Science.gov

Sample records for absorption features indicative

  1. Molecular absorption features in translucent clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krelowski, Jacek

    2007-12-01

    Interstellar clouds, composed of neutral hydrogen, consist about 90% of the total mass of interstellar medium. Their absorption spectra contain: continuous extinction, atomic lines, molecular features and the unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The latter are also believed to be carried by some, rather complex molecules. A vast majority of DIBs is characterized by small central depths. This is why they became observable only since the solid state detectors are widely applied in astrophysics. It is to be emphasized that interstellar absorptions, seen along the same line of sight, may be in fact originated in several, different environments (clouds). The extensive database of echelle spectra allowed to prove that the CaII column density evidently correlates with parallaxes of OB-3 stars in contrast to other interstellar species. Thus CaII is quite evenly distributed in the interstellar medium while other species (NaI, KI, CaI, CH, CN, DIB carriers) are not. This fact is of basic importance as the ob- served spectra cannot be physically interpreted if they mix features originated in different clouds, i.e. in different environments. The abundance ratios of interstellar molecules (identified and DIB carriers) differ from cloud to cloud due to different physical processes which govern their formation. High resolution, high S/N spectra, prove that also profiles of diffuse bands vary from cloud to cloud - this fact strongly supports a molecular origin of these, still nidentified, features and motivates investigation of their relations to other molecules; they can reveal physical conditions which facilitate formation of the DIB carriers and lead to their identification.

  2. [Major depression: features indicative of bipolarity?].

    PubMed

    Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder is underdiagnosed in patients with major depression. Missing the diagnosis of a bipolar disorder may have serious and even occasionally fatal consequences for a patient with the disease. Moreover misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment and therefore contribute to worsening medical and functional prognosis. Although there are no pathognomonic characteristics of bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression, evidence-based findings suggest that some features may be indicative of bipolarity, in patients with depression. These features are related to clinical picture of depressive state, course of episode and illness, response to treatment, family history, comorbid conditions, as well as demographic and temperamental characteristics. Based on such features, some authors have proposed operationalized criteria or a diagnostic specific for bipolarity, to identify bipolar depression. Screening instruments may also be used, to facilitate early recognition. Validation studies of these diagnostic features and instruments are underway.

  3. A new class of absorption feature in Io's near-infrared spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L. M.; Lester, D. F.; Ramseyer, T. F.; Salama, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A relatively weak IR absorption feature detected at 1200 resolving power in Io at 2.1253 microns does not correspond to any gas- or solid-phase absorption expected on the basis of previously identified Io surface constituents. The source material of the feature appears to be stable and more uniformly distributed in longitude than Io's hot spots. These characteristics imply the feature's participation in a class different from those of other Io absorption spectrum features, thereby potentially serving as a major indicator of Io's atmosphere-surface composition and interactions. Results of laboratory experiments with plausible surface ices are compared with these observations.

  4. A study of the absorption features of Makemake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J.; Duffard, R.; Carvano, J.; de Pra, M.

    2014-07-01

    Most transneptunian objects do not show prominent absorption features due to the size and location [1]. Nevertheless, absorption due to water ice and volatile ices do appear on a few large objects, particularly those that have good signal-to-noise-ratio spectra. In particular, methane appears in three dwarf planets (Pluto, Eris, and Makemake), as well as in some smaller objects, such as Quaoar and probably Sedna, and in Neptune's satellite Triton. Methane has such intense absorption features that even small amounts of methane on the surface dominate the reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared range, making it a great tool to probe surfaces, especially, considering that the depth of the bands could be used as a proxy for physical depths and that shifts in the bands with respect to laboratory measurements could point to possible dilutions (as seen in Pluto and Eris; for instance [3] and references therein). Aiming at gaining a deeper insight into Makemake's surface through its methane absorption bands, we have observed it with X-Shooter at the VLT with a medium spectral resolution in the range of 0.4--1.8 microns. In this work, we present the results of comparing these features with those of methane in the laboratory and the same features in Eris and Pluto, within the context of methane-dominated spectra of dwarf planets.

  5. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Special Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  6. Lead absorption in cows: biological indicators of ambient lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D.; Skender, L.

    1984-03-01

    In order to determine actual lead exposure from residual amounts of lead in the environmental soil following the introduction of effective engineering emission controls in a lead smeltery, the absorption of lead in cows grazing in the vicinity was investigated. Four groups of cows were examined: two groups of cows exposed to different ambient lead concentration, compared with two normal groups of cows. In each cow aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (Pb-B) were determined, two years prior to and four years after the technical sanitation of the lead emission source. The results demonstrated normalization of ALAD, EP and Pb-B after the technical sanitation. In spite of normalization, biological indicators ALAD and Pb-B determined four years after the technical sanitation showed increased lead absorption in comparison with the results of the control group. This indirectly indicates lead contamination of the environment from residual amounts of lead in the soil.

  7. Absorption Features in Spectra of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Suleimanov, V.; Hambaryan, V.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Pavlov, G. G.; Adelsberg, M. van; Werner, K.

    2011-09-21

    The X-ray spectra of some magnetized isolated neutron stars (NSs) show absorption features with equivalent widths (EWs) of 50-200 eV, whose nature is not yet well known.To explain the prominent absorption features in the soft X-ray spectra of the highly magnetized (B{approx}10{sup 14} G) X-ray dim isolated NSs (XDINSs), we theoretically investigate different NS local surface models, including naked condensed iron surfaces and partially ionized hydrogen model atmospheres, with semi-infinite and thin atmospheres above the condensed surface. We also developed a code for computing light curves and integral emergent spectra of magnetized neutron stars with various temperature and magnetic field distributions over the NS surface. We compare the general properties of the computed and observed light curves and integral spectra for XDINS RBS 1223 and conclude that the observations can be explained by a thin hydrogen atmosphere above the condensed iron surface, while the presence of a strong toroidal magnetic field component on the XDINS surface is unlikely.We suggest that the harmonically spaced absorption features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the central compact object (CCO) 1E 1207.4-5209 (hereafter 1E 1207) correspond to peaks in the energy dependence of the free-free opacity in a quantizing magnetic field, known as quantum oscillations. To explore observable properties of these quantum oscillations, we calculate models of hydrogen NS atmospheres with B{approx}10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} G(i.e., electron cyclotron energy E{sub c,e}{approx}0.1-1 keV) and T{sub eff} = 1-3 MK. Such conditions are thought to be typical for 1E 1207. We show that observable features at the electron cyclotron harmonics with EWs {approx_equal}100-200 eV can arise due to these quantum oscillations.

  8. Absorption of UV radiation by DNA: spatial and temporal features.

    PubMed

    Markovitsi, Dimitra; Gustavsson, Thomas; Banyasz, Akos

    2010-01-01

    The present review focuses on studies carried out by our group on the interaction of UV radiation with DNA. In particular, we examine the way that the energy acquired by DNA helices following direct absorption of UVC radiation is extended spatially and how its effects evolve during the time. These effects depend on the base sequence and can be revealed by the study of model helices. The experimental results were obtained by optical spectroscopy, used in a refined way which allows detection of very weak absorbance changes (10(-3)) as well as of intrinsic emission from DNA components whose fluorescence quantum yields are as low as 10(-4). Measurements were performed both under continuous irradiation and using pulsed excitation which permitted us to follow early events, occurring from 10(-14) to 10(-1)s. The experiments were guided by theoretical calculations. The spatial features concern the extent of the excited states formed immediately upon UV absorption; these were shown to be delocalized over several bases under the effect of electronic coupling. Moreover, thanks to the spectral fingerprints governed by the electronic coupling; we probed local denaturation induced on a double helix following formation of cyclobutane dimers. Regarding the temporal features, three different topics are presented: (i) ultrafast excitation energy transfer occurring among the bases in less than 100 fs, (ii) electron ejection from DNA upon absorption of one photon at 266 nm and (iii) formation of (6-4) photo-adducts involving a reaction intermediate. The most important message emerging from these studies is that DNA bases may adopt a collective behaviour versus UV radiation. Furthermore, time-resolved studies unravel processes which are undetectable by investigations using continuous irradiation. All these pieces of information change our understanding of how DNA damage occurs upon absorption of UV radiation.

  9. Correlation analysis of hyperspectral absorption features with the water status of coast live oak leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Ge, Shaokui; Kelly, Nina M.; Gong, Peng

    2002-01-01

    A total of 139 reflectance spectra (between 350 and 2500 nm) from coast live oak (Quercus Agrifolia) leaves were measured in the laboratory with a spectrometer FieldSpec½Pro FR. Correlation analysis was conducted between absorption features, three-band ratio indices derived from the spectra and corresponding relative water content (RWC, %) of oak leaves. The experimental results indicate that there exist linear relationships between the RWC of oak leaves and absorption feature parameters: wavelength position (WAVE), absorption feature depth (DEP), width (WID) and the multiplication of DEP and WID (AREA) at the 975 nm, 1200 nm and 1750 nm positions and two three-band ratio indices: RATIO975 and RATIO1200, derived at 975 nm and 1200 nm. AREA has a higher and more stable correlation with RWC compared to other features. It is worthy of noting that the two three-band ratio indices, RATIO975 and RATIO1200, may have potential application in assessing water status in vegetation.

  10. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  11. Gender differences in autonomic indicators of antisocial personality disorder features.

    PubMed

    Sylvers, Patrick; Brennan, Patricia A; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Alden, S Amanda

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the autonomic indicators of antisocial personality disorder (APD) features in a mixed gender student sample. One hundred college students (50 men, 50 women) were administered an interview of APD and self-report measures of aggression and psychopathy. Participants completed a passive coping task and viewed emotionally valenced slideshows while their electrodermal activity (EDA), pre-ejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured. Associations between APD features and autonomic reactivity were examined, controlling for aggression and psychopathy. APD features were associated with EDA hyporeactivity in men, but not women, during passive coping. While viewing threatening slides, APD features were associated with RSA hyperreactivity in women and with PEP hyperreactivity in men. APD features were associated with RSA hyperreactivity in women, but not men, while viewing slides of others in distress. These findings suggest that APD features are characterized by parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction in women but sympathetic nervous system dysfunction in men.

  12. Features of the Correlation Structure of Price Indices

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Zhong, Weiqiong

    2013-01-01

    What are the features of the correlation structure of price indices? To answer this question, 5 types of price indices, including 195 specific price indices from 2003 to 2011, were selected as sample data. To build a weighted network of price indices each price index is represented by a vertex, and a positive correlation between two price indices is represented by an edge. We studied the features of the weighted network structure by applying economic theory to the analysis of complex network parameters. We found that the frequency of the price indices follows a normal distribution by counting the weighted degrees of the nodes, and we identified the price indices which have an important impact on the network's structure. We found out small groups in the weighted network by the methods of k-core and k-plex. We discovered structure holes in the network by calculating the hierarchy of the nodes. Finally, we found that the price indices weighted network has a small-world effect by calculating the shortest path. These results provide a scientific basis for macroeconomic control policies. PMID:23593399

  13. Features of the correlation structure of price indices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Zhong, Weiqiong

    2013-01-01

    What are the features of the correlation structure of price indices? To answer this question, 5 types of price indices, including 195 specific price indices from 2003 to 2011, were selected as sample data. To build a weighted network of price indices each price index is represented by a vertex, and a positive correlation between two price indices is represented by an edge. We studied the features of the weighted network structure by applying economic theory to the analysis of complex network parameters. We found that the frequency of the price indices follows a normal distribution by counting the weighted degrees of the nodes, and we identified the price indices which have an important impact on the network's structure. We found out small groups in the weighted network by the methods of k-core and k-plex. We discovered structure holes in the network by calculating the hierarchy of the nodes. Finally, we found that the price indices weighted network has a small-world effect by calculating the shortest path. These results provide a scientific basis for macroeconomic control policies.

  14. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  15. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  16. Detection of Variable Gaseous Absorption Features in the Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    2012-10-01

    We present medium resolution (R = 60,000) absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K line observed towards five nearby A-type stars (49 Ceti, 5 Vul, ι Cyg, 2 And, and HD 223884) suspected of possessing circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were observed on a nightly basis during a six night observing run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas. We have detected nightly changes in the absorption strength of the Ca II K line observed near the stellar radial velocity in three of the stars (49 Ceti, i Cyg and HD 223884). Such changes in absorption suggest the presence of a circumstellar (atomic) gas disk around these stars. In addition to the absorption changes in the main Ca II K line profile, we have also observed weak transient absorption features that randomly appear at redshifted velocities in the spectra of 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And. These absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of falling evaporated bodies (exo-comets) that liberate evaporating gas on their approach to the central star. This now brings the total number of systems in which exocomet activity has been observed at Ca II or Na I wavelengths on a nightly basis to seven (β Pic, HR 10, HD 85905, β Car, 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And), with 2 And exhibiting weaker and less frequent changes. All of the disk systems presently known to exhibit either type of short-term variability in Ca II K line absorption are rapidly rotating A-type stars (V sin i > 120 km s-1). Most exhibit mid-IR excesses, and many of them are very young (< 20 Myr), thus supporting the argument that many of them are transitional objects between Herbig Ae and “Vega-like” A-type stars with more tenuous circumstellar disks. No mid-IR excess (due to the presence of a dust disk) has yet been detected around either 2 And or HD 223884, both of which have been classified as λ Boötis-type stars. This may indicate that the observed changes in gas absorption for these

  17. Empathic Features and Absorption in Fantasy Role-Playing.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).

  18. Relating water absorption features to soil moisture characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jia; Philpot, William D.

    2015-09-01

    The spectral reflectance of a sample of quartz sand was monitored as the sample progressed from air-dry to fully saturated, and then back to air-dry. Wetting was accomplished by spraying small amounts of water on the surface of the sample, and collecting spectra whenever change occurred. Drying was passive, driven by evaporation from the sand surface, with spectra collected every 5 minutes until the sample was air dry. Water content was determined by monitoring the weight of the sample through both wetting and drying. There was a pronounced difference in the pattern of change in reflectance during wetting and drying, with the differences being apparent both in spectral details (i.e., the depth of absorption bands) and in the magnitude of the reflectance for a particular water content. The differences are attributable to the disposition of water in the sample. During wetting, water initially occurred only on the surface, primarily as water adsorbed onto sand particles. With increased wetting the water infiltrated deeper into the sample, gradually covering all particles and filling the pore spaces. During drying, water and air were distributed throughout the sample for most of the drying period. The differences in water distribution are assumed to be the cause of the differences in reflectance and to the differences in the depths of four strong water absorption bands.

  19. Atmospheric-water absorption features near 2.2 micrometers and their importance in high spectral resolution remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Clark, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atmospheric gases and water vapor is an accepted fact in terrestrial remote sensing. Until recently, only a general knowledge of atmospheric effects was required for analysis of remote sensing data; however, with the advent of high spectral resolution imaging devices, detailed knowledge of atmospheric absorption bands has become increasingly important for accurate analysis. Detailed study of high spectral resolution aircraft data at the U.S. Geological Survey has disclosed narrow absorption features centered at approximately 2.17 and 2.20 micrometers not caused by surface mineralogy. Published atmospheric transmission spectra and atmospheric spectra derived using the LOWTRAN-5 computer model indicate that these absorption features are probably water vapor. Spectral modeling indicates that the effects of atmospheric absorption in this region are most pronounced in spectrally flat materials with only weak absorption bands. Without correction and detailed knowledge of the atmospheric effects, accurate mapping of surface mineralogy (particularly at low mineral concentrations) is not possible.

  20. Using high spectral resolution spectrophotometry to study broad mineral absorption features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally telescopic measurements of mineralogic absorption features have been made using relatively low to moderate (R=30-300) spectral resolution. Mineralogic absorption features tend to be broad so high resolution spectroscopy (R greater than 10,000) does not provide significant additional compositional information. Low to moderate resolution spectroscopy allows an observer to obtain data over a wide wavelength range (hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers) compared to the several wavenumber intervals that are collected using high resolution spectrometers. However, spectrophotometry at high resolution has major advantages over lower resolution spectroscopy in situations that are applicable to studies of the Martian surface, i.e., at wavelengths where relatively weak surface absorption features and atmospheric gas absorption features both occur.

  1. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  2. Comparison of the THz absorption feature in lactose to related saccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarnason, Jon E.; Brown, Elliott R.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2007-04-01

    Solid-state organic compounds such as α-lactose-monohydrate and biotin have been shown to have narrow and intense THz absorption features at room temperature. Interest in lineshapes in the THz region is justified not only for practical reasons, since they are of crucial importance to spectroscopy-based identification of materials, but also because of the information the line-widths contain about the solid-state physics of the materials. The line-width of THz absorption features (generally from lattice vibrations) in solids is excepted to be inversely proportional to the scattering time of optical phonons. The line-width of absorption features might thus have implications on the solid-state physics of the material, in particular, the interaction of phonons and the phonon density of states. We use a continuous wave THz photomixing system to obtain a high resolution spectrum of α-lactose-mohohydrate and analyze two of its lowest-frequency absorption lines. For comparison we measure the transmission spectra of 5 chemically related saccharides: melecitose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, and raffinose. Since α-lactose-monohydrate has a stronger and narrower absorption feature than any of its related saccharides, this comparison study is an important step in understanding the mechanism of THz radiation absorption by organic solids and what line-widths to expect in THz spectroscopy.

  3. Experimental Study of Surface Dissolution Features on Kimberlite Indicator Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIsaac, E.; Fedortchouk, Y.

    2009-05-01

    During the ascent to the Earth's surface kimberlite magmas entrain mantle minerals - chromites, ilmenites, garnets and the most desirable - diamonds. Kimberlite magma partially dissolves these minerals during the ascent, producing different types of surface features on the minerals. Experiments showed that surface features on diamonds can be used to constrain composition of magmatic fluid. However, examining mantle minerals with more complex chemical compositions, such as chromites and ilmenites, could provide more detailed information about the composition and evolution of fluid system in the magmas, as determination of the depth of their entrainment is possible. This study experimentally investigates dissolution of chromites and ilmenites in melts with C-O-H fluid. The surface features produced at these conditions are then compared to the surface features on minerals recovered from kimberlites. The experiments were done in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 1350 - 1400°C and 1 GPa. Rounded natural mineral grains were placed in a synthetic mixture of Ca-Mg-Si-C-H-O composition with 0, 5, 13, 15, and 31 wt% H2O and 0, 5, and 27 wt% CO2. The experimental results investigated using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that angular step-like dissolution surfaces, which are common for natural kimberlitic chromites, develop only in the presence of H2O-rich fluid phase. The reaction of chromite with H2O dissolved in the melt and with dry melt caused smoothing of chromite surfaces. Chromite dissolution in CO2-rich melts produced rounded and polyhedral relief features. Both the smooth and polyhedral types of features are not typical for natural kimberlite-hosted chromite grains. Ilmenite underwent rapid dissolution at our experimental conditions. In H2O-rich fluid ilmenite produced "pyramidal" type of surface features previously described as the most common for natural kimberlitic ilmenites. The experimental results were compared to the natural minerals

  4. Spatially Resolved HCN Absorption Features in the Circumnuclear Region of NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Kameno, Seiji; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Hyo-Ryoung; Hwang, Ju-Yeon

    2016-10-01

    We present the first VLBI detection of HCN molecular absorption in the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 1052. Utilizing the 1 mas resolution achieved by the Korean VLBI Network, we have spatially resolved the HCN absorption against a double-sided nuclear jet structure. Two velocity features of HCN absorption are detected significantly at the radial velocity of 1656 and 1719 km s-1, redshifted by 149 and 212 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The column density of the HCN molecule is estimated to be 1015-1016 cm-2, assuming an excitation temperature of 100-230 K. The absorption features show high optical depth localized on the receding jet side, where the free-free absorption occurred due to the circumnuclear torus. The size of the foreground absorbing molecular gas is estimated to be on approximately one-parsec scales, which agrees well with the approximate size of the circumnuclear torus. HCN absorbing gas is likely to be several clumps smaller than 0.1 pc inside the circumnuclear torus. The redshifted velocities of the HCN absorption features imply that HCN absorbing gas traces ongoing infall motion inside the circumnuclear torus onto the central engine.

  5. Mass absorption indices of various types of natural aerosol particles in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K

    1975-12-01

    The mass absorption index of aerosol particles has been measured in the 2-17-microm wavelength region. The measurements were performed on films of aerosol particles that were collected by an automatic jet impactor at polluted and various uncontaminated remote sites. All but marine aerosols possess strong absorption bands in the transparent part of the atmospheric long-wave spectrum, indicating marked influence of aerosol particles on the radiation budget of the atmosphere.

  6. Relationships between vegetation indices, radiation absorption, and net photosynthesis evaluated by a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stream approximation to the radiative-transfer equation is used to calculate the vegetation indices (simple ratio and normalized difference), the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy, and the daily mean canopy net photosynthesis under clear-sky conditions. The model calculations are tested against field observations over wheat, cotton, corn, and soybean. The relationships between the vegetation indices and radiation absorption or net photosynthesis are generally found to be curvilinear, and changes in the soil reflectance affected these relationships. The curvilinearity of the relationship between normalized differences and PAR absorption decreases as the magnitude of soil reflectance increases. The vegetation indices might provide the fractional radiation absorption with some a priori knowledge about soil reflectance. The relationship between the vegetation indices and net photosynthesis must be distinguished for C3 and C4 crops. Effects of spatial heterogeneity are discussed.

  7. Derivative Analysis of Absorption Features in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data of Carbonate Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-30

    reflectance of carbonate sediments and application to shallow water benthic habitat classification,” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Miami. Chap.3...resolve overlapping features. A primary application has been to analyze pigment and chemical composition of leaves in order to track physiological...final absorption feature was observed at 630 nm, in a region associated with the biliprotein, phycocyanin [16,17]. As biliproteins are water soluble

  8. Randic and Schultz molecular topological indices and their correlation with some X-ray absorption parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Sunil; Kekre, Pravin A.; Mishra, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    The properties of a molecular system are affected by the topology of molecule. Therefore many studies have been made where the various physic-chemical properties are correlated with the topological indices. These studies have shown a very good correlation demonstrating the utility of the graph theoretical approach. It is, therefore, very natural to expect that the various physical properties obtained by the X-ray absorption spectra may also show correlation with the topological indices. Some complexes were used to establish correlation between topological indices and some X-ray absorption parameters like chemical shift. The chemical shift is on the higher energy side of the metal edge in these complexes. The result obtained in these studies shows that the topological indices of organic molecule acting as a legands can be used for estimating edge shift theoretically.

  9. Understanding the features in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Do, Thanh Nhut; Ong, Xuanwei; Chan, Yinthai; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2016-12-01

    We describe a model to explain the features of the ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdSe core type quantum dots (QDs). The measured TA spectrum consists of contributions by the ground state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) processes associated with the three lowest energy transition of the QDs. We model the shapes of the GSB, SE and ESA spectral components after fits to the linear absorption. The spectral positions of the ESA components take into account the biexcitonic binding energy. In order to obtain the correct weightage of the GSB, SE and ESA components to the TA spectrum, we enumerate the set of coherence transfer pathways associated with these processes. From our fits of the experimental TA spectra of 65 Å diameter QDs, biexcitonic binding energies for the three lowest energy transitions are obtained.

  10. Investigations on the 1.7 micron residual absorption feature in the vegetation reflection spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdebout, J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.; Sieber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and interpretation of the weak absorption features associated with the biochemical components of vegetation is of great potential interest to a variety of applications ranging from classification to global change studies. This recent subject is also challenging because the spectral signature of the biochemicals is only detectable as a small distortion of the infrared spectrum which is mainly governed by water. Furthermore, the interpretation is complicated by complexity of the molecules (lignin, cellulose, starch, proteins) which contain a large number of different and common chemical bonds. In this paper, we present investigations on the absorption feature centered at 1.7 micron; these were conducted both on AVIRIS data and laboratory reflectance spectra of leaves.

  11. Iron K Features in the Quasar E 1821+643: Evidence for Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We report a Chandra high-energy grating detection of a narrow, redshifted absorption line superimposed on the red wing of a broad Fe K line in the z = 0.297 quasar E 1821+643. The absorption line is detected at a confidence level, estimated by two different methods, in the range approx. 2 - 3 sigma. Although the detection significance is not high enough to exclude a non-astrophysical origin, accounting for the absorption feature when modeling the X-ray spectrum implies that the Fe-K emission line is broad, and consistent with an origin in a relativistic accretion disk. Ignoring the apparent absorption feature leads to the conclusion that the Fe-K emission line is narrower, and also affects the inferred peak energy of the line (and hence the inferred ionization state of Fe). If the absorption line (at approx. 6.2 keV in the quasar frame) is real, we argue that it could be due to gravitationally redshifted Fe XXV or Fe XXVI resonance absorption within approx. 10 - 20 gravitational radii of the putative central black hole. The absorption line is not detected in earlier ASCA and Chandra low-energy grating observations, but the absorption line is not unequivocally ruled out by these data. The Chandra high-energy grating Fe-K emission line is consistent with an origin predominantly in Fe I-XVII or so. In an ASCA observation eight years earlier, the Fe-K line peaked at approx. 6.6 keV, closer to the energies of He-like Fe triplet lines. Further, in a Chandra low-energy grating observation the Fe-K line profile was double-peaked, one peak corresponding to Fe I-XVII or so, the other peak to Fe XXVI Ly alpha. Such a wide range in ionization state of Fe is not ruled out by the HEG and ASCA data either, and is suggestive of a complex structure for the line-emitter.

  12. Detection of the 2175 Å Dust Feature in Mg II Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta

    1997-10-01

    The broad absorption bump at 2175 Å due to dust, which is ubiquitous in the Galaxy and is seen in the Magellanic clouds, is also seen in a composite spectrum of Mg II absorbers. The composite absorber spectrum is obtained by taking the geometric mean of 92 quasar spectra after aligning them in the rest frame of 96 absorbers. By aligning the spectra according to absorber redshifts, we reinforce the spectral features of the absorbers and smooth over possible bumps and wiggles in the emission spectra as well as small features in the flat-fielding of the spectra. The width of the observed absorption feature is 200-300 Å (FWHM), or 0.4-0.6 μm-1, and the central wavelength is 2240 Å. These are somewhat different from the central wavelength of 2176 Å and FWHM = 0.8-1.25 μm-1 found in the Galaxy. Simulations show that this discrepancy between the properties of the 2175 Å feature in Mg II absorbers and the Galactic interstellar medium can be mostly explained by the different methods used to measure them.

  13. The initial mass functions of M31 and M32 through far red stellar absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.

    2015-09-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we investigate radial variations of several initial mass function (IMF) dependent absorption features in M31 and M32. We obtain high signal-to-noise spectra at six pointings along the major axis of M31 out to ˜700 arcsec (2.7 kpc) and a single pointing of the central 10 pc for M32. In M31 the sodium Na I λ8190 index shows a flat equivalent width profile at ˜0.4 Å through the majority of the bulge, with a strong gradient up to 0.8 Å in the central 10 arcsec (38 pc); the Wing-Ford FeH λ9916 index is measured to be constant at 0.4 Å for all radii; and calcium triplet CaT λλ8498, 8542, 8662 shows a gradual increase through the bulge towards the centre. M32 displays flat profiles for all three indices, with FeH at ˜0.5 Å, very high CaT at ˜0.8 Å and low Na I at ˜0.1 Å. We analyse these data using stellar population models. We find that M31 is well described on all scales by a Chabrier IMF, with a gradient in sodium enhancement of [Na/Fe] ˜ +0.3 dex in the outer bulge, rising within the central 10 arcsec to perhaps [Na/Fe] ˜ +1.0 dex in the nuclear region. We find M32 is described by a Chabrier IMF and young stellar age in line with other studies. Models show that CaT is much more sensitive to metallicity and [α/Fe] than to IMF. We note that the centres of M31 and M32 have very high stellar densities and yet we measure Chabrier IMFs in these regions.

  14. Absorption Features in the X-ray Spectrum of an Ordinary Radio Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Durant, Martin; Misanovic, Zdenka; Pavlov, George G.

    2012-08-01

    The vast majority of known nonaccreting neutron stars (NSs) are rotation-powered radio and/or γ-ray pulsars. So far, their multiwavelength spectra have all been described satisfactorily by thermal and nonthermal continuum models, with no spectral lines. Spectral features have, however, been found in a handful of exotic NSs and were thought to be a manifestation of their unique traits. Here, we report the detection of absorption features in the x-ray spectrum of an ordinary rotation-powered radio pulsar, J1740+1000. Our findings bridge the gap between the spectra of pulsars and other, more exotic, NSs, suggesting that the features are more common in the NS spectra than they have been thought so far.

  15. Absorption features in the x-ray spectrum of an ordinary radio pulsar.

    PubMed

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Durant, Martin; Misanovic, Zdenka; Pavlov, George G

    2012-08-24

    The vast majority of known nonaccreting neutron stars (NSs) are rotation-powered radio and/or γ-ray pulsars. So far, their multiwavelength spectra have all been described satisfactorily by thermal and nonthermal continuum models, with no spectral lines. Spectral features have, however, been found in a handful of exotic NSs and were thought to be a manifestation of their unique traits. Here, we report the detection of absorption features in the x-ray spectrum of an ordinary rotation-powered radio pulsar, J1740+1000. Our findings bridge the gap between the spectra of pulsars and other, more exotic, NSs, suggesting that the features are more common in the NS spectra than they have been thought so far.

  16. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state.

  17. Wavelength calibration techniques and subtle surface and atmospheric absorption features in the Mariner 6, 7 IRS reflectance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Roush, T. L.; Martin, T. Z.; Pollack, James B.; Freedman, R.

    1994-01-01

    1994 marks the 25th anniversary of the Mariner 6 and 7 flyby missions to Mars. Despite its age, the Mariner 6,7 Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) data are a unique set of measurements that can provide important information about the Martian surface, atmospheric, and atmospheric aerosol composition. For certain mid-IR wavelengths, the IRS spectra are the only such spacecraft data obtained for Mars. At other wavelengths, IRS measured surface regions different from those measured by Mariner 9 or Phobos 2 and under different dust opacity conditions. We are interested in examining the IRS reflectance data in the 1.8 to 3.0 micron region because there are numerous diagnostic absorption features at these wavelengths that could be indicative of hydrated silicate minerals or of carbonate- or sulfate-bearing minerals. Groundbased telescopic data and recent Phobos ISM measurements have provided controversial and somewhat contradictory evidence for the existence of mineralogic absorption features at these wavelengths. Our goal is to determine whether any such features can be seen in the IRS data and to use their presence or absence to re-assess the quality and interpretations of previous telescopic and spacecraft measurements.

  18. High-Velocity Absorption Features in FUSE Spectra of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Iping, R. C.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous broad (200 to 1000 km/sec) features in the FUSE spectrum (905-1187 A) of eta Carinae are identified as absorption by a forest of high-velocity narrow lines formed in the expanding circumstellar envelope. These features were previously thought to be P-Cygni lines arising in the wind of the central star. The features span a heliocentric velocity range of -140 to -580 km/sec and are seen prominently in low-ionization ground-state transitions (e.g. N I 1134-35, Fe II 1145-42, 1133, 1127- 22, P II 1153, C I 1158) in addition to C III] 1176 A. The high-velocity components of the FUSE transitions have depths about 50% below the continuum. The identifications are consistent with the complex velocity structures seen in ground- and excited-state transitions of Mg I, Mg 11, Fe II, V II, etc observed in STIS/E230H spectra. The origin of other broad features of similar width and depth in the FUSE spectrum, but without low-velocity ISM absorption, are unidentified. However, they are suspected of being absorption of singly-ionized iron-peak elements (e.g. Fe II, V II, Cr II) out of excited levels 1,000 to 20,000 cmE-l above the ground state. The high-velocity features seen in Fe II 1145 are also present in Fe II 1608 (STIS/E140M), but are highly saturated in the latter. Since these transitions have nearly identical log (flambda) (1.998 vs. 2.080), the differences in the profiles are attributable to the different aperture sizes used (30 x 30 arcsec for FUSE, 0.2 x 0.2 arcsec for STIS/E140M). The high-velocity gas appears to be very patchy or has a small covering factor near the central star. Eta Carinae has been observed several times by FUSE over the past three years. The FUSE flux levels and spectral features in eta Car are essentially unchanged over the 2000 March to June 2002 period, establishing a baseline far-UV spectrum in advance of the predicted spectroscopic minimum in 2003.

  19. A ubiquitous absorption feature in the X-ray spectra of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Weaver, Kimberly A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the broadband (0.5-20-keV) X-ray spectra of five X-ray bright BL Lac objects observed with the Einstein Observatory Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) and Monitor Proportional Counter (MPC) detectors. The combination of moderate energy resolution and broad spectral coverage makes it possible to confirm the presence of an absorption feature at an energy of 650 eV in the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, originally reported by Canizares and Kruper (1984) based on higher resolution Einstein Objective Grating Spectrometer (OGS) data.

  20. Magnetic feature and near-infrared absorption of a [Pt(mnt)2]--based H-bond supramolecular crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cui-Ping; Nie, Li; Pei, Wen-Bo; Li, Li; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Liu, Jian-Lan; Gao, Xu-Sheng; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2016-11-01

    A new salt [H2DABCO][Pt(mnt)2]2 (1) (mnt2-=maleonitriledithiolate and H2DABCO2+ is diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) has been synthesized; its crystal structure, magnetic and near-IR absorption properties have been investigated. Two different [Pt(mnt)2]- anions form the strong π-dimers, labeled as Pt(1)-dimer and Pt(2)-dimer, with quite shorter Pt…Pt and S…S distances and molecular plane-to-plane distance (<3.5 Å) within a dimer. The [Pt(mnt)2]22- π-dimers are connected through the cations in the strong H-bond manner to form three-dimensional H-bond supramolecular crystal. The salt shows weak paramagnetism in 1.99-300 K and this is due to the existence of strong antiferromagnetic coupling within a π-dimer. In addition, a small thermal hysteresis loop is observed at ca. 120 K, indicating that a phase transition probably occurs that is further confirmed by variable-temperature IR spectra. Another fascinating functionality of 1 is the intense near-IR absorption in the region of 750-2500 nm, and this near-IR absorption feature makes it to be a promising optical material.

  1. Ultraviolet spectra of quenched carbonaceous composite derivatives: Comparison to the '217 nanometer' interstellar absorption feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Nakagawa, Hidehiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    QCCs (quenched carbonaceous composite) are amorphus carbonaceous material formed from a hydrocarbon plasma. We present the UV-visible spectra of 'filmy QCC; (obtained outside of the beam ejected from the hydrocarbon plasma) and 'dark QCC' (obtained very near to the beam) for comparison to the stellar extinction curve. When filmy QCC is heated to 500-700 C (thermally altered), the wavelength of the absorption maximum increases form 204 nm to 220-222 nm. The dark QCC has an absorption maximum at 217-222 nm. In addition, the thermally altered filmy QCC has a slope change at about 500 nm which resmbles that in the interstellar extinction curve. The resemblance of the extinction curve of the QCCs to that of the interstellar medium suggests that QCC derivatives may be representative of the type of interstellar material that produces the 217 nm interstellar medium feature. The peak extinction of the dark QCC is higher than the average interstellar extinction curve while that of the thermally altered filmy QCC is lower, so that a mixture of dark and thermally altered filmy QCC can match the peak extinction observed in the interstellar medium. It is shown from electron micrographs that most of the thermally altered flimy QCC is in the form of small grainy structure less than 4 nm in diameter. This shows that the structure unit causing the 217-222 nm feature in QCC is very small.

  2. THE 217.5 nm BAND, INFRARED ABSORPTION, AND INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W. W.; Hu, Anming E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-12-20

    We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under ''slow'' deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp {sup 2}/sp {sup 3} ratio Almost-Equal-To 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

  3. Features of Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic field, auroral luminosity, and Riometer absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Samsonov, S. N.; Lorentsen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous morning Pc5 pulsations ( f ~ 3-5 mHz) in the geomagnetic field, aurora intensities (in the 557.7 and 630.0 nm oxygen emissions and the 471.0 nm nitrogen emission), and riometer absorption, were studied based on the CARISMA, CANMOS, and NORSTAR network data for the event of January 1, 2000. According to the GOES-8 satellite observations, these Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations are observed as incompressible Alfvén waves with toroidal polarization in the magnetosphere. Although the Pc5 pulsation frequencies in auroras, the geomagnetic field, and riometer absorption are close to one another, stable phase relationships are not observed between them. Far from all trains of geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations are accompanied by corresponding auroral pulsations; consequently, geomagnetic pulsations are primary with respect to auroral pulsations. Both geomagnetic and auroral pulsations propagate poleward, and the frequency decreases with increasing geomagnetic latitude. When auroral Pc5 pulsations appear, the ratio of the 557.7/630.0 nm emission intensity sharply increases, which indicates that auroral pulsations result from not simply modulated particle precipitation but also an additional periodic acceleration of auroral electrons by the wave field. A high correlation is not observed between Pc5 pulsations in auroras and the riometer absorption, which indicates that these pulsations have a common source but different generation mechanisms. Auroral luminosity modulation is supposedly related to the interaction between Alfvén waves and the region with the field-aligned potential drop above the auroral ionosphere, and riometer absorption modulation is caused by the scattering of energetic electrons by VLF noise pulsations.

  4. Economic indicators selection for crime rates forecasting using cooperative feature selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwee, Razana; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam Hj; Salleh Sallehuddin, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Features selection in multivariate forecasting model is very important to ensure that the model is accurate. The purpose of this study is to apply the Cooperative Feature Selection method for features selection. The features are economic indicators that will be used in crime rate forecasting model. The Cooperative Feature Selection combines grey relational analysis and artificial neural network to establish a cooperative model that can rank and select the significant economic indicators. Grey relational analysis is used to select the best data series to represent each economic indicator and is also used to rank the economic indicators according to its importance to the crime rate. After that, the artificial neural network is used to select the significant economic indicators for forecasting the crime rates. In this study, we used economic indicators of unemployment rate, consumer price index, gross domestic product and consumer sentiment index, as well as data rates of property crime and violent crime for the United States. Levenberg-Marquardt neural network is used in this study. From our experiments, we found that consumer price index is an important economic indicator that has a significant influence on the violent crime rate. While for property crime rate, the gross domestic product, unemployment rate and consumer price index are the influential economic indicators. The Cooperative Feature Selection is also found to produce smaller errors as compared to Multiple Linear Regression in forecasting property and violent crime rates.

  5. Quantitative analysis for a color-change of humidity indicator by microscopic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoko; Mitsumura, Yoko; Miyamoto, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Jin; Shiragami, Tsutomu; Fueda, Yoshiyuki; Nobuhara, Kazunori; Yasuda, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and easily distinguishable cobalt-free humidity indicator of porphyrin-silica gel-MgCl(2) composite was prepared from pH-induced spectra changeable tetraarylporphyrin, silica gel (SiO(2)), and MgCl(2). The pH change arose from proton release under dry conditions, and proton capture under humid conditions by a reversible reaction between MgCl(2) and a silanol group of SiO(2). A pink-orange porphyrin-Si(OH)(2)-MgCl(2) composite was dried to give a green protonated porphyrin-SiO(2)Mg composite. The optimized concentrations of MgCl(2) to make the concentrations of protonated porphyrin maximum under dry conditions were determined by absorption spectrometry of the green composite using a confocal laser scanning microscope as a microscopic spectrometer. Moreover, the green composite was prepared by heating dichloro(tetraarylporphyrinato)phosphorus chloride with MgCl(2) and SiO(2). The humidity-sensitivity of the green composite was evaluated by the absorption spectra under controlled humidity. A distinguishable color change of the green composite took place below 30% of relative humidity.

  6. Detection of a Deep 3-μm Absorption Feature in the Spectrum of Amalthea (JV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J.; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-01

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula.

  7. Detection of a deep 3-microm absorption feature in the spectrum of Amalthea (JV).

    PubMed

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-24

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula.

  8. Radial gradients in initial mass function sensitive absorption features in the Coma brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.; Vaughan, Sam P.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we trace radial variations of initial mass function (IMF)-sensitive absorption features of three galaxies in the Coma cluster. We obtain resolved spectroscopy of the central 5 kpc for the two central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) NGC4889, NGC4874, and the BCG in the south-west group NGC4839, as well as unresolved data for NGC4873 as a low-σ* control. We present radial measurements of the IMF-sensitive features: sodium Na ISDSS, calcium triplet CaT, and iron-hydride FeH0.99, along with the magnesium Mg I0.88 and titanium oxide TiO0.89 features. We employ two separate methods for both telluric correction and sky subtraction around the faint FeH feature to verify our analysis. Within NGC4889 we find strong gradients of Na ISDSS and CaT but a flat FeH profile, which, from comparing to stellar population synthesis models, suggests an old, α-enhanced population with a Chabrier, or even bottom-light IMF. The age and abundance are in line with previous studies but the normal IMF is in contrast to recent results suggesting an increased IMF slope with increased velocity dispersion. We measure flat Na ISDSS and FeH profiles within NGC4874, and determine an old, possibly slightly α-enhanced and Chabrier IMF population. We find an α-enhanced, Chabrier IMF population in NGC4873. Within NGC4839 we measure both strong Na ISDSS and strong FeH, although with a large systematic uncertainty, suggesting a possible heavier IMF. The IMFs we infer for these galaxies are supported by published dynamical modelling. We stress that IMF constraints should be corroborated by further spectral coverage and independent methods on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis.

  9. Functional, regulatory and indicator features of microorganisms in man-made ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Functional, regulatory and indicator features of microorganisms in development and functioning of the systems and sustaining stability of three man-made ecosystem types has been studied. 1) The functional (metabolic) feature was studied in aquatic ecosystems of biological treatment of sewage waters for the reducer component. 2) The regulatory feature of bacteria for plants (producer component) was studied in simple terrestrial systems "wheat plants-rhizospheric microorganisms - artificial soil" where the behavior of the system varied with activity of the microbial component. For example with atmospheric carbon dioxide content elevated microbes promote intensification of photosynthesis processes, without binding the carbon in the plant biomass. 3) The indicator feature for the humans (consumer component) was studied in Life Support Systems (LSS). High sensitivity of human microflora to system conditions allowed its use as an indicator of the state of both system components and the entire ecosystem.

  10. The X-shooter sample of GRB afterglow spectra: Properties of the absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Since its commissioning at ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2009, the X-shooter spectrograph has become the reference instrument in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectroscopy. During this time our collaboration has collected more than 70 spectra of GRB afterglows, with redshifts ranging from 0.06 to 6.3. Thanks to their extreme luminosity and simple intrinsic shape, GRB spectra are optimal tools for the study of galactic environments at basically any redshift. Being produced by the death of short-lived massive stars, they are also tracers of star formation.I will present the sample of absorption spectral features identified in X-shooter's GRB spectra describing observation and analysis techniques. The different features are compared with the characteristics of the explosion (duration, spectral shape, energetics, etc.) and with the properties of the host galaxy (mass, age, etc.) to improve our understanding of the nature of the explosions and how they interact with their environments. Using the large redshift range of the spectra collection we perform studies of the evolution of GRB environments across the history of the Universe and their relation with the evolution of star formation.

  11. Dielectronic Recombination Of Iron M-shell Ions Motivated By Absorption Features In AGN Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukic, Dragan; Schnell, M.; Savin, D. W.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E. W.; Yu, D.; Bernhardt, D.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Orlov, D.; Sprenger, F.; Grieser, M.; Repnow, R.; Hoffmann, J.; Wolf, A.

    2006-09-01

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show spectra rich with X-ray absorption features. These observations have detected a broad unresolved transition array (UTA) between 15-17 Å. This is attributed to inner-shell photoexcitation of M-shell iron ions. Modeling these UTA features is currently limited by uncertainties in the low-temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) data for M-shell iron. In order to resolve this issue, and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for plasma modeling, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. We use the DR data obtained at TSR, to calculate rate coefficients for plasma modeling. We are also providing our data to atomic theorist to benchmark their DR calculations. Here we report our recent experimental results for DR for several iron M-shell ions and plans for future work. This work has been supported in part by NASA, the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, and the German Research Council

  12. Revealing spectral features in two-photon absorption spectrum of Hoechst 33342: a combined experimental and quantum-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Robert; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Ågren, Hans; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Samoc, Marek

    2013-10-10

    We present the results of wide spectral range Z-scan measurements of the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectrum of the Hoechst 33342 dye. The strongest 2PA of the dye in aqueous solution is found at 575 nm, and the associated two-photon absorption cross section is 245 GM. A weak but clearly visible 2PA band at ∼850 nm is also observed, a feature that could not be anticipated from the one-photon absorption spectrum. On the basis of the results of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations, we put forward a notion that the long-wavelength feature observed in the two-photon absorption spectrum of Hoechst 33342 is due to the formation of dye aggregates.

  13. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  14. The origin of blueshifted absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of PG 1211+143: outflow or disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, L. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    In some radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), high-energy absorption features in the X-ray spectra have been interpreted as ultrafast outflows (UFOs) - highly ionized material (e.g. Fe XXV and Fe XXVI) ejected at mildly relativistic velocities. In some cases, these outflows can carry energy in excess of the binding energy of the host galaxy. Needless to say, these features demand our attention as they are strong signatures of AGN feedback and will influence galaxy evolution. For the same reason, alternative models need to be discussed and refuted or confirmed. Gallo and Fabian proposed that some of these features could arise from resonance absorption of the reflected spectrum in a layer of ionized material located above and corotating with the accretion disc. Therefore, the absorbing medium would be subjected to similar blurring effects as seen in the disc. A priori, the existence of such plasma above the disc is as plausible as a fast wind. In this work, we highlight the ambiguity by demonstrating that the absorption model can describe the ˜7.6 keV absorption feature (and possibly other features) in the quasar PG 1211+143, an AGN that is often described as a classic example of a UFO. In this model, the 2-10 keV spectrum would be largely reflection dominated (as opposed to power law dominated in the wind models) and the resonance absorption would be originating in a layer between about 6 and 60 gravitational radii. The studies of such features constitute a cornerstone for future X-ray observatories like Astro-H and Athena+. Should our model prove correct, or at least important in some cases, then absorption will provide another diagnostic tool with which to probe the inner accretion flow with future missions.

  15. Intestinal perfusion indicates high reliance on paracellular nutrient absorption in an insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Brun, Antonio; Fasulo, Verónica; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2013-02-01

    Flying vertebrates have been hypothesized to have a high capacity for paracellular absorption of nutrients. This could be due to high permeability of the intestines to nutrient-sized molecules (i.e., in the size range of amino acids and glucose, MW 75-180 Da). We performed intestinal luminal perfusions of an insectivorous bat, Tadarida brasiliensis. Using radio-labeled molecules, we measured the uptake of two nutrients absorbed by paracellular and transporter-mediated mechanisms (L-proline, MW 115 Da, and D-glucose, MW 180 Da) and two carbohydrates that have no mediated transport (L-arabinose, MW 150 Da, and lactulose, MW 342 Da). Absorption of lactulose (0.61±0.06 nmol min(-1) cm(-1)) was significantly lower than that of the smaller arabinose (1.09±0.04 nmol min(-1) cm(-1)). Glucose absorption was significantly lower than that of proline at both nutrient concentrations (10mM and 75 mM). Using the absorption of arabinose to estimate the portion of proline absorption that is paracellular, we calculated that 25.1±3.0% to 66.2±7.8% of proline absorption is not transporter-mediated (varying proline from 1 mM to 75 mM). These results confirm our predictions that 1) paracellular absorption is molecule size selective, 2) absorption of proline would be greater than glucose absorption in an insectivore, and 3) paracellular absorption represents a large fraction of total nutrient absorption in bats.

  16. Spectroscopy of Mars form 2.04 to 2.44 micron during the 1993 opposition: Absolute calibration and atmospheric vs mineralogic origin of narrow absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Pollack, James B.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Freedman, Richard

    1994-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution (lambda/delta lambda = 300 to 370) reflectance spectral of Mars from 2.04 to 2.44 microns that were obtained at United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) during the 1993 opposition. Seven narrow absorption features were detected and found to have a Mars origin. By comparison with solar and Mars atmospheric spectra, five of these features were attributed all or in part to Mars atmospheric CO2 or CO (2.052 +/- 0.003, 2.114 +/- 0.002, 2.150 +/- 0.003, 2.331 +/- 0.001, and 2.357 +/- 0.002 microns). Two of the bands (2.331 +/- 0.001 and 2.357 +/- 0.002 micron) appear to have widths and depths that are consistent with additional, nonatmospheric absorptions, although a solar contribution cannot be entirely ruled out. Two other weak bands centered at 2.278 +/- 0.002 and 2.296 +/- 0.002 microns may be at least partially mineralogic in origin. The data provide no conclusive identification of the mineralogy responsible for these absorption features. However, examination of terrestrial spectral libraries and previous mineralogy responsible for these absorption features. However, examination of terrestrial spectral libraires and previous moderate spectral resolution mineral studies indicates that the most likely origin of these features is either (bi)carbonate or (bi)sulfate anions in framework silicates of (Fe, Mg)-OH bonds in sheet silicates. If the bands are caused by phyllosilicate minerals, then an explanation must be found for the extremely narrow widths of the cation-OH features in the Mars spectra as compared to terrestrial minerals.

  17. Spectroscopy of Mars form 2.04 to 2.44 micron during the 1993 opposition: Absolute calibration and atmospheric VS mineralogic origin of narrow absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James F., III; Pollack, James B.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Freedman, Richard

    1994-09-01

    We present moderate-resolution (lambda/delta lambda = 300 to 370) reflectance spectral of Mars from 2.04 to 2.44 microns that were obtained at United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) during the 1993 opposition. Seven narrow absorption features were detected and found to have a Mars origin. By comparison with solar and Mars atmospheric spectra, five of these features were attributed all or in part to Mars atmospheric CO2 or CO (2.052 +/- 0.003, 2.114 +/- 0.002, 2.150 +/- 0.003, 2.331 +/- 0.001, and 2.357 +/- 0.002 microns). Two of the bands (2.331 +/- 0.001 and 2.357 +/- 0.002 micron) appear to have widths and depths that are consistent with additional, nonatmospheric absorptions, although a solar contribution cannot be entirely ruled out. Two other weak bands centered at 2.278 +/- 0.002 and 2.296 +/- 0.002 microns may be at least partially mineralogic in origin. The data provide no conclusive identification of the mineralogy responsible for these absorption features. However, examination of terrestrial spectral libraries and previous mineralogy responsible for these absorption features. However, examination of terrestrial spectral libraires and previous moderate spectral resolution mineral studies indicates that the most likely origin of these features is either (bi)carbonate or (bi)sulfate anions in framework silicates of (Fe, Mg)-OH bonds in sheet silicates. If the bands are caused by phyllosilicate minerals, then an explanation must be found for the extremely narrow widths of the cation-OH features in the Mars spectra as compared to terrestrial minerals.

  18. Radial Trends in IMF-sensitive Absorption Features in Two Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Abundance-driven Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Lu, Jessica R.; Mann, Andrew W.

    2016-04-01

    Samples of early-type galaxies show a correlation between stellar velocity dispersion and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as inferred from gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the galaxies’ central regions. To search for spatial variations in the IMF, we have observed two early-type galaxies with Keck/LRIS and measured radial gradients in the strengths of absorption features from 4000-5500 Å and 8000-10000 Å. We present spatially resolved measurements of the dwarf-sensitive spectral indices {Na} {{I}} (8190 Å) and Wing-Ford {{FeH}} (9915 Å), as well as indices for species of H, C2, CN, Mg, Ca, {{TiO}}, and Fe. Our measurements show a metallicity gradient in both objects, and Mg/Fe consistent with a shallow gradient in α-enhancement, matching widely observed trends for massive early-type galaxies. The {Na} {{I}} index and the CN1 index at 4160 Å exhibit significantly steeper gradients, with a break at r˜ 0.1 {r}{{eff}} (r˜ 300 pc). Inside this radius, {Na} {{I}} strength increases sharply toward the galaxy center, consistent with a rapid central rise in [Na/Fe]. In contrast, the ratio of the {{FeH}} to Fe index strength decreases toward the galaxy center. This behavior cannot be reproduced by a steepening IMF inside of 0.1 {r}{{eff}} if the IMF is a single power law. While gradients in the mass function above ˜ 0.4 {M}⊙ may occur, exceptional care is required to disentangle these IMF variations from the extreme variations in individual element abundances near the galaxies’ centers.

  19. Significance of ambient conditions in uranium absorption and emission features of laser ablation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Shah, N. P.; Taylor, N.; Hartig, K. C.; LaHaye, N. L.; Brumfield, B. E.; Jovanovic, I.; Phillips, M. C.; Harilal, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs laser ablation (LA) to investigate mechanisms for U optical signal variation under various environmental conditions during laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Potential explored mechanisms for signal quenching related to ambient conditions include plasma chemistry (e.g., uranium oxide formation), ambient gas confinement effects, and other collisional interactions between plasma constituents and the ambient gas. LA-LAS studies show that the persistence of the U ground state population is significantly reduced in the presence of air ambient compared to nitrogen. LA-OES results yield congested spectra from which the U I 356.18 nm transition is prominent and serves as the basis for signal tracking. LA-OES signal and persistence vary negligibly between the test gases (air and N2), unlike the LA-LAS results. The plume hydrodynamic features and plume fundamental properties showed similar results in both air and nitrogen ambient. Investigation of U oxide formation in the laser-produced plasma suggests that low U concentration in a sample hinders consistent detection of UO molecular spectra.

  20. Significance of ambient conditions in uranium absorption and emission features of laser ablation plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Shah, N. P.; Taylor, N.; Hartig, K. C.; LaHaye, N. L.; Brumfield, B. E.; Jovanovic, I.; Phillips, M. C.; Harilal, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs laser ablation (LA) to investigate mechanisms for U optical signal variation under various environmental conditions during laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Potential mechanisms explored for signal quenching related to ambient conditions include plasma chemistry (e.g., uranium oxide formation), ambient gas confinement effects, and other collisional interactions between plasma constituents and the ambient gas. LA-LAS studies show that the persistence of the U ground state population is significantly reduced in the presence of air ambient compared to nitrogen. LA-OES yields congested spectra from which the U I 356.18 nm transition is prominent and serves as the basis for signal tracking. LA-OES signal and persistence vary negligibly between the test gases (air and N2), unlike the LA-LAS results. The plume hydrodynamic features and plume fundamental properties showed similar results in both air and nitrogen ambient. Investigation of U oxide formation in the laser-produced plasma suggests that low U concentration in a sample hinders consistent detection of UO molecular spectra.

  1. Many-body theory of trion absorption features in two-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimkin, Dmitry K.; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2017-01-01

    Recent optical studies of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides have demonstrated that their excitonic absorption feature splits into two widely separated peaks at finite carrier densities. The additional peak is usually attributed to the presence of trions, bound states of two electrons and a hole or an electron and two holes. Here we argue that in the density range over which the trion peak is well resolved, it cannot be interpreted in terms of weakly coupled three-body systems and that the appropriate picture is instead one in which excitons are dressed by interactions with a Fermi sea of excess carriers. This coupling splits the exciton spectrum into a lower-energy attractive exciton-polaron branch, normally identified as a trion branch, and a higher-energy repulsive exciton-polaron branch, normally identified as an exciton branch. We have calculated the frequency and doping dependence of the optical conductivity and found that (i) the splitting varies linearly with the Fermi energy of the excess quasiparticles, (ii) the trion peak is dominant at high carrier densities, and (iii) the trion peak width is considerably smaller than that of the excitonic peak. Our results are in good agreement with recent experiments.

  2. A variable absorption feature in the X-ray spectrum of a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Tiengo, Andrea; Esposito, Paolo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Turolla, Roberto; Nobili, Luciano; Gastaldello, Fabio; Götz, Diego; Israel, Gian Luca; Rea, Nanda; Stella, Luigi; Zane, Silvia; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2013-08-15

    Soft-γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating, isolated neutron stars that sporadically undergo episodes of long-term flux enhancement (outbursts) generally accompanied by the emission of short bursts of hard X-rays. This behaviour can be understood in the magnetar model, according to which these sources are mainly powered by their own magnetic energy. This is supported by the fact that the magnetic fields inferred from several observed properties of SGRs and AXPs are greater than-or at the high end of the range of-those of radio pulsars. In the peculiar case of SGR 0418+5729, a weak dipole magnetic moment is derived from its timing parameters, whereas a strong field has been proposed to reside in the stellar interior and in multipole components on the surface. Here we show that the X-ray spectrum of SGR 0418+5729 has an absorption line, the properties of which depend strongly on the star's rotational phase. This line is interpreted as a proton cyclotron feature and its energy implies a magnetic field ranging from 2 × 10(14) gauss to more than 10(15) gauss.

  3. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 - x)TeO2. (10)ZnO. (10)WO3. (5)Na2O. (5)TiO2. (x)Bi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65-150) cm-1, R2 (280-550) cm-1, R3 (880-950) cm-1 and R4 (916-926) cm-1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV-Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF), and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched.

  4. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea Biogeochemical Subprovinces and Synthetic Ocean Indicators Using Mesoscale Oceanographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Rossi, Vincent; Demarcq, Hervé; Dubroca, Laurent; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial applications as a geographical reference. We aim to identify biogeochemical subprovinces within this domain, and develop synthetic indices of the key oceanographic dynamics of each subprovince to quantify baselines from which to assess variability and change. To do this, we compile a data set of 101 months (2002–2010) of a variety of both “classical” (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and “mesoscale” (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We employ a k-means clustering algorithm to objectively define biogeochemical subprovinces based on classical features, and, for the first time, on mesoscale features, and on a combination of both classical and mesoscale features. Principal components analysis is then performed on the oceanographic variables to define integrative indices to monitor the environmental changes within each resultant subprovince at monthly resolutions. Using both the classical and mesoscale features, we find five biogeochemical subprovinces for the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Interestingly, the use of mesoscale variables contributes highly in the delineation of the open ocean. The first axis of the principal component analysis is explained primarily by classical ocean features and the second axis is explained by mesoscale features. Biogeochemical subprovinces identified by the present study can be useful within the European management framework as an objective geographical framework of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and the synthetic ocean indicators developed here can be used to monitor

  5. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  6. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDIES OF SPECTACULAR RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING OF A GALAXY: DISCOVERY OF AN X-RAY ABSORPTION FEATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Liyi; Makishima, Kazuo; Yagi, Masafumi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Fujita, Yutaka; Hattori, Takashi; Akahori, Takuya

    2013-11-10

    We report the detection of an X-ray absorption feature near the galaxy M86 in the Virgo cluster. The absorber has a column density of 2-3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, and its position coincides with the peak of an intracluster H I cloud which was removed from the galaxy NGC 4388 presumably by ram pressure. These results indicate that the H I cloud is located in front of M86 along the line-of-sight, and suggest that the stripping was primarily created by an interaction between NGC 4388 and the hot plasmas of the Virgo cluster, not the M86 halo. By calculating an X-ray temperature map, we further detected an X-ray counterpart of the H I cloud up to ≈3' south of M86. It has a temperature of 0.89 keV and a mass of ∼4.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, exceeding the estimated H I gas mass. The high hot-to-cold gas ratio in the cloud indicates a significant evaporation of the H I gas, probably by thermal conduction from the hotter cluster plasma with a sub-Spitzer rate.

  7. Surface vs. atmospheric origin of 2.1-2.5 micron absorption features in the Martian spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Crisp, David

    1992-01-01

    For 20 years the origin of subtle absorption features in the spectrum of Mars near 2.3 micro-m ('K' band: 1.9-2.5 micro-m) has been debated. This spectral region contains gaseous absorption features predominantly from CO2 and CO on Mars and from telluric H2O and CO2. The authors have obtained new higher spectral resolution telescopic K band spectra of 10 surface regions using the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea during 1990. The goals were to confirm the existence of broad features seen at lower spectral resolution and to determine whether these bands are caused by atmospheric gases, surface (or airborne dust) minerals, or a combination of both.

  8. Clinical Features Indicating Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Degeneration in Drug-Induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Han Kyeol; Lee, Young Gun; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lee, Myung Sik

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) may have nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. We studied the clinical features that may indicate nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in patients with DIP. Methods Forty-one DIP patients were classified into normal and abnormal [18F] FP-CIT scan groups. Differences in 32 clinical features and drug withdrawal effects were studied. Results Twenty-eight patients had normal (Group I) and 13 patients had abnormal (Group II) scans. Eight patients of Group I, but none of Group II, had taken calcium channel blockers (p = 0.040). Three patients of Group I and six of Group II had hyposmia (p = 0.018). After drug withdrawal, Group I showed greater improvement in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale total motor scores and subscores for bradykinesia and tremors than Group II. Only hyposmia was an independent factor associated with abnormal scans, but it had suboptimal sensitivity. Conclusion None of the clinical features were practical indicators of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in patients with DIP. PMID:28122428

  9. Upper carboniferous gas indications and Zechstein features in southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1984-05-14

    Seismograph Service's recent nonproprietary marine survey in the Southern basin of the North Sea indicates the possible presence of gas in the Upper Carboniferous region. At the southern margin of the Northern Salt basin, north of the Mid North Sea High, hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in fractured and vuggy Zechstein carbonates in the Auk and Argyll fields. To date, no hydrocarbon accumulations of any importance have been produced from either shelf Zechstein or Upper Carboniferous to the south of these fields, although gas and condensate shows have been logged in wells in the southern part. Certain structural features seen in the Zechstein interval, which lies unconformably upon the Upper Carboniferous, make this North Sea basin a very promising area for more detailed study. These Zechstein features may include porous carbonate intervals containing gas.

  10. Post-mortem surface features in larger foraminiferan Archaias angulatus as paleoenvironmental indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Cottey, T.L.

    1986-05-01

    Larger foraminifera are major contributors to sand-sized carbonate sediments. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll) is the dominant larger foraminiferan in the Caribbean region. A taphonomic study of this species revealed several stages of preservation from newly unaltered tests to complete destruction of outer calcite layers. Tests collected from contrasting environments in Key Largo, Florida, show different paths of degradation. Impact features and secondary growths predominate on tests collected from well-sorted sediments of the open platform, whereas dissolution features are most common on tests from the calm, muddy environment of Largo Sound. Tests from the open platform show major breakage, abundant scratches, and small, randomly spaced holes. Tests from Largo Sound show little breakage, few scratches, and loss of entire sections of the outer wall. Microborings are present on tests from both environments. This study shows that postmortem alterations of surface textures of larger foraminifera may be useful indicators of paleoenvironments of deposition.

  11. Measurement and feature analysis of absorption spectra of four algal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Zhou, Hongli; Han, Bing; Li, Tongji

    2016-04-01

    Two methods for particulate pigments (i.e., quantitative filter technique, QFT, and in vivo measurement, InVivo, respectively) and two methods for dissolved pigments (i.e., Acetone Extracts, AceEx, and high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, respectively) were used to obtain the optical absorption coefficient spectra for cultures of four typical algal species. Through normalization and analysis of the spectra, it is shown that (1) the four methods are able to measure optical absorption spectra of particulate and/or dissolved pigments; (2) that the optical absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved pigments were consistent in terms of the peak position in the blue wavelength, and the difference of the peak position in the near infrared wavelength was ~10 nm between each other; and (3) that the leveling effect of the absorption spectra of particulate pigments was significant. These four methods can all effectively measure the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton pigments, while each one has its unique advantages in different applications. Therefore, appropriate method should be carefully selected for various application due to their intrinsic difference.

  12. Measurement and feature analysis of absorption spectra of four algal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Zhou, Hongli; Han, Bing; Li, Tongji

    2017-03-01

    Two methods for particulate pigments (i.e., quantitative filter technique, QFT, and in vivo measurement, InVivo, respectively) and two methods for dissolved pigments (i.e., Acetone Extracts, AceEx, and high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, respectively) were used to obtain the optical absorption coefficient spectra for cultures of four typical algal species. Through normalization and analysis of the spectra, it is shown that (1) the four methods are able to measure optical absorption spectra of particulate and/or dissolved pigments; (2) that the optical absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved pigments were consistent in terms of the peak position in the blue wavelength, and the difference of the peak position in the near infrared wavelength was 10 nm between each other; and (3) that the leveling effect of the absorption spectra of particulate pigments was significant. These four methods can all effectively measure the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton pigments, while each one has its unique advantages in different applications. Therefore, appropriate method should be carefully selected for various application due to their intrinsic difference.

  13. Ultraviolet-visible absorptive features of water extractable and humic fractions of animal manure and compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UV-vis spectroscopy is a useful tool for characterizing water extractable or humic fractions of natural organic matter (WEOM). Whereas the whole UV-visible spectra of these fractions are more or less featureless, the specific UV absorptivity at 254 and 280 nm as well as spectral E2/E3 and E4/E6 rat...

  14. Visual feature integration indicated by pHase-locked frontal-parietal EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Takeda, Yuji; Singh, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to integrate multiple sources of information is a prerequisite for complex cognitive ability, such as finding a target uniquely identifiable by the conjunction of two or more features. Recent studies identified greater frontal-parietal synchrony during conjunctive than non-conjunctive (feature) search. Whether this difference also reflects greater information integration, rather than just differences in cognitive strategy (e.g., top-down versus bottom-up control of attention), or task difficulty is uncertain. Here, we examine the first possibility by parametrically varying the number of integrated sources from one to three and measuring phase-locking values (PLV) of frontal-parietal EEG electrode signals, as indicators of synchrony. Linear regressions, under hierarchical false-discovery rate control, indicated significant positive slopes for number of sources on PLV in the 30-38 Hz, 175-250 ms post-stimulus frequency-time band for pairs in the sagittal plane (i.e., F3-P3, Fz-Pz, F4-P4), after equating conditions for behavioural performance (to exclude effects due to task difficulty). No such effects were observed for pairs in the transverse plane (i.e., F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4). These results provide support for the idea that anterior-posterior phase-locking in the lower gamma-band mediates integration of visual information. They also provide a potential window into cognitive development, seen as developing the capacity to integrate more sources of information.

  15. Determination of the in-flight spectral calibration of AVIRIS using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) as data are acquired in flight is essential to quantitative analysis of the measured upwelling spectral radiance. In each spectrum measured by AVIRIS in flight, there are numerous atmospheric gas absorption bands that drive this requirement for accurate spectral calibration. If the surface and atmospheric properties are measured independently, these atmospheric absorption bands may be used to deduce the in-flight spectral calibration of an imaging spectrometer. Both the surface and atmospheric characteristics were measured for a calibration target during an in-flight calibration experiment held at Lunar Lake, Nevada on April 5, 1994. This paper uses upwelling spectral radiance predicted for the calibration target with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to validate the spectral calibration of AVIRIS in flight.

  16. Monitoring of Water Content And Frozen State by using Millimeter Wave Absorption Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Maya; Shindo, Kenji; Ogawa, Yuichi; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

    In this research, we built an experimental setup for measuring the water content in plants and food, and for determining the water/ice state of a sample. The setup consists of a 35 GHz Gunn oscillator producing about 10 mW of output power, two horn antennas and a power meter. We have checked that the absorption of a leaf is directly proportional to its water content, and we could show how changes of the water content depend on photosynthesis, by intermittent illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. In another direction of research, we verified that the difference in the absorption coefficients for water and ice is significant, and we could discriminate and monitor the frozen state of water and food material. All these experiments demonstrate the possibility of applying millimeter waves to fields such as botany, agriculture, and food industry.

  17. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd2O3 and NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f-metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  18. The Role of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Dense Cloud Absorption Features: The Last Major Unanswered Question in Interstellar Ice Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiar, Jean

    Interstellar dust plays a vital role in the star formation process and the eventual formation of planetary systems including our own. Ice mantles are an important component of the dust: reactions involving simple ices can create more complex (and astrobiologically interesting) molecules, and ices sublimated back into the gas phase influence the gas- phase chemistry. Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly thought to be very abundant interstellar species and, as such, are likely to be important components of interstellar ices, their contribution to the infrared spectra and chemistry of ices in dense molecular clouds is an open question. This program makes extensive use of three major NASA-funded databases: the Spitzer archive, the 2MASS archive, and the NASA Ames PAH database in order to answer the last major unanswered question in interstellar ice spectroscopy: what role do PAHs play in contributing to unidentified absorption features observed in dense cloud spectra. PAHs are observed to be present and abundant in nearly all phases of the galactic and extragalactic interstellar medium. The evidence for the ubiquity of interstellar PAHs is the widespread well-known family of prominent emission bands at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 micron. To date, these PAH bands have been most easily detected in regions where individual gas phase PAH molecules (neutrals and ions) become highly vibrationally excited by the ambient radiation field. While PAHs and closely related aromatic materials should be present throughout dense interstellar regions, PAH emission is quenched in cold dark dense clouds. Also, in these regions, most PAHs should efficiently condense out onto dust grains, either as "pure" solids or as "guest molecules" in icy grain mantles, much as is the case for most other interstellar molecules. Thus, in dense molecular clouds, condensed PAHs will give rise to IR absorption bands rather than emission features. While PAH absorption has been

  19. Extracranial stereotactic body radiotherapy. Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carmen; Morera, Rosa; Hernando, Ovidio; Leroy, Thomas.; Lartigau, S. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Aim Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors. Background Stereotactic body radiotherapy has been developed in the last few years. SBRT allows the hypofractionated treatment of extra cranial tumors, using either a single or limited number of dose fractions, and resulting in the delivery of a high biological effective dose with low toxicity. Material and methods SBRT requires a high level of accuracy for all phases of the treatment process: effective patient immobilization, precise target localization, highly conformed dosimetry and image guided systems for treatment verification. The implementation of SBRT in routine requires a careful considering of organ motion. Gating and tracking are effective ways to do so, and less invasive technologies “fiducials free” have been developed. Due to the hypofractionated scheme, the physician must pay attention to new dosimetric constraints in organ at risk and new radiobiological models are needed to assess the optimal fractionation and dose schemes. Results Currently, SBRT is safe and effective to treat primary tumors, which are otherwise untreatable with conventional radiotherapy or surgery. SBRT has quickly developed because of its excellent results in terms of tolerance and its high locoregional control rates. SBRT indications in primary tumors, such as lung primary tumors, have become a standard of care for inoperable patients. SBRT seems to be effective in many others indications in curative or palliative intent such as liver primary tumors, and novel indications and strategies are currently emerging in prostate cancer, head and neck tumor recurrences or pelvis reirradiations. Conclusion Currently, SBRT is mainly used when there is no other therapeutic alternative for the patient. This is due to the lack of randomized trials in these settings. However, the results shown in retrospective studies let us hope to impose SBRT as a new standard of care for many patients in the next few years. PMID

  20. Mapping vegetation types with the multiple spectral feature mapping algorithm in both emission and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Koch, Christopher; Ager, Cathy

    1992-01-01

    Vegetation covers a large portion of the Earth's land surface. Remotely sensing quantitative information from vegetation has proven difficult because in a broad sense, all vegetation is similar from a chemical viewpoint, and most healthy plants are green. Plant species are generally characterized by the leaf and flower or fruit morphology, not by remote sensing spectral signatures. But to the human eye, many plants show varying shades of green, so there is direct evidence for spectral differences between plant types. Quantifying these changes in a predictable manner has not been easy. The Clark spectral features mapping algorithm was applied to mapping spectral features in vegetation species.

  1. A follow-up study of lead absorption in cows as an indicator of environmental lead pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Prpic-Majic, D.; Karacic, V.; Skender, Lj. )

    1990-07-01

    In a previous study, lead absorption in cows grazing in the vicinity of a lead smeltery and in a control area was presented for two periods. The first period was in 1976, two years before the installation of an effective gas cleaning system in the lead smeltery, and the second period was in 1982, four years after the sanitation. The results obtained in the lead smeltery area revealed a highly significant improvement of all biochemical indicators of lead absorption intensity in cows during 1982 in comparison with the same findings during 1976. However, in spite of the lower lead absorption in 1982, blood lead concentration and {sigma}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in 1982 were still highly significantly different from the same findings in cows from the control area. Consequently the study was continued in 1984 and 1988 under identical conditions. The main object of the paper is a critical evaluation of the results obtained in relation to environmental monitoring in the same lead smeltery area.

  2. Reconfiguration of spectral absorption features using a frequency-chirped laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingzhen; Chang, Tiejun; Merkel, Kristian D; Babbitt, W Randall

    2011-12-20

    A technique is proposed to manipulate atomic population in an inhomogeneously broadened medium, which can set an arbitrary absorption spectrum to a uniform transparency (erasure) or to a nearly complete inversion. These reconfigurations of atomic spectral distribution are achieved through excitation of electronic transitions using a laser pulse with chirped frequency, which precisely affects selected spectral regions while leaving the rest of the spectrum unperturbed. An erasure operation sets the final atomic population inversion to zero and the inversion operation flips the population between the ground and the excited states, regardless of the previously existing population distribution. This technique finds important applications both in optical signal processing, where fast, recursive processing and high dynamic range are desirable and in quantum memory and quantum computing, which both require high efficiency and high fidelity in quantum state preparation of atomic ensembles. Proof-of-concept demonstrations were performed in a rare-earth doped crystal.

  3. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  4. Evidence for cyclotron absorption from spectral features in gamma-ray bursts seen with Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.; Fujii, M.; Hayashida, K.; Itoh, M.; Nishimura, J.

    1988-01-01

    New observations by the gamma-ray burst detector on board the Ginga satellite, which has two well-calibrated detectors covering a wide energy range of 1.5 to 375 keV, are reported. The spectral features obtained are consistent with first and second cyclotron harmonics. This finding is taken as strong evidence for the magnetized neutron star model of gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Deep imaging of absorption and scattering features by multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Maher, Jason R.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Chien, Jennifer S.; Levinson, Howard; Wax, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We have developed frequency domain multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) for deep imaging of absorption and scattering contrast. Using tissue-mimicking phantoms that match the full scattering phase function of human dermal tissue, we demonstrate that ms2/LCI can provide a signal/noise ratio (SNR) improvement of 15.4 dB over conventional OCT at an imaging depth of 1 mm. The enhanced SNR and penetration depth provided by ms2/LCI could be leveraged for a variety of clinical applications including the assessment of burn injuries where current clinical classification of severity only provides limited accuracy. The utility of the approach was demonstrated by imaging a tissue phantom simulating a partial-thickness burn revealing good spectroscopic contrast between healthy and injured tissue regions deep below the sample surface. Finally, healthy rat skin was imaged in vivo with both a commercial OCT instrument and our custom ms2/LCI system. The results demonstrate that ms2/LCI is capable of obtaining spectroscopic information far beyond the penetration depth provided by conventional OCT. PMID:27867703

  6. Far-IR Absorption Features of Titan Aerosol Analogs Produced from Aromatic Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebree, Joshua; Trainer, M. G.; Anderson, C. M.; Loeffler, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The arrival of the Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn has led to the discovery of benzene (C6H6) at ppm levels, as well as large positive ions in Titan’s atmosphere, tentatively identified as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).[1] The presence of aromatic molecules, which are photolytically active in the ultraviolet, may be an important part of the formation of aerosol particles in Titan’s haze layers, even at these low concentrations. To date, there have been no laboratory experiments in the literature exploring this area of study. The analysis of data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini has recently uncovered a broad emission feature centered at 140 cm-1 in the far-IR that is unique to the aerosol layers of Titan’s atmosphere.[2] Current optical constants from laboratory-generated aerosol analogs have been unable to reproduce this feature.[3,4] From the broadness of this feature, we speculate that the emission is a blended composite of low-energy vibrations of large molecules such as PAHs and their nitrogen containing counterparts, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs). We hypothesize that the inclusion of trace amounts of aromatic precursors will aid in the production of these large structures in the laboratory-generated aerosols. In this study, we perform UV irradiation of several aromatic precursors, both with and without nitrogen heteroatoms, to understand their influence on the observable characteristics of the aerosol. Measured optical and chemical properties will be compared to those formed from CH4/N2 mixtures [5,6] as well as to those from Cassini observations. [1] Waite, J. H., et al. (2007) Science 316 870-875. [2] Anderson, C.M, et al. (2011) Icarus 212 762-778. [3] Khare, B.N., et al. (1984) Icarus 60 127-137. [4] Imanaka, H., et al. (2012) Icarus 218 247-261. [5] Trainer, M.G., et al. (2006) PNAS 103 18035-18042. [6] Trainer, M.G., et al. (2012) Astrobiology 12 315-326.

  7. Spectroscopic remote sensing of plant stress at leaf and canopy levels using the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature with continuum removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanches, Ieda Del'Arco; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Kokaly, Raymond Floyd

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores the use of spectral feature analysis to detect plant stress in visible/near infrared wavelengths. A time series of close range leaf and canopy reflectance data of two plant species grown in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was acquired with a portable spectrometer. The ProSpecTIR-VS airborne imaging spectrometer was used to obtain far range hyperspectral remote sensing data over the field experiment. Parameters describing the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature (depth, width, and area) were derived using continuum removal applied to the spectra. A new index, the Plant Stress Detection Index (PSDI), was calculated using continuum-removed values near the chlorophyll feature centre (680 nm) and on the green-edge (560 and 575 nm). Chlorophyll feature's depth, width and area, the PSDI and a narrow-band normalised difference vegetation index were evaluated for their ability to detect stressed plants. The objective was to analyse how the parameters/indices were affected by increasing degrees of plant stress and to examine their utility as plant stress indicators at the remote sensing level (e.g. airborne sensor). For leaf data, PSDI and the chlorophyll feature area revealed the highest percentage (67-70%) of stressed plants. The PSDI also proved to be the best constraint for detecting the stress in hydrocarbon-impacted plants with field canopy spectra and airborne imaging spectroscopy data. This was particularly true using thresholds based on the ASD canopy data and considering the combination of higher percentage of stressed plants detected (across the thresholds) and fewer false-positives.

  8. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  9. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  10. Peri-implantitis in a specialist clinic of periodontology. Clinical features and risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Carcuac, Olivier; Jansson, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Implant therapy has become a widely recognized treatment alternative for replacing missing teeth. Several long term follow-up studies have shown that the survival rate is high. However, complications may appear and risk indcators associated with early and late failures have been identified. The purpose of the present retrospective clinical study was to describe some clinical features of patients with clinical signs of peri-implantitis and to identify risk indicators of peri-implantitis in a population at a specialist clinic of Periodontology. In total,the material consisted of 377 implants in 111 patients with the diagnosis peri-implantitis. The mean age at the examination was found to be 56.3 years (range 22-83) for females and 64.1 years (range 27-85) for males. The mean number of remaining teeth was found to be 10.5 (S.D. 8.89) and the mean number of implants was 5.85 (S.D. 3.42). For a majority of the subjects, more than 50% of the remaining teeth had a marginal bone loss of more than 1/3 of the root length. Forty-sex percent of the patients visited regularly dental hygienists for supportive treatment. The percentage of implants with peri-implantitis was significantly increased for smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.04). In the group of non-smokers, 64% of the implants had the diagnosis peri-implantitis, while the corresponding relative frequency for smokers was 78%. A majority of the individuals had a Plaque index and Bleeding on probing index >50%. The median of the follow-up time after implant placement was 7.4 years and the observation period was not significantly correlated to the degree of bone loss around the implants. Among the subjects with a mean bone loss >6 mm at implants with peri-implantitis, more than 70% had a mean marginal bone loss > 1/3 of the root length of the remaining teeth. A positive and significant correlation was found between the degree of marginal bone loss in remaining teeth and the degree of bone loss around implants with peri

  11. Human exposure to endotoxins and fecal indicators originating from water features.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Heederik, D D J; Leenen, E J T M; de Roda Husman, A M; Spithoven, J J G; van Knapen, F

    2014-03-15

    Exposure to contaminated aerosols and water originating from water features may pose public health risks. Endotoxins in air and water and fecal bacteria in water of water features were measured as markers for exposure to microbial cell debris and enteric pathogens, respectively. Information was collected about wind direction, wind force, distance to the water feature, the height of the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. The mean concentration of endotoxins in air nearby and in water of 31 water features was 10 endotoxin units (EU)/m(3) (Geometric Mean (GM), range 0-85.5 EU/m(3) air) and 773 EU/mL (GM, range 9-18,170 EU/mL water), respectively. Such mean concentrations may be associated with respiratory health effects. The water quality of 26 of 88 water features was poor when compared to requirements for recreational water in the Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC. Concentrations greater than 1000 colony forming units (cfu) Escherichia coli per 100 mL and greater than 400 cfu intestinal enterococci per 100 mL increase the probability of acquiring gastrointestinal health complaints. Regression analyses showed that the endotoxin concentration in air was significantly influenced by the concentration of endotoxin in water, the distance to the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. Exposure to air and water near water features was shown to lead to exposure to endotoxins and fecal bacteria. The potential health risks resulting from such exposure to water features may be estimated by a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), however, such QMRA would require quantitative data on pathogen concentrations, exposure volumes and dose-response relationships. The present study provides estimates for aerosolisation ratios that can be used as input for QMRA to quantify exposure and to determine infection risks from exposure to water features.

  12. Investigation of the mica x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectral features at the Al K-edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G.; Mottana, A.; Della Ventura, G.

    2003-10-01

    Near-edge features of Al x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra in aluminosilicate compounds with mixed coordination number are usually assigned to a fourfold coordinated site contribution followed by a sixfold coordinated site contribution that is displaced towards higher energy because of the increasing ligand nucleus potentials, neglecting possible contributions due to bond distance variations and local geometrical distortion. Here we present and discuss the Al K-edge XANES spectra of synthetic micas with either fourfold coordinated Al (phlogopite), or with sixfold coordinated Al (polylithionite), as well as with mixed coordination (preiswerkite). Multiple scattering simulations of XANES spectra demonstrate that octahedral contributions may overlap the tetrahedral ones so that the lower energy structures in mixed coordination compounds may be associated with the octahedral sites. This unexpected behaviour can be described as due to the effect of a significant reduction of the ligand field strength (i.e. large local distortion and Al-O bond distances).

  13. H{beta} LINE WIDTHS AS AN ORIENTATION INDICATOR FOR LOW-IONIZATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang Shaohua E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.co

    2010-12-20

    There is evidence from radio-loud quasars to suggest that the distribution of the H{beta} broad emission line (BEL) gas is arranged in a predominantly planar orientation, and this result may well also apply to radio-quiet quasars. This would imply that the observed FWHM of the H{beta} BELs is dependent on the orientation of the line of sight to the gas. If this view is correct then we propose that the FWHM can be used as a surrogate, in large samples, to determine the line of sight to the H{beta} BELs in broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). The existence of broad UV absorption lines (BALs) means that the line of sight to BALQSOs must also pass through the BAL out-flowing gas. It is determined that there is a statistically significant excess of narrow-line profiles in the SDSS DR7 archival spectra of low-ionization broad absorption line quasars (LoBALQSOs), indicating that BAL gas flowing close to the equatorial plane does not commonly occur in these sources. We also find that the data is not well represented by random lines of sight to the BAL gas. Our best fit indicates two classes of LoBALQSOs, the majority ({approx}2/3) are polar outflows that are responsible for the enhanced frequency of narrow-line profiles, and the remainder are equatorial outflows. We further motivated the line of sight explanation of the narrow-line excess in LoBALQSOs by considering the notion that the skewed distribution of line profiles is driven by an elevated Eddington ratio in BALQSOs. We constructed a variety of control samples comprised of non-LoBALQSOs matched to a de-reddened LoBALQSO sample in redshift, luminosity, black hole mass, and Eddington ratio. It is demonstrated that the excess of narrow profiles persists within the LoBALQSO sample relative to each of the control samples with no reduction of the statistical significance. Thus, we eliminate the possibility that the excess narrow lines seen in the LoBALQSOs arise from an enhanced Eddington ratio.

  14. Goddard high-resolution spectrograph observations of narrow discrete stellar wind absorption features in the ultraviolet spectrum of the O7.5 III star Xi Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Altner, Bruce; Bolton, C. T.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    We report the observation of transient narrow absorption components (NACs) in the stellar wind of the O giant Xi Per. Two sets of GHRS observations of the Si IV ultraviolet resonance doublet have been obtained. These features are extremely weak, with column densities of approximately 10 exp 12/sq cm and optical depths of order 0.1. The features are narrow, less than 30 km/s, and seem to occur in groups. If the NACs are due to the 1393 A component, they represent previously undetected low-velocity discrete absorption components at V(rad) below -600 km/s. If they are high-velocity features on the 1402 A doublet component, they may represent the decay phase of the discrete absorption components at the terminal velocity. In either case, they are a new aspect of the NAC phenomenon that could not have been detected with previous ultraviolet spectrographs.

  15. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  16. Cluster analysis identifies aminoacid compositional features that indicate Toxoplasma gondii adhesin proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Ailan F; Salcedo, Gladys E; Moncada, Diego M; Erazo, Diego A; Osorio, Juan F; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii invade host cells using a multi-step process that depends on the regulated secretion of adhesions. To identify key primary sequence features of adhesins in this parasite, we analyze the relative frequency of individual amino acids, their dipeptide frequencies, and the polarity, polarizability and Van der Waals volume of the individual amino acids by using cluster analysis. This method identified cysteine as a key amino acid in the Toxoplasma adhesin group. The best vector algorithm of non-concatenated features was for 2 attributes: the single amino acid relative frequency and the dipeptide frequency. Polarity, polarizability and Van der Waals volume were not good classificatory attributes. Single amino acid attributes clustered unambiguously 67 apicomplexan hypothetical adhesins. This algorithm was also useful for clustering hypothetical Toxoplasma target host receptors. All of the cluster performances had over 70% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Compositional aminoacid data can be useful for improving machine learning-based prediction software when homology and structural data are not sufficient. PMID:23144551

  17. Establishment of odontoblastic cells, which indicate odontoblast features both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Katase, Naoki; Lefeuvre, Mathieu; Yamachika, Eiki; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takebe, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Tooth tissue engineering offers very attractive perspectives for elaboration of regenerative treatments, which enables to cure tooth loss and restore quality of life of the patients. To elaborate such treatment, isolation and culture of dental pulp cell must be achieved as a key element. In this article, we report the establishment of a stable cell line from GFP transgenic rat dental pulp, named TGC (Tooth Matrix-forming, GFP Rat-derived Cell). TGCs have exhibited odontoblastic feature both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, TGC exposed to osteogenic medium demonstrated collagen fiber synthesis with matrix vesicle and mineralization and formed a sheet-like substrate on the cell culture dish. Increased ALP activity and elevated transcription level of various genes involved in calcification and dentin formation were also observed. In vivo, transplanted TGC in SCID mice with β-TCP particles formed dentin-like and pulp-like structure with lining odontoblast. Notably, even after up to 80 passages, TGCs retain their morphological features and differentiation ability. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dental pulp-derived cell with such stable odontoblastic characteristics. TGC could be a very useful model for further study on dental pulp cell.

  18. New narrow infrared absorption features in the spectrum of Io between 3600 and 3100 cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Salama, Farid; Goorvitch, David

    1994-01-01

    We report the discovery of a series of infrared absorption bands between 3600 and 3100/cm (2.8-3.2 micrometers) in the spectrum of Io. Individual narrow bands are detected at 3553, 3514.5, 3438, 3423, 3411.5, and 3401/cm (2.815, 2.845, 2.909, 2.921, 2.931, and 2.940 micrometers, respectively). The positions and relative strengths of these bands, and the difference of their absolute strengths between the leading and trailing faces of Io, indicate that they are due to SO2. The band at 3438/cm (2.909 micrometers) could potentially have a contribution from an additional molecular species. The existence of these bands in the spectrum of Io indicates that a substantial fraction of the SO2 on Io must reside in transparent ices having relatively large crystal sizes. The decrease in the continuum observed at the high frequency ends of the spectra is probably due to the low frequency side of the recently detected, strong 3590/cm (2.79 micrometer) feature. This band is likely due to the combination of a moderately strong SO2 band and an additional absorption from another molecular species, perhaps H2O isolated in SO2 at low concentrations. A broad (FWHM approximately = 40-60/cm), weak band is seen near 3160/cm (3.16 micrometers) and is consistent with the presence of small quantities of H2O isolated in SO2-rich ices. There is no evidence in the spectra for the presence of H2O vapor on Io. Thus, the spectra presented here neither provide unequivocal evidence for the presence of H2O on Io nor preclude it at the low concentrations suggested by past studies.

  19. Electric field absorption and emission as an indicator of active electromagnetic nature of organisms--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Skarja, Metod; Jerman, Igor; Ruzic, Romana; Leskovar, Robert T; Jejcic, Luka

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the response of organisms to the near field exposure show that this response, i.e., its absorption, transmission, and emission (ATE) of the organism, markedly differs from the behavior expected if one treats the organism as a simple dissipative conductive body. The results point to the at least partial active response of the organism. This active electrical response can be attributed at least partially to the response of the endogenous electromagnetic field of organisms, first postulated by Frohlich, and to the material structures that form an inseparable whole with this field. The near electric field influence, both on the organism and of the organism on the sensors, can be established either through the vicinity or through a direct nonconductive contact. This response correlates with the physiological state of an organism. Measurements performed with mealworm beetles indicated that the normal living organisms absorb and use some energy of the near electric field and therefore the transmitted (re-emitted) signal is weaker. The inactivated or the dead organisms are more passive electrical absorbers.

  20. Wetting of nonconserved residue-backbones: A feature indicative of aggregation associated regions of proteins.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Mohan R; Pal, Arumay; Hu, Zhongqiao; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Chee Keong, Kwoh; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation is an irreversible form of protein complexation and often toxic to cells. The process entails partial or major unfolding that is largely driven by hydration. We model the role of hydration in aggregation using "Dehydrons." "Dehydrons" are unsatisfied backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins that seek shielding from water molecules by associating with ligands or proteins. We find that the residues at aggregation interfaces have hydrated backbones, and in contrast to other forms of protein-protein interactions, are under less evolutionary pressure to be conserved. Combining evolutionary conservation of residues and extent of backbone hydration allows us to distinguish regions on proteins associated with aggregation (non-conserved dehydron-residues) from other interaction interfaces (conserved dehydron-residues). This novel feature can complement the existing strategies used to investigate protein aggregation/complexation.

  1. GSH 006-15+7: a local Galactic supershell featuring transition from H I emission to absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, V. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Braun, R.; Hill, A. S.; Madsen, G. J.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the discovery of a new Galactic supershell, GSH 006-15+7, from the Galactic All-Sky Survey data. Observed and derived properties are presented, and we find that GSH 006-15+7 is one of the nearest physically large supershells known, with dimensions of ˜780 × 520 pc at a distance of ˜ 1.5 kpc. The shell wall appears in HI emission at b≲-6?5 and in HI self-absorption (HISA) at b≳-6?5. We use this feature along with HISA diagnostics to estimate an optical depth of τ˜ 3, a spin temperature of ˜40 K and a swept-up mass of M˜ 3 × 106 M⊙. We also investigate the origin of GSH 006-15+7, assessing the energy contribution of candidate powering sources and finding evidence in favour of a formation energy of ˜1052 erg. We find that this structure provides evidence for the transfer of mass and energy from the Galactic disc into the halo.

  2. Dielectronic recombination measurements of iron M-shell ions motivated by active galactic nuclei X-ray absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukic, V. D.; Schnell, M.; Savin, D. W.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E. W.; Bohm, S.; Muller, A.; Schippers, S.; Lestinsky, M.; Sprenger, F.; Wolf, A.; Altun, Z.; Badnell, N. R.

    2008-07-01

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show rich spectra of X-ray absorption lines. These observations have detected a broad unresolved transition array (UTA) between 15-17 A. This is attributed to inner-shell photoexcitation of M-shell iron ions. Modeling these UTA features is currently limited by uncertainties in the low-temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) data for M-shell iron. In order to resolve this issue, and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for plasma modeling, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Currently, laboratory measurements of low temperature DR can only be performed at storage rings. We use the DR data obtained at TSR, to calculate rate coefficients for plasma modeling and to benchmark theoretical DR calculations. At temperatures where these ions are predicted to form in photoionized gas, we find a significant discrepancy between our experimental results and previously recommended DR rate coefficients. Here we report our recent experimental results for DR of Mg-like Fe XV forming Al-like Fe XIV.

  3. A search for weak ultraviolet interstellar absorption features in IUE spectra of Rho Ophiuchi and Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, D. E.; Thorburn, J. A.; Hobbs, L. M.; York, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    We have applied procedures designed to reduce substantially the nonrandom, so-called 'fixed-pattern' noise present in IUE spectra to archival long-wavelength high-dispersion spectra of Rho Ophiuchi and Zeta Ophiuchi. Substantial elimination of the fixed-pattern noise via flat fielding can yield 2sigma equivalent width limits of 5-10 mA from the sum of a small number (about less than 5) of well-exposed archival spectra, and increases confidence in the reality of any weak features found. Examination of complete long-wavelength (about 2200-3250 A) spectra of these two stars has revealed, in addition to many known strong absorption lines, several lines of Fe I and Si I which had not previously been reported, as well as a small number of possible unidentified lines. We also present substantially improved upper limits to the equivalent widths of a number of other weak lines; limits an order of magnitude smaller, now achievable with the HST GHRS, should produce detections of some of these.

  4. Environmental temperature effect on the far-infrared absorption features of aromatic-based Titan's aerosol analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, Mark J.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2017-01-01

    Benzene detection has been reported in Titan's atmosphere both in the stratosphere at ppb levels by remote sensing (Coustenis et al., 2007; Vinatier et al., 2007) and in the thermosphere at ppm levels by the Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Waite et al., 2007). This detection supports the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titan's atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. It has been shown recently that aerosol analogs produced from a gas mixture containing a low concentration of aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) have spectral signatures below 500 cm-1, a first step towards reproducing the aerosol spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared (Anderson and Samuelson 2011, and references therein). In this work we investigate the influence of environmental temperature on the absorption spectra of such aerosol samples, simulating the temperature range to which aerosols, once formed, are exposed during their transport through Titan's stratosphere. Our results show that environmental temperature does not have any major effect on the spectral shape of these aerosol analogs in the far-infrared, which is consistent with the CIRS observations.

  5. Harmonic and anharmonic features of IR and NIR absorption and VCD spectra of chiral 4-X-[2.2]paracyclophanes.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Sergio; Castiglioni, Ettore; Gangemi, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Roberto; Longhi, Giovanna; Ruzziconi, Renzo; Spizzichino, Sara

    2007-08-02

    The vibrational absorption spectra and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of both enantiomers of 4-X-[2.2]paracyclophanes (X = COOCD3, Cl, I) have been recorded for a few regions in the range of 900-12000 cm(-1). The analysis of the VCD spectra for the two IR regions, 900-1600 cm(-1) and 2800-3200 cm(-1), is conducted by comparing with DFT calculations of the corresponding spectra; the latter region reveals common motifs of vibrational modes for the three molecules for aliphatic CH stretching fundamentals, whereas in the mid-IR region, one is able to identify specific signatures arising from the substituent groups X. In the CH stretching region between 2900 and 2800 cm(-1), we identify and interpret a group of three IR VCD bands due to HCH bending overtone transitions in Fermi resonance with CH stretching fundamental transitions. The analysis of the NIR region between approximately 8000 and approximately 9000 cm(-1) for X = COOCD3 reveals important features of the aromatic CH stretching overtones that are of value since the aromatic CH stretching fundamentals are almost silent. The intensifying of such overtones is attributed to electrical anharmonicity terms, which are evaluated here by ab initio methods and compared with literature data.

  6. Exploratory normalized difference water indices for semi-automated extraction of Antarctic lake features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawak, Shridhar D.; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2016-05-01

    This work presents various normalized difference water indices (NDWI) to delineate lakes from Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, by using a very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) satellite imagery. Schirmacher oasis region hosts a number of fresh as well as saline water lakes, such as epishelf lakes, ice-free or landlocked lakes, which are completely frozen or semi-frozen and in a ice-free state. Hence, detecting all these types of lakes distinctly on satellite imagery was the major challenge, as the spectral characteristics of various types of lakes were identical to the other land cover targets. Multiband spectral index pixel-based approach is most experimented and recently growing technique because of its unbeatable advantages such as its simplicity and comparatively lesser amount of processing-time. In present study, semiautomatic extraction of lakes in cryospheric region was carried out by designing specific spectral indices. The study utilized number of existing spectral indices to extract lakes but none could deliver satisfactory results and hence we modified NDWI. The potentials of newly added bands in WV-2 satellite imagery was explored by developing spectral indices comprising of Yellow (585 - 625 nm) band, in combination with Blue (450 - 510 nm), Coastal (400 - 450 nm) and Green (510 - 580 nm) bands. For extraction of frozen lakes, use of Yellow (585 - 625 nm) and near-infrared 2 (NIR2) band pair, and Yellow and Green band pair worked well, whereas for ice-free lakes extraction, a combination of Blue and Coastal band yielded appreciable results, when compared with manually digitized data. The results suggest that the modified NDWI approach rendered bias error varying from 1 to 34 m2.

  7. Study of Radiographic Linear Indications and Subsequent Microstructural Features in Gas Tungsten Arc Welds of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walley, J. L.; Nunes, A. C.; Clounch, J. L.; Russell, C. K.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents examples and considerations for differentiating linear radiographic indications produced by gas tungsten arc welds in a 0.05-in-thick sheet of Inconel 718. A series of welds with different structural features, including the enigma indications and other defect indications such as lack of fusion and penetration, were produced, radiographed, and examined metallographically. The enigma indications were produced by a large columnar grain running along the center of the weld nugget occurring when the weld speed was reduced sufficiently below nominal. Examples of respective indications, including the effect of changing the x-ray source location, are presented as an aid to differentiation. Enigma, nominal, and hot-weld specimens were tensile tested to demonstrate the harmlessness of the enigma indication. Statistical analysis showed that there is no difference between the strengths of these three weld conditions.

  8. [Level indicators construction and temporal-spatial distribution features of agricultural flood in the southwest of China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Huo, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Cai-xia; Yang, Jian-ying; Zhang, Gui-xiang

    2015-08-01

    Flood level indicators of southwest provinces were built in this study by using daily precipitation data of 341 weather stations in southwest agricultural areas from 1961 to 2010 combined with grey correlation analysis. In the process of building the indicators, we took single station flood indicators of Chongqing as the prototype. Through increasing and decreasing the precipitation threshold of Chongqing indicators by the amplitude of -50-+50 mm and the step size of 1 mm, each province got 101 groups of flood indicators. Based on the correlation between flood intensity calculated by all the indicators and crop flood real seriousness, coincidence between indicators and historical flood records and the comparability of different province indicators, we finally constructed agricultural flood level indicators of each province step by step. According to the flood indicators, we also analyzed temporal-spatial distribution features of flood disaster in southwest agricultural areas. The results were as follows: the final indicators of Yunnan were the original indicators plus 16 mm, while it was plus 30 mm for Guizhou and plus 40 mm for Sichuan-Chongqing. The correlation coefficients between flood index defined by indicators and affected ratio were 0.314 (P < 0.05), 0.553 (P < 0.01) and 0.305 (P < 0.05), respectively. The coincidence was relatively high between indicators and historical flood records. The ages in which flood disaster appeared very serious were 1980s in Yunnan, 1990s in Guizhou and 1980s and 2000s in Sichuan-Chongqing in the nearly 50 years. In the southwest and southeast of Yunnan, southwest of Guizhou and west and northeast of Sichuan Basin, the flood disaster was prevalent.

  9. Simultaneous soft and hard X-ray spectroscopy of AM Herculis with EXOSAT: Discovery of photospheric absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerels, Frits; Heise, John; Teeseling, Andre Van

    1994-01-01

    We present 0.1-10 keV spectroscopic observations of AM Herculis obtained with the Transmission Grating Spectrometers and Medium Energy experiments on EXOSAT, taken when the object was in its 'reversed X-ray mode.' The observation covers over six binary orbits without interruption, enabling us to analyze the phase and intensity dependence of both the hard and the soft spectrum simultaneously. We resolve the optically thick soft X-ray spectrum, and find definite evidence for time- and phase-dependent photospheric absorption structure arising in the white dwarf atmosphere. We present a simple empirical analysis of the combined soft and hard X-ray spectra, to examine whether the effect of a better determination of the column density of neutral absorbing material, afforded by our data, would solve the problem of the large relative soft X-ray overluminosity previously observed in AM Her. We find that a single absorbing column fits the entire spectrum, and that the column densities implied are indeed substantially lower than previously estimated. However, during half the binary orbit we still determine a strong lower limit to the soft-to-hard luminosity ratio of L(sub soft)/L(sub hard) is greater than or approximately equal to 10, in conflict with the simple radiative shock models for the accretion region. We argue that this indicates the need to reexamine the luminosity problem using explicit models for the emission spectrum based on a full solution of the atmospheric radiative transfer problem.

  10. Spectral and modulation indices for annoyance-relevant features of urban road single-vehicle pass-by noises.

    PubMed

    Klein, A; Marquis-Favre, C; Weber, R; Trollé, A

    2015-03-01

    The models that relate noise annoyance assessments to noise signal parameters are mainly based on energy-related indices (e.g., LDEN). However, various studies have shown that sound characteristics of environmental noises linked to temporal and spectral signal features also influence noise annoyance responses. In order to enhance noise annoyance models, an adequate perception-related characterization of these influential acoustical features is essential. On the basis of urban road single-vehicle pass-by noises, this study will show the identification of noise characteristics that rely on spectral and temporal signal properties and that are related to noise annoyance. Based on a semantic differential test with a verbalization task, it will be shown that the sensation dull/shrill, related to the spectral content of the noises and the modulation-related sensations sputtering and nasal are linked to annoyance. The sensation dull/shrill could be characterized using the index TETC (Total Energy of Tonal Components within critical bands from 16 to 24 barks). The correlation of sputtering and nasal sensations with psychoacoustic indices was unsatisfactory. Two alternative indices are proposed to improve the characterization of these specific sensations. It is shown that noise annoyance assessment benefits from taking the TETC index and the sputtering and nasal indices into account.

  11. Measuring and monitoring linear woody features in agricultural landscapes through earth observation data as an indicator of habitat availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasher, J.; McGovern, M.; Putinski, V.

    2016-02-01

    The loss of natural habitats and the loss of biological diversity is a global problem affecting all ecosystems including agricultural landscapes. Indicators of biodiversity can provide standardized measures that make it easier to compare and communicate changes to an ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes the amount and variety of available habitat is directly correlated with biodiversity levels. Linear woody features (LWF), including hedgerows, windbreaks, shelterbelts as well as woody shrubs along fields, roads and watercourses, play a vital role in supporting biodiversity as well as serving a wide variety of other purposes in the ecosystem. Earth observation can be used to quantify and monitor LWF across the landscape. While individual features can be manually mapped, this research focused on the development of methods using line intersect sampling (LIS) for estimating LWF as an indicator of habitat availability in agricultural landscapes. The methods are accurate, efficient, repeatable and provide robust results. Methods were tested over 9.5 Mha of agricultural landscape in the Canadian Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Approximately 97,000 km of LWF were estimated across this landscape with results useable both at a regional reporting scale, as well as mapped across space for use in wildlife habitat modelling or other landscape management research. The LIS approach developed here could be employed at a variety of scales in particular for large regions and could be adapted for use as a national scale indicator of habitat availability in heavily disturbed agricultural landscape.

  12. Experimental indication of a naphthalene-base molecular aggregate for the carrier of the 2175 angstroms interstellar extinction feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Wdowiak, T. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Cronin, J. R.; McGehee, M. D.; Clemett, S. J.; Gillette, S.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments where the simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) naphthalene (C10H8) is subjected to the energetic environment of a plasma have resulted in the synthesis of a molecular aggregate that has ultraviolet spectral characteristics that suggest it provides insight into the nature of the carrier of the 2175 angstroms interstellar extinction feature and may be a laboratory analog. Ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and mass spectroscopy, along with gas chromatography, indicate that it is a molecular aggregate in which an aromatic double ring ("naphthalene") structural base serves as the electron "box" chromophore that gives rise to the envelope of the 2175 angstroms feature. This chromophore can also provide the peak of the feature or function as a mantle in concert with another peak provider such as graphite. The molecular base/chromophore manifests itself both as a structural component of an alkyl-aromatic polymer and as a substructure of hydrogenated PAH species. Its spectral and molecular characteristics are consistent with what is generally expected for a complex molecular aggregate that has a role as an interstellar constituent.

  13. Displaced narrow absorption components in the spectra of mass-losing OB stars - Indications of corotating interaction regions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of displaced narrow components (DNCs) in an increasingly large number of stars of various spectral types suggests that an explanation of these features may contribute significantly to understanding of winds from stars of all types. The reported properties of DNCs are summarized here with a view to evaluating one particular scenario for DNC formation which involves corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in the stellar wind. The relevant features of the CIR scenario are summarized, and the extent to which DNC properties support the CIR scenario is discussed.

  14. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  15. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.; Cunningham, N. J.; Hain, M. J.

    2012-01-15

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported.

  16. A New Catalog of Homogenized Absorption Line Indices for Milky Way Globular Clusters from High-resolution Integrated Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Sharples, Ray M.; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Beasley, Michael A.; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2016-12-01

    We perform integrated spectroscopy of 24 Galactic globular clusters (GGCs). Spectra are observed from one core radius for each cluster with a high wavelength resolution of ˜2.0 Å FWHM. In combination with two existing data sets from Puzia et al. and Schiavon et al., we construct a large database of Lick spectral indices for a total of 53 GGCs with a wide range of metallicities, -2.4 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ 0.1, and various horizontal-branch morphologies. The empirical index-to-metallicity conversion relationships are provided for the 20 Lick indices for the use of deriving metallicities for remote, unresolved stellar systems.

  17. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    SciTech Connect

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C.; Silva, A. M.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N.

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  18. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  19. L-Asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Gottfried, C; Silva, A M; Caetano, E W S; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p-carboxyl, C 2p-side chain, and C 2p-carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  20. The Features of the Frequency-Modulation Method When Studying the Shapes of the Spectral Lines of Nonlinear Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Belov, S. P.; Lapinov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We briefly consider the method of the frequency (phase) modulation and signal detection at the second harmonic of the modulation frequency for recording and analyzing the spectral-line shapes. The precision sub-Doppler spectrometer in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave ranges, which operated in the regime of nonlinear saturation of the spectral transitions in a standing wave (the Lamb-dip method), was used during the measurements. The influence of the saturation degree on the value and shape of the recorded frequency-modulated signals in the quadrature channels during the synchronous detection is demonstrated. Variation in the relationships among the signals determined by dispersion and absorption was observed. The necessity of allowance for the influence of the group-velocity dispersion and coherent effects on the shape of the recorded spectral lines is experimentally shown.

  1. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  2. FTIR absorption indices for thermal maturity in comparison with vitrinite reflectance R0 in type-II kerogens from Devonian black shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lis, G.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    FTIR absorbance signals in kerogens and macerals were evaluated as indices for thermal maturity. Two sets of naturally matured type-II kerogens from the New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin) and the Exshaw Formation (Western Canada Sedimentary Basin) and kerogens from hydrous pyrolysis artificial maturation of the New Albany Shale were characterized by FTIR. Good correlation was observed between the aromatic/aliphatic absorption ratio and vitrinite reflectance R 0. FTIR parameters are especially valuable for determining the degree of maturity of marine source rocks lacking vitrinite. With increasing maturity, FTIR spectra express four trends: (i) an increase in the absorption of aromatic bands, (ii) a decrease in the absorption of aliphatic bands, (iii) a loss of oxygenated groups (carbonyl and carboxyl), and (iv) an initial decrease in the CH2/CH3 ratio that is not apparent at higher maturity in naturally matured samples, but is observed throughout increasing R0 in artificially matured samples. The difference in the CH2/CH 3 ratio in samples from natural and artificial maturation at higher maturity indicates that short-term artificial maturation at high temperatures is not fully equivalent to slow geologic maturation at lower temperatures. With increasing R0, the (carboxyl + carbonyl)/aromatic carbon ratio generally decreases, except that kerogens from the Exshaw Formation and from hydrous pyrolysis experiments express an intermittent slight increase at medium maturity. FTIR-derived aromaticities correlate well with R0, although some uncertainty is due to the dependence of FTIR parameters on the maceral composition of kerogen whereas R0 is solely dependent on vitrinite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Absorption features in the quasar HS 1603 + 3820 II. Distance to the absorber obtained from photoionisation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, A.; Nikołajuk, M.; Czerny, B.; Dobrzycki, A.; Hryniewicz, K.; Bechtold, J.; Ebeling, H.

    2014-04-01

    We present the photoionisation modelling of the intrinsic absorber in the bright quasar HS 1603 + 3820. We constructed the broad-band spectral energy distribution using the optical/UV/X-ray observations from different instruments as inputs for the photoionisation calculations. The spectra from the Keck telescope show extremely high CIV to HI ratios, for the first absorber in system A, named A1. This value, together with high column density of CIV ion, place strong constraints on the photoionisation model. We used two photoionisation codes to derive the hydrogen number density at the cloud illuminated surface. By estimating bolometric luminosity of HS 1603 + 3820 using the typical formula for quasars, we calculated the distance to A1. We could find one photoionization solution, by assuming either a constant density cloud (which was modelled using CLOUDY), or a stratified cloud (which was modelled using TITAN), as well as the solar abundances. This model explained both the ionic column density of CIV and the high CIV to HI ratio. The location of A1 is 0.1 pc, and it is situated even closer to the nucleus than the possible location of the Broad Line Region in this object. The upper limit of the distance is sensitive to the adopted covering factor and the carbon abundance. Photoionisation modelling always prefers dense clouds with the number density n0 = 1010 - 1012 cm-3, which explains intrinsic absorption in HS 1603 + 3820. This number density is of the same order as that in the disk atmosphere at the implied distance of A1. Therefore, our results show that the disk wind that escapes from the outermost accretion disk atmosphere can build up dense absorber in quasars.

  4. Direct estimates of natural selection in Iberia indicate calcium absorption was not the only driver of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sverrisdóttir, Oddny Ósk; Timpson, Adrian; Toombs, Jamie; Lecoeur, Cecile; Froguel, Philippe; Carretero, Jose Miguel; Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose--the main carbohydrate in milk--and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. Several sources of evidence indicate that LP has evolved independently, in different parts of the world over the last 10,000 years, and has been subject to strong natural selection in dairying populations. In Europeans, LP is strongly associated with, and probably caused by, a single C to T mutation 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene (-13,910*T). Despite a considerable body of research, the reasons why LP should provide such a strong selective advantage remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine one of the most widely cited hypotheses for selection on LP--that fresh milk consumption supplemented the poor vitamin D and calcium status of northern Europe's early farmers (the calcium assimilation hypothesis). We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. Using simulations that accommodate genetic drift, natural selection, uncertainty in calibrated radiocarbon dates, and sampling error, we find that natural selection is still required to explain the observed increase in allele frequency. We conclude that the calcium assimilation hypothesis is insufficient to explain the spread of LP in Europe.

  5. Prediction of BOD, COD, and total nitrogen concentrations in a typical urban river using a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix with PARAFAC and UV absorption indices.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Cho, Jinwoo

    2012-01-01

    The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1), terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2), and protein-like organic substances (C3), and UV absorption indices (UV(220) and UV(254)), and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV(220), C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV(220) and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN.

  6. Modelling the Emission And/or Absorption Features in the High Resolution Spectra of the Southern Binary System: HH Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseoglu, Dogan; Bakış, Hicran

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution spectra (R=48000) of the southern close binary system, HH Car, has been analyzed with modern analysis techniques. Precise absolute parameters were derived from the simultaneous solution of the radial velocity, produced in this study and the light curves, published. According to the results of these analyses, the primary component is an O9 type main sequence star while the secondary component is a giant/subgiant star with a spectral type of B0. Hα emissions can be seen explicitly in the spectra of HH Car. These features were modelled using the absolute parameters of the components. Since components of HH Car are massive early-type stars, mass loss through stellar winds can be expected. This study revealed that the components of HH Car have stellar winds and the secondary component loses mass to the primary. Stellar winds and the gas stream between the components were modelled as a hot shell around the system. It is determined that the interaction between the winds and the gas stream leads to formation of a high temperature impact region.

  7. Synthesis temperature effect on the structural features and optical absorption of Zn(1-x)Co(x)Al2O4 oxides.

    PubMed

    Gaudon, M; Apheceixborde, A; Ménétrier, M; Le Nestour, A; Demourgues, A

    2009-10-05

    Zinc/cobalt aluminates with spinel-type structure were prepared by a polymeric route, leading to a pure phase with controlled grain size. The prepared pigments were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld analyses in order to determine structural features, scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, helium pycnometry and (27)Al MAS NMR in order to highlight the occurrence of defects inside the structure, and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopy to identify electronic transitions responsible for the compounds' color. The green-blue coloration of these pigments is known to be dependent on the sample thermal history. Here, for the first time, the Zn(1-x)Co(x)Al(2)O(4) color is newly interpreted. The pigment is green once synthesized at low temperature (i.e., with diminution of the pigment grain size); this variation was attributed to the appearance of a new absorption band located at about 500 nm, linked to a complex network feature involving Co ions in octahedral sites as well as oxygen and cationic vacancies. Hence, this work shows the possibility of easily getting a nonstoichiometric network with an abnormal cationic distribution from "chimie douce" processes with moderate synthesis temperature, and so various colorations for the same composition.

  8. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. IV. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION LINE INDICES IN OLD M31 AND MILKY WAY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Caldwell, Nelson; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Courteau, Stephane; MacArthur, Lauren A.

    2012-01-15

    We present absorption line indices measured in the integrated spectra of globular clusters both from the Galaxy and from M31. Our samples include 41 Galactic globular clusters, and more than 300 clusters in M31. The conversion of instrumental equivalent widths into the Lick system is described, and zero-point uncertainties are provided. Comparison of line indices of old M31 clusters and Galactic globular clusters suggests an absence of important differences in chemical composition between the two cluster systems. In particular, CN indices in the spectra of M31 and Galactic clusters are essentially consistent with each other, in disagreement with several previous works. We reanalyze some of the previous data, and conclude that reported CN differences between M31 and Galactic clusters were mostly due to data calibration uncertainties. Our data support the conclusion that the chemical compositions of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters are not substantially different, and that there is no need to resort to enhanced nitrogen abundances to account for the optical spectra of M31 globular clusters.

  9. Uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (Metaplasic carcinoma) in the cat: clinicopathologic features and proliferation indices.

    PubMed

    Nicòtina, P A; Zanghì, A; Catone, G

    2002-01-01

    A homologous malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the uterus occurring in an 8-year-old Persian cat was described with regard to its clinical and pathologic features. A polypoid multinodular mass of the right uterine horn was shown by an ultrasound examination. Grossly, the right uterine horn was enlarged because of a vegetative and infiltrating tumor, grayish-white in color, that penetrated the uterine wall to the level of the perimetrium. Many metastatic nodules were found in abdominal and thoracic cavities. Histologically, the neoplasm had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and was diagnosed as an uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor. This is the fourth case reported in cats. The histologic features and proliferation rate of this tumor were similar to the corresponding human neoplasms, which occur mainly in postmenopausal women. The possible hormone dependence of the tumor is briefly discussed.

  10. Geochemical features of trace and rare earth elements of pumice in middle Okinawa Trough and its indication of magmatic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shikui; Guo, Kun; Zong, Tong; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei; Zhang, Xia

    2017-04-01

    Pumice, the most widely distributed volcanic rock in Okinawa Trough, is loose and porous. Since its formation, it has definitely suffered from the denudation of the sea to different degrees. In order to truly reveal the geochemical features of pumice, we choose the method of mineral separation. Firstly, the phenocryst is separated from glass. Then the phenocryst is divided into light and heavy mineral compositions. By ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical technology, the contents of trace and rare earth elements in the whole pumice, the glass and the heavy and light mineral compositions are determined respectively. By researching the elemental geochemical features, the magma dynamic processes are found. It shows that the initial magma for the pumice in Okinawa Trough came from the depleted mantle, from which the N-MORB (normal type of mid-ocean ridge basalt) is formed, homologous with the local basalts. But they are formed in different periods of magma crystal fractionation. Featured with sufficient crystal fractionation for pumice, it is found that the earlier crystallizing minerals are olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene. The pumice magma, formed from the depleted mantle, was mixed with additional subduction-related materials (components), and contaminated with the mass from upper crust when it rose up into the crust. As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in its early back-arc spreading stage, its magmatism has a series of its own unique characteristics, different from not only the mid-ocean ridge expansion, but also the mature back-arc basin.

  11. Aerosol scattering and absorption Angström exponents as indicators of dust and dust-free days over Granada (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Titos, G.; Cazorla, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the assessment of atmospheric aerosol optical properties at the surface and in atmospheric column during both desert dust and dust-free conditions over Granada, South-eastern Iberian Peninsula. Indeed, the spectral dependence of aerosol absorption and scattering properties is analyzed in detail. The analyzed period ranges from June 2008 to December 2010. On dusty days, the mean scattering Angström exponent value obtained in the atmospheric column (SAEcol) (0.5 ± 0.3) was lower than the observed at the surface level (SAEis) (1.3 ± 0.6), indicating higher contribution of coarse particles at high atmospheric level than at ground level during the analyzed dust events. In addition, it is noticed that the absorption Angström exponent in the atmospheric column (AAEcol) with mean value of 1.5 ± 0.2 and at the surface (AAEis) with mean value of 1.3 ± 0.2 obtained during dusty situations are indicative of mixture of desert dust and black carbon particles as dominant absorbers both in the atmospheric column and at the surface during dust intrusions over Granada. On the other hand, a non-parametric test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) revealed that no significant statistical difference was found for AAEis between desert dust and free-dust conditions. This result may be due to the important contribution of urban absorbing aerosol (e.g. Black carbon) at ground level in the study location. Therefore, these parameters (AAEcol and AAEis) are not very useful to detect desert dust events without the use of other information (e.g., aerosol size) over urban area like Granada. A dust extreme event was analyzed in order to retrieve optical parameters during situation dominated by desert dust. The values of SAEcol and SAEis obtained during this extreme event were in agreement with the values showed above for the period 2008-2010, although the differences between dust-free and dust conditions are more noticeable in this special event.

  12. Evaluating the Nature of So-Called S*-State Feature in Transient Absorption of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Hunter, C Neil; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-11-03

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S* state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation-bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. These findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes.

  13. Evaluating the Nature of So-Called S*-State Feature in Transient Absorption of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S* state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation–bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. These findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes. PMID:27726397

  14. Scale invariant feature transform in adaptive radiation therapy: a tool for deformable image registration assessment and re-planning indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Chiara; Peroni, Marta; Riboldi, Marco; Sharp, Gregory C.; Ciardo, Delia; Alterio, Daniela; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aims at compensating for anatomic and pathological changes to improve delivery along a treatment fraction sequence. Current ART protocols require time-consuming manual updating of all volumes of interest on the images acquired during treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) and contour propagation stand as a state of the ART method to automate the process, but the lack of DIR quality control methods hinder an introduction into clinical practice. We investigated the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method as a quantitative automated tool (1) for DIR evaluation and (2) for re-planning decision-making in the framework of ART treatments. As a preliminary test, SIFT invariance properties at shape-preserving and deformable transformations were studied on a computational phantom, granting residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. Then a clinical dataset composed of 19 head and neck ART patients was used to quantify the performance in ART treatments. For the goal (1) results demonstrated SIFT potential as an operator-independent DIR quality assessment metric. We measured DIR group systematic residual errors up to 0.66 mm against 1.35 mm provided by rigid registration. The group systematic errors of both bony and all other structures were also analyzed, attesting the presence of anatomical deformations. The correct automated identification of 18 patients who might benefit from ART out of the total 22 cases using SIFT demonstrated its capabilities toward goal (2) achievement.

  15. Sampling procedure and a radio-indicator study of mercury determination in whole blood by using an AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Spevácková, Vera; Korunová, Vlasta; Cejchanová, Mája; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2004-09-01

    A sampling procedure appropriate for the determination of mercury in whole blood was tested by using both inactive controls and a 197Hg mercury radio-indicator. To exclude the influence of the instrumental device (an AMA 254 single-purpose mercury atomic absorption spectrometer) on the determination of mercury in whole blood, the function of the instrument was checked by using rat blood with metabolised 197Hg. The measurement procedure was found to be free of errors. However, the study showed that the material used for the sampling vessels is a crucial parameter for obtaining accurate analytical results. The stability of solutions and samples was tested towards polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) vessels. PE displayed a time-dependent increase in the mercury content both in the samples and in the blood control material. The probable cause of this increase was direct contamination from the material of the vessel and/or diffusion of mercury from the environment through the vessel walls related to a strong complexing affinity of the sample matrix. This assumption was confirmed by supplying the vessels with the complexing agent Na2EDTA (0.05 mol L(-1)). Commercial PP vessels for blood sampling (Sarstedt S-Monovette Metall Analytik) did not give rise to statistically significant variations in mercury content in the samples and blood control material over a 30-day period.

  16. Multiple KRAS mutations in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: molecular features of neoplastic clones indicate the selection of divergent populations of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Visani, Michela; de Biase, Dario; Baccarini, Paola; Fabbri, Carlo; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Zanini, Nicola; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    KRAS is one of the most common genes mutated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multiple KRAS mutations may be detected within the same pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but it is usually unclear whether the different mutations represent biologically irrelevant molecular events or whether they indicate the coexistence of distinct sizable neoplastic clones within a given tumor. We identified a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with 5 different mutations in the KRAS gene and have been able to characterize the allelic distribution of the KRAS mutations and the size of the neoplastic clones using allele-specific locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior). The results indicate that the tumor is composed of 5 distinct cell populations: one is KRAS G12V mutated (~38% of neoplastic cells), the second is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12D in the other (~32%), the third is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12R in the other (~24%), and the fourth is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12C in the other (~6%). The fifth clone, representing a minority of neoplastic cells, has a KRAS Q61H mutation in addition to one of the above alterations. Microsatellite analysis identified mutation of the NR21 marker out of the 13 tested, indicating that the tumor has a defect in maintaining DNA integrity different from loss of conventional DNA mismatch repair. These results are consistent with the successive selection of divergent populations of tumor cells and underscore the relevance of nucleotide instability in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  17. Identification of new PNEPs indicates a substantial non-PEXEL exportome and underpins common features in Plasmodium falciparum protein export.

    PubMed

    Heiber, Arlett; Kruse, Florian; Pick, Christian; Grüring, Christof; Flemming, Sven; Oberli, Alexander; Schoeler, Hanno; Retzlaff, Silke; Mesén-Ramírez, Paolo; Hiss, Jan A; Kadekoppala, Madhusudan; Hecht, Leonie; Holder, Anthony A; Gilberger, Tim-Wolf; Spielmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Malaria blood stage parasites export a large number of proteins into their host erythrocyte to change it from a container of predominantly hemoglobin optimized for the transport of oxygen into a niche for parasite propagation. To understand this process, it is crucial to know which parasite proteins are exported into the host cell. This has been aided by the PEXEL/HT sequence, a five-residue motif found in many exported proteins, leading to the prediction of the exportome. However, several PEXEL/HT negative exported proteins (PNEPs) indicate that this exportome is incomplete and it remains unknown if and how many further PNEPs exist. Here we report the identification of new PNEPs in the most virulent malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This includes proteins with a domain structure deviating from previously known PNEPs and indicates that PNEPs are not a rare exception. Unexpectedly, this included members of the MSP-7 related protein (MSRP) family, suggesting unanticipated functions of MSRPs. Analyzing regions mediating export of selected new PNEPs, we show that the first 20 amino acids of PNEPs without a classical N-terminal signal peptide are sufficient to promote export of a reporter, confirming the concept that this is a shared property of all PNEPs of this type. Moreover, we took advantage of newly found soluble PNEPs to show that this type of exported protein requires unfolding to move from the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) into the host cell. This indicates that soluble PNEPs, like PEXEL/HT proteins, are exported by translocation across the PV membrane (PVM), highlighting protein translocation in the parasite periphery as a general means in protein export of malaria parasites.

  18. Theoretical Indications of Singular Structural and Electronic Features of Laves-Phase CaLi2 Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ji; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2007-06-01

    In spite of the presence of ostensibly simple constituents, CaLi2 should be a very peculiar material under pressure. Its two 1-atmosphere polymorphs each undergo a structural bifurcation on densification to structures compressed or elongated in one lattice direction. A Hume-Rothery type mechanism is proposed to account for the indicated lattice distortion. The narrowing of valence bands under pressure in this material, a large density of states at the Fermi level, and the expected high dynamical scales also hint at superconductivity.

  19. Acute liver failure due to zinc phosphide containing rodenticide poisoning: Clinical features and prognostic indicators of need for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Vivek; Pande, Supriya; Gopalakrishnan, Unnikrishnan; Balakrishnan, Dinesh; Menon, Ramachandran N; Sudheer, O V; Dhar, Puneet; Sudhindran, S

    2015-07-01

    Zinc phosphide (ZnP) containing rodenticide poisoning is a recognized cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in India. When standard conservative measures fail, the sole option is liver transplantation. Records of 41 patients admitted to a single centre with ZnP-induced ALF were reviewed to identify prognostic indicators for requirement of liver transplantation. Patients were analyzed in two groups: group I (n = 22) consisted of patients who either underwent a liver transplant (n = 14) or died without a transplant (n = 8); group II (n = 19) comprised those who survived without liver transplantation. International normalized ratio (INR) in group I was 9 compared to 3 in group II (p < 0.001). Encephalopathy occurred only in group I. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score in group I was 41 compared to 24 in group II (p < 0.001). MELD score of 36 (sensitivity of 86.7 %, specificity of 90 %) or a combination of INR of 6 and encephalopathy (sensitivity of 100 %, specificity of 83 %) were the best indicators of mortality. Such patients should undergo urgent liver transplantation.

  20. Late Pleistocene eolian features in southeastern Maryland and Chesapeake Bay region indicate strong WNW-NW winds accompanied growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Litwin, R.J.; Pavich, M.J.; Brook, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Inactive parabolic dunes are present in southeastern Maryland, USA, along the east bank of the Potomac River. More elongate and finer-grained eolian deposits and paha-like ridges characterize the Potomac River-Patuxent River upland and the west side of Chesapeake Bay. These ridges are streamlined erosional features, veneered with eolian sediment and interspersed with dunes in the low-relief headwaters of Potomac- and Patuxent-river tributaries. Axis data for the dunes and ridges indicate formation by WNW-NW winds. Optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon age data suggest dune formation from ??? 33-15??ka, agreeing with the 30-13??ka ages Denny, C.S., Owens, J.P., Sirkin, L., Rubin, M., 1979. The Parsonburg Sand in the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1067-B, 16??pp. suggested for eolian deposits east of Chesapeake Bay. Age range and paleowind direction(s) for eolian features in the Bay region approximate those for late Wisconsin loess in the North American midcontinent. Formation of midcontinent loess and Bay-region eolian features was coeval with rapid growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and strong cooling episodes (??18O minima) evident in Greenland ice cores. Age and paleowind-direction coincidence, for eolian features in the midcontinent and Bay region, indicates strong mid-latitude WNW-NW winds for several hundred kilometers south of the Laurentide glacial terminus that were oblique to previously simulated anticyclonic winds for the last glacial maximum.

  1. The spacing of the interstellar 6.2 and 7.7 micron emission features as an indicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    A database of astrophysically relevant, infrared spectral measurements on a wide variety of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging in size from C10H8 through C48H20, is now available to extend the interstellar PAH model. Beyond simply indicating general characteristics of the carriers, this collection of data now makes it possible to conduct a more thorough interpretation of the details of the interstellar spectra and thereby derive deeper insights into the nature of the emitting material and conditions in the emission zones. This Letter is the first such implementation of this spectral database. The infrared spectra of PAH cations, the main PAH form in the most energetic emission zones, are usually dominated by a few strong features in the 1650-1100 cm-1 (6.1-9.1 microns) region that tend to cluster the vicinity of the interstellar emission bands at 1610 and 1320 cm-1 (6.2 and 7.6 microns), but with spacings typically somewhat less than that observed in the canonical interstellar spectrum. However, the spectra in the database show that this spacing increases steadily with molecular size. Extrapolation of this trend indicates that PAHs in the 50-80 carbon atom size range are entirely consistent with the observed interstellar spacing. Furthermore, the profile of the 1610 cm-1 (6.2 microns) interstellar band indicates that PAHs containing as few as 20 carbon atoms contribute to this feature.

  2. The Spacing of the Interstellar 6.2 Microns and 7.7 Microns Emission Features as an Indicator of PAH Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A database of astrophysically relevant, infrared spectral measurements on a wide variety of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging in size from C10H8 through C48H20 is now available to extend the interstellar PAH model. Beyond simply indicating general characteristics of the carriers, this collection of data now makes it possible to conduct a more thorough interpretation of the details of the interstellar spectra and thereby derive deeper insights into the nature of the emitting material and conditions in the emission zones. This paper is the first such implementation of this spectral database. The infrared spectra of PAH cations, the main PAH form in the most energetic emission zones, are usually dominated by a few strong features in the 1650 - 1100 per centimeter (6.1 - 9.1 microns) region which tend to cluster in the vicinity of the interstellar emission bands at 1610 per centimeter and 1320 per centimeter (6.2 and 7.6 microns) but with spacings typically somewhat less than that observed in the canonical interstellar spectrum. However, the spectra in the database show that this spacing increases steadily with molecular size. Extrapolation of this trend indicates that PAHS in the 50 to 80 carbon atom size range are entirely consistent with the observed interstellar spacing. Furthermore, the profile of the 1610 per centimeter (6.2 microns) interstellar band indicates that PAHS containing as few as 20 carbon atoms contribute to this feature.

  3. Macronutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, plasma indicators of protein metabolism and mineral absorption in horses fed a ration rich in sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Olsman, A F S; Huurdeman, C M; Jansen, W L; Haaksma, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Beynen, A C

    2004-10-01

    In a cross-over study with six mature horses, the effect of iso-energetic replacement of dietary glucose by beet pulp on macronutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and mineral absorption was studied. The test ration contained 25% beet pulp in the total dietary dry matter. Beet pulp feeding significantly lowered crude fat and non-structural carbohydrate digestibility, but had no significant effect on digestibility of other macronutrients, faecal and urinary nitrogen excretion and the faecal to urinary nitrogen excretion quotient. However, on the beet pulp diet, plasma ammonia and creatinin concentrations were significantly lower than on the glucose diet. No diet effect on magnesium absorption was observed. It is suggested that dietary beet pulp stimulates the conversion of ammonia into urea.

  4. Detailed Spectral Analysis of the 260 ks XMM-Newton Data of 1E 1207.4-5209 and Significance of a 2.1 keV Absorption Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Chonko, James C.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2005-10-01

    We have reanalyzed the 260 ks XMM-Newton observation of 1E 1207.4-5209. There are several significant improvements over previous work. First, a much broader range of physically plausible spectral models was used. Second, we have used a more rigorous statistical analysis. The standard F-distribution was not employed, but rather the exact finite statistics F-distribution was determined by Monte Carlo simulations. This approach was motivated by the recent work of Protassov and coworkers and Freeman and coworkers. They demonstrated that the standard F-distribution is not even asymptotically correct when applied to assess the significance of additional absorption features in a spectrum. With our improved analysis we do not find a third and fourth spectral feature in 1E 1207.4-5209 but only the two broad absorption features previously reported. Two additional statistical tests, one line model dependent and the other line model independent, confirmed our modified F-test analysis. For all physically plausible continuum models in which the weak residuals are strong enough to fit, the residuals occur at the instrument Au M edge. As a sanity check we confirmed that the residuals are consistent in strength and position with the instrument Au M residuals observed in 3C 273.

  5. CAN GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES DETECT THE OXYGEN 1.27 {mu}m ABSORPTION FEATURE AS A BIOMARKER IN EXOPLANETS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hajime; Matsuo, Taro; Takami, Michihiro; Fujii, Yuka; Kotani, Takayuki; Tamura, Motohide; Murakami, Naoshi; Guyon, Olivier

    2012-10-10

    The oxygen absorption line imprinted in the scattered light from Earth-like planets has been considered the most promising metabolic biomarker for exolife. We examine the feasibility of the detection of the 1.27 {mu}m oxygen band from habitable exoplanets, in particular, around late-type stars observed with a future instrument on a 30 m class ground-based telescope. We analyzed the night airglow around 1.27 {mu}m with the IRCS/echelle spectrometer on Subaru and found that the strong telluric emission from atmospheric oxygen molecules declines by an order of magnitude by midnight. By compiling nearby star catalogs combined with the sky background model, we estimate the detectability of the oxygen absorption band from an Earth twin, if it exists, around nearby stars. We find that the most dominant source of photon noise for the oxygen 1.27 {mu}m band detection comes from the night airglow if the contribution of the stellar point-spread function (PSF) halo is suppressed enough to detect the planet. We conclude that the future detectors, for which the detection contrast is limited by photon noise, can detect the oxygen 1.27 {mu}m absorption band of Earth twins for {approx}50 candidates of the late-type star. This paper demonstrates the importance of deploying a small inner working angle as an efficient coronagraph and extreme adaptive optics on extremely large telescopes, and clearly shows that doing so will enable the study of potentially habitable planets.

  6. Fluctuations between sleep and wakefulness: wake-like features indicated by increased EEG alpha power during different sleep stages in nightmare disorder.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Horváth, Klára; Ujma, Péter P; Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert

    2013-12-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that frequent nightmares are related to impaired sleep regulation, the pathophysiology of nightmare disorder is far from being fully understood. We examined the relative spectral power values for NREM and REM sleep separately in 19 individuals with nightmare disorder and 21 healthy controls, based on polysomnographic recordings of the second nights' laboratory sleep. Nightmare subjects compared to controls exhibited increased relative high alpha (10-14.5Hz) and fronto-central increases in high delta (3-4Hz) power during REM sleep, and a trend of increased fronto-central low alpha (7.75-9Hz) power in NREM sleep. These differences were independent of the confounding effects of waking emotional distress. High REM alpha and low NREM alpha powers were strongly related in nightmare but not in control subjects. The topographical distribution and spectral components of REM alpha activity suggest that nightmare disordered subjects are characterized by wake-like electroencephalographic features during REM sleep.

  7. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  8. HI absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    HI absorption studies yield information on both AGN feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for HI absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 < z < 0.096 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. In total, we obtained seven detections, five of which are new, with a large range of peak optical depths (3% to 87%). Of the detections, 71% exhibit asymmetric, broad (ΔvFWHM > 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disk. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with HI detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic disks. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of HI content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous HI surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  9. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  10. Towards empirical identification of a clinically meaningful indicator of treatment outcome: Features of candidate indicators and evaluation of sensitivity to treatment effects and relationship to one year follow up cocaine use outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; DeVito, Elise E.; Decker, Suzanne; LaPaglia, Donna; Duffey, Dianne; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Selection of an appropriate indictor of treatment response in clinical trials is complex, particularly for the various illicit drugs of abuse. Most widely-used indicators have been selected based on expert group recommendation or convention rather than systematic empirical evaluation. Absence of an evidence-based, clinically meaningful index of treatment outcome hinders cross-study evaluations necessary for progress in addiction treatment science. Method Fifteen candidate indicators used in multiple clinical trials as well as some proposed recently are identified and discussed in terms of relative strengths and weaknesses (practicality, cost, verifiability, sensitivity to missing data). Using pooled data from five randomized controlled trials of cocaine dependence (N = 434), the indicators were compared in terms of sensitivity to the effects of treatment and relationship to cocaine use and general functioning during follow-up. Results Commonly used outcome measures (percent negative urine screens; percent days of abstinence) performed relatively well in that they were sensitive to the effects of the therapies evaluated. Others, including complete abstinence and reduction in frequency of use, were less sensitive to effects of specific therapies and were very weakly related to cocaine use or functioning during follow-up. Indicators more strongly related to cocaine use during follow-up were those that reflected achievement of sustained periods of abstinence, particularly at the end of treatment. Conclusions These analyses did not demonstrate overwhelming superiority of any single indicator, but did identify several that performed particularly poorly. Candidates for elimination included retention, complete abstinence, and indicators of reduced frequency of cocaine use. PMID:24556275

  11. Special Feature: Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: An inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Ruth E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Martini, Anna M.

    2001-02-01

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (18Op) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity,the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO4-H2O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that δ18OP values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of δ18Op as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, δ18Op may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars.

  12. Do features of Mozart's letter-writing style indicate the presence of a neuropsychiatric disorder? Controversies about the Bäsle letters.

    PubMed

    Möller, H-J

    2014-08-01

    In recent decades, several scientific publications have come to the conclusion that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart might have had a Tourette syndrome. Other papers, however, have questioned this hypothetical diagnosis. The evidence for this diagnosis was mostly based on the so-called Bäsle letters, letters that Mozart wrote to his cousin when aged around 20 years. The letters have common stylistic characteristics such as frequent mention of erotic topics and, in particular, intensive use of scatological terms. However, these characteristics cannot be interpreted as clearly indicating a Tourette syndrome but may rather be related to psychosocial and cultural aspects of that time. There is little evidence for a Tourette syndrome from other sources, such as reports of behavioural abnormalities, and the evidence is not convincing.

  13. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    squeeze-outs along the pit walls that form when the rising crust exposes the still liquid core of the sheet. The plains of Tharsis and Elysium, Mars, display many analogous features

  14. H I absorption toward cooling flows in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bregman, Joel N.

    1990-01-01

    An H I survey of 14 cooling flow clusters and two noncooling flow clusters was conducted, and H I absorption features were detected against the nuclear radio continuum sources of two cooling flow dominant (CFD) galaxies, 2A 0335 + 096 and MKW3s. The absorption features are broad and redshifted with respect to the stellar absorption-line velocity of the CFDs by 90-225 km/s. This indicates that the H I is falling onto, and is probably gravitationally bound to, the CFDs. The kinematics of the H I clouds suggest a possible kinematic link between the warm and cold phases of the intracluster medium. The clouds are orders of magnitude smaller in radius and mass and larger in density than Galactic H I clouds. The detected CFDs have mass-accretion rates that are about 2.5 times larger than the CFDs that were not detected.

  15. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  16. PERITONEAL ABSORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, P. F.; Miller, L. L.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.; Whipple, G. H.

    1944-01-01

    The absorption of red cells from the normal peritoneum of the dog can be demonstrated by means of red cells labeled with radio-iron incorporated in the hemoglobin of these red cells. Absorption in normal dogs runs from 20 to 100 per cent of the amount given within 24 hours. Dogs rendered anemic by bleeding absorb red cells a little less rapidly—ranging from 5 to 80 per cent of the injected red cells. Doubly depleted dogs (anemic and hypoproteinemic) absorb even less in the three experiments recorded. This peritoneal absorption varies widely in different dogs and even in the same dog at different times. We do not know the factors responsible for these variations but there is no question about active peritoneal absorption. The intact red cells pass readily from the peritoneal cavity into lymph spaces in diaphragm and other areas of the peritoneum. The red cells move along the lymphatics and through the lymph glands with little or no phagocytosis and eventually into the large veins through the thoracic ducts. PMID:19871404

  17. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Deborah C

    2004-03-01

    Our understanding of nutrient absorption continues to grow, from the development of unique animal models and from studies in which cutting-edge molecular and cellular biologic approaches have been used to analyze the structure and function of relevant molecules. Studies of the molecular genetics of inherited disorders have also provided many new insights into these processes. A major advance in lipid absorption has been the cloning and characterization of several intestinal acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases; these may provide new targets for antiobesity drug therapy. Studies of intestinal cholesterol absorption and reverse cholesterol transport have encouraged the development of novel potential treatments for hyperlipidemia. Observations in genetically modified mice and in humans with mutations in glucose transporter 2 suggest the importance of a separate microsomal membrane transport pathway for glucose transport. The study of iron metabolism has advanced greatly with the identification of the hemochromatosis gene and the continued examination of the genetic regulation of iron absorptive pathways. Several human thiamine transporters have been identified, and their specific roles in different tissues are being explored.

  18. IUE's View of Callisto: Detection of an SO2 Absorption Correlated to Possible Torus Neutral Wind Alterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Arthur L.; Domingue, Deborah L.

    1997-01-01

    Observations taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) detected a 0.28 micron absorption feature on Callisto's leading and Jupiter-facing hemispheres. This feature is similar to Europa's 0.28 micron feature, however it shows no correlation with magnetospheric ion bombardment. The strongest 0.28 micron signature is seen in the region containing the Valhalla impact. This absorption feature also shows some spatial correlation to possible neutral wind interactions, suggestive of S implantation (rather than S(sub x)) into Callisto's water ice surface, Indications of possible temporal variations (on the 10% level) are seen at other wavelengths between the 1984-1986 and the 1996 observations.

  19. Plasma absorption evidence via chirped pulse spectral transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Minardi, Stefano; Couairon, Arnaud; Jukna, Vytautas; Selva, Marco; Di Trapani, Paolo

    2015-06-08

    This work aims at highlighting the plasma generation dynamics and absorption when a Bessel beam propagates in glass. We developed a simple diagnostics allowing us to retrieve clear indications of the formation of the plasma in the material, thanks to transmission measurements in the angular and wavelength domains. This technique featured by the use of a single chirped pulse having the role of pump and probe simultaneously leads to results showing the plasma nonlinear absorption effect on the trailing part of the pulse, thanks to the spectral-temporal correspondence in the measured signal, which is also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  20. SELF-ABSORPTION IN THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Limei; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei; Peter, Hardi; Chen, Feng; Barczynski, Krzysztof; Tian, Hui; Xia, Lidong

    2015-09-20

    Transient brightenings in the transition region of the Sun have been studied for decades and are usually related to magnetic reconnection. Recently, absorption features due to chromospheric lines have been identified in transition region emission lines raising the question of the thermal stratification during such reconnection events. We analyze data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph in an emerging active region. Here the spectral profiles show clear self-absorption features in the transition region lines of Si iv. While some indications existed that opacity effects might play some role in strong transition region lines, self-absorption has not been observed before. We show why previous instruments could not observe such self-absorption features, and discuss some implications of this observation for the corresponding structure of reconnection events in the atmosphere. Based on this we speculate that a range of phenomena, such as explosive events, blinkers or Ellerman bombs, are just different aspects of the same reconnection event occurring at different heights in the atmosphere.

  1. Comparative Study of Optical Absorption and Circular Dichroism of Bacteriochlorophyll Oligomers in Triton X-100, the Antenna Pigment B850, and the Primary Donor p-860 of Photosynthetic Bacteria Indicates that All are Similar Dimers of Bacteriochlorophyll a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherz, A.; Rosenbach-Belkin, V.

    1989-03-01

    Dimers of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchla) with optical absorption maximum at 853 nm and a nonconservative circular dichroism spectrum are formed in a solution of formamide/water that contains micelles of Triton X-100. The apparent equilibrium constant and the corresponding Gibbs energy change for the Bchl self-organization are 4.9 × 106 M-1 and -9.2 kcal/mol, respectively. The experimental absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the in vitro Bchl dimer (termed Bchl-853) are similar to the spectra of the bacterial light-harvesting complex B850 and the primary electron donor P-860 and probably point to a common structural motif. Indeed, simulation of the dimers' spectra (optical absorption and circular dichroism), achieved by using an extended version of the exciton theory, suggests the same geometry as recently elucidated for P-860 by x-ray diffraction crystallography. The proposed geometry is predicted to have the minimum energy in the gas phase. In conclusion, the spectral properties of the bathochromically shifted forms of Bchla are likely a result of strong dipolar interactions in self-organized structures of Bchls.

  2. A SURVEY OF ALKALI LINE ABSORPTION IN EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S. E-mail: sredfield@wesleyan.edu E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: barman@lowell.edu

    2011-12-20

    We obtained over 90 hr of spectroscopic observations of four exoplanetary systems with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Observations were taken in transit and out of transit, and we analyzed the differenced spectra-i.e., the transmission spectra-to inspect it for absorption at the wavelengths of the neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at {lambda}{lambda}5889, 5895 and neutral potassium (K I) at {lambda}7698. We used the transmission spectrum at Ca I {lambda}6122-which shows strong stellar absorption but is not an alkali metal resonance line that we expect to show significant absorption in these atmospheres-as a control line to examine our measurements for systematic errors. We use an empirical Monte Carlo method to quantify these systematic errors. In a reanalysis of the same data set using a reduction and analysis pipeline that was derived independently, we confirm the previously seen Na I absorption in HD 189733b at a level of (- 5.26 {+-} 1.69) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} (the average value over a 12 A integration band to be consistent with previous authors). Additionally, we tentatively confirm the Na I absorption seen in HD 209458b (independently by multiple authors) at a level of (- 2.63 {+-} 0.81) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, though the interpretation is less clear. Furthermore, we find Na I absorption of (- 3.16 {+-} 2.06) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} at <3{sigma} in HD 149026b; features apparent in the transmission spectrum are consistent with real absorption and indicate this may be a good target for future observations to confirm. No other results (Na I in HD 147506b and Ca I and K I in all four targets) are significant to {>=}3{sigma}, although we observe some features that we argue are primarily artifacts.

  3. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  4. Simultaneous infrared and UV-visible absorption spectra of matrix-isolated carbon vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Joe; Huffman, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon molecules were suggested as possible carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. In particular, it was proposed that the 443 nm diffuse interstellar band is due to the same molecule which gives rise to the 447 nm absorption feature in argon matrix-isolated carbon vapor. If so, then an associated C-C stretching mode should be seen in the IR. By doing spectroscopy in both the IR and UV-visible regions on the same sample, the present work provides evidence for correlating UV-visible absorption features with those found in the IR. Early data indicates no correlation between the strongest IR feature (1997/cm) and the 447 nm band. Correlation with weaker IR features is being investigated.

  5. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliet, G. C.; Lawson, M. B.; Lithgow, R. A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine and was used to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The variables considered include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicates that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  6. On the frequency-selective features of gold nanorods-based columnar thin film metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Masih; Choudhury, P. K.; Baqir, M. A.; Mohamed, M. A.; Zain, A. R. M.; Majlis, B. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials have been of great interest owing to multifarious technological applications. Among various applications of scientific need, the perfect absorber kind of property of metamaterials remains prudent. Within the context, this investigation describes the filtering/absorber applications of metasurfaces comprised of columnar nanorods of gold having circular and elliptical cross-sections. The spectral features of such absorbers are investigated in terms of absorptivity in the visible to infrared (IR) regimes. The results indicate of almost perfect absorption corresponding to certain wavelengths in the IR span. Also, multiple absorption peaks would determine the filtering characteristics of the structures under consideration. It has been found that the absorber having circular nanorods exhibits better performance than the one with elliptical nanorods in terms of the magnitude/smoothness of absorption peaks in the entire electromagnetic spectral region of interest; the case of elliptical nanorods makes the absorption spectra to yield too much of flickers in the IR range of wavelength.

  7. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  8. Effect of in-material losses on terahertz absorption, transmission, and reflection in photonic crystals made of polar dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Serebryannikov, Andriy E.; Nojima, S.; Alici, K. B.; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-10-07

    The effect of the material absorption factor on terahertz absorption (A), transmittance (T), and reflectance (R) for slabs of PhC that comprise rods made of GaAs, a polar dielectric, is studied. The main goal was to illustrate how critical a choice of the absorption factor for simulations is and to indicate the importance of the possible modification of the absorption ability by using either active or lossy impurities. The spectra of A, T, and R are strongly sensitive to the location of the polaritonic gap with respect to the photonic pass and stop bands connected with periodicity that enables the efficient combination of the effects of material and structural parameters. It will be shown that the spectra can strongly depend on the utilized value of the material absorption factor. In particular, both narrow and wide absorption bands may appear owing to a variation of the material parameters with a frequency in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. The latter are often achieved at wideband suppression of transmission, so that an ultra-wide stop band can appear as a result of adjustment of the stop bands having different origin. The results obtained at simultaneous variation of the absorption factor and frequency, and angle of incidence and frequency, indicate the possibility of the existence of wide ranges of tolerance, in which the basic features do remain. This allows for mitigating the accuracy requirements for the absorption factor in simulations and promises the efficient absorption of nonmonochromatic waves and beams with a wide angular spectrum. Suppression of narrowband effects in transmission is demonstrated at rather large values of the absorption factor, when they appear due to either the defect modes related to structural defects or dispersion inspired variations of the material parameters in the vicinity of the polaritonic gap. Comparison with auxiliary structures helps one to detect the common features and differences of homogeneous slabs and slabs of a

  9. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines

    SciTech Connect

    Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO{sub 2} capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO{sub 2} absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines.

    PubMed

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert; Allport, Andrew; Yang, Qi; Bown, Mark; Burns, Robert; Maeder, Marcel; Attalla, Moetaz

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO2 capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO2 absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO2 absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation.

  11. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  12. Low-level optical absorption phenomena in organic thin films for solar cell applications investigated by highly sensitive photocurrent and photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, Ludwig J.; Haenen, Ken; Nesladek, Milos; Poruba, A.; Vanecek, M.; Wagner, P.; Lutsen, Laurence J.; Manca, Jean; Vanderzande, Dirk; De Schepper, Luc

    2004-09-01

    Optical absorption phenomena and in particular sub band gap absorption features are of great importance in the understanding of processes of charge generation and transport in organic pure and composite semiconductor films. To come towards this objective, an alternative and high sensitive spectroscopic approach is introduced to examine the absorption of light in pure and compound organic semiconductors. Because sub band gap absorption features are typically characterized by very low absorption coefficients, it is not possible to resolve them using common transmission and reflection measurements and high sensitive alternatives are needed. Therefore, a combination of photocurrent (Constant Photocurrent Method CPM/Fourier Transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy FT-PS) and photothermal techniques (Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy PDS) has been used, increasing sensitivity by a factor of thousand, reaching detectable absorption coefficients ((E) down to 0.1 cm-1. In this way, the dynamic range of measurable absorption coefficients is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to transmission/reflection measurements. These techniques have been used here to characterize ground state absorption of thin films of MDMO-PPV, PCBM and a mixture of both materials in a 1:4 ratio, as typically used in a standard active layer in a fully organic solar cell. The spectra reveal defect related absorption phenomena and significant indication of existing interaction in the ground state between both materials, contrary to the widely spread conviction that this is not the case. Experimental details of the techniques and measurement procedures are explained.

  13. Volcanic features of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  15. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  16. Identification of THz absorption spectra of chemicals using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan; Liang, Meiyan; Chen, Sijia

    2007-09-01

    Absorption spectra in the range from 0.2 to 2.6 THz of chemicals such as illicit drugs and antibiotics obtaining from Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique were identified successfully by artificial neural networks. Back Propagation (BP) and Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOM) were investigated to do the identification or classification, respectively. Three-layer BP neural networks were employed to identify absorption spectra of nine illicit drugs and six antibiotics. The spectra of the chemicals were used to train a BP neural network and then the absorption spectra measured in different times were identified by the trained BP neural network. The average identification rate of 76% was achieved. SOM neural networks, another important neural network which sorts input vectors by their similarity, was used to sort 60 absorption spectra from 6 illicit drugs. The whole network was trained by setting a 20×20 and a 16×16 grid, and both of them had given satisfied clustering results. These results indicate that it is feasible to apply BP and SOM neural networks model in the field of THz spectra identification.

  17. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3−x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  18. Terahertz wave absorption via preformed air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, LiangLiang; Wu, Tong; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin

    2016-12-01

    Terahertz wave generation from laser-induced air plasma has continued to be an exciting field of research over the course of the past decade. In this paper, we report on an investigation concerning terahertz wave absorption with preformed plasma created by another laser pulse. We examine terahertz absorption behavior by varying the pump power and then analyze the polarization effect of the preplasma beam on terahertz wave absorption. The results of experiments conducted in which a type-I beta barium borate (BBO) crystal is placed before the preformed air plasma indicate that the fundamental (ω) and second harmonic (2ω) pulses can also influence terahertz absorption.

  19. Dust in MG II Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    The dust absorption feature at 2175 AA is detected in a composite spectrum of Mg II absorbers. The composite absorber spectrum is obtained by taking the geometric mean of 92 quasar spectra after aligning them in the rest-frame of 96 absorbers. By aligning the spectra according to absorber redshifts we reinforce the spectral features of the absorbers, and smooth over possible bumps and wiggles in the emission spectra. The width of the observed absorption feature is 200-300 AA (FWHM), or 0.4-0.6 microns^{-1} and the central wavelength is 2240 AA. The Galactic dust feature has a central wavelength of 2176 AA and FWHM = 0.8-1.25 microns^{-1}. Simulations show that this discrepancy between the properties of the 2175 AA feature in Mg II absorbers and Galactic ISM can be mostly explained by the different methods used to measure them (cf. Malhotra 1997).

  20. Assessing the absorption of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, I J

    2001-11-01

    The advent of more efficient methods to synthesize and screen new chemical compounds is increasing the number of chemical leads identified in the drug discovery phase. Compounds with good biological activity may fail to become drugs due to insufficient oral absorption. Selection of drug development candidates with adequate absorption characteristics should increase the probability of success in the development phase. To assess the absorption potential of new chemical entities numerous in vitro and in vivo model systems have been used. Many laboratories rely on cell culture models of intestinal permeability such as, Caco-2, HT-29 and MDCK. To attempt to increase the throughput of permeability measurements, several physicochemical methods such as, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) columns and parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) have been used. More recently, much attention has been given to the development of computational methods to predict drug absorption. However, it is clear that no single method will sufficient for studying drug absorption, but most likely a combination of systems will be needed. Higher throughput, less reliable methods could be used to discover 'loser' compounds, whereas lower throughput, more accurate methods could be used to optimize the absorption properties of lead compounds. Finally, accurate methods are needed to understand absorption mechanisms (efflux-limited absorption, carrier-mediated, intestinal metabolism) that may limit intestinal drug absorption. This information could be extremely valuable to medicinal chemists in the selection of favorable chemo-types. This review describes different techniques used for evaluating drug absorption and indicates their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Atmospheric absorption cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The measurement capability of the Avionics Laboratory IR Facility was used to evaluate an absorption cell that will be used to simulate atmospheric absorption over horizontal paths of 1 - 10 km in length. Band models were used to characterize the transmittance of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the cell. The measured transmittance was compared to the calculated values. Nitrous oxide is important in the 4 - 4.5 micron range in shaping the weak line absorption of carbon dioxide. The absorption cell is adequate for simulating atmospheric absorption over these paths.

  2. Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

  3. Optical absorptions of polyfluorene transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yvonne Y.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2005-07-01

    Conjugated polymers are a promising class of materials for organic electronics. While the progress in device performance is impressive, the basics of charge transport still pose many open questions. Specifically, conduction at the comparatively rough polymer-polymer interface in an all-polymer field-effect transistor is expected to be different from a sharp interface with an inorganic dielectric, such as silicon dioxide. In this work, charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) is used to study the optical absorptions in the presence of charges in situ in the transistor structure. This allows direct observation of the charge carriers in the operational device via their spectroscopic signature; the technique is by design very sensitive to the properties of the semiconductor-dielectric interface. The semiconducting copolymer poly( 9,9' -dioctyl-fluorene-co-bithiophene) (F8T2) is incorporated into a top-gate thin-film transistor structure with a polymer dielectric layer deposited by spin coating and inkjet-printed polymer electrodes. A prominent charge-induced absorption at 1.65eV is observed as well as a shoulder at 1.3eV and a tail extending toward the absorption edge. The bias dependence of the CMS signature confirms that intermixing of the polymer layers is minimal, as expected from the excellent transistor characteristics. Polarization-dependent CMS measurements on aligned transistors show that the main feature at 1.65eV is strongly polarized whereas the shoulder is unpolarized. This observation, as well as further experimental evidence, lead to the conclusion that while the main absorption is attributable to the intrinsic, polaronic absorption in F8T2, the shoulder is likely to originate from a defect state.

  4. Microlensing Constraints on Broad Absorption and Emission Line Flows in the Quasar H1413+117

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Webster, Rachel L.; Labrie, Kathleen; Rogers, Joshua

    2015-11-01

    We present new integral field spectroscopy of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line (BAL) quasar H1413+117, covering the ultraviolet restframe spectral range. We observe strong microlensing signatures in lensed image D, and we use this microlensing to simultaneously constrain both the broad emission and broad absorption line gas. The wavelength independence of image D magnifications across the broad emission lines (BELs) indicates a lower limit on the broad emission line region (BELR) size equal to the Einstein radius (ER) of the system: ≳11 {(< M> /{M}⊙ )}0.5 lt-day for a lens redshift of 1.4 and ≳15 {(< M> /{M}⊙ )}0.5 lt-day for zL = 0.94. Lensing simulations verify that the observed wavelength independence is very unlikely for BELRs with significant velocity stratification at size scales below an ER. We perform spectral decomposition to derive the intrinsic BEL and continuum spectrum, subject to BAL absorption. We reconstruct the intrinsic BAL absorption profile, whose features allow us to constrain outflow kinematics in the context of a disk-wind model. We find a very sharp, blueshifted onset of absorption of 1500 km s-1 in both C iv and N v, which may correspond to an inner edge of a disk-wind’s radial outflow. The lower ionization Si iv and Al iii have higher-velocity absorption onsets, consistent with a decreasing ionization parameter with radius in an accelerating outflow. There is evidence of strong absorption in the BEL component, which indicates a high covering factor for absorption over two orders of magnitude in outflow radius.

  5. Social indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  6. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  7. Absorption-Line Studies of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. Michael

    We propose to undertake a "reverberation analysis" of the variable absorption lines ill two Seyfert Galaxies (NGC 4051 and Mrk 279) to help understand the origin of intrinsic absorption lines in AGNs. Stich an analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating the radial distribution of absorbing gas in the broad-line region (BLR) and narrow-line region (NLR). Only two Seyferts have previously been studied with this technique: NGC 4151 (Bromage el al. 1985; Clavel et al. 1987) and NGC 3516 (Voit, Shull, and Begelman 1987). The absorption features have been interpreted as an outflow of ionized clouds from the nuclear region or from an accretion disk affected by UV/X-ray heating. Neither the source of the absorbing gas in these Seyferts nor the "gene" which distingishes them from other Seyferts is known. Until the 1984 onset of absorption in Mrk 279, broad self-absorbed. lines had been observed only in Seyferts of low intrinsic luminosity, such as NGC 4051. Mrk 279 is intrinsically much brighter, and therefore more quasar-like, than the other three absorptionline Seyfert I's in the CfA sample. Thus, it may show how the absorption phenomenon changes at higher luminosity and could bridge the gap between the low luminosity absorption-line Seyferts and the well-studied broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO's. In addition, Mrk 279's significant redshift will allow us to study, for the first time, the Ly-alpha line in an absorption-line Seyfert. With 3 US-1 shifts for each of these two underobserved Seyferts, we can double the number of objects in which absorption-line variability has been studied and investigate why the absorption-line strengths correlate or anti-correlate with the UV continuum.

  8. Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows.

    PubMed

    Buote

    2000-04-01

    The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC, we have detected strong absorption over energies approximately 0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central approximately 1&arcmin; of the galaxy NGC 1399, the group NGC 5044, and the cluster A1795. These systems have among the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below approximately 0.4 keV, the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=105-106 K in which ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from H i and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass dropout in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra and X-Ray Multimirror Mission.

  9. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  10. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  11. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  12. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  13. First attempt to monitor atmospheric glyoxal using differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Lundin, Patrik; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Hu, Jiandong; Zhao, Guangyu; Svanberg, Sune; Bood, Joakim; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Papayannis, Alexandros

    2012-11-01

    Glyoxal (CHOCHO), as an indicator of photochemical "hot spots", was for the first time the subject of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) campaign. The strongest absorption line of glyoxal in the blue wavelength region - 455.1 nm - was chosen as the experimental absorption wavelength. In order to handle the effects of absorption cross-section variation of the interfering gas - nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - three-wavelength DIAL measurements simultaneously detecting glyoxal and NO2, were performed. The differential absorption curves, recorded in July 2012, indicate an extremely low glyoxal concentration in Lund, Sweden, although it is expected to be peaking at this time of the year.

  14. Infrared spectroscopy of hydrated alkali metal cations: Evidence of multiple photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jordan P.; Lisy, James M.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared predissociation spectra of M+(H2O)4-7, where M = alkali metal, are presented. Hydrogen bonding O-H stretching features are strongly dependent on which fragmentation channel is monitored. Spectra recorded by monitoring the loss of multiple waters show a preference for one absorption feature in the hydrogen-bonded region centered at ˜3430-3500 cm-1, which is assigned to linear-type hydrogen bonded OH stretches. Cyclic- and bent-type hydrogen bonded OH stretches have diminished photodissociation cross sections in the multiple ligand loss channels. Evidence from Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus-evaporative ensemble calculations and laser fluence dependence experiments indicates that the multiple water loss channels are primarily the result of multiple photon absorption which we propose could be due to multiple, independent oscillators within a cluster ion each absorbing a photon during a single, 10 ns laser pulse.

  15. Molar Absorptivity Measurements in Absorbing Solvents: Impact on Solvent Absorptivity Values.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Ariel; Arnold, Mark A

    2016-10-18

    Molar absorptivity is a fundamental molecular property that quantifies absorption strength as a function of wavelength. Absolute measurements of molar absorptivity demand accounting for all mechanisms of light attenuation, including reflective losses at interfaces associated with the sample. Ideally, such measurements are performed in nonabsorbing solvents and reflective losses can be determined in a straightforward manner from Fresnel equations or effectively accounted for by path length difference methods. At near-infrared wavelengths, however, many solvents, including water, are absorbing which complicates the quantification of reflective losses. Here, generalized equations are developed for calculating absolute molar absorptivities of neat liquids wherein the dependency of reflective loss on absorption properties of the liquid are considered explicitly. The resulting equations are used to characterize sensitivity of absolute molar absorptivity measurements for solvents to the absorption strength of the solvent as well as the path length of the measurement. Methods are derived from these equations to properly account for reflective losses in general and the effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated for absolute molar absorptivity measurements for water over the combination region (5000-4000 cm(-1)) of the near-infrared spectrum. Results indicate that ignoring solvent absorption effects can incorporate wide ranging systematic errors depending upon experimental conditions. As an example, systematic errors range from 0 to 10% for common conditions used in the measurement of absolute molar absorptivity of water over the combination region of the near-infrared spectrum.

  16. Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

  17. Circumstellar material in type Ia supernovae via sodium absorption features.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, A; Gal-Yam, A; Simon, J D; Leonard, D C; Quimby, R M; Phillips, M M; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Ivans, I; Marshall, J L; Filippenko, A V; Marcy, G W; Bloom, J S; Patat, F; Foley, R J; Yong, D; Penprase, B E; Beeler, D J; Allende Prieto, C; Stringfellow, G S

    2011-08-12

    Type Ia supernovae are key tools for measuring distances on a cosmic scale. They are generally thought to be the thermonuclear explosion of an accreting white dwarf in a close binary system. The nature of the mass donor is still uncertain. In the single-degenerate model it is a main-sequence star or an evolved star, whereas in the double-degenerate model it is another white dwarf. We show that the velocity structure of absorbing material along the line of sight to 35 type Ia supernovae tends to be blueshifted. These structures are likely signatures of gas outflows from the supernova progenitor systems. Thus, many type Ia supernovae in nearby spiral galaxies may originate in single-degenerate systems.

  18. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  19. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  20. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  1. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  2. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  3. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  4. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  6. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  7. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  8. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  9. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  10. Intranasal absorption of oxymorphone.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J

    1997-08-01

    The nasal bioavailability of oxymorphone HCI was determined. Rats were surgically prepared to isolate the nasal cavity, into which a solution of oxymorphone was administered. A reference group of rats was administered oxymorphone HCl intravenously. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Nasal absorption was rapid, nasal bioavailability was 43%, and the iv and nasal elimination profiles were similar. Oxymorphone HCI appears to have the solubility, potency, and absorption properties required for efficient nasal delivery, which is an alternative to injections.

  11. The Oxygen Features in Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for the Nature of Thermonuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xulin; Maeda, Keiichi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lifan; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Jujia; Zhang, Tianmeng; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming

    2016-08-01

    The absorption feature O i λ7773 is an important spectral indicator for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that can be used to trace the unburned material in outer layers of the exploding white dwarf (WD). In this work, we use a large sample of SNe Ia to examine this absorption at early phases (i.e., -13 day ≲ t ≲ -7 day) and make comparisons with the absorption features of Si ii λ6355 and the Ca ii near-infrared triplet. We show that for a subgroup of spectroscopically normal SNe with normal photospheric velocities (i.e., v si ≲ 12,500 km s-1 at optical maximum), the line strength of the high velocity feature (HVF) of O i is inversely correlated with that of Si ii (or Ca ii), and this feature also shows a negative correlation with the luminosity of SNe Ia. This finding, together with other features we find for the O i HVF, reveal that for this subgroup of SNe Ia, explosive oxygen burning occurs in the outermost layer of the SN. Differences in the oxygen burning could lead to the observed diversity, which is in remarkable agreement with the popular delayed-detonation model of Chandrasekhar mass WDs.

  12. OPTICAL HYDROGEN ABSORPTION CONSISTENT WITH A THIN BOW SHOCK LEADING THE HOT JUPITER HD 189733B

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Redfield, Seth; Jensen, Adam G.; Barman, Travis; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2015-09-01

    Bow shocks are ubiquitous astrophysical phenomena resulting from the supersonic passage of an object through a gas. Recently, pre-transit absorption in UV metal transitions of the hot Jupiter (HJ) exoplanets HD 189733b and WASP12-b have been interpreted as being caused by material compressed in a planetary bow shock. Here we present a robust detection of a time-resolved pre-transit, as well as in-transit absorption signature around the HJ exoplanet HD 189733b using high spectral resolution observations of several hydrogen Balmer lines. The line shape of the pre-transit feature and the shape of the timeseries absorption provide the strongest constraints on the morphology and physical characteristics of extended structures around an exoplanet. The in-transit measurements confirm the previous exospheric Hα detection, although the absorption depth measured here is ∼50% lower. The pre-transit absorption feature occurs 125 minutes before the predicted optical transit, a projected linear distance from the planet to the stellar disk of 7.2 R{sub p}. The absorption strength observed in the Balmer lines indicates an optically thick, but physically small, geometry. We model this signal as the early ingress of a planetary bow shock. If the bow shock is mediated by a planetary magnetosphere, the large standoff distance derived from the model suggests a large planetary magnetic field strength of B{sub eq} = 28 G. Better knowledge of exoplanet magnetic field strengths is crucial to understanding the role these fields play in planetary evolution and the potential development of life on planets in the habitable zone.

  13. Search for CO absorption bands in IUE far-ultraviolet spectra of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, Susan E.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the red supergiant (M2 Iab) alpha Ori with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided an unambiguous detection of a far-ultraviolet (far-UV) chromospheric continuum on which are superposed strong molecular absorption bands. The absorption bands have been identified by Carpenter et al. (1994) with the fourth-positive A-X system of CO and are likely formed in the circumstellar shell. Comparison of these GHRS data with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of alpha Ori indicates that both the continuum and the CO absorption features can be seen with IUE, especially if multiple IUE spectra, reduced with the post-1981 IUESIPS extraction procedure (i.e., with an oversampling slit), are carefully coadded to increase the signal to noise over that obtainable with a single spectrum. We therefore initiated a program, utilizing both new and archival IUE Short Wavelength Prime (SWP) spectra, to survey 15 cool, low-gravity stars, including alpha Ori, for the presence of these two new chromospheric and circumstellar shell diagnostics. We establish positive detections of far-UV stellar continua, well above estimated IUE in-order scattered light levels, in spectra of all of the program stars. However, well-defined CO absorption features are seen only in the alpha Ori spectra, even though spectra of most of the program stars have sufficient signal to noise to allow the dectection of features of comparable magnitude to the absorptions seen in alpha Ori. Clearly if CO is present in the circumstellar environments of any of these stars, it is at much lower column densities.

  14. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  15. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  16. Anomalous absorption in CO2-laser-target interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenberger, A. A.; Ng, A.

    1980-10-01

    Efficient absorption of long-pulse CO2-laser radiation is observed to follow a transient phase of stimulated Brillouin backscatter in critical density, laminar oxygen gas target irradiation experiments. Nearly complete energy absorption occurs for not more than 10 nsec following stimulated Brillouin backscatter after which target burnthrough and refraction dominate. Inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance absorption cannot account for the general features observed. Anomalous collisions due to strong ion turbulence produced by the incident laser radiation are postulated to account for the efficient absorption.

  17. Effect of polycarbophil on the absorption of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1996-05-01

    The effects of polycarbophil on the absorption of various nutrients were evaluated by several in situ methods. Polycarbophil reduced the absorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) and L-phenylalanine in the in situ loop and the in situ perfusion methods, but it did not affect the absorption of these nutrients in an open system, the in situ modified loop method, which is closer to physiological conditions. It also did not affect the absorption of vitamin A or phosphatidylcholine-L-alpha-dipalmitoyl in the latter system. These results indicate that the absorption of nutrients is probably not altered by polycarbophil under physiological conditions.

  18. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  19. Discerning Spectral Features in L Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Alejandro; Cruz, K.; Burgasser, A. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Reid, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are star-like objects that, due to their very low masses (less than 75 Jupiter masses,) never reach the main sequence, and instead cool with time. This cooling leads to a breakdown of the relationship between temperature and mass that exists for stars. Therefore, brown dwarfs with similar temperatures (as indicated by spectral type) could have very different masses and ages. We are investigating the near-infrared spectra of L dwarfs with the same optically derived spectral types (implying similar effective temperatures) with the goal of distinguishing subtle differences, patterns, and/or correlations among absorption features that could reveal information about their ages and masses. Our sample consists of 43 L0-L8 dwarfs with both optical and near-infrared spectra, thus covering the 0.65 to 2.4-micron range. Our analysis included objects with either "typical” or peculiar spectra. Some of the objects with peculiar spectra are suspected low-gravity/young and blue/low-metallicity dwarfs. For each optical type, we normalized and overplotted the spectra in four bands separately: Optical, J, H, and K band. Each resulting plot was examined by eye to look for subtle differences in spectral absorption features, likely due to age and mass. We present the preliminary results from this detailed spectral analysis. In particular, our analysis reveals the major spectral differences in the near infrared of both "red” and "blue” L dwarfs. This work was funded by the RISE Grant GM R25 6066, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  20. Nebular Hydrogen Absorption in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Eta Carinae and immediate ejecta reveal narrow Balmer absorption lines in addition to the nebular-scattered broad P-Cygni absorptions. The narrow absorption correlates with apparent disk structure that separates the two Homunculus lobes. We trace these features about half way up the Northern lobe until the scattered stellar Balmer line doppler-shifts redward beyond the nebular absorption feature. Three-dimensional data cubes, made by mapping the Homunculus at Balmer alpha and Balmer beta with the 52 x 0.1 arcsecond aperture and about 5000 spectral resolving power, demonstrate that the absorption feature changes slowly in velocity with nebular position. We have monitored the stellar Balmer alpha line profile of the central source over the past four years. The equivalent width of the nebular absorption feature changes considerably between observations. The changes do not correlate with measured brightness of Eta Carinae. Likely clumps of neutral hydrogen with a scale size comparable to the stellar disk diameter are passing through the intervening light path on the timescales less than several months. The excitation mechanism involves Lyman alpha radiation (possibly the Lyman series plus Lyman continuum) and collisions leading to populating the 2S metastable state. Before the electron can jump to the ground state by two photon emission (lifetime about 1/8 second), a stellar Balmer photon is absorbed and the electron shifts to an NP level. We see the absorption feature in higher Balmer lines, and but not in Paschen lines. Indeed we see narrow nebular Paschen emission lines. At present, we do not completely understand the details of the absorption. Better understanding should lead to improved insight of the unique conditions around Eta Carinae that leads to these absorptions.

  1. Searching for narrow absorption and emission lines in XMM-Newton spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.; Braito, V.; D'Avanzo, P.; Ghirlanda, G.; Melandri, A.; Pescalli, A.; Salafia, O. S.; Salvaterra, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic search for narrow emission and absorption features in the X-ray spectra of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Using XMM-Newton data, both EPIC and RGS spectra, of six bright (fluence > 10-7 erg cm-2) and relatively nearby (z = 0.54-1.41) GRBs, we performed a blind search for emission or absorption lines that could be related to a high cloud density or metal-rich gas in the environ close to the GRBs. We detected five emission features in four of the six GRBs with an overall statistical significance, assessed through Monte Carlo simulations, of ≲ 3.0σ. Most of the lines are detected around the observed energy of the oxygen edge at ~ 0.5 keV, suggesting that they are not related to the GRB environment but are most likely of Galactic origin. No significant absorption features were detected. A spectral fitting with a free Galactic column density (NH) testing different models for the Galactic absorption confirms this origin because we found an indication of an excess of Galactic NH in these four GRBs with respect to the tabulated values.

  2. Development of Updated ABsorption SIMulation Software (ABSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhiyao; Tang, Xin; Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2014-01-01

    ABsorption SIMulation, ABSIM, was developed for the simulation of absorption systems by The Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1980s and 1990s. ABSIM provides a platform for users to investigate various cycle configurations and working fluids, to calculate their operating parameters, to predict their performance, and to compare them with each other on a uniform basis. ABSIM is indeed a very useful and accurate tool for researchers to investigate various absorption systems. However, it has not been well maintained: it is incompatible with recent operating systems; the interface needs improved user-friendliness, and the system needs better parameter setting and debugging tools to help achieve convergence. Therefore, it is highly needed to update and improve ABSIM. The paper presents recent efforts to improve ABSIM s compatibility with current operating systems, user interface, and analysis capabilities. The paper details the features and functions of the newly updated ABSIM software. The new ABSIM still uses the previously validated calculation engine of the old ABSIM. The new graphic user interfaces (GUI) were developed in Qt, which is an open source license GUI software based on C++. XML was used as the database for data storage in the new ABSIM. The new ABSIM has been designed to be easily learned and used. It has enhanced editing and construction functions, plus enhanced analysis features including parametric tables, plotting, property plots, and master panels for debugging. A single effect water/LiBr absorption system is used as a case study in this paper to illustrate the features, capabilities, and functions of the new ABSIM. This case study was actually an example system available in the old ABSIM. The new version of ABSIM will be continuously developed to include additional subroutines for the components in liquid desiccant systems. The new ABSIM will be available to public for free. The ultimate goal of the new ABSIM is to allow it to become a simulation

  3. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  4. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  5. Laser Absorption by Over-Critical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2015-11-01

    Absorption of high intensity laser light by matter has important applications to emerging sciences and technology, such as Fast Ignition ICF and ion acceleration. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of this absorption is key to developing these technologies. Critical features which distinguish the interaction of high intensity light - defined here as a laser field having a normalized vector potential greater than unity - are that the reaction of the material to the fields results in sharp high-density interfaces; and that the movement of the electrons is in general relativistic, both in a fluid and a thermal sense. The results of these features are that the absorption mechanisms are qualitatively distinct from those at lower intensities. We will review previous work, by our group and others, on the absorption mechanisms, and highlight current research. We will show that the standing wave structure of the reflected laser light is key to particle dynamics for normally incident lasers. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  6. Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Innes, D.; Ayres, T.; Peter, H.; Curdt, W.; Jaeggli, S.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary. The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales and introduces a new complexity into our understanding of solar thermal structure. It lends credence to previous numerical studies that found evidence for elevated pockets of cool gas in the chromosphere. Movies associated to Figs. 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-07-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered.

  8. Absorption mode FTICR mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Kilgour, David P A; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-03

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here, we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image, and then, these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode "Datacubes" for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  9. Methane overtone absorption by intracavity laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, James J.

    1990-01-01

    Interpretation of planetary methane (CH4) visible-near IR spectra, used to develop models of planetary atmospheres, has been hampered by a lack of suitable laboratory spectroscopic data. The particular CH4 spectral bands are due to intrinsically weak, high overtone-combination transitions too complex for classical spectroscopic analysis. The traditional multipass cell approach to measuring spectra of weakly absorbing species is insufficiently sensitive to yield reliable results for some of the weakest CH4 absorption features and is difficult to apply at the temperatures of the planetary environments. A time modulated form of intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS), has been shown to provide effective absorption pathlengths of 100 to 200 km with sample cells less than 1 m long. The optical physics governing this technique and the experimental parameters important for obtaining reliable, quantitative results are now well understood. Quantitative data for CH4 absorption obtained by ILS have been reported recently. Illustrative ILS data for CH4 absorption in the 619.7 nm and 681.9 nm bands are presented. New ILS facilities at UM-St. Louis will be used to measure CH4 absorption in the 700 to 1000 nm region under conditions appropriate to the planetary atmospheres.

  10. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  11. A search for intervening HI absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Sarah N.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Allison, James R.; Koribalski, Baerbel S.; Curran, Stephen J.

    2013-03-01

    HI absorption-line studies provide a unique probe of the gas distribution and kinematics in galaxies well beyond the local universe (z ≳ 0.3). HI absorption-line surveys with next-generation radio telescopes will provide the first large-scale studies of HI in a redshift regime which is poorly understood. However, we currently lack the understanding to infer galaxy properties from absorption-line observations alone. To address this issue, we are conducting a search for intervening HI absorption in a sample of 20 nearby galaxies. Our aim is to investigate how the detection rate varies with distance from the galaxy. We target sight-lines to bright continuum sources, which intercept known gas-rich galaxies, selected from the HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (Koribalski et al. 2004). In our pilot sample, six galaxies with impact parameters < 20 kpc, we do not detect any absorption lines - although all are detected in 21cm emission. This indicates that an absorption non-detection cannot simply be interpreted as an absence of neutral gas - see Fig. 1. Our detection rate is low compared to previous surveys e.g. Gupta et al. (2010). This is, at least partially, due to the high resolution of the observations reducing the flux of the background source, which will also be an issue in future surveys, such as ASKAP-FLASH.

  12. Optical Absorption of Alkali Metal Vapors at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdman, Paul Stephen

    High pressure, high temperature lithium vapors are of interest to both basic and applied research. Lithium vapors at extreme temperatures may contain new species of molecules and molecular ions which have not been previously observed or well studied. The strong optical absorption properties of alkali metals in the visible and infrared make them desirable as solar absorbing materials for many applications. In particular, lithium is being considered as a candidate for absorption of solar energy in solar plasma propulsion. Studies of lithium vapors under high pressure and at high temperatures would simulate the rocket thruster environment in which they are expected to perform as solar absorbers. Optical absorption experiments were performed on high temperature, high pressure lithium vapors. The Plasma Spectroscopy Cell (PSC), a unique device constructed just for such experiments, was used to heat lithium vapors to a maximum temperature of 2100 K at 1 atmosphere pressure. The PSC has the potential to reach 3000 K and 100 atmospheres. Absorption spectra contain features of several well understood molecular transitions of lithium. Remaining spectral features require modeling of all possible transitions in order to identify the molecule contributing to overall absorption. Modeling of lithium optical absorption is performed here for several transitions of diatomic lithium. Several interesting features of the PSC absorption spectra have been explained by the modeling. Additional experiments and modeling are possible for future research.

  13. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, R.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Johansson, J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Butler, R. P.; Cao, Y.; Cenko, S. B.; Doran, G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Freeland, E.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Lundqvist, P.; Mattila, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P. E.; Petrushevska, T.; Valenti, S.; Vogt, S.; Wozniak, P.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims: To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods: We have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results: Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. The nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only

  14. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. Quantum absorption refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-02-17

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power J(c) vanishes as J(c) ∝ T(c)(α), when T(c)→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  16. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  17. Efficient energy absorption of intense ps-laser pulse into nanowire target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habara, H.; Honda, S.; Katayama, M.; Sakagami, H.; Nagai, K.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction between ultra-intense laser light and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes is investigated to demonstrate efficient laser-energy absorption in the ps laser-pulse regime. Results indicate a clear enhancement of the energy conversion from laser to energetic electrons and a simultaneously small plasma expansion on the surface of the target. A two-dimensional plasma particle calculation exhibits a high absorption through laser propagation deep into the nanotube array, even for a dense array whose structure is much smaller than the laser wavelength. The propagation leads to the radial expansion of plasma perpendicular to the nanotubes rather than to the front side. These features may contribute to fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion and laser particle acceleration, both of which require high current and small surface plasma simultaneously.

  18. Imaging electronic trap states in perovskite thin films with combined fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; ...

    2016-04-22

    Charge carrier trapping degrades the performance of organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. To characterize the locations of electronic trap states in a heterogeneous photoactive layer, a spatially resolved approach is essential. Here, we report a comparative study on methylammonium lead tri-iodide perovskite thin films subject to different thermal annealing times using a combined photoluminescence (PL) and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) approach to spatially map trap states. This approach coregisters the initially populated electronic excited states with the regions that recombine radiatively. Although the TAM images are relatively homogeneous for both samples, the corresponding PL images are highly structured. Themore » remarkable variation in the PL intensities as compared to transient absorption signal amplitude suggests spatially dependent PL quantum efficiency, indicative of trapping events. Furthermore, detailed analysis enables identification of two trapping regimes: a densely packed trapping region and a sparse trapping area that appear as unique spatial features in scaled PL maps.« less

  19. Imaging electronic trap states in perovskite thin films with combined fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-22

    Charge carrier trapping degrades the performance of organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. To characterize the locations of electronic trap states in a heterogeneous photoactive layer, a spatially resolved approach is essential. Here, we report a comparative study on methylammonium lead tri-iodide perovskite thin films subject to different thermal annealing times using a combined photoluminescence (PL) and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) approach to spatially map trap states. This approach coregisters the initially populated electronic excited states with the regions that recombine radiatively. Although the TAM images are relatively homogeneous for both samples, the corresponding PL images are highly structured. The remarkable variation in the PL intensities as compared to transient absorption signal amplitude suggests spatially dependent PL quantum efficiency, indicative of trapping events. Furthermore, detailed analysis enables identification of two trapping regimes: a densely packed trapping region and a sparse trapping area that appear as unique spatial features in scaled PL maps.

  20. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    seas in co-operation with fisheries biologists. The first planned experiment will be in the seas off California in co-operation with the Southwest... Fisheries Science Center of NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service. These experiments will be designed to investigate the “signatures” of the two major...formulating environmental adaptation strategies for tactical sonars. Fisheries applications: These results suggest that bioacoustic absorptivity can be used to

  1. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  2. Hydrogen Absorption by Niobium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-13

    incorporate an independent means for ascertaining surface cleanliness (e.g. AES). The form of the absorption curve in Fig. 7 appears to agree with that...very interesting study and is well within the capabilities of the systen designed, if the surface cleanliness can be assured. Wire specimens have a...assessing surface cleanliness would be an important supporting technique for understanding the results of these measurements. The simple kinetic

  3. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  4. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  5. The energy calibration of x-ray absorption spectra using multiple-beam diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hagelstein, M.; Cunis, S. ); Frahm, R. ); Rabe, P. )

    1992-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the energy scale of x-ray absorption spectra from an energy dispersive spectrometer has been developed. Distinct features in the diffracted intensity of the curved silicon crystal monochromator have been assigned to multiple-beam diffraction. The photon energies of these structures can be calculated if the precise spacing of the diffracting planes and the orientation of the crystal relative to the incident synchrotron radiation are known. The evaluation of Miller indices of operative reflections and the calculation of the corresponding photon energy is presented. The assignment of operative reflexes is simplified if the monochromator crystal can be rotated around the main diffracting vector {bold H}.

  6. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leland V; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-02-28

    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption.

  7. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules. PMID:27598527

  8. DISENTANGLING THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONS OF CENTAURUS A. II. ON THE NATURE OF THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Espada, D.; Matsushita, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Peck, A. B.; Henkel, C.; Iono, D.; Israel, F. P.; Muller, S.; Petitpas, G.; Pihlstroem, Y.; Taylor, G. B.; Trung, D. V.

    2010-09-01

    We report on atomic gas (H I) and molecular gas (as traced by CO(2-1)) redshifted absorption features toward the nuclear regions of the closest powerful radio galaxy, Centaurus A (NGC 5128). Our H I observations using the Very Long Baseline Array allow us to discern with unprecedented sub-parsec resolution H I absorption profiles toward different positions along the 21 cm continuum jet in the inner 0.''3 (or 5.4 pc). In addition, our CO(2-1) data obtained with the Submillimeter Array probe the bulk of the absorbing molecular gas with little contamination by emission, which was not possible with previous CO single-dish observations. We shed light on the physical properties of the gas in the line of sight with these data, emphasizing the still open debate about the nature of the gas that produces the broad absorption line ({approx}55 km s{sup -1}). First, the broad H I line is more prominent toward the central and brightest 21 cm continuum component than toward a region along the jet at a distance {approx}20 mas (or 0.4 pc) further from the nucleus. This indicates that the broad absorption line arises from gas located close to the nucleus, rather than from diffuse and more distant gas. Second, the different velocity components detected in the CO(2-1) absorption spectrum match well with other molecular lines, such as those of HCO{sup +}(1-0), except the broad absorption line that is detected in HCO{sup +}(1-0) (and most likely related to that of the H I). Dissociation of molecular hydrogen due to the active galactic nucleus seems to be efficient at distances r {approx}< 10 pc, which might contribute to the depth of the broad H I and molecular lines.

  9. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    2009-06-30

    A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.

  10. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperatures boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorptions systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system`s components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H{sub 2}O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H{sub 2}O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the User`s Manual.

  11. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  12. PG 1700 + 518 - a low-redshift, broad absorption line QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Pettini, M.; Boksenberg, A.

    1985-07-01

    The first high-resolution optical spectra and lower resolution UV spectra of PG 1700 + 518, the only known broad-absorption-line (BAL) QSO at low emission redshift (0.288) are presented. The optical data were obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma and the UV data with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The outstanding feature of the optical spectrum is a strong, broad Mg II absorption trough, detached from the Mg II emission line and indicative of ejection velocities of between 7000 and 18,000 km/s. Also detected were narrow (FWHM = 350 km/s) Mg II absorption lines at absolute z = 0.2698, which are probably related to the mass ejection phenomenon. It is concluded that the emission-line spectrum is similar to that of other low-redshift QSOs although there are some obvious differences from typical BAL QSOs, most notably in the unusually low level of ionization of both emission-line and broad absorption line gas. 21 references.

  13. The emission/absorption FE 2 spectrum of HD 45677

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalio, R.; Selvelli, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The complex behavior of the emission/absorption spectrum of Fe II is analyzed. The far UV spectrum is characterized almost solely by absorption lines, while, in the near UV, strong emissions are predominant. Radiative excitation from the ground to the highest levels (chi is approximately 10 eV) with re-emission in the near UV, visible and I.R. seems to be the main mechanism capable of explaining the observed spectral features.

  14. [Infrared absorption spectrum analysis and its application to blood].

    PubMed

    Wang, Le-xin; Zhao, Zhi-min; Yao, Hong-bing; Chen, Yu-ming; Shi, Lei; Gao, Yong

    2002-12-01

    The technology of infrared absorption spectrum is a branch of optical ment measurement technology, and the research on the application of infrared spectrum plays an important role in the development of technology of optical measurement. In this paper, the analysis technology of blood infrared absorption spectrum is presented. By comparison, the difference of the spectra between normal and abnormal blood samples was obtained. The infrared absorption spectra of normal blood sample and abnormal blood sample were detected, and the differences between the spectra are presented. And the analysis results of the infrared absorption spectra of normal whole blood, serum and hyperglycemia are presented also. All of these provide an experimental basis for the diagnosis of diseases, which is valuable for application. This technology features easy operation, convenient analysis and suitability for advanced experiment. The work offers a new way in the research on the application of infrared absorption spectrum.

  15. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  16. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  17. Sapphire fiber evanescent wave absorption in turbid media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Xiong, Feibing; Djeu, Nicholas

    2009-08-01

    The influence of particulates on sapphire fiber evanescent wave absorption by water has been studied. Suspensions containing micro-sized graphite flakes and glassy carbon powder were used. Conventional free-space transmittance measurements of these samples showed strong absorption and scattering, which severely screened the absorption by water. However, the absorption on the water band determined from the evanescent wave interaction was unaffected by the presence of the graphite flakes. These results indicate that fiber-optic evanescent wave chemical sensors may be suitable for process control applications involving turbid reactor streams.

  18. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) oral absorption and clinical influences.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Decker, John F; Patrick, Jeffrey T

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used nonopioid, non-NSAID analgesic that is effective against a variety of pain types, but the consequences of overdose can be severe. Because acetaminophen is so widely available as a single agent and is increasingly being formulated in fixed-ratio combination analgesic products for the potential additive or synergistic analgesic effect and/or reduced adverse effects, accidental cumulative overdose is an emergent concern. This has rekindled interest in the sites, processes, and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen oral absorption and the clinical factors that can influence these. The absorption of oral acetaminophen occurs primarily along the small intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, the rate-limiting step is the rate of gastric emptying into the intestines. Several clinical factors can affect absorption per se or the rate of gastric emptying, such as diet, concomitant medication, surgery, pregnancy, and others. Although acetaminophen does not have the abuse potential of opioids or the gastrointestinal bleeding or organ adverse effects of NSAIDs, excess amounts can produce serious hepatic injury. Thus, an understanding of the sites and features of acetaminophen absorption--and how they might be influenced by factors encountered in clinical practice--is important for pain management using this agent. It can also provide insight for design of formulations that would be less susceptible to clinical variables.

  19. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  20. Quantitative imaging of airway liquid absorption in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Locke, Landon W; Myerburg, Michael M; Markovetz, Matthew R; Parker, Robert S; Weber, Lawrence; Czachowski, Michael R; Harding, Thomas J; Brown, Stefanie L; Nero, Joseph A; Pilewski, Joseph M; Corcoran, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    New measures are needed to rapidly assess emerging treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Using an imaging approach, we evaluated the absorptive clearance of the radiolabeled small molecule probe diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) as an in vivo indicator of changes in airway liquid absorption. DTPA absorption and mucociliary clearance rates were measured in 21 patients with CF (12 adults and nine children) and nine adult controls using nuclear imaging. The effect of hypertonic saline on DTPA absorption was also studied. In addition, in vitro studies were conducted to identify the determinants of transepithelial DTPA absorption. CF patients had significantly increased rates of DTPA absorption compared with control subjects but had similar mucociliary clearance rates. Treatment with hypertonic saline resulted in a decrease in DTPA absorption and an increase in mucociliary clearance in 11 out of 11 adult CF patients compared with treatment with isotonic saline. In vitro studies revealed that ∼ 50% of DTPA absorption can be attributed to transepithelial fluid transport. Apically applied mucus impedes liquid and DTPA absorption. However, mucus effects become negligible in the presence of an osmotic stimulus. Functional imaging of DTPA absorption provides a quantifiable marker of immediate response to treatments that promote airway surface liquid hydration.

  1. [Ultraviolet absorption spectra of iodine, iodide ion and triiodide ion].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yong-Ju; Liu, Cui-Ge; Mo, Li-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption spectra of iodine I2, iodide ion I(-) and triiodide ion I3(-) were studied, and molar absorptivities of these species were determined. Absorption spectrum of I2 aqueous solution appears as an absorption peak at 203 nm with a molar absorptivity of 1.96 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). Absorption spectrum of I(-) appears as two absorption peaks at 193 and 226 nm with molar absorptivities of 1.42 x 10(4) and 1.34 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1), respectively. When I2 aqueous solution is mixed with KI solution, two absorption peaks appear at 288 and 350 nm, respectively, indicating the formation of I3(-). Using saturation method, molar absorptivities of I3(-) at 288 and 350 nm were determined to be 3.52 x 10(4) and 2.32 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1), respectively.

  2. Absorption of Magnesium and Chloride by Excised Corn Root

    PubMed Central

    Maas, E. V.; Ogata, Gen

    1971-01-01

    Absorption characteristics of Mg2+ and Cl− were investigated with 5-day-old excised corn (Zea mays) roots. Uptake from both 0.5 and 10 milliequivalents per liter MgCl2 solutions occurred at steady state rates for the first 6 hours. Inhibition by dinitrophenol and low temperatures established that absorption during this period was metabolically mediated in the absence and presence of Ca2+. Absorption isotherms indicated dual mechanisms of Mg2+ and Cl− absorption from solutions above 1 milliequivalent per liter. The effect of H+ on absorption of Mg2+ and Cl− was typical of that generally reported for other plant roots and other ions. In the physiological pH range, Ca2+ greatly suppressed the rate of Mg2+ absorption but had little effect on Cl−. The influence of Ca2+ on Mg2+ appeared to be noncompetitive and independent of its effect on membrane permeability. PMID:16657622

  3. Absorption of magnesium and chloride by excised corn root.

    PubMed

    Maas, E V; Ogata, G

    1971-03-01

    Absorption characteristics of Mg(2+) and Cl(-) were investigated with 5-day-old excised corn (Zea mays) roots. Uptake from both 0.5 and 10 milliequivalents per liter MgCl(2) solutions occurred at steady state rates for the first 6 hours. Inhibition by dinitrophenol and low temperatures established that absorption during this period was metabolically mediated in the absence and presence of Ca(2+). Absorption isotherms indicated dual mechanisms of Mg(2+) and Cl(-) absorption from solutions above 1 milliequivalent per liter. The effect of H(+) on absorption of Mg(2+) and Cl(-) was typical of that generally reported for other plant roots and other ions. In the physiological pH range, Ca(2+) greatly suppressed the rate of Mg(2+) absorption but had little effect on Cl(-). The influence of Ca(2+) on Mg(2+) appeared to be noncompetitive and independent of its effect on membrane permeability.

  4. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  5. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  6. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  7. Effects of xylitol on the absorption of /sup 203/Pb in mice and cockerels

    SciTech Connect

    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Salminen, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that xylitol may increase the absorption and urinary excretion of dietary oxalate. It has also been indicated that xylitol increases the absorption of calcium. Intestinal absorption of lead, a divalent contaminant in the diet, is in many respects similar to that of calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylitol on the intestinal absorption of lead using two different approaches: the in situ ligated intestinal loop technique in cockerels and gastric gavage in mice.

  8. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowey, Janet E.

    1998-11-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the embedded young stellar objects HL Tau, Taurus-Elias 7 (Haro6-10) and Elias 18 also include emission from heated dust. To obtain the foreground silicate absorption profiles, featureless continua are estimated using smoothed astronomical and laboratory silicate emissivities. TMC field stars and Cyg OB2 no. 12 are modelled as photospheres reddened by foreground continuum and silicate extinction. Dust emission in the non-photospheric continua of HL Tau and Elias 7 (Haro6-10) is distinguished from foreground silicate absorption using a 10micron disk model, based on the IR-submm model of T Tauri stars by Adams, Lada & Shu (1988), with terms added to represent the foreground continuum and silicate extinction. The absorption profiles of HL Tau and Elias 7 are similar to that of the field star Elias 16. Fitted temperature indices of 0.43 (HL Tau) and 0.33 (Elias 7) agree with Boss' (1996) theoretical models of the 200-300K region, but are lower than those of IR-submm disks (0.5-0.61; Mannings & Emerson 1994); the modelled 10micron emission of HL Tau is optically thin, that of Elias 7 is optically thick. A preliminary arcsecond-resolution determination of the 10micron emissivity near θ1 Ori D in the Trapezium region of Orion and a range of emission temperatures (225-310K) are derived from observations by T. L. Hayward; this Ney-Allen emissivity is 0.6micron narrower than the Trapezium emissivity obtained by Forrest et al. (1975) with a large aperture. Published interstellar grain models, elemental abundances and laboratory studies of Solar System silicates (IDPs, GEMS and meteorites), the 10micron

  9. Connecting the Silicate Dust and Gas Properties of Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; Morrison, Sean

    2016-01-01

    We present recent results from our program investigating the silicate dust properties in distant galaxies using quasar absorption systems. The dust and gas properties of distant galaxies can be characterized by studying the absorption features produced by them along the sightlines to luminous background quasars. Based on our prior finding that silicate dust absorption in z<1.5 quasar absorption systems exhibits a range of optical depths and absorption feature substructures, suggestive of silicate grain property variations, we are investigating silicate dust absorption in quasar absorption systems toward quasars with archival Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra. We present our measurements of the 10 and/or 18 micron silicate dust absorption feature(s) in these systems, and discuss constraints on the grain properties, such as composition and crystallinity, based on the shape and substructure present in these features. We also investigate the correlations between the silicate dust properties and the reddening. Connections between the silicate dust and gas phase metal absorption properties can also be probed for some of our targets with archival ground-based spectra. These relationships will yield valuable insights into the star formation history and evolution of metals and dust. This work is supported by NASA through ADAP grant NNX14AG74G and by an award issued by JPL/Caltech, and from US-NSF grant AST-1108830 to the University of South Carolina.

  10. Detection of metal stress in boreal forest species using the 0.67-micron chlorophyll absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhroy, Vernon H.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that a shift of the red-edge inflection near 0.70 micron in vegetation reflectance spectra is an indicator of metal stress, partially attributable to changes in chlorophyll concentration. This 'red-edge shift', however, is difficult to detect and has been reported both toward longer (red) and shorter (blue) wavelengths. Our work demonstrates that direct measurement of the depth and width of the chlorophyll absorption band at 0.67 micron using digital feature extraction and absorption band characterization procedures developed for the analysis of mineral spectra is a more consistent indicator of metal stress. Additionally, the magnitude of these parameters is generally greater than that of the red edge shift and thus should be more amenable to detection and mapping using field and aircraft spectrometers.

  11. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  12. Developing Indicators of Student Coursework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Ormseth, Tor

    The School Reform Assessment (SRA) project began in 1987 with the objective of developing indicators of student coursework that reliably and validly measure this central feature of schooling, while remaining sensitive to major policy changes and the information needs of policymakers, and efficiently collecting and reporting data. This paper…

  13. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1absorption (FW20) lies in the range 63 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1

  14. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the

  15. Gas Phase Absorption Spectroscopy of C+60 and C+70 in a Cryogenic Ion Trap: Comparison with Astronomical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.; Gerlich, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Bohlender, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent low-temperature laboratory measurements and astronomical observations have proved that the fullerene cation {{{C}}}60+ is responsible for four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). These absorptions correspond to the strongest bands of the lowest electronic transition. The gas phase spectrum below 10 {{K}} is reported here for the full wavelength range encompassed by the electronic transition. The absorption spectrum of {{{C}}}70+, with its origin band at 7959.2 {{\\mathringA }}, has been obtained under similar laboratory conditions. Observations made toward the reddened star {HD} 183143 were used in a specific search for the absorption of these fullerene cations in diffuse clouds. In the case of {{{C}}}60+, one further band in the astronomical spectrum at 9348.5 \\mathringA is identified, increasing the total number of assigned DIBs to five. Numerous other {{{C}}}60+ absorptions in the laboratory spectrum are found to lie below the astronomical detection limit. Special emphasis is placed on the laboratory determination of absolute absorption cross-sections. For {{{C}}}60+ this directly yields a column density, N({{{C}}}60+), of 2× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-2 in diffuse clouds, without the need to rely on theoretical oscillator strengths. The intensity of the {{{C}}}70+ electronic transition in the range 7000-8000 Å is spread over many features of similar strength. Absorption cross-section measurements indicate that even for a similar column density, the individual absorption bands of {{{C}}}70+ will be too weak to be detected in the astronomical spectra, which is confirmed giving an upper limit of 2 {{m\\mathringA }} to the equivalent width. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  16. Feature dimensionality reduction for myoelectric pattern recognition: a comparison study of feature selection and feature projection methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of the feature dimensionality reduction strategies on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals toward developing a practical myoelectric control system. Two dimensionality reduction strategies, feature selection and feature projection, were tested on both EMG feature sets, respectively. A feature selection based myoelectric pattern recognition system was introduced to select the features by eliminating the redundant features of EMG recordings instead of directly choosing a subset of EMG channels. The Markov random field (MRF) method and a forward orthogonal search algorithm were employed to evaluate the contribution of each individual feature to the classification, respectively. Our results from 15 healthy subjects indicate that, with a feature selection analysis, independent of the type of feature set, across all subjects high overall accuracies can be achieved in classification of seven different forearm motions with a small number of top ranked original EMG features obtained from the forearm muscles (average overall classification accuracy >95% with 12 selected EMG features). Compared to various feature dimensionality reduction techniques in myoelectric pattern recognition, the proposed filter-based feature selection approach is independent of the type of classification algorithms and features, which can effectively reduce the redundant information not only across different channels, but also cross different features in the same channel. This may enable robust EMG feature dimensionality reduction without needing to change ongoing, practical use of classification algorithms, an important step toward clinical utility.

  17. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  18. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  19. Two absorption furosemide prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mombrú, A W; Mariezcurrena, R A; Suescun, L; Pardo, H; Manta, E; Prandi, C

    1999-03-15

    The structures of two absorption furosemide prodrugs, hexanoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoyl-anthranilate (C19H23CIN2O7S), (I), and benzoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilate (C20H17CIN2O7S), (II), are described in this paper and compared with furosemide and four other prodrugs. The molecular conformations of both compounds are similar to those of the other prodrugs; the packing and the crystal system are the primary differences. Compound (I) crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 and compound (II) in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n. The packing of both structures is stabilized by a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network.

  20. Cloud geometry effects on atmospheric solar absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Q.; Cribb, M.C.; Barker, H.W.; Krueger, S.K.; Grossman, A.

    2000-04-15

    A 3D broadband solar radiative transfer scheme is formulated by integrating a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm with the Fu-Liou radiation model. It is applied to fields of tropical mesoscale convective clouds and subtropical marine boundary layer clouds that were generated by a 2D cloud-resolving model. The effects of cloud geometry on the radiative energy budget are examined by comparing the full-resolution Monte Carlo results with those from the independent column approximation (ICA) that applies the plane-parallel radiation model to each column. For the tropical convective cloud system, it is found that cloud geometry effects always enhance atmospheric solar absorption regardless of solar zenith angle. In a large horizontal domain (512 km), differences in domain-averaged atmospheric absorption between the Monte Carlo and the ICA are less than 4 W m{sup {minus}2} in the daytime. However, for a smaller domain (e.g., 75 km) containing a cluster of deep convective towers, domain-averaged absorption can be enhanced by more than 20 W m{sup {minus}2}. For a subtropical marine boundary layer cloud system during the stratus-to-cumulus transition, calculations show that the ICA works very well for domain-averaged fluxes of the stratocumulus cloud fields even for a very small domain (4.8 km). For the trade cumulus cloud field, the effects of cloud sides and horizontal transport of photons become more significant. Calculations have also been made for both cloud systems including black carbon aerosol and a water vapor continuum. It is found that cloud geometry produces no discernible effects on the absorption enhancement due to the black carbon aerosol and water vapor continuum. The current study indicates that the atmospheric absorption enhancement due to cloud-related 3D photon transport is small. This enhancement could not explain the excess absorption suggested by recent studies.

  1. Microwave spectrometer for saturated absorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Legrand, J; Ségard, B; Krosta, A; Macke, B

    1978-04-01

    A spectrometer has been built to perform Doppler-free saturated absorption experiments in the millimeter range (30-300 GHz); a plane-cylindrical resonator between Stark plates has been used. With that device, inverted Lamb-dips have been observed at 115 GHz with a width 25 times below the Doppler width. However, the essential feature of this apparatus is to allow the application of Stark field typically of 2500 V/cm, leading to such specific uses as the Stark tuned Lamb-dip, level-crossing, and mode-crossing experiments. Typical examples are given and other applications are proposed.

  2. Energy absorption of refractory absorber with periodic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuchen; Yang, Shuhan; Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Jingzhi

    2016-10-01

    Refractory material with surface plasmonic structures have the function of spectrum selective absorption and radiation spectrum regulation. In this paper, we design an absorber with periodic cylindrical nanostructures and a dielectric layer of Al2O3 based on the substrate of metal Tantalum (Ta). The energy absorption characteristics of the absorber have been simulated and analyzed by changing various constructional parameters. The simulation results indicate that structural parameters have great influence on the spectrum absorption in the range of wavelength 400-4000nm. The period and radius of nanostructure have a important effect on the absorption peaks in the infrared region. Infrared absorption peak can reach more than 99% and produce a red shift due to parameters changing. At the whole visible field, the absorption enhancement effect is significant. The refractive index and thickness of dielectric layer also have an obviously effect on the absorption spectrum. Furthermore, it is also obviously that thickness of dielectric layer has enhancement effect on absorption of infrared spectrum. The research found that the absorption and radiation spectrum of surface plasmonic materials can be effectively controlled by combining the high temperature radiation characteristics of high temperature metal. Thermophotovoltaic system can provide a kind of new methods and ideas for improving conversion efficiency, energy saving and consumption reducing.

  3. Meat protein fractions enhance nonheme iron absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Richard F; Reddy, Manju B; Juillerat, Marcel; Cook, James D

    2006-11-01

    The nature of the enhancing effect of muscle tissue on nonheme iron absorption in humans is unclear but thought to be related to muscle proteins. We conducted radioiron absorption studies to compare iron absorption from proteins isolated from beef and chicken muscle with that from freeze-dried beef and chicken muscle and from egg albumin. All meals contained an equivalent amount of protein as part of a semisynthetic liquid formula. Freeze-dried beef and chicken muscle increased iron absorption 180% (P < 0.001) and 100% (P < 0.001), respectively, relative to egg albumin. When added to the meal at an equivalent protein level (15 g), the isolated beef protein and the isolated heme-free beef protein with 94 and 98% protein content, respectively, increased iron absorption to the same extent as the native beef muscle. Similarly, when added to the meal at an equivalent protein level (30 g), isolated chicken muscle protein (94% protein) increased iron absorption similarly to native chicken muscle. Iron absorption from the meal containing the isolated heme-free chicken protein, however, was 120% (P < 0.01) greater than from the meal containing freeze-dried chicken muscle, indicating that a nonprotein component of muscle tissue with iron-binding potential may have been removed or concentrated by the protein extraction and separation procedures. Our results support the hypothesis that the enhancing effect of muscle tissue on iron absorption is mainly protein related but indicate that other factors may also play a role.

  4. Enhanced gastrointestinal absorption of N3- O-toluyl-fluorouracil by cationic solid lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Donghua; Liu, Chunxi; Zou, Weiwei; Zhang, Na

    2010-03-01

    This study was aimed to prepare N3- O-toluyl-fluorouracil (TFu) loaded cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (TFu-SLNs) and evaluate the potential of a novel lipid-based drug delivery system to enhance the oral absorption of TFu. TFu-SLNs were prepared by the film dispersion-ultrasonication method, using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as cationic tenside. The formulation and manufacture parameters were optimized concerning the drug encapsulation efficiency and the particle size. The in vitro release characteristics, in vivo pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability, and in situ intestinal absorption features were investigated. The morphology of TFu-SLNs was approximately spherical and the mean particle size was 178.8 ± 9.99 nm; the zeta potential was +19.54 ± 0.32 mV. The mean entrapment efficiency and drug loading were 71.03 ± 1.19% and 3.57 ± 0.08%, respectively. The release behaviors of TFu from TFu-SLNs in PBS were fitted to the bioexponential model, while in artificial gastric juice, artificial intestinal juice and artificial gastric juice (2 h) followed by artificial intestinal juice (2-48 h) were fitted to the Weibull equation. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies in mice showed that the bioavailability of TFu-SLNs was significantly increased compared with that of the TFu suspensions after oral administration. The absorption of TFu-SLNs in intestine of rat was fitted to first-order kinetics with passive diffusion mechanism and the main segments of TFu-SLNs absorbed in intestine were duodenum and jejunum for the bioadhesion mediated by electrostatic interaction between the positively charged colloidal particles and the negatively charged mucosal surface. These results indicated that cationic SLNs would offer a promising delivery system for the facilitation of the bioavailability of poorly oral absorption drugs by enhancing the bioadhesion between the absorption mucosal surface and the drug carriers.

  5. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  6. BASIC STUDIES IN PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS, *SKIN(ANATOMY), ABSORPTION, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, DIFFUSION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, HUMIDITY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, LIPIDS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, PENETRATION, PRIVATION, PROTEINS, RATS, TEMPERATURE, WATER

  7. The Variable Ca II Absorption in β Pictoris during 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, S. I.; Tobin, William; Pollard, K. R.

    2000-12-01

    Variable absorption features were observed in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum of β Pictoris soon after this star gained attention in the early 1980s due to its large IRAS infrared excess and the discovery, from optical imaging, of an edge-on dust disk. The absorption has been attributed to the evaporation of infalling planetesimals or comet-like bodies (the falling evaporating bodies, or FEB, hypothesis). With a view to confronting this hypothesis with fuller observations, we monitored the Ca II H and K lines in β Pictoris simultaneously during 1998, obtaining sequences of spectra on 50 nights. Variable absorption was usually present. The different oscillator strengths of the H and K lines permit the determination of covering factors, but detailed modelling is required to test whether all features can be explained by the FEB hypothesis. The blend of Ca II H with Balmer H ɛ means that the H and K photospheric profiles are different, and that the variable absorption features do not evolve in parallel. The behaviour of the variable absorption on November 27 is evocative of a body passing in front of the stellar disk in a prograde equatorial orbit.

  8. Light absorption and emission in nanowire array solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kupec, Jan; Stoop, Ralph L; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2010-12-20

    Inorganic nanowires are under intense research for large scale solar power generation intended to ultimately contribute a substantial fraction to the overall power mix. Their unique feature is to allow different pathways for the light absorption and carrier transport. In this publication we investigate the properties of a nanowire array acting as a photonic device governed by wave-optical phenomena. We solve the Maxwell equations and calculate the light absorption efficiency for the AM1.5d spectrum and give recommendations on the design. Due to concentration of the incident sunlight at a microscopic level the absorptivity of nanowire solar cells can exceed the absorptivity of an equal amount of material used in thin-film devices. We compute the local density of photon states to assess the effect of emission enhancement, which influences the radiative lifetime of excess carriers. This allows us to compute the efficiency limit within the framework of detailed balance. The efficiency is highly sensitive with respect to the diameter and distance of the nanowires. Designs featuring nanowires below a certain diameter will intrinsically feature low short-circuit current that cannot be compensated even by increasing the nanowire density. Optimum efficiency is not achieved in densely packed arrays, in fact spacing the nanowires further apart (simultaneously decreasing the material use) can even improve efficiency in certain scenarios. We observe absorption enhancement reducing the material use. In terms of carrier generation per material use, nanowire devices can outperform thin-film devices by far.

  9. [Plant Spectral Discrimination Based on Phenological Features].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-long; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiao-song

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis plays a significant role onplant characteristic identification and mechanism recognition, there were many papers published on the aspects of absorption features in the spectra of chlorophyll and moisture, spectral analysis onvegetation red edge effect, spectra profile feature extraction, spectra profile conversion, vegetation leaf structure and chemical composition impacts on the spectra in past years. However, fewer researches issued on spectral changes caused by plant seasonal changes of life form, chlorophyll, leaf area index. This paper studied on spectral observation of 11 plants of various life form, plant leaf structure and its size, phenological characteristics, they include deciduous forest with broad vertical leaf, needle leaf evergreen forest, needle leaf deciduous forest, deciduous forest with broadflat leaf, high shrub with big leaf, high shrub with little leaf, deciduous forest with broad little leaf, short shrub, meadow, steppe and grass. Field spectral data were observed with SVC-HR768 (Spectra Vista company, USA), the band width covers 350-2 500 nm, spectral resolution reaches 1-4 nm. The features of NDVI, spectral maximum absorption depth in green band, and spectral maximum absorption depth in red band were measured after continuum removal processing, the mean, amplitude and gradient of these features on seasonal change profile were analyzed, meanwhile, separability research on plant spectral feature of growth period and maturation period were compared. The paper presents a calculation method of separability of vegetation spectra which consider feature spatial distances. This index is carried on analysis of the vegetation discrimination. The results show that: the spectral features during plant growth period are easier to distinguish than them during maturation period. With the same features comparison, plant separability of growth period is 3 points higher than it during maturation period. The overall separabilityof vegetation

  10. Novel Features for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Woon, W. L.; Cichocki, A.

    2007-01-01

    While conventional approaches of BCI feature extraction are based on the power spectrum, we have tried using nonlinear features for classifying BCI data. In this paper, we report our test results and findings, which indicate that the proposed method is a potentially useful addition to current feature extraction techniques. PMID:18364991

  11. The ultraviolet spectrum of the gravitational lens candidate UM 425 = QSO 1120+019: Evidence for broad absorption line (BAL) structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelitsianos, A. G.; Oliversen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The UV line profile structure of high-ionization resonance lines found with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the brightest of four multiply imaged sources (images-A) in the candidate gravitational lens UM 425 = QSO 1120+019 indicates broad absorption line (BAL) structure. The deep-broad trough associated with the O IV line extends to velocities approiximately -12,000 km/s, and contains disrete features that suggest multicomponent velocity structure. This structure may include contributions from C IV absorption from the early-type galaxy that is believed to lens UM 425. A strong absorption feature in the blue wing of the Lyman-alpha lambda 1216 emission line may be a Lyman alpha absorption system at a Z(sub Ly alpha) = 1.437 +/- 0.003, or it may be formed by the superposition of the broad N V lambda lambda 1238, 1242 absorption trough on the extended blue emission wing of the QSO Lyman-alpha line. We obtained a redshift of Z(sub QSO) = 1.471 +/- 0.003 from Lyman-alpha lambda 1215, consistent with the redshift found by Meylan and Djorgovski in the optical. The Lyman-alpha line appears unusally weak due to the presence of N V lambda 1240 BAL absorption. A Lyman-limit absorption system at lambda 912 was not observed in the QSO rest frame. The detection of BAL structure in the other weaker ground-state resonance lines of N II (l) and S IV (l) was not found, suggesting these lines are formed in a region that is distinct from the BAL component. Detection of BAL structure in the other fainter images in this system with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instrumentation, similar to structure observed here in image A, could provide evidence that UM 425 is a gravitational lens.

  12. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  13. Update: The Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrate and Protein: Role of the Small Intestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leese, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of the small intestine in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Indicates as outdated the view that these materials must be broken down to monomeric units before absorption and that the gut secretes a mixture of digestive juices which brings about absorption. (JN)

  14. "Stirred, Not Shaken": Vibrational Coherence Can Speed Up Electronic Absorption.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R

    2015-08-27

    We have recently proposed a laser control scheme for ultrafast absorption in multilevel systems by parallel transfer (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015, 6, 1724). In this work we develop an analytical model that better takes into account the main features of electronic absorption in molecules. We show that the initial vibrational coherence in the ground electronic state can be used to greatly enhance the rate and yield of absorption when ultrashort pulses are used, provided that the phases of the coherences are taken into account. On the contrary, the initial coherence plays no role in the opposite limit, when a single long pulse drives the optical transition. The theory is tested by numerical simulations in the first absorption band of Na2.

  15. Transferability of multi- and hyperspectral optical biocrust indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, E.; Escribano, P.; Olehowski, C.; Chamizo, S.; Hill, J.; Cantón, Y.; Weber, B.

    2017-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens and bryophytes in varying proportions, which live within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimeters of the soil in arid and semiarid regions. As biocrusts are highly relevant for ecosystem processes like carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling, a correct characterization of their spatial distribution is required. Following this objective, considerable efforts have been devoted to the identification and mapping of biocrusts using remote sensing data, and several mapping indices have been developed. However, their transferability to different regions has only rarely been tested. In this study we investigated the transferability of two multispectral indices, i.e. the Crust Index (CI) and the Biological Soil Crust Index (BSCI), and two hyperspectral indices, i.e. the Continuum Removal Crust Identification Algorithm (CRCIA) and the Crust Development Index (CDI), in three sites dominated by biocrusts, but with differences in soil and vegetation composition. Whereas multispectral indices have been important and valuable tools for first approaches to map and classify biological soil crusts, hyperspectral data and indices developed for these allowed to classify biocrusts at much higher accuracy. While multispectral indices showed Kappa (κ) values below 0.6, hyperspectral indices obtained good classification accuracy (κ ∼ 0.8) in both the study area where they had been developed and in the newly tested region. These results highlight the capability of hyperspectral sensors to identify specific absorption features related to photosynthetic pigments as chlorophyll and carotenoids, but also the limitation of multispectral information to discriminate between areas dominated by biocrusts, vegetation or bare soil. Based on these results we conclude that remote sensing offers an important and valid tool to map biocrusts. However, the spectral similarity between the main surface

  16. Theory of strong-field attosecond transient absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond transient absorption is one of the promising new techniques being developed to exploit the availability of sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses to study the dynamics of the electron on its natural time scale. The temporal resolution in a transient absorption setup comes from the control of the relative delay and coherence between pump and probe pulses, while the spectral resolution comes from the characteristic width of the features that are being probed. In this review we focus on transient absorption scenarios where an attosecond pulse of XUV radiation creates a broadband excitation that is subsequently probed by a few cycle infrared (IR) laser. Because the attosecond XUV pulses are locked to the IR field cycle, the exchange of energy in the laser-matter interaction can be studied with unprecedented precision. We focus on the transient absorption by helium atoms of XUV radiation around the first ionization threshold, where we can simultaneoulsy solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the single atom response and the Maxwell wave equation for the collective response of the nonlinear medium. We use a time-domain method that allows us to treat on an equal footing all the different linear and nonlinear processes by which the medium can exchange energy with the fields. We present several simple models, based on a few-level system interacting with a strong IR field, to explain many of the novel features found in attosecond transient absorption spectrograms. These include the presence of light-induced states, which demonstrate the ability to probe the dressed states of the atom. We also present a time-domain interpretation of the resonant pulse propagation features that appear in absorption spectra in dense, macroscopic media. We close by reviewing several recent experimental results that can be explained in terms of the models we discuss. Our aim is to present a road map for understanding future attosecond transient absorption

  17. Eigenspace-based tracking for feature points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Chen, Qian; Qian, Wei-xian

    2014-05-01

    Feature point tracking deals with image streams that change over time. Most existing feature point tracking algorithms only consider two adjacent frames at a time, and forget the feature information of previous frames. In this paper, we present a new eigenspace-based tracking method that learns an eigenspace representation of training features online, and finds the target feature point with Gauss-Newton style search method. A coarse-to-fine processing strategy is introduced to handle large affine transformations. Several simulations and experiments on real images indicate the effectiveness of the proposed feature tracking algorithm under the conditions of large pose changes and temporary occlusions.

  18. Optomechanically induced transparency and absorption in hybridized optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, B. P.; Wei, L. F.; Wang, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present the normal-mode splitting and optomechanically induced transparency or absorption phenomena in the strongly tunnel-coupled optomechanical cavities. In the probe output spectrum, there appear central transparency windows or absorption peaks around which two broad sidebands are symmetrically located. It has been confirmed by the quantitative findings that two broad sidebands, which include the distorted absorption peaks, indicate the normal-mode splitting of the two hybridized cavities, and central transparency windows or absorption peaks character the interference induced by the optomechanical interactions. Additionally, the switching from absorption to amplification can be realized by only adjusting the tunnel interaction. These spectrum properties can be used for the coherent control of light pulses via microfabricated optomechanical arrays.

  19. Energy Absorption in a Shear-Thickening Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeshejani, Seyed Hossein Amiri; Sabet, Seyed Ali Reza; Zeynali, Mohammad Ebrahim; Atai, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates energy absorption in a shear-thickening fluid (STF) containing nano-size fumed silica as a suspending material. Fumed silica particles in 20, 30, and 40 wt.% were used in polyethylene glycol and ethylene glycol. Three areas were studied, namely: energy absorption of STF pre-impregnated aramid fabric, neat STF under high-velocity impact, and flexible foam soaked in STF under low-velocity drop weight impact. Results showed moderate energy absorption in STF pre-impregnated aramid fabric compared to dry fabric. High-velocity impact tests also revealed higher fabric weave density, and multi-layered target plays vital role in optimum performance of SFT impregnated targets. High-velocity impact tests on the neat STF showed good energy absorption at velocities near STF critical shear rate. Low-velocity drop weight impact test on flexible foam soaked in STF also indicated significant energy absorption.

  20. Solar Absorption in Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan; Ridgway, William; Ramaswamy, V.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Batey, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical computations used to compute spectral absorption of solar radiation are discussed. Radiative properties relevant to the cloud absorption problem are presented and placed in the context of radiative forcing. Implications for future measuring programs and the effect of horizontal inhomogeneities are discussed.

  1. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  2. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  3. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  4. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  5. Differential Absorption Measurements of Carbon Dioxide for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring Using a Temperature Tunable Diode Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, S. D.; Nehrir, A. R.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J. L.; Spangler, L. H.; Dobeck, L. M.; Shaw, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration in geologic formations provides a method to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from entering the Earth's atmosphere. An important issue for the successful storage of CO2 is the ability to monitor geologic sequestration sites for leakage to verify site integrity. A differential absorption measurement instrument based on a continuous wave (cw) temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser has been developed for measuring atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The tunable DFB laser is capable of tuning across two CO2 absorption features at 2003.50 nm and 2004.02 nm. The measured normalized transmission through the atmosphere is then related to the atmospheric concentration of CO2 through the line strength and normalized line width associated with each absorption feature. A description of this instrument will be presented including the instrument design, operation, and performance characteristics. A field site for testing the performance of CO2 detection instruments and techniques has been developed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at Montana State University. The field site allows a controlled flow rate of CO2 to be released underground through a 100 m long horizontal pipe placed below the water table. Two release experiments were performed this past summer with flow rates of 0.1 and 0.3 tons CO2/day. The first release experiment lasted ten days while the second release lasted seven days. Measurements taken with the differential absorption instrument over the horizontal well during these release experiments showed an increase of greater than 300 parts per million (ppm) over the background CO2 concentration. These results indicate the capabilities of the above ground differential absorption instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring.

  6. On the state of the emitter of the 3.3 micron unidentified infrared band - Absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flickinger, Gregory C.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Gomez, Percy L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of absorption measurements indicate that the PAH species responsible for the UIR (unidentified infrared) emission probably exist in a condensed form rather than as isolated molecules. It is shown that the peak absorption of the C-H stretch feature of vapor-phase PAHs occurs at a higher frequency than that of the condensed-phase PAHs and does not match the 3.289-micron interstellar feature. The vapor-phase experiments duplicate the phenomenon of the 3.3-micron profile simplification of PAH in KBr at elevated temperature. This confirms that the change of the profile with temperature is an intrinsic molecular effect, and is not a consequence of matrix (KBr) or condensed state interactions.

  7. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-26

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match.

  8. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match. PMID:26821030

  9. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  10. Polyethylene/silica nanocomposites: absorption current and the interpretation of SCLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. Y.; Vaughan, A. S.; Chen, G.; Hosier, I. L.; Ching, K. Y.; Quirke, N.

    2016-07-01

    The topic of nanodielectrics continues to receive significant attention from today’s dielectrics community, due to the property enhancements that can stem from the unique interfacial features within such material systems. Nevertheless, understanding the interfacial phenomena that occur in nanodielectrics, which determine their electrical behaviour, is challenging. In this paper, we report on an investigation into the absorption current behaviour of two nanocomposite systems, one containing an untreated nanosilica and the other containing the same nanofiller chemically modified using trimethoxy(propyl)silane. The results indicate that the absorption current behaviour of all the nanocomposites is very different from that of the reference, unfilled polymer; while the current flowing through the unfilled polyethylene decreased monotonically with time in a conventional manner, all the nanocomposites revealed an initial decrease followed by a period in which the current increased with increasing time of electric field application. Possible mechanisms leading to the observed absorption current behaviour in the nanocomposites are discussed with the aid of space charge measurements. The presence of space charge limited conduction (SCLC) and its trap-filled limit is proposed.

  11. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  12. Using multiple spectral feature analysis for quantitative pH mapping in a mining environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopačková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    The pH is one of the major chemical parameters affecting the results of remediation programs carried out at abandoned mines and dumps and one of the major parameters controlling heavy metal mobilization and speciation. This study is concerned with testing the feasibility of estimating surface pH on the basis of airborne hyperspectral (HS) data (HyMap). The work was carried on the Sokolov lignite mine, as it represents a site with extreme material heterogeneity and high pH gradients. First, a geochemical conceptual model of the site was defined. Pyrite, jarosite or lignite were the diagnostic minerals of very low pH (<3.0), jarosite in association with goethite indicated increased pH (3.0-6.5) and goethite alone characterized nearly neutral or higher pH (>6.5). It was found that these minerals have absorption feature parameters which are common for both forms, individual minerals as well as parts of the mixtures, while the shift to longer wavelengths of the absorption maximum centered between 0.90 and 1.00 μm is the main parameter that allows differentiation among the ferric minerals. The multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) technique was employed to map the defined end-members indicating certain pH ranges in the HS image datasets. This technique was found to be sensitive enough to assess differences in the desired spectral parameters (e.g., absorption shape, depth and indirectly maximum absorption wavelength position). Furthermore, the regression model using the fit images, the results of MRSFF, as inputs was constructed (R2 = 0.61, Rv2 = 0.76) to estimate the surface pH. This study represents one of the few approaches employing image spectroscopy for quantitative pH modeling in a mining environment and the achieved results demonstrate the potential application of hyperspectral remote sensing as an efficient method for environmental monitoring.

  13. Two-photon absorption properties of proquinoidal D-A-D and A-D-A quadrupolar chromophores.

    PubMed

    Susumu, Kimihiro; Fisher, Jonathan A N; Zheng, Jieru; Beratan, David N; Yodh, Arjun G; Therien, Michael J

    2011-06-09

    We report the synthesis, one- and two-photon absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence, and electrochemical properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules that feature proquinoidal π-aromatic acceptors. These quadrupolar molecules possess either donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) or acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) electronic motifs, and feature 4-N,N-dihexylaminophenyl, 4-dodecyloxyphenyl, 4-(N,N-dihexylamino)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazolyl or 2,5-dioctyloxyphenyl electron donor moieties and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTD) or 6,7-bis(3',7'-dimethyloctyl)[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline (TDQ) electron acceptor units. These conjugated structures are highly emissive in nonpolar solvents and exhibit large spectral red-shifts of their respective lowest energy absorption bands relative to analogous reference compounds that incorporate phenylene components in place of BTD and TDQ moieties. BTD-based D-A-D and A-D-A chromophores exhibit increasing fluorescence emission red-shifts, and a concomitant decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ(f)) with increasing solvent polarity; these data indicate that electronic excitation augments benzothiadiazole electron density via an internal charge transfer mechanism. The BTD- and TDQ-containing structures exhibit blue-shifted two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra relative to their corresponding one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra, and display high TPA cross sections (>100 GM) within these spectral windows. D-A-D and A-D-A structures that feature more extensive conjugation within this series of compounds exhibit larger TPA cross sections consistent with computational simulation. Factors governing TPA properties of these quadrupolar chromophores are discussed within the context of a three-state model.

  14. Two-Photon Absorption Properties of Proquinoidal D-A-D and A-D-A Quadrupolar Chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Susumu, Kimihiro; Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Zheng, Jieru

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis, one- and two-photon absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence, and electrochemical properties of a series of quadrupolar molecules that feature proquinoidal π-aromatic acceptors. These quadrupolar molecules possess either donor-acceptor-donor (D–A–D) or acceptor-donor-acceptor (A–D–A) electronic motifs, and feature 4-N,N-dihexylaminophenyl, 4-dodecyloxyphenyl, 4-(N,N-dihexylamino)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazolyl or 2,5-dioctyloxyphenyl electron donor moieties and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTD) or 6,7-bis(3’,7’-dimethyloctyl)[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline (TDQ) electron acceptor units. These conjugated structures are highly emissive in nonpolar solvents and exhibit large spectral red-shifts of their respective lowest energy absorption bands relative to analogous reference compounds that incorporate phenylene components in place of BTD and TDQ moieties. BTD-based D-A-D and A-D-A chromophores exhibit increasing fluorescence emission red-shifts, and a concomitant decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) with increasing solvent polarity; these data indicate that electronic excitation augments benzothiadiazole electron density via an internal charge transfer mechanism. The BTD- and TDQ-containing structures exhibit blue-shifted two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra relative to their corresponding one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra, and display high TPA cross-sections (>100 GM) within these spectral windows. D-A-D and A-D-A structures that feature more extensive conjugation within this series of compounds exhibit larger TPA cross-sections consistent with computational simulation. Factors governing TPA properties of these quadrupolar chromophores are discussed within the context of a three-state model. PMID:21568299

  15. Probing the structure of iron at extreme conditions by X-ray absorption near-edge structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, A. T.; Scandolo, S.; Härting, M.; Britton, D. T.

    2013-03-01

    We present the K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectra of hexagonal-closed packed iron at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Earth's mantle conditions. The calculated spectra have been obtained using the first-principles scheme based on the continued-fraction approach and norm-conserving pseudopotentials. The atomic configurations used for the X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy calculations were obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations, using an optimized embedded-atom potential. We compare our calculated spectra to recently available experiment results (R. Boehler, H.G. Musshoff, R. Ditz, G. Aquilanti, and A. Trapananti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80 (2009), pp. 045103-045108) and identify the main features of the spectra that may indicate onset of melting in iron.

  16. Reduced chromium in olivine grains from lunar basalt 15555 - X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Jones, K. W.; Gordon, B.; Rivers, M. L.; Bajt, S.; Smith, J. V.

    1993-01-01

    The oxidation state of Cr in 200-micron regions within individual lunar olivine and pyroxene grains from lunar basalt 15555 was inferred using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Reference materials had previously been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy and included Cr-bearing borosilicate glasses synthesized under controlled oxygen fugacity and Cr-doped olivines. The energy dependence of XANES spectral features defined by these reference materials indicated that Cr is predominantly divalent in the lunar olivine and trivalent in the pyroxene. These results, coupled with the apparent f(02)-independence of partitioning coefficients for Cr into olivine, imply that the source magma was dominated by divalent Cr at the time of olivine crystallization.

  17. The structure of AuPd nanoalloys anchored on spherical polyelectrolyte brushes determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Julian; Szczerba, Wojciech; Riesemeier, Heinrich; Reinholz, Uwe; Radtke, Martin; Albrecht, Martin; Lu, Yan; Ballauff, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Well-defined and facetted bimetallic gold-palladium nanoalloys have been synthesized and anchored in spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPB) as composite particles (AuPd@SPB). These particles are better catalysts in aqueous phase than the pure metals. The atomistic arrangement of these nanoalloys has been analysed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Au-L3 and the Pd-K absorption edge. The samples with high amounts of gold appear as almost statistically mixed random alloys. Alloy compositions with less gold show slight enrichment of Pd at the surface of the particle. In addition, signals of non-metallic palladium appear at the Pd-K edge which indicate the presence of the Pd2+ species in addition to metallic palladium. The relation of these structural features to the catalytic activity is discussed.

  18. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Christina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This paper features another expanded Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Report (FPI). The purpose of APPA's Facilities Performance Indicators is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The 2008-09 iteration of the Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Survey was posted and…

  19. Sensitivity of the CCM climate to enhanced cloud absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Kiehl, J.

    1995-09-01

    Recent indications suggest that clouds may be absorbing more solar radiation than was previously thought. This research investigates some of the evidence for this hypothesis; potential physical mechanisms are briefly discussed as well. The climatic implications of the enhanced absorption are investigated using the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM). It is found that the model`s heat budget in the tropical warm pool agrees more closely with observations when enhanced absorption is included. On the whole, the addition of enhanced absorption improves the model`s performance in the tropics and degrades it in the extra-tropics. 3 figs.

  20. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.

  1. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.

  2. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  3. Excitonic effects from geometric order and disorder explain broadband optical absorption in eumelanin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Teh; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu; Ball, Vincent; Ruch, David; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-05-22

    Eumelanin is a ubiquitous biological pigment, and the origin of its broadband absorption spectrum has long been a topic of scientific debate. Here, we report a first-principles computational investigation to explain its broadband absorption feature. These computations are complemented by experimental results showing a broadening of the absorption spectra of dopamine solutions upon their oxidation. We consider a variety of eumelanin molecular structures supported by experiments or theoretical studies, and calculate the absorption spectra with proper account of the excitonic couplings based on the Frenkel exciton model. The interplay of geometric order and disorder of eumelanin aggregate structures broadens the absorption spectrum and gives rise to a relative enhancement of absorption intensity at the higher-energy end, proportional to the cube of absorption energy. These findings show that the geometric disorder model is as able as the chemical disorder model, and complements this model, to describe the optical properties of eumelanin.

  4. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  5. Far-Infrared Absorptivity of the Superconducting State of Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7-DELTA) Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thi

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and analysis of the absorptivity A(omega) are reported, for a series of YBa_2Cu_3O _{7-delta} crystals at the fixed temperature of 2K and in the frequency range from 80 to 650 cm^{-1} (10 and 80 meV). The focus is on twin-free crystals where the crystallographic axes are uniformly aligned throughout the sample. The measured absorptivity is finite in the vicinity of 3.5 k_{B}T _{c} (230 cm ^{-1}) and anisotropic. For radiation polarized along the crystallographic a-axis of the twin -free YBa_2Cu_3O _{7-delta} crystals the absorptivity is ~0.5% with structures it begins an approximately linear rise near 310 cm^{-1}.. From A(omega) and published reflectivity data the real part of the conductivity sigma_1(omega) is obtained by a Kramers-Kronig analysis. The lineshape of a phonon at 350 cm^{-1} is asymmetric indicating a Fano effect. Three features at high frequencies 400-550 cm^{-1} are consistent with phonons shifted upward by ~315 cm^{-1}. These observations are consistent with an order parameter gap 2Delta being near 315 cm^{-1}. Below 2Delta^ectral features appear to be phonon-related but have large oscillator strengths compared to the corresponding infrared-active phonons above T_{c}. The implications of the experimental observations are discussed.

  6. Gas-phase Absorption of {{\\rm{C}}}_{70}^{2+} below 10 K: Astronomical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    The electronic spectrum of the fullerene dication {{{C}}}702+ has been measured in the gas phase at low temperature in a cryogenic radiofrequency ion trap. The spectrum consists of a strong origin band at 7030 Å and two weaker features to higher energy. The bands have FWHMs of 35 Å indicating an excited state lifetime on the order of one-tenth of a picosecond. Absorption cross-section measurements yield (2 ± 1) × 10‑15 cm2 at 7030 Å. These results are used to predict the depth of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) due to the absorption by {{{C}}}702+. At an assumed column density of 2 × 1012 cm‑2 the attenuation of starlight at 7030 Å is around 0.4% and thus the detection of such a shallow and broad interstellar band would be difficult. The electronic spectrum of {{{C}}}602+ shows no absorptions in the visible. Below 4000 Å the spectra of C60, {{{C}}}60+ and {{{C}}}602+ are similar. The large intrinsic FWHM of the features in this region, ∼200 Å for the band near 3250 Å, make them unsuitable for DIB detection.

  7. Modeling the Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: An XMM-Newton View of Sco X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Ramirez, J. M.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the absorption structure of the oxygen in the interstellar medium by analyzing XMM-Newton observations of the low mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. We use simple models based on the O I atomic cross section from different sources to fit the data and evaluate the impact of the atomic data in the interpretation of astrophysical observations. We show that relatively small differences in the atomic calculations can yield spurious results. We also show that the most complete and accurate set of atomic cross sections successfully reproduce the observed data in the 21 - 24.5 Angstrom wavelength region of the spectrum. Our fits indicate that the absorption is mainly due to neutral gas with an ionization parameter of Epsilon = 10(exp -4) erg/sq cm, and an oxygen column density of N(sub O) approx. = 8-10 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm. Our models are able to reproduce both the K edge and the K(alpha) absorption line from O I, which are the two main features in this region. We find no conclusive evidence for absorption by other than atomic oxygen.

  8. One- and two-photon absorption of highly conjugated multiporphyrin systems in the two-photon Soret transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Therien, Michael J.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents a detailed investigation of near-infrared one- and two-photon absorption (TPA) in a series of highly conjugated (porphinato)zinc(II) compounds. The chromophores interrogated include meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged (porphinato)zinc(II) oligomers (PZnn species), (porphinato)zinc(II)-spacer-(porphinato)zinc(II) (PZn-Sp-PZn) complexes, PZnn structures featuring terminal electron-releasing and -withdrawing substituents, related conjugated arrays in which electron-rich and -poor PZn units alternate, and benchmark PZn monomers. Broadband TPA cross-section measurements were performed ratiometrically using fluorescein as a reference. Superficially, the measurements indicate very large TPA cross-sections (up to ˜104GM; 1GM =1×10-50cm4sphoton-1) in the two-photon Soret (or B-band) resonance region. However, a more careful analysis of fluorescence as a function of incident photon flux suggests that significant one-photon absorption is present in the same spectral region for all compounds in the series. TPA cross-sections are extracted for the first time for some of these compounds using a model that includes both one-photon absorption and TPA contributions. Resultant TPA cross-sections are ˜10GM. The findings suggest that large TPA cross-sections reported in the Soret resonance region of similar compounds might contain significant contributions from one-photon absorption processes.

  9. MODELING THE OXYGEN K ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: AN XMM-NEWTON VIEW OF Sco X-1

    SciTech Connect

    GarcIa, J.; Bautista, M. A.; RamIrez, J. M.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P. E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu E-mail: michael.c.witthoeft@nasa.gov E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.v E-mail: quinet@umh.ac.be

    2011-04-10

    We investigate the X-ray absorption structure of oxygen in the interstellar medium by analyzing XMM - Newton observations of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Simple models based on the O I atomic photoabsorption cross section from different sources are used to fit the data and evaluate the impact of the atomic data on the interpretation of the observations. We show that relatively small differences in the atomic calculations can yield spurious results, and that the most complete and accurate set of atomic cross sections successfully reproduce the observed data in the 21.0-24.5 A wavelength region of the spectrum. Our fits indicate that the absorption is mainly due to neutral gas with an ionization parameter of {xi} = 10{sup -4} erg cm s{sup -1} and an oxygen column density of N{sub O} {approx} (8-10) x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The models are able to reproduce both the K edge and the K{alpha} absorption line from O I which are the two main features in this region. We find no conclusive evidence for absorption by anything other than atomic oxygen.

  10. Low-Absorption Liquid Crystals for Infrared Beam Steering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-22

    clearing point of 51.5 "C and its melting point is lower than -10 °C due to super-cooling effect . We also measured its transmission spectrum in the...thickness (or effective optical path length) increases, then the absorption will increase exponentially, as Eq. (1) indicates. To improve transmittance... effective mass (m) as: (0 = -yjic/m. (3) As the effective mass increases the vibration frequency decreases, i.e., the absorption band shifts toward a

  11. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-12-05

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  12. Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Plaxco, Kevin W; Allen, S James

    2006-05-01

    Biological polymers are expected to exhibit functionally relevant, global, and subglobal collective modes in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (i.e., picosecond timescale). In an effort to monitor these collective motions, we have experimentally determined the absorption spectrum of solvated bovine serum albumin (BSA) from 0.3 to 3.72 THz (10-124 cm(-1)). We successfully extract the terahertz molar absorption of the solvated BSA from the much stronger attenuation of water and observe in the solvated protein a dense, overlapping spectrum of vibrational modes that increases monotonically with increasing frequency. We see no evidence of distinct, strong, spectral features, suggesting that no specific collective vibrations dominate the protein's spectrum of motions, consistent with the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analyses of a range of small proteins. The shape of the observed spectrum resembles the ideal quadratic spectral density expected for a disordered ionic solid, indicating that the terahertz normal mode density of the solvated BSA may be modeled, to first order, as that of a three-dimensional elastic nanoparticle with an aperiodic charge distribution. Nevertheless, there are important detailed departures from that of a disordered inorganic solid or the normal mode densities predicted for several smaller proteins. These departures are presumably the spectral features arising from the unique molecular details of the solvated BSA. The techniques used here and measurements have the potential to experimentally confront theoretical calculations on a frequency scale that is important for macromolecular motions in a biologically relevant water environment.

  13. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Murphy, James Richard

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 microns [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, lambdaF lambda vs. lambda) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline

  14. Using Methane Absorption to Probe Jupiter's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaics of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator in near-infrared light moderately absorbed by atmospheric methane (top panel), and strongly absorbed by atmospheric methane (bottom panel). The four images that make up each of these mosaics were taken within a few minutes of each other. Methane in Jupiter's atmosphere absorbs light at specific wavelengths called absorption bands. By detecting light close and far from these absorption bands, Galileo can probe to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere. Sunlight near 732 nanometers (top panel) is moderately absorbed by methane. Some of the light reflected from clouds deep in Jupiter's troposphere is absorbed, enhancing the higher features. Sunlight at 886 nanometers (bottom panel) is strongly absorbed by methane. Most of the light reflected from the deeper clouds is absorbed, making these clouds invisible. Features in the diffuse cloud layer higher in Jupiter's atmosphere are greatly enhanced.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. [Terahertz Absorption Spectra Simulation of Glutamine Based on Quantum-Chemical Calculation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-yao; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Han; Yan, Fang; Qian, Ping

    2015-08-01

    With simulation of absorption spectra in THz region based on quantum-chemical calculation, the THz absorption features of target materials can be assigned with theoretical normal vibration modes. This is necessary for deeply understanding the origin of THz absorption spectra. The reliabilities of simulation results mainly depend on the initial structures and theoretical methods used throughout the calculation. In our study, we utilized THz-TDS to obtain the THz absorption spectrum of solid-state L-glutamine. Then three quantum-chemical calculation schemes with different initial structures commonly used in previous studies were proposed to study the inter-molecular interactions' contribution to the THz absorption of glutamine, containing monomer structure, dimer structure and crystal unit cell structure. After structure optimization and vibration modes' calculation based on density functional theory, the calculation results were converted to absorption spectra by Lorentzian line shape function for visual comparison with experimental spectra. The result of dimmer structure is better than monomer structure in number of absorption features while worse than crystal unit cell structure in position of absorption peaks. With the most reliable simulation result from crystal unit cell calculation, we successfully assigned all three experimental absorption peaks of glutamine ranged from 0.3 to 2.6 THz with overall vibration modes. Our study reveals that the crystal unit cell should be used as initial structure during theoretical simulation of solid-state samples' THz absorption spectrum which comprehensively considers not only the intra-molecular interactions but also inter-molecular interactions.

  16. [Indicators of care activity].

    PubMed

    Aguilera Navarro, J M; Cueli Rincón, B

    2003-12-01

    Quality indicators are tools to measure and improve quality of care. These indicator may evaluate estructural process or outcome measures. Development of quality indicators is a important goal of the quality program in a clinical department.

  17. Clustering granulometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Marcel; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Barrera, Junior; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2002-05-01

    Granulometric features have been widely used for classification, segmentation and recently in estimation of parameters in shape models. In this paper we study the inference of clustering based on granulometric features for a collection of structuring probes in the context of random models. We use random Boolean models to represent grains of different shapes and structure. It is known that granulometric features are excellent descriptors of shape and structure of grains. Inference based on clustering these features helps to analyze the consistency of these features and clustering algorithms. This greatly aids in classifier design and feature selection. Features and the order of their addition play a role in reducing the inference errors. We study four different types of feature addition methods and the effect of replication in reducing the inference errors.

  18. Highly Photostable Near-Infrared Fluorescent pH Indicators and Sensors Based on BF2-Chelated Tetraarylazadipyrromethene Dyes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of new BF2-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane dyes are synthesized and are shown to be suitable for the preparation of on/off photoinduced electron transfer modulated fluorescent sensors. The new indicators are noncovalently entrapped in polyurethane hydrogel D4 and feature absorption maxima in the range 660–710 nm and fluorescence emission maxima at 680–740 nm. Indicators have high molar absorption coefficients of ∼80 000 M–1 cm–1, good quantum yields (up to 20%), excellent photostability and low cross-sensitivity to the ionic strength. pKa values of indicators are determined from absorbance and fluorescence measurements and range from 7 to 11, depending on the substitution pattern of electron-donating and -withdrawing functionalities. Therefore, the new indicators are suitable for exploitation and adaptation in a diverse range of analytical applications. Apparent pKa values in sensor films derived from fluorescence data show 0.5–1 pH units lower values in comparison with those derived from the absorption data due to Förster resonance energy transfer from protonated to deprotonated form. A dual-lifetime referenced sensor is prepared, and application for monitoring of pH in corals is demonstrated. PMID:22738322

  19. Highly photostable near-infrared fluorescent pH indicators and sensors based on BF2-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethene dyes.

    PubMed

    Jokic, Tijana; Borisov, Sergey M; Saf, Robert; Nielsen, Daniel A; Kühl, Michael; Klimant, Ingo

    2012-08-07

    In this study, a series of new BF(2)-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane dyes are synthesized and are shown to be suitable for the preparation of on/off photoinduced electron transfer modulated fluorescent sensors. The new indicators are noncovalently entrapped in polyurethane hydrogel D4 and feature absorption maxima in the range 660-710 nm and fluorescence emission maxima at 680-740 nm. Indicators have high molar absorption coefficients of ~80,000 M(-1) cm(-1), good quantum yields (up to 20%), excellent photostability and low cross-sensitivity to the ionic strength. pK(a) values of indicators are determined from absorbance and fluorescence measurements and range from 7 to 11, depending on the substitution pattern of electron-donating and -withdrawing functionalities. Therefore, the new indicators are suitable for exploitation and adaptation in a diverse range of analytical applications. Apparent pK(a) values in sensor films derived from fluorescence data show 0.5-1 pH units lower values in comparison with those derived from the absorption data due to Förster resonance energy transfer from protonated to deprotonated form. A dual-lifetime referenced sensor is prepared, and application for monitoring of pH in corals is demonstrated.

  20. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple path measurements of temperature and H2O concentration will be presented for the AIMHYE test entries in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. Monitoring the progress of high temperature chemical reactions that define scramjet combustor efficiencies is a task uniquely suited to nonintrusive optical diagnostics. One application strategy to overcome the many challenges and limitations of nonintrusive measurements is to use laser absorption spectroscopy coupled with optical fibers. Absorption spectroscopic techniques with rapidly tunable lasers are capable of making simultaneous measurements of mole fraction, temperature, pressure, and velocity. The scramjet water absorption diagnostic was used to measure combustor efficiency and was compared to thrust measurements using a nozzle force balance and integrated nozzle pressures to develop a direct technique for evaluating integrated scramjet performance. Tests were initially performed with a diode laser tuning over a water absorption feature at 1391.7 nm. A second diode laser later became available at a wavelength near 1343.3 nm covering an additional water absorption feature and was incorporated in the system for a two-wavelength technique. Both temperature and mole fraction can be inferred from the lineshape analysis using this approach. Additional high temperature spectroscopy research was conducted to reduce uncertainties in the scramjet application. The lasers are optical fiber coupled to ports at the combustor exit and in the nozzle region. The output from the two diode lasers were combined in a single fiber, and the resultant two-wavelength beam was subsequently split into four legs. Each leg was directed through 60 meters of optical fiber to four combustor exit locations for measurement of beam intensity after absorption by the water within the flow. Absorption results will be compared to 1D combustor analysis using RJPA and nozzle CFD computations as well as to data from a nozzle metric

  1. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  2. Stratospheric infrared continuum absorptions observed by the ATMOS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Namkung, J. S.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of infrared continuum absorption features observed in ATMOS/Spacelab 3 (1985) spectra of the lower stratosphere is reported. Continuous absorption produced primarily by the collision-induced fundamental vibration-rotation band of O2 and to a lesser extent by the superposition of H2O far line wings has been observed in the 1400 to 1800/cm interval below tangent heights of about 25 km. Continuum optical depths measured in microwindows nearly free of atmospheric line absorption are 0.78 + or - 0.06 times those calculated with the O2 absorption coefficients of Timofeyev and Tonkov (1978). Transmittance measurements in microwindows between 2395 and 2535/cm have been used to study continuous absorption from the collision induced fundamental vibration-rotation band of N2 and the far wings of strong CO2 lines. The measured transmittances have been analyzed to derive best fit absorption coefficients for the N2 pressure-induced band at lower stratospheric temperatures (about 210 K).

  3. ac Magnetization transport and power absorption in nonitinerant spin chains.

    PubMed

    Trauzettel, Björn; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel

    2008-07-04

    We investigate the ac transport of magnetization in nonitinerant quantum systems such as spin chains described by the XXZ Hamiltonian. Using linear response theory, we calculate the ac magnetization current and the power absorption of such magnetic systems. Remarkably, the difference in the exchange interaction of the spin chain itself and the bulk magnets (i.e., the magnetization reservoirs), to which the spin chain is coupled, strongly influences the absorbed power of the system. This feature can be used in future spintronic devices to control power dissipation. Our analysis allows us to make quantitative predictions about the power absorption, and we show that magnetic systems are superior to their electronic counterparts.

  4. Reflective-tube absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Bartz, Robert; Kitchen, James C.

    1990-09-01

    The design and calibration of a proposed in situ spectral absorption meter is evaluated using a laboratory prototype. The design includes a silver coated (second-surface) glass tube, a tungsten light source (stabilized by means of optical feedback), a monochromator, and a solid state detector. The device measures the absorption coefficient plus a portion of the volume scattering function. Theoretical analyses and laboratory experiments which explore the magnitude and variation of the errors due to scattering and internal reflections are described. Similar analyses are performed on the Cary 1 18 Spectrophotometer to allow cross calibration. Algorithms to yield the abscrption coefficient and the zenith-sun diffuse attenuation coefficient are presented and evaluated. Simultaneous measurement of the beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient allows use of algoriThms with much narrower error bands. The various methods of obtaining absorption and diffuse attenuation values are compared. Procedures for using reverse osmosis filtration to produce a clean water calibration standard are described. An absorption spectrum for pure water is obtained. Development of the absorption meter is proceeding along two lines: 1) a two-wavelength side-by-side LED is being fabricated to allow an in situ chlorophyll a absorption meter to be constructed, and 2) scientific projects using a shipboard or laboratory flow.-through pumping system are being planned.

  5. The Development of New Solar Indices for use in Thermospheric Density Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave; Bowman, Bruce R.

    2006-01-01

    New solar indices have been developed to improve thermospheric density modeling for research and operational purposes. Out of 11 new and 4 legacy indices and proxies, we have selected three (F10.7, S10.7, and M10.7) for use in the new JB2006 empirical thermospheric density model. In this work, we report on the development of these solar irradiance indices. The rationale for their use, their definitions, and their characteristics, including the ISO 21348 spectral category and sub-category, wavelength range, solar source temperature region, solar source feature, altitude region of terrestrial atmosphere absorption at unit optical depth, and terrestrial atmosphere thermal processes in the region of maximum energy absorption, are described. We also summarize for each solar index, the facility and instrument(s) used to observe the solar emission, the time frame over which the data exist, the measurement cadence, the data latency, and the research as well as operational availability. The new solar indices are provided in forecast (http://SpaceWx.com) as well as real-time and historical (http://sol.spacenvironment.net/jb2006/) time frames. We describe the forecast methodology, compare results with actual data for active and quiet solar conditions, and compare improvements in F10.7 forecasting with legacy High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) and NOAA SEC forecasts.

  6. Millisecond Photoinduced Absorption Studies of Pyridine-Based Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplin, K. A.; Clark, D. T.; Jessen, S. W.; Epstein, A. J.; Fu, D.-K.; Swager, T. M.

    1997-03-01

    We present a study of the photoexcited states in copolymers of poly(p-pyridyl vinylene) and poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPyVPR_iV) with sidegroups R_1=C_12H_25 or R_2=COOC_12H_25 attached at the 2 and 5 positions of the phenyl ring. Previous studies discussed the millisecond photoinduced absorption (ms PA) characteristics of PPyVPR_iV powders(S.W. Jessen et al.), Synth. Met., in press.. In particular, triplet-triplet (T-T) transitions were observed at 1.6 eV for both materials. Additional polaron signatures were also observed in both the electronic ( ~ 0.85 eV) and infrared (1100 - 1600 cm-1) regions of the photoinduced spectrum. We compare these powder results with ms PA features for film morphologies of both the copolymers. We observe a weaker ( ~ 10X) T-T^* transition for copolymer films cast from xylene solution indicating a reduction in triplet exciton production as compared to powder samples. These results are contrasted with the behavior we reported(S.W. Jessen et al.), to be published. earlier for film and powder samples of the parent polymer poly(p-pyridyl vinylene).

  7. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOEpatents

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  8. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  9. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiang; Shi, Xiheng; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Zhang, Shaohua; Miller, Lauren P.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ∼700 and ∼1400 km s‑1 relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do not change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V-band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ∼700 km s‑1 has a density in the range of 109 to 1010 cm‑3 and a distance of ∼1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ∼1400 km s‑1 has a density of 103 cm‑3 and a distance of ∼1 kpc.

  10. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

  11. Anomalous absorption line in the magneto-optical response of graphene.

    PubMed

    Gusynin, V P; Sharapov, S G; Carbotte, J P

    2007-04-13

    The intensity as well as position in energy of the absorption lines in the infrared conductivity of graphene, both exhibit features that are directly related to the Dirac nature of its quasiparticles. We show that the evolution of the pattern of absorption lines as the chemical potential is varied encodes the information about the presence of the anomalous lowest Landau level. The first absorption line related to this level always appears with full intensity or is entirely missing, while all other lines disappear in two steps. We demonstrate that if a gap develops, the main absorption line splits into two provided that the chemical potential is greater than or equal to the gap.

  12. The temperature dependence of collision-induced absorption by oxygen near 6 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, John J.; Tyndall, Geoffrey S.; Nickerson, Karen E.; Calvert, Jack G.

    1991-01-01

    Coefficients for oxygen absorption in the infrared induced by collisions with O2 and N2 are reported over the range 1400-1800/cm and 225-356 K. These coefficients are used to calculate the absorption for O2 in air as a function of temperature and wavenumber, and comparisons are made with previous determinations. In addition, structured absorption features superimposed on the broad collision-induced absorption band, which were observed at all temperatures studied, are interpreted in terms of the presence of (O2)2 and O2-N2 van der Waals molecules.

  13. Absorption of ethanol by steam-exploded corn stalk.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chi; Hongzhang, Chen

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of using a low-cost biomass absorbent steam-exploded corn stalk (SECS) to absorb ethanol in its production by fermentation. Measurement of many the physical properties of SECS showed its specific surface area was about 214 m(2)/g and it had a good structure for absorption. Some influencing parameters of using SECS to absorb ethanol in water were studied. Second-order and parabolic diffusion equations excellently described the kinetics of absorption for ethanol. Its absorption isotherm was well described by an improved BET equation, indicating that it was a process of polymolecular layer absorption and had phenomena similar to capillary coacervation. Mesh size did not significantly affect absorptivity, but absorbency decreased with temperature. Absorptivity of SECS for ethanol was compared to that of other absorbents: at 30 degrees C and 5% initial ethanol, the absorptivity of SECS for ethanol at 5h was 92 mg/g. When inactivated through use, SECS can continue to be used as an substrate to produce more ethanol, thus avoiding pollution through discarding.

  14. Diode laser absorption tomography using data compression techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Chad; Tam, Chung-Jen; Givens, Ryan; Davis, Doug; Williams, Skip

    2008-02-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) shows promise for in situ monitoring in high-speed flows. However, the dynamic nature of typical flows of supersonic combustors, gas turbine engines and augmenters can also lead to inhomogenities that cannot be captured by a single line-of-sight TDLAS measurement. Instead, multiple measurements varied over several spatial locations need to be made. In the current study, shock train structure in the isolator section of the Research Cell 18 supersonic combustion facility at Wright-Patterson AFB is measured. Although only two view angles are available for measurement, multiple absorption features along with a priori computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations enable estimates of two dimensional flow features to be formed. Vector quantization/kmeans data clustering is used to identify key flow features from the temporal history of the raw sinograms. Through the use of multiple absorption features that are measured nearly simultaneously, an approximate two-dimensional image can be formed. This image can be further refined through the use of an optimal set of basis functions that can be derived from a set of CFD simulations that describes the flow shapes.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet absorption in a hydrogen arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy was utilized to measure the ground state atomic hydrogen number density in the plasma produced in a low power hydrogen arcjet. A microwave driven hydrogen plasma was used as the source of radiation resonant with the vacuum ultraviolet Lyman alpha transition. The suitability of this radiation source is discussed. The optical depth of this transition prevented measurements at locations where the ground state atomic hydrogen number density was larger than 3 x 10 exp 19/cu m. These results indicate that other single-photon optical diagnostic techniques are equally ineffective in locations of higher hydrogen number density unless the spectral line shape of the atomic hydrogen absorbers is known.

  16. [Analysis of UV-visible absorption spectrum on the decolorization of industrial wastewater by disinfection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Long-Yong; Gao, Nai-Yun; Li, Wei-Guo

    2012-10-01

    The UV-Visible absorption spectrum of industrial wastewater was explored to introduce a substituting method determining the color of water, and to compare the decolorization efficacy of different disinfectants. The results show that the visible absorption spectrum(350-600 nm), instead of ultraviolet absorption spectrum, should be applied to characterize the color of wastewater. There is a good correlation between the features of visible absorption spectrum and the true color of wastewater. Both ozone and chlorine dioxide has a better decolorization performance than chlorine. However, the color of chlorine dioxide itself has a negative effect on decolorization. The changes in the features of visible absorption spectrum effectively reflect the variations in the color of wastewater after disinfection.

  17. Youth Indicators of Late-M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Cruz, K.; Lépine, S.; Alpert, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study in which we searched for a correlation between weak Na absorption doublet (8183Å, 8194Å) and strong H-Alpha emission (6563Å) in late-M dwarf stars (M6-M9), as both are indicative of youth. Our sample consists of late-M Dwarfs from the LSPM Survey (Lépine and Shara, 2005), which contain stars with measured proper motions of mu > 40 mas/yr. Measurements for emission and absorption strength were made using spectral indices. Our preliminary results are presented; future work will include a similar analysis of early type M Dwarfs, as well as kinematics. This work was funded by the CUNY Summer Undergraduate Research Program, as well as the CUNY Macaulay Honors College, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  18. UV "Indices"-What Do They Indicate?

    PubMed

    Moshammer, Hanns; Simic, Stana; Haluza, Daniela

    2016-10-24

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e.g., for human non-melanoma skin cancer and for previtamin D production rate. Ongoing discussion about the existence of an increased melanoma risk due to UV-A exposure underscores the uncertainties inherent in current weighting functions. Thus, we performed an online literature search to review the data basis for these indices, to understand their relevance for an individual, and to assess the applicability of the indices for a range of exposure scenarios. Even for natural (solar) UV, the spectral composition varies spatially and temporally. Artificial UV sources and personal protection introduce further variation to the spectral composition. Many biological effects are proposed for UV radiation. Only few endpoints have been studied sufficiently to estimate a reliable index. Weighting functions for chronic effects and most importantly for cancer endpoints have been developed in animal models, and often for proxy endpoints only. Epidemiological studies on biological effects of UV radiation should not only depend on single-value weighted UV dose estimates (indexes) but should strive for a more detailed description of the individual exposure. A better understanding of the adverse and beneficial effects of UV radiation by wavelength would also improve medical counseling and health communication regarding individual

  19. Absorption band Q model for the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Given, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Attenuation in solids and liquids, as measured by the quality factor Q, is typically frequency dependent. In seismology, however, Q is usually assumed to be independent of frequency. Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. Specific features of the absorption band model are: low-Q in the seismic band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low-Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q sub s that increases with period, and low Q sub p/Q sub s at short periods in the middle mantle.

  20. Monitoring Telluric Water Absorption with CAMAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ashley; Blake, Cullen; Sliski, David

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based observations are severely limited by telluric water vapor absorption features, which are highly variable in time and significantly complicate both spectroscopy and photometry in the near-infrared (NIR). To achieve the stability required to study Earth-sized exoplanets, monitoring the precipitable water vapor (PWV) becomes necessary to mitigate the impact of telluric lines on radial velocity measurements and transit light curves. To address this issue, we present the Camera for the Automatic Monitoring of Atmospheric Lines (CAMAL), a stand-alone, inexpensive 6-inch aperture telescope dedicated to measuring PWV at the Whipple Observatory. CAMAL utilizes three NIR narrowband filters to trace the amount of atmospheric water vapor affecting simultaneous observations with the MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) and MINERVA-Red telescopes. We present the current design of CAMAL, discuss our calibration methods, and show PWV measurements taken with CAMAL compared to those of a nearby GPS water vapor monitor.

  1. [Anomalous absorption and a qualified far infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-qin; Chen, Yu-jing; Li, Hui-hua; Wang, Hai-shui

    2012-02-01

    The ideal 100% line could not be obtained when the content of water vapor in the spectrometer is constant but high during the whole procedure of a far-infrared spectrum collection. This result indicates that anomalous absorption phenomenon takes place in high relative humidity atmosphere. In the present paper, the influences of the relative humidity of ambient air and spectral resolution on anomalous absorption were studied. It was found that both decreasing the water vapor content in the spectrometer and adopting low spectral resolution are effective methods to avoid anomalous absorption. Furthermore, the water vapor bands can be eliminated by "dry air and wet air titration" in the fluctuant humidity. This provides us a quick and economic method to obtain a qualified far infrared spectrum conveniently. It should be noticed that the working condition for "dry air and wet air titration" is low relative humidity to prevent water vapor abnormal absorption.

  2. VUV absorption spectroscopy of bacterial spores and DNA components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Awakowicz, Peter; Stapelmann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure plasmas can be used to inactivate bacterial spores and sterilize goods for medical and pharmaceutical applications. A crucial factor are damages induced by UV and VUV radiation emitted by the plasma. To analyze inactivation processes and protection strategies of spores, absorption spectra of two B. subtilis strains are measured. The results indicate, that the inner and outer coat of the spore significantly contribute to the absorption of UV-C and also of the VUV, protecting the spore against radiation based damages. As the sample preparation can significantly influence the absorption spectra due to salt residues, the cleaning procedure and sample deposition is tested for its reproducibility by measuring DNA oligomers and pUC18 plasmid DNA. The measurements are compared and discussed with results from the literature, showing a strong decrease of the salt content enabling the detection of absorption structures in the samples.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Unusual Local-scale Features on the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Denevi, B. W.; Li, J.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Palmer, E.; Sunshine, J. M.; Titus, T. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive object in the main asteroid belt of our Solar System. At all scales, pyroxene absorptions are the most prominent spectral features on Vesta and overall, Vesta mineralogy indicates a complex magmatic evolution that led to a differentiated crust and mantle [1]. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen on the surface at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) [2] hyperspectral images are routinely used, by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms, to compute surface temperatures along with spectral emissivities. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features of Vesta that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times.

  4. Large mineralogically distinct impact melt feature at Copernicus crater - Evidence for retention of compositional heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Pieters, Carle M.; Head, James W.; Isaacson, Peter J.

    2013-03-01

    Despite several lines of evidence for efficient mixing of impact melt in complex craters, we document mineralogical heterogeneity in impact melt deposit on a scale of tens of kilometers on the Moon in the 96 km-diameter Copernicus crater. This heterogeneity is in the form of a large, sinuous impact melt feature on the floor and northern wall that is spectrally distinct from melt in its immediate vicinity. This melt feature spanning >30 km in length and 0.5-5 km in width has relatively short-wavelength, narrow ferrous absorption bands near ~900 nm and ~2000 nm indicating a more Mg-rich pyroxene composition as compared to impact melt deposit in the vicinity which is relatively rich in Fe/Ca-pyroxenes. This distinction provides evidence for the preservation of compositional heterogeneity in impact melt in complex craters on the Moon and documents an example of inefficient mixing of melt during the cratering process.

  5. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    PubMed Central

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field. PMID:21747746

  6. Intensity-modulating graphene metamaterial for multiband terahertz absorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Run-Mei; Xu, Zong-Cheng; Ding, Chun-Feng; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we design a tunable strength multiband absorber consisting of a graphene metamaterial structure and a thick dielectric interlayer deposited on a metal ground plane. We investigate the tunable conductivity properties of the graphene metamaterial and demonstrate multiband absorbers with three absorption bands using a polyimide interlayer in the 0-2.25 THz range by numerical simulation. The results show that the mix absorptivity reached 99.8% at 1.99 THz, and the absorptive strength can be tuned with the modulation depth up to 84.2%. We present a theoretical interpretation based on a standing wave field, which shows that the field energy is localized inside the thicker spacer and then dissipated, effectively trapping the light in the metamaterial absorbers with negligible near-field interactions. The standing wave field theory developed here explains all the features of the multiband metamaterial absorbers and provides a profound understanding of the underlying physics.

  7. Excellent microwave absorption property of Graphene-coated Fe nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xingchen; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Liaoyu; Xi, Kai; Cao, Qingqi; Wang, Dunhui; Yang, Yi; Du, Youwei

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has evoked extensive interests for its abundant physical properties and potential applications. It is reported that the interfacial electronic interaction between metal and graphene would give rise to charge transfer and change the electronic properties of graphene, leading to some novel electrical and magnetic properties in metal-graphene heterostructure. In addition, large specific surface area, low density and high chemical stability make graphene act as an ideal coating material. Taking full advantage of the aforementioned features of graphene, we synthesized graphene-coated Fe nanocomposites for the first time and investigated their microwave absorption properties. Due to the charge transfer at Fe-graphene interface in Fe/G, the nanocomposites show distinct dielectric properties, which result in excellent microwave absorption performance in a wide frequency range. This work provides a novel approach for exploring high-performance microwave absorption material as well as expands the application field of graphene-based materials. PMID:24305606

  8. X-ray absorption variability in NGC 4507

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinucci, Andrea; Risaliti, Guido; Wang, Junfeng; Bianchi, Stefano; Elvis, Martin; Matt, Giorgio; Nardini, Emanuele; Braito, Valentina

    2013-03-01

    We present a complete spectral analysis of an XMM-Newton and Chandra campaign of the obscured AGN in NGC 4507, consisting of six observations spanning a period of six months, ranging from 2010 June to December. We detect strong absorption variability on time-scales between 1.5 and 4 months, suggesting that the obscuring material consists of gas clouds at parsec-scale distance. The lack of significant variability on shorter time-scales suggests that this event is not due to absorption by broad-line region (BLR) clouds, which was instead found in other studies of similar sources. This shows that a single, universal structure of the absorber (either BLR clouds, or the parsec-scale torus) is not enough to reproduce the observed complexity of the X-ray absorption features of this AGN.

  9. A method for normalization of X-ray absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.-C.; Waldo, G.S.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.

    2010-07-20

    Accurate normalization of X-ray absorption data is essential for quantitative analysis of near-edge features. A method, implemented as the program MBACK, to normalize X-ray absorption data to tabulated mass absorption coefficients is described. Comparison of conventional normalization methods with MBACK demonstrates that the new normalization method is not sensitive to the shape of the background function, thus allowing accurate comparison of data collected in transmission mode with data collected using fluorescence ion chambers or solid-state fluorescence detectors. The new method is shown to have better reliability and consistency and smaller errors than conventional normalization methods. The sensitivity of the new normalization method is illustrated by analysis of data collected during an equilibrium titration.

  10. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  11. Chromium absorption in the vascularly perfused rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, H.J.; Offenbacher, E.G.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of chromium (Cr) absorption by the rat small intestine was investigated using a double perfusion technique wherein the luman of the small intestine and the vasculature supplying it were separately perfused. The intestinal perfusate (IP) was a nutrient-rich tissue culture medium (TCM) with added inorganic Cr and /sup 51/Cr. The vascular perfusate (VP) was a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution (KRB) containing 4.7% dextran, 0.1% glucose and 5% human serum. Cr absorption was calculated by the amount of /sup 51/Cr detected in the VP. To determine the transport mechanism for Cr, its absorption into the VP was measured at various Cr concentrations of the IP ranging from 10-400 ppb CrCl/sub 3/. The amount of Cr absorbed into the blood rose linearly with the intestinal Cr concentration suggesting a process of simple diffusion. Manipulations of the VP and IP constituents were made to investigate their effects on Cr absorption. When serum was omitted from the VP, Cr adsorption was suppressed, suggesting that serum component(s) are necessary for optimal Cr absorption. When either of 2 plasma transport proteins (apo-transferrin, albumin) were added to the serum-free VP at physiological levels, Cr absorption returned to, but did not exceed, control levels. When the TCM was replaced with a KRB solution; Cr absorption was suppressed indicating that there are nutrient(s) of the TCM which facilitate Cr absorption. Further suppression occurred when a Cr concentration gradient opposing Cr absorption was created (IP at 100 ppb Cr, VP at 400 ppb Cr).

  12. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Paplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Le Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's “dark” hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  13. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's "dark" hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  14. Vocational Education Effectiveness Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara

    This paper provides an overview of some of the issues involved in developing and implementing vocational education effectiveness indicators and systems. The paper first discusses educational effectiveness indicator systems--with the emphasis on "systems" in contrast to individual effectiveness indicators taken alone--and stresses the…

  15. Calculation of enviromental indices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.

  16. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šćepanović, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  17. The C2H, C2, and CN electronic absorption bands in the carbon star HD 19557

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Bregman, J. D.; Cooper, D. M.; Goorvitch, D.; Langhoff, S. R.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared spectrophotometry of the R-type carbon star HD 19557 is presented. Two unusual spectroscopic features are seen: a 3.1 micron band is lacking and a 2.8 micron band is present. Identifications are proposed for three previously unreported stellar absorption bands with electronic sequences of C2, CN, and C2H. The latter is proposed to be responsible for the 2.8 micron feature. The atmospheric structure of the star is studied with synthetic spectra, and an effective temperature between 2600 K and 3000 K is suggested. No SiC emission is seen at 11.3 microns, indicating that grain formation is not a viable process around the star. The lack of dust in R stars may suggest a salient difference between R and N types.

  18. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy as an experimental probe for S-nitroso proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Szilagyi, Robert K. . E-mail: Szilagyi@Montana.EDU; Schwab, David E.

    2005-04-29

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge (2.4-2.6 keV) provides a sensitive and specific technique to identify S-nitroso compounds, which have significance in nitric oxide-based cell signaling. Unique spectral features clearly distinguish the S-nitroso-form of a cysteine residue from the sulfhydryl-form or from a methionine thioether. Comparison of the sulfur K-edge spectra of thiolate, thiol, thioether, and S-nitroso thiolate compounds indicates high sensitivity of energy positions and intensities of XAS pre-edge features as determined by the electronic environment of the sulfur absorber. A new experimental setup is being developed for reaching the in vivo concentration range of S-nitroso thiol levels in biological samples.

  19. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  20. Comparison of hyperspectral retrievals with vegetation water indices for leaf and canopy water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Qu, John J.; Wang, Lingli; Hao, Xianjun

    2011-09-01

    Leaf and canopy water contents provide information for leaf area index, vegetation biomass, and wildfire fuel moisture content. Hyperspectral retrievals of leaf and canopy water content are determined from the relationship of spectral reflectance and the specific absorption coefficient of water over the wavelength range of a water absorption feature. Vegetation water indices such as the Normalized Difference Water Index [NDWI = (R850 - R1240)/(R850 + R1240)] and Normalized Difference Infrared Index [NDII = (R850 - R1650)/(R850 + R1650)] may be calculated from multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper, SPOT HRG, or MODIS. Predicted water contents from hyperspectral data were much greater than measured water contents for both leaves and canopies. Furthermore, simulated spectral reflectances from the PROSPECT and SAIL models also had greater retrieved leaf and canopy water contents compared to the inputs. Used simply as an index correlated to leaf and canopy water contents, hyperspectral retrievals had better predictive capability than NDII or NDWI. Atmospheric correction algorithms estimate canopy water content in order to estimate the amount of water vapor. These results indicate that estimated canopy water contents should have a systematic bias, even though this bias does not affect retrieved surface reflectances from hyperspectral data. Field campaigns in a variety of vegetation functional types are needed to calibrate both hyperspectral retrievals and vegetation water indices.

  1. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Bolome, Cindy A; Moore, D S

    2010-01-01

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  2. The Vertical Structure of Major Meteorological Features on Jupiter: The Great Red Spot and White Ovals BC and DE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Carlson, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Multi-spectral imagery of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and two White ovals acquired by the Galileo/NIMS are used to constrain the spatial variability of the vertical aerosol structure and the distribution of ammonia in and around these most-prominent anti-cyclonic features. All three features exhibit a high-altitude core spanning about 3/4 of their visual size when viewed with moderate absorption wavelengths, indicating a bulk elliptical, "wedding cake" shape in their overall three-dimensional cloud structure. A distinctive spiral pattern within the GRS core is seen in moderate methane and hydrogen absorption bandpasses. This pattern - which has been modelled to show a 2 km variation in cloudtop pressure within the GRS - is inconsistent with a different spiral-shaped pattern observed in ammonia-sensitive wavelengths, thus indicating spatial variability not only in the column abundance of ammonia within the GRS, but in its mixing ratio as well. White Ovals BC and DE were observed in February 1997, just a year before their unusual merger into a single feature. At the time of these observations, the centers of the two anti-cyclones were about 16 degrees apart, separated by a complex cyclonic feature which exhibited unusual spatial variability in its appearance in images acquired at ammonia-sensitive wavelengths. In particular, the northern half of this feature has the largest ammonia column abundance seen within the environs around the white ovals, indicating unusual variability in either cloud structure/altitude and/or ammonia humidity within the cyclone.

  3. Fishing for Features

    ScienceCinema

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-24

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  4. Fishing for Features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-07-21

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  5. Ultrafast optical nonlinearity, electronic absorption, vibrational spectra and solvent effect studies of ninhydrin.

    PubMed

    Sajan, D; Devi, T Uma; Safakath, K; Philip, Reji; Němec, Ivan; Karabacak, M

    2013-05-15

    FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis spectra of the nonlinear optical molecule ninhydrin have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features, and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory method. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra is carried out with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. Solvent effects have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory in combination with the polarized continuum model. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule. Employing the open-aperture z-scan technique, nonlinear optical absorption of the sample has been studied in the ultrafast and short-pulse excitation regimes, using 100 fs and 5 ns laser pulses respectively. It is found that ninhydrin exhibits optical limiting for both excitations, indicating potential photonic applications.

  6. Broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy for a CVD Mo S2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleithan, Shrouq H.; Livshits, Maksim Y.; Khadka, Sudiksha; Rack, Jeffrey J.; Kordesch, Martin E.; Stinaff, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Carrier dynamics in monolayer Mo S2 have been investigated using broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (FTAS). A tunable pump pulse was used while a broadband probe pulse revealed ground and excited state carrier dynamics. Interestingly, for pump wavelengths both resonant and nonresonant with the A and B excitons, we observe a broad ground state bleach around 2.9 eV, with decay components similar to A and B. Associating this bleach with the band nesting region between K and Γ in the band structure indicates significant k-space delocalization and overlap among excitonic wave functions identified as A, B, C, and D. Comparison of time dynamics for all features in resonance and nonresonance excitation is consistent with this finding.

  7. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  8. Infrared Laser Therapy using IR absorption of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awazu, K.; Ishii, K.; Hazama, H.

    2011-02-01

    Since numerous characteristic absorption lines caused by molecular vibration exist in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength region, selective excitation or selective dissociation of molecules is possible by tuning the laser wavelength to the characteristic absorption lines of target molecules. By applying this feature to the medical fields, less-invasive treatment and non-destructive diagnosis with absorption spectroscopy are possible using tunable MIR lasers. A high-energy nanosecond pulsed MIR tunable laser was obtained with difference-frequency generation (DFG) between a Nd:YAG and a tunable Cr:forsterite lasers. The MIR-DFG laser was tunable in a wavelength range of 5.5-10 μm and generated a laser pulses with an energy of up to 1.4 mJ, a pulse width of 5 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. Selective removal of atherosclerotic lesion was successfully demonstrated with the MIR-DFG laser tuned at a wavelength of 5.75 μm, which corresponds to the characteristic absorption of the ester bond in cholesterol esters in the atherosclerotic lesions. We have developed a non-destructive diagnostic probe with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) prism and two hollow optical fibres. An absorption spectrum of cholesterol was measured with the ATR probe by scanning the wavelength of the MIR-DFG laser, and the spectrum was in good agreement with that measured with a commercial Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

  9. Active Galactic Nuclei Probed by QSO Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru

    2007-07-01

    Quasars are the extremely bright nuclei found in about 10% of galaxies. A variety of absorption features (known collectively as quasar absorption lines) are detected in the rest-frame UV spectra of these objects. While absorption lines that have very broad widths originate in gas that is probably physocally related to the quasars, narrow absorption lines (NALs) were thought to arise in galaxies and/or in the intter-alacttic medium between the quasars and us. Using high-resolution spectra of quasars, it is found that a substantial fraction of NALs arise in gas in the immediate vicinity of the quasars. A dramatically variable, moderately-broad absorption line in the spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820l is also found. The variability of this line is monitored in a campaign with Subaru telescope. These observational results are compared to models for outflows from the quasars, specifically, models for accretion disk winds and evaporating obscuring tori. It is quite important to determine the mechanism of outflow because of its cosmological implications. The outflow could expel angular momentum from the accretion disk and enable quasars to accrete and shine. In addition, the outflow may also regulate star formation in the early stages of the assembly of the host galaxy and enrich the interstellar and intergalactic medium with metals.

  10. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Kilgour, David P.; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B.; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-12-03

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image and then these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode ?Datacubes? for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  11. Powerful laser pulse absorption in partly homogenized foam plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, M.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; De Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Consoli, F.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Rupasov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The internal volume structure of a porous medium of light elements determines unique features of the absorption mechanism of laser radiation; the characteristics of relaxation and transport processes in the produced plasma are affected as well. Porous materials with an average density larger than the critical density have a central role in enhancing the pressure produced during the ablation by the laser pulse; this pressure can exceed the one produced by target direct irradiation. The problem of the absorption of powerful laser radiation in a porous material is examined both analytically and numerically. The behavior of the medium during the process of pore filling in the heated region is described by a model of viscous homogenization. An expression describing the time and space dependence of the absorption coefficient of laser radiation is therefore obtained from the model. A numerical investigation of the absorption of a nanosecond laser pulse is performed within the present model. In the context of numerical calculations, porous media with an average density larger than the critical density of the laser-produced plasma are considered. Preliminary results about the inclusion of the developed absorption model into an hydrodynamic code are presented.

  12. ESTIMATING THE CHROMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION OF TRANSITION REGION MOSS EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo H.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2009-09-10

    Many models for coronal loops have difficulty explaining the observed EUV brightness of the transition region, which is often significantly less than theoretical models predict. This discrepancy has been addressed by a variety of approaches including filling factors and time-dependent heating, with varying degrees of success. Here, we focus on an effect that has been ignored so far: the absorption of EUV light with wavelengths below 912 A by the resonance continua of neutral hydrogen and helium. Such absorption is expected to occur in the low-lying transition region of hot, active region loops that is colocated with cool chromospheric features and called 'moss' as a result of the reticulated appearance resulting from the absorption. We use cotemporal and cospatial spectroheliograms obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SUMER and Hinode/EIS of Fe XII 1242 A, 195 A, and 186.88 A, and compare the density determination from the 186/195 A line ratio to that resulting from the 195/1242 A line ratio. We find that while coronal loops have compatible density values from these two line pairs, upper transition region moss has conflicting density determinations. This discrepancy can be resolved by taking into account significant absorption of 195 A emission caused by the chromospheric inclusions in the moss. We find that the amount of absorption is generally of the order of a factor of 2. We compare to numerical models and show that the observed effect is well reproduced by three-dimensional radiative MHD models of the transition region and corona. We use STEREO A/B data of the same active region and find that increased angles between line of sight and local vertical cause additional absorption. Our determination of the amount of chromospheric absorption of TR emission can be used to better constrain coronal heating models.

  13. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  14. Optical absorption in semiconductor quantum dots coupling to dispersive phonons of infinite modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhiwen; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Hang

    2012-10-01

    Optical absorption spectrum of semiconductor quantum dot is investigated by means of an analytical approach based on the Green's function for different forms of coupling strength in an unified method by using the standard model with valence and conduction band levels coupled to dispersive quantum phonons of infinite modes. The analytical expression of the optical absorption coefficient in semiconductor quantum dots is obtained and by this expression the line shape and the peak position of the absorption spectrum are procured. The relation between the properties of absorption spectrum and the forms of coupling strength is clarified, which can be referenced for choosing the proper form of the coupling strength or spectral density to control the features of absorption spectrum of quantum dot. The coupling and confinement induced energy shift and intensity decrease in the absorption spectrum are determined precisely for a wide range of parameters. The results show that the activation energy of the optical absorption is reduced by the effect of exciton-phonon coupling and photons with lower frequencies could also be absorbed in absorption process. With increase of the coupling constant, the line shape of optical absorption spectrum broadens and the peak position moves to lower photon energy with a rapid decrease in intensity at the same time. Both the coupling induced red shift and the confinement induced blue shift conduce to decrease in the intensity of absorption spectrum. Furthermore, this method may have application potential to other confined quantum systems.

  15. Defeating feature fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rust, Roland T; Thompson, Debora Viana; Hamilton, Rebecca W

    2006-02-01

    Consider a coffeemaker that offers 12 drink options, a car with more than 700 features on the dashboard, and a mouse pad that's also a clock, calculator, and FM radio. All are examples of "feature bloat", or "featuritis", the result of an almost irresistible temptation to load products with lots of bells and whistles. The problem is that the more features a product boasts, the harder it is to use. Manufacturers that increase a product's capability--the number of useful functions it can perform--at the expense of its usability are exposing their customers to feature fatigue. The authors have conducted three studies to gain a better understanding of how consumers weigh a product's capability relative to its usability. They found that even though consumers know that products with more features are harder to use, they initially choose high-feature models. They also pile on more features when given the chance to customize a product for their needs. Once consumers have actually worked with a product, however, usability starts to matter more to them than capability. For managers in consumer products companies, these findings present a dilemma: Should they maximize initial sales by designing high-feature models, which consumers consistently choose, or should they limit the number of features in order to enhance the lifetime value of their customers? The authors' analytical model guides companies toward a happy middle ground: maximizing the net present value of the typical customer's profit stream. The authors also advise companies to build simpler products, help consumers learn which products suit their needs, develop products that do one thing very well, and design market research in which consumers use actual products or prototypes.

  16. Indicators of Ecological Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    rubescens in lakes that are on the verge of extreme eutrophication . The role of this cyanobacteria as an indicator was first identified in Lake...clarity. Public attention was called to the problem, and the resulting reversal of this eutrophication process occurred when sewage was diverted from the...indicator of impending eutrophication worldwide. It satisfies three elements of an ecological indicator in that it is easily measured, it signifies

  17. Chemical calcium indicators.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R Madelaine; Etzler, Julie C; Watts, Lora Talley; Zheng, Wei; Lechleiter, James D

    2008-11-01

    Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling as well as our appreciation for its ubiquitous role in cellular processes has been rapidly advanced, in large part, due to the development of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators. In this chapter, we discuss some of the most common chemical Ca2+ indicators that are widely used for the investigation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Advantages, limitations and relevant procedures will be presented for each dye including their spectral qualities, dissociation constants, chemical forms, loading methods and equipment for optimal imaging. Chemical indicators now available allow for intracellular Ca2+ detection over a very large range (<50 nM to >50 microM). High affinity indicators can be used to quantify Ca2+ levels in the cytosol while lower affinity indicators can be optimized for measuring Ca2+ in subcellular compartments with higher concentrations. Indicators can be classified into either single wavelength or ratiometric dyes. Both classes require specific lasers, filters, and/or detection methods that are dependent upon their spectral properties and both classes have advantages and limitations. Single wavelength indicators are generally very bright and optimal for Ca2+ detection when more than one fluorophore is being imaged. Ratiometric indicators can be calibrated very precisely and they minimize the most common problems associated with chemical Ca2+ indicators including uneven dye loading, leakage, photobleaching, and changes in cell volume. Recent technical advances that permit in vivo Ca2+ measurements will also be discussed.

  18. Climate Change Indicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  19. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; Cox, J. D.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    Saturable absorption is a nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a semianalytical nonperturbative single-particle approach, describing electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics nonperturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. We obtain results in qualitative agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations of graphene nanoribbons including electron-electron interactions, finite-size, and higher-band effects. Remarkably, such effects are found to affect mainly the linear absorption, while the predicted saturation intensities are in good quantitative agreement in the limit of extended graphene. Additionally, we find that the modulation depth of saturable absorption in graphene can be electrically manipulated through an externally applied gate voltage. Our results are relevant for the development of graphene-based optoelectronic devices, as well as for applications in mode-locking and random lasers.

  20. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  1. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, J.; Churchill, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Every parcel of gas along the line of sight to a distant QUASAR will selectively absorb certain wavelengths of continuum light of the quasar due to the presence of the various chemical elements in the gas. Through the analysis of these quasar absorption lines we can study the spatial distributions, motions, chemical enrichment and ionization histories of gaseous structures from REDSHIFT five unti...

  2. Neutron Absorption in Geological Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Andersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal neutron absorption cross section of geological samples is determined with the steady state neutron source method. Cross section measurements of North Sea sediments demonstrate that also materials with high contents of clay minerals may be investigated with the steady state method.

  3. Ultraviolet and Light Absorption Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, L. G.; Howell, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews developments in ultraviolet and light absorption spectrometry from December 1981 through November 1983, focusing on the chemistry involved in developing suitable reagents, absorbing systems, and methods of determination, and on physical aspects of the procedures. Includes lists of spectrophotometric methods for metals, non-metals, and…

  4. Slow light and saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of saturably absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. A basic two-level model of a saturable absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear absorption. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by saturable absorption are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse saturable absorption (RSA) may be similarly explained.

  5. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  6. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  7. Transferability of multi- and hyperspectral biocrust mapping indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Olehowski, Claas; Chamizo, Sonia; Cantón, Yolanda; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    good classification accuracy (Kappa values about 0.8) in both the study area where they have been developed and in the newly tested region. These results highlight the capability of hyperspectral sensors to identify the specific absorption features related to photosynthetic pigments as chlorophyll and carotenoids, but also the limitation of multispectral information to discriminate between areas dominated by biocrusts and vegetation or bare soil. Based on these results, we conclude that remote sensing offers an important and valid tool to map biocrusts. However, the spectral similarities between the main surface components of drylands and biocrusts demand for mapping indices based on hyperspectral information to correctly map areas dominated by biocrusts at ecosystem scale.

  8. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  9. Light Absorption By Coated Soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J.; Lee, J.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Cross, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering and, in part, because the primary absorbing aerosol of interest, soot, exhibits complex aging behavior that alters its optical properties. The consequences of this can be evidenced by the work of Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) who suggest that incorporating the atmospheric heating due to brown clouds will increase black carbon (BC) radiative forcing from the IPCC best estimate of 0.34 Wm-2 (±0.25 Wm-2) (IPCC 2007) to 0.9 Wm-2. This noteworthy degree of the uncertainty is due largely to the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, each of which changes as the particle ages in the atmosphere and becomes encapsulated within a coating of inorganic and/or organic substances. With the advent of techniques that can directly measure aerosol light absorption without influences due to collection substrate or light scattering (e.g., photoacoustic spectroscopy (Arnott et al., 2005; Lack et al., 2006) and photothermal interferometry (Sedlacek and Lee 2007)) the potential exists for quantifying this interdependence. In July 2008, a laboratory-based measurement campaign, led by Boston College and Aerodyne, was initiated to begin addressing this interdependence. To achieve this objective measurements of both the optical and physical properties of flame-generated soot under nascent, coated and denuded conditions were conducted. In this paper, light absorption by dioctyl sebacate (DOS) encapsulated soot and sulfuric acid coated soot using the technique of photothermal interferometry will be presented. In the case of DOS-coated soot, a monotonic increase in light absorption as a function DOS coating thickness to nearly 100% is observed. This observation is consistent with a coating-induced amplification in particle light absorption. (Bond et al. 2006) However

  10. Community Perceptions of Specific Skin Features of Possible Melanoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baade, Peter D.; Balanda, Kevin P.; Stanton, Warren R.; Lowe, John B.; Del Mar, Chris B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Melanoma can be curable if detected early. One component of detecting melanoma is an awareness of the important features of the disease. It is currently not clear which features the community view as indicative of melanoma. Objective: To investigate which features of the skin members of an urban community believe may indicate skin…

  11. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-08-14

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10{sup 18} and 3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  12. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    SciTech Connect

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O'Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  13. Indicators of CETA Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E.

    1978-01-01

    A study to find valid indicators of the long-run effects of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 (CETA) manpower programs that would meet prime sponsors' needs for short-term feedback indicated that the proxies being used were not strongly correlated with success in CETA programs. (MF)

  14. Temperature-indicating Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzig, F

    1939-01-01

    This report is an attempt at a new method of coating the surface of the cylinder with materials that undergo chemical change at definite temperatures as indicated by a change in color. In this way it was hoped that the substance itself would indicate directly the position of its isotherms, which in measurements with thermocouples requires a tedious amount of labor.

  15. Indicators of Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed students, faculty, administrative staff, governing board, and employers affiliated with a public two-year college to determine their perceptions of various quality indicators and congruence between the groups. Found that all groups placed importance on indicators of customer satisfaction and skill development; beyond that, considerable…

  16. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  17. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  18. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

  19. Developing Social Indicators*

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Otis Dudley

    1974-01-01

    Recent progress in developing social indicators is described in terms of six activities. In regard to social bookkeeping, we are expanding the number of domains covered by population surveys, and survey data are being more widely disseminated. In social accounting, demographic stock-flow schemes show promise of integrating systems of social statistics. Social science theories have provided models of achievement and other social processes. Social forecasting is potentially an important component of work on social indicators, but a new definition of the purpose of forecasting is needed. The practice of social reporting is best exemplified in the work of recent commissions. Social advising, while it draws upon social indicators, involves functions that cannot be performed by any system of indicators alone. The most worthy aspiration of the social indicators movement would be to contribute to the enlightenment of a changing society.

  20. The Complete Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Archetypal "Wind-dominated" Quasar Mrk 231: Absorption and Emission from a High-speed Dusty Nuclear Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Tripp, T. M.; Hamann, F.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2016-07-01

    New near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) Hubble Space Telescope spectra of Mrk 231, the nearest quasar known, are combined with ground-based optical spectra to study the remarkable dichotomy between the FUV and NUV-optical spectral regions in this object. The FUV emission-line features are faint, broad, and highly blueshifted (up to ˜7000 km s-1), with no significant accompanying absorption. In contrast, the profiles of the NUV absorption features resemble those of the optical Na i D, He i, and Ca ii H and K lines, exhibiting broad blueshifted troughs that overlap in velocity space with the FUV emission-line features and indicate a dusty, high-density and patchy broad absorption line (BAL) screen covering ˜90% of the observed continuum source at a distance ≲2-20 pc. The FUV continuum emission does not show the presence of any obvious stellar features and is remarkably flat compared with the steeply declining NUV continuum. The NUV (FUV) features and continuum emission have not varied significantly over the past ˜22 (3) years and are unresolved on scales ˜40 (170) pc. These results favor an active galactic nucleus origin for the NUV-FUV line and continuum emission. The observed FUV line emission is produced in the outflowing BAL cloud system, while the Balmer lines arise primarily from the standard broad line region seen through the dusty BAL screen. Our data are inconsistent with the recently proposed binary black hole model. We argue instead that Mrk 231 is the nearest example of weak-lined “wind-dominated” quasars with high Eddington ratios and geometrically thick (“slim”) accretion disks; these quasars are likely more common in the early universe.

  1. New features in MEDM.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K., Jr.

    1999-04-13

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use.

  2. A disc wind interpretation of the strong Fe Kα features in 1H 0707-495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Kouichi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Done, Chris; Tomaru, Ryota; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2016-10-01

    1H 0707-495 is the most convincing example of a supermassive black hole with an X-ray spectrum being dominated by extremely smeared, relativistic reflection, with the additional requirement of strongly supersolar iron abundance. However, here we show that the iron features in its 2-10 keV spectrum are rather similar to the archetypal wind dominated source, PDS 456. We fit all the 2-10 keV spectra from 1H 0707-495 using the same wind model as used for PDS 456, but viewed at higher inclination so that the iron absorption line is broader but not so blueshifted. This gives a good overall fit to the data from 1H 0707-495, and an extrapolation of this model to higher energies also gives a good match to the NuSTAR data. Small remaining residuals indicate that the iron line emission is stronger than in PDS 456. This is consistent with the wider angle wind expected from a continuum-driven wind from the super-Eddington mass accretion rate in 1H 0707-495, and/or the presence of residual reflection from the underlying disc though the presence of the absorption line in the model removes the requirement for highly relativistic smearing, and highly supersolar iron abundance. We suggest that the spectrum of 1H 0707-495 is sculpted more by absorption in a wind than by extreme relativistic effects in strong gravity.

  3. Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J. Donald

    1967-01-01

    A technique is described for preparation in the guinea pig of an in situ, isolated, vascularized gall bladder that exhibits normal absorptive functions. Absorption of labeled bile pigments from the gall bladder was determined by the subsequent excretion of radioactivity in hepatic bile. Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin-14C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen-3H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt. Bilirubin absorption was not impaired by iodoacetamide, 1.5 mM, or dinitrophenol, 1.0 mM, even though water transport was affected. This indicated that absorption of bilirubin was not dependent upon water transport, nor upon energy-dependent processes. The linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigment at low concentrations in bile salt solutions suggested that pigment was transferred by passive diffusion. At higher pigment concentrations or in whole bile, this simple relationship was modified by interactions of pigment with bile salts and other constituents of bile. These interactions did not necessarily involve binding of bilirubin in micelles. The slow absorption of the more polar conjugates and photo-oxidative derivatives of bilirubin suggested that bilirubin was absorbed principally by nonionic, and partially, by ionic diffusion. Concentrations of pure conjugated bile salts above 3.5 mM were found to be injurious to the gall bladder mucosa. This mucosal injury did not affect the kinetics of bilirubin absorption. During in vitro incubation of bile at 37°C, decay of bilirubin and hydrolysis of the conjugate proceeded as first-order reactions. The effects of these processes on the kinetics of bilirubin absorption, and their possible role in the formation of “white bile” and in the demonstrated appearance of unconjugated bilirubin in hepatic bile, are discussed

  4. Propagation-invariant classification of sounds in channels with dispersion and absorption.

    PubMed

    Okopal, Greg; Loughlin, Patrick J

    2010-11-01

    In a previous paper [G. Okopal et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 832-841 (2008)], a method to obtain features of a wave that are unaffected by dispersion, per mode, was developed for improving classification of underwater sounds (e.g., sonar backscatter). The current paper builds on this work and presents additional contributions. First, it is shown that the dispersion-invariant moments developed previously are not invariant to frequency-dependent attenuation (absorption); consequently, their classification performance degrades in such channels. Second, a feature extraction method is developed to obtain features that are invariant to dispersion, and to two forms of absorption (known a priori): namely, absorption that yields spectral magnitude attenuation (in dB) that is linear with frequency, and linear with log-frequency. Third, the relationship of these absorption- and dispersion-invariant moment (ADIM) features to the cepstrum of the wave is examined, and it is shown that cepstral moments are also invariant to dispersion, and to the first form of absorption for odd-order moments. Finally, simulations are conducted to illustrate the performance of the ADIMs and cepstral moments on classifying the backscatter from steel shells in a dispersive channel with absorption. Receiver operator characteristic curves quantify the superior discriminability of the ADIMs and cepstral moments compared to ordinary moments.

  5. The radon indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, L.

    2005-11-01

    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  6. Extraction of essential features by quantum density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilinski, Artur

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of feature extraction, as an essential and important search of dataset. This problem describe the real ownership of the signals and images. Searches features are often difficult to identify because of data complexity and their redundancy. Here is shown a method of finding an essential features groups, according to the defined issues. To find the hidden attributes we use a special algorithm DQAL with the quantum density for thej-th features from original data, that indicates the important set of attributes. Finally, they have been generated small sets of attributes for subsets with different properties of features. They can be used to the construction of a small set of essential features. All figures were made in Matlab6.

  7. Chitosan oligomers as potential and safe absorption enhancers for improving the pulmonary absorption of interferon-alpha in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keigo; Odomi, Masaaki; Okada, Naoki; Fujita, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akira

    2005-11-01

    Effects of chitosan oligomers on pulmonary absorption of interferon-alpha (IFN) were examined by means of an in vivo pulmonary absorption experiment. Chitosan oligomers used in this study were chitosan dimer, tetramer, hexamer, and water-soluble (WS) chitosan. A significant increase in serum IFN concentrations was observed after intratracheal administration of IFN with these oligomers. Of these chitosan oligomers, 0.5% w/v chitosan hexamer appeared to be more effective in enhancing the pulmonary absorption of IFN than other oligomers at the same concentration, and the AUC value of IFN with chitosan hexamer increased 2.6-fold as compared with the control. On the other hand, chitosan polymers, which have relatively high molecular weights (22-96 kDa), were not effective in enhancing the pulmonary absorption of IFN due to their low solubility in water. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations (0.1%-1% w/v) of chitosan hexamer on the pulmonary absorption of IFN was studied. Of these different concentrations of chitosan hexamers, the highest AUC value of IFN was obtained in the presence of 0.5% w/v chitosan hexamer. Furthermore, chitosan oligomers did not cause any membrane damage to the rat pulmonary tissues, as determined by leakage of protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Therefore, these findings indicated that the use of chitosan oligomers would be a promising approach for improving of the pulmonary absorption of biologically active peptides including IFN.

  8. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  9. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  10. The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO2-Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al2O3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO2 particle.

  11. Unidentified features in the spectrum of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Montgomery, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    Photometry at 3.5 microns was taken with the Infrared Telescope Facility of the Multiple Mirror Telescope to obtain an improved IR spectrum of Triton. The observations show features that are not in detailed agreeement with previous identifications of methane or methane frost, although the general spectral behavior leading to such identifications has been confirmed. It is believed that a combination of surface and atmospheric absorptions may resolve some discrepancies; for instance, many hydrated minerals and frosts which are dark between 3.0 and 4.0 microns may combine with a carbon monoxide atmosphere to yield the data in question.

  12. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOEpatents

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  13. AQUATOX Features and Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Numerous features have been included to facilitate the modeling process, from model setup and data input, presentation and analysis of results, to easy export of results to spreadsheet programs for additional analysis.

  14. Feature Leads That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents advice to scholastic journalists on writing leads for feature stories. Discusses using a summary, a question, a direct quote, a first-person account, alliteration, a shocking statement, contrast, historical reference, descriptions, narratives, metaphors, and similes. (RS)

  15. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  16. Textural features for image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Dinstein, I.; Shanmugam, K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependances, and illustration of their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data - namely, photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20,000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and ERTS multispectral imagery containing several land-use categories. Two kinds of decision rules are used - one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise-linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89% for the photomicrographs, 82% for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83% for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

  17. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μm IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  18. Infrasound absorption by atmospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudoin, Michael; Coulouvrat, Francois; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    A model is developed for the absorption of infrasound by atmospheric clouds made of a suspension of liquid water droplets within a gaseous mixture of water vapor and air. The model is based on the work of D.A. Gubaidullin and R.I. Nigmatulin [Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 26, 207-228, 2000], which is applied to atmospheric clouds. Three physical mechanisms are included : unsteady viscous drag associated with momentum transfers due to the translation of water droplets, unsteady thermal transfers between the liquid and gaseous phases, and mass transfers due to the evaporation or condensation of the water phase. For clouds, in the infrasonic frequency range, phase changes are the dominant mechanisms (around 1 Hz), while viscous and heat transfers become significant only around 100 Hz. Mass transfers involve two physical effects : evaporation and condensation of the water phase at the droplet surface, and diffusion of the water vapor within the gaseous phase. The first one is described through the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir theory based on kinetic theory. It involves a little known coefficient known as coefficient of accommodation. The second one is the classical Fick diffusion. For clouds, and unless the coefficient of accommodation is very small (far from the generally recommended value is close to one), diffusion is the main limiting effects for mass transfers. In a second stage, the sound and infrasound absorption is evaluated for various typical clouds up to about 4 km altitude. Above this altitude, the ice content of clouds is dominant compared to their water content, and the present model is not applicable. Cloud thickness, water content, and droplets size distribution are shown to be the major factors influencing the infrasound absorption. A variety of clouds have been analyzed. In most cases, it is shown that infrasound absorption within clouds is several orders larger than classical absorption (due to molecular relaxation of nitrogen and oxygen molecules in presence

  19. Feature Characterization Library

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Wendy; Gentile, Ann; McCoy, Renata

    2006-08-03

    FCLib is a data analysis toolkit constructed to meet the needs of data discovery in large-scale, spatio-temporal data such as finite element simulation data. FCLib is a C library toolkit of building blocks that can be assembled into complex analyses. Important features of FCLib include the following: (1) Support of feature-based analysis, (2) minimization of low-oevel processing, (3) ease of use, and (4) applicable to the wide variety of science domains.

  20. Indicators: Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Benthic (meaning “bottom-dwelling”) macroinvertebrates are small aquatic animals and the aquatic larval stages of insects. Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used as indicators of the biological condition of waterbodies.

  1. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  2. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  4. Indicators: Fish Assemblage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fish assemblage refers to the variety and abundance of fish species in a given waterbody. Fish are sensitive indicators of physical and chemical habitat degradation, environmental contamination, migration barriers, and overall ecosystem productivity.

  5. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  6. Tailoring Microwave-Absorption Properties of Co x Ni y Alloy/RGO Nanocomposites with Tunable Atomic Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhongyi; Zhao, Biao; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Jingbo

    2017-04-01

    Co x Ni y nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites with different Co(0)/Ni(0) ratios were successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of Co x Ni y /rGO composites were characterized by the x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and a vector network analyzer. The Co x Ni y /rGO composites exhibited enhanced microwave absorption properties, which are attributed to the effective complementarities between dielectric loss and magnetic loss. For the Co3Ni1/rGO composite, the minimum reflection loss (RLmin) is -44.89 dB at 12.22 GHz with absorber thickness of 2.5 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth of the reflection loss (RL) <-10 dB (indicating 90% attenuation) could achieve 5.61 GHz. It is believed that the Co3Ni1/rGO composite may be a promising candidate as a microwave absorber with the features of low density, strong absorption, wide band and low thickness.

  7. Tailoring Microwave-Absorption Properties of Co x Ni y Alloy/RGO Nanocomposites with Tunable Atomic Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhongyi; Zhao, Biao; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Jingbo

    2016-11-01

    Co x Ni y nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites with different Co(0)/Ni(0) ratios were successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of Co x Ni y /rGO composites were characterized by the x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and a vector network analyzer. The Co x Ni y /rGO composites exhibited enhanced microwave absorption properties, which are attributed to the effective complementarities between dielectric loss and magnetic loss. For the Co3Ni1/rGO composite, the minimum reflection loss (RLmin) is -44.89 dB at 12.22 GHz with absorber thickness of 2.5 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth of the reflection loss (RL) <-10 dB (indicating 90% attenuation) could achieve 5.61 GHz. It is believed that the Co3Ni1/rGO composite may be a promising candidate as a microwave absorber with the features of low density, strong absorption, wide band and low thickness.

  8. Ultrafast transient absorption studies of hematite nanoparticles: the effect of particle shape on exciton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fitzmorris, Bob C; Patete, Jonathan M; Smith, Jacqueline; Mascorro, Xiomara; Adams, Staci; Wong, Stanislaus S; Zhang, Jin Z

    2013-10-01

    Much progress has been made in using hematite (α-Fe2 O3 ) as a potentially practical and sustainable material for applications such as solar-energy conversion and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting; however, recent studies have shown that the performance can be limited by a very short charge-carrier diffusion length or exciton lifetime. In this study, we performed ultrafast studies on hematite nanoparticles of different shapes to determine the possible influence of particle shape on the exciton dynamics. Nanorice, multifaceted spheroidal nanoparticles, faceted nanocubes, and faceted nanorhombohedra were synthesized and characterized by using SEM and XRD techniques. Their exciton dynamics were investigated by using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. Although the TA spectral features differ for the four samples studied, their decay profiles are similar, which can be fitted with time constants of 1-3 ps, approximately 25 ps, and a slow nanosecond component extending beyond the experimental time window that was measured (2 ns). The results indicate that the overall exciton lifetime is weakly dependent on the shape of the hematite nanoparticles, even though the overall optical absorption and scattering are influenced by the particle shape. This study suggests that other strategies need to be developed to increase the exciton lifetime or to lengthen the exciton diffusion length in hematite nanostructures.

  9. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Sathe, V G; Dubey, Aditi; Banik, Soma; Barman, S R; Olivi, L

    2013-01-30

    The austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys was studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The spectra at all the three elements', namely, Mn, Ga and Ni, K-edges in several Ni-Mn-Ga samples (with both Ni and Mn excess) were analyzed at room temperature and low temperatures. The EXAFS analysis suggested a displacement of Mn and Ga atoms in opposite direction with respect to the Ni atoms when the compound transforms from the austenite phase to the martensite phase. The first coordination distances around the Mn and Ga atoms remained undisturbed on transition, while the second and subsequent shells showed dramatic changes indicating the presence of a modulated structure. The Mn rich compounds showed the presence of antisite disorder of Mn and Ga. The XANES results showed remarkable changes in the unoccupied partial density of states corresponding to Mn and Ni, while the electronic structure of Ga remained unperturbed across the martensite transition. The post-edge features in the Mn K-edge XANES spectra changed from a double peak like structure to a flat peak like structure upon phase transition. The study establishes strong correlation between the crystal structure and the unoccupied electronic structure in these shape memory alloys.

  10. Strong water absorption in the dayside emission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b.

    PubMed

    Grillmair, Carl J; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Armus, Lee; Stauffer, John; Meadows, Victoria; van Cleve, Jeffrey; von Braun, Kaspar; Levine, Deborah

    2008-12-11

    Recent observations of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b did not reveal the presence of water in the emission spectrum of the planet. Yet models of such 'hot-Jupiter' planets predict an abundance of atmospheric water vapour. Validating and constraining these models is crucial to understanding the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres in extreme environments. Indications of the presence of water in the atmosphere of HD 189733b have recently been found in transmission spectra, where the planet's atmosphere selectively absorbs the light of the parent star, and in broadband photometry. Here we report the detection of strong water absorption in a high-signal-to-noise, mid-infrared emission spectrum of the planet itself. We find both a strong downturn in the flux ratio below 10 microm and discrete spectral features that are characteristic of strong absorption by water vapour. The differences between these and previous observations are significant and admit the possibility that predicted planetary-scale dynamical weather structures may alter the emission spectrum over time. Models that match the observed spectrum and the broadband photometry suggest that heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside is weak. Reconciling this with the high nightside temperature will require a better understanding of atmospheric circulation or possible additional energy sources.

  11. Design of an advanced absorption heat pump for minimum payback period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, M. R.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1985-11-01

    Absorption heat pumps of the type analyzed here provide process heat from waste heat. A simulation model with optimization capability is now operational for an advanced sodium hydroxide-water absorption heat pump with a regenerative loop. In this type of heat pump, increasing the area of the heat exchangers increases the dollar value of the process heat output, but it also increases the capital cost. The designer is then faced with the decision of how to allocate the heat exchanger area among the several heat pump components for optimal economic benefits. The optimization feature of the program allows the user to minimize the payback period for recovery of the capital investment in the heat pump. The computer program employs proprietary software for the optimization. The program is relatively short, about 400 lines of FORTRAN, and can readily be used with different optimization subroutines if desired. Results from the model indicate that the payback period is short, about 1 to 2 years for the standard case. These predictions make this regenerative-loop heat pump an attractive cycle for further investigation.

  12. Effects of spatially heterogeneous porosity on matrix diffusion as investigated by X-ray absorption imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Meigs, Lucy C.; Christian-Frear, Tracy; Boney, Craig M.

    2000-03-01

    High-resolution X-ray absorption imaging was used to investigate the effects of spatially heterogeneous porosity on matrix diffusion. Experiments were performed on four, centimeter-scale slabs of Culebra dolomite taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. These tests involved the diffusion of potassium iodide into a single edge of each brine-saturated rock slab, while X-ray absorption imaging was used to measure the two-dimensional relative concentration distribution at different times during the experiment. X-ray imaging was also used to measure the heterogeneous, two-dimensional porosity distribution of each rock slab. The resulting high-resolution data provide unique insight into the spatially varying diffusion characteristics of each heterogeneous rock sample, which traditional methods such as through-diffusion experiments cannot. In these tests, significant variations in the diffusion coefficient were calculated over the relatively small length (centimeter) and time scales (months) investigated. Results also indicated that these variations were related to the heterogeneous porosity characteristics of each rock sample. Not only were the diffusion coefficients found to depend on the magnitude of the porosity but also on its spatial distribution. Specifically, the geometry, position, and orientation of the heterogeneous porosity features populating each rock slab appeared to influence the diffusion characteristics.

  13. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  14. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  15. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  16. Optical absorption in trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Niu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    We use a low energy effective model to analyze the optical responses of trilayer graphene samples. We first show that optical absorption of the ABA-stacked trilayer has strong dependence on both the Fermi energy and optical frequency, which is in sharp contrast to that of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. Secondly, we are able to determine the possible existence of trigonal warping effects in the bandstructure of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene by a divergence in the absorption spectra at around 10 meV. In addition, we can partially distinguish the vairious broken symmetry states driven by electron-electron interactions in ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. In particular, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light, giving a way to detect its possible existence.

  17. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the local atomic structure in Cu-Ni-Si alloy after severe plastic deformation and ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeddine, H.; Harfouche, M.; Hennet, L.; Thiaudiere, D.; Kawasaki, M.; Bradai, D.; Langdon, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    The local atomic structure of Cu-Ni-Si alloy after severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing and the decomposition of supersaturated solid solution upon annealing were investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The coordination number and interatomic distances were obtained by analyzing experimental extend X-ray absorption fine structure data collected at the Ni K-edge. Results indicate that the environment of Ni atoms in Cu-Ni-Si alloy is strongly influenced by the deformation process. Moreover, ageing at 973 K affects strongly the atomic structure around the Ni atoms in Cu-Ni-Si deformed by equal channel angular pressing and high pressure torsion. This influence is discussed in terms of changes and decomposition features of the Cu-Ni-Si solid solution.

  18. Pressure Induced Phase Transition in PbTiO3 Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Ti K edge

    SciTech Connect

    Dhaussy, A. C.; Marinel, S.; Veres, A.; Jaouen, N.; Itie, J. P.; Rogalev, A.

    2007-01-19

    The Ti-K edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) for CaTiO3 and PbTiO3 have been measured under high pressure in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. Despite the huge absorption from the diamond cell and the sample high quality XANES allows us to observe that in CaTiO3 no change occurs when applying pressure, at the opposite of PbTiO3 in which the pre-edge features vary strongly. It allows studying the phase transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase in PbTiO3 from the local point of view. Under pressure the change in intensity of the pre-edge indicates qualitatively that the Ti atom is moving toward the centre of the oxygen octahedron along the c-axis.

  19. Optical Absorption Characteristics of Aerosols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-11

    properties of the powder as well as the thickness of the layer. For a layer that is thick enough so that no light is transmitted, the Kubelka -- Munk theory...which is a two stream radiative transfer model, relates the reflectance to the ratio of the absorption to the scattering. The Kubelka - Munk theory has...of the aerosol material is known. Under the assumptions of the Kubelka - Munk . theory, the imaginary component of the refractive index is deter- mined

  20. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  1. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M.

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  2. AGN Absorption Linked to Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneau, Stéphanie

    2014-07-01

    Multiwavelength identification of AGN is crucial not only to obtain a more complete census, but also to learn about the physical state of the nuclear activity (obscuration, efficiency, etc.). A panchromatic strategy plays an especially important role when the host galaxies are star-forming. Selecting far-Infrared galaxies at 0.3absorption and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of the host galaxies, indicating a physical link between X-ray absorption and either the gas fraction or the gas geometry in the hosts. These findings have implications for our current understanding of both the AGN unification model and the nature of the black hole-galaxy connection.

  3. Dermal absorption of inorganic germanium in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Kawaai, Takae; Konomi, Aki; Uchida, Yuka

    2008-11-01

    So-called germanium 'health' products including dietary supplements, cosmetics, accessories, and warm bath service containing germanium compounds and metalloid are popular in Japan. Subchronic and chronic oral exposure of germanium dioxide (GeO(2)), popular chemical form of inorganic germanium causes severe germanium toxicosis including death and kidney dysfunction in humans and experimental animals. Intestinal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate is almost complete in humans and animals. However, it is not known whether germanium is cutaneously absorbed. We tested dermal absorption of neutralized GeO(2) or germanate using male F344/N rats. Three groups of rats were treated with a 3-h topical application of hydrophilic ointment containing graded level of neutralized GeO(2) (pH 7.4): 0, 0.21 and 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g. Germanium concentration in blood and tissues sampled from rats after topical application of inorganic germanium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Animals topically applied 0.42 mg GeO(2)/g ointment had significantly higher germanium concentrations in plasma, liver, and kidney than those of rats that received no topical germanium. The results indicate that skin is permeable to inorganic germanium ion or germanate and recurrent exposure of germanium compounds may pose a potential health hazard.

  4. Equilibria and absorption spectra of tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Metzler, C M; Viswanath, R; Metzler, D E

    1991-05-25

    Tryptophanase (tryptophan: indole-lyase) from Escherichia coli has been isolated in the holoenzyme form and its absorption spectra and acid-base chemistry have been reevaluated. Apoenzyme has been prepared by dialysis against sodium phosphate and L-alanine and molar absorptivities of the coenzyme bands have been estimated by readdition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The spectrophotometric titration curve, whose midpoint is at pH 7.6 in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffers, indicates some degree of cooperativity in dissociation of a pair of protons. Resolution of the computed spectra of individual ionic forms of the enzyme with lognormal distribution curves shows that band shapes are similar to those of model Schiff bases and of aspartate aminotransferase. Using molar areas from the latter we estimated amounts of individual tautomeric species. In addition to ketoenamine and enolimine or covalent adduct the high pH form also appears to contain approximately 18% of a species with a dipolar ionic ring (protonated on the ring nitrogen and with phenolate -O-). We suggest that this may be the catalytically active form of the coenzyme in tryptophanase. The equilibrium between tryptophanase and L-alanine has also been reevaluated.

  5. Characterization of selective binding of alkali cations with carboxylate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid microjets

    SciTech Connect

    Saykally, Richard J; Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-01-08

    We describe an approach for characterizing selective binding between oppositely charged ionic functional groups under biologically relevant conditions. Relative shifts in K-shell x-ray absorption spectra of aqueous cations and carboxylate anions indicate the corresponding binding strengths via perturbations of carbonyl antibonding orbitals. XAS spectra measured for aqueous formate and acetate solutions containing lithium, sodium, and potassium cations reveal monotonically stronger binding of the lighter metals, supporting recent results from simulations and other experiments. The carbon K-edge spectra of the acetate carbonyl feature centered near 290 eV clearly indicate a preferential interaction of sodium versus potassium, which was less apparent with formate. These results are in accord with the Law of Matching Water Affinities, relating relative hydration strengths of ions to their respective tendencies to form contact ion pairs. Density functional theory calculations of K-shell spectra support the experimental findings.

  6. The radio core and jet in the broad absorption-line quasar PG 1700+518

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Wu, F.; Paragi, Z.; An, T.

    2012-01-01

    The blueshifted broad absorption lines (BAL) or troughs are observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) when our line of sight is intercepted by a high-speed outflow (wind), likely originating in the accretion disc. The outflow or wind can shed light on the internal structure obscured by the AGN torus. Recently, it has been shown that this outflow is rotating in the BAL quasar PG 1700+518, further supporting the accretion disc origin of the wind. With the purpose of giving independent constraints on the wind geometry, we performed high-resolution European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) Network (EVN) observations at 1.6 GHz in 2010. Combining the results with the Very Large Array (VLA) archival data at 8.4 GHz, we present its jet structure on scales of parsec (pc) to kiloparsec (kpc) for the first time. The source shows two distinct jet features in east-west direction with a separation of around 4 kpc. The eastern feature, which has so far been assumed to hide the core, is a kpc-scale hotspot, which is completely resolved out in the EVN image. In the western jet feature, we find a compact jet component, which pinpoints the position of the central black hole in the galaxy. Jet components on both sides of the core are additionally detected in the north-west-south-east direction, and they show a symmetric morphology on scale of <1 kpc. This two-sided jet feature is not common in the known BAL quasars and indicates that the jet axis is far away from the line of sight. Furthermore, it is nearly parallel to the scattering plane revealed earlier by optical polarimetry. By analogy to polar-scattered Seyfert 1 galaxies, we conclude that the jet likely has a viewing angle around 45°. The analogy is further supported by the recent report of significant cold absorption in the soft X-rays, a nearly unique feature to polar-scattered Seyfert galaxies. Finally, our observations have confirmed the earlier finding that the majority of radio emission in this galaxy arises

  7. Detectability of cold streams into high-redshift galaxies by absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Sternberg, Amiel; Gnat, Orly; Ceverino, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major source of fuel for disc buildup, violent disc instability and star formation in massive galaxies at high redshift. We investigate to what extent such cold gas is detectable in the extended circumgalactic environment of galaxies via Lyα absorption and selected low-ionization metal absorption lines. We model the expected absorption signatures using high-resolution zoom-in adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. In the post-processing, we distinguish between self-shielded gas and unshielded gas. In the self-shielded gas, which is optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation, we assume pure collisional ionization for species with an ionization potential greater than 13.6 eV. In the optically-thin, unshielded gas, these species are also photoionized by the metagalactic radiation. In addition to absorption of radiation from background quasars, we compute the absorption line profiles of radiation emitted by the galaxy at the centre of the same halo. We predict the strength of the absorption signal for individual galaxies without stacking. We find that the Lyα absorption profiles produced by the streams are consistent with observations of absorption and emission Lyα profiles in high-redshift galaxies. Due to the low metallicities in the streams, and their low covering factors, the metal absorption features are weak and difficult to detect.

  8. 'Blueberry' Layers Indicate Watery Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'El Capitan' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, reveals millimeter-scale (.04 inch-scale) layers in the lower portion. This same layering is hinted at by the fine notches that run horizontally across the sphere-like grain or 'blueberry' in the center left. The thin layers do not appear to deform around the blueberry, indicating that these geologic features are concretions and not impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli. Concretions are balls of minerals that form in pre-existing wet sediments. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 29th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The observed area is about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  9. The widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF 2-NITROOXYBUTYL PEROXY RADICAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan; Takematsu, Kana; Okumura, Mitchio

    2009-06-01

    The nitrate radical is an important atmospheric oxidant in the nighttime sky. Nitrate radicals react by addition to alkenes, and in the presence of oxygen form nitrooxyalkyl peroxy radicals. The peroxy radical formed from the reaction of 2-butene, nitrate radical, and oxygen was detected by cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) via its widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} electronic absorption spectrum. The widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} electronic transition is a bound-bound transition with enough structure to distinguish between different peroxy radicals as well as different conformers of the same peroxy radical. Two conformers of the nitrooxybutyl peroxy radical have been observed; the absorption features are red shifted from the same absorption features of sec-butyl peroxy radical. Calculations on the structure of nitrooxyalkyl peroxy radicals and general trends of the position of the widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} absorption transitions have also been performed and compared to those of unsubstituted peroxy radicals.

  10. Thuderstorm-Producing Terrain Features.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker Schaaf, Crystal; Wurman, Joshua; Banta, Robert M.

    1988-03-01

    Thunderstorms were traced back to their initiation sites to determine areas of repeated thunderstorm genesis over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico. Using three summers of GOES data it was found that genesis-zone activity depended on the direction of the winds above the ridgetops, indicating upper-level wind direction to be a likely "necessary" (but not "sufficient") predictor of the location of mountain-thunderstorm initiation. Some individual topographic features associated with each genesis zone can be identified.

  11. Piezoelectric-tuned microwave cavity for absorption spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Leskovar, Branko; Buscher, Harold T.; Kolbe, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Gas samples are analyzed for pollutants in a microwave cavity that is provided with two highly polished walls. One wall of the cavity is mechanically driven with a piezoelectric transducer at a low frequency to tune the cavity over a band of microwave frequencies in synchronism with frequency modulated microwave energy applied to the cavity. Absorption of microwave energy over the tuned frequencies is detected, and energy absorption at a particular microwave frequency is an indication of a particular pollutant in the gas sample.

  12. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of chlorine nitrite, ClONO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The near-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of chlorine nitrite (ClONO) has been quantitatively investigated over the wavelength range 230-400 nm at 231 K. An absorption maximum was observed at 290 nm with a cross section of 1.5 by 10 to the -18th power sq cm. The calculated lifetime against photodissociation for ClONO in the atmosphere is 2 to 3 minutes. The large photolysis rate indicates that ClONO does not play a significant role in the stratosphere as a temporary holding tank for chlorine.

  13. A platform for colorful solar cells with enhanced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Navneet; Walia, Jaspreet; Singh Saini, Simarjeet

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate submicron thick platform integrating amorphous silicon nanowires and thin-films achieving vivid colors in transmission and reflection. The platform nearly doubles the absorption efficiency compared to the starting thin-film without much compromising with color diverseness. The structural colors can be changed over a wide range by changing the diameters of the nanowires while still keeping the absorption efficiency higher than starting thin-film. The optical response of the platform is conceptually understood for different diameters combined with different thin-film thicknesses indicating the presence of leaky waveguide modes and coupled cavity modes. Our proposed platform can enable architectural low price colorful solar cells on transparent substrates.

  14. A platform for colorful solar cells with enhanced absorption.

    PubMed

    Dhindsa, Navneet; Walia, Jaspreet; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2016-12-09

    We demonstrate submicron thick platform integrating amorphous silicon nanowires and thin-films achieving vivid colors in transmission and reflection. The platform nearly doubles the absorption efficiency compared to the starting thin-film without much compromising with color diverseness. The structural colors can be changed over a wide range by changing the diameters of the nanowires while still keeping the absorption efficiency higher than starting thin-film. The optical response of the platform is conceptually understood for different diameters combined with different thin-film thicknesses indicating the presence of leaky waveguide modes and coupled cavity modes. Our proposed platform can enable architectural low price colorful solar cells on transparent substrates.

  15. Supercontinuum based absorption spectrometer for cycle-resolved multiparameter measurements in a rapid compression machine.

    PubMed

    Werblinski, Thomas; Kleindienst, Stefan; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-06-10

    A broadband supercontinuum (SC) based absorption spectrometer capable of cycle-resolved multiparameter measurements at internal combustion (IC) engine conditions is presented. Three parameters, temperature, pressure and water mole fraction, were extracted from broadband near-infrared H2O absorption spectra, spanning the wavelength-range from 1340 to 1405.5 nm, which exhibits a large number of specific H2O transitions. The spectrometer is based on spatial domain detection and features a near-infrared line scan camera as a detector. Measurements were performed during a compression cycle of a rapid compression machine comprising a pressure and temperature range from 2.5 to 65 bar and 300 to 900 K, respectively. With the new spectrometer, we are for the first time, based on the authors' knowledge, able to perform measurements based on SC radiation over a complete compression and expansion stroke at measurement rates up to 50 kHz. A detailed overview is provided about the best match algorithm between theory and experiments, including parameters from two different spectral databases, namely the Barber-Tennyson database (BT2) and HITRAN2012. The results indicate that spectral broadening effects are not properly described by theory, especially at pressure levels exceeding 20 bar, which culminates in a clear underestimation of the derived pressure data by SC absorption spectroscopy. Nevertheless, temperature can be determined accurately by performing a three-parameter fit based on water mole fraction, temperature, and pressure. In contrast, making use of pressure transducer data as look-up values and varying only temperature and H2O mole fraction to find the best match leads to a clear overestimation of temperature at elevated pressures.

  16. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  17. Absorption Spectroscopy in Homogeneous and Micellar Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Sadiq; Henscheid, Leonard G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment which has helped physical chemistry students learn principles of absorption spectroscopy, the effect of solvent polarity on absorption spectra, and some micellar chemistry. Background information and experimental procedures are provided. (JN)

  18. Simulating One-Photon Absorption and Resonance Raman Scattering Spectra Using Analytical Excited State Energy Gradients within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Daniel W.; Govind, Niranjan; van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Jensen, Lasse

    2013-12-10

    A parallel implementation of analytical time-dependent density functional theory gradients is presented for the quantum chemistry program NWChem. The implementation is based on the Lagrangian approach developed by Furche and Ahlrichs. To validate our implementation, we first calculate the Stokes shifts for a range of organic dye molecules using a diverse set of exchange-correlation functionals (traditional density functionals, global hybrids, and range-separated hybrids) followed by simulations of the one-photon absorption and resonance Raman scattering spectrum of the phenoxyl radical, the well-studied dye molecule rhodamine 6G, and a molecular host–guest complex (TTFcCBPQT4+). The study of organic dye molecules illustrates that B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP generally give the best agreement with experimentally determined Stokes shifts unless the excited state is a charge transfer state. Absorption, resonance Raman, and fluorescence simulations for the phenoxyl radical indicate that explicit solvation may be required for accurate characterization. For the host–guest complex and rhodamine 6G, it is demonstrated that absorption spectra can be simulated in good agreement with experimental data for most exchange-correlation functionals. Finally, however, because one-photon absorption spectra generally lack well-resolved vibrational features, resonance Raman simulations are necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the exchange-correlation functional for describing a potential energy surface.

  19. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  20. Comparison of nonlinear absorption and carrier recombination times in GaAs grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and Bridgman processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Leonel P.; Murray, Joel; Carpenter, Amelia; Upchurch, Derek; Barnes, Jacob O.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Zawilski, Kevin; Guha, Shekhar

    2010-02-01

    μA 760 μm thick GaAs crystal was grown using HVPE. Transmission spectrum of this sample showed minimal absorption for light having photon energy below the bandgap energy, indicating the absence of the EL2 defects commonly found in Bridgman grown samples. Irradiance dependent absorption measured at 1.535 μm using 100 ns duration laser pulses showed increased nonlinear absorption in the HVPE grown GaAs compared to Bridgman grown samples. The dominant nonlinear absorption process in both samples was absorption due to free carriers generated by two-photon absorption. The HVPE grown sample showed higher nonlinear absorption due to longer carrier lifetimes.

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectra of Dissolved Polysulfides in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries from First-Principles.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Tod A; Wujcik, Kevin H; Velasco-Velez, Juan; Wu, Chenghao; Teran, Alexander A; Kapilashrami, Mukes; Cabana, Jordi; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel; Balsara, Nitash; Prendergast, David

    2014-05-01

    The X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of lithium polysulfides (Li2Sx) of various chain lengths (x) dissolved in a model solvent are obtained from first-principles calculations. The spectra exhibit two main absorption features near the sulfur K-edge, which are unambiguously interpreted as a pre-edge near 2471 eV due to the terminal sulfur atoms at either end of the linear polysulfide dianions and a main-edge near 2473 eV due to the (x - 2) internal atoms in the chain, except in the case of Li2S2, which only has a low-energy feature. We find an almost linear dependence between the ratio of the peaks and chain length, although the linear dependence is modified by the delocalized, molecular nature of the core-excited states that can span up to six neighboring sulfur atoms. Thus, our results indicate that the ratio of the peak area, and not the peak intensities, should be used when attempting to differentiate the polysulfides from XAS.

  2. Absorption-enhancing effects of gemini surfactant on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic drugs including peptide and protein drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Alama, Tammam; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-29

    In general, the intestinal absorption of small hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules like peptides, after oral administration is very poor. Absorption enhancers are considered to be one of the most promising agents to enhance the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this research, we focused on a gemini surfactant, a new type of absorption enhancer. The intestinal absorption of drugs, with or without sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine (SLG-30), a gemini surfactant, was examined by an in situ closed-loop method in rats. The intestinal absorption of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) was significantly enhanced in the presence of SLG-30, such effect being reversible. Furthermore, the calcium levels in the plasma significantly decreased when calcitonin was co-administered with SLG-30, suggestive of the increased intestinal absorption of calcitonin. In addition, no significant increase in the of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or in protein release from the intestinal epithelium was observed in the presence of SLG-30, suggestive of the safety of this compound. These findings indicate that SLG-30 is an effective absorption-enhancer for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs, without causing serious damage to the intestinal epithelium.

  3. First-pass metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of enteral alpha-ketoglutarate in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our results in a previous study indicated that the portal absorption of intragastrically fed alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) was limited in young pigs. Our aim was to quantify the net portal absorption, first-pass metabolism, and whole-body flux of enterally infused AKG. In study 1, we quantified the net ...

  4. Simultaneous Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Cadmium and Lead Determination in Wastewater: A Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Paulo R. M.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead by multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry with electrochemical atomization is proposed by employing a problem-based approach. The reports indicate that the students assimilated the principles of the simultaneous atomic absorption spectrometry (SIMAAS), the role of the chemical modifier, the…

  5. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave

    DOE Data Explorer

    Turner, David

    2015-12-14

    Two datasets, one a compilation of laboratory data and one a compilation from three field sites, are provided here. These datasets provide measurements of the real and imaginary refractive indices and absorption as a function of cloud temperature. These datasets were used in the development of the new liquid water absorption model that was published in Turner et al. 2015.

  6. Three featured plenary sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

  7. Absorption of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by metal nanospheres in a dielectric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapenko, V. A.; Svita, S. Yu

    2015-02-01

    The absorption of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on silver nanosphere embedded into glass in vicinity of plasmon resonance is studied theoretically in the frame of perturbation theory. The calculations are made for corrected Gaussian shape of incident pulse which enables us to consider both the short duration and the long duration regimes. Analysis based on numerical calculations reveals the specific features of considered process so as the change of absorption spectra for different pulse length and nonlinear dependence of absorbed energy upon pulse duration.

  8. Mechanical Energy Absorption of Pectin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsivanovits, G.

    2007-04-01

    Pectin film samples were prepared from HM, LM and amidated pectins produced by CP Kelco and Danisco, with acidic and enzymatic de-esterification and amidation. The swelling of samples were indicated by hydration before the experiments for 24 h by PEG20000 solution, on known osmotic pressure, with Ca, Mg and K ions with different concentrations. Mechanical tests were followed by Stable Micro Systems penetrometer, with stress-relaxation method, in elastic deformation section. Results show, that the energy absorption depends on the pectin type, on the hydration and the ion concentration. Based on this type experiments it is possible to choose the best pectin type for different uses - as a packaging material in different occasions, or modeling pectin changes during physiological changing in the cell-wall etc.

  9. Intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus has received considerable attention in recent years. The evidence has clearly indicated that calcium is absorbed by two processes: active transport and diffusion. Vitamin D appears to affect both processes, and has a significant effect at the brush border of the intestinal cell. Several proposed models to account for the transmural movement of calcium are discussed. The active transport of phosphate is under the control of vitamin D and is located at the brush border region of the intestinal cell. This transport system, like several others, appears to be sodium-dependent and inhibited by ouabain. In-transit phosphate does not mix with the cellular phosphate pool. Emphasized in the presentation is current knowledge of the transport mechanisms and macromolecular changes that potentially account for the stimulatory effect of vitamin D on calcium and phosphate transport.

  10. Spatial k-dispersion engineering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons for customized absorption

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Li, Yongfeng; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Song; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    Absorption of electromagnetic waves in a medium is generally manipulated by controlling the frequency dispersion of constitutive parameters. However, it is still challenging to gain the desired constitutive parameters for customized absorption over a broad frequency range. Here, by virtue of spoof surface plasmonic polaritons (SPPs), we demonstrate capabilities of the spatial k-dispersion engineering for producing the customized broadband absorption. Incident waves can be efficiently converted to the spoof SPPs by plasmonic arrays, and their propagation and/or absorption can be controlled by engineering the spatial dispersion of k-vector. Based on this feature, we show how such concept is employed to achieve broadband as well as frequency-selective broadband absorptions as examples. It is expected that the proposed concept can be extended to other manipulations of propagating electromagnetic waves over a broad frequency range. PMID:27389309

  11. Optimal design of laterally assembled hexagonal silicon nanowires for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraki, Mojtaba; Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Abiri, Ebrahim

    2015-11-01

    Design approaches to carry out broadband absorption in laterally assembled hexagonal silicon nanowire (NW) solar cells are investigated. Two different methods are proposed to improve the current density of silicon NW solar cells. It is observed that the key to the broadband absorption is disorder and irregularity. The first approach to reach the broadband absorption is using multiple NWs with different geometries. Nevertheless, the maximum enhancement is obtained by introducing irregular NWs. They can support more cavity modes, while scattering by NWs leads to broadening of the absorption spectra. An array of optimized irregular NWs also has preferable features compared to other broadband structures. Using irregular NW arrays, it is possible to improve the absorption enhancement of solar cells without introducing more absorbing material.

  12. Search for correlated UV and x ray absorption of NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Christopher; Halpern, Jules P.; Kolman, Michiel

    1991-01-01

    NGC 3516, a low-luminosity Seyfert galaxy, is one of a small fraction of Seyfert galaxies that exhibit broad absorption in a resonance line. In order to determine whether the UV and x ray absorption in NGC 3516 are related, 5 IUE observations were obtained, quasi-simultaneously with 4 Ginga observations. The results are presented and discussed. The following subject areas are covered: short-term UV variability; emission lines; galactic absorption lines; the C IV, N V, and Si IV absorption features; lower limit on the carbon column density; estimate of the distance from the absorber to the continuum source; variability in the continuum and absorption; a comparison with BAL QSO's; and the x ray-UV connection.

  13. Spatial k-dispersion engineering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons for customized absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Li, Yongfeng; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Song; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-07-01

    Absorption of electromagnetic waves in a medium is generally manipulated by controlling the frequency dispersion of constitutive parameters. However, it is still challenging to gain the desired constitutive parameters for customized absorption over a broad frequency range. Here, by virtue of spoof surface plasmonic polaritons (SPPs), we demonstrate capabilities of the spatial k-dispersion engineering for producing the customized broadband absorption. Incident waves can be efficiently converted to the spoof SPPs by plasmonic arrays, and their propagation and/or absorption can be controlled by engineering the spatial dispersion of k-vector. Based on this feature, we show how such concept is employed to achieve broadband as well as frequency-selective broadband absorptions as examples. It is expected that the proposed concept can be extended to other manipulations of propagating electromagnetic waves over a broad frequency range.

  14. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  15. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  16. [Indications for retrosternal esophagocoloplasty].

    PubMed

    Králík, J; Tomsů, M; Král, V

    1989-04-01

    The authors define, based on experience with 55 retrosternal oesophagocoloplasties, the indications for this operation. They divide the indications into three groups and describe them as 1. the most suitable operation, 2. as the only possible replacement of the oesophagus, 3. as a palliative operation in an otherwise insolvable disphagia due to an inoperable tumour. They emphasize the wide range of indications for the operation which can be implemented without influencing the basic disease of the oesophagus and which makes it possible to apply combined treatment. The operation, though pretentious and time consuming, has the advantage of an extrathoracic approach. As to technical aspects, the authors emphasize the importance to select a portion of the gut with an adequate blood supply. This demand is usually met by the transverse colon on a vascular pedicle of the vasa colica sin.; they also mention the conditions of safe deposition of the gut in the retrosternal tunnel. The paper is supplemented by several case-histories of particularly interesting and difficult situations. If the indication range of the operation and its technical principles are respected and the surgeon is experienced, the failures of the operation are proportional to the severity of the basic disease.

  17. Models and Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the definition, construction, and interpretation of social indicators. Shows how standard classes of formalisms used to construct models in contemporary sociology are derived from the general theory of models. Reviews recent model building and evaluation related to active life expectancy among the elderly, fertility rates, and indicators…

  18. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  19. Establishing maintenance performance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.

    1994-10-01

    Maintenance Performance Indicators (PI) specify where the maintenance department is and which direction it is going allowing for a quick and accurate assessment of the performance of the Maintenance Management Program (MMP). Establishing PI`s for the maintenance department will allow a measure of productivity and a means of feedback for methods improvement. Effective performance of the maintenance department directly effects plant profitability. Improvements in the quality and productivity of the maintenance work force will significantly reduce maintenance costs. The level of performance attained by the maintenance work force is usually guessed at. Guessing will not identify areas needing improvement or help to initiate a corrective action. Maintenance PI`s are required for maintenance departments whose goal is to control maintenance costs while increasing productivity. The application of basic statistical methods will allow a maintenance department to know where they are and which direction they are going. The data presented in this paper is a representation of indicators used in industry as well as developed indicators to establish a complete maintenance performance indicator program. The methodology used in developing this program can be used as a way to manage a cost effective maintenance management program.

  20. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...