as compared with current state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26353152

  17. Absorption technique for OH measurements and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakalyar, D. M.; James, J. V.; Wang, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    An absorption technique is described which utilizes a stabilized frequency-doubled tunable dye laser and a long-path White cell with high mirror reflectivities both in the red and UV. In laboratory conditions it has been possible to routinely obtain a detection sensitivity of 3 parts in 1,000,000 over absorption paths less than 1 m in length and a detection sensitivity of approximately 6 parts in 100,000 over an absorption path of the order of 1 km. The latter number corresponds to 3,000,000 OH molecules/cu cm, and therefore the technique should be particularly useful for calibration the fluorescence instrument for OH measurements. However, the presence of atmospheric fluctuations coupled with intensity variation accompanying frequency scanning appears to degrade the detection sensitivity in outdoor ambient conditions, thus making it unlikely that this technique can be employed for direct OH monitoring.

  18. Nebular Hydrogen Absorption in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Eta Carinae and immediate ejecta reveal narrow Balmer absorption lines in addition to the nebular-scattered broad P-Cygni absorptions. The narrow absorption correlates with apparent disk structure that separates the two Homunculus lobes. We trace these features about half way up the Northern lobe until the scattered stellar Balmer line doppler-shifts redward beyond the nebular absorption feature. Three-dimensional data cubes, made by mapping the Homunculus at Balmer alpha and Balmer beta with the 52 x 0.1 arcsecond aperture and about 5000 spectral resolving power, demonstrate that the absorption feature changes slowly in velocity with nebular position. We have monitored the stellar Balmer alpha line profile of the central source over the past four years. The equivalent width of the nebular absorption feature changes considerably between observations. The changes do not correlate with measured brightness of Eta Carinae. Likely clumps of neutral hydrogen with a scale size comparable to the stellar disk diameter are passing through the intervening light path on the timescales less than several months. The excitation mechanism involves Lyman alpha radiation (possibly the Lyman series plus Lyman continuum) and collisions leading to populating the 2S metastable state. Before the electron can jump to the ground state by two photon emission (lifetime about 1/8 second), a stellar Balmer photon is absorbed and the electron shifts to an NP level. We see the absorption feature in higher Balmer lines, and but not in Paschen lines. Indeed we see narrow nebular Paschen emission lines. At present, we do not completely understand the details of the absorption. Better understanding should lead to improved insight of the unique conditions around Eta Carinae that leads to these absorptions.

  19. Development of Updated ABsorption SIMulation Software (ABSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhiyao; Tang, Xin; Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2014-01-01

    ABsorption SIMulation, ABSIM, was developed for the simulation of absorption systems by The Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1980s and 1990s. ABSIM provides a platform for users to investigate various cycle configurations and working fluids, to calculate their operating parameters, to predict their performance, and to compare them with each other on a uniform basis. ABSIM is indeed a very useful and accurate tool for researchers to investigate various absorption systems. However, it has not been well maintained: it is incompatible with recent operating systems; the interface needs improved user-friendliness, and the system needs better parameter setting and debugging tools to help achieve convergence. Therefore, it is highly needed to update and improve ABSIM. The paper presents recent efforts to improve ABSIM s compatibility with current operating systems, user interface, and analysis capabilities. The paper details the features and functions of the newly updated ABSIM software. The new ABSIM still uses the previously validated calculation engine of the old ABSIM. The new graphic user interfaces (GUI) were developed in Qt, which is an open source license GUI software based on C++. XML was used as the database for data storage in the new ABSIM. The new ABSIM has been designed to be easily learned and used. It has enhanced editing and construction functions, plus enhanced analysis features including parametric tables, plotting, property plots, and master panels for debugging. A single effect water/LiBr absorption system is used as a case study in this paper to illustrate the features, capabilities, and functions of the new ABSIM. This case study was actually an example system available in the old ABSIM. The new version of ABSIM will be continuously developed to include additional subroutines for the components in liquid desiccant systems. The new ABSIM will be available to public for free. The ultimate goal of the new ABSIM is to allow it to become a simulation

  20. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  1. 45 CFR 150.421 - Appearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearance of counsel. 150.421 Section 150.421... ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.421 Appearance of counsel... appearance....

  2. Absorption of ultraviolet radiation by antarctic phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Vernet, M.; Mitchell, B.G. )

    1990-01-09

    Antarctic phytoplankton contain UV-absorbing compounds that may block damaging radiation. Compounds that absorb from 320-340 nm were observed in spectral absorption of both particulates and in methanol extracts of the particulates. The decrease in the total concentration of these UV compounds with respect to chlorophyll a, as measured by the ratio of in vitro absorption at 335 nm to absorption at 665 nm is variable and decreases with depth. We observed up to 5-fold decrease in this ratio for samples within the physically mixes surface layer. The absorption of UV radiation in methanol extracts, which peaks from 320 to 340 nm, may be composed of several compounds. Shifts in peak absorption with depth (for example, from 331 nm at surface to 321 nm at 75 m), may be interpreted as a change in composition. Ratios of protective yellow xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin) to photosynthetic fucoxanthin-like pigments have highest values in surface waters. As these pigments also absorb in the near UV, their function might extend to protection as well as utilization of UV radiation for photosynthesis. We document strong absorption in the UV from 320-330 nm for Antarctic marine particulates. Below this region of the solar energy spectrum, absolute energy levels of incident radiation drop off dramatically. Only wavelengths shorter than about 320 nm will be significantly enhanced due to ozone depletion. If the absorption we observed serves a protective role for phytoplankton photosynthesis, it appears the peak band is in the region where solar energy increases rapidly, and not in the region where depletion would cause significant variations in absolute flux.

  3. Laser Absorption by Over-Critical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2015-11-01

    Absorption of high intensity laser light by matter has important applications to emerging sciences and technology, such as Fast Ignition ICF and ion acceleration. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of this absorption is key to developing these technologies. Critical features which distinguish the interaction of high intensity light - defined here as a laser field having a normalized vector potential greater than unity - are that the reaction of the material to the fields results in sharp high-density interfaces; and that the movement of the electrons is in general relativistic, both in a fluid and a thermal sense. The results of these features are that the absorption mechanisms are qualitatively distinct from those at lower intensities. We will review previous work, by our group and others, on the absorption mechanisms, and highlight current research. We will show that the standing wave structure of the reflected laser light is key to particle dynamics for normally incident lasers. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  4. Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Innes, D.; Ayres, T.; Peter, H.; Curdt, W.; Jaeggli, S.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary. The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales and introduces a new complexity into our understanding of solar thermal structure. It lends credence to previous numerical studies that found evidence for elevated pockets of cool gas in the chromosphere. Movies associated to Figs. 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Absorption mode FTICR mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Kilgour, David P A; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here, we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image, and then, these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode "Datacubes" for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  6. Lipids: Absorption and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of lipids, dietary fat is handled differently than protein or carbohydrate with respect with digestion and absorption. Dietary fats are broken down throughout the gastrointestinal system. A unique group of enzymes and cofactors allows this process to proceed in an eff...

  7. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  8. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  9. Cholesterol Absorption and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Howles, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of cholesterol absorption have been sought for decades as a means to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with hypercholesterolemia. Ezetimibe is the one clear success story in this regard, and other compounds with similar efficacy continue to be sought. In the last decade, the laboratory mouse, with all its genetic power, has become the premier experimental model for discovering the mechanisms underlying cholesterol absorption and has become a critical tool for preclinical testing of potential pharmaceutical entities. This chapter briefly reviews the history of cholesterol absorption research and the various gene candidates that have come under consideration as drug targets. The most common and versatile method of measuring cholesterol absorption is described in detail along with important considerations when interpreting results, and an alternative method is also presented. In recent years, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has become an area of intense new interest for drug discovery since this process is now considered another key to reducing CVD risk. The ultimate measure of RCT is sterol excretion and a detailed description is given for measuring neutral and acidic fecal sterols and interpreting the results. PMID:27150091

  10. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  11. Resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gursimran; Singh, Parminder; Mittal, Naveen; Singla, Mani Kant

    2013-10-01

    Chronic hypovitaminosis D leads to state of decreased mineralization and generalized osteomalacia. It also results in secondary hyperparathyroidism causing increased bone turn over and decreased bone mass, manifested radiologically as a "salt and pepper" appearance in skull, subperiosteal resorption, bone cysts and lytic lesions. In this case, a young male patient with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism, radiological features show resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D in 11 months and regression of other lytic lesions.

  12. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women. PMID:26453998

  13. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women.

  14. ON THE 10 mum SILICATE FEATURE IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Nikutta, Robert; Elitzur, Moshe; Lacy, Mark E-mail: moshe@pa.uky.ed

    2009-12-20

    The 10 mum silicate feature observed with Spitzer in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reveals some puzzling behavior. It (1) has been detected in emission in type 2 sources, (2) shows broad, flat-topped emission peaks shifted toward long wavelengths in several type 1 sources, and (3) is not seen in deep absorption in any source observed so far. We solve all three puzzles with our clumpy dust radiative transfer formalism. Addressing (1), we present the spectral energy distribution (SED) of SST1721+6012, the first type 2 quasar observed to show a clear 10 mum silicate feature in emission. Such emission arises in models of the AGN torus easily when its clumpy nature is taken into account. We constructed a large database of clumpy torus models and performed extensive fitting of the observed SED. We find that the cloud radial distribution varies as r {sup -1.5} and the torus contains 2-4 clouds along radial equatorial rays, each with optical depth at visual approx60-80. The source bolometric luminosity is approx3 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}. Our modeling suggests that approx<35% of objects with tori sharing these characteristics and geometry would have their central engines obscured. This relatively low obscuration probability can explain the clear appearance of the 10 mum emission feature in SST1721+6012 together with its rarity among other QSO2. Investigating (2), we also fitted the SED of PG1211+143, one of the first type 1 QSOs with a 10 mum silicate feature detected in emission. Together with other similar sources, this QSO appears to display an unusually broadened feature whose peak is shifted toward longer wavelengths. Although this led to suggestions of non-standard dust chemistry in these sources, our analysis fits such SEDs with standard galactic dust; the apparent peak shifts arise from simple radiative transfer effects. Regarding (3), we find additionally that the distribution of silicate feature strengths among clumpy torus models closely resembles the observed

  15. 10 CFR 1003.3 - Appearance before the OHA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance before the OHA. 1003.3 Section 1003.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 1003.3 Appearance before the OHA. (a) A person may make an appearance, including personal appearances in the discretion of the OHA,...

  16. 20 CFR 501.9 - Representation; appearances and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is governed by 29 CFR Part 0, Subpart B. (b) Appearance. No individual may appear as a Representative... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation; appearances and fees. 501.9... PROCEDURE § 501.9 Representation; appearances and fees. (a) Representation. In any proceeding before...

  17. 10 CFR 1003.3 - Appearance before the OHA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance before the OHA. 1003.3 Section 1003.3 Energy... Provisions § 1003.3 Appearance before the OHA. (a) A person may make an appearance, including personal appearances in the discretion of the OHA, and participate in any proceeding described in this part on his...

  18. 32 CFR 1648.4 - Appointment for personal appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appointment for personal appearances. 1648.4... CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.4 Appointment for personal appearances. (a) Not less than 10 days (unless... classification in Class 1-A-O or Class 1-O fail to appear at his scheduled personal appearance, the board...

  19. 49 CFR 511.71 - Who may make appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may make appearances. 511.71 Section 511.71... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Appearances; Standards of Conduct § 511.71 Who may make appearances. A party or participant may appear in person, or by a duly authorized...

  20. 17 CFR 14.2 - Definitions of appearance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions of appearance and... RELATING TO SUSPENSION OR DISBARMENT FROM APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 14.2 Definitions of appearance and practice. (a) Appearance. For the purpose of this part, “appearance” refers to the representation of...

  1. 32 CFR 150.13 - Notice of appearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of appearance of counsel. 150.13 Section... appearance of counsel. Military and civilian appellate counsel shall file a written notice of appearance with... constitutes notice of appearance of such counsel....

  2. 14 CFR 13.204 - Appearances and rights of parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances and rights of parties. 13.204....204 Appearances and rights of parties. (a) Any party may appear and be heard in person. (b) Any party... attorney or representative who represents a party may file a notice of appearance in the action, in...

  3. 12 CFR 622.3 - Appearance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance and practice. 622.3 Section 622.3... Applicable to Formal Hearings § 622.3 Appearance and practice. (a) Appearance before the Board or a presiding... shall file a written notice of appearance with the Board which shall contain evidence of his or...

  4. 47 CFR 1.221 - Notice of hearing; appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of hearing; appearances. 1.221 Section 1... Proceedings Participants and Issues § 1.221 Notice of hearing; appearances. (a) Upon designation of an... Commission, in triplicate, a written appearance stating that he will appear of the date fixed for hearing...

  5. 7 CFR 51.891 - Uniform in appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform in appearance. 51.891 Section 51.891....891 Uniform in appearance. Uniform in appearance means that not more than one-tenth of the containers... appearance of the contents of the individual container, and that the stems are well developed and strong....

  6. 29 CFR 4905.4 - Appearances by PBGC employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances by PBGC employees. 4905.4 Section 4905.4 Labor... RULES AND PROCEDURES APPEARANCES IN CERTAIN PROCEEDINGS § 4905.4 Appearances by PBGC employees. (a... Counsel or his or her designee will authorize an appearance by a PBGC employee or former employee if,...

  7. 18 CFR 385.2101 - Appearances (Rule 2101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearances (Rule 2101... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Commission § 385.2101 Appearances (Rule 2101). (a) A participant may appear in a proceeding...

  8. 32 CFR 724.119 - Personal appearance discharge review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal appearance discharge review. 724.119... DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.119 Personal appearance discharge review. A formal session of the... appearance, as well as documentary data. The personal appearance may be by the applicant or by...

  9. Absorption Changes in Bacterial Chromatophores

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Irwin D.; Loach, Paul A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1964-01-01

    The magnitude and kinetics of photo-induced absorption changes in bacterial chromatophores (R. rubrum, R. spheroides and Chromatium) have been studied as a function of potential, established by added redox couples. No photochanges can be observed above +0.55 v or below -0.15 v. The loss of signal at the higher potential is centered at +0.439 v and follows a one-electron change. The loss of signal at the lower potential is centered at -0.044 v and is also consistent with a one-electron change. Both losses are reversible. A quantitative relationship exists between light-minus-dark and oxidized-minus-reduced spectra in the near infrared from +0.30 to +0.55 v. Selective treatment of the chromatophores with strong oxidants irreversibly bleaches the bulk pigments but appears to leave intact those pigments responsible for the photo- and chemically-induced absorption changes. Kinetic studies of the photochanges in deaerated samples of R. rubrum chromatophores revealed the same rise time for bands at 433, 792, and 865 mμ (t½ = 50 msec.). However, these bands had different decay rates (t½ = 1.5, 0.5, 0.15 sec., respectively), indicating that they belong to different pigments. Analysis of the data indicates, as the simplest interpretation, a first-order (or pseudo first-order) forward reaction and two parallel first-order (or pseudo first-order) decay reactions at each wavelength. These results imply that all pigments whose kinetics are given are photooxidized and the decay processes are dark reductions. These experiments are viewed as supporting and extending the concept of a bacterial photosynthetic unit, with energy migration within it to specific sites of electron transfer. PMID:14185583

  10. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  12. Texture Guided Active Appearance Model Propagation for Prostate Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    Fusion of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images during TRUS guided prostate biopsy improves localization of the malignant tissues. Segmented prostate in TRUS and MRI improve registration accuracy and reduce computational cost of the procedure. However, accurate segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images can be a challenging task due to low signal to noise ratio, heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate, and imaging artifacts like speckle noise and shadow. We propose to use texture features from approximation coefficients of Haar wavelet transform for propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis of prior shape and texture informations of the prostate from the training data. The parameters are then modified with prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve optimal prostate segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient value of 0.95±0.01, and mean segmentation time of 0.72±0.05 seconds when validated on 25 TRUS images, grabbed from video sequences, in a leave-one-out validation framework. Our proposed model performs computationally efficient accurate prostate segmentation in presence of intensity heterogeneity and imaging artifacts.

  13. Vaginal Absorption of Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Rock, J; Barker, R H; Bacon, W B

    1947-01-01

    Except during the last two months of pregnancy, penicillin is easily absorbed from cocoa butter suppositories in the vagina, ordinarily to give therapeutic blood levels for from 4 to 6 hours. Penicillin in the dosage used seems to have a good effect on vaginal infections. In nonpregnant women, during the ovulation phase, considered as including days 14 +/- 2 in the ordinary menstrual cycle of about 28 days, absorption seemed to be somewhat diminished. Higher levels were found in patients who were near the end of their menstrual cycles and in two patients who were menopausal. Patients who were very near term absorbed little or no penicillin, whereas patients 10 days post partum showed excellent absorption.

  14. Photothermal absorption correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Octeau, Vivien; Cognet, Laurent; Duchesne, Laurence; Lasne, David; Schaeffer, Nicolas; Fernig, David G; Lounis, Brahim

    2009-02-24

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a popular technique, complementary to cell imaging for the investigation of dynamic processes in living cells. Based on fluorescence, this single molecule method suffers from artifacts originating from the poor fluorophore photophysics: photobleaching, blinking, and saturation. To circumvent these limitations we present here a new correlation method called photothermal absorption correlation spectroscopy (PhACS) which relies on the absorption properties of tiny nano-objects. PhACS is based on the photothermal heterodyne detection technique and measures akin FCS, the time correlation function of the detected signals. Application of this technique to the precise determination of the hydrodynamic sizes of different functionalized gold nanoparticles are presented, highlighting the potential of this method. PMID:19236070

  15. New microbiological features.

    PubMed

    Lee, A

    1995-04-01

    Recent developments in the microbiology of Helicobacter pylori have aimed to improve our understanding of the organism in order to define better methods of diagnosis and cure, and to explore possible methods of prevention. Investigations of the basic biochemistry of the bacterium have revealed many interesting physiological anomalies including characteristics of a eukaryotic parasite rather than a bacterium. The latest in a growing list of adhesins to be identified shows specificity for the Lewis b antigen, possibly providing an explanation for the postulated link between blood group and peptic ulceration. However, there are many contradictory features in the H. pylori adhesin story in urgent need of resolution. The search for the ulcerogenic strain has revealed only one possible candidate to date, the cagA phenotype, which appears to be inflammatory. Recently, the cloning frenzy has resulted in the sequencing of a multitude of putative virulence factors, the challenge now is to prove their importance in relevant animal models. PMID:7600134

  16. Fraunhofer effect atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rust, Jennifer A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2005-02-15

    The dark lines in the solar spectrum were discovered by Wollaston and cataloged by Fraunhofer in the early days of the 19th century. Some years later, Kirchhoff explained the appearance of the dark lines: the sun was acting as a continuum light source and metals in the ground state in its atmosphere were absorbing characteristic narrow regions of the spectrum. This discovery eventually spawned atomic absorption spectrometry, which became a routine technique for chemical analysis in the mid-20th century. Laboratory-based atomic absorption spectrometers differ from the original observation of the Fraunhofer lines because they have always employed a separate light source and atomizer. This article describes a novel atomic absorption device that employs a single source, the tungsten coil, as both the generator of continuum radiation and the atomizer of the analytes. A 25-microL aliquot of sample is placed on the tungsten filament removed from a commercially available 150-W light bulb. The solution is dried and ashed by applying low currents to the coil in a three-step procedure. Full power is then applied to the coil for a brief period. During this time, the coil produces white light, which may be absorbed by any metals present in the atomization cloud produced by the sample. A high-resolution spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector monitors the emission spectrum of the coil, which includes the dark lines from the metals. Detection limits are reported for seven elements: 5 pg of Ca (422.7 nm); 2 ng of Co (352.7 nm); 200 pg of Cr (425.4 nm); 7 pg of Sr (460.7 nm); 100 pg of Yb (398.8 nm); 500 pg of Mn (403.1 nm); and 500 pg of K (404.4 nm). Simultaneous multielement analyses are possible within a 4-nm spectral window. The relative standard deviations for the seven metals are below 8% for all metals except for Ca (10.7%), which was present in the blank at measurable levels. Analysis of a standard reference material (drinking water) resulted in a mean percent

  17. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  18. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  19. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    2009-06-30

    A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.

  20. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperatures boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorptions systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system`s components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H{sub 2}O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H{sub 2}O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the User`s Manual.

  1. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  2. Gender differences in memory for the appearance of others.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Terrence G; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hall, Judith A; Carter, Jason D

    2004-02-01

    Five studies investigated gender differences in the accurate recall of the appearance of others. The greater interpersonal orientation and interpersonal sensitivity of women were predicted to give women an advantage over men in appearance accuracy. Under both directed- and incidental-learning conditions, women more accurately recalled information concerning the appearance of their social targets than did men, participants' memory for the appearance of female targets was more accurate than it was for male targets, and neither gender was found to be a relative advantage in recalling the appearance of same-gender targets. The motivational and knowledge-based factors that might underlie a gender difference in appearance accuracy are discussed.

  3. Preschoolers' Use of Spatiotemporal History, Appearance, and Proper Name in Determining Individual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutheil, Grant; Gelman, Susan A.; Klein, Eileen; Michos, Katherine; Kelaita, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Humans construe their environment as composed largely of discrete individuals, which are also members of kinds (e.g., trees, cars, and people). On what basis do young children determine individual identity? How important are featural properties (e.g., physical appearance, name) relative to spatiotemporal history? Two studies examined the relative…

  4. The 11 micron Silicon Carbide Feature in Carbon Star Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speck, A. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Skinner, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is known to form in circumstellar shells around carbon stars. SiC can come in two basic types - hexagonal alpha-SiC or cubic beta-SiC. Laboratory studies have shown that both types of SiC exhibit an emission feature in the 11-11.5 micron region, the size and shape of the feature varying with type, size and shape of the SiC grains. Such a feature can be seen in the spectra of carbon stars. Silicon carbide grains have also been found in meteorites. The aim of the current work is to identity the type(s) of SiC found in circumstellar shells and how they might relate to meteoritic SiC samples. We have used the CGS3 spectrometer at the 3.8 m UKIRT to obtain 7.5-13.5 micron spectra of 31 definite or proposed carbon stars. After flux-calibration, each spectrum was fitted using a chi(exp 2)-minimisation routine equipped with the published laboratory optical constants of six different samples of small SiC particles, together with the ability to fit the underlying continuum using a range of grain emissivity laws. It was found that the majority of observed SiC emission features could only be fitted by alpha-SiC grains. The lack of beta-SiC is surprising, as this is the form most commonly found in meteorites. Included in the sample were four sources, all of which have been proposed to be carbon stars, that appear to show the SiC feature in absorption.

  5. The emission/absorption FE 2 spectrum of HD 45677

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalio, R.; Selvelli, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The complex behavior of the emission/absorption spectrum of Fe II is analyzed. The far UV spectrum is characterized almost solely by absorption lines, while, in the near UV, strong emissions are predominant. Radiative excitation from the ground to the highest levels (chi is approximately 10 eV) with re-emission in the near UV, visible and I.R. seems to be the main mechanism capable of explaining the observed spectral features.

  6. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  7. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  8. High-resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3 μm Region: Role of Periphery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μm absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950–3150 cm‑1 range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μm region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μm band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μm emission plateau.

  9. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) oral absorption and clinical influences.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Decker, John F; Patrick, Jeffrey T

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used nonopioid, non-NSAID analgesic that is effective against a variety of pain types, but the consequences of overdose can be severe. Because acetaminophen is so widely available as a single agent and is increasingly being formulated in fixed-ratio combination analgesic products for the potential additive or synergistic analgesic effect and/or reduced adverse effects, accidental cumulative overdose is an emergent concern. This has rekindled interest in the sites, processes, and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen oral absorption and the clinical factors that can influence these. The absorption of oral acetaminophen occurs primarily along the small intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, the rate-limiting step is the rate of gastric emptying into the intestines. Several clinical factors can affect absorption per se or the rate of gastric emptying, such as diet, concomitant medication, surgery, pregnancy, and others. Although acetaminophen does not have the abuse potential of opioids or the gastrointestinal bleeding or organ adverse effects of NSAIDs, excess amounts can produce serious hepatic injury. Thus, an understanding of the sites and features of acetaminophen absorption--and how they might be influenced by factors encountered in clinical practice--is important for pain management using this agent. It can also provide insight for design of formulations that would be less susceptible to clinical variables.

  10. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) oral absorption and clinical influences.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Decker, John F; Patrick, Jeffrey T

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used nonopioid, non-NSAID analgesic that is effective against a variety of pain types, but the consequences of overdose can be severe. Because acetaminophen is so widely available as a single agent and is increasingly being formulated in fixed-ratio combination analgesic products for the potential additive or synergistic analgesic effect and/or reduced adverse effects, accidental cumulative overdose is an emergent concern. This has rekindled interest in the sites, processes, and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen oral absorption and the clinical factors that can influence these. The absorption of oral acetaminophen occurs primarily along the small intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, the rate-limiting step is the rate of gastric emptying into the intestines. Several clinical factors can affect absorption per se or the rate of gastric emptying, such as diet, concomitant medication, surgery, pregnancy, and others. Although acetaminophen does not have the abuse potential of opioids or the gastrointestinal bleeding or organ adverse effects of NSAIDs, excess amounts can produce serious hepatic injury. Thus, an understanding of the sites and features of acetaminophen absorption--and how they might be influenced by factors encountered in clinical practice--is important for pain management using this agent. It can also provide insight for design of formulations that would be less susceptible to clinical variables. PMID:26013309

  11. Masculinity, consumerism, and appearance: a look at men's hair.

    PubMed

    Ricciardelli, Rosemary

    2011-05-01

    Historically, being concerned about appearance was stereotypically associated with women. Now masculinities too have become embedded in appearance norms. Consequently men too are increasingly concerned about their appearance. Via interviews with 14 Canadian men, the role of hair in self-identification and both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with appearance is examined. Emergent themes suggest that masculinity and appearance are increasingly intertwined, and consumer culture cultivates a climate that encourages men to view their appearance as something worthy of investment. Findings suggest that men are concerned about their appearance-specifically their hair-and that there is a relationship between masculinity, appearance, and self-identification. Findings are discussed within theories of masculinity and consumerism.

  12. The Enigmatic Thirteen Micron Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz e Souza, Nelson

    Low and intermediate mass stars (0.8--8 solar masses) will eventually evolve into Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and pulsate out their atmosphere into the space around them. That ejected material will eventually cool and form dust. Understanding the nature and formation of cosmic dust is crucial to understanding the Universe. Evolved intermediate mass stars (i.e. AGB stars) are major contributors of dust to the cosmos. Dust around AGB stars are studied by means of infrared spectroscopy from which we observe several interesting spectral features. The observed AGB star spectra have been classified according to their shapes and wavelength positions of the dust features. Alongside the main spectral features around 8-12mum, there is an enigmatic 13mum feature that appears in about half the oxygen-rich AGB stars. The carrier of this feature has not yet been unequivocally identified but has been attributed to various dust species, including corundum (crystalline Al2O3), spinel (MgAl2O4), and silica (SiO2). While there have been several attempts to determine the cause of this 13mum feature, previous studies have been somewhat contradictory. In order to investigate the origin and characteristics of this spectral feature we observe variations in the 13mum feature over varying stellar parameters. We have also acquired spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of nearby O-rich AGB stars using Michelle on Gemini North. Here we present data on the 13mum feature strength mapped over space around their respective AGB star. The most popular hypothesis for the carrier of the 13mm feature is not supported by our findings.

  13. Christiansen effect in disperse systems with resonant absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Isaeva, Elmira A; Isaeva, A A

    2012-01-31

    We discuss the results of experimental studies of competition of absorption and scattering of laser radiation propagating in dispersive media with resonant absorption. As media under study, use is made of a suspension of polystyrene particles in solutions of rhodamine 6G in ethylene glycol probed by laser light with a wavelength of 532 nm. It is found that an increase in the dye concentration leads to an increase in optical transmittance of suspensions and an increase in speckle modulation of the forward-scattered radiation. We interpret these features as a manifestation of Christiansen effect in disperse systems with resonance absorption.

  14. O VI absorption in interstellar cloud surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Jenkins, E. B.; Songaila, A.; York, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The velocity profiles of O VI absorption lines of 24 stars, observed in early Copernicus surveys, have been compared with the line profiles of Si III (1206.51 A) and N II (1083.99 A). The velocity structures of the O VI lines appear to be correlated with those of the material in the lower ionization stages. It is argued that the O VI absorption arises in the coronal gas of the conductive interface between hot gas, responsible for extended, soft X-ray emission, and cooler interstellar clouds. The velocity broadening of both sets of lines is attributed to motions of the cloud surfaces induced by pressure fluctuations in the interstellar medium.

  15. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  16. Automatic grading of appearance retention of carpets using intensity and range images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orjuela Vargas, Sergio Alejandro; Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Rooms, Filip; De Meulemeester, Simon; de Keyser, Robain; Van Langenhove, Lieva; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-04-01

    Textiles are mainly used for decoration and protection. In both cases, their original appearance and its retention are important factors for customers. Therefore, evaluation of appearance parameters are critical for quality assurance purposes, during and after manufacturing, to determine the lifetime and/or beauty of textile products. In particular, appearance retention of textile products is commonly certified with grades, which are currently assigned by human experts. However, manufacturers would prefer a more objective system. We present an objective system for grading appearance retention, particularly, for textile floor coverings. Changes in appearance are quantified by using linear regression models on texture features extracted from intensity and range images. Range images are obtained by our own laser scanner, reconstructing the carpet surface using two methods that have been previously presented. We extract texture features using a variant of the local binary pattern technique based on detecting those patterns whose frequencies are related to the appearance retention grades. We test models for eight types of carpets. Results show that the proposed approach describes the degree of wear with a precision within the range allowed to human inspectors by international standards. The methodology followed in this experiment has been designed to be general for evaluating global deviation of texture in other types of textiles, as well as other surface materials.

  17. 20 CFR 501.9 - Representation; appearances and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Representation; appearances and fees. 501.9 Section 501.9 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.9 Representation; appearances and fees. (a) Representation. In any proceeding before the Board, an Appellant may appear in person...

  18. 32 CFR 516.6 - Appearance as counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearance as counsel. 516.6 Section 516.6... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.6 Appearance as counsel. (a) General. Military personnel on active duty and DA civilian personnel will not appear as counsel before any civilian court or in...

  19. 32 CFR 516.6 - Appearance as counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Appearance as counsel. 516.6 Section 516.6... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.6 Appearance as counsel. (a) General. Military personnel on active duty and DA civilian personnel will not appear as counsel before any civilian court or in...

  20. 32 CFR 516.6 - Appearance as counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Appearance as counsel. 516.6 Section 516.6... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.6 Appearance as counsel. (a) General. Military personnel on active duty and DA civilian personnel will not appear as counsel before any civilian court or in...

  1. 32 CFR 516.6 - Appearance as counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearance as counsel. 516.6 Section 516.6... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.6 Appearance as counsel. (a) General. Military personnel on active duty and DA civilian personnel will not appear as counsel before any civilian court or in...

  2. 50 CFR 17.52 - Permits-similarity of appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits-similarity of appearance. 17.52... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.52 Permits—similarity of appearance. Upon receipt of a complete application and unless...

  3. 32 CFR 724.222 - Personal appearance discharge hearing sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal appearance discharge hearing sites. 724... appearance discharge hearing sites. (a) The NDRB shall be permanently located, together with its administrative staff, in the NCR. The NDRB shall routinely conduct personal appearance discharge reviews...

  4. 49 CFR 821.6 - Appearances and rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances and rights of witnesses. 821.6 Section 821.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... Appearances and rights of witnesses. (a) Any party to a proceeding may appear and be heard in person, or by...

  5. 29 CFR 2200.23 - Appearances and withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances and withdrawals. 2200.23 Section 2200.23 Labor... Parties and Representatives § 2200.23 Appearances and withdrawals. (a) Entry of appearance—(1) General. A representative of a party or intervenor shall enter an appearance by signing the first document filed on...

  6. 43 CFR 4.106 - Representation and appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Representation and appearances. 4.106... Procedure Rules § 4.106 Representation and appearances. (a) The Appellant. An individual appellant may... appellant shall file a written notice of appearance with the Board. (b) The Government. Department...

  7. 14 CFR 302.416 - Appearances by persons not parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearances by persons not parties. 302.416... Proceedings § 302.416 Appearances by persons not parties. With consent of the administrative law judge, appearances may be entered without request for or grant of permission to intervene by interested persons...

  8. 12 CFR 262.5 - Appearance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance and practice. 262.5 Section 262.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES OF PROCEDURE § 262.5 Appearance and practice. Appearance and practice before the Board in...

  9. 50 CFR 11.22 - Appearance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Hearing and Appeal Procedures § 11.22 Appearance and practice. (a) Subject to the provisions of 43 CFR 1.3, the respondent may appear in person, by representative, or by counsel, and may participate... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearance and practice. 11.22 Section...

  10. 16 CFR 1025.61 - Who may make appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may make appearances. 1025.61 Section 1025.61 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.61 Who may make appearances. A party...

  11. 14 CFR 77.69 - Limitations on appearance and representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on appearance and... Subpart D § 77.69 Limitations on appearance and representation. (a) A former officer or employee of the..., in connection with that appearance, knowingly accept assistance from, or share fees with, any...

  12. 21 CFR 1316.48 - Notice of appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of appearance. 1316.48 Section 1316.48 Food..., AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.48 Notice of appearance. Any person entitled to a... within the time specified in the notice of proposed rulemaking, a written notice of appearance in...

  13. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearance of witnesses... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.17 Appearance of witnesses. (a) A party wishing to procure the appearance at the hearing of any person having personal or expert knowledge of...

  14. 10 CFR 110.108 - Appearance in an oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance in an oral hearing. 110.108 Section 110.108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Hearings § 110.108 Appearance in an oral hearing. (a) A participant may appear in a hearing on his...

  15. 17 CFR 10.11 - Appearance in adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearance in adjudicatory... OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.11 Appearance in adjudicatory proceedings. (a) Appearance—(1) By... suspended or disbarred from appearance and practice before the Commission in accordance with the...

  16. 32 CFR 1648.3 - Opportunity for personal appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity for personal appearances. 1648.3... CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.3 Opportunity for personal appearances. (a) A registrant who has filed a claim for classification in Class 1-A-O or Class 1-O shall be scheduled for a personal appearance...

  17. 7 CFR 51.482 - Uniform in appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform in appearance. 51.482 Section 51.482... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.482 Uniform in appearance. Uniform in appearance means that not more than one-tenth of the packages in any lot contain...

  18. 49 CFR 1503.605 - Appearances and rights of parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances and rights of parties. 1503.605... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.605 Appearances and... appearance in the action, in the manner provided in § 1503.429, and must serve a copy of the notice...

  19. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, H.F.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population (e.g. Oort and van de Hulst, 1946), the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 ..mu..m is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds (Merrill et al., 1976; Willner et al., 1982). However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. It is also uncertain whether it is restricted to circumstellar shells, rather than the general cloud medium. Detailed discussion of the 3 ..mu..m band properties is given elsewhere in this volume. 15 references, 4 figures.

  20. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  1. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  2. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  3. The Visual N1 Is Sensitive to Deviations from Natural Texture Appearance.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Conlin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions of natural texture appearance are known to negatively impact performance in texture discrimination tasks, for example, such that contrast-negated textures, synthetic textures, and textures depicting abstract art are processed less efficiently than natural textures. Presently, we examined how visual ERP responses (the P1 and the N1 in particular) were affected by violations of natural texture appearance. We presented participants with images depicting either natural textures or synthetic textures made from the original stimuli. Both stimulus types were additionally rendered either in positive or negative contrast. These appearance manipulations (negation and texture synthesis) preserve a range of low-level features, but also disrupt higher-order aspects of texture appearance. We recorded continuous EEG while participants completed a same/different image discrimination task using these images and measured both the P1 and N1 components over occipital recording sites. While the P1 exhibited no sensitivity to either contrast polarity or real/synthetic appearance, the N1 was sensitive to both deviations from natural appearance. Polarity reversal and synthetic appearance affected the N1 latency differently, however, suggesting a differential impact on processing. Our results suggest that stages of visual processing indexed by the P1 and N1 are sensitive to high-order statistical regularities in natural textures and also suggest that distinct violations of natural appearance impact neural responses differently.

  4. Properties of Galaxies Detected in Emission and Absorption with Background Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Lorrie Ann

    The question of how galaxies evolve is a difficult one to answer. By studying galaxies hosting Damped (DLA) and sub-Damped Lyman-alpha (sub-DLA) systems, we hope to shed some light on the subject. DLA and sub-DLA systems contain the vast majority of neutral gas in the universe, making them ideal candidates for studies of primordial gas. However, it is unclear how these absorption systems relate to present day galaxies. Observations of these systems detected through absorption in background quasar spectra indicate the DLAs are metal poor and slowly evolving while their counterparts, the sub-DLAs, are highly enriched. In order to determine the relationship between galaxies detected in absorption and normal galaxies, we compile a sample of low redshift quasar galaxy pairs (QGP) detected in emission in quasar spectra. These emission detected galaxies are searched for absorption features that may indicate a connection to higher redshift galaxy absorption systems, including DLAs and sub-DLAs. While the roles of spectroscopy and imaging play equal parts in determining characteristics of these systems, focus here is placed on the broad-band imaging aspect, used to locate absorption host galaxies and determine their photometric properties. These properties can then be compared to the known properties of galaxies at other epochs. The role of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has been paramount in this study. Presented here are two sets of data: high metallicity DLA and sub-DLA absorption systems at z > 0.4 and quasar-galaxy pairs selected in emission from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z < 0.4. Results show that the z < 0.4 sample has low star formation rate values and a high degree of reddening which is in good agreement with higher redshift samples of quasar absorbers and our z > 0.4 sample of DLAs and sub-DLAs. Morphologically, those galaxies selected by emission naturally tend to be late-type, while our sample of DLAs and sub-DLAs appears to be primarily early-type.

  5. Computed Tomography Appearance of Renal Hybrid Oncocytic/Chromophobe Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Akrita; Rowe, Steven P.; Gorin, Michael A.; Pomper, Martin G.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Allaf, Mohamad E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A series of renal hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCTs) was retrospectively assessed for morphologic features and enhancement characteristics by computed tomography (CT). Materials (Subjects) and Methods Nine patients with pathologically proven HOCTs were identified. These patients harbored a total of 12 lesions. All patients had available preoperative contrast-enhanced CT examinations, although a proportion of the studies had been carried out at outside institutions. The morphologic characteristics and enhancement patterns of each tumor were evaluated systematically. Results Seventy-eight percent of the patients were men, with a mean age of 62 years. None of the patients had evidence of metastatic disease at the time of surgery. Mean tumor diameter was 4.4 cm. All the lesions were solid and well circumscribed. Calcifications were not seen in any of these masses. Thirty-three percent of the tumors demonstrated a central stellate hypodensity pattern, whereas a further 42% of the tumors demonstrated a heterogenous appearance. Mean attenuation values were 25.7 HU (noncontrast), 77.4 HU (arterial), 124.8 HU (venous), and 76.8 HU (delayed). Tumor-to-cortex ratios for the 2 enhanced phases (arterial and venous) were 0.56 and 0.79, respectively. Conclusions A series of HOCTs were found on CT to have 2 distinct patterns—a heterogenous enhancement pattern and an “oncocytoma-like” pattern with a central stellate hypodensity. Although the prospective diagnosis of HOCTs on the basis of CT findings is unlikely, an awareness of the existence of these lesions is important as new means of characterizing renal masses on imaging arise. PMID:27096398

  6. [Transient UV absorption spectra of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Jun; Ping, Li; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Xue, Jun-Peng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-03-01

    UV absorption spectrum of artemisinin and transient absorption spectra of various concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide were measured by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The exposure time of each spectrum was 0.1 ms. Results indicate that artemisinin has an obvious UV absorption band centered at 212.52 nm and can react with sodium hydroxide easily. All absorption spectra of different concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide have the similar changes, but the moment at which the changes happened is different. After adding sodium hydroxide into artemisinin in ethanol solution, there was a new absorption band centered at 288 nm appearing firstly. As reaction went on, the intensity of another absorption band centered at 260 nm increased gradually. At the end of the reaction, a continuous absorption band from 200 to 350 nm with the peak at 245 nm formed finally. No other transient absorption spectral data are available on the reaction of artemisinin with sodium hydroxide currently. The new spectral information obtained in this experiment provides very important experimental basis for understanding the properties of artemisinin reacting with alkaline medium and is useful for correctly using of artemisinin as a potential anticancer drug.

  7. Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricaud, Annick; Babin, Marcel; Claustre, Hervé; Ras, JoséPhine; TièChe, Fanny

    2010-08-01

    Absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles (NAPs), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and their relative contributions to total light absorption, are essential variables for bio-optical and biogeochemical models. However, their actual variations in the open ocean remain poorly documented, particularly for clear waters because of the difficulty in measuring very low absorption coefficients. The Biogeochemistry and Optics South Pacific Experiment (BIOSOPE) cruise investigated a large range of oceanic regimes, from mesotrophic waters around the Marquesas Islands to hyperoligotrophic waters in the subtropical gyre and eutrophic waters in the upwelling area off Chile. The spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were determined using the filter technique, while the CDOM absorption coefficients were measured using a 2 m capillary waveguide. Over the whole transect, the absorption coefficients of both dissolved and particulate components covered approximately two orders of magnitude; in the gyre, they were among the lowest ever reported for open ocean waters. In the oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were notably lower than those measured in other oceanic areas with similar chlorophyll contents, indicating some deviation from the standard chlorophyll-absorption relationships. The contribution of absorption by NAPs to total particulate absorption showed large vertical and horizontal variations. CDOM absorption coefficients covaried with algal biomass, albeit with a high scatter. The spectral slopes of both NAP and CDOM absorption revealed structured spatial variability in relation with the trophic conditions. The relative contributions of each component to total nonwater absorption were (at a given wavelength) weakly variable over the transect, at least within the euphotic layer.

  8. Overview-absorption/Rankine solar cooling program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlig, M.; Heitz, A.; Boyce, B.

    1980-03-01

    The tasks being performed in the absorption and Rankine program areas run the gamut from basic work on fluids to development of chillers and chiller components, to field and reliability testing of complete cooling systems. In the absorption program, there are six current and five essentially completed projects. In the Rankine program, there are five current projects directly supported by DOE, and three projects funded through and managed by NASA/MSFC (Manned Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama). The basic features of these projects are discussed. The systems under development in five of these current projects were selected for field testing in the SOLERAS program, a joint US-Saudi Arabian enterprise. Some technical highlights of the program are presented.

  9. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  10. Diagnosing the accretion flow in ultraluminous X-ray sources using soft X-ray atomic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; Walton, Dominic J.; Fabian, Andrew; Roberts, Timothy P.; Heil, Lucy; Pinto, Ciro; Anderson, Gemma; Sutton, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The lack of unambiguous detections of atomic features in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has proven a hindrance in diagnosing the nature of the accretion flow. The possible association of spectral residuals at soft energies with atomic features seen in absorption and/or emission and potentially broadened by velocity dispersion could therefore hold the key to understanding much about these enigmatic sources. Here we show for the first time that such residuals are seen in several sources and appear extremely similar in shape, implying a common origin. Via simple arguments we assert that emission from extreme colliding winds, absorption in a shell of material associated with the ULX nebula and thermal plasma emission associated with star formation are all highly unlikely to provide an origin. Whilst CCD spectra lack the energy resolution necessary to directly determine the nature of the features (i.e. formed of a complex of narrow lines or intrinsically broad lines), studying the evolution of the residuals with underlying spectral shape allows for an important, indirect test for their origin. The ULX NGC 1313 X-1 provides the best opportunity to perform such a test due to the dynamic range in spectral hardness provided by archival observations. We show through highly simplified spectral modelling that the strength of the features (in either absorption or emission) appears to anticorrelate with spectral hardness, which would rule out an origin via reflection of a primary continuum and instead supports a picture of atomic transitions in a wind or nearby material associated with such an outflow.

  11. Adolescents' reasons for tanning and appearance motives: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Prior, Suzanne M; Fenwick, Kimberley D; Peterson, Jasmine C

    2014-01-01

    We examined adolescents' reasons for tanning and how these relate to appearance evaluation and orientation. Two hundred and sixty-four Canadian adolescents (age range 15-19 years) in grades 10, 11, and 12 completed a survey that included scales measuring their reasons for tanning, appearance evaluation, and appearance orientation. It was found that girls and boys differed on four of nine subscales measuring reasons for tanning. Girls believed more strongly than boys that tanning improved their general appearance and that friends influenced their decision to tan. Girls also expressed less concern than boys that tanning caused immediate skin damage or premature aging. The pattern of correlations between the reasons for tanning and appearance orientation was similar for girls and boys. For both, appearance reasons for tanning and sociocultural influences on tanning were positively associated with appearance orientation. Suggestions for future research with adolescents and a proposal for a guiding model are provided.

  12. Terahertz absorption spectra of oxidized polyethylene and their analysis by quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Marina; Hosobuchi, Masashi; Xie, Xiaojun; Cheng, Yonghong; Furukawa, Yukio; Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2014-09-01

    Low-density polyethylene, either cross-linked or not, was oxidized and its absorption spectra were measured in the terahertz (THz) range and infrared range. The absorption was increased by the oxidation in the whole THz range. In accord with this, infrared absorption due to carbonyl groups appears. Although these results indicate that the increase in absorption is induced by oxidation, its attribution to resonance or relaxation is unclear. To clarify this point, the vibrational frequencies of three-dimensional polyethylene models with and without carbonyl groups were quantum chemically calculated. As a result, it was clarified that optically inactive skeletal vibrations in polyethylene become active upon oxidation. Furthermore, several absorption peaks due to vibrational resonances are induced by oxidation at wavenumbers from 20 to 100 cm-1. If these absorption peaks are broadened and are superimposed on each other, the absorption spectrum observed experimentally can be reproduced. Therefore, the absorption is ascribable to resonance.

  13. Soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy study of MgO (100) and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (100) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Yasuo Sanada, Noriaki; Mochizuki, Sachie; Yatsuzuka, Ikuko

    2013-11-15

    Soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy (SXAPS) measurements was used to measure on MgO (100) and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (100) single crystals. Mg 1s, Al 1s, and O 1s SXAPS self-deconvoluted (SD) spectra were obtained. The features of the Mg 1s and O1s SD spectra are in fair agreement with those of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for an MgO thin film (3 ML) on Ag (100). This suggests that the SXAPS spectra reflect electronic states of the relaxed MgO (100) surface. The features of the Al 1s and O 1s SD spectra are in qualitative agreement with those of the electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The SXAPS SD spectra are discussed in terms of antibonding states and partial density of empty states obtained by theoretical calculations for MgO and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3,} respectively. The present result suggests that the “approximate dipole selection rule” is applicable to the SXAPS spectra of MgO and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as 3d transition metal oxides.

  14. Selecting fillers on emotional appearance improves lineup identification accuracy.

    PubMed

    Flowe, Heather D; Klatt, Thimna; Colloff, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    Mock witnesses sometimes report using criminal stereotypes to identify a face from a lineup, a tendency known as criminal face bias. Faces are perceived as criminal-looking if they appear angry. We tested whether matching the emotional appearance of the fillers to an angry suspect can reduce criminal face bias. In Study 1, mock witnesses (n = 226) viewed lineups in which the suspect had an angry, happy, or neutral expression, and we varied whether the fillers matched the expression. An additional group of participants (n = 59) rated the faces on criminal and emotional appearance. As predicted, mock witnesses tended to identify suspects who appeared angrier and more criminal-looking than the fillers. This tendency was reduced when the lineup fillers matched the emotional appearance of the suspect. Study 2 extended the results, testing whether the emotional appearance of the suspect and fillers affects recognition memory. Participants (n = 1,983) studied faces and took a lineup test in which the emotional appearance of the target and fillers was varied between subjects. Discrimination accuracy was enhanced when the fillers matched an angry target's emotional appearance. We conclude that lineup member emotional appearance plays a critical role in the psychology of lineup identification. The fillers should match an angry suspect's emotional appearance to improve lineup identification accuracy.

  15. Satisfaction with Appearance and the Desired Treatment to Improve Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zarea, Bader K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify participants' satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics. Materials and Methods. 220 participants (127 males and 93 females, mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years) were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' satisfaction with appearance and what treatment they desire to improve aesthetics. Participants scored the level of satisfaction with appearance using visual analogue scale. Results. The VAS mean score of satisfaction with general appearance was 6.8 ± 2.3. Half participants were dissatisfied with tooth appearance and 65.9% were dissatisfied with tooth colour. Higher VAS scores were associated with higher desire for all treatments that improve tooth appearance (P < .05). Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance increased with increased dissatisfaction with teeth colour, feeling of poor tooth alignment, presence of fractured anterior teeth, and increased desire for orthodontic, crowns, and dentures treatments (P < .05). Dissatisfaction with tooth colour was associated with increased desire for tooth whitening and tooth coloured fillings (P < .05). Conclusions. Participants had high levels of dissatisfaction with tooth appearance and tooth colour. Dissatisfaction with tooth colour contributed to the increased dissatisfaction with tooth appearance. Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance, colour, alignment, and condition was significantly related to high desire for aesthetic treatments. PMID:23509462

  16. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  17. FUSE Observations of O 6 Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; FUSE Team

    2000-12-01

    We report the results of an initial FUSE survey of O 6 λ 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d ⪉ 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O 6 in the conductive interfaces between cool ( ~ 104 K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (106 K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of O 6 throughout the Galactic disk. We find no O 6 absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O 6) ~ 5 x 1012 cm-2. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O 6) ~ 1-2 x 1013 cm-2. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(O 6) ⪆ 1013 cm-2 per interface (Slavin 1989, Borkowski et al 1990), in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak O 6 absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler (1994) have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T ~ 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O 6 than we observe. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  18. The Diagnostic Dilemma of Pathological Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Lai, Justine K.; Langenbucher, James W.; Schneider, Melanie; Yehuda, Rachel; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    Appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use includes the use of a range of pharmacologically distinct substances and concurrent investment in outward appearance or achievement, dietary control, and frequent exercise. A number of existing reviews and conceptual papers have defined pathological forms of APED use within the APED class of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and using the framework of AAS dependence. We review published data on APED use including human studies of AAS users and identified three defining phenomenological features associated with increased health risk and pathology. These features included (1) polypharmacy or the concurrent use of several pharmacologically distinct substances used to change outward appearance or increase likelihood of personal achievement; (2) significant body image disturbance; (3) rigid practices and preoccupations with diet and exercise. Investigations into the latent structure of APED use suggest these features cluster together in a homogenous group of APED users who have the highest health risk and most psychopathology. These features are discussed in the context of AAS dependence and problems with defining classic tolerance-withdrawal symptoms among APED users. Suggestions for a resolution and outline for future research needed to determine the best system for identifying and diagnosing pathological APED use are discussed. PMID:21115306

  19. Musculoskeletal mnemonics: differentiating features.

    PubMed

    Currie, Jonathan W; Davis, Kirkland W; Lafita, Vaishali S; Blankenbaker, Donna G; De Smet, Arthur A; Rosas, Humberto; Lee, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    Mnemonics are often used in musculoskeletal radiology to help radiologists remember long differential diagnoses. However, unless the specific appearance of each entity on a differential is also recalled, mnemonics become useless. This article presents 8 mnemonics with their corresponding differential diagnoses and distinguishing features. Bubbly lucent lesions of bone are recalled with the FEGNOMASHIC mnemonic, but when only lucent lesions of the diaphysis are included, a more appropriate mnemonic is FEMALE. The lucent lesions of bone differentials often can be narrowed based on specific characteristics of the lesion but radiographic findings elsewhere and clinical information often help. Osseous metastases may present as lucent or sclerotic lesions; when sclerotic, the differential is best remembered with the mnemonic 5 "BEES" Like Pollen. The mnemonic for Wormian bones is PORKCHOPS. The Wormian bones in most of these entities are indistinguishable, so one must rely on radiographic findings outside the skull for diagnosis. By contrast, differentiating causes of acro-osteolysis is often possible with findings seen only on the hand radiographs; the mnemonic for acro-osteolysis is RADSHIP. In skeletally immature patients with frayed metaphyses, the mnemonic is CHARMS. Although the appearance of the fraying is seldom diagnostic, findings in the adjacent portions of the long bones may be characteristic. FETISH is the mnemonic used to remember the entities for the differential diagnosis of vertebra plana. Age of the patient, clinical history, and findings in the adjacent spine often help to provide the specific diagnosis. Nearly all the entities on the differential diagnosis for distal clavicle erosion (mnemonic: SHIRT Pocket) are included in other differentials in this article. PMID:21266270

  20. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  1. Appearance of light clusters in post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Roepke, Gerd

    2008-05-15

    We explore the abundance of light clusters in core-collapse supernovae at post-bounce stage in a quantum statistical approach. Adopting the profile of a supernova core from detailed numerical simulations, we study the distribution of light bound clusters up to {alpha} particles (2{<=}A{<=}4) as well as heavy nuclei (A>4) in dense matter at finite temperature. Within the frame of a cluster-mean-field approach, the abundances of light clusters are evaluated accounting for self-energy, Pauli blocking, and effects of continuum correlations. We find that deuterons and tritons, in addition to {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, appear abundantly in a wide region from the surface of the proto-neutron star to the position of the shock wave. The appearance of light clusters may modify the neutrino emission in the cooling region and the neutrino absorption in the heating region and, thereby, influence the supernova mechanism.

  2. Percutaneous absorption in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    West, D P; Halket, J M; Harvey, D R; Hadgraft, J; Solomon, L M; Harper, J I

    1987-11-01

    The skin of preterm infants varies considerably in its level of maturity. To understand skin absorption in premature infants better, we report a technique for the assessment of percutaneous absorption at various gestational and postnatal ages using stable, isotope-labeled (13C6) benzoic acid. Our results indicate that in the preterm infant, this method detects enhanced skin absorption in the first postnatal days, which declines over three weeks to that expected of a full-term infant. This approach also indicates an inverse relationship between gestational age and skin absorption, as well as postnatal age and skin absorption. The reported technique is a safe and noninvasive method using a model skin penetrant for the study of percutaneous absorption in preterm infants from which basic data may be derived to add to our understanding of skin barrier function. PMID:3422856

  3. The Importance of Hand Appearance as a Patient-Reported Outcome in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Rehim, Shady A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Hand appearance is meaningful to patients because hands are an essential part of human interactions, communication, and social integration. Recent literature indicates that hand aesthetics is an important, measurable patient-reported outcome. In hand surgery, several outcome instruments exist that accurately measure functional outcomes, but aesthetics is often overlooked or imprecisely measured. This makes comparison of disease burden and effectiveness of therapies, as they pertain to aesthetics, difficult. This special topic article outlines the aesthetic features of the hand, how literature is evaluating the appearance of the hand in outcomes research, and proposes a novel approach to assessing hand aesthetics. PMID:26893977

  4. [Plant Spectral Discrimination Based on Phenological Features].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-long; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiao-song

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis plays a significant role onplant characteristic identification and mechanism recognition, there were many papers published on the aspects of absorption features in the spectra of chlorophyll and moisture, spectral analysis onvegetation red edge effect, spectra profile feature extraction, spectra profile conversion, vegetation leaf structure and chemical composition impacts on the spectra in past years. However, fewer researches issued on spectral changes caused by plant seasonal changes of life form, chlorophyll, leaf area index. This paper studied on spectral observation of 11 plants of various life form, plant leaf structure and its size, phenological characteristics, they include deciduous forest with broad vertical leaf, needle leaf evergreen forest, needle leaf deciduous forest, deciduous forest with broadflat leaf, high shrub with big leaf, high shrub with little leaf, deciduous forest with broad little leaf, short shrub, meadow, steppe and grass. Field spectral data were observed with SVC-HR768 (Spectra Vista company, USA), the band width covers 350-2 500 nm, spectral resolution reaches 1-4 nm. The features of NDVI, spectral maximum absorption depth in green band, and spectral maximum absorption depth in red band were measured after continuum removal processing, the mean, amplitude and gradient of these features on seasonal change profile were analyzed, meanwhile, separability research on plant spectral feature of growth period and maturation period were compared. The paper presents a calculation method of separability of vegetation spectra which consider feature spatial distances. This index is carried on analysis of the vegetation discrimination. The results show that: the spectral features during plant growth period are easier to distinguish than them during maturation period. With the same features comparison, plant separability of growth period is 3 points higher than it during maturation period. The overall separabilityof vegetation

  5. [Plant Spectral Discrimination Based on Phenological Features].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-long; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiao-song

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis plays a significant role onplant characteristic identification and mechanism recognition, there were many papers published on the aspects of absorption features in the spectra of chlorophyll and moisture, spectral analysis onvegetation red edge effect, spectra profile feature extraction, spectra profile conversion, vegetation leaf structure and chemical composition impacts on the spectra in past years. However, fewer researches issued on spectral changes caused by plant seasonal changes of life form, chlorophyll, leaf area index. This paper studied on spectral observation of 11 plants of various life form, plant leaf structure and its size, phenological characteristics, they include deciduous forest with broad vertical leaf, needle leaf evergreen forest, needle leaf deciduous forest, deciduous forest with broadflat leaf, high shrub with big leaf, high shrub with little leaf, deciduous forest with broad little leaf, short shrub, meadow, steppe and grass. Field spectral data were observed with SVC-HR768 (Spectra Vista company, USA), the band width covers 350-2 500 nm, spectral resolution reaches 1-4 nm. The features of NDVI, spectral maximum absorption depth in green band, and spectral maximum absorption depth in red band were measured after continuum removal processing, the mean, amplitude and gradient of these features on seasonal change profile were analyzed, meanwhile, separability research on plant spectral feature of growth period and maturation period were compared. The paper presents a calculation method of separability of vegetation spectra which consider feature spatial distances. This index is carried on analysis of the vegetation discrimination. The results show that: the spectral features during plant growth period are easier to distinguish than them during maturation period. With the same features comparison, plant separability of growth period is 3 points higher than it during maturation period. The overall separabilityof vegetation

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  7. 22 CFR 41.102 - Personal appearance of applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 41.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Nonimmigrant Visa § 41.102 Personal appearance of... (b) or (c) of this section, each applicant for a nonimmigrant visa must personally appear before...

  8. 20 CFR 501.9 - Representation; appearances and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is governed by 29 CFR Part 0, Subpart B. (b) Appearance. No individual may appear as a Representative...) Usefulness of the Representative's services; (2) The nature and complexity of the appeal; (3) The capacity in... Representative. Such notice must identify the docket number and name of each pending appeal for that...

  9. 20 CFR 501.9 - Representation; appearances and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is governed by 29 CFR Part 0, Subpart B. (b) Appearance. No individual may appear as a Representative...) Usefulness of the Representative's services; (2) The nature and complexity of the appeal; (3) The capacity in... Representative. Such notice must identify the docket number and name of each pending appeal for that...

  10. 20 CFR 501.9 - Representation; appearances and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is governed by 29 CFR Part 0, Subpart B. (b) Appearance. No individual may appear as a Representative...) Usefulness of the Representative's services; (2) The nature and complexity of the appeal; (3) The capacity in... Representative. Such notice must identify the docket number and name of each pending appeal for that...

  11. Development and Examination of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Trevor A.; Flora, David B.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Fresco, David M.; Holle, Christian; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to measure anxiety about being negatively evaluated by others because of one's overall appearance, including body shape. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SAAS in three large samples of undergraduate students (respective ns = 512, 853, and 541). The SAAS demonstrated a…

  12. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Appearance of witnesses. 60-30.17 Section 60-30.17 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... to procure the appearance at the hearing of any person having personal or expert knowledge of...

  13. 32 CFR 516.6 - Appearance as counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearance as counsel. 516.6 Section 516.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.6 Appearance as counsel. (a) General. Military personnel...

  14. 45 CFR 500.1 - Appearance and representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 500.1 Appearance... attorney at law admitted to practice in any State or Territory of the United States, or the District of... employee of the United States Department of Justice, when......

  15. Primary and recurrent inverting papilloma: appearances with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Roobottom, C A; Jewell, F M; Kabala, J

    1995-07-01

    Inverting papilloma of the sinonasal cavity is of importance because of its association with squamous cell carcinoma and its tendency to local recurrence. Appearances of inverting papilloma have only been reported infrequently, and never in recurrent cases. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of four cases of inverting papilloma, three of which are recurrent.

  16. Evaluating the Convergence of Muscle Appearance Attitude Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafri, Guy; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2004-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the assessment of a muscular appearance. Given the importance of assessing muscle appearance attitudes, the aim of this study was to explore the convergence of the Drive for Muscularity Scale, Somatomorphic Matrix, Contour Drawing Rating Scale, Male Figure Drawings, and the Muscularity Rating Scale. Participants…

  17. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearance of witnesses. 60-30.17 Section 60-30.17 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.17 Appearance of witnesses. (a) A party...

  18. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearance of witnesses. 60-30.17 Section 60-30.17 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.17 Appearance of witnesses. (a) A party...

  19. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Appearance of witnesses. 60-30.17 Section 60-30.17 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.17 Appearance of witnesses. (a) A party...

  20. 45 CFR 500.1 - Appearance and representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 500.1 Appearance... attorney at law admitted to practice in any State or Territory of the United States, or the District of... employee of the United States Department of Justice, when designated by the Attorney General of the...

  1. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  2. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... eligibility for naturalization. (c) If the applicant does not request reopening of an administratively...

  3. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... the date of filing of the application for purposes of determining eligibility for naturalization....

  4. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... the date of filing of the application for purposes of determining eligibility for naturalization....

  5. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... eligibility for naturalization. (c) If the applicant does not request reopening of an administratively...

  6. 8 CFR 335.6 - Failure to appear for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ON APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 335.6 Failure to appear for examination. (a) An applicant for naturalization shall be deemed to have abandoned his or her application if he or she fails to appear for the... the date of filing of the application for purposes of determining eligibility for naturalization....

  7. 32 CFR 1648.4 - Appointment for personal appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appointment for personal appearances. 1648.4... CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.4 Appointment for personal appearances. (a) Not less than 10 days (unless..., including witnesses, bearing on his classification. (b) Should the registrant who has filed a claim...

  8. 32 CFR 1648.4 - Appointment for personal appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appointment for personal appearances. 1648.4... CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.4 Appointment for personal appearances. (a) Not less than 10 days (unless..., including witnesses, bearing on his classification. (b) Should the registrant who has filed a claim...

  9. 32 CFR 1648.4 - Appointment for personal appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appointment for personal appearances. 1648.4... CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.4 Appointment for personal appearances. (a) Not less than 10 days (unless..., including witnesses, bearing on his classification. (b) Should the registrant who has filed a claim...

  10. 32 CFR 1648.4 - Appointment for personal appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appointment for personal appearances. 1648.4... CLASSIFICATION BY LOCAL BOARD § 1648.4 Appointment for personal appearances. (a) Not less than 10 days (unless..., including witnesses, bearing on his classification. (b) Should the registrant who has filed a claim...

  11. 21 CFR 1316.50 - Appearance; representation; authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearance; representation; authorization. 1316.50 Section 1316.50 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.50 Appearance;...

  12. 14 CFR 305.6 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of witnesses. 305.6 Section 305.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN INFORMAL NONPUBLIC INVESTIGATIONS § 305.6 Appearance of...

  13. 22 CFR 18.6 - Authority to prohibit appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to prohibit appearances. 18.6 Section 18.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.6 Authority to prohibit appearances....

  14. 12 CFR 266.4 - Suspension of appearance privilege.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of appearance privilege. 266.4 Section 266.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... of appearance privilege. If any person knowingly and willfully fails to comply with the provisions...

  15. 31 CFR 501.704 - Appearance and practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearance and practice. 501.704 Section 501.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.704 Appearance and practice. No person shall...

  16. 10 CFR 2.1324 - Appearance in an oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance in an oral hearing. 2.1324 Section 2.1324 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1324 Appearance in an oral...

  17. 28 CFR 811.13 - Notices and appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notices and appearances. 811.13 Section 811.13 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.13 Notices and appearances. Unless otherwise directed by the...

  18. 49 CFR 386.4 - Appearances and rights of parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearances and rights of parties. 386.4 Section... MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS Scope of Rules; Definitions and General Provisions § 386.4 Appearances and rights of... a proceeding under this subpart. (b) A person representing a party must file a notice of...

  19. 45 CFR 500.1 - Appearance and representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearance and representation. 500.1 Section 500.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 500.1...

  20. 49 CFR 821.9 - Intervention and amicus appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intervention and amicus appearance. 821.9 Section 821.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... Intervention and amicus appearance. (a) Intervention. Any person may move for leave to intervene in...

  1. 24 CFR 1720.120 - Qualification for appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualification for appearances. 1720.120 Section 1720.120 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.120 Qualification for appearances. (a)...

  2. 28 CFR 4.11 - Appearance; testimony; cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearance; testimony; cross-examination. 4.11 Section 4.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR... RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.11 Appearance; testimony; cross-examination. (a) The...

  3. Appearance Investment and Everyday Interpersonal Functioning: An Experience Sampling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; German, Ramaris E.; Wenze, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that body satisfaction affects interpersonal functioning. However, few have studied the specific interpersonal correlates of another important body image dimension, appearance investment--that is, the importance a woman places on appearance. We used an experience sampling design with PDA (personal digital assistant)…

  4. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  5. 45 CFR 500.1 - Appearance and representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... copy of the organization's constitution, or charter, by-laws, and its latest financial statement, the... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 500.1 Appearance... attorney at law admitted to practice in any State or Territory of the United States, or the......

  6. 45 CFR 500.1 - Appearance and representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... copy of the organization's constitution, or charter, by-laws, and its latest financial statement, the... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 500.1 Appearance... attorney at law admitted to practice in any State or Territory of the United States, or the......

  7. Case report: unusual ultrasonographic appearance of a solitary retroperitoneal neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C J

    1994-02-01

    A neurofibroma in the retroperitoneum with unusual ultrasonic findings is described. The ultrasonographic differential diagnosis with other abdominal neoplasms, clinical features and pathological findings are presented.

  8. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  9. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  10. "Stirred, Not Shaken": Vibrational Coherence Can Speed Up Electronic Absorption.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R

    2015-08-27

    We have recently proposed a laser control scheme for ultrafast absorption in multilevel systems by parallel transfer (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015, 6, 1724). In this work we develop an analytical model that better takes into account the main features of electronic absorption in molecules. We show that the initial vibrational coherence in the ground electronic state can be used to greatly enhance the rate and yield of absorption when ultrashort pulses are used, provided that the phases of the coherences are taken into account. On the contrary, the initial coherence plays no role in the opposite limit, when a single long pulse drives the optical transition. The theory is tested by numerical simulations in the first absorption band of Na2.

  11. H I absorption toward cooling flows in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bregman, Joel N.

    1990-01-01

    An H I survey of 14 cooling flow clusters and two noncooling flow clusters was conducted, and H I absorption features were detected against the nuclear radio continuum sources of two cooling flow dominant (CFD) galaxies, 2A 0335 + 096 and MKW3s. The absorption features are broad and redshifted with respect to the stellar absorption-line velocity of the CFDs by 90-225 km/s. This indicates that the H I is falling onto, and is probably gravitationally bound to, the CFDs. The kinematics of the H I clouds suggest a possible kinematic link between the warm and cold phases of the intracluster medium. The clouds are orders of magnitude smaller in radius and mass and larger in density than Galactic H I clouds. The detected CFDs have mass-accretion rates that are about 2.5 times larger than the CFDs that were not detected.

  12. Contribution of interstitial diffusion in drug absorption from perfused rabbit muscle: effect of hyaluronidase on absorption.

    PubMed

    Nara, E; Saikawa, A; Masegi, M; Hashida, M; Sezaki, H

    1992-03-01

    [3H]Water and [14C]inulin were injected into perfused rabbit muscle with or without hyaluronidase (300 units/ml) and their absorption into venous effluent from muscle was determined. Hyaluronidase accelerated the absorption of both compounds but the enhancement of [14C]inulin was much larger than that for [3H]water. The pharmacokinetic analysis of venous appearance curves based on a physiological diffusion model elucidated that interstitial diffusion of [14C]inulin was remarkably increased by hyaluronidase treatment, suggesting the existence of steric hindrance for it by the polysaccharide network under normal conditions. Enhancement of [3H]water diffusion was also detected although enhancement ratio was about one-half of that of [14C]inulin. Mean time necessary for each process was calculated using the statistical moment concepts. The results suggested predominant contribution of the interstitial diffusion process and secondary and little contribution of local perfusion flow and permeation process across the capillary wall, respectively, in total absorption of [14C]inulin. Effect of hyaluronidase on transcapillary movement of [14C]inulin was studied using an in vitro diffusion experiment with cultured endothelial cell monolayer and no enhancing effect was shown on [14C]inulin transport across the cell monolayer. The contribution of the local perfusion flow, on the other hand, was shown to be almost equivalent to that of the diffusion process in the total absorption of [3H]water.

  13. Molecular hydrogen ion /H2+/ absorption in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.; Boggess, A.; Mccracken, C. W.; Hobbs, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Several IUE spectra of planetary nebulae show an absorption feature shortward of 1500 A which is believed to be due to H2(+). The nebulae are excited by stars of spectral type O3-O7 or continuum, and all but one have double-shell structure.

  14. Vertebral involvement in Paget's disease: morphological classification of CT and MR appearances.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Kaci, Rachid; Touraine, Sebastien; Bousson, Valérie; Larédo, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral Paget's disease produces a large panel of radiologic appearances sometimes atypical and pseudotumoral. Classical classifications of bone alterations based on pathophysiological hypotheses do not always match the imaging findings. This article will review the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Paget's disease of the spine with special emphasis on morphological findings that differentiate Paget's disease from tumors. Combined CT and MRI analyses usually provide the diagnosis of Paget's disease. PMID:25245640

  15. The Appearance of Spicules in High Resolution Observations of Ca II H and Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-06-01

    Solar spicules are chromospheric fibrils that appear everywhere on the Sun, yet their origin is not understood. Using high resolution observations of spicules obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, we aim to understand how spicules appear in filtergrams and Dopplergrams, how they compare in Ca ii H and Hα filtergrams, and what can make them appear and disappear. We find that spicules display a rich and detailed spatial structure, and show a distribution of transverse velocities that, when aligned with the line of sight, can make them appear at different Hα wing positions. They become more abundant at positions closer to the line core, reflecting a distribution of Doppler shifts and widths. In Hα width maps they stand out as bright features both on disk and off limb, reflecting their large Doppler motions and possibly higher temperatures than in the typical Hα formation region. Spicule lifetimes measured from narrowband images at only a few positions will be an underestimate because Doppler shifts can make them disappear prematurely from such images; for such cases, width maps are a more robust tool. In Hα and Ca ii H filtergrams, off-limb spicules essentially have the same properties, appearance, and evolution. We find that the sudden appearance of spicules can be explained by Doppler shifts from their transverse motions, and does not require other convoluted explanations.

  16. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  17. Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

    2010-11-01

    Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

  18. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  19. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  20. Examining the Moderating Effect of Appearance Impression Motivation on the Relationship between Perceived Physical Appearance and Social Physique Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorose, Anthony J.; Hollembeak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the conceptual importance of impression motivation in predicting social anxiety (Leary & Kowalski, 1995; Schlenker & Leary, 1982), no research has tested the link between impression motivation specifically regarding one's physical appearance (appearance impression motivation, or AIM) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this…

  1. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  2. Breaking the circle: challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media.

    PubMed

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-06-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seventy-one college women either received norm-confirming, norm-challenging, or no information regarding the sociocultural norms for appearance. Subsequently, participants' visual attention to appearance-related and neutral advertisements was measured using an eye-tracker. The results demonstrate that when no information or norm-confirming information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid more attention to the appearance-related advertisements than women with higher self-esteem. Importantly however, when norm-challenging information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid significantly less attention to the appearance-related ads than women with lower self-esteem who did not receive this manipulation. These findings indicate that challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance can attenuate the amount of attention women give to appearance-related media.

  3. The relation between infants' activity with objects and attention to object appearance.

    PubMed

    Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action. Infants robustly responded to changes in action, but as a group did not respond to changes in appearance. Moreover, more skilled activity with objects during naturalistic play was associated with longer looking in response to a change in appearance, but not to a change in action. Implications for the relation between perception and action in infancy are discussed. (

  4. Body image concern and selective attention to disgusting and non-self appearance-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Onden-Lim, Melissa; Wu, Ray; Grisham, Jessica R

    2012-09-01

    Although selective attention to one's own appearance has been widely documented in studies of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), little is known about attentional bias toward non-self appearance-related stimuli in BDD. Furthermore, despite reports of heightened experience of disgust in BDD, it is unknown whether these individuals differentially attend to disgusting stimuli and whether disgust is important in processing of unattractive stimuli. We used a dot probe procedure to investigate the relationship between dysmorphic concern, a defining feature of BDD, and selective attention to faces, attractive, unattractive and disgusting images in a female heterosexual student population (N=92). At the long stimulus presentation (1000 ms), dysmorphic concern was positively associated with attention to faces in general and attractive appearance-related images. In contrast, at the short stimulus presentation (200 ms), there was a positive association between dysmorphic concern and disgusting images. Implications for theoretical models of BDD are discussed.

  5. Improvement in appearance of colors for elderly persons using lightness transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Chiaki; Azetsu, Tadahiro; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    The color of an object appears to be different for elderly and young persons. This is because human visual features vary with on age. In general, the spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens of an elderly person is lower than that of a young person. The low spectral transmittance decreases the brightness of the visual field. This phenomenon affects the color appearance of an image in human visual perception. In this paper, a lightness transform method is proposed to improve the color appearance of images for elderly persons. In the proposed method, colors that are difficult for an elderly person to see are transformed into colors that are easy to see by adding lightness contrast. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed in experiments using digital images.

  6. [Compatible low target feature coatings].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Gao, Hai-chao; Dai, Song-tao

    2008-09-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) film has low reflectance in near infrared band while high reflectance in infrared band, and its dielectric constant can be described by Drude free-electron model. SiO film has very strong absorption at certain infrared wavelength By combining them, certain spectral selectivity can be realized. In the present paper, the authors investigated SiO/ITO films in terms of spectrum selectivity, and discussed the influence of film structure on reflection spectrum. By means of the computation of reflection spectrum with characteristic matrix, the authors found that SiO/ITO film can be used as a compatible infrared low target feature coating by properly adjusting film arrangement and selecting suitable film parameters.

  7. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  8. Intestinal Folate Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Olinger, Edward J.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Binder, Henry J.

    1973-01-01

    These studies were designed to determine whether pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA) at physiologic concentrations is transported across the small intestine unaltered or is reduced and methylated to the circulating folate form (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-MeFH4]) during absorption. [3H]PGA was incubated in vitro on the mucosal side of rat jejunum. Of the folate transferred to the serosal side, the percent identified as 5-MeFH4 by DEAE-Sephadex chromtography was inversely related to the initial mucosa PGA concentration: at 7, 20, and 2,000 nM, 44%, 34%, and 2%, respectively, was converted to 5-MeFH4. In contrast, less than 4% of the folate transferred across ileal mucosa was 5-MeFH4 when the initial mucosa concentration was 20 nM. Specific activity of dihydrofolate (DHF) reductase, the enzyme responsible for converting PGA to tetrahydrofolic acid, was measured in villus homogenates and was significantly greater in the jejunum than in the ileum. 1,000 nM methotrexate (MTX), a DHF reductase inhibitor, markedly inhibited PGA conversion to 5-MeFH4 by the jejunum. Studies of transmural flux, initial rate of mucosal entry (influx) and mucosal accumulation (uptake) of folate were also performed. Although MTX did not alter the influx of PGA, MTX decreased jejunal mucosal uptake but increased transmural movement. Transmural folate movement across ileal mucosa was greater than across jejunal mucosa although mucosal uptake was greater in the jejunum than in the ileum. These results could explain previous studies which have failed to identify conversion of PGA to 5-MeFH4 when intestinal preparations have been exposed to higher and less physiologic concentrations of PGA. Further, these studies suggest that 5-MeFH4 may be retained by the jejunal mucosa. PMID:4727453

  9. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation.

  10. Precambrian columnar stromatolite diversity: reflection of metazoan appearance.

    PubMed

    Awramik, S M

    1971-11-19

    Columnar stromatolites (organosedimentary structures built by bluegreen algae) show a marked decrease in diversity in the Late Precambrian; this decrease in diversity occurs at approximately the same time as the appearance of metazoans, 600 to 700 million years ago.

  11. VIEW OF BASE END STATION LEARY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION LEARY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. VIEW OF BASE END STATION OSGOOD SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION OSGOOD SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. VIEW OF BASE END STATION SAXTON SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION SAXTON SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 32 CFR 724.222 - Personal appearance discharge hearing sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative staff, in the NCR. The NDRB shall routinely conduct personal appearance discharge reviews and... reviews. The selection of sites and frequency of visits shall be predicated on the number of...

  15. 24. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, DOUBLE CULVERT APPEARS TO BE "BOX", ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, DOUBLE CULVERT APPEARS TO BE "BOX", BUT IS PIPE WITH SQUARE HEAD WALL OPENING. NOTE ARCHED TOP STYLE USED BY CCC. VIEW SE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  16. 10. CUT OF THE CHURCH BUILDING AS IT APPEARED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CUT OF THE CHURCH BUILDING AS IT APPEARED ON THE PRINTED PROGRAM OF THE JANUARY 1, 1893 DEDICATION SERVICE. - Second Presbyterian Church, Pontatoc Avenue & Hernando Street, Memphis, Shelby County, TN

  17. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones. PMID:19410527

  18. Combo Drug for Childhood Asthma Appears Safe in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160721.html Combo Drug for Childhood Asthma Appears Safe in Study FDA to review findings, ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lingering safety concerns regarding an asthma drug for children may be put to rest ...

  19. The Center for Human Appearance: a multi-specialty concept.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Linton A

    2003-02-01

    At the time of its founding in 1988, The Edwin and Fannie Gray Hall Center for Human Appearance at the University of Pennsylvania was the first such center in a major academic setting dedicated to the multispecialty serious study of problems of appearance. The concept was for five key specialties, originally, and now six, with primary interests in appearance, to meet regularly to present ideas and problems, and to approach the study and treatment of appearance in a comprehensive, scholarly, and multidisciplinary manner. The group has been cohesive, which has depended on frequent and regular personal interactions, as well as an adequate and supportive financial structure. With these factors in place, and a dedication to making it work, there have been publications, new ideas, and teamwork that has made it possible for competing specialties to effectively function together.

  20. Emerging adults' perceptions of messages about physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2009-06-01

    Emerging adults receive messages about physical appearance from a range of sources, but few studies have examined the content of these messages. Undergraduates (N=154) who identified as African American, Latino American, and European American answered 4 open-ended questions about messages they perceived about physical appearance from family, peers, school, and media. Raters coded responses for content and affect. The most common messages perceived were the importance/non-importance of appearance, positive comments about appearance, and the link between attractiveness and success. The perception of these messages frequently differed by gender and source, but rarely by ethnicity. Women perceived more frequent and more negative messages than did men. Individuals perceived the media as transmitting more negative messages and the family more healthful and positive ones.