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Sample records for absorption features related

  1. The Mysterious 6565 Å Absorption Feature of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Shiv K.; Shchekinov, Yuri; Nath, Biman B.

    2017-12-01

    We consider various possible scenarios to explain the recent observation of what has been called a broad Hα absorption in our Galactic halo, with peak optical depth τ ≃ 0.01 and equivalent width W≃ 0.17 \\mathringA . We show that the absorbed feature cannot arise from the circumgalactic and ISM Hα absorption. As the observed absorption feature is quite broad ({{Δ }}λ ≃ 30 \\mathringA ), we also consider CNO lines that lie close to Hα as possible alternatives to explain the feature. We show that such lines could also not account for the observed feature. Instead, we suggest that it could arise from diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) carriers or polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorption. While we identify several such lines close to the Hα transition, we are unable to determine the molecule responsible for the observed feature, partly because of selection effects that prevent us from identifying DIBs/PAHs features close to Hα using local observations. Deep integration of a few extragalactic sources with high spectral resolution might allow us to distinguish between different possible explanations.

  2. Using high spectral resolution spectrophotometry to study broad mineral absorption features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally telescopic measurements of mineralogic absorption features have been made using relatively low to moderate (R=30-300) spectral resolution. Mineralogic absorption features tend to be broad so high resolution spectroscopy (R greater than 10,000) does not provide significant additional compositional information. Low to moderate resolution spectroscopy allows an observer to obtain data over a wide wavelength range (hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers) compared to the several wavenumber intervals that are collected using high resolution spectrometers. However, spectrophotometry at high resolution has major advantages over lower resolution spectroscopy in situations that are applicable to studies of the Martian surface, i.e., at wavelengths where relatively weak surface absorption features and atmospheric gas absorption features both occur.

  3. Balmer and Metal Absorption Feature Gradients in M32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy

    2004-12-01

    New data sources are used to assess Lick/IDS feature strength gradients inside the half-light radius Re of the compact Local Group elliptical galaxy M32. A Hubble Space Telescope (HST) STIS spectrum seemed to indicate ionized gas and a very young central stellar population. In fact, this conclusion is entirely spurious because of incomplete removal of ion hits. More robust ground-based spectra taken at the MDM Observatory are, in contrast, the most accurate measurements of Lick/IDS indices yet obtained for M32. All but a few (of 24 measured) indices show a statistically significant gradient. The CN indices show a maximum at 4" radius, dropping off both toward the nucleus and away from it. At 2" radius there is a discontinuity in the surface brightness profile, but this feature is not reflected in any spectral feature. Comparing with models, the index gradients indicate a mean age and abundance gradient in the sense that the nucleus is a factor of 2.5 younger and a factor of 0.3 dex more metal-rich than at 1Re. This conclusion is only weakly dependent on which index combinations are used and is robust to high accuracy. Stars near the M32 nucleus have a mean age and heavy element abundance [M/H] of (4.7 Gyr, +0.02), judging from models by Worthey with variable abundance ratios. This result has very small formal random errors, although, of course, there is significant age-metallicity degeneracy along an (age, abundance) line segment from (5.0 Gyr, 0.00) to (4.5 Gyr, +0.05). An abundance pattern of [C/M]=+0.077 (carbon abundance affects CN, C24668, and the bluer Balmer features), [N/M]=-0.13, [Mg/M]=-0.18, [Fe/M]~0.0, and [Na/M]=+0.12 is required to fit the feature data, with a fitting precision of about 0.01 dex (with two caveats: the [Fe/M] guess has about twice this precision because of the relative insensitivity of the Fe5335 feature to iron, and the [Na/M] value may be falsely amplified because of interstellar absorption). Model uncertainties make the accuracies

  4. Wavelength calibration of imaging spectrometer using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2012-11-01

    Imaging spectrometer is a promising remote sensing instrument widely used in many filed, such as hazard forecasting, environmental monitoring and so on. The reliability of the spectral data is the determination to the scientific communities. The wavelength position at the focal plane of the imaging spectrometer will change as the pressure and temperature vary, or the mechanical vibration. It is difficult for the onboard calibration instrument itself to keep the spectrum reference accuracy and it also occupies weight and the volume of the remote sensing platform. Because the spectral images suffer from the atmospheric effects, the carbon oxide, water vapor, oxygen and solar Fraunhofer line, the onboard wavelength calibration can be processed by the spectral images themselves. In this paper, wavelength calibration is based on the modeled and measured atmospheric absorption spectra. The modeled spectra constructed by the atmospheric radiative transfer code. The spectral angle is used to determine the best spectral similarity between the modeled spectra and measured spectra and estimates the wavelength position. The smile shape can be obtained when the matching process across all columns of the data. The present method is successful applied on the Hyperion data. The value of the wavelength shift is obtained by shape matching of oxygen absorption feature and the characteristics are comparable to that of the prelaunch measurements.

  5. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  6. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  7. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  8. Identification of Absorption Features in an Extrasolar Planet Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, T.

    2007-06-01

    Water absorption is identified in the atmosphere of HD 209458b by comparing models for the planet's transmitted spectrum to recent, multiwavelength, eclipse-depth measurements (from 0.3 to 1 μm) published by Knutson et al. A cloud-free model that includes solar abundances, rainout of condensates, and photoionization of sodium and potassium is in good agreement with the entire set of eclipse-depth measurements from the ultraviolet to near-infrared. Constraints are placed on condensate removal by gravitational settling, the bulk metallicity, and the redistribution of absorbed stellar flux. Comparisons are also made to the Charbonneau et al. sodium measurements.

  9. Ultrafast transient absorption revisited: Phase-flips, spectral fingers, and other dynamical features

    SciTech Connect

    Cina, Jeffrey A., E-mail: cina@uoregon.edu; Kovac, Philip A.; Jumper, Chanelle C.

    We rebuild the theory of ultrafast transient-absorption/transmission spectroscopy starting from the optical response of an individual molecule to incident femtosecond pump and probe pulses. The resulting description makes use of pulse propagators and free molecular evolution operators to arrive at compact expressions for the several contributions to a transient-absorption signal. In this alternative description, which is physically equivalent to the conventional response-function formalism, these signal contributions are conveniently expressed as quantum mechanical overlaps between nuclear wave packets that have undergone different sequences of pulse-driven optical transitions and time-evolution on different electronic potential-energy surfaces. Using this setup in application to amore » simple, multimode model of the light-harvesting chromophores of PC577, we develop wave-packet pictures of certain generic features of ultrafast transient-absorption signals related to the probed-frequency dependence of vibrational quantum beats. These include a Stokes-shifting node at the time-evolving peak emission frequency, antiphasing between vibrational oscillations on opposite sides (i.e., to the red or blue) of this node, and spectral fingering due to vibrational overtones and combinations. Our calculations make a vibrationally abrupt approximation for the incident pump and probe pulses, but properly account for temporal pulse overlap and signal turn-on, rather than neglecting pulse overlap or assuming delta-function excitations, as are sometimes done.« less

  10. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.

    PubMed

    Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J

    1989-11-10

    Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  11. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption features having depths up to 5 percent are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  12. SPATIALLY RESOLVED HCN ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR REGION OF NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Oh, Se-Jin

    We present the first VLBI detection of HCN molecular absorption in the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 1052. Utilizing the 1 mas resolution achieved by the Korean VLBI Network, we have spatially resolved the HCN absorption against a double-sided nuclear jet structure. Two velocity features of HCN absorption are detected significantly at the radial velocity of 1656 and 1719 km s{sup −1}, redshifted by 149 and 212 km s{sup −1} with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The column density of the HCN molecule is estimated to be 10{sup 15}–10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, assuming an excitation temperature ofmore » 100–230 K. The absorption features show high optical depth localized on the receding jet side, where the free–free absorption occurred due to the circumnuclear torus. The size of the foreground absorbing molecular gas is estimated to be on approximately one-parsec scales, which agrees well with the approximate size of the circumnuclear torus. HCN absorbing gas is likely to be several clumps smaller than 0.1 pc inside the circumnuclear torus. The redshifted velocities of the HCN absorption features imply that HCN absorbing gas traces ongoing infall motion inside the circumnuclear torus onto the central engine.« less

  13. Spatially Resolved HCN Absorption Features in the Circumnuclear Region of NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Kameno, Seiji; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Hyo-Ryoung; Hwang, Ju-Yeon

    2016-10-01

    We present the first VLBI detection of HCN molecular absorption in the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 1052. Utilizing the 1 mas resolution achieved by the Korean VLBI Network, we have spatially resolved the HCN absorption against a double-sided nuclear jet structure. Two velocity features of HCN absorption are detected significantly at the radial velocity of 1656 and 1719 km s-1, redshifted by 149 and 212 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The column density of the HCN molecule is estimated to be 1015-1016 cm-2, assuming an excitation temperature of 100-230 K. The absorption features show high optical depth localized on the receding jet side, where the free-free absorption occurred due to the circumnuclear torus. The size of the foreground absorbing molecular gas is estimated to be on approximately one-parsec scales, which agrees well with the approximate size of the circumnuclear torus. HCN absorbing gas is likely to be several clumps smaller than 0.1 pc inside the circumnuclear torus. The redshifted velocities of the HCN absorption features imply that HCN absorbing gas traces ongoing infall motion inside the circumnuclear torus onto the central engine.

  14. Exploring the Time Evolution of Cool Metallic Absorption Features in UV Burst Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmes, K.; Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    UV bursts are compact brightenings in active regions that appear in UV images. They are identified through three spectroscopic features: (1) broadening and intensification of NUV/FUV emission lines, (2) the presence of optically thin Si IV emission, and (3) the presence of absorption features from cool metallic ions. Properties (2) and (3) imply that bursts exist at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) but are located in the cooler lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Their energetic and dynamical properties remain poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of this phenomena could help us further constrain the energetic and dynamical properties of the chromosphere, as well as give us insight into whether or not UV bursts contribute to chromospheric and/or coronal heating. We analyzed the time evolution of UV bursts using spectral data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We inspected Si IV 1393.8 Å line profiles for Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption features to look for signs of heating. Weakening of absorption features over time could indicate heating of the cool ions above the burst, implying that thermal energy from the burst could rapidly conduct upward through the chromosphere. To detect the spectral profiles corresponding to bursts, we applied a four-parameter Gaussian fit to every profile in each observation and took cuts in parameter space to isolate the bursts. We then manually reviewed the remaining profiles by looking for a statistically significant appearance of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption. We quantified these absorption features by normalizing the Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles and measuring the maximum fractional extinction in each. Our preliminary results indicate that Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption may undergo a cycle of strengthening and weakening throughout a burst's lifetime. However, further investigation is needed for confirmation. This work is supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313.

  15. Derivative Analysis of Absorption Features in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data of Carbonate Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-30

    reflectance of carbonate sediments and application to shallow water benthic habitat classification,” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Miami. Chap.3...resolve overlapping features. A primary application has been to analyze pigment and chemical composition of leaves in order to track physiological...final absorption feature was observed at 630 nm, in a region associated with the biliprotein, phycocyanin [16,17]. As biliproteins are water soluble

  16. Classification by diagnosing all absorption features (CDAF) for the most abundant minerals in airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasheri, Mohammad Reza; Ghamary-Asl, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    Imaging through hyperspectral technology is a powerful tool that can be used to spectrally identify and spatially map materials based on their specific absorption characteristics in electromagnetic spectrum. A robust method called Tetracorder has shown its effectiveness at material identification and mapping, using a set of algorithms within an expert system decision-making framework. In this study, using some stages of Tetracorder, a technique called classification by diagnosing all absorption features (CDAF) is introduced. This technique enables one to assign a class to the most abundant mineral in each pixel with high accuracy. The technique is based on the derivation of information from reflectance spectra of the image. This can be done through extraction of spectral absorption features of any minerals from their respected laboratory-measured reflectance spectra, and comparing it with those extracted from the pixels in the image. The CDAF technique has been executed on the AVIRIS image where the results show an overall accuracy of better than 96%.

  17. The 4.5 micron Sulfate Absorption Feature on Mars and Its Relationship to Formation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 4.5 micron sulfate absorption feature on Mars is spatially variable. It is a sensitive composition and hydration state and can be used to identify different types of aqueous environments. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. IUE detector saturation and the new 2800 A absorption feature 'discovered' by Karim, Hoyle, and Wickramasinghe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B. D.; Sitko, M. L.

    1984-03-01

    The 2800 A feature of Karim et al. (1983) is shown to be the result of IUE detector saturation effects in overexposed spectra. A properly exposed spectrum and an overexposed one are shown. The latter shows a broad absorption peak at 2800 A while the former does not.

  19. Ferric iron in primitive asteroids - A 0.43-micron absorption feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Hatch, Erin C.; Larson, Stephen M.; Sawyer, Scott R.; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    A search of reflectance spectra of C- P-, D- and S-class asteroids to hunt for the Soret band near 0.4 micron that is indicative of porphyrins yielded an identification of an 0.43 micron absorption feature in 11 primitive asteroids of the C, P, and G classes and in one S-class asteroid. It is proposed that the feature is an Fe(3+) spin-forbidden transition in aqueously altered material, possibly located near 0.43 micron due to an enhancement effect similar to the mechanism operating in jarosite. The significance of the feature for the aqueous alteration history of these asteroids is addressed.

  20. Interstellar proteins and the discovery of a new absorption feature at lambda = 2800 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, L. M.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    1983-07-01

    In order to check the presence of biogenic materials in interstellar grains, the spectra of three early-type, heavily reddened stars recorded by the IUE were examined. These stars showed comparatively weak absorption at 2200 A, minimizing the effect of graphite grains. A broad absorption feature centered on 2800 A is discovered in HD 14250 and interpreted to be due to the amino acid tryptophan. Comparison of the spectrum with that of the calculated extinction behavior of graphite spheres of radii 0.02 microns suggests that the latter are not responsible for the observed spectrum.

  1. 4.6 micron absorption features due to solid phase CO and cyano group molecules toward compact infrared sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, J. H.; Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Van De Bult, C. E. P.; Persson, S. E.; Mcgregor, P. J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Geballe, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    Spectra obtained at a resolving power of 840, for seven protostellar sources in the region of the 4.67-micron fundamental vibrational band of CO, indicate that the deep absorption feature in W33A near 4.61 microns consists of three features which are seen in other sources, but with varying relative strength. UV-irradiation laboratory experiments with 'dirty ice' temperature cycling allow the identification of two of the features cited with solid CO and CO complexed to other molecules. Cyano group-containing molecules have a lower vapor pressure than CO, and can therefore survive in much warmer environments. The formation and location of the CO- and CN-bearing grain mantles and sources of UV irradiation in cold molecular clouds are discussed. Plausible UV light sources can produce the observed cyano group features, but only under conditions in which local heat sources do not cause evaporation of the CO molecules prior to their photoprocessing.

  2. The origin of absorptive features in the two-dimensional electronic spectra of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Farag, Marwa H; Jansen, Thomas L C; Knoester, Jasper

    2018-05-09

    In rhodopsin, the absorption of a photon causes the isomerization of the 11-cis isomer of the retinal chromophore to its all-trans isomer. This isomerization is known to occur through a conical intersection (CI) and the internal conversion through the CI is known to be vibrationally coherent. Recently measured two-dimensional electronic spectra (2DES) showed dramatic absorptive spectral features at early waiting times associated with the transition through the CI. The common two-state two-mode model Hamiltonian was unable to elucidate the origin of these features. To rationalize the source of these features, we employ a three-state three-mode model Hamiltonian where the hydrogen out-of plane (HOOP) mode and a higher-lying electronic state are included. The 2DES of the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin are calculated and compared with the experiment. Our analysis shows that the source of the observed features in the measured 2DES is the excited state absorption to a higher-lying electronic state and not the HOOP mode.

  3. Shaping Relations: Exploiting Relational Features for Visuospatial Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livins, Katherine A.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.; Spivey, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although relational reasoning has been described as a process at the heart of human cognition, the exact character of relational representations remains an open debate. Symbolic-connectionist models of relational cognition suggest that relations are structured representations, but that they are ultimately grounded in feature sets; thus, they…

  4. Understanding the features in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Do, Thanh Nhut; Ong, Xuanwei; Chan, Yinthai; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2016-12-01

    We describe a model to explain the features of the ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdSe core type quantum dots (QDs). The measured TA spectrum consists of contributions by the ground state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) processes associated with the three lowest energy transition of the QDs. We model the shapes of the GSB, SE and ESA spectral components after fits to the linear absorption. The spectral positions of the ESA components take into account the biexcitonic binding energy. In order to obtain the correct weightage of the GSB, SE and ESA components to the TA spectrum, we enumerate the set of coherence transfer pathways associated with these processes. From our fits of the experimental TA spectra of 65 Å diameter QDs, biexcitonic binding energies for the three lowest energy transitions are obtained.

  5. Munitions related feature extraction from LIDAR data.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Barry L.

    2010-06-01

    The characterization of former military munitions ranges is critical in the identification of areas likely to contain residual unexploded ordnance (UXO). Although these ranges are large, often covering tens-of-thousands of acres, the actual target areas represent only a small fraction of the sites. The challenge is that many of these sites do not have records indicating locations of former target areas. The identification of target areas is critical in the characterization and remediation of these sites. The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the DoD have been developing and implementing techniquesmore » for the efficient characterization of large munitions ranges. As part of this process, high-resolution LIDAR terrain data sets have been collected over several former ranges. These data sets have been shown to contain information relating to former munitions usage at these ranges, specifically terrain cratering due to high-explosives detonations. The location and relative intensity of crater features can provide information critical in reconstructing the usage history of a range, and indicate areas most likely to contain UXO. We have developed an automated procedure using an adaptation of the Circular Hough Transform for the identification of crater features in LIDAR terrain data. The Circular Hough Transform is highly adept at finding circular features (craters) in noisy terrain data sets. This technique has the ability to find features of a specific radius providing a means of filtering features based on expected scale and providing additional spatial characterization of the identified feature. This method of automated crater identification has been applied to several former munitions ranges with positive results.« less

  6. Relative Pose Estimation Using Image Feature Triplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2015-03-01

    A fully automated reconstruction of the trajectory of image sequences using point correspondences is turning into a routine practice. However, there are cases in which point features are hardly detectable, cannot be localized in a stable distribution, and consequently lead to an insufficient pose estimation. This paper presents a triplet-wise scheme for calibrated relative pose estimation from image point and line triplets, and investigates the effectiveness of the feature integration upon the relative pose estimation. To this end, we employ an existing point matching technique and propose a method for line triplet matching in which the relative poses are resolved during the matching procedure. The line matching method aims at establishing hypotheses about potential minimal line matches that can be used for determining the parameters of relative orientation (pose estimation) of two images with respect to the reference one; then, quantifying the agreement using the estimated orientation parameters. Rather than randomly choosing the line candidates in the matching process, we generate an associated lookup table to guide the selection of potential line matches. In addition, we integrate the homologous point and line triplets into a common adjustment procedure. In order to be able to also work with image sequences the adjustment is formulated in an incremental manner. The proposed scheme is evaluated with both synthetic and real datasets, demonstrating its satisfactory performance and revealing the effectiveness of image feature integration.

  7. Investigations on the 1.7 micron residual absorption feature in the vegetation reflection spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdebout, J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.; Sieber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and interpretation of the weak absorption features associated with the biochemical components of vegetation is of great potential interest to a variety of applications ranging from classification to global change studies. This recent subject is also challenging because the spectral signature of the biochemicals is only detectable as a small distortion of the infrared spectrum which is mainly governed by water. Furthermore, the interpretation is complicated by complexity of the molecules (lignin, cellulose, starch, proteins) which contain a large number of different and common chemical bonds. In this paper, we present investigations on the absorption feature centered at 1.7 micron; these were conducted both on AVIRIS data and laboratory reflectance spectra of leaves.

  8. Significance of ambient conditions in uranium absorption and emission features of laser ablation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Shah, N. P.; Taylor, N.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs laser ablation (LA) to investigate mechanisms for U optical signal variation under various environmental conditions during laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Potential explored mechanisms for signal quenching related to ambient conditions include plasma chemistry (e.g., uranium oxide formation), ambient gas confinement effects, and other collisional interactions between plasma constituents and the ambient gas. LA-LAS studies show that the persistence of the U ground state population is significantly reduced in the presence of air ambient compared to nitrogen. LA-OES results yield congested spectra from which the U I 356.18 nm transition is prominent andmore » serves as the basis for signal tracking. LA-OES signal and persistence vary negligibly between the test gases (air and N2), unlike the LA-LAS results. The plume hydrodynamic features and plume fundamental properties showed similar results in both air and nitrogen ambient. Investigation of U oxide formation in the laser-produced plasma suggests that low U concentration in a sample hinders consistent detection of UO molecular spectra.« less

  9. Significance of ambient conditions in uranium absorption and emission features of laser ablation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Shah, N. P.; Taylor, N.

    2016-10-02

    This study employs laser ablation (LA) to investigate mechanisms for U optical signal variation under various environmental conditions during laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Potential mechanisms explored for signal quenching related to ambient conditions include plasma chemistry (e.g., uranium oxide formation), ambient gas confinement effects, and other collisional interactions between plas-ma constituents and the ambient gas. LA-LAS studies show that the persistence of the U ground state population is significantly reduced in the presence of air ambient compared to nitrogen. LA-OES yields congested spectra from which the U I 356.18 nm transition is prominent and servesmore » as the basis for signal tracking. LA-OES signal and per-sistence vary negligibly between the test gases (air and N 2), unlike the LA-LAS results. The plume hydrodynamic features and plume fundamental properties showed similar results in both air and nitrogen ambient. In conclusion, investigation of U oxide formation in the laser-produced plasma suggests that low U concentration in a sample hinders consistent detection of UO molecular spectra.« less

  10. The application of feature selection to the development of Gaussian process models for percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lun Tak; Sun, Yi; Davey, Neil; Adams, Rod; Prapopoulou, Maria; Brown, Marc B; Moss, Gary P

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to employ Gaussian processes to assess mathematically the nature of a skin permeability dataset and to employ these methods, particularly feature selection, to determine the key physicochemical descriptors which exert the most significant influence on percutaneous absorption, and to compare such models with established existing models. Gaussian processes, including automatic relevance detection (GPRARD) methods, were employed to develop models of percutaneous absorption that identified key physicochemical descriptors of percutaneous absorption. Using MatLab software, the statistical performance of these models was compared with single linear networks (SLN) and quantitative structure-permeability relationships (QSPRs). Feature selection methods were used to examine in more detail the physicochemical parameters used in this study. A range of statistical measures to determine model quality were used. The inherently nonlinear nature of the skin data set was confirmed. The Gaussian process regression (GPR) methods yielded predictive models that offered statistically significant improvements over SLN and QSPR models with regard to predictivity (where the rank order was: GPR > SLN > QSPR). Feature selection analysis determined that the best GPR models were those that contained log P, melting point and the number of hydrogen bond donor groups as significant descriptors. Further statistical analysis also found that great synergy existed between certain parameters. It suggested that a number of the descriptors employed were effectively interchangeable, thus questioning the use of models where discrete variables are output, usually in the form of an equation. The use of a nonlinear GPR method produced models with significantly improved predictivity, compared with SLN or QSPR models. Feature selection methods were able to provide important mechanistic information. However, it was also shown that significant synergy existed between certain parameters, and as such it

  11. Airborne spectroradiometry: The application of AIS data to detecting subtle mineral absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocks, T. D.; Green, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in Australia has revealed a number of operational problems. Horizontal striping in AIS imagery and spectral distortions due to order overlap were investigated. Horizontal striping, caused by grating position errors can be removed with little or no effect on spectral details. Order overlap remains a problem that seriously compromises identification of subtle mineral absorption features within AIS spectra. A spectrometric model of the AIS was developed to assist in identifying spurious spectral features, and will be used in efforts to restore the spectral integrity of the data.

  12. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  13. Iron K Features in the Quasar E 1821+643: Evidence for Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We report a Chandra high-energy grating detection of a narrow, redshifted absorption line superimposed on the red wing of a broad Fe K line in the z = 0.297 quasar E 1821+643. The absorption line is detected at a confidence level, estimated by two different methods, in the range approx. 2 - 3 sigma. Although the detection significance is not high enough to exclude a non-astrophysical origin, accounting for the absorption feature when modeling the X-ray spectrum implies that the Fe-K emission line is broad, and consistent with an origin in a relativistic accretion disk. Ignoring the apparent absorption feature leads to the conclusion that the Fe-K emission line is narrower, and also affects the inferred peak energy of the line (and hence the inferred ionization state of Fe). If the absorption line (at approx. 6.2 keV in the quasar frame) is real, we argue that it could be due to gravitationally redshifted Fe XXV or Fe XXVI resonance absorption within approx. 10 - 20 gravitational radii of the putative central black hole. The absorption line is not detected in earlier ASCA and Chandra low-energy grating observations, but the absorption line is not unequivocally ruled out by these data. The Chandra high-energy grating Fe-K emission line is consistent with an origin predominantly in Fe I-XVII or so. In an ASCA observation eight years earlier, the Fe-K line peaked at approx. 6.6 keV, closer to the energies of He-like Fe triplet lines. Further, in a Chandra low-energy grating observation the Fe-K line profile was double-peaked, one peak corresponding to Fe I-XVII or so, the other peak to Fe XXVI Ly alpha. Such a wide range in ionization state of Fe is not ruled out by the HEG and ASCA data either, and is suggestive of a complex structure for the line-emitter.

  14. Relation of large-scale coronal X-ray structure and cosmic rays. I - Sources of solar wind streams as defined by X-ray emission and H-alpha absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, A. S.; Nolte, J. T.; Sullivan, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcintosh, P. S.; Gold, R. E.; Roelof, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the corona and the interplanetary medium during Carrington rotations 1601-1607 is discussed relative to recurrent high-speed solar wind streams and their coronal sources. Only streams A, C, D, and F recur on more than one rotation. Streams A and D are associated with coronal holes, while C and F originate in the high corona (20-50 solar radii) over faint X-ray emissions. The association of the streams with holes is confirmed by earlier findings that there are no large equatorial holes without an associated high-speed stream and that the area of the equatorial region of coronal holes is highly correlated with the maximum velocity observed in the associated stream near 1 AU.

  15. Differential absorption lidar observation on small-time-scale features of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Wei; Li, Jiatang; Liu, Hao; Chen, Tao; Hong, Guanglie; Shu, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Observation on small-time-scale features of water vapor density is essential for turbulence, convection and many other fast atmospheric processes study. For the high signal-to-noise signal of elastic signal acquired by differential absorption lidar, it has great potential for all-day water vapor turbulence observation. This paper presents a set of differential absorption lidar at 935nm developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science for water vapor turbulence observation. A case at the midday is presented to demonstrate the daytime observation ability of this system. "Autocovariance method" is used to separate the contribution of water vapor fluctuation from random error. The results show that the relative error is less than 10% at temporal and spatial resolution of 10 seconds and 60 meters in the ABL. This indicate that the system has excellent performance for daytime water vapor turbulence observation.

  16. Mg I absorption features in the solar spectrum near 9 and 12 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, David A.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Deming, Drake; Chang, Edward S.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution FTS observations from the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory and the Spacelab 3 ATMOS experiment have revealed additional infrared transitions due to Mg I in the spectra of both quiet sun and sunspot penumbra. In contrast to previous observations, these transitions are seen in absorption, not emission. Absorption intensities range from 1 to 7 percent of the continuum in the quiet sun. In the penumbra, the same features appear to show Zeeman splitting. Modeling of the line profiles in the photospheric spectrum shows evidence for a factor of three overabundance in the n = 5 or more levels of Mg I in the upper photosphere, but with no deviations from a Planck source function. It is concluded that whatever the process that produces the emission (including the Lemke and Holweger mechanism), it must occur well above the tau(5000) = 0.01 level.

  17. Ultraviolet spectra of quenched carbonaceous composite derivatives: Comparison to the '217 nanometer' interstellar absorption feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Nakagawa, Hidehiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    QCCs (quenched carbonaceous composite) are amorphus carbonaceous material formed from a hydrocarbon plasma. We present the UV-visible spectra of 'filmy QCC; (obtained outside of the beam ejected from the hydrocarbon plasma) and 'dark QCC' (obtained very near to the beam) for comparison to the stellar extinction curve. When filmy QCC is heated to 500-700 C (thermally altered), the wavelength of the absorption maximum increases form 204 nm to 220-222 nm. The dark QCC has an absorption maximum at 217-222 nm. In addition, the thermally altered filmy QCC has a slope change at about 500 nm which resmbles that in the interstellar extinction curve. The resemblance of the extinction curve of the QCCs to that of the interstellar medium suggests that QCC derivatives may be representative of the type of interstellar material that produces the 217 nm interstellar medium feature. The peak extinction of the dark QCC is higher than the average interstellar extinction curve while that of the thermally altered filmy QCC is lower, so that a mixture of dark and thermally altered filmy QCC can match the peak extinction observed in the interstellar medium. It is shown from electron micrographs that most of the thermally altered flimy QCC is in the form of small grainy structure less than 4 nm in diameter. This shows that the structure unit causing the 217-222 nm feature in QCC is very small.

  18. UV absorption investigation of ferromagnetically filled ultra-thick carbon onions, carriers of the 217.5 nm Interstellar Absorption Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boi, Filippo S.; Zhang, Xiaotian; Ivaturi, Sameera; Liu, Qianyang; Wen, Jiqiu; Wang, Shanling

    2017-12-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are fullerene-like structures which consist of quasi-spherical closed carbon shells. These structures have become a subject of great interest thanks to their characteristic absorption feature of interstellar origin (at 217.5 nm, 4.6 μm-1). An additional extinction peak at 3.8 μm-1 has also been reported and attributed to absorption by graphitic residues between the as-grown CNOs. Here, we report the ultraviolet absorption properties of ultra-thick CNOs filled with FePt3 crystals, which also exhibit two main absorption peaks—features located at 4.58 μm-1 and 3.44 μm-1. The presence of this additional feature is surprising and is attributed to nonmagnetic graphite flakes produced as a by-product in the pyrolysis experiment (as confirmed by magnetic separation methods). Instead, the feature at 4.58 μm-1 is associated with the π-plasmonic resonance of the CNOs structures. The FePt3 filled CNOs were fabricated in situ by an advanced one-step fast process consisting in the direct sublimation and pyrolysis of two molecular precursors, namely, ferrocene and dichloro-cyclooctadiene-platinum in a chemical vapour deposition system. The morphological, structural, and magnetic properties of the as-grown filled CNOs were characterized by a means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetometry.

  19. Effect of cell-size on the energy absorption features of closed-cell aluminium foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammi, S. K.; Edwards, G.; Shirvani, H.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of cell-size on the compressive response and energy absorption features of closed-cell aluminium (Al) foam were investigated by finite element method. Micromechanical models were constructed with a repeating unit-cell (RUC) which was sectioned from tetrakaidecahedra structure. Using this RUC, three Al foam models with different cell-sizes (large, medium and small) and all of same density, were built. These three different cell-size pieces of foam occupy the same volume and their domains contained 8, 27 and 64 RUCs respectively. However, the smaller cell-size foam has larger surface area to volume ratio compared to other two. Mechanical behaviour was modelled under uniaxial loading. All three aggregates (3D arrays of RUCs) of different cell-sizes showed an elastic region at the initial stage, then followed by a plateau, and finally, a densification region. The smaller cell size foam exhibited a higher peak-stress and a greater densification strain comparing other two cell-sizes investigated. It was demonstrated that energy absorption capabilities of smaller cell-size foams was higher compared to the larger cell-sizes examined.

  20. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthey, Guy; Faber, S. M.; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Burstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previously defined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. Following Gorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that give index strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and (Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predicting index strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations of different ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable for stellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appear to be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. A complete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available in computer-readable form.

  1. Detection of a deep 3-microm absorption feature in the spectrum of Amalthea (JV).

    PubMed

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-24

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula.

  2. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  3. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  4. The origin of blueshifted absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of PG 1211+143: outflow or disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, L. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    In some radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), high-energy absorption features in the X-ray spectra have been interpreted as ultrafast outflows (UFOs) - highly ionized material (e.g. Fe XXV and Fe XXVI) ejected at mildly relativistic velocities. In some cases, these outflows can carry energy in excess of the binding energy of the host galaxy. Needless to say, these features demand our attention as they are strong signatures of AGN feedback and will influence galaxy evolution. For the same reason, alternative models need to be discussed and refuted or confirmed. Gallo and Fabian proposed that some of these features could arise from resonance absorption of the reflected spectrum in a layer of ionized material located above and corotating with the accretion disc. Therefore, the absorbing medium would be subjected to similar blurring effects as seen in the disc. A priori, the existence of such plasma above the disc is as plausible as a fast wind. In this work, we highlight the ambiguity by demonstrating that the absorption model can describe the ˜7.6 keV absorption feature (and possibly other features) in the quasar PG 1211+143, an AGN that is often described as a classic example of a UFO. In this model, the 2-10 keV spectrum would be largely reflection dominated (as opposed to power law dominated in the wind models) and the resonance absorption would be originating in a layer between about 6 and 60 gravitational radii. The studies of such features constitute a cornerstone for future X-ray observatories like Astro-H and Athena+. Should our model prove correct, or at least important in some cases, then absorption will provide another diagnostic tool with which to probe the inner accretion flow with future missions.

  5. Radial measurements of IMF-sensitive absorption features in two massive ETGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Sam P.; Davies, Roger L.; Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.

    2018-03-01

    We make radial measurements of stellar initial mass function (IMF) sensitive absorption features in the two massive early-type galaxies NGC 1277 and IC 843. Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrogaph (SWIFT), we obtain resolved measurements of the Na I 0.82 and FeH 0.99 indices, amongst others, finding both galaxies show strong gradients in Na I absorption combined with flat FeH profiles at ˜0.4 Å. We find these measurements may be explained by radial gradients in the IMF, appropriate abundance gradients in [Na/Fe] and [Fe/H], or a combination of the two, and our data are unable to break this degeneracy. We also use full spectral fitting to infer global properties from an integrated spectrum of each object, deriving a unimodal IMF slope consistent with Salpeter in IC 843 (x = 2.27 ± 0.17) but steeper than Salpeter in NGC 1277 (x = 2.69 ± 0.11), despite their similar FeH equivalent widths. Independently, we fit the strength of the FeH feature and compare to the E-MILES and CvD12 stellar population libraries, finding agreement between the models. The IMF values derived in this way are in close agreement with those from spectral fitting in NGC 1277 (x_{CvD}=2.59^{+0.25}_{-0.48}, x_{E-MILES}=2.77± 0.31), but are less consistent in IC 843, with the IMF derived from FeH alone leading to steeper slopes than when fitting the full spectrum (x_{CvD}=2.57^{+0.30}_{-0.41}, x_{E-MILES}=2.72± 0.25). This work highlights the importance of a large wavelength coverage for breaking the degeneracy between abundance and IMF variations, and may bring into doubt the use of the Wing-Ford band as an IMF index if used without other spectral information.

  6. Alternating absorption features during attosecond-pulse propagation in a laser-controlled gaseous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N.; Bell, M. Justine; Beck, Annelise R.; Mashiko, Hiroki; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2013-11-01

    Recording the transmitted spectrum of a weak attosecond pulse through a medium, while a strong femtosecond pulse copropagates at variable delay, probes the strong-field dynamics of atoms, molecules, and solids. Usually, the interpretation of these measurements is based on the assumption of a thin medium. Here, the propagation through a macroscopic medium of helium atoms in the region of fully allowed resonances is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The propagation has dramatic effects on the transient spectrum even at relatively low pressures (50 mbar) and short propagation lengths (1 mm). The absorption does not evolve monotonically with the product of propagation distance and pressure, but regions with characteristics of Lorentz line shapes and characteristics of Fano line shapes alternate. Criteria are deduced to estimate whether macroscopic effects can be neglected or not in a transient absorption experiment. Furthermore, the theory in the limit of single-atom response yields a general equation for Lorentz- and Fano-type line shapes at variable pulse delay.

  7. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  8. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 - x)TeO2. (10)ZnO. (10)WO3. (5)Na2O. (5)TiO2. (x)Bi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65-150) cm-1, R2 (280-550) cm-1, R3 (880-950) cm-1 and R4 (916-926) cm-1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV-Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF), and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched.

  9. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r < 6000 km s‑1 is a safe boundary to constrain the vast majority of associated Mg II systems, although we find some doublets at υ r > 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r < 6000 km s‑1, ∼33.3% of the absorbers are supposed to be contaminants of intervening systems. Removing the 33.3% contaminants, ∼4.5% of the quasars present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  10. Guilt by Association: The 13 micron Dust Feature in Circumstellar Shells and Related Spectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Price, S. D.

    A study of spectra from the SWS on ISO of optically thin oxygen-rich dust shells shows that the strength of the 13 micron dust emission feature is correlated with the CO2 bands (13--17 microns) and dust emission features at 19.8 and 28.1 microns. SRb variables tend to show stronger 13 micron features than Mira variables, suggesting that the presence of the 13 micron and related features depends on pulsation mode and mass-loss rate. The absence of any correlation to dust emission features at 16.8 and 32 microns makes spinel an unlikely carrier. The most plausible carrier of the 13 micron feature remains crystalline alumina, and we suggest that the related dust features may be crystalline silicates. When dust forms in regions of low density, it may condense into crystalline grain structures.

  11. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum.

  12. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  13. Special Features of Light Absorption by the Dimer of Bilayer Microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yu. É.; Panina, E. K.; Zemlyanov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Results of numerical simulation of light absorption by the dimer of bilayer spherical particles consisting of a water core and a polymer shell absorbing radiation are presented. The spatial distribution and the amplitude characteristics of the volume density of the absorbed power are investigated. It is shown that for a certain spatial dimer configuration, the maximal achievable density of the absorbed power is realized. It is also established that for closely spaced microcapsules with high shell absorption indices, the total power absorbed in the dimer volume can increase in comparison with the radiation absorption by two insulated microparticles.

  14. TOWARD DETECTING THE 2175 A DUST FEATURE ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG HIGH-REDSHIFT Mg II ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Junxian

    2011-05-10

    We report detections of 39 2175 A dust extinction bump candidates associated with strong Mg II absorption lines at z{approx} 1-1.8 on quasar spectra in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR3. These strong Mg II absorption line systems are detected among 2951 strong Mg II absorbers with a rest equivalent width W{sub r} {lambda}2796> 1.0 A at 1.0 < z < 1.86, which is part of a full sample of 7421 strong Mg II absorbers compiled by Prochter et al. The redshift range of the absorbers is chosen to allow the 2175 A extinction features to be completely covered withinmore » the SDSS spectrograph operation wavelength range. An upper limit of the background quasar emission redshift at z = 2.1 is set to prevent the Ly{alpha} forest lines from contaminating the sensitive spectral region for the 2175 A bump measurements. The FM90 parameterization is applied to model the optical/UV extinction curve in the rest frame of Mg II absorbers of the 2175 A bump candidates. The simulation technique developed by Jiang et al. is used to derive the statistical significance of the candidate 2175 A bumps. A total of 12 absorbers are detected with 2175 A bumps at a 5{sigma} level of statistical significance, 10 are detected at a 4{sigma} level, and 17 are detected at a 3{sigma} level. Most of the candidate bumps in this work are similar to the relatively weak 2175 A bumps observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud LMC2 supershell rather than the strong ones observed in the Milky Way. This sample has greatly increased the total number of 2175 A extinction bumps measured on SDSS quasar spectra. Follow-up observations may rule out some of the possible false detections and reveal the physical and chemical natures of 2175 A quasar absorbers.« less

  15. Toward Detecting the 2175 Å Dust Feature Associated with Strong High-redshift Mg II Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Junxian; Wang, Tinggui

    2011-05-01

    We report detections of 39 2175 Å dust extinction bump candidates associated with strong Mg II absorption lines at z~ 1-1.8 on quasar spectra in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR3. These strong Mg II absorption line systems are detected among 2951 strong Mg II absorbers with a rest equivalent width Wr λ2796> 1.0 Å at 1.0 < z < 1.86, which is part of a full sample of 7421 strong Mg II absorbers compiled by Prochter et al. The redshift range of the absorbers is chosen to allow the 2175 Å extinction features to be completely covered within the SDSS spectrograph operation wavelength range. An upper limit of the background quasar emission redshift at z = 2.1 is set to prevent the Lyα forest lines from contaminating the sensitive spectral region for the 2175 Å bump measurements. The FM90 parameterization is applied to model the optical/UV extinction curve in the rest frame of Mg II absorbers of the 2175 Å bump candidates. The simulation technique developed by Jiang et al. is used to derive the statistical significance of the candidate 2175 Å bumps. A total of 12 absorbers are detected with 2175 Å bumps at a 5σ level of statistical significance, 10 are detected at a 4σ level, and 17 are detected at a 3σ level. Most of the candidate bumps in this work are similar to the relatively weak 2175 Å bumps observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud LMC2 supershell rather than the strong ones observed in the Milky Way. This sample has greatly increased the total number of 2175 Å extinction bumps measured on SDSS quasar spectra. Follow-up observations may rule out some of the possible false detections and reveal the physical and chemical natures of 2175 Å quasar absorbers.

  16. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  17. The relative importance of aerosol scattering and absorption in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1985-01-01

    Previous attempts to explain the effect of aerosols on satellite measurements of surface properties for the visible and near-infrared spectrum have emphasized the amount of aerosols without consideration of their absorption properties. In order to estimate the importance of absorption, the radiances of the sunlight scattered from models of the earth-atmosphere system are computed as functions of the aerosol optical thickness and absorption. The absorption effect is small where the surface reflectance is weak, but is important for strong reflectance. These effects on classification of surface features, measuring vegetation index, and measuring surface reflectance are presented.

  18. Consistency relations for sharp features in the primordial spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris

    We study the generation of sharp features in the primordial spectra within the framework of effective field theory of inflation, wherein curvature perturbations are the consequence of the dynamics of a single scalar degree of freedom. We identify two sources in the generation of features: rapid variations of the sound speed c{sub s} (at which curvature fluctuations propagate) and rapid variations of the expansion rate H during inflation. With this in mind, we propose a non-trivial relation linking these two quantities that allows us to study the generation of sharp features in realistic scenarios where features are the result ofmore » the simultaneous occurrence of these two sources. This relation depends on a single parameter with a value determined by the particular model (and its numerical input) responsible for the rapidly varying background. As a consequence, we find a one-parameter consistency relation between the shape and size of features in the bispectrum and features in the power spectrum. To substantiate this result, we discuss several examples of models for which this one-parameter relation (between c{sub s} and H) holds, including models in which features in the spectra are both sudden and resonant.« less

  19. Cryptography based on the absorption/emission features of multicolor semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Chang, Shoude; Grover, Chander

    2004-06-28

    Further to the optical coding based on fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), a concept of using mixtures of multiple single-color QDs for creating highly secret cryptograms based on their absorption/emission properties was demonstrated. The key to readout of the optical codes is a group of excitation lights with the predetermined wavelengths programmed in a secret manner. The cryptograms can be printed on the surfaces of different objects such as valuable documents for security purposes.

  20. Phase-dependent absorption features in X-ray spectra of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghese, A.; Rea, N.; Coti Zelati, F.; Turolla, R.; Tiengo, A.; Zane, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed phase-resolved spectroscopy of archival XMM-Newton observations of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINSs) led to the discovery of narrow and strongly phase-dependent absorption features in two of these sources. The first was discovered in the X-ray spectrum of RX J0720.4-3125, followed by a new possible candidate in RX J1308.6+2127. Both spectral lines have similar properties: they are detected for only ˜ 20% of the rotational cycle and appear to be stable over the timespan covered by the observations. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of these phase-variable features and in both cases the outcome has confirmed the detection with a confidence level > 4.6σ. Because of the narrow width and the strong dependence on the pulsar rotational phase, the most likely interpretation for these spectral features is in terms of resonant proton cyclotron absorption scattering in a confined high-B structure close to the stellar surface. Within the framework of this interpretation, our results provide evidence for deviations from a pure dipole magnetic field on small scales for highly magnetized neutron stars and support the proposed scenario of XDINSs being aged magnetars, with a strong non-dipolar crustal B-field component.

  1. Causal relations and feature similarity in children's inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brett K; Thompson, Susan P

    2007-08-01

    Four experiments examined the development of property induction on the basis of causal relations. In the first 2 studies, 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults were presented with triads in which a target instance was equally similar to 2 inductive bases but shared a causal antecedent feature with 1 of them. All 3 age groups used causal relations as a basis for property induction, although the proportion of causal inferences increased with age. Subsequent experiments pitted causal relations against featural similarity in induction. It was found that adults and 8-year-olds, but not 5-year-olds, preferred shared causal relations over strong featural similarity as a basis for induction. The implications for models of inductive reasoning and development are discussed.

  2. Ionospheric Absorption on 1539 Khz in Relation to Solar Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boska, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radio wave absorption data on 1539 kHz for the summer period of 1978 to 1980 are considered in relation to variations of solar X-ray and L-alpha radiation. It is shown that under non-flare conditions L-alpha dominates in controlling absorption and that X-rays contribute about 10% to the total absorption. Optimum regression equations show that absorption is proportional to the m-th power of ionizing flux where m 1. The role of correcting L-alpha values, measured by the AE-E satellite, is discussed.

  3. Feature-Based Morphometry: Discovering Group-related Anatomical Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D. Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new, fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). PMID:19853047

  4. Absorption features of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and tracing implication for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Changjiang Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Chen, X.; Deng, H.; Du, Y.; Jin, H. Y.

    2013-07-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Studies have shown that the optical properties of CDOM can be used to infer the distribution and diffusion characteristics of DOC in the estuary and coastal zone. The inversion of DOC concentrations from remote sensing has been implemented in certain regions. In this study we investigate the potential of tracing DOC from CDOM by the measurement of DOC, absorption spectrum of CDOM, Chla concentration, suspended sediment (SS), and salinity from cruises in different seasons around the Changjiang estuary. Our results show that around the Changjiang estuary the absorption coefficients of CDOM in general have the similar spatial and temporal characteristics as that of DOC, but the strength of the correlation between CDOM and DOC varies locally and seasonally. The input of pollutants from outside the estuary, the bloom of phytoplankton in spring, re-suspension of deposited sediment, and light bleaching all contribute to the local and seasonal variation of the correlation between DOC and CDOM. An inversion model for the determination of DOC from CDOM is established, but the stability of model parameters and its application in different environments need further study. We find that relative to the absorption coefficient of CDOM, the fitted parameters of the absorption spectrum of DOM are better indictors for the composition of DOC. In addition, it is found that the terrestrial input of DOC to Changjiang estuary is a typical two-stage dilution process instead of a linear diffusion process.

  5. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    SciTech Connect

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming frommore » the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.« less

  6. Causal Relations and Feature Similarity in Children's Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brett K.; Thompson, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined the development of property induction on the basis of causal relations. In the first 2 studies, 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults were presented with triads in which a target instance was equally similar to 2 inductive bases but shared a causal antecedent feature with 1 of them. All 3 age groups used causal relations…

  7. Searches for 3.5 keV Absorption Features in Cluster AGN Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate possible evidence for a spectral dip around 3.5 keV in central cluster AGNs, motivated by previous results for archival Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster and the general interest in novel spectral features around 3.5 keV that may arise from dark matter physics. We use two deep Chandra observations of the Perseus and Virgo clusters that have recently been made public. In both cases, mild improvements in the fit (Δχ2 = 4.2 and Δχ2 = 2.5) are found by including such a dip at 3.5 keV into the spectrum. A comparable result (Δχ2 = 6.5) is found re-analysing archival on-axis Chandra ACIS-S observations of the centre of the Perseus cluster.

  8. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  9. The association between lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2010-12-01

    Greater total energy absorption by the lower extremity musculature during landing may reduce stresses placed on capsuloligamentous tissues with differences in joint contributions to energy absorption potentially affecting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. However, the relationships between energy absorption and prospectively identified biomechanical factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury have yet to be demonstrated. Sagittal plane total, hip, knee and ankle energy absorption, and peak vertical ground reaction force, anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion and knee valgus angles, and internal hip extension and knee varus moments were measured in 27 individuals (14 females, 13 males) performing double leg jump landings. Correlation coefficients assessed the relationships between energy absorption during three time intervals (initial impact phase, terminal phase, and total landing) and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. More favorable values of biomechanical factors related to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury were associated with: 1) Lesser total (R(2)=0.178-0.558), hip (R(2)=0.229-0.651) and ankle (R(2)=0.280), but greater knee (R(2)=0.147) energy absorption during the initial impact phase; 2) Greater total (R(2)=0.170-0.845), hip (R(2)=0.599), knee (R(2)=0.236-0.834), and ankle (R(2)=0.276) energy absorption during the terminal phase of landing; and 3) Greater knee (R(2)=0.158-0.709), but lesser hip (R(2)=0.309) and ankle (R(2)=0.210-0.319) energy absorption during the total landing period. These results suggest that biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury are influenced by both the magnitude and timing of lower extremity energy absorption during landing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  11. Chemical-induced disease relation extraction with various linguistic features.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinghang; Qian, Longhua; Zhou, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relations between chemicals and diseases is crucial in various biomedical tasks such as new drug discoveries and new therapy developments. While manually mining these relations from the biomedical literature is costly and time-consuming, such a procedure is often difficult to keep up-to-date. To address these issues, the BioCreative-V community proposed a challenging task of automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease (CID) relations in order to benefit biocuration. This article describes our work on the CID relation extraction task on the BioCreative-V tasks. We built a machine learning based system that utilized simple yet effective linguistic features to extract relations with maximum entropy models. In addition to leveraging various features, the hypernym relations between entity concepts derived from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary were also employed during both training and testing stages to obtain more accurate classification models and better extraction performance, respectively. We demoted relation extraction between entities in documents to relation extraction between entity mentions. In our system, pairs of chemical and disease mentions at both intra- and inter-sentence levels were first constructed as relation instances for training and testing, then two classification models at both levels were trained from the training examples and applied to the testing examples. Finally, we merged the classification results from mention level to document level to acquire final relations between chemicals and diseases. Our system achieved promisingF-scores of 60.4% on the development dataset and 58.3% on the test dataset using gold-standard entity annotations, respectively. Database URL:https://github.com/JHnlp/BC5CIDTask. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. MRI Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related to Biologic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several recent studies reveal a large number of MRI features related to the prognosis of HCC. In this review, we discuss various MRI features of HCC and their implications for the diagnosis and prognosis as imaging biomarkers. As a whole, the favorable MRI findings of HCC are small size, encapsulation, intralesional fat, high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and smooth margins or hyperintensity on the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Unfavorable findings include large size, multifocality, low ADC value, non-smooth margins or hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images. MRI findings are potential imaging biomarkers in patients with HCC. PMID:25995679

  13. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  14. Assignment of Pre-edge Features in the Ru K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra of Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Getty, Kendra; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the lowest energy bound-state transition in the Ru K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra for a series of Grubbs-type ruthenium complexes was investigated. The pre-edge feature was unambiguously assigned as resulting from formally electric dipole forbidden Ru 4d←1s transitions. The intensities of these transitions are extremely sensitive to the ligand environment and the symmetry of the metal centre. In centrosymmetric complexes the pre-edge is very weak since it is limited by the weak electric quadrupole intensity mechanism. By contrast, upon breaking centrosymmetry, Ru 5p-4d mixing allows for introduction of electric dipole allowed character resulting in a dramatic increase in the pre-edge intensity. The information content of this approach is explored as it relates to complexes of importance in olefin metathesis and its relevance as a tool for the study of reactive intermediates. PMID:20151030

  15. Universal relations for range corrections to Efimov features

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Chen; Braaten, Eric; Phillips, Daniel R.; ...

    2015-09-09

    In a three-body system of identical bosons interacting through a large S-wave scattering length a, there are several sets of features related to the Efimov effect that are characterized by discrete scale invariance. Effective field theory was recently used to derive universal relations between these Efimov features that include the first-order correction due to a nonzero effective range r s. We reveal a simple pattern in these range corrections that had not been previously identified. The pattern is explained by the renormalization group for the effective field theory, which implies that the Efimov three-body parameter runs logarithmically with the momentummore » scale at a rate proportional to r s/a. The running Efimov parameter also explains the empirical observation that range corrections can be largely taken into account by shifting the Efimov parameter by an adjustable parameter divided by a. Furthermore, the accuracy of universal relations that include first-order range corrections is verified by comparing them with various theoretical calculations using models with nonzero range.« less

  16. Hippocampal Sleep Features: Relations to Human Memory Function

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Michele; Moroni, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Nobili, Lino

    2012-01-01

    The recent spread of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recording techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific patterns of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, non-REM sleep) in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples) that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate

  17. Environmental Temperature Effect on the Far-Infrared Absorption Features of Aromatic-Based Titan's Aerosol Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, Mark J.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Benzene detection has been reported in Titans atmosphere both in the stratosphere at ppb levels by remote sensing and in the thermosphere at ppm levels by the Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer. This detection supports the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titans atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. It has been shown recently that aerosol analogs produced from a gas mixture containing a low concentration of aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) have spectral signatures below 500/cm, a first step towards reproducing the aerosol spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared. In this work we investigate the influence of environmental temperature on the absorption spectra of such aerosol samples, simulating the temperature range to which aerosols, once formed, are exposed during their transport through Titans stratosphere. Our results show that environmental temperature does not have any major effect on the spectral shape of these aerosol analogs in the far-infrared, which is consistent with the CIRS observations.

  18. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDIES OF SPECTACULAR RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING OF A GALAXY: DISCOVERY OF AN X-RAY ABSORPTION FEATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Liyi; Makishima, Kazuo; Yagi, Masafumi

    We report the detection of an X-ray absorption feature near the galaxy M86 in the Virgo cluster. The absorber has a column density of 2-3 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, and its position coincides with the peak of an intracluster H I cloud which was removed from the galaxy NGC 4388 presumably by ram pressure. These results indicate that the H I cloud is located in front of M86 along the line-of-sight, and suggest that the stripping was primarily created by an interaction between NGC 4388 and the hot plasmas of the Virgo cluster, not the M86 halo. By calculatingmore » an X-ray temperature map, we further detected an X-ray counterpart of the H I cloud up to ≈3' south of M86. It has a temperature of 0.89 keV and a mass of ∼4.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, exceeding the estimated H I gas mass. The high hot-to-cold gas ratio in the cloud indicates a significant evaporation of the H I gas, probably by thermal conduction from the hotter cluster plasma with a sub-Spitzer rate.« less

  19. Environmental temperature effect on the far-infrared absorption features of aromatic-based Titan's aerosol analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, Mark J.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2017-01-01

    Benzene detection has been reported in Titan's atmosphere both in the stratosphere at ppb levels by remote sensing (Coustenis et al., 2007; Vinatier et al., 2007) and in the thermosphere at ppm levels by the Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Waite et al., 2007). This detection supports the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titan's atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. It has been shown recently that aerosol analogs produced from a gas mixture containing a low concentration of aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) have spectral signatures below 500 cm-1, a first step towards reproducing the aerosol spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared (Anderson and Samuelson 2011, and references therein). In this work we investigate the influence of environmental temperature on the absorption spectra of such aerosol samples, simulating the temperature range to which aerosols, once formed, are exposed during their transport through Titan's stratosphere. Our results show that environmental temperature does not have any major effect on the spectral shape of these aerosol analogs in the far-infrared, which is consistent with the CIRS observations.

  20. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as

  1. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-01-01

    Background A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. Objective This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Methods Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems—the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS—based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. Results A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused

  2. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rodrigo Zenun; Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2016-08-01

    A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems-the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS-based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused predominantly on energy balance between dietary

  3. Relative f-values from interstellar absorption lines: advantages and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    2009-05-01

    Interstellar absorption features seen in the ultraviolet and visible spectra of stars provide opportunities for comparing the strengths of different transitions out of the ground electronic states of atoms, ions and simple molecules. In principle, such measurements are straightforward since the radiative transfer is manifested as a simple exponential absorption law at any given radial velocity. Complications arise when the velocity structures of the lines are not completely resolved, or when the lines are either very strongly saturated or too weak to observe. Dynamic range limitations can compromise the comparisons of two transitions that have very different absorption f-values, but they can be mitigated if there are examples with very different column densities and transitions of intermediate strength that can help to bridge the large gap in line strengths. Attempts to unravel the effects of saturation include the use of a curve of growth when only equivalent widths are available, or the measurements of the 'apparent optical depth' when the line is mostly resolved by the instrument. Unfortunately, the application of the curve of growth for one constituent to that of another can sometimes create systematic errors, since the two may have different velocity structures. Likewise, unresolved fine velocity structures in features that have large optical depths can make the apparent optical depths misrepresent the smoothed versions of the true optical depths. One method to compare the strength of a very weak line to that of a very strong one is to measure the total absorption of the former and compare it with the strength of the damping wings of the latter. However in many circumstances, small amounts of gas at velocities well displaced from the line center can masquerade as damping wings. For this reason, it is important to check that these wings have the proper shape.

  4. Measurements and Modeling of Aerosol Absorption and Single Scattering Albedo at Ambient Relative Hum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hamill, P.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties in the aerosol single scattering albedo have been identified to be an important source of errors in current large-scale model estimates of the direct aerosol radiative forcing of climate. A number of investigators have obtained estimates of the single scattering albedo from a variety of remote sensing and in situ measurements during aerosol field experiments. During the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX, 1996) for example, estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo were obtained (1) as a best-fit parameter in comparing radiative flux changes measured by airborne pyranometer to those computed from independently measured aerosol properties; (2) from estimates of the aerosol complex index of refraction derived using a combination of airborne sunphotometer, lidar backscatter and in situ size distribution measurements; and (3) from airborne measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption using nephelometers and absorption photometers. In this paper, we briefly compare the results of the latter two methods for two TARFOX case studies, since those techniques provide height-resolved information about the aerosol single scattering albedo. Estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo from nephelometer and absorption photometer measurements require knowledge of the scattering and absorption humidification (i.e., the increase in these properties in response to an increase in ambient relative humidity), since both measurements are usually carried out at a relative humidity different from the ambient atmosphere. In principle, the scattering humidification factor can be measured, but there is currently no technique widely available to measure the absorption of an aerosol sample as a function of relative humidity. Frequently, for lack of better knowledge, the absorption humidification is assumed to be unity (meaning that there is no change in aerosol absorption due to an increase in ambient relative humidity). This

  5. Clinical and molecular features of Joubert syndrome and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Joubert syndrome (JBTS; OMIM 213300) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a specific congenital malformation of the hindbrain and a broad spectrum of other phenotypic findings that is now known to be caused by defects in the structure and/or function of the primary cilium. The complex hindbrain malformation that is characteristic of JBTS can be identified on axial magnetic resonance imaging and is known as the molar tooth sign (MTS); other diagnostic criteria include intellectual disability, hypotonia, and often, abnormal respiratory pattern and/or abnormal eye movements. In addition, a broad spectrum of other anomalies characterize Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), and may include retinal dystrophy, ocular coloboma, oral frenulae and tongue tumors, polydactyly, cystic renal disease (including cystic dysplasia or juvenile nephronophthisis), and congenital hepatic fibrosis. The clinical course can be variable, but most children with this condition survive infancy to reach adulthood. At least 8 genes cause JSRD, with some genotype-phenotype correlations emerging, including the association between mutations in the MKS3 gene and hepatic fibrosis characteristic of the JSRD subtype known as COACH syndrome. Several of the causative genes for JSRD are implicated in other ciliary disorders, such as juvenile nephronophthisis and Meckel syndrome, illustrating the close association between these conditions and their overlapping clinical features that reflect a shared etiology involving the primary cilium. PMID:19876931

  6. Splicing-Related Features of Introns Serve to Propel Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuping; Li, Chun; Gong, Xi; Wang, Yanlu; Zhang, Kunshan; Cui, Yaru; Sun, Yi Eve; Li, Siguang

    2013-01-01

    The role of spliceosomal intronic structures played in evolution has only begun to be elucidated. Comparative genomic analyses of fungal snoRNA sequences, which are often contained within introns and/or exons, revealed that about one-third of snoRNA-associated introns in three major snoRNA gene clusters manifested polymorphisms, likely resulting from intron loss and gain events during fungi evolution. Genomic deletions can clearly be observed as one mechanism underlying intron and exon loss, as well as generation of complex introns where several introns lie in juxtaposition without intercalating exons. Strikingly, by tracking conserved snoRNAs in introns, we found that some introns had moved from one position to another by excision from donor sites and insertion into target sties elsewhere in the genome without needing transposon structures. This study revealed the origin of many newly gained introns. Moreover, our analyses suggested that intron-containing sequences were more prone to sustainable structural changes than DNA sequences without introns due to intron's ability to jump within the genome via unknown mechanisms. We propose that splicing-related structural features of introns serve as an additional motor to propel evolution. PMID:23516505

  7. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011. METHODS: Surface electrocardiograms of 12 patients with PTSD admitted to Van Erciş State Hospital (Van, Turkey) from February 2012 to May 2012 were examined. Psychiatric interviews of the sex and age matched control subjects, who had experienced the earthquake, confirmed the absence of any known diagnosable psychiatric conditions in the control group. RESULTS: A wide range of electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters, such as P-wave dispersion, QT dispersion, QT interval, Tpeak to Tend interval, intrinsicoid deflection durations and other traditional parameters were similar in both groups. There was no one with an abnormal P wave axis, short or long PR interval, long or short QT interval, negative T wave in lateral leads, abnormal T wave axis, abnormal left or right intrinsicoid deflection duration, low voltage, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, left posterior hemiblock, left or right axis deviation, left ventricular hypertrophy, right or left atrial enlargement and pathological q(Q) wave in either group. CONCLUSION: The study showed no direct effect of earthquake related PTSD on surface ECG in young patients. So, we propose that PTSD has no direct effect on surface ECG but may cause electrocardiographic changes indirectly by triggering atherosclerosis and/or contributing to the ongoing atherosclerotic process. PMID:23538549

  8. Absorption of Carotenoids and Mechanisms Involved in Their Health-Related Properties.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    Carotenoids participate in the normal metabolism and function of the human body. They are involved in the prevention of several diseases, especially those related to the inflammation syndrome. Their main mechanisms of action are associated to their potent antioxidant activity and capacity to regulate the expression of specific genes and proteins. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid metabolites may explain several processes where the participation of their parent carotenoids was unclear. The health benefits of carotenoids strongly depend on their absorption and transformation during gastrointestinal digestion. The estimation of the 'bioaccessibility' of carotenoids through in vitro models have made possible the evaluation of the effect of a large number of factors on key stages of carotenoid digestion and intestinal absorption. The bioaccessibility of these compounds allows us to have a clear idea of their potential bioavailability, a term that implicitly involves the biological activity of these compounds.

  9. Electron photodetachment from gas phase peptide dianions. Relation with optical absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Joly, Laure; Antoine, Rodolphe; Broyer, Michel; Lemoine, Jérôme; Dugourd, Philippe

    2008-02-07

    Electron detachment from peptide dianions is studied as a function of the laser wavelength. The first step for the detachment is a resonant electronic excitation of the dianions. Electronic excitation spectra are reported for three peptides, including gramicidin. A comparative study of the detachment yield for 13 peptides was performed at 260 nm and at 220 nm. At 260 nm, the detachment yield is mainly driven by the sum of the absorption coefficients of the aromatic amino acids that are contained in the peptide. At 220 nm, no direct relation is observed between the electron photodetachement yields and the sum of absorption efficiencies. At this wavelength, the sequence and the structure of the peptide may have an influence on the photodetachment process.

  10. Rare-gas impurities in alkali metals: Relation to optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, D.E.; Pinski, F.J.; Stocks, G.M.

    1988-04-15

    An investigation of the nature of rare-gas impurity potentials in alkali metals is performed. Results of calculations based on simple models are presented, which suggest the possibility of resonance phenomena. These could lead to widely varying values for the exponents which describe the shape of the optical-absorption spectrum at threshold in the Mahan--Nozieres--de Dominicis theory. Detailed numerical calculations are then performed with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation method. The results of these highly realistic calculations show no evidence for the resonance phenomena, and lead to predictions for the shape of the spectra which are in contradiction to observations. Absorption and emission spectramore » are calculated for two of the systems studied, and their relation to experimental data is discussed.« less

  11. The relative importance of aerosol scattering and absorption in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1983-01-01

    The relative importance of aerosol optical thickness and absorption is illustrated through computing radiances for radiative transfer models. The radiance of sunlight reflected from models of the earth-atmosphere system is computed as a function of the aerosol optical thickness and its albedo of single scattering; it is noted that the albedo varies from 0.6 in urban environment to nearly 1 in areas with low graphitic carbon content. The calculations are applied to the example of satellite measurements of biomass. It is found that when surface classifications are made by means of clustering techniques the presence of gradients in the aerosol optical properties results in the dispersion of points in the plot correlating radiances viewed in two different directions. Finally, though such a remote sensing parameter as contrast is weakly affected by aerosol absorption, it is highly dependent on its optical thickness.

  12. Drug marker absorption in relation to pellet size, gastric motility and viscous meals in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhie, J. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Welage, L. S.; Frens, J.; Wald, R. J.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. E.; Putcha, L.; Amidon, G. L.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate drug marker absorption in relation to the gastric emptying (GE) of 0.7 mm and 3.6 mm enteric coated pellets as a function of viscosity and the underlying gastric motility. METHODS: Twelve subjects were evaluated in a 3-way crossover study. 0.7 mm caffeine and 3.6 mm acetaminophen enteric coated pellets were concurrently administered with a viscous caloric meal at the levels of 4000, 6000 and 8000 cP. Gastric motility was simultaneously measured with antral manometry and compared to time events in the plasma profiles of the drug markers. RESULTS: Caffeine, from the 0.7 mm pellets, was observed significantly earlier in the plasma than acetaminophen, from the 3.6 mm pellets, at all levels of viscosity. Motility related size differentiated GE was consistently observed at all viscosity levels, however, less variability was observed with the 4000 cP meal. Specifically, the onset of absorption from the of 3.6 mm pellets correlated with the onset of Phase II fasted state contractions (r = 0.929, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The timeframe of drug marker absorption and the onset of motility events were not altered within the range of viscosities evaluated. Rather, the differences in drug marker profiles from the non-digestible solids were most likely the result of the interaction between viscosity and motility influencing antral flow dynamics. The administration of the two sizes of pellets and a viscous caloric meal with subsequent monitoring of drug marker profiles is useful as a reference to assess the influence of motility patterns on the absorption profile of orally administered agents.

  13. Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

  14. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectralmore » absorption on Charon is also reported.« less

  15. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    PubMed

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  16. Curvilinear ridges and related features in southwest Cydonia Mensae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Examined is a region on Mars in southwest Cydonia Mensae (32 deg lat., 17 deg long.) just northwest of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment. The dominant morphological features in this region are the clusters of large massifs and plateau outliers (PI), knobby material (K), and smooth lowland plains (Ps). Surrounding the clusters and linking many isolated knobs is a system of curvilinear ridges and arcuate terrain boundaries which tend to separate the massifs and knobs from the smooth plains. Curvilinear ridges are arcuate to nearly linear and smoother in plan than wrinkle ridges and show no apparent correlation with regional structural grain. They are typically 5 to 10 km long but can range from as little as 2 or 3 km to greater than 50 km long. The widths vary from about 100 m to as much as 2 km. Curvilinear ridges are most numerous within 100 km of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment and are associated with massifs and knobby terrain. Arcuate terrain boundaries appear between units of different apparent albedo or arcuate breaks in slope.

  17. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) featuring a low cost webcam based prism spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Engstrom, Julia; Wong, Donald; Islam, Meez; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2013-11-07

    Cavity enhanced techniques enable high sensitivity absorption measurements in the liquid phase but are typically more complex, and much more expensive, to perform than conventional absorption methods. The latter attributes have so far prevented a wide spread use of these methods in the analytical sciences. In this study we demonstrate a novel BBCEAS instrument that is sensitive, yet simple and economical to set up and operate. We use a prism spectrometer with a low cost webcam as the detector in conjunction with an optical cavity consisting of two R = 0.99 dielectric mirrors and a white light LED source for illumination. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements were made on samples contained in 1 cm quartz cuvettes placed at normal incidence to the light beam in the optical cavity. The cavity enhancement factor (CEF) with water as the solvent was determined directly by phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy (PS-CRDS) and also by calibration with Rhodamine 6G solutions. Both methods yielded closely matching CEF values of ~60. The minimum detectable change in absorption (αmin) was determined to be 6.5 × 10(-5) cm(-1) at 527 nm and was limited only by the 8 bit resolution of the particular webcam detector used, thus offering scope for further improvement. The instrument was used to make representative measurements on dye solutions and in the determination of nitrite concentrations in a variation of the widely used Griess Assay. Limits of detection (LOD) were ~850 pM for Rhodamine 6G and 3.7 nM for nitrite, respectively. The sensitivity of the instrument compares favourably with previous cavity based liquid phase studies whilst being achieved at a small fraction of the cost hitherto reported, thus opening the door to widespread use in the community. Further means of improving sensitivity are discussed in the paper.

  18. Clinical and Molecular Features of POLG-Related Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Jeffrey D.; Saneto, Russell P.; Copeland, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The inability to replicate mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) by the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol γ) leads to a subset of mitochondrial diseases. Many mutations in POLG, the gene that encodes pol γ, have been associated with mitochondrial diseases such as myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) disorders, Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA), ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS), and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). This chapter explores five important topics in POLG-related disease: (1) clinical symptoms that identify and distinguish POLG-related diseases, (2) molecular characterization of defects in polymerase activity by POLG disease variants, (3) the importance of holoenzyme formation in disease presentation, (4) the role of pol γ exonuclease activity and mutagenesis in disease and aging, and (5) novel approaches to therapy and avoidance of toxicity based on primary research in pol γ replication. PMID:23545419

  19. Magnetoencephalographic--features related to mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Püregger, E; Walla, P; Deecke, L; Dal-Bianco, P

    2003-12-01

    We recorded changes of brain activity from 10 MCI patients and 10 controls related to shallow (nonsemantic) and deep (semantic) word encoding using a whole-head MEG. During the following recognition tasks, all participants had to recognize the previously encoded words, which were presented again together with new words. In both groups recognition performance significantly varied as a function of depth of processing. No significant differences were found between the groups. Reaction times related to correctly classified new words (correct rejections) and incorrectly classified repetitions (misses) of MCI patients showed a strong tendency toward prolongation compared to controls, although no statistically significant differences occurred. Strikingly, in patients the neurophysiological data associated with nonsemantic and semantic word encoding differed significantly between 250 and 450 ms after stimulus onset mainly over left frontal and left temporal sensors. They showed higher electrophysiological activation during shallow encoding as compared to deep encoding. No such significant differences were found in controls. The present results might reflect a dysfunction with respect to shallow encoding of visually presented verbal information. It is interpreted that additional neural activation is needed to compensate for neurodegeneration. This finding is suggested to be an additional tool for MCI diagnosis.

  20. L-Asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Gottfried, C; Silva, A M; Caetano, E W S; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p-carboxyl, C 2p-side chain, and C 2p-carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  1. Example of a Bayes network of relations among visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, John M.

    1991-10-01

    Bayes probability networks, also termed `influence diagrams,' promise to be a versatile, rigorous, and expressive uncertainty reasoning tool. This paper presents an example of how a Bayes network can express constraints among visual hypotheses. An example is presented of a model composed of cylindric primitives, inferred from a line drawing of a plumbing fixture. Conflict between interpretations of candidate cylinders is expressed by two parameters, one for the presence and one for the absence of visual evidence of their intersection. It is shown how `partial exclusion' relations are so generated and how they determine the degree of competition among the set of hypotheses. Solving this network obtains the assemblies of cylinders most likely to form an object.

  2. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. Demographic and clinical features related to perceived discrimination in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fresán, Ana; Robles-García, Rebeca; Madrigal, Eduardo; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos-Alfonso; Martínez-López, Nicolás; Arango de Montis, Iván

    2018-04-01

    Perceived discrimination contributes to the development of internalized stigma among those with schizophrenia. Evidence on demographic and clinical factors related to the perception of discrimination among this population is both contradictory and scarce in low- and middle-income countries. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical factors predicting the perception of discrimination among Mexican patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and seventeen adults with paranoid schizophrenia completed an interview on their demographic status and clinical characteristics. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; and perceived discrimination using 13 items from the King's Internalized Stigma Scale. Bivariate linear associations were determined to identify the variables of interest to be included in a linear regression analysis. Years of education, age of illness onset and length of hospitalization were associated with discrimination. However, only age of illness onset and length of hospitalization emerged as predictors of perceived discrimination in the final regression analysis, with longer length of hospitalization being the independent variable with the greatest contribution. Fortunately, this is a modifiable factor regarding the perception of discrimination and self-stigma. Strategies for achieving this as part of community-based mental health care are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunohistological features related to functional impairment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ellen Caroline Toledo do; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Mariani, Alessandro Wasum; Annoni, Raquel; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Pimenta, Suzana Pinheiro; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2018-05-08

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a low-grade neoplasm characterized by the pulmonary infiltration of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) and cystic destruction. Patients usually present with airway obstruction in pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Previous studies have shown correlations among histological parameters, lung function abnormalities and prognosis in LAM. We investigated the lung tissue expression of proteins related to the mTOR pathway, angiogenesis and enzymatic activity and its correlation with functional parameters in LAM patients. We analyzed morphological and functional parameters of thirty-three patients. Two groups of disease severity were identified according to FEV1 values. Lung tissue from open biopsies or lung transplants was immunostained for SMA, HMB-45, mTOR, VEGF-D, MMP-9 and D2-40. Density of cysts, density of nodules and protein expression were measured by image analysis and correlated with PFT parameters. There was no difference in the expression of D2-40 between the more severe and the less severe groups. All other immunohistological parameters showed significantly higher values in the more severe group (p ≤ 0.002). The expression of VEGF-D, MMP-9 and mTOR in LAM cells was associated with the density of both cysts and nodules. The density of cysts and nodules as well as the expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-D were associated with the impairment of PFT parameters. Severe LAM represents an active phase of the disease with high expression of VEGF-D, mTOR, and MMP-9, as well as LAM cell infiltration. Our findings suggest that the tissue expression levels of VEGF-D and MMP-9 are important parameters associated with the loss of pulmonary function and could be considered as potential severity markers in open lung biopsies of LAM patients.

  5. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  6. Crowdsourcing Broad Absorption Line Properties and Other Features of Quasar Outflow Using Zooniverse Citizen Science Project Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Cassie; Lundgren, Britt; Grier, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) regularly publishes vast catalogs of quasars and other astronomical objects. Previously, the SDSS collaboration has used visual inspection to check quasar redshift validity and flag instances of broad absorption lines (BALs). This information helps researchers to easily single out the quasars with BAL properties and study their outflows and other intervening gas clouds. Due to the ever-growing number of new SDSS quasar observations, visual inspections are no longer possible using previous methods. Currently, BAL information is being determined entirely computationally, and the accuracy of that information is not precisely known. This project uses the Zooniverse citizen science platform to visually inspect quasar spectra for BAL properties, to check the accuracy of the current autonomous methods, and to flag multi-phase outflows and find candidates for in-falling gas into the quasar central engine. The layout and format of a Zooniverse project provides an easier way to inspect and record data on each spectrum and share the workload via crowdsourcing. Work done by the SDSS collaboration members is serving as a beta test for a public project upon the official release of the DR14 quasar catalog by SDSS.

  7. Absorption features in the quasar HS 1603 + 3820 II. Distance to the absorber obtained from photoionisation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, A.; Nikołajuk, M.; Czerny, B.; Dobrzycki, A.; Hryniewicz, K.; Bechtold, J.; Ebeling, H.

    2014-04-01

    We present the photoionisation modelling of the intrinsic absorber in the bright quasar HS 1603 + 3820. We constructed the broad-band spectral energy distribution using the optical/UV/X-ray observations from different instruments as inputs for the photoionisation calculations. The spectra from the Keck telescope show extremely high CIV to HI ratios, for the first absorber in system A, named A1. This value, together with high column density of CIV ion, place strong constraints on the photoionisation model. We used two photoionisation codes to derive the hydrogen number density at the cloud illuminated surface. By estimating bolometric luminosity of HS 1603 + 3820 using the typical formula for quasars, we calculated the distance to A1. We could find one photoionization solution, by assuming either a constant density cloud (which was modelled using CLOUDY), or a stratified cloud (which was modelled using TITAN), as well as the solar abundances. This model explained both the ionic column density of CIV and the high CIV to HI ratio. The location of A1 is 0.1 pc, and it is situated even closer to the nucleus than the possible location of the Broad Line Region in this object. The upper limit of the distance is sensitive to the adopted covering factor and the carbon abundance. Photoionisation modelling always prefers dense clouds with the number density n0 = 1010 - 1012 cm-3, which explains intrinsic absorption in HS 1603 + 3820. This number density is of the same order as that in the disk atmosphere at the implied distance of A1. Therefore, our results show that the disk wind that escapes from the outermost accretion disk atmosphere can build up dense absorber in quasars.

  8. ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH IN RELATION TO HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Arrhenius, Olof

    1922-01-01

    The absorption of nutrients depends to a large extent on the reaction of the substrate. At maximal growth the intake of salt is at minimum. Different ions are very differently affected. The intake of water is independent of the absorption of salts. PMID:19871980

  9. Relations among low ionosphere parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipriano, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Charged particle conductivities measured in the very low ionosphere at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Wallops Island, Virginia, are compared with atmospheric parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption measurements. Charged particle densities are derived from the conductivity data. Between 33 and 58 km, positive conductivity correlated well with neutral atmospheric temperature, with temperature coefficients as large as 4.6%/deg K. Good correlations were also found between HF radio wave absorption and negative conductivity at altitudes as low as 53 km, indicating that the day-to-day absorption variations were principally due to variations in electron loss rate.

  10. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  11. Spectroscopic remote sensing of plant stress at leaf and canopy levels using the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature with continuum removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanches, Ieda Del´Arco; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de; Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of spectral feature analysis to detect plant stress in visible/near infrared wavelengths. A time series of close range leaf and canopy reflectance data of two plant species grown in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was acquired with a portable spectrometer. The ProSpecTIR-VS airborne imaging spectrometer was used to obtain far range hyperspectral remote sensing data over the field experiment. Parameters describing the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature (depth, width, and area) were derived using continuum removal applied to the spectra. A new index, the Plant Stress Detection Index (PSDI), was calculated using continuum-removed values near the chlorophyll feature centre (680 nm) and on the green-edge (560 and 575 nm). Chlorophyll feature’s depth, width and area, the PSDI and a narrow-band normalised difference vegetation index were evaluated for their ability to detect stressed plants. The objective was to analyse how the parameters/indices were affected by increasing degrees of plant stress and to examine their utility as plant stress indicators at the remote sensing level (e.g. airborne sensor). For leaf data, PSDI and the chlorophyll feature area revealed the highest percentage (67–70%) of stressed plants. The PSDI also proved to be the best constraint for detecting the stress in hydrocarbon-impacted plants with field canopy spectra and airborne imaging spectroscopy data. This was particularly true using thresholds based on the ASD canopy data and considering the combination of higher percentage of stressed plants detected (across the thresholds) and fewer false-positives.

  12. On the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Koss, M. J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Nandra, P.; Netzer, H.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Rosario, D. J.; Veilleux, S.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. There are many borderline cases, however, and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in disagreement. In this article we revisit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We make use of our "dust colour" method to derive the optical obscuration AV, and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3-150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column NH and derive the Seyfert subclasses of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log LX/ (erg / s) ≈ 41.5-43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen at a column NH = 1022.3 cm-2 to be consistent with the optical classification. We find that NH is related to AV and that the NH/AV ratio is approximately Galactic or higher in all sources, as indicated previously. However, in several objects we also see that deviations from the Galactic ratio are only due to a variable X-ray column, showing that (1) deviations from the Galactic NH/AV can be simply explained by dust-free neutral gas within the broad-line region in some sources; that (2) the dust properties in AGNs can be similar to Galactic dust and that (3) the dust colour method is a robust way to estimate the optical extinction towards the sublimation radius in all but the most obscured AGNs.

  13. Beliefs about unmet interpersonal needs mediate the relation between conflictual family relations and borderline personality features in young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's [2005] Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.

  14. Constraints on the OH-to-H Abundance Ratio in Infrared-bright Galaxies Derived from the Strength of the OH 35 μm Absorption Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Myra; Veilleux, Sylvain; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Spoon, Henrik; Sturm, Eckhard

    2018-02-01

    We analyze Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the OH 35 μm feature in 15 nearby (z ≲ 0.06) (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). All objects exhibit OH 35 μm purely in absorption, as expected. The small optical depth of this transition makes the strength of this feature a good indicator of the true OH column density. The measured OH 35 μm equivalent widths imply an average OH column density and a 1-σ standard deviation to the mean of {N}{OH}=1.31+/- 0.22× {10}17 cm‑2. This number is then compared with the hydrogen column density for a typical optical depth at 35 μm of ∼0.5 and gas-to-dust ratio of 125 to derive an OH-to-H abundance ratio of {X}{OH}=1.01+/- 0.15× {10}-6. This abundance ratio is formally a lower limit. It is consistent with the values generally assumed in the literature. The OH 35 μm line profiles predicted from published radiative transfer models constrained by observations of OH 65, 79, 84, and 119 μm in 5 objects (Mrk 231, Mrk 273, IRAS F05189-2524, IRAS F08572+3915, and IRAS F20551-4250) are also found to be consistent with the IRS OH 35 μm spectra.

  15. Synthesis temperature effect on the structural features and optical absorption of Zn(1-x)Co(x)Al2O4 oxides.

    PubMed

    Gaudon, M; Apheceixborde, A; Ménétrier, M; Le Nestour, A; Demourgues, A

    2009-10-05

    Zinc/cobalt aluminates with spinel-type structure were prepared by a polymeric route, leading to a pure phase with controlled grain size. The prepared pigments were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld analyses in order to determine structural features, scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, helium pycnometry and (27)Al MAS NMR in order to highlight the occurrence of defects inside the structure, and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopy to identify electronic transitions responsible for the compounds' color. The green-blue coloration of these pigments is known to be dependent on the sample thermal history. Here, for the first time, the Zn(1-x)Co(x)Al(2)O(4) color is newly interpreted. The pigment is green once synthesized at low temperature (i.e., with diminution of the pigment grain size); this variation was attributed to the appearance of a new absorption band located at about 500 nm, linked to a complex network feature involving Co ions in octahedral sites as well as oxygen and cationic vacancies. Hence, this work shows the possibility of easily getting a nonstoichiometric network with an abnormal cationic distribution from "chimie douce" processes with moderate synthesis temperature, and so various colorations for the same composition.

  16. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  17. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-11

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  18. Relative optical absorption of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Houjin; Kajiura, Hisashi; Maruyama, Ryuichiro; Kadono, Koji; Noda, Kazuhiro

    2006-03-16

    While it is well-known that tube-tube interaction causes changes (peak red-shift and suppression) in the optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), we found in this work that, upon bundling, the optical absorption of metallic SWNTs (M11) is less affected compared to their semiconducting counterparts (S11 or S22), resulting in enhanced absorbance ratio of metallic and semiconducting SWNTs (A(M)/A(S)). Annealing of the SWNTs increases this ratio due to the intensified tube-tube interaction. We have also found that the interaction between SWNTs and the surfactant Triton X-405 has a similar effect. The evaluation of SWNT separation by types (metallic or semiconducting) based on the optical absorption should take these effects into account.

  19. In situ absorption and relative bioavailability studies of zaleplon loaded self-nanoemulsifying powders.

    PubMed

    Janga, Karthik Y; Jukanti, Raju; Sunkavalli, Sharath; Velpula, Ashok; Bandari, Suresh; Kandadi, Prabhakar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs) offer potential as suitable carriers for improved oral delivery of poorly soluble and low bioavailable drugs. To derive self-nanoemulsifying powders (SNEPs), the optimized Z-SNEDDS formulation was adsorbed onto different carriers and based on micromeritics the formulation loaded onto neusilin US2 (SNEP-N) was selected for further characterization. The solid-state characterization (scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction) studies unravel the transformation of native crystalline state to amorphous and/or molecular state. The higher predictive effective permeability coefficient and fraction absorbed in humans extrapolated from in situ single-pass intestinal absorption study data in rats provide an insight on the potential of SNEPs for augment in absorption across gastrointestinal barrier. Overall a 3.5-fold enhancement in the extent of absorption of zaleplon from SNEP-N formulation proves the feasibility of SNEPs formulation for improved oral delivery of zaleplon.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder related features in the community.

    PubMed

    Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Light absorption by secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene: Effects of oxidants, seed aerosol acidity, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2013-10-25

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from dark α-pinene + O 3 and α-pinene + NO x + O 3 systems in the presence ofmore » neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532, and 870 nm. Significant light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed for the SOA formed from α-pinene + O 3 + NO 3 system only in the presence of highly acidic sulfate seed aerosols under dry conditions. In contrast, no absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27% or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. Organic nitrates in the SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols were found to be nonabsorbing, while the light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with nitroxy organosulfate groups that are formed in highly acidic sulfate aerosols. Finally and overall, these results suggest that dark α-pinene + O 3 and α-pinene + NO x + O 3 systems do not form light-absorbing SOA under typical atmospheric conditions.« less

  2. Absorption fever characteristics due to percutaneous renal biopsy-related hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingyang; Liu, Qingquan; Xu, Qin; Liu, Hui; Feng, Yan; Qiu, Wenhui; Huang, Fei; Lv, Yongman

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the unique characteristics of absorption fever in patients with a hematoma after percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) and distinguish it from secondary infection of hematoma.We retrospectively studied 2639 percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys. We compared the clinical characteristics between 2 groups: complication group (gross hematuria and/or perirenal hematoma) and no complication group. The axillary temperature of patients with a hematoma who presented with fever was measured at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The onset and duration of fever and the highest body temperature were recorded. Thereafter, we described the time distribution of absorption fever and obtained the curve of fever pattern.Of 2639 patients, PRB complications were observed in 154 (5.8%) patients. Perirenal hematoma was the most common complication, which occurred in 118 (4.5%) of biopsies, including 74 small hematoma cases (thickness ≤3 cm) and 44 large hematoma cases (thickness >3 cm). Major complications were observed in only 6 (0.2%) cases resulting from a large hematoma. Of 118 patients with a perirenal hematoma, absorption fever was observed in 48 cases. Furthermore, large hematomas had a 5.23-fold higher risk for absorption fever than the small ones.Blood pressure, renal insufficiency, and prothrombin time could be risk factors for complications. Fever is common in patients with hematoma because of renal biopsy and is usually noninfectious. Evaluation of patients with post-biopsy fever is necessary to identify any obvious infection sources. If no focus is identified, empiric antibiotic therapy should not be initiated nor should prophylactic antibiotics be extended for prolonged durations. Absorption fevers will resolve in time without specific therapeutic interventions.

  3. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M.; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance. PMID:28018201

  4. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  5. Maladaptive Personality and Neuropsychological Features of Highly Relationally Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Michael; DiBiase, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The maladaptive personality and neuropsychological features of highly relationally aggressive females were examined in a group of 30 grade 6, 7, and 8 girls and group-matched controls. Employing a multistage cluster sampling procedure, a group of highly, yet almost exclusively, relationally aggressive females were identified and matched on a…

  6. Relational Uncertainty and Message Production within Courtship: Features of Date Request Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Leanne K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper theorizes about how relational uncertainty may predict features of date request messages within courtship. It reports a study in which 248 individuals role-played leaving a date request voice mail message for their partner. Relational uncertainty was negatively associated with the fluency (H1), affiliativeness (H2), relationship focus…

  7. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  8. Deformation-related spectroscopic features in natural Type Ib-IaA diamonds from Zimmi (West African craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Karen V.; D'Haenens-Johansson, Ulrika F. S.; Howell, Daniel; Loudin, Lorne C.; Wang, Wuyi

    2018-06-01

    Zimmi diamonds (Sierra Leone) have 500 million year mantle residency times whose origin is best explained by rapid tectonic exhumation to shallower depths in the mantle, associated with continental collision but prior to kimberlite eruption. Here we present spectroscopic data for a new suite of Zimmi sulphide-bearing diamonds that allow us to evaluate the link between their spectroscopic features and their unusual geological history. Cathodoluminesence (CL) imaging of these diamonds revealed irregular patterns with abundant deformation lamellae, associated with the diamonds' tectonic exhumation. Vacancies formed during deformation were subsequently naturally annealed to form vacancy clusters, NV0/- centres and H3 (NVN0). The brownish-yellow to greenish-yellow colours observed in Zimmi Ib-IaA diamonds result from visible absorption by a combination of isolated substitutional nitrogen ( {N}S^0 ) and deformation-related vacancy clusters. Colour-forming centres and other spectroscopic features can all be attributed to the unique geological history of Zimmi Ib-IaA diamonds and their rapid exhumation after formation.

  9. Evaluating the Nature of So-Called S*-State Feature in Transient Absorption of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Hunter, C Neil; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-11-03

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S* state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation-bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. These findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes.

  10. Evaluating the Nature of So-Called S*-State Feature in Transient Absorption of Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) from Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S* state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation–bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. These findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes. PMID:27726397

  11. Evaluating the nature of so-called S*-State feature in transient absorption of carotenoids in light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Hunter, C. Neil; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2016-10-11

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S*more » state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation- bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. Lastly, these findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes.« less

  12. Evaluating the nature of so-called S*-State feature in transient absorption of carotenoids in light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Hunter, C. Neil; Blankenship, Robert E.

    Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state. However, no definitive and satisfactory origin of the carotenoid S*more » state in these complexes has been established, despite a wide-ranging series of studies. Here, we resolve the ambiguous origin of the carotenoid S* state in LH2 complex from Rba. sphaeroides by showing that the S* feature can be seen as a combination of ground state absorption bleaching of the carotenoid pool converted to cations and the Stark spectrum of neighbor neutral carotenoids, induced by temporal electric field brought by the carotenoid cation- bacteriochlorophyll anion pair. Lastly, these findings remove the need to assign an S* state, and thereby significantly simplify the photochemistry of carotenoids in these photosynthetic antenna complexes.« less

  13. Influences of Rhythm- and Timbre-Related Musical Features on Characteristics of Music-Induced Movement

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R.; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics. PMID:23641220

  14. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    PubMed

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  15. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of backscatter absorption gas imaging to the detection of chemicals related to drug production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Garvis, Darrel G.; Kennedy, Randall B.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1991-08-01

    The application of backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) to the detection of gaseous chemical species associated with the production of illegal drugs is considered. BAGI is a gas visualization technique that allows the imaging of over 70 organic vapors at minimum concentrations of a few to several hundred ppm-m. Present BAGI capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Laser Imaging Systems are discussed. Eighteen different species of interest in drug-law enforcement are identified as being detectable by BAGI. The chemical remote sensing needs of law enforcement officials are described, and the use of BAGI in meeting some of these needs is outlined.

  17. Influence of the absorption behavior of sunscreens in the short-wavelength UV range (UVB) and the long-wavelength UV range (UVA) on the relation of the UVB absorption to sun protection factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; Schanzer, Sabine; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2010-09-01

    The absorption of filter substances in sunscreens, reducing the incident ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is the basis for the protecting ability of such formulations. The erythema-correlated sun protection factor (SPF), depending mainly on the intensity of the UVB radiation, is the common value to quantify the efficacy of the formulations avoiding sunburn. An ex vivo method combining tape stripping and optical spectroscopy is applied to measure the absorption of sunscreens in the entire UV spectral range. The obtained relations between the short-wavelength UV (UVB) absorption and the SPF confirm a clear influence of the long-wavelength UV (UVA) absorption on the SPF values. The data reflect the historical development of the relation of the concentration of UVB and UVA filters in sunscreens and points to the influence of additional ingredients, e.g., antioxidants and cell-protecting agents on the efficacy of the products.

  18. Terrestrial Analogs to Wind-Related Features at the Viking and Pathfinder Landing Sites on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Laity, Julie E.

    2002-01-01

    Features in the Mojave Desert and Iceland provide insight into the characteristics and origin of Martian wind-related landforms seen by the Viking and Pathfinder landers. The terrestrial sites were chosen because they exhibit diverse wind features that are generally well understood. These features have morphologies comparable to those on Mars and include origins by deposition and erosion, with erosional processes modifying both soils and rocks. Duneforms and drifts are the most common depositional features seen at the Martian landing sites and indicate supplies of sand-sized particles blown by generally unidirectional winds. Erosional features include lag deposits, moat-like depressions around some rocks, and exhumed soil horizons. They indicate that wind can deflate at least some sediments and that this process is particularly effective where the wind interacts with rocks. The formation of ripples and wind tails involves a combination of depositional and erosional processes. Rock erosional features, or ventifacts, are recognized by their overall shapes, erosional flutes, and characteristic surface textures resulting from abrasion by windblown particles. The physics of saltation requires that particles in ripples and duneforms are predominantly sand-sized (60-2000 microns). The orientations of duneforms, wind tails, moats, and ventifacts are correlated with surface winds above particle threshold. Such winds are influenced by local topography and are correlated with winds at higher altitudes predicted by atmospheric models.

  19. Relational Network for Knowledge Discovery through Heterogeneous Biomedical and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaidong; Chen, Wei; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Le; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical big data, as a whole, covers numerous features, while each dataset specifically delineates part of them. “Full feature spectrum” knowledge discovery across heterogeneous data sources remains a major challenge. We developed a method called bootstrapping for unified feature association measurement (BUFAM) for pairwise association analysis, and relational dependency network (RDN) modeling for global module detection on features across breast cancer cohorts. Discovered knowledge was cross-validated using data from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center’s electronic medical records and annotated with BioCarta signaling signatures. The clinical potential of the discovered modules was exhibited by stratifying patients for drug responses. A series of discovered associations provided new insights into breast cancer, such as the effects of patient’s cultural background on preferences for surgical procedure. We also discovered two groups of highly associated features, the HER2 and the ER modules, each of which described how phenotypes were associated with molecular signatures, diagnostic features, and clinical decisions. The discovered “ER module”, which was dominated by cancer immunity, was used as an example for patient stratification and prediction of drug responses to tamoxifen and chemotherapy. BUFAM-derived RDN modeling demonstrated unique ability to discover clinically meaningful and actionable knowledge across highly heterogeneous biomedical big data sets. PMID:27427091

  20. Relational Network for Knowledge Discovery through Heterogeneous Biomedical and Clinical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaidong; Chen, Wei; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Le; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical big data, as a whole, covers numerous features, while each dataset specifically delineates part of them. “Full feature spectrum” knowledge discovery across heterogeneous data sources remains a major challenge. We developed a method called bootstrapping for unified feature association measurement (BUFAM) for pairwise association analysis, and relational dependency network (RDN) modeling for global module detection on features across breast cancer cohorts. Discovered knowledge was cross-validated using data from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center’s electronic medical records and annotated with BioCarta signaling signatures. The clinical potential of the discovered modules was exhibited by stratifying patients for drug responses. A series of discovered associations provided new insights into breast cancer, such as the effects of patient’s cultural background on preferences for surgical procedure. We also discovered two groups of highly associated features, the HER2 and the ER modules, each of which described how phenotypes were associated with molecular signatures, diagnostic features, and clinical decisions. The discovered “ER module”, which was dominated by cancer immunity, was used as an example for patient stratification and prediction of drug responses to tamoxifen and chemotherapy. BUFAM-derived RDN modeling demonstrated unique ability to discover clinically meaningful and actionable knowledge across highly heterogeneous biomedical big data sets.

  1. Age-related interference from irrelevant distracters in visual feature search among heterogeneous distracters.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Edward C; Conners, Frances A

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated age-related variations in the influence of heterogeneous distracters during feature target. Participants in three age groups-6-year-old children, 9-year-old children, and young adults-completed three conditions of search. In a singleton search condition, participants searched for a circle among squares of the same color. In two feature mode search conditions, participants searched for a gray circle or a black circle among gray and black squares. Singleton search was performed at the same level of efficiency for all age groups. In contrast, the two feature mode search conditions yielded age-related performance differences in both conditions. Younger children exhibited a steeper slope than young adults when searching for a gray or black circle. Older children exhibited a steeper slope than young adults when searching for a gray circle but not when searching for a black circle. We concluded that these differences revealed age-related improvements in the relative abilities of adults and children to execute attentional control processes during visual search. In particular, it appears that children found it more difficult to maintain the goal of searching for a circle target than adults and were distracted by the presence of the irrelevant feature dimension of color. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. External and internal facial features modulate processing of vertical but not horizontal spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Günter; Kurbel, David; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte

    2018-03-22

    Some years ago an asymmetry was reported for the inversion effect for horizontal (H) and vertical (V) relational face manipulations (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Subsequent research examined whether a specific disruption of long-range relations underlies the H/V inversion asymmetry (Sekunova & Barton, 2008). Here, we tested how detection of changes in interocular distance (H) and eye height (V) depends on cardinal internal features and external feature surround. Results replicated the H/V inversion asymmetry. Moreover, we found very different face cue dependencies for both change types. Performance and inversion effects did not depend on the presence of other face cues for detecting H changes. In contrast, accuracy for detecting V changes strongly depended on internal and external features, showing cumulative improvement when more cues were added. Inversion effects were generally large, and larger with external feature surround. The cue independence in detecting H relational changes indicates specialized local processing tightly tuned to the eyes region, while the strong cue dependency in detecting V relational changes indicates a global mechanism of cue integration across different face regions. These findings suggest that the H/V asymmetry of the inversion effect rests on an H/V anisotropy of face cue dependency, since only the global V mechanism suffers from disruption of cue integration as the major effect of face inversion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Transient absorption phenomena and related structural transformations in femtosecond laser-excited Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.

    2004-09-01

    Analysis of processes affecting transient optical absorption and photogeneration of electron-hole plasma in silicon pumped by an intense NIR or visible femtosecond laser pulse has been performed taking into account the most important electron-photon, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions and, as a result, two main regimes of such laser-matter interaction have been revealed. The first regime is concerned with indirect interband optical absorption in Si, enhanced by a coherent shrinkage of its smallest indirect bandgap due to dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect (DFKE). The second regime takes place due to the critical renormalization of the Si direct bandgap along Λ-axis of its first Brillouin zone because of DFKE and the deformation potential electron-phonon interaction and occurs as intense direct single-photon excitation of electrons into one of the quadruplet of equivalent Λ-valleys in the lowest conduction band, which is split down due to the electron-phonon interaction.

  4. Using Activity-Related Behavioural Features towards More Effective Automatic Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumis, Dimitris; Drosou, Anastasios; Cipresso, Pietro; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Hassapis, George; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response) recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images) that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing. PMID:23028461

  5. Agonistic sounds in the skunk clownfish Amphiprion akallopisos: size-related variation in acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Colleye, O; Frederich, B; Vandewalle, P; Casadevall, M; Parmentier, E

    2009-09-01

    Fourteen individuals of the skunk clownfish Amphiprion akallopisos of different sizes and of different sexual status (non-breeder, male or female) were analysed for four acoustic features. Dominant frequency and pulse duration were highly correlated with standard length (r = 0.97), and were not related to sex. Both the dominant frequency and pulse duration were signals conveying information related to the size of the emitter, which implies that these sound characteristics could be useful in assessing size of conspecifics.

  6. Determining the refractive index of human hemoglobin solutions by Kramers-Kronig relations with an improved absorption model.

    PubMed

    Gienger, Jonas; Groß, Hermann; Neukammer, Jörg; Bär, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The real part of the refractive index of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin is computed from their absorption spectra in the wavelength range 250-1100 nm using the Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations, and the corresponding uncertainty analysis is provided. The strong ultraviolet (UV) and infrared absorbance of the water outside this spectral range were taken into account in a previous study employing KK relations. We improve these results by including the concentration dependence of the water absorbance as well as by modeling the deep UV absorbance of hemoglobin's peptide backbone. The two free parameters of the model for the deep UV absorbance are fixed by a global fit.

  7. Large-scale oscillation of structure-related DNA sequence features in human chromosome 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian; Miramontes, Pedro

    2006-08-01

    Human chromosome 21 is the only chromosome in the human genome that exhibits oscillation of the (G+C) content of a cycle length of hundreds kilobases (kb) ( 500kb near the right telomere). We aim at establishing the existence of a similar periodicity in structure-related sequence features in order to relate this (G+C)% oscillation to other biological phenomena. The following quantities are shown to oscillate with the same 500kb periodicity in human chromosome 21: binding energy calculated by two sets of dinucleotide-based thermodynamic parameters, AA/TT and AAA/TTT bi- and tri-nucleotide density, 5'-TA-3' dinucleotide density, and signal for 10- or 11-base periodicity of AA/TT or AAA/TTT. These intrinsic quantities are related to structural features of the double helix of DNA molecules, such as base-pair binding, untwisting or unwinding, stiffness, and a putative tendency for nucleosome formation.

  8. Inattentional blindness: A combination of a relational set and a feature inhibition set?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Rebecca R; Beck, Melissa R

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to directly test the feature set hypothesis and the relational set hypothesis in an inattentional blindness task. The feature set hypothesis predicts that unexpected objects that match the to-be-attended stimuli will be reported most. The relational set hypothesis predicts that unexpected objects that match the relationship between the to-be-attended and the to-be-ignored stimuli will be reported the most. Experiment 1 manipulated the luminance of the stimuli. Participants were instructed to monitor the gray letter shapes and to ignore either black or white letter shapes. The unexpected objects that exhibited the luminance relation of the to-be-attended to the to-be-ignored stimuli were reported by participants the most. Experiment 2 manipulated the color of the stimuli. Participants were instructed to monitor the yellower orange or the redder orange letter shapes and to ignore the redder orange or yellower letter shapes. The unexpected objects that exhibited the color relation of the to-be-attended to the to-be-ignored stimuli were reported the most. The results do not support the use of a feature set to accomplish the task and instead support the use of a relational set. In addition, the results point to the concurrent use of multiple attentional sets that are both excitatory and inhibitory.

  9. Gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) root extract protects against glycation and related inflammatory and oxidative stress while offering UV absorption capability.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Kelly M; Anderson, Penny; Fast, David J; Koedam, James; Rebhun, John F; Velliquette, Rodney A

    2018-06-15

    Glycation and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) damage skin which is compounded by AGE-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Lip and facial skin could be susceptible to glycation damage as they are chronically stressed. As Gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) root (GR) has an extensive traditional medicine history that includes providing multiple skin benefits, our objective was to determine if GR extract and its base naphthoquinone, shikonin, might protect skin by inhibiting glycation, increasing oxidative defenses, suppressing inflammatory responses, and offering ultraviolet (UV) absorptive potential in lip and facial cosmetic matrices. We show GR extract and shikonin dose-dependently inhibited glycation and enhanced oxidative defenses through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) activation. Inflammatory targets, nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), were suppressed by GR extract and shikonin. Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and glutathione synthesis genes were significantly upregulated by GR extract and shikonin. GR extract boosted higher wavelength UV absorption in select cosmetic matrices. Rationale for the use of GR extract and shikonin are supported by our research. By inhibiting glycation, modulating oxidative stress, suppressing inflammation, and UV-absorptive properties, GR extract and shikonin potentially offer multiple skin benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing environmental features related to mental health: a reliability study of visual streetscape images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Nash, Paul; Barnes, Linda E; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E; Jones, Andy; Brayne, Carol

    2014-10-22

    An association between depressive symptoms and features of built environment has been reported in the literature. A remaining research challenge is the development of methods to efficiently capture pertinent environmental features in relevant study settings. Visual streetscape images have been used to replace traditional physical audits and directly observe the built environment of communities. The aim of this work is to examine the inter-method reliability of the two audit methods for assessing community environments with a specific focus on physical features related to mental health. Forty-eight postcodes in urban and rural areas of Cambridgeshire, England were randomly selected from an alphabetical list of streets hosted on a UK property website. The assessment was conducted in July and August 2012 by both physical and visual image audits based on the items in Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT), an observational instrument targeting the micro-scale environmental features related to mental health in UK postcodes. The assessor used the images of Google Street View and virtually "walked through" the streets to conduct the property and street level assessments. Gwet's AC1 coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the concordance of two audits. The results of conducting the REAT by visual image audits generally correspond to direct observations. More variations were found in property level items regarding physical incivilities, with broad limits of agreement which importantly lead to most of the variation in the overall REAT score. Postcodes in urban areas had lower consistency between the two methods than rural areas. Google Street View has the potential to assess environmental features related to mental health with fair reliability and provide a less resource intense method of assessing community environments than physical audits.

  11. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  12. Unconscious automatic brain activation of acoustic and action-related conceptual features during masked repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Trumpp, Natalie M; Traub, Felix; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Kiefer, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Classical theories of semantic memory assume that concepts are represented in a unitary amodal memory system. In challenging this classical view, pure or hybrid modality-specific theories propose that conceptual representations are grounded in the sensory-motor brain areas, which typically process sensory and action-related information. Although neuroimaging studies provided evidence for a functional-anatomical link between conceptual processing of sensory or action-related features and the sensory-motor brain systems, it has been argued that aspects of such sensory-motor activation may not directly reflect conceptual processing but rather strategic imagery or postconceptual elaboration. In the present ERP study, we investigated masked effects of acoustic and action-related conceptual features to probe unconscious automatic conceptual processing in isolation. Subliminal feature-specific ERP effects at frontocentral electrodes were observed, which differed with regard to polarity, topography, and underlying brain electrical sources in congruency with earlier findings under conscious viewing conditions. These findings suggest that conceptual acoustic and action representations can also be unconsciously accessed, thereby excluding any postconceptual strategic processes. This study therefore further substantiates a grounding of conceptual and semantic processing in action and perception.

  13. Fuzzy Relational Compression Applied on Feature Vectors for Infant Cry Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Galaviz, Orion Fausto; Reyes-García, Carlos Alberto

    Data compression is always advisable when it comes to handling and processing information quickly and efficiently. There are two main problems that need to be solved when it comes to handling data; store information in smaller spaces and processes it in the shortest possible time. When it comes to infant cry analysis (ICA), there is always the need to construct large sound repositories from crying babies. Samples that have to be analyzed and be used to train and test pattern recognition algorithms; making this a time consuming task when working with uncompressed feature vectors. In this work, we show a simple, but efficient, method that uses Fuzzy Relational Product (FRP) to compresses the information inside a feature vector, building with this a compressed matrix that will help us recognize two kinds of pathologies in infants; Asphyxia and Deafness. We describe the sound analysis, which consists on the extraction of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients that generate vectors which will later be compressed by using FRP. There is also a description of the infant cry database used in this work, along with the training and testing of a Time Delay Neural Network with the compressed features, which shows a performance of 96.44% with our proposed feature vector compression.

  14. Health Communication in Social Media: Message Features Predicting User Engagement on Diabetes-Related Facebook Pages.

    PubMed

    Rus, Holly M; Cameron, Linda D

    2016-10-01

    Social media provides unprecedented opportunities for enhancing health communication and health care, including self-management of chronic conditions such as diabetes. Creating messages that engage users is critical for enhancing message impact and dissemination. This study analyzed health communications within ten diabetes-related Facebook pages to identify message features predictive of user engagement. The Common-Sense Model of Illness Self-Regulation and established health communication techniques guided content analyses of 500 Facebook posts. Each post was coded for message features predicted to engage users and numbers of likes, shares, and comments during the week following posting. Multi-level, negative binomial regressions revealed that specific features predicted different forms of engagement. Imagery emerged as a strong predictor; messages with images had higher rates of liking and sharing relative to messages without images. Diabetes consequence information and positive identity predicted higher sharing while negative affect, social support, and crowdsourcing predicted higher commenting. Negative affect, crowdsourcing, and use of external links predicted lower sharing while positive identity predicted lower commenting. The presence of imagery weakened or reversed the positive relationships of several message features with engagement. Diabetes control information and negative affect predicted more likes in text-only messages, but fewer likes when these messages included illustrative imagery. Similar patterns of imagery's attenuating effects emerged for the positive relationships of consequence information, control information, and positive identity with shares and for positive relationships of negative affect and social support with comments. These findings hold promise for guiding communication design in health-related social media.

  15. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  16. Feature extraction using molecular planes for fuzzy relational clustering of a flexible dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amit; Misra, Milind; Pai, Deepa; Shih, Liang-Yu; Woodley, Rohan; Lu, Xiang-Jun; Srinivasan, A R; Olson, Wilma K; Davé, Rajesh N; Venanzi, Carol A

    2007-01-01

    Six rigid-body parameters (Shift, Slide, Rise, Tilt, Roll, Twist) are commonly used to describe the relative displacement and orientation of successive base pairs in a nucleic acid structure. The present work adapts this approach to describe the relative displacement and orientation of any two planes in an arbitrary molecule-specifically, planes which contain important pharmacophore elements. Relevant code from the 3DNA software package (Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 5108-5121) was generalized to treat molecular fragments other than DNA bases as input for the calculation of the corresponding rigid-body (or "planes") parameters. These parameters were used to construct feature vectors for a fuzzy relational clustering study of over 700 conformations of a flexible analogue of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, GBR 12909. Several cluster validity measures were used to determine the optimal number of clusters. Translational (Shift, Slide, Rise) rather than rotational (Tilt, Roll, Twist) features dominate clustering based on planes that are relatively far apart, whereas both types of features are important to clustering when the pair of planes are close by. This approach was able to classify the data set of molecular conformations into groups and to identify representative conformers for use as template conformers in future Comparative Molecular Field Analysis studies of GBR 12909 analogues. The advantage of using the planes parameters, rather than the combination of atomic coordinates and angles between molecular planes used in our previous fuzzy relational clustering of the same data set (J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2005, 45, 610-623), is that the present clustering results are independent of molecular superposition and the technique is able to identify clusters in the molecule considered as a whole. This approach is easily generalizable to any two planes in any molecule.

  17. A Concise Guide to Feature Histograms with Applications to LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Andrew P.; Christian, John A.; Evans, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    With the availability and popularity of 3D sensors, it is advantageous to re-examine the use of point cloud descriptors for the purpose of pose estimation and spacecraft relative navigation. One popular descriptor is the oriented unique repeatable clustered viewpoint feature histogram (OUR-CVFH), which is most often utilized in personal and industrial robotics to simultaneously recognize and navigate relative to an object. Recent research into using the OUR-CVFH descriptor for spacecraft navigation has produced favorable results. Since OUR-CVFH is the most recent innovation in a large family of feature histogram point cloud descriptors, discussions of parameter settings and insights into its functionality are spread among various publications and online resources. This paper organizes the history of feature histogram point cloud descriptors for a straightforward explanation of their evolution. This article compiles all the requisite information needed to implement OUR-CVFH into one location, as well as providing useful suggestions on how to tune the generation parameters. This work is beneficial for anyone interested in using this histogram descriptor for object recognition or navigation - may it be personal robotics or spacecraft navigation.

  18. Rates and features of methamphetamine-related presentations to emergency departments: An integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rikki; Woods, Cindy; Usher, Kim

    2018-07-01

    To review the clinical impact methamphetamine has on emergency departments by assessing the available research on the rates and features of methamphetamine-related presentations. Globally, methamphetamine availability, distribution and use have rapidly increased. As a result, the number of methamphetamine-related presentations to emergency departments has also increased. In this context, it is timely to review the rate and features of methamphetamine-related presentations to understand the impact of methamphetamine on emergency departments and facilitate the allocation of services, staff and resources. An integrative literature review. This study presents an integrated literature review, following the systematic review process as outlined in the PRISMA flow chart. Several databases were searched using a combination of search terms. Articles were measured against inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the final ten articles were subjected to quality appraisal and outcomes reported. Methamphetamine accounted for 2.3% or less of all emergency departments presentations. The majority of methamphetamine users presenting to emergency departments were males, with a mean age 31-37. Methamphetamine-related presentations to emergency departments were more likely to present with trauma, psychosis, and be placed on 24-hr psychiatric hold. Methamphetamine-related presentations were more likely to present with agitation, aggression and homicidal behaviour and present to emergency departments out of hours and accompanied by police compared with other emergency departments substance-related presentations. Several important themes were highlighted in this review that has an impact on emergency departments services, resources and staff. Understanding the rate and patterns of methamphetamine-related presentations can help to provide evidence for policy development and staff education in emergency departments. Methamphetamine-related presenters are more aggressive and agitated and more

  19. Striations, Polish, and Related Features from Clasts in Impact-Ejecta Deposits and the "Tillite Problem"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Ernstson, K.; Anguita, F.; Claudin F.

    1997-01-01

    Proximal ejecta deposits related to three large terrestrial impacts, the 14.8-Ma Ries impact structure in Germany (the Bunte Breccia), the 65-Ma Chicxulub impact structure in the Yucatan (the Albion and Pook's Hill Diamictites in Belize) and the mid-Tertiary Azuara impact structure in Spain (the Pelarda Fm.) occur in the form of widespread debris-flow deposits most likely originating from ballistic processes. These impact-related diamictites typically are poorly sorted, containing grain sizes from clay to large boulders and blocks, and commonly display evidence of mass flow, including preferred orientation of long axes of clasts, class imbrication, flow noses, plugs and pods of coarse debris, and internal shear planes. Clasts of various lithologies show faceting, various degrees of rounding, striations (including nailhead striae), crescentic chattermarks, mirror-like polish, percussion marks, pitting, and penetration features. Considering the impact history of the Earth, it is surprising that so few ballistic ejecta, deposits have been discovered, unless the preservation potential is extremely low, or such materials exist but have been overlooked or misidentified as other types of geologic deposits . Debris-flow diamictites of various kinds have been reported in the geologic record, but these are commonly attributed to glaciation based on the coarse and poorly sorted nature of the deposits and, in many cases, on the presence of clasts showing features considered diagnostic of glacial action, including striations of various kinds, polish, and pitting. These diamictites are the primary evidence for ancient ice ages. We present evidence of the surface features on clasts from known proximal ejecta debris-flow deposits and compare these features with those reported in diamictites. interpreted as ancient glacial deposits (tillites). Our purpose is to document the types of features seen on clasts in diamictites of ejecta origin in order to help in the interpretation of

  20. Accounts of bullying on Twitter in relation to dentofacial features and orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Antoun, J S; Morgaine, K C; Farella, M

    2017-04-01

    Social media offers an accessible resource for gaining valuable insights into the social culture of bullying. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyse Twitter posts for common themes relating to dentofacial features, braces and bullying. Twitter's database was searched from 2010 to 2014 using keywords relevant to bullying, teeth and orthodontics. Two investigators assessed the Twitter posts, and selected those that conveyed the experiences or opinions of bullying victims. The posts were qualitatively analysed using thematic analysis. Of the 548 posts screened, 321 were included in the final sample. Four primary categories relating to 'dental-related bullying' were identified: (i) morphological features, (ii) psychological and psychosocial impact, (iii) coping mechanisms and (iv) the role of family. Bullied individuals reported a diverse range of psychological impacts and coping mechanisms. Secondary categories were also identified. Family members, for example, were found to play both a contributory and mediatory role in bullying. In summary, social media can provide new and valuable information about the causal factors and social issues associated with oral health-related bullying. Importantly, some coping mechanisms may mitigate the negative effects of bullying. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Distant supervision for neural relation extraction integrated with word attention and property features.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianfeng; Ouyang, Dantong; Hua, Wen; Ye, Yuxin; Li, Ximing

    2018-04-01

    Distant supervision for neural relation extraction is an efficient approach to extracting massive relations with reference to plain texts. However, the existing neural methods fail to capture the critical words in sentence encoding and meanwhile lack useful sentence information for some positive training instances. To address the above issues, we propose a novel neural relation extraction model. First, we develop a word-level attention mechanism to distinguish the importance of each individual word in a sentence, increasing the attention weights for those critical words. Second, we investigate the semantic information from word embeddings of target entities, which can be developed as a supplementary feature for the extractor. Experimental results show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art baselines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Event-related potentials reveal rapid registration of features of infrequent changes during change blindness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Change blindness refers to a failure to detect changes between consecutively presented images separated by, for example, a brief blank screen. As an explanation of change blindness, it has been suggested that our representations of the environment are sparse outside focal attention and even that changed features may not be represented at all. In order to find electrophysiological evidence of neural representations of changed features during change blindness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults in an oddball variant of the change blindness flicker paradigm. Methods ERPs were recorded when subjects performed a change detection task in which the modified images were infrequently interspersed (p = .2) among the frequently (p = .8) presented unmodified images. Responses to modified and unmodified images were compared in the time window of 60-100 ms after stimulus onset. Results ERPs to infrequent modified images were found to differ in amplitude from those to frequent unmodified images at the midline electrodes (Fz, Pz, Cz and Oz) at the latency of 60-100 ms even when subjects were unaware of changes (change blindness). Conclusions The results suggest that the brain registers changes very rapidly, and that changed features in images are neurally represented even without participants' ability to report them. PMID:20181126

  3. Distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children aged under 6 years.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Seok; Hong, Jin Heon; Sim, Jae Ang

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been growing about trampoline-related injuries among young children. Several published policy statements have repeatedly recommended that children younger than 6 years should not use trampolines. However, few studies have investigated the injuries caused by trampoline-related accidents among young children. This study aimed to identify the distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children younger than 6 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients aged between 0 and 16 years who visited our regional emergency center due to trampoline-related orthopedic injuries between 2012 and 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: a preschool group (younger than 6 years) and a school group (older than 6 years). We compared the features of the injuries in the two groups. Among 208 patients, 108 (52%) were male and 100 (48%) were female. The mean age was 5.4 years. The preschool group accounted for 66%. There were no seasonal variations. Fractures were sustained in 96 patients (46%). The anatomical locations of injuries differed significantly between the two age groups. Proximal tibia fractures were more frequent in the preschool group than the school group (34% and 6%, respectively). Distal tibia fractures were more prevalent in the school group than the preschool group (44% vs. 13%, respectively). Surgical treatment was needed more frequently in the school group (p = 0.035, hazard ratio 2.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-6.17). Most of the injuries (82%) occurred at trampoline parks. The anatomical locations of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries differed significantly between age groups. Fractures were more common around the knee in younger children and the ankle in older children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Auditing SNOMED CT hierarchical relations based on lexical features of concepts in non-lattice subgraphs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Licong; Bodenreider, Olivier; Shi, Jay; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a structural-lexical approach for auditing SNOMED CT using a combination of non-lattice subgraphs of the underlying hierarchical relations and enriched lexical attributes of fully specified concept names. Our goal is to develop a scalable and effective approach that automatically identifies missing hierarchical IS-A relations. Our approach involves 3 stages. In stage 1, all non-lattice subgraphs of SNOMED CT's IS-A hierarchical relations are extracted. In stage 2, lexical attributes of fully-specified concept names in such non-lattice subgraphs are extracted. For each concept in a non-lattice subgraph, we enrich its set of attributes with attributes from its ancestor concepts within the non-lattice subgraph. In stage 3, subset inclusion relations between the lexical attribute sets of each pair of concepts in each non-lattice subgraph are compared to existing IS-A relations in SNOMED CT. For concept pairs within each non-lattice subgraph, if a subset relation is identified but an IS-A relation is not present in SNOMED CT IS-A transitive closure, then a missing IS-A relation is reported. The September 2017 release of SNOMED CT (US edition) was used in this investigation. A total of 14,380 non-lattice subgraphs were extracted, from which we suggested a total of 41,357 missing IS-A relations. For evaluation purposes, 200 non-lattice subgraphs were randomly selected from 996 smaller subgraphs (of size 4, 5, or 6) within the "Clinical Finding" and "Procedure" sub-hierarchies. Two domain experts confirmed 185 (among 223) suggested missing IS-A relations, a precision of 82.96%. Our results demonstrate that analyzing the lexical features of concepts in non-lattice subgraphs is an effective approach for auditing SNOMED CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    PubMed

    Beecham, Gary W; Hamilton, Kara; Naj, Adam C; Martin, Eden R; Huentelman, Matt; Myers, Amanda J; Corneveaux, Jason J; Hardy, John; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Younkin, Steven G; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Kofler, Julia K; Mash, Deborah C; Duque, Linda; Gilbert, John R; Gwirtsman, Harry; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Kramer, Patricia; Dickson, Dennis W; Farrer, Lindsay A; Frosch, Matthew P; Ghetti, Bernardino; Haines, Jonathan L; Hyman, Bradley T; Kukull, Walter A; Mayeux, Richard P; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schneider, Julie A; Trojanowski, John Q; Reiman, Eric M; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Montine, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are a major public health challenge and present a therapeutic imperative for which we need additional insight into molecular pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study and analysis of known genetic risk loci for AD dementia using neuropathologic data from 4,914 brain autopsies. Neuropathologic data were used to define clinico-pathologic AD dementia or controls, assess core neuropathologic features of AD (neuritic plaques, NPs; neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs), and evaluate commonly co-morbid neuropathologic changes: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Lewy body disease (LBD), hippocampal sclerosis of the elderly (HS), and vascular brain injury (VBI). Genome-wide significance was observed for clinico-pathologic AD dementia, NPs, NFTs, CAA, and LBD with a number of variants in and around the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). GalNAc transferase 7 (GALNT7), ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 1 (ABCG1), and an intergenic region on chromosome 9 were associated with NP score; and Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, Beta Member 2 (KCNMB2) was strongly associated with HS. Twelve of the 21 non-APOE genetic risk loci for clinically-defined AD dementia were confirmed in our clinico-pathologic sample: CR1, BIN1, CLU, MS4A6A, PICALM, ABCA7, CD33, PTK2B, SORL1, MEF2C, ZCWPW1, and CASS4 with 9 of these 12 loci showing larger odds ratio in the clinico-pathologic sample. Correlation of effect sizes for risk of AD dementia with effect size for NFTs or NPs showed positive correlation, while those for risk of VBI showed a moderate negative correlation. The other co-morbid neuropathologic features showed only nominal association with the known AD loci. Our results discovered new genetic associations with specific neuropathologic features and aligned known genetic risk for AD dementia with specific neuropathologic changes in the largest brain autopsy study of AD and related dementias.

  6. Relative importance of black carbon, brown carbon, and absorption enhancement from clear coatings in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Rudra P.; Beamesderfer, Eric R.; Wagner, Nick L.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lack, Daniel A.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Shane M.

    2017-04-01

    A wide range of globally significant biomass fuels were burned during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). A multi-channel photoacoustic absorption spectrometer (PAS) measured dry absorption at 405, 532, and 660 nm and thermally denuded (250 °C) absorption at 405 and 660 nm. Absorption coefficients were broken into contributions from black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and lensing following three different methodologies, with one extreme being a method that assumes the thermal denuder effectively removes organics and the other extreme being a method based on the assumption that black carbon (BC) has an Ångström exponent of unity. The methodologies employed provide ranges of potential importance of BrC to absorption but, on average, there was a difference of a factor of 2 in the ratio of the fraction of absorption attributable to BrC estimated by the two methods. BrC absorption at shorter visible wavelengths is of equal or greater importance to that of BC, with maximum contributions of up to 92 % of total aerosol absorption at 405 nm and up to 58 % of total absorption at 532 nm. Lensing is estimated to contribute a maximum of 30 % of total absorption, but typically contributes much less than this. Absorption enhancements and the estimated fraction of absorption from BrC show good correlation with the elemental-carbon-to-organic-carbon ratio (EC / OC) of emitted aerosols and weaker correlation with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Previous studies have shown that BrC grows darker (larger imaginary refractive index) as the ratio of black to organic aerosol (OA) mass increases. This study is consistent with those findings but also demonstrates that the fraction of total absorption attributable to BrC shows the opposite trend: increasing as the organic fraction of aerosol emissions increases and the EC / OC ratio decreases.

  7. Development of a Novel Simplified PBPK Absorption Model to Explain the Higher Relative Bioavailability of the OROS® Formulation of Oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Ghosh, Avijit; Aarons, Leon; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-11-01

    A new minimal Segmented Transit and Absorption model (mSAT) model has been recently proposed and combined with intrinsic intestinal effective permeability (P eff,int ) to predict the regional gastrointestinal (GI) absorption (f abs ) of several drugs. Herein, this model was extended and applied for the prediction of oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin and its enantiomers to provide a mechanistic explanation of the higher relative bioavailability observed for oxybutynin's modified-release OROS® formulation compared to its immediate-release (IR) counterpart. The expansion of the model involved the incorporation of mechanistic equations for the prediction of release, transit, dissolution, permeation and first-pass metabolism. The predicted pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin enantiomers after oral administration for both the IR and OROS® formulations were in close agreement with the observed data. The predicted absolute bioavailability for the IR formulation was within 5% of the observed value, and the model adequately predicted the higher relative bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation vs. the IR counterpart. From the model predictions, it can be noticed that the higher bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation was mainly attributable to differences in the intestinal availability (F G ) rather than due to a higher colonic f abs , thus confirming previous hypotheses. The predicted f abs was almost 70% lower for the OROS® formulation compared to the IR formulation, whereas the F G was almost eightfold higher than in the IR formulation. These results provide further support to the hypothesis of an increased F G as the main factor responsible for the higher bioavailability of oxybutynin's OROS® formulation vs. the IR.

  8. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  9. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.; ...

    2018-04-24

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  10. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  11. Clinical Features and Related Factors of Poststroke Pathological Laughing and Crying: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Geying; Teng, Fei; Chen, Yuhui; Liu, Yuanhua; Li, Yancheng; Cai, Li; Zhang, Xu; Nie, Zhiyu; Jin, Lingjing

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical features and related factors of poststroke pathological laughing and crying (PSPLC) and to differentiate PSPLC patients with and without pseudobulbar signs. We performed a case-control study in which 56 patients with PSPLC were matched to 56 control stroke patients by age and gender. The pathological laughing and crying scale was used to identify patients with PSPLC. Characteristics of PSPLC outbursts, presence of pseudobulbar signs and autonomic symptoms, lesion locations, and different clinical data were analyzed. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was evaluated by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Poststroke anger proneness (PSAP) was evaluated by comparison of the patients' premorbid states. Significantly more patients in the PSPLC group showed MCI, PSAP, and pseudobulbar signs than those in the control group. Most patients with PSPLC showed bilateral multiple lesions and the pons (especially the bilateral paramedian basal and basal-tegmental areas) stood out as the most important lesion location. Logistic regression analysis showed that pontine lesion, MCI, and PSAP were independently related to PSPLC; however, the presence of pseudobulbar signs was not related. PSPLC patients with pseudobulbar signs showed more recurrent strokes in the previous 2 years, more severe neurological deficits, as well as higher severity of PSPLC. In addition, more patients in the group with pseudobulbar signs showed concomitant autonomic symptoms. PSPLC, MCI, and PSAP could be manifestations of a more general disorder, in which pontine lesion plays an important role. PSPLC patients with pseudobulbar signs and those without show different features. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual dimorphism of AMBRA1-related autistic features in human and mouse.

    PubMed

    Mitjans, M; Begemann, M; Ju, A; Dere, E; Wüstefeld, L; Hofer, S; Hassouna, I; Balkenhol, J; Oliveira, B; van der Auwera, S; Tammer, R; Hammerschmidt, K; Völzke, H; Homuth, G; Cecconi, F; Chowdhury, K; Grabe, H; Frahm, J; Boretius, S; Dandekar, T; Ehrenreich, H

    2017-10-10

    Ambra1 is linked to autophagy and neurodevelopment. Heterozygous Ambra1 deficiency induces autism-like behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. Extraordinarily, autistic features are seen in female mice only, combined with stronger Ambra1 protein reduction in brain compared to males. However, significance of AMBRA1 for autistic phenotypes in humans and, apart from behavior, for other autism-typical features, namely early brain enlargement or increased seizure propensity, has remained unexplored. Here we show in two independent human samples that a single normal AMBRA1 genotype, the intronic SNP rs3802890-AA, is associated with autistic features in women, who also display lower AMBRA1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to female GG carriers. Located within a non-coding RNA, likely relevant for mRNA and protein interaction, rs3802890 (A versus G allele) may affect its stability through modification of folding, as predicted by in silico analysis. Searching for further autism-relevant characteristics in Ambra1 +/- mice, we observe reduced interest of female but not male mutants regarding pheromone signals of the respective other gender in the social intellicage set-up. Moreover, altered pentylentetrazol-induced seizure propensity, an in vivo readout of neuronal excitation-inhibition dysbalance, becomes obvious exclusively in female mutants. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals mild prepubertal brain enlargement in both genders, uncoupling enhanced brain dimensions from the primarily female expression of all other autistic phenotypes investigated here. These data support a role of AMBRA1/Ambra1 partial loss-of-function genotypes for female autistic traits. Moreover, they suggest Ambra1 heterozygous mice as a novel multifaceted and construct-valid genetic mouse model for female autism.

  13. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  14. How radiologic/clinicopathologic features relate to compressive symptoms in benign thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Bianca; Ow, Thomas J; Abraham, Suzanne S; Loftus, Patricia A; Tassler, Andrew B; Smith, Richard V; Schiff, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    To identify compressive symptomatology in a patient cohort with benign thyroid disease who underwent thyroidectomy. To determine radiographic/clinicopathologic features related to and predictive of a compressive outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Medical records of 232 patients with benign thyroid disease on fine needle aspiration who underwent thyroidectomy from 2009 to 2012 at an academic medical center were reviewed. Data collection and analyses involved subjects' demographics, compressive symptoms, preoperative airway encroachment, intubation complications, specimen weight, and final pathologic diagnosis. Subjects were ages 14 to 86 years (mean: 52.4 years). Ninety-six subjects (41.4%) reported compressive symptomatology of dysphagia (n =74; 32%), dyspnea (n = 39; 17%), and hoarseness (n = 24; 10%). Ninety-seven (42.2%) had preoperative airway encroachment. Dyspnea was significantly related to tracheal compression, tracheal deviation, and substernal extension. Dysphagia was related to tracheal compression and tracheal deviation. Compressive symptoms and preoperative airway encroachment were not related to intubation complications. Final pathologic diagnosis was not related to compressive symptoms, whereas specimen weight was significantly related to dyspnea and dysphagia. Final pathology revealed 74 subjects (32%) with malignant lesions. Malignant and benign nodular subject groups differed significantly in substernal extension, gland weight, tracheal deviation, and dyspnea. Logit modeling for dyspnea was significant for tracheal compression as a predictor for the likelihood of dyspnea. Dyspnea was closely related to preoperative airway encroachment and most indicative of a clinically relevant thyroid in our cohort with benign thyroid disease. Tracheal compression was found to have predictive value for the likelihood of a dyspneic outcome. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:993-997, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Hibbs, Carina S.; Shapiro, Kimron L.; Bracewell, R. Martyn; Singh, Krish D.; Linden, David E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80–100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination. PMID:21940605

  16. The gas-hydrate-related seabed features in the Palm Ridge off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zheng-Wei; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Song-Chuen; Lin, Hsiao-Shan

    2016-04-01

    The offshore area of the SW Taiwan is located in the convergence zone between the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and the Manila subduction complex. Our study area, the Palm Ridge, is located in the passive continental margin. According to the geophysical, geochemical and geothermal data, abundant gas hydrate may exist in the offshore area of SW Taiwan. In this study, we will study the relation between the seabed features and the gas hydrate formation of the Palm Ridge. The data used in this study include high-resolution sidescan sonar images, sub-bottom profiles, echo sounder system, multi-beam bathymetric data, multi-channel reflection seismic and submarine photography in the Palm Ridge. Our results show the existing authigenic carbonates, gas seepages and gas plumes are mainly distributed in the bathymetric high of the Palm Ridge. Numerous submarine landslides have occurred in the place where the BSR distribution is not continuous. We suggest that it may be because of rapid slope failure, causing the change of the gas hydrate stability zone. We also found several faults on the R3.1 anticline structure east of the deformation front. These features imply that abundant deep methane gases have migrated to shallow strata, causing submarine landslides or collapse. The detailed relationship of gas migration and submarine landslides need further studies.

  17. Age-Related Changes of Adaptive and Neuropsychological Features in Persons with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  18. Molecular basis of structural make-up of feeds in relation to nutrient absorption in ruminants, revealed with advanced molecular spectroscopy: A review on techniques and models

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md. Mostafizar; Yu, Peiqiang

    Progress in ruminant feed research is no more feasible only based on wet chemical analysis, which is merely able to provide information on chemical composition of feeds regardless of their digestive features and nutritive value in ruminants. Studying internal structural make-up of functional groups/feed nutrients is often vital for understanding the digestive behaviors and nutritive values of feeds in ruminant because the intrinsic structure of feed nutrients is more related to its overall absorption. In this article, the detail information on the recent developments in molecular spectroscopic techniques to reveal microstructural information of feed nutrients and the use of nutritionmore » models in regards to ruminant feed research was reviewed. The emphasis of this review was on (1) the technological progress in the use of molecular spectroscopic techniques in ruminant feed research; (2) revealing spectral analysis of functional groups of biomolecules/feed nutrients; (3) the use of advanced nutrition models for better prediction of nutrient availability in ruminant systems; and (4) the application of these molecular techniques and combination of nutrient models in cereals, co-products and pulse crop research. The information described in this article will promote better insight in the progress of research on molecular structural make-up of feed nutrients in ruminants.« less

  19. Impact of bullying due to dentofacial features on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Iyad K; Al-Bitar, Zaid B; Sonbol, Hawazen N; Al-Ahmad, Hazem T; Cunningham, Susan J; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between self-reported bullying because of dentofacial features and oral health-related quality of life among a representative sample of Jordanian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of sixth-grade students (age, 11-12 years) from randomly selected schools in Amman, Jordan, were asked to complete questionnaires distributed in the classroom in the presence of the researchers. The questionnaire used for this purpose was the short form of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11- to 14-year-old children. The final sample size was 920 children (470 girls, 450 boys). There were significant differences between the sexes for the total Child Perceptions Questionnaire score and for the oral symptoms and the social well-being subscales, with boys reporting higher scores and thus more negative effects on their oral health-related quality of life. Comparison of the total scores and subscales scores for boys and girls subdivided into those who reported being bullied and not being bullied about their teeth showed that bullied boys had significantly greater effects on overall oral health-related quality of life and on all subscales than did not-bullied boys (P <0.001 for all comparisons). Bullied girls also had significantly greater effects on the overall oral health-related quality of life and all subscales than did not-bullied girls (P <0.001 for all comparisons). However, bullied boys and girls reported similar scores for the different subscales of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire; there were no significant differences. This study demonstrated a significant relationship between bullying because of dentofacial features and negative effects on oral health-related quality of life. The results highlight the importance of addressing the bullying problem among schoolchildren and provide important data for educational authorities to create antibullying

  20. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line indexmore » versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.« less

  1. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD.

  2. Gambling disorder in financial markets: Clinical and treatment-related features.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Chul; Choi, Sam-Wook; Ha, Juwon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-12-01

    To date, few studies have examined the clinical manifestation of disordered gamblers in financial markets. This study examined the differences in the clinical and treatment-related features of gambling disorder between financial markets and horse races. Subjects who met the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (PG) and who sought treatment were assessed by retrospective chart review. One hundred forty-four subjects were included in this sample, which consisted of the following groups: financial markets (n = 45; 28.6%) and horse races (n = 99; 71.4%). Multiple similar manifestations were found between the groups, including severity of PG, age of PG onset, amounts of gambling debts, drinking days per week, depressive mood, duration of seeking treatment after the onset of PG, and treatment follow-up duration. However, disordered gamblers who invested in the financial market were significantly more likely to be educated (p = 0.003), live with their spouses (p = 0.007), have full-time jobs (p = 0.006), and they were more likely to participate in the first type of gambling than the horse races group (p<0.001). Furthermore, the financial markets group received the anti-craving medication less often than the horse races group (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that disordered gamblers in financial markets show different socio-demographic, clinical and treatment-related features compared with the horse race gamblers, despite a similar severity of gambling disorder. Understanding these differential manifestations may provide insight into prevention and treatment development for specific types of gambling.

  3. Gambling disorder in financial markets: Clinical and treatment-related features

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Chul; Choi, Sam-Wook; Ha, Juwon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims To date, few studies have examined the clinical manifestation of disordered gamblers in financial markets. This study examined the differences in the clinical and treatment-related features of gambling disorder between financial markets and horse races. Methods Subjects who met the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (PG) and who sought treatment were assessed by retrospective chart review. One hundred forty-four subjects were included in this sample, which consisted of the following groups: financial markets (n = 45; 28.6%) and horse races (n = 99; 71.4%). Results Multiple similar manifestations were found between the groups, including severity of PG, age of PG onset, amounts of gambling debts, drinking days per week, depressive mood, duration of seeking treatment after the onset of PG, and treatment follow-up duration. However, disordered gamblers who invested in the financial market were significantly more likely to be educated (p = 0.003), live with their spouses (p = 0.007), have full-time jobs (p = 0.006), and they were more likely to participate in the first type of gambling than the horse races group (p<0.001). Furthermore, the financial markets group received the anti-craving medication less often than the horse races group (p = 0.04). Discussion and Conclusions: These findings suggest that disordered gamblers in financial markets show different socio-demographic, clinical and treatment-related features compared with the horse race gamblers, despite a similar severity of gambling disorder. Understanding these differential manifestations may provide insight into prevention and treatment development for specific types of gambling. PMID:26690619

  4. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for Cmore » IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.« less

  5. Overlapping Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Features of Hashimoto Thyroiditis and IgG4-Related Thyroid Disease.

    PubMed

    Raess, Philipp W; Habashi, Arlette; El Rassi, Edward; Milas, Mira; Sauer, David A; Troxell, Megan L

    2015-05-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging clinicopathologic entity characterized by both IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration and fibrosis in one or more organs, prototypically pancreas or salivary/lacrimal glands. IgG4-RD in the thyroid (IgG4-RTD) is an area of active study, and the relationship between IgG4-RTD and Hashimoto thyroiditis is not fully delineated due to their overlapping histologic features. Retrospective review was performed of all thyroidectomy cases demonstrating lymphocytic inflammation at a single institution over a 4-year period. Approximately half (23/38) of patients had a clinical diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Nine of the 38 patients had increased absolute and relative numbers of IgG4+ plasma cells. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of HT had increased lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, but the relative proportion of IgG4+ plasma cells was not increased compared to patients without HT. There was no correlation between IgG4 levels and the amount of fibrosis in patients with or without HT. Patients identified as having the fibrosing variant of HT were not more likely to have increased levels of IgG4+ plasma cells than those without. There is significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between HT and IgG4-RTD. Future studies to identify specific characteristics of IgG4-RTD involving the thyroid are necessary to accurately define this entity.

  6. Human papillomavirus-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features: a series of five cases expanding the pathological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Hang, Jen-Fan; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Li, Wing-Yin; Chen, Jo-Yu; Lin, Shih-Yao; Liu, Shih-Hao; Pan, Chin-Chen; Kuo, Ying-Ju

    2017-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features is a newly described entity of the sinonasal tract. In this study, we evaluated histomorphology, immunophenotype and molecular testing to identify potentially helpful features in distinguishing it from classic adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). We retrospectively collected five HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic-like features and 14 AdCCs of the sinonasal tract. All histological slides were retrieved for morphological evaluation. As comparing with AdCC, HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic-like features were associated with squamous dysplasia of surface epithelium (80% versus 0%, P < 0.01) and the presence of a solid growth pattern (100% versus 29%, P = 0.01), but less densely hyalinized tumour stroma (20% versus 86%, P = 0.02). Squamous differentiation in the invasive tumour was seen in three HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic-like features, two of them showing abrupt keratinization and one with scattered non-keratinizing squamous nests. Diffuse p16 staining in ≥75% of tumour cells was noted in all HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic-like features but in only one AdCC (100% versus 7%, P < 0.01). High-risk HPV testing gave positive results in all HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic-like features (four associated with type 33 and one associated with type 16) but not in AdCCs. MYB rearrangement was tested in four HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic-like features, and all were negative. This study has further clarified the histological spectrum of this tumour type, and reports the first HPV type 16-related case. Diffuse p16 staining followed by HPV molecular testing is useful in distinguishing HPV-related carcinomas with adenoid cystic features from classic AdCCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Detailed Spectral Analysis of the 260 ks XMM-Newton Data of 1E 1207.4-5209 and Significance of a 2.1 keV Absorption Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Chonko, James C.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2005-10-01

    We have reanalyzed the 260 ks XMM-Newton observation of 1E 1207.4-5209. There are several significant improvements over previous work. First, a much broader range of physically plausible spectral models was used. Second, we have used a more rigorous statistical analysis. The standard F-distribution was not employed, but rather the exact finite statistics F-distribution was determined by Monte Carlo simulations. This approach was motivated by the recent work of Protassov and coworkers and Freeman and coworkers. They demonstrated that the standard F-distribution is not even asymptotically correct when applied to assess the significance of additional absorption features in a spectrum. With our improved analysis we do not find a third and fourth spectral feature in 1E 1207.4-5209 but only the two broad absorption features previously reported. Two additional statistical tests, one line model dependent and the other line model independent, confirmed our modified F-test analysis. For all physically plausible continuum models in which the weak residuals are strong enough to fit, the residuals occur at the instrument Au M edge. As a sanity check we confirmed that the residuals are consistent in strength and position with the instrument Au M residuals observed in 3C 273.

  8. Effects of Self-Paced Encoding and Practice on Age-Related Deficits in Binding Three Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinjo, Hikari

    2010-01-01

    Although much literature suggests that the age-related decline in episodic memory could be due to difficulties in binding features of information, previous studies focused mainly on memory of paired associations rather than memory of multiple bound features. In reality, however, there are many situations that require binding multiple features…

  9. Daily Elevations in Dissociative Absorption and Depersonalization in a Nonclinical Sample Are Related to Daily Stress and Psychopathological Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    Dissociative experiences are associated with several psychopathological symptoms and are a hindrance to therapeutic gain. Depersonalization-derealization (DEP-DER) is positively associated with stress and anxiety, while absorption and imaginative involvement (ABS), a tendency for total, immersed attention, is commonly referred to as nonpathological dissociation, although it is positively associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Previous studies in the field have been mainly cross-sectional. The present study aimed to examine these associations rigorously and attempted to determine directionality between dissociation and distress. The current study employed both variable-centered (cross-sectional) and person-centered (longitudinal, within-subjects) analyses of the associations of DEP-DER and ABS with distress. Undergraduate students (N = 184) completed trait questionnaires on dissociation, stress, anxiety, depression, and OC symptoms, and n = 78 also completed questionnaires assessing the same constructs daily for 14 days. Multiple regression and multilevel modeling analyses were conducted. In the cross-sectional phase, DEP-DER was uniquely positively related to anxiety and OC symptoms, and ABS was uniquely positively related to OC symptoms. In the daily diary phase, increases in DEP-DER were related to increases in anxiety, depression, OC symptoms, and stress, while increases in ABS were related to increases in OC symptoms and stress. In addition, time-lag analysis showed that ABS tended to temporally precede OC. ABS foretold increases in OC symptoms, at least in this nonclinical sample. Future studies on clinical samples should explore whether ABS should be referred to as "nonpathological" and its possible role in the development or maintenance of clinical-level OCD.

  10. Distinct features distinguishing IgG4-related disease from multicentric Castleman’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takanori; Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Yuko; Mori, Takehiko; Yasuoka, Hidekata; Suzuki, Katsuya; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Differentiating IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) from multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD) is challenging because both diseases present high serum IgG4. The objective of this study is to clarify the differences in characteristics and identify a clinically useful approach to differentiate these two diseases. Methods Forty-five consecutive patients with untreated active IgG4-RD and 33 patients with MCD were included in this study, who visited our institution from January 2000 to August 2016. The clinical and laboratory findings for the patients of the two diseases were compared. Various combinations of the distinctive findings were evaluated to identify the most efficient differentiating features between IgG4-RD and MCD. Results The levels of serum IgG4 were not different between the two diseases. Orbits, lacrimal glands, salivary glands or pancreas were involved in 88.9% of IgG4-RD cases and only in 3.0% of MCD cases. All MCD cases involved lymph nodes. Atopic history was characteristic for IgG4-RD. The levels of C reactive protein (CRP) with a cut-off of 0.80 mg/dL and IgA with a cut-off of 330 mg/dL were the most distinctive. The combination of ‘Orbits, lacrimal glands, salivary glands or pancreas involvement, atopic history, or non-involvement of lymph node’ and ‘CRP ≤ 0.8 mg/dL or IgA ≤ 330 mg/dL’ yielded the probability of 97.8% in IgG4-RD, while that of 3.0 % in patients with MCD. Conclusions Our study revealed distinct features between IgG4-RD and MCD. Differentiating between the diseases based on those distinct features, including distribution of organ involvement, atopic history, levels of IgA and CRP, was a useful approach. PMID:28959455

  11. [Epidemiology of Minamata Disease--Focus on the Clinical Features Related to the 1977 Diagnostic Criteria].

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan, in the 1950s (Minamata Disease). Although the diagnostic criteria for the disease was controversial and difficult during that time, we, the Kumamoto University Study Group, carried out a large-scale study to assess the clinical features in 1972-1973. The author tried to reassess the results of that study to appraise the diagnostic criteria established in 1977 on the basis of those results. A substantial number of residents in the exposed area exhibited neurologic signs, especially paresthesia of only the extremities, namely, the male residents of Minamata City showed a positive predictive value of 0.73 and a negative predictive value of 0.23. The relative risks of paresthesia only were 2.6 (2.0-3.3) and 1.2 (0.9-1.5), in Minamata and Goshonoura related to Ariake (control), respectively. At least until 1977, the diagnostic criteria remained valid, although it was inadequate. Nevertheless, presently, a follow-up study of the certified patients may lead to the development of efficient new diagnostic criteria.

  12. Investigating the relation of social support functions and the demographic features of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemipoor, Maryam; Ghasemi, Vahid; Zamani, Ahmad Reza

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support is a form of social capital which can be related to the health of patients. Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, are incurable but they can be controlled. However, the patient is always facing stressful physical, mental and social factors. Therefore, he needs to receive different kinds of supports. The present research aimed to determine the factors of social support in diabetic patients and its relation with the demographic features of the patients. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. The population of the study was all of the dia-betic patients of Khorramabad who went to the clinics for treatment. Among this population, 150 cases were selected and a questionnaire including a demographic section and a social support section was used for data collection. Social support was assessed by integrating and balancing four standard questionnaires of social support for diabetic patients. RESULTS: The results revealed that factors of social support have not been optimal in 59% of the cases. Among all factors, emotional support scored the highest (36.8%). In addition, age, sex, job, education, and the duration of disease had statistically significant relationship with some of the factors of social support. CONCLUSIONS: Due to non-optimality of some factors and effects of some demographic variables in receiving social support, it can be recommended that authorities should plan programs with consulting, educational and instrumental contents in order to promote patient's reception of social support from different support sources. PMID:21589742

  13. Assessment of two mammographic density related features in predicting near-term breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Wang, Xingwei; Klym, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2012-02-01

    In order to establish a personalized breast cancer screening program, it is important to develop risk models that have high discriminatory power in predicting the likelihood of a woman developing an imaging detectable breast cancer in near-term (e.g., <3 years after a negative examination in question). In epidemiology-based breast cancer risk models, mammographic density is considered the second highest breast cancer risk factor (second to woman's age). In this study we explored a new feature, namely bilateral mammographic density asymmetry, and investigated the feasibility of predicting near-term screening outcome. The database consisted of 343 negative examinations, of which 187 depicted cancers that were detected during the subsequent screening examination and 155 that remained negative. We computed the average pixel value of the segmented breast areas depicted on each cranio-caudal view of the initial negative examinations. We then computed the mean and difference mammographic density for paired bilateral images. Using woman's age, subjectively rated density (BIRADS), and computed mammographic density related features we compared classification performance in estimating the likelihood of detecting cancer during the subsequent examination using areas under the ROC curves (AUC). The AUCs were 0.63+/-0.03, 0.54+/-0.04, 0.57+/-0.03, 0.68+/-0.03 when using woman's age, BIRADS rating, computed mean density and difference in computed bilateral mammographic density, respectively. Performance increased to 0.62+/-0.03 and 0.72+/-0.03 when we fused mean and difference in density with woman's age. The results suggest that, in this study, bilateral mammographic tissue density is a significantly stronger (p<0.01) risk indicator than both woman's age and mean breast density.

  14. Distant Mimivirus relative with a larger genome highlights the fundamental features of Megaviridae

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Defne; Legendre, Matthieu; Seltzer, Virginie; Abergel, Chantal; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Mimivirus, a DNA virus infecting acanthamoeba, was for a long time the largest known virus both in terms of particle size and gene content. Its genome encodes 979 proteins, including the first four aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ArgRS, CysRS, MetRS, and TyrRS) ever found outside of cellular organisms. The discovery that Mimivirus encoded trademark cellular functions prompted a wealth of theoretical studies revisiting the concept of virus and associated large DNA viruses with the emergence of early eukaryotes. However, the evolutionary significance of these unique features remained impossible to assess in absence of a Mimivirus relative exhibiting a suitable evolutionary divergence. Here, we present Megavirus chilensis, a giant virus isolated off the coast of Chile, but capable of replicating in fresh water acanthamoeba. Its 1,259,197-bp genome is the largest viral genome fully sequenced so far. It encodes 1,120 putative proteins, of which 258 (23%) have no Mimivirus homologs. The 594 Megavirus/Mimivirus orthologs share an average of 50% of identical residues. Despite this divergence, Megavirus retained all of the genomic features characteristic of Mimivirus, including its cellular-like genes. Moreover, Megavirus exhibits three additional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes (IleRS, TrpRS, and AsnRS) adding strong support to the previous suggestion that the Mimivirus/Megavirus lineage evolved from an ancestral cellular genome by reductive evolution. The main differences in gene content between Mimivirus and Megavirus genomes are due to (i) lineages specific gains or losses of genes, (ii) lineage specific gene family expansion or deletion, and (iii) the insertion/migration of mobile elements (intron, intein). PMID:21987820

  15. Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption and Single-Scattering Albedo On Ambient Relative Humidity for Sulfate Aerosols with Black Carbon Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip B.; Hamill, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols frequently contain hygroscopic sulfate species and black carbon (soot) inclusions. In this paper we report results of a modeling study to determine the change in aerosol absorption due to increases in ambient relative humidity (RH), for three common sulfate species, assuming that the soot mass fraction is present as a single concentric core within each particle. Because of the lack of detailed knowledge about various input parameters to models describing internally mixed aerosol particle optics, we focus on results that were aimed at determining the maximum effect that particle humidification may have on aerosol light absorption. In the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm, maximum absorption humidification factors (ratio of wet to 'dry=30% RH' absorption) for single aerosol particles are found to be as large as 1.75 when the RH changes from 30 to 99.5%. Upon lesser humidification from 30 to 80% RH, absorption humidification for single particles is only as much as 1.2, even for the most favorable combination of initial ('dry') soot mass fraction and particle size. Integrated over monomodal lognormal particle size distributions, maximum absorption humidification factors range between 1.07 and 1.15 for humidification from 30 to 80% and between 1.1 and 1.35 for humidification from 30 to 95% RH for all species considered. The largest humidification factors at a wavelength of 450 nm are obtained for 'dry' particle size distributions that peak at a radius of 0.05 microns, while the absorption humidification factors at 700 nm are largest for 'dry' size distributions that are dominated by particles in the radius range of 0.06 to 0.08 microns. Single-scattering albedo estimates at ambient conditions are often based on absorption measurements at low RH (approx. 30%) and the assumption that aerosol absorption does not change upon humidification (i.e., absorption humidification equal to unity). Our modeling study suggests that this assumption alone can

  16. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  17. Automatic Identification of Messages Related to Adverse Drug Reactions from Online User Reviews using Feature-based Classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfang; Zhang, Pengzhu; Lu, Yingjie

    2014-11-01

    User-generated medical messages on Internet contain extensive information related to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and are known as valuable resources for post-marketing drug surveillance. The aim of this study was to find an effective method to identify messages related to ADRs automatically from online user reviews. We conducted experiments on online user reviews using different feature set and different classification technique. Firstly, the messages from three communities, allergy community, schizophrenia community and pain management community, were collected, the 3000 messages were annotated. Secondly, the N-gram-based features set and medical domain-specific features set were generated. Thirdly, three classification techniques, SVM, C4.5 and Naïve Bayes, were used to perform classification tasks separately. Finally, we evaluated the performance of different method using different feature set and different classification technique by comparing the metrics including accuracy and F-measure. In terms of accuracy, the accuracy of SVM classifier was higher than 0.8, the accuracy of C4.5 classifier or Naïve Bayes classifier was lower than 0.8; meanwhile, the combination feature sets including n-gram-based feature set and domain-specific feature set consistently outperformed single feature set. In terms of F-measure, the highest F-measure is 0.895 which was achieved by using combination feature sets and a SVM classifier. In all, we can get the best classification performance by using combination feature sets and SVM classifier. By using combination feature sets and SVM classifier, we can get an effective method to identify messages related to ADRs automatically from online user reviews.

  18. The relative absorption cross-sections of photosystem I and photosystem II in chloroplasts from three types of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Melis, A; Thielen, A P

    1980-02-08

    In the present study we used three types of Nicotiana tabacum, cv John William's Broad Leaf (the wild type and two mutants, the yellow-green Su/su and the yellow Su/su var. Aurea) in order to correlat functional properties of Photosystem II and Photosystem I with the structural organization of their chloroplasts. The effective absorption cross-section of Photosystem II and Photosystem I centers was measured by means of the rate constant of their photoconversion under light-limiting conditions. In agreement with earlier results (Okabe, K., Schmid, G.H. and Straub, J. (1977) Plant Physiol. 60, 150--156) the photosynthetic unit size for both System II and System I in the two mutants was considerably smaller as compared to the wild type. We observed biphasic kinetics in the photoconversion of System II in all three types of N. tabacum. However, the photoconversion of System I occurred with monophasic and exponential kinetics. Under our experimental conditions, the effective cross-section of Photosystem I was comparable to that of the fast System II component (alpha centers). The relative amplitude of the slow System II component (beta centers) varied between 30% in the wild type to 70% in the Su/su var. Aurea mutant. The increased fraction of beta centers is correlated with the decreased fraction of appressed photosynthetic membranes in the chloroplasts of the two mutants. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that beta centers are located on photosynthetic membranes directly exposed to the stroma medium.

  19. Cyclic Steps and Antidunes : Relating Their Features to a Suspension Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Kishima, Y.; Parker, G.

    2010-12-01

    Cyclic Steps and Antidunes : Relating Their Features to a Suspension Index Miwa Yokokawa (1), Yasushi Kishima (1), Gary Parker (2, 3) 1: Osaka Institute of Technology, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan 2: Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A. 3: Dept. of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A. There are very few comparative studies of the differences in hydraulic conditions and morphologic features of bed- and water-surface-waves associated with cyclic steps and antidunes. In this study, the features of both the bed and the water surface, as well as hydraulic conditions are examined over the spectrum from antidune to cyclic steps. Experiments were performed using a flume at the Osaka Institute of Technology. The resultant features of the bedforms are as follows. In the case of antidunes, bed waves and water surface waves are in phase except when they collapse. Antidunes show several kinds of behavior; migrating downstream, standing, or migrating upstream. Upstream-migrating antidunes are divided into non-breaking, and breaking-types. Breaking antidunes appear alternatively with the plane bed state. Cyclic steps migrate upstream regularly associated with trains of hydraulic jumps, which divide each step. There is a significant change in water depth at the hydraulic jump, so that the phasing between the bed waves and water surface waves break at the each hydraulic jump. There is a kind of compromise between cyclic steps and antidunes, which we designate as “intermediate steps”. They move upstream and are associated with regular trains of hydraulic jumps. The jumps, however, occasionally collapse toward upstream. When this happens, bed waves move rapidly upstream; low-amplitude water surface waves and bed waves become in phase all over the bed shortly after the collapse. Then after some time, water surface waves become sufficiently prominent to yield regular hydraulic jumps. This cycle is then repeated

  20. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  1. Understanding Reflectance Anisotropy: Surface-structure signatures and bulk-related features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero Schmidt, W.

    2000-03-01

    Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) is becoming an increasingly important tool for in situ control of semiconductor processing with real-time feedback. The understanding and interpretation of the measured spectra, however, has been hampered by relatively slow theoretical progress. Using a massively parallel real-space multigrid technique [1] and ab initio pseudopotentials we calculated the optical spectra of a variety of III-V(001) growth structures and stepped Si(111):H surfaces. Our results agree well with experiment, notably with respect to the stoichiometric changes induced by different surface preparations. We identify two distinct sources for the optical anisotropy: (i) highly structure-dependent features are caused by transitions involving electronic surface states, and (ii) derivative-like oscillations or peaks at the bulk critical point energies arise from transitions between surface-modified bulk wave functions. The latter are nearly independent from the actual surface structure. The agreement between the calculated and measured spectra is further improved by applying quasi-particle corrections obtained from numerically efficient, simplified GW calculations [2]. The combination of converged first-principles calculations with an approximate treatment of many-particle effects allows the reliable identification of ``surface-structure fingerprints'' in the optical spectra, paving the way for the exploitation of their rich technological potential. [1ex] [1] EL Briggs, DJ Sullivan, J Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 54, 14362 (1996). [2] F Bechstedt, R Del Sole, G Cappellini, L Reining, Solid State Commun. 84, 765 (1992).

  2. Forensic Features of Clothing-Related Deaths: Historical and Cultural Aspects.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2017-12-01

    Clothing may both cause death and contribute to ongoing lethal mechanisms by a variety of quite disparate mechanisms. The manner of death may be accidental, suicidal, or homicidal. Accidental deaths include burning from clothing catching on fire, strangulation from clothing tangling in vehicle wheels or exposed machinery, and drowning. Entanglement of clothing in machinery may also result in significant injuries, which are not uncommon in farming communities. Excessive clothing, or its absence, may significantly alter body temperature, and hanging from clothing is a feature in the young or in mentally or physically handicapped adults, or in adults who are intoxicated with alcohol or drugs. In previous years, potentially lethal amounts of arsenic were present in clothing and accessories from dyes. Clothing may also be used to form nooses or to pad ropes in suicides and may be used in cases of strangulation, suffocation, or choking in homicides. The contribution of clothing to mortality has changed over the years with changes in fashions and in manufacturing techniques. Geographical differences in clothing-related deaths persist because of variable social and cultural practices and legislative frameworks.

  3. Automated age-related macular degeneration classification in OCT using unsupervised feature learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venhuizen, Freerk G.; van Ginneken, Bram; Bloemen, Bart; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Philipsen, Rick; Hoyng, Carel; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2015-03-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disorder with high prevalence in elderly people. The disease mainly affects the central part of the retina, and could ultimately lead to permanent vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is becoming the standard imaging modality in diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of its progression. However, the evaluation of the obtained volumetric scan is time consuming, expensive and the signs of early AMD are easy to miss. In this paper we propose a classification method to automatically distinguish AMD patients from healthy subjects with high accuracy. The method is based on an unsupervised feature learning approach, and processes the complete image without the need for an accurate pre-segmentation of the retina. The method can be divided in two steps: an unsupervised clustering stage that extracts a set of small descriptive image patches from the training data, and a supervised training stage that uses these patches to create a patch occurrence histogram for every image on which a random forest classifier is trained. Experiments using 384 volume scans show that the proposed method is capable of identifying AMD patients with high accuracy, obtaining an area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0:984. Our method allows for a quick and reliable assessment of the presence of AMD pathology in OCT volume scans without the need for accurate layer segmentation algorithms.

  4. Narcissistic Features in Young Adolescents: Relations to Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Jason J.; McMahon, Susan D.; King, Cheryl A.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silver, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research and theory suggest narcissistic features contribute to aggression in adults. The present study examined the association of narcissistic features with aggression and internalizing symptoms in 233 students of 5th-8th grade at three inner-city schools. A factor analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in this sample revealed…

  5. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (<1:50) and unknown or alternative diagnoses were excluded from further study. Three of the remaining 45 patients had newly-identified thymomas and one had a lymphoma. Thirty-three patients were classified as progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus, and two as stiff person syndrome; five had a limbic encephalitis or epileptic encephalopathy, two had brainstem features mainly, two had demyelinating optic neuropathies and one had an unclear diagnosis. Four patients (9%) died during the acute disease, but most showed marked improvement with immunotherapies. At most recent follow-up, (2–7 years, median 3 years, since first antibody detection), the median modified Rankin scale scores (excluding the four deaths) decreased from 5 at maximal severity to 1 (P < 0.0001), but relapses have occurred in five patients and a proportion are on reducing steroids or other maintenance immunotherapies as well as symptomatic treatments. The glycine receptor antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with

  6. Small-bowel absorption of D-tagatose and related effects on carbohydrate digestibility: an ileostomy study.

    PubMed

    Normén, L; Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B; Langkilde, A M; Andersson, H

    2001-01-01

    The ketohexose D-tagatose is a new sweetener with a low energy content. This low energy content may be due to either low absorption of the D-tagatose or decreased absorption of other nutrients. The aims of this study were to measure the excretion of D-tagatose from the human small bowel, to calculate the apparent absorption of D-tagatose, and to study the effects of D-tagatose on the small-bowel excretion of other carbohydrates. A controlled diet was served for 2 periods of 2 d during 3 consecutive weeks to 6 ileostomy subjects. In one of the periods, 15 g D-tagatose was added to the diet daily. Duplicate portions of the diet and ileostomy effluents were freeze-dried and analyzed to calculate the apparent net absorption of D-tagatose and carbohydrates. Median D-tagatose excretion was 19% (range: 12-31%), which corresponded to a calculated apparent absorption of 81% (69-88%). Of the total amount of D-tagatose excreted [2.8 g (1.7-4.4 g)], 60% (8-88%) was excreted within 3 h. Between 3 and 5 h, 32% (11-82%) was excreted. Excretion of wet matter increased by 41% (24-52%) with D-tagatose ingestion. Sucrose and D-glucose excretion increased to a small extent, whereas no significant changes were found in the excretion of dry matter, energy, starch, or D-fructose. The apparent absorption of 15 g D-tagatose/d was 81%. D-Tagatose had only a minor influence on the apparent absorption of other nutrients.

  7. Lower limb flexion posture relates to energy absorption during drop landings with soldier-relevant body borne loads.

    PubMed

    Brown, T N; O'Donovan, M; Hasselquist, L; Corner, B; Schiffman, J M

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen military personnel performed 30-cm drop landings to quantify how body borne load (light, ∼6 kg, medium, ∼20 kg, and heavy, ∼40 kg) impacts lower limb kinematics and knee joint energy absorption during landing, and determine whether greater lower limb flexion increases energy absorption while landing with load. Participants decreased peak hip (P = 0.002), and knee flexion (P = 0.007) posture, but did not increase hip (P = 0.796), knee (P = 0.427) or ankle (P = 0.161) energy absorption, despite exhibiting greater peak hip (P = 0.003) and knee (P = 0.001) flexion, and ankle (P = 0.003) dorsiflexion angular impulse when landing with additional load. Yet, when landing with the light and medium loads, greater hip (R(2) = 0.500, P = 0.003 and R(2) = 0.314, P = 0.030) and knee (R(2) = 0.431, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.342, P = 0.022) flexion posture predicted larger knee joint energy absorption. Thus, military training that promotes hip and knee flexion, and subsequently greater energy absorption during landing, may potentially reduce risk of musculoskeletal injury and optimize soldier performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. IGF2 differentially methylated region hypomethylation in relation to pathological and molecular features of serrated lesions

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Takafumi; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Ito, Miki; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Yoshii, Shinji; Aoki, Hironori; Nomura, Masafumi; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Hosokawa, Masao; Fujita, Masahiro; Takenouchi, Toshinao; Maruyama, Reo; Suzuki, Hiromu; Baba, Yoshifumi; Imai, Kohzoh; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Shuji; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) differentially methylated region (DMR)0 hypomethylation in relation to clinicopathological and molecular features in colorectal serrated lesions. METHODS: To accurately analyze the association between the histological types and molecular features of each type of serrated lesion, we consecutively collected 1386 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that comprised all histological types [hyperplastic polyps (HPs, n = 121), sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs, n = 132), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs, n = 111), non-serrated adenomas (n = 195), and colorectal cancers (CRCs, n = 827)]. We evaluated the methylation levels of IGF2 DMR0 and long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) in HPs (n = 115), SSAs (n = 120), SSAs with cytological dysplasia (n = 10), TSAs (n = 91), TSAs with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (n = 15), non-serrated adenomas (n = 80), non-serrated adenomas with HGD (n = 105), and CRCs (n = 794). For the accurate quantification of the relative methylation levels (scale 0%-100%) of IGF2 DMR0 and LINE-1, we used bisulfite pyrosequencing method. Tumor specimens were analyzed for microsatellite instability, KRAS (codons 12 and 13), BRAF (V600E), and PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20) mutations; MLH1 and MGMT methylation; and IGF2 expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The distribution of the IGF2 DMR0 methylation level in 351 serrated lesions and 185 non-serrated adenomas (with or without HGD) was as follows: mean 61.7, median 62.5, SD 18.0, range 5.0-99.0, interquartile range 49.5-74.4. The IGF2 DMR0 methylation level was divided into quartiles (Q1 ≥ 74.5, Q2 62.6-74.4, Q3 49.6-62.5, Q4 ≤ 49.5) for further analysis. With regard to the histological type, the IGF2 DMR0 methylation levels of SSAs (mean ± SD, 73.1 ± 12.3) were significantly higher than those of HPs (61.9 ± 20.5), TSAs (61.6 ± 19.6), and non-serrated adenomas (59.0 ± 15.8) (P < 0.0001). The IGF2 DMR0 methylation level was

  9. [Clinical features of liver cirrhosis complicated by portal vein thrombosis and related risk factors].

    PubMed

    Lin, G S; Xu, Q; Zhao, S Y; Zhang, Y X

    2016-07-20

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and related risk factors. Methods: A total of 65 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by PVT who were diagnosed and treated from June 2013 to June 2015 were enrolled as PVT group, and 70 cirrhotic patients without PVT were enrolled as controls (non-PVT group). The data collected included general information, results of laboratory examination, imaging findings, clinical manifestations, and complications. The clinical features were compared between the two groups, and related risk factors were screened out. Results: There were no significant differences between the PVT group and non-PVT group in age, sex, nation, etiology, white blood cell count, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, serum creatinine, total bilirubin, and the diameter of the splenic vein (all P > 0.05), while between these two groups, there were significant differences in D-dimer (1.87±1.45 mg/ml vs 0.55±0.58 mg/ml, P < 0.05), fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) level (18.57±19.46 μg/ml vs 5.45±6.00 μg/ml, P < 0.05), hemoglobin (99.32±26.73 g/L vs 112.64±25.03 g/L, P < 0.05), albumin (28.51±5.19 g/L vs 33.07±7.94 g/L, P < 0.05), the diameter of the portal vein (12.53±2.70 mm vs 11.17±1.79 mm, P < 0.05), spleen thickness (5.12±0.95 cm vs 4.56±0.83 cm, P < 0.05), spleen length (15.35±3.21 cm vs 13.86±2.82 cm, P < 0.05), and Child-Pugh score (7.66±2.06 vs 6.93±1.87, P < 0.05). The two groups showed no significant differences in diarrhea, ileus, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy ( P > 0.05), but showed significant differences in abdominal pain (18 vs 7 cases, P < 0.05), fever (17 vs 4 cases, P < 0.05), esophageal variceal bleeding (22 vs 9 cases, P < 0.05), and spontaneous peritonitis (24 vs 12 cases, P < 0.05). D-dimer (OR = 4.290, P < 0.000) and mean platelet volume (OR = 1.294, P

  10. Feature Extraction of Event-Related Potentials Using Wavelets: An Application to Human Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Shensa, Mark J.; Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many f ree parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation,-, algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance.

  11. Feature extraction of event-related potentials using wavelets: an application to human performance monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, L. J.; Shensa, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many free parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Common and divergent structural features of a series of corticotropin releasing factor-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Perrin, Marilyn H; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Vale, Wylie W; Rivier, Jean E; Riek, Roland

    2007-12-26

    Members of the corticoliberin family include the corticotropin releasing factors (CRFs), sauvagine, the urotensins, and urocortin 1 (Ucn1), which bind to both the CRF receptors CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and the urocortins 2 (Ucn2) and 3 (Ucn3), which are selective agonists of CRF-R2. Structure activity relationship studies led to several potent and long-acting analogues with selective binding to either one of the receptors. NMR structures of six ligands of this family (the antagonists astressin B and astressin2-B, the agonists stressin1, and the natural ligands human Ucn1, Ucn2, and Ucn3) were determined in DMSO. These six peptides show differences in binding affinities, receptor-selectivity, and NMR structure. Overall, their backbones are alpha-helical, with a small kink or a turn around residues 25-27, resulting in a helix-loop-helix motif. The C-terminal helices are of amphipathic nature, whereas the N-terminal helices vary in their amphipathicity. The C-terminal helices thereby assume a conformation very similar to that of astressin bound to the ECD1 of CRF-R2 recently reported by our group.1 On the basis of an analysis of the observed 3D structures and relative potencies of [Ala]-substituted analogues, it is proposed that both helices could play a crucial role in receptor binding and selectivity. In conclusion, the C-terminal helices may interact along their hydrophobic faces with the ECD1, whereas the entire N-terminal helical surface may be involved in receptor activation. On the basis of the common and divergent features observed in the 3D structures of these ligands, multiple binding models are proposed that may explain their plurality of actions.

  13. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  14. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  15. First evidence of a prospective relation between avoidance of internal states and borderline personality disorder features in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Mellick, William; Venta, Amanda; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-03-01

    At least two leading developmental models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the role of accurate reflection and understanding of internal states as significant to the development of BPD features (Fonagy, Int J Psycho-Anal 72:639-656, 1991; Linehan, Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder, 1993). The current study used the construct of experiential avoidance (EA) to operationalize avoidance of internal states and sought to examine (1) the concurrent relations between EA and borderline features in a large and diverse community sample; and (2) the prospective relation between EA and borderline features over a 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline features. N = 881 adolescents recruited from public schools in a large metropolitan area participated in baseline assessments and N = 730 completed follow-up assessments. Two main findings were reported. First, EA was associated with borderline features, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at the bivariate level, but when all variables were considered together, depression and anxiety no longer remained significantly associated with borderline features, suggesting that the relations among these symptom clusters may be accounted for by EA as a cross-cutting underlying psychological process. Second, EA predicted levels of borderline symptoms at 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results are interpreted against the background of developmental theories of borderline personality disorder.

  16. Explaining Andean Potato Weevils in Relation to Local and Landscape Features: A Facilitated Ecoinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raúl; Olivera, Edgar; Scurrah, María; Alcázar, Jesús; Rosenheim, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a “facilitated ecoinformatics” approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp.), the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2–46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. Conclusions/Significance Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives. PMID:22693551

  17. [Chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics with relation to fluorescence in typical macrophyte, algae lake zones of Lake Taihu].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-lin; Qin, Bo-qiang; Ma, Rong-hua; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Wei-min

    2005-03-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents one of the primary light-absorbing species in natural waters and plays a critical in determining the aquatic light field. CDOM shows a featureless absorption spectrum that increases exponentially with decreasing wavelength, which limits the penetration of biologically damaging UV-B radiation (wavelength from 280 to 320 nm) in the water column, thus shielding aquatic organisms. CDOM absorption measurements and their relationship with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and fluorescence are presented in typical macrophyte and algae lake zone of Lake Taihu based on a field investigation in April in 2004 and lab analysis. Absorption spectral of CDOM was measured from 240 to 800 nm using a Shimadzu UV-2401PC UV-Vis recording spectrophotometer. Fluorescence with an excitation wavelength of 355 nm, an emission wavelength of 450 nm is measured using a Shimadzu 5301 spectrofluorometer. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 6.3 to 17.2 mg/L with an average of 9.08 +/- 2.66 mg/L. CDOM absorption coefficients at 280 nm and 355 nm were in the range of 11.2 - 32.6 m(-1) (average 17.46m(-1) +/- 5.75 m(-1) and 2.4 - 8.3 m(-1) (average 4.17m(-1) +/- 1.47 m(-l)), respectively. The values of the DOC-specific absorption coefficient at 355 nm ranged from 0.31 to 0.64 L x (mg x m)-1. Fluorescence emission at 450 nm, excited at 355 nm, had a mean value of 1.32nm(-1) +/- 0.84 nm(-1). A significant lake zone difference is found in DOC concentration, CDOM absorption coefficient and fluorescence, but not in DOC-specific absorption coefficient and spectral slope coefficient. This regional distribution pattern is in agreement with the location of sources of yellow substance: highest concentrations close to river mouth under the influence of river inflow, lower values in East Lake Taihu. The values of algae lake zone are obvious larger than those of macrophyte lake zone. In Meiliang Bay, CDOM absorption, DOC concentration and fluorescence tend to

  18. A novel missense-mutation-related feature extraction scheme for 'driver' mutation identification.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hua; Bao, Jiguang; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2012-11-15

    It becomes widely accepted that human cancer is a disease involving dynamic changes in the genome and that the missense mutations constitute the bulk of human genetic variations. A multitude of computational algorithms, especially the machine learning-based ones, has consequently been proposed to distinguish missense changes that contribute to the cancer progression ('driver' mutation) from those that do not ('passenger' mutation). However, the existing methods have multifaceted shortcomings, in the sense that they either adopt incomplete feature space or depend on protein structural databases which are usually far from integrated. In this article, we investigated multiple aspects of a missense mutation and identified a novel feature space that well distinguishes cancer-associated driver mutations from passenger ones. An index (DX score) was proposed to evaluate the discriminating capability of each feature, and a subset of these features which ranks top was selected to build the SVM classifier. Cross-validation showed that the classifier trained on our selected features significantly outperforms the existing ones both in precision and robustness. We applied our method to several datasets of missense mutations culled from published database and literature and obtained more reasonable results than previous studies. The software is available online at http://www.methodisthealth.com/software and https://sites.google.com/site/drivermutationidentification/. xzhou@tmhs.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  20. Anatomical Features of the Interscapular Area Where Wet Cupping Therapy Is Done and Its Possible Relation to Acupuncture Meridians.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Roshanak; Sayfouri, Nasrin; Ayati, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Although wet cupping has been a treatment for centuries, its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because the anatomical features of the wet-cupping area might play a role in its mechanism, we focus on the features of the interscapular area in which a common type of wet-cupping therapy (WCT), called Hijamat-e-Aam in Iranian medicine, is usually applied and discuss the possible relation of those features to the acupuncture meridians. We gathered and analyzed data from reliable textbooks on modern medicine with a focus on the anatomical features of the interscapular area, topics related to WTC in Iranian medicine, and acupuncture sources obtained by searching PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science Direct. The interscapular area used for WCT was found to have special features: brown adipose tissue, immediate proximity to sympathetic ganglia, passage of the thoracic duct, two important acupuncture meridians, and proximity to the main vessel divisions carrying blood from the heart and the brain. These features indicate that the interscapular application of WCT not only discharges waste materials through a shifting of blood to the site after application of a traction force but also invigorates the body's metabolism, increases immunity, and regulates blood biochemistry, which are desired therapeutic effects of WCT. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Feature-based attention is functionally distinct from relation-based attention: The double dissociation between color-based capture and color-relation-based capture of attention.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Jiao, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The present study used a spatial blink task and a cuing task to examine the boundary between feature-based capture and relation-based capture. Feature-based capture occurs when distractors match the target feature such as target color. The occurrence of relation-based capture is contingent upon the feature relation between target and distractor (e.g., color relation). The results show that color distractors that match the target-nontarget color relation do not consistently capture attention when they appear outside of the attentional window, but distractors appearing outside the attentional window that match the target color consistently capture attention. In contrast, color distractors that best match the target-nontarget color relation but not the target color, are more likely to capture attention when they appear within the attentional window. Consistently, color cues that match the target-nontarget color relation produce a cuing effect when they appear within the attentional window, while target-color matched cues do not. Such a double dissociation between color-based capture and color-relation-based capture indicates functionally distinct mechanisms for these 2 types of attentional selection. This also indicates that the spatial blink task and the uninformative cuing task are measuring distinctive aspects of involuntary attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Human papillomavirus-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features of the inferior turbinate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun Jin; Ok, Sohea; Lee, Heung-Man; Lee, Eunjung; Park, Il-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Sinonasal malignancies are uncommon, but are of many different histologic types. Recently, Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic features was reported as a new histologic form. Although this histologic type resembles an adenoid cystic carcinoma, it differs from adenoid cystic carcinomas with regard to its association with HPV. Here, we present a case of HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic features in the nasal cavity. We also review the histological characters of the tumor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Absorption by Spinning Dust: A Contaminant for High-redshift 21 cm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, B. T.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2018-05-01

    Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high-redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) has reported 21 cm absorption at z≈ 17, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii a≈ 50 \\mathringA in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), with rotational temperature T ≈ 50 K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

  4. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  5. The relative importance of external and internal features of facial composites.

    PubMed

    Frowd, Charlie; Bruce, Vicki; McIntyre, Alex; Hancock, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Three experiments are reported that compare the quality of external with internal regions within a set of facial composites using two matching-type tasks. Composites are constructed with the aim of triggering recognition from people familiar with the targets, and past research suggests internal face features dominate representations of familiar faces in memory. However the experiments reported here show that the internal regions of composites are very poorly matched against the faces they purport to represent, while external feature regions alone were matched almost as well as complete composites. In Experiments 1 and 2 the composites used were constructed by participant-witnesses who were unfamiliar with the targets and therefore were predicted to demonstrate a bias towards the external parts of a face. In Experiment 3 we compared witnesses who were familiar or unfamiliar with the target items, but for both groups the external features were much better reproduced in the composites, suggesting it is the process of composite construction itself which is responsible for the poverty of the internal features. Practical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Clinical features and management of non-HIV related lipodystrophy in children: A systematic review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipodystrophy syndromes are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize data on clinical and metabolic features of lipodystrophy (age at onset, < 18 years). Sources included Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Non-Indexe...

  7. Spin-related origin of the magnetotransport feature at filling factor 7/11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamez, Gerardo; Muraki, Koji

    2010-03-01

    Experiments by Pan et al. disclosed quantum Hall (QH) effect-like features at unconventional filling fractions, such as 4/11 and 7/11, not included in the Jain sequence [1]. These features were considered as evidence for a new class of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states whose origin, unlike ordinary FQH states, is linked to interactions between composite fermions (CFs). However, the exact origin of these features is not well established yet. Here we focus on 7/11, where a minimum in the longitudinal resistance and a plateau-like structure in the Hall resistance are observed at a much higher field, 11.4 T, in a 30-nm quantum well (QW). Our density-dependent studies show that at this field, the FQH states flanking 7/11, viz. the 2/3 and 3/5 states, are both fully spin polarized. Despite of this fact, tilted-field experiments reveal that the 7/11 feature weakens and then disappears upon tilting. Using a CF model, we show that the spin degree of freedom may not be completely frozen in the region between the 2/3 and 3/5 states even when both states are fully polarized. Systematic studies unveil that the exact location of the 7/11 feature depends on the electron density and the QW width, in accordance with the model. Our model can also account for the reported contrasting behavior upon tilting of 7/11 and its electron-hole counterpart 4/11. [1] Pan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 016801 (2003).

  8. Geologic features of the Connecticut Valley, Massachusetts, as related to recent floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jahns, Richard Henry

    1947-01-01

    This report gives the results of a geologic study of certain features that bear upon the recent flood behavior of rivers flowing in the Massachusetts part of the Connecticut Valley. It is in part an outline of the physiographic history of the Connecticut River, a 'history that is treated in progressively greater detail as it concerns events occurring from Mesozoic time to the present, and in part a discussion of erosional and depositional processes associated with the extraordinary floods of March 1936 and September 1938. The Connecticut River flows southward through Massachusetts in a broad lowland area of more than 400 square miles and is joined in this area by four large tributaries, the Deerfield and Westfield Rivers from the west and the Millers and Chicopee Rivers from the east. The lowland area, or :Connecticut Valley province, is flanked on the west by the Berkshire Hills, a, deeply incised uplifted plateau, and on the east by the central upland, or Worcester .County plateau, a lower upland marked by rolling topography. Most of the broad, relatively flat valley floor is underlain by Triassic sedimentary rocks. Rising above it, however, are the prominent Holyoke-Mount Tom and Deerfield Ranges, which consist in large part of dark-colored igneous rocks, also of Triassic age. There is evidence of several cycles of erosion in central western Massachusetts, the last two of which are of Tertiary age and appear to have reached nature and very youthful stages of topographic development, respectively. Immediately prior to the glacial epoch, therefore, the Connecticut River flowed in a fairly narrow, deep gorge, which it had incised in the rather flat 5ottom of the valley that it had formed at an earlier stage. A Pleistocene crustal subsidence probably of several hundred feet, for which there has been only partial compensation in postglacial time, was responsible for the present position of much of this gorge below sea level. That an estuary does not now occupy the

  9. [Study on risk factors and behavior features related to chronic diseases among adults in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-ying; Li, Xin-jian; Yao, Hai-hong; Yan, Qing-hua; Lu, Wei; Zhong, Wei-jian

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the risk factors and behavior features related to chronic diseases among adults in Shanghai. A total of 15 516 subjects aged over 18 years old were selected from the investigation project on chronic diseases and relevant risk factors in Shanghai in 2010. Questionnaire were used to investigate the general information of the subjects, such as behavior features as smoking, drinking, diet, physical activity as well as the prevalence and control of chronic diseases as hypertension and diabetes. The physical examination included height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipids. Being preprocessed by complex weighting method, the data showed that the overweight rate of Shanghai adults aged above 18 was 32.4% (5288), separately 32.2% (2506) and 32.5% (2782) (χ(2) = 0.10, P = 0.844) in urban and rural areas; the obesity rate was 8.8% (1538), separately 8.7% (738) and 8.8% (800) (χ(2) = 0.06, P = 0.901) in urban and rural areas. The overweight rate was separately 36.0% (2888) in males and 28.6% (2400) in females (χ(2) = 96.61, P < 0.01); while the obesity rate was separately 8.7% (745) in males and 8.9% (793) in females (χ(2) = 0.06, P = 0.851). Abdominal obesity rate was 44.3% (7419), separately 47.8% (3892) in males and 40.6% (3527) in females (χ(2) = 81.23, P < 0.01), 46.5% (3703) in urban areas and 42.6% (3716) in rural areas (χ(2) = 24.37, P = 0.069). Current smoking rate was 25.0% (3813), separately 48.4% (3722) and 1.2% (91) in males and females (χ(2) = 4572.06, P < 0.01); 23.6% (1609) and 26.0% (2204) in urban and rural areas (χ(2) = 11.92, P = 0.018). The regular smoking rate was 22.1% (3402). The rate of having the habit of drinking at least once a month in males was 39.5% (3102), separately 35.1% (1262) and 42.7% (1840) in urban and rural areas (χ(2) = 45.98, P = 0.012). The rate of drinking almost every day was 16.3% (1380), and the percentage of excessive alcohol consumption was 28.9% (2483). The

  10. Surveying alignment-free features for Ortholog detection in related yeast proteomes by using supervised big data classifiers.

    PubMed

    Galpert, Deborah; Fernández, Alberto; Herrera, Francisco; Antunes, Agostinho; Molina-Ruiz, Reinaldo; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermin

    2018-05-03

    The development of new ortholog detection algorithms and the improvement of existing ones are of major importance in functional genomics. We have previously introduced a successful supervised pairwise ortholog classification approach implemented in a big data platform that considered several pairwise protein features and the low ortholog pair ratios found between two annotated proteomes (Galpert, D et al., BioMed Research International, 2015). The supervised models were built and tested using a Saccharomycete yeast benchmark dataset proposed by Salichos and Rokas (2011). Despite several pairwise protein features being combined in a supervised big data approach; they all, to some extent were alignment-based features and the proposed algorithms were evaluated on a unique test set. Here, we aim to evaluate the impact of alignment-free features on the performance of supervised models implemented in the Spark big data platform for pairwise ortholog detection in several related yeast proteomes. The Spark Random Forest and Decision Trees with oversampling and undersampling techniques, and built with only alignment-based similarity measures or combined with several alignment-free pairwise protein features showed the highest classification performance for ortholog detection in three yeast proteome pairs. Although such supervised approaches outperformed traditional methods, there were no significant differences between the exclusive use of alignment-based similarity measures and their combination with alignment-free features, even within the twilight zone of the studied proteomes. Just when alignment-based and alignment-free features were combined in Spark Decision Trees with imbalance management, a higher success rate (98.71%) within the twilight zone could be achieved for a yeast proteome pair that underwent a whole genome duplication. The feature selection study showed that alignment-based features were top-ranked for the best classifiers while the runners-up were

  11. MSG-7: molecular absorption processes related to the penetration of ultraviolet solar radiation into the middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.E.; Blake, A.J.; Freeman, D.E.

    1983-07-01

    The information presently available on the absorption cross sections of O2 and O3 with attention to the application of these data in middle atmospheric science is reviewed. The cross sections values reported by different groups are intercompared in tabular form where feasible, and specific values are recommended when there is a basis for preferring a particular set of results over other available data. When no such basis exists, the differences among published cross sections then serve to indicate a range of uncertainty. In these cases the need for additional work is indicated. Specific topics addressed are the absorption of molecularmore » oxygen at Lyman alpha, in the Schumann-Runge continuum, in the Schumann-Runge bands, and in the Herzberg continuum. For ozone, the Hartley and Huggins bands are considered.« less

  12. MSG-7: Molecular absorption processes related to the penetration of ultraviolet solar radiation into the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Blake, A. J.; Freeman, D. E.; Nicholls, R. W.; Ogawa, T.; Simon, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The information presently available on the absorption cross sections of O2 and O3 with attention to the application of these data in middle atmospheric science is reviewed. The cross sections values reported by different groups are intercompared in tabular form where feasible, and specific values are recommended when there is a basis for preferring a particular set of results over other available data. When no such basis exists, the differences among published cross sections then serve to indicate a range of uncertainty. In these cases the need for additional work is indicated. Specific topics addressed are the absorption of molecular oxygen at Lyman alpha, in the Schumann-Runge continuum, in the Schumann-Runge bands, and in the Herzberg continuum. For ozone, the Hartley and Huggins bands are considered.

  13. Using Writing Process and Product Features to Assess Writing Quality and Explore How Those Features Relate to Other Literacy Tasks. Research Report. ETS RR-14-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores automated methods for measuring features of student writing and determining their relationship to writing quality and other features of literacy, such as reading rest scores. In particular, it uses the "e-rater"™ automatic essay scoring system to measure "product" features (measurable traits of the final…

  14. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  15. Relations between Automatically Extracted Motion Features and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions at 4 and 13 Months

    PubMed Central

    Egmose, Ida; Varni, Giovanna; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette S.; Køppe, Simo; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e., more parent-led interactions and more infant negativity. Further, at 4 months, the amount of motion silence was related to more adaptive interactions, i.e., more sensitive and child-led interactions. Analyses of the fine-grained motion features showed that if the mother coordinates her head movements with her infant's head movements, the interaction is rated as more adaptive in terms of less infant negativity and less dyadic negative states. We found more and stronger correlations between the motion features and the interaction qualities at 4 compared to 13 months. These results highlight that motion features are related to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Factors such as infant age and interaction set-up are likely to modify the meaning and importance of different motion features. PMID:29326626

  16. Relations between Automatically Extracted Motion Features and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions at 4 and 13 Months.

    PubMed

    Egmose, Ida; Varni, Giovanna; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette S; Køppe, Simo; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e., more parent-led interactions and more infant negativity. Further, at 4 months, the amount of motion silence was related to more adaptive interactions, i.e., more sensitive and child-led interactions. Analyses of the fine-grained motion features showed that if the mother coordinates her head movements with her infant's head movements, the interaction is rated as more adaptive in terms of less infant negativity and less dyadic negative states. We found more and stronger correlations between the motion features and the interaction qualities at 4 compared to 13 months. These results highlight that motion features are related to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Factors such as infant age and interaction set-up are likely to modify the meaning and importance of different motion features.

  17. Root features related to plant growth and nutrient removal of 35 wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wen-Ling; Wang, Shu-Qiang; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Zhang-He

    2011-07-01

    Morphological, structural, and eco-physiological features of roots, nutrient removal, and correlation between the indices were comparatively studied for 35 emergent wetland plants in small-scale wetlands for further investigation into the hypothesis of two types of wetland plant roots (Chen et al., 2004). Significant differences in root morphological, structural, and eco-physiological features were found among the 35 species. They were divided into two types: fibrous-root plants and thick-root plants. The fibrous-root plants had most or all roots of diameter (D) ≤ 1 mm. Roots of D > 1 mm also had many fine and long lateral roots of D ≤ 1 mm. The roots of these plants were long and had a thin epidermis and a low degree of lignification. The roots of the thick-root plants were almost all thicker than 1 mm, and generally had no further fine lateral roots. The roots were short, smooth, and fleshy, and had a thick epidermis. Root porosity of the fibrous-root plants was higher than that of the thick-root plants (p = 0.001). The aerenchyma of the fibrous-root plants was composed of large cavities which were formed from many small cavities, and distributed radially between the exodermis and vascular tissues. The aerenchyma of the thick-root plants had a large number of small cavities which were distributed in the mediopellis. The fibrous-root plants had a significantly larger root biomass of D ≤ 1 mm, of 1 mm < D < 3 mm, above-ground biomass, total biomass, and longer root system, but shorter root longevity than those of the thick-root plants (p = 0.003, 0.018, 0.020, 0.032, 0.042, 0.001). The fibrous-root plants also had significantly higher radial oxygen loss (ROL), root activity, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and removal rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus than the thick-root plants (p = 0.001, 0.008, 0.010, 0.004, 0.020, 0.002). The results indicate that significantly different root morphological and structural features existed among different

  18. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.

    2013-12-01

    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  19. Selective weighting of action-related feature dimensions in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Anna; Schubö, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Planning an action primes feature dimensions that are relevant for that particular action, increasing the impact of these dimensions on perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether action planning also affects the short-term maintenance of visual information. In a combined memory and movement task, participants were to memorize items defined by size or color while preparing either a grasping or a pointing movement. Whereas size is a relevant feature dimension for grasping, color can be used to localize the goal object and guide a pointing movement. The results showed that memory for items defined by size was better during the preparation of a grasping movement than during the preparation of a pointing movement. Conversely, memory for color tended to be better when a pointing movement rather than a grasping movement was being planned. This pattern was not only observed when the memory task was embedded within the preparation period of the movement, but also when the movement to be performed was only indicated during the retention interval of the memory task. These findings reveal that a weighting of information in visual working memory according to action relevance can even be implemented at the representational level during maintenance, demonstrating that our actions continue to influence visual processing beyond the perceptual stage.

  20. Balance confidence is related to features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Wong, Jennifer S.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Reduced balance confidence is associated with impairments in features of balance and gait in individuals with sub-acute stroke. However, an understanding of these relationships in individuals at the chronic stage of stroke recovery is lacking. This study aimed to quantify relationships between balance confidence and specific features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke. Participants completed a balance confidence questionnaire and clinical balance assessment (quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping) at 6 months post-discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Regression analyses were performed using balance confidence as a predictor variable and quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping outcome measures as the dependent variables. Walking velocity was positively correlated with balance confidence, while medio-lateral centre of pressure excursion (quiet standing) and double support time, step width variability, and step time variability (walking) were negatively correlated with balance confidence. This study provides insight into the relationships between balance confidence and balance and gait measures in individuals with chronic stroke, suggesting that individuals with low balance confidence exhibited impaired control of quiet standing as well as walking characteristics associated with cautious gait strategies. Future work should identify the direction of these relationships to inform community-based stroke rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic stroke, and determine the potential utility of incorporating interventions to improve balance confidence into these programs. PMID:27955809

  1. On the Origin of the Bolivian High and Related Circulation Features of the South American Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenters, J. D.; Cook, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The climatological structure in the upper-tropospheric summertime circulation over South America is diagnosed using a GCM (with and without South American topography), a linear model, and observational data. Emphasis is placed on understanding the origin of observed features such as the Bolivian high and the accompanying `Nordeste low' to the east. Results from the linear model indicate that these two features are generated in response to precipitation over the Amazon basin, central Andes, and South Atlantic convergence zone, with African precipitation also playing a crucial role in the formation of the Nordeste low. The direct mechanical and sensible heating effects of the Andes are minimal, acting only to induce a weak lee trough in midlatitudes and a shallow monsoonal circulation over the central Andes. In the GCM, the effects of the Andes include a strengthening of the Bolivian high and northward shift of the Nordeste low, primarily through changes in the precipitation field. The position of the Bolivian high is primarily determined by Amazonian precipitation and is little affected by the removal of the Andes. Strong subsidence to the west of the high is found to be important for the maintenance of the high's warm core, while large-scale convective overshooting to the east is responsible for a layer of cold air above the high.

  2. Establishment of an in silico phototoxicity prediction method by combining descriptors related to photo-absorption and photo-reaction.

    PubMed

    Haranosono, Yu; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki

    2014-08-01

    One of the mechanisms of phototoxicity is photo-reaction, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation following photo-absorption. We focused on ROS generation and photo-absorption as key-steps, because these key-steps are able to be described by photochemical properties, and these properties are dependent on chemical structure. Photo-reactivity of a compound is described by HOMO-LUMO Gap (HLG), generally. Herein, we showed that HLG can be used as a descriptor of the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the maximum-conjugated π electron number (PENMC), which we found as a descriptor of photo-absorption, could also predict in vitro phototoxicity. Each descriptor could predict in vitro phototoxicity with 70.0% concordance, but there was un-predicted area found (gray zone). Interestingly, some compounds in each gray zone were not common, indicating that the combination of two descriptors could improve prediction potential. We reset the cut-off lines to define positive zone, negative zone and gray zone for each descriptor. Thereby we overlapped HLG and PENMC in a graph, and divided the total area to nine zones with cut-off lines of each descriptor. The rules to prediction were decided to achieve the best concordance, and the concordances were improved up to 82.8% for self-validation, 81.6% for cross-validation. We found common properties among false positive or negative compounds, photo-reactive structure and photo-allergenic, respectively. In addition, our method could be adapted to compounds rich in structural diversity using only chemical structure without any statistical analysis and complicated calculation.

  3. Using Feature Films to Teach Public Relations: An Assessment Model from Nonmajor Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying; Hutton, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching fundamental public relations courses to students from diverse backgrounds poses additional complexities in learning effectiveness. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness and identified the challenges of using films to teach public relations among nonmajor students. Results from an online survey and two focus groups found that…

  4. Wind-Related Features and Processes on Venus: Summary of Magellan Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bender, Kelly; Thomas, Peggy E.; Schubert, Gerald; Limonadi, Daniel; Weitz, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    A search of Magellan synthetic aperture radar images covering approximately 98% of the venusian surface shows that aeolian features occur at all longitudes and latitudes. A global data base for wind streaks, the most common type of aeolian feature, was developed. For each of the 5970 streaks in the data base, information was compiled on location, streak type, radar backscatter, dimensions, azimuth, orientation with respect to local slope, and type of landform with which it is associated. In addition, streaks occurring in association with parabolic ejecta deposits were designated type P streaks, which constitute about 31% of the data base. Wind streak azimuths were analyzed to assess wind patterns at the time of their formation. Both hemispheres show strong westward and equatorward trends in azimuths, consistent with Hadley circulation and inferred upper atmospheric westward zonal winds. When type P streaks (those considered to result from transient impact events) were removed, the westward component was greatly reduced, suggesting that the upper zonal winds do not extend to the surface. The presence of equator-oriented streaks at high latitudes suggests that Hadley circulation extends to the poles. A field of possible yardangs found southwest of Mead Crater strikes NE-SW and occupies plains situated in a shallow topographic depression. Analysis of non-type P streaks in the area suggests that equatorward winds are funneled through the depression and are responsible for the erosion of the terrain to form the yardangs. Dune deposits are limited on Venus. Two dune fields were identified (Aglonice and Fortuna-Meshkenet) which total in area about 18,300 sq km. Microdunes are proposed for some southern hemisphere areas which show distinctive radar reflectivities. Bragg scattering and/or subpixel reflections from the leeward faces of microdune bedforms could account for the unusual radar backscatter cross sections.

  5. Wind-Related Features and Processes on Venus Summary of Magellan Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bender, Kelly; Thomas, Peggy E.; Schubert, Gerald; Limonadi, Daniel; Weitz, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    A search of Magellan synthetic aperture radar images covering about 98% of the venusian surface shows that aeolian features occur at all longitudes and latitudes. A global data base for wind streaks, the most common type of aeolian feature, was developed. For each of the 5970 streaks in the data base, information was compiled on location, streak type, radar backscatter, dimensions, azimuth, orientation with respect to local slope, and type of landform with which it is associated. In addition, streaks occurring in association with parabolic ejecta deposits were designated type P streaks, which constitute about 31% of the data base. Wind streak azimuths were analyzed to assess wind patterns at the time of their formation. Both hemispheres show strong westward and equatorward trends in azimuths, consistent with Hadley circulation and inferred upper atmospheric westward zonal winds. When type P streaks (those considered to result from transient impact events) were removed, the westward component was greatly reduced, suggesting that the upper zonal winds do not extend to the surface. The presence of equator-oriented streaks at high latitudes suggests that Hadley circulation extends to the poles. A field of possible yardangs found southwest of Mead Crater strikes NE-SW and occupies plains situated in a shallow topographic depression. Analysis of non-type P streaks in the area suggests that equatorward winds are funneled through the depression and are responsible for the erosion of the terrain to form the yardangs. Dune deposits are limited on Venus. Two dune fields were identified (Aglonice and Fortuna-Meshkenet) which total in area about 18,300 square km. Microdunes are proposed for some southern hemisphere areas which show distinctive radar reflectivities. Bragg scattering and/or subpixel reflections from the leeward faces of microdune bedforms could account for the unusual radar backscatter cross sections.

  6. NIS expression in thyroid tumors, relation with prognosis clinicopathological and molecular features

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Catarina; Coelho, Maria João; Eloy, Catarina; Melo, Miguel; da Rocha, Adriana Gaspar; Pestana, Ana; Batista, Rui; Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Rios, Elisabete; Selmi-Ruby, Samia; Cavadas, Bruno; Pereira, Luísa; Sobrinho Simões, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid cancer therapy is based on surgery followed by radioiodine treatment. The incorporation of radioiodine by cancer cells is mediated by sodium iodide symporter (NIS) (codified by the SLC5A5 gene), that is functional only when targeted to the cell membrane. We aimed to evaluate if NIS expression in thyroid primary tumors would be helpful in predicting tumor behavior, response to therapy and prognosis. NIS expression was addressed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. In order to validate our data, we also studied SLC5A5 expression on 378 primary papillary thyroid carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. In our series, SLC5A5 expression was lower in carcinomas with vascular invasion and with extrathyroidal extension and in those harboring BRAFV600E mutation. Analysis of SLC5A5 expression from TCGA database confirmed our results. Furthermore, it showed that larger tumors, with locoregional recurrences and/or distant metastases or harboring RAS, BRAF and/or TERT promoter (TERTp) mutations presented significantly less SLC5A5 expression. Regarding immunohistochemistry, 12/211 of the cases demonstrated NIS in the membrane of tumor cells, those cases showed variable outcomes concerning therapy success, prognosis and all but one were wild type for BRAF, NRAS and TERTp mutations. SLC5A5 mRNA lower expression is associated with features of aggressiveness and with key genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAS and TERTp. Mutations in these genes seem to decrease protein expression and its targeting to the cell membrane. SLC5A5 mRNA expression is more informative than NIS immunohistochemical expression regarding tumor aggressiveness and prognostic features. PMID:29298843

  7. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  8. Sending and Receiving Text Messages with Sexual Content: Relations with Early Sexual Activity and Borderline Personality Features in Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Dawn Y; Ackerman, Robert A; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K

    2017-05-01

    This research examined adolescents' written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10 th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12 th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly.

  9. Sending and Receiving Text Messages with Sexual Content: Relations with Early Sexual Activity and Borderline Personality Features in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Ackerman, Robert A.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined adolescents’ written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly. PMID:28824224

  10. Features of Golf-Related Shoulder Pain in Korean Amateur Golfers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and characteristics of golf-related shoulder injuries in Korean amateur golfers. Methods Golf-related surveys were administered to, and ultrasonography were conducted on, 77 Korean amateur golfers with golf-related shoulder pain. The correlation between the golf-related surveys and ultrasonographic findings were investigated. Results The non-dominant shoulder is more likely to have golf-related pain and abnormal findings on ultrasonography than is the dominant shoulder. Supraspinatus muscle tear was the most frequent type of injury on ultrasonography, followed by subscapularis muscle tear. Investigation of the participants' golf-related habits revealed that only the amount of time spent practicing golf was correlated with supraspinatus muscle tear. No correlation was observed between the most painful swing phases and abnormal ultrasonographic findings. Participants who had not previously visited clinics were more likely to present with abnormal ultrasonographic findings, and many of the participants complained of additional upper limb pain. Conclusion Golf-related shoulder injuries and pain are most likely to be observed in the non-dominant shoulder. The supraspinatus muscle was the most susceptible muscle to damage. A correlation was observed between time spent practicing golf and supraspinatus muscle tear. PMID:28758076

  11. Increased levels of circulating CD34+ cells in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: relation with clinical and OCT features.

    PubMed

    Kara, Caner; Özdal, Pınar Ç; Beyazyıldız, Emrullah; Özcan, Nurgül E; Teke, Mehmet Y; Vural, Gülden; Öztürk, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the levels of circulating CD34+ stem cells in patients with neovascular type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its relation with clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. The study consisted of 55 patients: 28 patients (18 male and 10 female) with neovascular type AMD as a study group and 27 patients (12 male and 15 female) scheduled for cataract surgery as a control group. The level of CD34+ stem cells was measured by flow cytometry. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The mean ages of patients in the study and control groups were 71 ± 8 and 68 ± 6 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, or systemic disease association between study and control groups. However, smoking status was significantly higher in the study group (67.9% vs 37.0%; p = 0.02). Stem cell levels were significantly higher in the study group (1.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.5 ± 0.3; p<0.001), but there was no relation between stem cell levels and clinical and OCT findings. Increased circulating CD34+ stem cell levels were observed in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane associated with AMD, but no significant relation was found between cell levels and clinical and OCT findings.

  12. [Age-related features of neuromuscular function in rats with hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Nerush, P O; Makiĭ, Ie A; Rodyns'kyĭ, O H

    2001-01-01

    Studied features of functioning of nervous-muscular system at white rats of two age groups: preadolescent (5 weeks) and puberal (24 weeks), in conditions experimental hyperthyroidism (HT). It is established, that in conditions HT at action of the raised concentration thyroxine characteristics of excitation gastrocnemius muscles essentially changed at irritation of a sciatic nerve in groups preadolescent and puberal animals. In all age groups in conditions HT increase of a threshold of excitation gastrocnemius muscles is marked at indirect stimulation and decrease at direct stimulation; also in all age groups in conditions HT reduction of time chronaxy muscles is fixed, both at direct, and at indirect irritation. At preadolescent animals, as against puberal in conditions HT at action of the raised concentration thyroxine on nervous-muscular system it is not revealed authentic change of the latent period and amplitude of potential of action (PA). The conclusion is made, that in conditions HT change of a threshold of excitation and chronaxy gastrocnemius muscles both at direct, and at indirect irritation do not carry age specificity and have an identical orientation, both at preadolescent, and at puberal rats. At preadolescent animals in conditions HT, as against puberal the parameter of amplitude and latent period PA authentically did not change, that can testify to smaller sensitivity of the caused answers gastrocnemius muscles to the raised concentration thyroxine, probably, by virtue of immaturity peripheral neuromotor the device.

  13. Extracting Spatiotemporal Objects from Raster Data to Represent Physical Features and Analyze Related Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollweg, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don't see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm `object'. Temporally, we don't see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain's perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA's High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2) data stream.

  14. Assessing Diversity of DNA Structure-Related Sequence Features in Prokaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjie; Mrázek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotic genomes are diverse in terms of their nucleotide and oligonucleotide composition as well as presence of various sequence features that can affect physical properties of the DNA molecule. We present a survey of local sequence patterns which have a potential to promote non-canonical DNA conformations (i.e. different from standard B-DNA double helix) and interpret the results in terms of relationships with organisms' habitats, phylogenetic classifications, and other characteristics. Our present work differs from earlier similar surveys not only by investigating a wider range of sequence patterns in a large number of genomes but also by using a more realistic null model to assess significant deviations. Our results show that simple sequence repeats and Z-DNA-promoting patterns are generally suppressed in prokaryotic genomes, whereas palindromes and inverted repeats are over-represented. Representation of patterns that promote Z-DNA and intrinsic DNA curvature increases with increasing optimal growth temperature (OGT), and decreases with increasing oxygen requirement. Additionally, representations of close direct repeats, palindromes and inverted repeats exhibit clear negative trends with increasing OGT. The observed relationships with environmental characteristics, particularly OGT, suggest possible evolutionary scenarios of structural adaptation of DNA to particular environmental niches. PMID:24408877

  15. Review: Tau in biofluids - relation to pathology, imaging and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, H

    2017-04-01

    Tau is a microtubule-binding protein that is important for the stability of neuronal axons. It is normally expressed within neurons and is also secreted into the brain interstitial fluid that communicates freely with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and, in a more restricted manner, blood via the glymphatic clearance system of the brain. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuroaxonal degeneration results in increased release of tau from neurons. Furthermore, tau is truncated and phosphorylated, which leads to aggregation of tau in neurofibrillary tangles of the proximal axoplasm. Neuroaxonal degeneration and tangle formation are reflected by increased concentrations of total tau (T-tau, measured using assays that detect most forms of tau) and phospho-tau (P-tau, measured using assays with antibodies specific to phosphorylated forms of tau). In AD CSF, both T-tau and P-tau concentrations are increased. In stroke and other CNS disorders with neuroaxonal injury but without tangles, T-tau is selectively increased, whereas P-tau concentration often stays normal. In tauopathies (diseases with both neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary tangles) other than AD, CSF T-tau and P-tau concentrations are typically unaltered, which is a puzzling result that warrants further investigation. In the current review, I discuss the association of T-tau and P-tau concentrations in body fluids with neuropathological changes, imaging findings and clinical features in AD and other CNS diseases. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  16. Is recurrence in major depressive disorder related to bipolarity and mixed features? Results from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study.

    PubMed

    Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Piacentino, Daria; Rizzato, Salvatore; Angst, Jules; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Young, Allan H; Vieta, Eduard; Girardi, Paolo; Perugi, Giulio

    2018-03-15

    Current classifications separate Bipolar (BD) from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) based on polarity rather than recurrence. We aimed to determine bipolar/mixed feature frequency in a large MDD multinational sample with (High-Rec) and without (Low-Rec) >3 recurrences, comparing the two subsamples. We measured frequency of bipolarity/hypomanic features during current depressive episodes (MDEs) in 2347 MDD patients from the BRIDGE-II-mix database, comparing High-Rec with Low-Rec. We used Bonferroni-corrected Student's t-test for continuous, and chi-squared test, for categorical variables. Logistic regression estimated the size of the association between clinical characteristics and High-Rec MDD. Compared to Low-Rec (n = 1084, 46.2%), High-Rec patients (n = 1263, 53.8%) were older, with earlier depressive onset, had more family history of BD, more atypical features, suicide attempts, hospitalisations, and treatment resistance and (hypo)manic switches when treated with antidepressants, higher comorbidity with borderline personality disorder, and more hypomanic symptoms during current MDE, resulting in higher rates of mixed depression according to both DSM-5 and research-based diagnostic (RBDC) criteria. Logistic regression showed age at first symptoms < 30 years, current MDE duration ≤ 1 month, hypomania/mania among first-degree relatives, past suicide attempts, treatment-resistance, antidepressant-induced swings, and atypical, mixed, or psychotic features during MDE to associate with High-Rec. Number of MDEs for defining recurrence was arbitrary; cross-sectionality did not allow assessment of conversion from MDD to BD. High-Rec MDD differed from Low-Rec group for several clinical/epidemiological variables, including bipolar/mixed features. Bipolarity specifier and RBDC were more sensitive than DSM-5 criteria in detecting bipolar and mixed features in MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Clinical and pathogenic features of ETV6-related thrombocytopenia with predisposition to acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Melazzini, Federica; Palombo, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra; De Rocco, Daniela; Marconi, Caterina; Noris, Patrizia; Gnan, Chiara; Pippucci, Tommaso; Bozzi, Valeria; Faleschini, Michela; Barozzi, Serena; Doubek, Michael; Di Buduo, Christian A.; Kozubik, Katerina Stano; Radova, Lenka; Loffredo, Giuseppe; Pospisilova, Sarka; Alfano, Caterina; Seri, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L.; Pecci, Alessandro; Savoia, Anna

    2016-01-01

    ETV6-related thrombocytopenia is an autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia that has been recently identified in a few families and has been suspected to predispose to hematologic malignancies. To gain further information on this disorder, we searched for ETV6 mutations in the 130 families with inherited thrombocytopenia of unknown origin from our cohort of 274 consecutive pedigrees with familial thrombocytopenia. We identified 20 patients with ETV6-related thrombocytopenia from seven pedigrees. They have five different ETV6 variants, including three novel mutations affecting the highly conserved E26 transformation-specific domain. The relative frequency of ETV6-related thrombocytopenia was 2.6% in the whole case series and 4.6% among the families with known forms of inherited thrombocytopenia. The degree of thrombocytopenia and bleeding tendency of the patients with ETV6-related thrombocytopenia were mild, but four subjects developed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood, resulting in a significantly higher incidence of this condition compared to that in the general population. Clinical and laboratory findings did not identify any particular defects that could lead to the suspicion of this disorder from the routine diagnostic workup. However, at variance with most inherited thrombocytopenias, platelets were not enlarged. In vitro studies revealed that the maturation of the patients’ megakaryocytes was defective and that the patients have impaired proplatelet formation. Moreover, platelets from patients with ETV6-related thrombocytopenia have reduced ability to spread on fibrinogen. Since the dominant thrombocytopenias due to mutations in RUNX1 and ANKRD26 are also characterized by normal platelet size and predispose to hematologic malignancies, we suggest that screening for ETV6, RUNX1 and ANKRD26 mutations should be performed in all subjects with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia and normal platelet size. PMID:27365488

  18. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  19. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  20. The impact of nectar chemical features on phenotypic variation in two related nectar yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pozo, María I; Herrera, Carlos M; Van den Ende, Wim; Verstrepen, Kevin; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Floral nectars become easily colonized by microbes, most often species of the ascomycetous yeast genus Metschnikowia. Although it is known that nectar composition can vary tremendously among plant species, most probably corresponding to the nutritional requirements of their main pollinators, far less is known about how variation in nectar chemistry affects intraspecific variation in nectarivorous yeasts. Because variation in nectar traits probably affects growth and abundance of nectar yeasts, nectar yeasts can be expected to display large phenotypic variation in order to cope with varying nectar conditions. To test this hypothesis, we related variation in the phenotypic landscape of a vast collection of nectar-living yeast isolates from two Metschnikowia species (M. reukaufii and M. gruessii) to nectar chemical traits using non-linear redundancy analyses. Nectar yeasts were collected from 19 plant species from different plant families to include as much variation in nectar chemical traits as possible. As expected, nectar yeasts displayed large variation in phenotypic traits, particularly in traits related to growth performance in carbon sources and inhibitors, which was significantly related to the host plant from which they were isolated. Total sugar concentration and relative fructose content significantly explained the observed variation in the phenotypic profile of the investigated yeast species, indicating that sugar concentration and composition are the key traits that affect phenotypic variation in nectarivorous yeasts. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Relating Teachers' Whistleblowing Tendency and Personal Features: Machiavellianism, Religiosity, and Utilitarianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relationships between religiosity and value orientation of teachers, and preference for whistleblowing modes. Three hypotheses were developed, and tested related to the relationships between utilitarianism, religiosity, Machiavellianism and preference for various forms of whistleblowing. To analyse the data obtained from a…

  2. [Analysis of clinical features and related genes variation in five patients with 46, XX male syndrome].

    PubMed

    Qin, X Y; Dong, W K; Wang, W; Dong, Z Y; Xiao, Y; Lu, W L; Wang, D F

    2016-11-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical manifestations and molecular features of 46, XX male syndrome. Method: The clinical and molecular data of five 46, XX male syndrome cases treated in the Department of Pediatrics of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital form August 2010 to August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Result: The five patients were all sociopsychologically males and came to hospital respectively for short stature, ambiguous genitalia or gynecomastia. They were all below the normal male's average height, and their karyotype was all 46, XX. One case in five was verified as sex determining region of Y chromosome (SRY gene) positive revealed no abnormality in their external genitalia. He had short stature since childhood, whose SRY gene fragments were shown by FISH transferred to the ends of X chromosome. Three cases in four were SRY gene negative with ambiguous genitalia of cryptorchidism and testicular dysplasia to different degrees. The copy number variations of SOX9 gene was found in one case, the loss of heterozygosity area in DHH gene of one case. Another SRY gene negative patient who had normal male external genitalia, came to the hospital due to puberty gynecomastia, that of SOX9 gene and its upstream gene both increased. Conclusion: The main clinical characteristics of 46, XX male syndrome are male phenotype, 46, XX karyotype, gonad of testis or ovotestis and no uterus. In addition, short stature, ambiguous genitalia or gynecomastia can be one reason for hospital visits. SRY gene translocation, SOX9 gene and its upstream gene copy number increase all can lead to 46, XX male syndrome. The cause of some may play an important role in 46, XX male syndrome, but has not yet been determined.

  3. Clinical features of a new disease concept, IgG4-related thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Maruyama, M; Ito, T; Fujinaga, Y; Ozaki, Y; Maruyama, M; Kodama, R; Muraki, T; Hamano, H; Arakura, N; Kadoya, M; Suzuki, S; Komatsu, M; Shimojo, H; Notohara, K; Uchida, M; Kawa, S

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease is a recently proposed systemic disorder that includes autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), Mikulicz's disease, and various other organ lesions. In the present retrospective study, we examined whether thyroid lesions should also be included in IgG4-related disease (Ig4-RD) under the new term IgG4-related thyroiditis. We enrolled 114 patients with Ig4-RD, including 92 patients with AIP, 15 patients with Mikulicz's disease, and seven patients with IgG4-related cholangitis, and analysed clinical findings, function, serum values of activity markers, computed tomography (CT) images, and histology of the thyroid gland. Among the 22 patients (19%) in our cohort who were found to have hypothyroidism [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > 4 mIU/L], 11 patients had clinical hypothyroidism [free thyroxine (FT4) < 1 ng/dL] and 11 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism (FT4 ≥ 1 ng/dL). Serum concentrations of IgG, IgG4, circulating immune complex (CIC), and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) were significantly higher in the hypothyroidism group compared with the remaining 92 euthyroid patients, and serum C3 concentration was significantly lower. After prednisolone treatment, TSH values had decreased significantly (p = 0.005) in this group and FT4 values had increased significantly (p = 0.047). CT images showed that the thyroid glands of patients with clinical hypothyroidism had a significantly greater volume than those of the euthyroid and other groups. Pathological analysis of one resected thyroid gland disclosed a focused lesion with infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-bearing plasma cells and loss of thyroid follicles. Thyroid lesions associated with hypothyroidism can be considered as a new disease termed IgG4-related thyroiditis. Awareness of this condition should lead to appropriate corticosteroid treatment that may prevent progression to a fibrous state.

  4. Sleep variability and fatigue in adolescents: Associations with school-related features.

    PubMed

    Matos, M G; Gaspar, T; Tomé, G; Paiva, T

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influences of sleep duration and sleep variability (SleepV), upon adolescents' school-related situations. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants were 3164 pupils (53.7% girls), attending the 8th and 10th grades, 14.9 years old, and were inquired about subjective sleep duration during the week and weekends, SleepV, fatigue, difficulties in sleep initiation, school achievement, feelings towards schools, pressure with school work and skipping classes. Multiple regression models used, as dependent variables: (a) school achievement, (b) disliking school, (c) pressure with school work and (d) skipping classes, using as independent variables, each of the remaining school-related variables, fatigue, total sleep duration and difficulties in sleep initiation. The average sleep duration in the week and during weekdays was lower than recommended for these age groups, and almost half of students had high SleepV between weekdays and weekends. A logistic model revealed that the absence of SleepV was associated with lower perception of school work pressure, less frequent skipping classes, more infrequent fatigue and more infrequent difficulties in sleep initiation. Poor sleep quality, SleepV and insufficient sleep duration affected negatively school-related variables. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Predicting Protein Relationships to Human Pathways through a Relational Learning Approach Based on Simple Sequence Features.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Beatriz; Pons, Tirso; Sanchis, Araceli; Valencia, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Biological pathways are important elements of systems biology and in the past decade, an increasing number of pathway databases have been set up to document the growing understanding of complex cellular processes. Although more genome-sequence data are becoming available, a large fraction of it remains functionally uncharacterized. Thus, it is important to be able to predict the mapping of poorly annotated proteins to original pathway models. We have developed a Relational Learning-based Extension (RLE) system to investigate pathway membership through a function prediction approach that mainly relies on combinations of simple properties attributed to each protein. RLE searches for proteins with molecular similarities to specific pathway components. Using RLE, we associated 383 uncharacterized proteins to 28 pre-defined human Reactome pathways, demonstrating relative confidence after proper evaluation. Indeed, in specific cases manual inspection of the database annotations and the related literature supported the proposed classifications. Examples of possible additional components of the Electron transport system, Telomere maintenance and Integrin cell surface interactions pathways are discussed in detail. All the human predicted proteins in the 2009 and 2012 releases 30 and 40 of Reactome are available at http://rle.bioinfo.cnio.es.

  6. Chickenpox-related pulmonary granulomas in immunocompetent adults: clinicopathologic and molecular features of an underrated occurrence.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Gennari, William; Marchioni, Alessandro; Graziano, Paolo; Caminati, Antonella; Mengoli, Maria Cecilia; Magnani, Rita; Colby, Thomas V

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary granulomas represent a common inflammatory reaction to several lung infective or noninfective diseases. However, little is known about the histology and clinical presentation of chickenpox-related granulomas in immunocompetent subjects. We collected a series of 8 adult patients (mean age, 40 y; range, 33 to 53 y) with several bilateral pulmonary granulomas incidentally discovered after imaging studies. All patients were asymptomatic and had experienced a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection as adults but were clinically suspected to have a metastatic neoplasm of unknown origin. Chest computed tomography scan revealed numerous, tiny (few millimeters to 1 cm in size) nodules randomly dispersed through the lungs. Positron emission tomography scan performed in 4 patients was negative. All patients underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical resection and were still alive and well. At histology, granulomas consisted of well-defined, rounded, small nodules centered by a deeply eosinophilic, acellular necrosis rimmed by lamellar dense collagen and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with or without multinucleated giant cells. Chickenpox-related granulomas were included in the differential diagnosis along with several other granulomatous diseases. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular analysis for VZV performed on paraffin sections detected VZV DNA in all 8 cases. By contrast, 85 cases of pulmonary granulomas of different etiologies were simultaneously studied by molecular analysis with negative results. Pathologists should be familiar with the peculiar morphologic appearance of chickenpox-related granulomas. A careful search for a history of VZV infection in adulthood and molecular studies may be very helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

  7. Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinase Expression in Ovarian Cancer and Correlation with Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Elizabeth E; Cossette, Stephanie M; Kumar, Suresh N; Eastwood, Daniel; Ramchandran, Ramani; Bishop, Erin

    2017-08-09

    Sucrose non-fermenting related kinase (SNRK) is a serine/threonine kinase known to regulate cellular metabolism and adipocyte inflammation. Since alterations in adipocyte metabolism play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis, we investigated the expression of SNRK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue using immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The number of SNRK positive (+) nuclei is increased in malignant tissue compared to benign tissue (21.03% versus 14.90%, p < .0431). The most strongly stained malignant SNRK+ nuclei were stage 1 compared to stage 2-4 disease. Differential expression of SNRK in early versus late stage disease suggests specific roles for SNRK in ovarian cancer metastasis.

  8. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  9. Low and room temperature magnetic features of the traffic related urban airborne PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, A.; Sagnotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    We used magnetic measurements and analyses - such as hysteresis loops and FORCs both at room temperature and at 10K, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) vs temperature curves (from 10K to 293K) and IRM vs time decay curves - to characterize the magnetic properties of the traffic related airborne particulate matter (PM) in Rome. This study was specifically addressed to the identification of the ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) particles, which are particularly sensitive to thermal relaxation effects, and on the eventual detection of low temperature phase transitions which may affect various magnetic minerals. We compared the magnetic properties at 10K and at room temperature of Quercus ilex leaves, disk brakes, diesel and gasoline exhaust pipes powders collected from vehicles circulating in Rome. The magnetic properties of the investigated powders significantly change upon cooling, and no clear phase transition occurs, suggesting that the thermal dependence is mainly triggered by the widespread presence of ultrafine SP particles. The contribution of the SP fraction to the total remanence of traffic related PM samples was quantified at room temperature measuring the decay of a IRM 100 s after the application of a saturation magnetic field. This same method has been also tested at 10K to investigate the temperature dependence of the observed time decay.

  10. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in a multiple myeloma patient: A case report with characteristic radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Do; Park, Moo-Rim; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A 59-year-old male who had suffered from multiple myeloma for nine years and had been administered bisphosphonates for seven years visited a dental hospital for pain relief due to extensive caries in his left maxillary molars. The molars were extracted, leaving an exposed wound for three months. The radiograph showed sequestra formation and irregular bone destruction in the left maxilla. Sudden pain and gingival swelling in the right mandibular molar area occurred six months later. The interseptum of the right lower second molar was observed to be necrotic during surgery. These findings coincided with the features of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). In this case, the long intravenous administration of bisphosphonates and tooth extraction were likely the etiologic factors of BRONJ in a patient with multiple myeloma; moreover, the bilateral occurrence of BRONJ is a characteristic feature.

  11. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  12. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  13. Distribution of seabirds in the northern Gulf of Mexico in relation to mesoscale features: Initial observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Davis, R.; Hess, N.; Peake, D.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of seabirds was related to offshore surface eddies and the freshwater plume of the Mississippi River in the northern Gulf of Mexico during autumn, winter, spring, and summer 1992-1993. Skuas (Stercorarius spp.) were the most common bird seen in autumn, whereas skuas and gulls (Larus spp.) were the most common in winter. Few birds were seen in the spring, and terns (Sterna spp.) were the most common birds seen in late summer. During summer, terns were associated with the freshwater plume of the Mississippi River. In the winter, herring (Larus argentatus) and laughing gulls (L. artricilla) were associated with areas with steep thermoclines, while pomarine skuas (Stercorarius pomarinus) were found in areas of low productivity. Herring and laughing gulls in the winter, all birds in the spring, and terns in the summer were more common outside eddies. Only pomarine skuas in the winter were seen more commonly inside warm-core eddies.

  14. Ultrastructural features of the osteoclasts from Paget's disease of bone in relation to a viral aetiology.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, L; Gray, T; Beneton, M N; Douglas, D L; Kanis, J A; Russell, R G

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, haemopoietic and other connective tissue cells was examined in 27 biopsies from 22 patients with Paget's disease of bone. Electron microscopy showed characteristic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in the osteoclasts of all of the 25 biopsies exhibiting histological evidence of Paget's disease. Such inclusions were absent from all the other types examined. The intranuclear inclusions consisted of stacked rows or complex whorls of tubular filaments with an individual filament diameter of 12-15 nm, often arranged in a paracrystalline array. The frequency of occurrence of inclusions in the osteoclasts and their individual nuclei measured quantitatively in 18 of the biopsies was related to the histological severity of the disease process. The similarity of the observed inclusions to those of paramyxovirus inclusion bodies (particularly measles) support the hypothesis that Paget's disease is a slow virus infection. Images PMID:7096600

  15. A hospital cafeteria-related food-borne outbreak due to Bacillus cereus: unique features.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Gaia, S M; Griffin, R; Hudson, R

    1986-09-01

    Although Bacillus cereus is a well-known cause of food-borne illness, hospital-related outbreaks of food-borne disease due to B. cereus have rarely been documented. We report a hospital employee cafeteria outbreak due to foods contaminated with B. cereus in which an outside caterer was employed to prepare the suspect meals. Data were collected from 249 of 291 employees who had eaten either of the two meals. With a mean incubation period of 12.5 hours, 64% (160 of 249) of employees manifested illness. Symptoms, which averaged 24.3 hours in duration, included diarrhea (96.3%), abdominal cramps (90%), nausea (50.6%), weakness (24.7%), and vomiting (13.8%). Eighty-seven employees sought medical attention, 84 of whom were seen in an emergency room. Although a significant difference was not demonstrated in food-specific attack rates, B. cereus was cultured from both rice and chicken items that were served at both meals. Sixty-three employees submitted stools for culture that grew no enteric pathogens, but none were examined for B. cereus. This food-borne outbreak demonstrates: the need for hospital kitchen supervisors to ensure proper handling of food when outside caterers are employed; that significant differences in food-specific attack rates may not be demonstrated in outbreaks, which may be related to several factors; and the importance of notifying microbiology laboratory personnel when B. cereus is a suspect enteric pathogen, since many laboratories do not routinely attempt to identify this organism in stool specimens.

  16. Relating Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) occupancy to habitat and landscape features in the context of fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) is a focal species of concern associated with shallowly flooded emergent wetlands, most commonly sedge (Carex spp.) meadows. Their populations are believed to be limited by loss or degradation of wetland habitat due to drainage, altered hydrology, and fire suppression, factors that have often resulted in encroachment of shrubs into sedge meadows and change in vegetative cover. Nocturnal call-playback surveys for Yellow Rails were conducted over 3 years at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Effects of habitat structure and landscape variables on the probability of use by Yellow Rails were assessed at two scales, representing a range of home range sizes, using generalized linear mixed models. At the 163-m (8-ha) scale, year with quadratic models of maximum and mean water depths best explained the data. At the 300-m (28-ha) scale, the best model contained year and time since last fire (≤ 1, 2–5, and > 10 years). The probability of use by Yellow Rails was 0.285 ± 0.132 (SE) for points burned 2-5 years ago, 0.253 ± 0.097 for points burned ≤ 1 year ago, and 0.028 ± 0.019 for points burned > 10 years ago. Habitat differences relative to fire history and comparisons between sites with and without Yellow Rails indicated that Yellow Rails used areas with the deepest litter and highest ground cover, and relatively low shrub cover and heights, as well as landscapes having greater sedge-grass cover and less lowland woody or upland cover types. Burning every 2-5 years appears to provide the litter, ground-level cover, and woody conditions attractive to Yellow Rails. Managers seeking to restore and sustain these wetland systems would benefit from further investigations into how flooding and fire create habitat conditions attractive to breeding Yellow Rails

  17. Absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for a double δ-doped GaAs MIGFET-like structure: Electric and magnetic field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Duque, C. A.; Restrepo, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present theoretical results for the electronic structure as well as for the absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for an asymmetric double δ-doped like confining potential in the active region of a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) system. We model the potential profile as a double δ-doped like potential profile between two Schottky (parabolic) potential barriers that are just the main characteristics of the MIGFET configuration. We investigate the effect of external electromagnetic fields in this kind of quantum structures, in particular we applied a homogeneous constant electric field in the growth direction z as well as a homogeneous constant magnetic field in the x-direction. In general we conclude that by applying electromagnetic fields we can modulate the resonant peaks of the absorption coefficient as well as their energy position. Also with such probes it is possible to control the nodes and amplitude of the relative refractive index changes related to resonant intersubband optical transitions.

  18. Equine chorionic gonadotropin alters luteal cell morphologic features related to progesterone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rigoglio, Nathia N; Fátima, Luciana A; Hanassaka, Jaqueline Y; Pinto, Gizélia L; Machado, Alex S D; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Baruselli, Pietro S; Rennó, Francisco P; Moura, Carlos E B; Watanabe, Il-Sei; Papa, Paula C

    2013-03-01

    Exogenous eCG for stimulation of a single dominant follicle or for superovulation are common strategies to improve reproductive efficiency by increasing pregnancy rates and embryo production, respectively. Morphofunctional changes in the CL of eCG-treated cattle include increases in CL volume and plasma progesterone concentrations. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that eCG alters the content of luteal cells and mitochondria related to hormone production. Twelve crossbred beef cows were synchronized and then allocated into three groups (four cows per group) and received no further treatment (control) or were given eCG either before or after follicular deviation (superovulation and stimulation of the dominant follicle, respectively). Six days after ovulation, cows were slaughtered and CL collected for morphohistologic and ultrastructural analysis. Mitochondrial volume per CL was highest in superovulated followed by stimulated and then control cows (18,500 ± 2630, 12,300 ± 2640, and 7670 ± 3400 μm(3); P < 0.001), and the density of spherical mitochondria and the total number of large luteal cells were increased (P < 0.05) in stimulated cows compared with the other two groups (110.32 ± 14.22, 72.26 ± 8.77, and 70.46 ± 9.58 mitochondria per μm(3) and 678 ± 147, 245 ± 199, and 346 ± 38 × 10(6) cells, respectively. However, the largest diameters of the large luteal cells were increased in superovulated and control cows versus stimulated ones (32.32 ± 0.06, 31.59 ± 0.81, and 29.44 ± 0.77 μm; P < 0.0001). In contrast, the total number of small luteal cells was increased in superovulated cows (1456 ± 268, 492 ± 181, and 822 ± 461 × 10(6), P < 0.05). In conclusion, there were indications of cellular changes related to increased hormonal production (stimulatory treatment) and increased CL volume (superovulatory treatment). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis C: clinical and biological features related to different forms of cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Schuch-Goi, Silvia Bassani; Scherer, Juliana Nichterwitz; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim; Sordi, Anne Orgler; Pechansky, Flavio; von Diemen, Lisia

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is related with several liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas, leading to more than 0.5 million deaths every year and to a great global burden. It is known that injection drug users show a high prevalence of HCV infection, being considered a risk group for this disease. Cocaine users seem to be in greater risk than other drug users, and several hypotheses for this association are being studied. To review data on HCV infection in cocaine users, taking into consideration the relevance of the different routes of drug administration and other risk behaviors. This was a narrative review performed in the main scientific databases. Data suggest that cocaine use could be associated with HCV infection due to the specificities of cocaine consumption pattern, even in those subjects who do not inject drugs, in addition to other risky behaviors, such as tattooing and unprotected sex. Injectable cocaine users seem to be more susceptible to contamination than users who do not inject drugs. However, evidence is pointing to the possibility of infection by sharing drug paraphernalia other than syringes. Moreover, specific immune system impairments caused by cocaine use are also being linked with HCV infection susceptibility, persistence and increased pathological effects.

  20. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Luna, Stefany Daniela; Cruz Vázquez, Angélica Patricia; Jiménez Suárez, Verónica; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Sánchez, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions. PMID:29447216

  1. THE RELATIVE REACTION WITHIN LIVING MAMMALIAN TISSUES : I. GENERAL FEATURES OF VITAL STAINING WITH LITMUS.

    PubMed

    Rous, P

    1925-02-28

    The present paper is the first of a series of reports on the relative reaction of living tissues as determined by vital staining with indicators. It is possible to bring about a localized and a general coloration of living rats and mice with litmus. The animals remain in good health and the coloration of some of the tissues persists for months. Much of the dye is stored in cell granules, especially in those of the reticulo-endothelial elements, but a diffuse staining of certain tissues occurs, notably of bone, epidermis, cartilage, and connective tissue everywhere. In the intensity and localization of the bony coloration litmus has resemblances to madder. Diffuse staining with it renders blue most, if not all, of the tissues affected, while a granular staining causes others to become notably pink, owing to the fact that the indicator, though introduced into the organism in the blue form and circulating as such in the body fluids, is ordinarily red when stored in cells. The polymorphonuclear elements and macrophages of a peritoneal exudate, may become so laden with material colored red by litmus that the blue color of the fluid constituent is masked and the exudate appears a deep, turbid red. The phenomenon is but one manifestation of a notable acidity within cell granules throughout the organism. Like many another in the stained animals it would appear to be of physiological import. Some of the questions suggested by the work will be dealt with in the paper immediately following.

  2. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Ceapă, Corina Diana; Vázquez-Hernández, Melissa; Rodríguez-Luna, Stefany Daniela; Cruz Vázquez, Angélica Patricia; Jiménez Suárez, Verónica; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Sánchez, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions.

  3. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  4. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  5. Role of tumour molecular and pathology features to estimate colorectal cancer risk for first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Win, Aung Ko; Buchanan, Daniel D; Rosty, Christophe; MacInnis, Robert J; Dowty, James G; Dite, Gillian S; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Young, Joanne P; Clendenning, Mark; Walsh, Michael D; Walters, Rhiannon J; Boussioutas, Alex; Smyrk, Thomas C; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Baron, John A; Potter, John D; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Ahnen, Dennis J; Jenkins, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    To estimate risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) for first-degree relatives of CRC cases based on CRC molecular subtypes and tumour pathology features. We studied a cohort of 33,496 first-degree relatives of 4853 incident invasive CRC cases (probands) who were recruited to the Colon Cancer Family Registry through population cancer registries in the USA, Canada and Australia. We categorised the first-degree relatives into four groups: 28,156 of 4095 mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient probands, 2302 of 301 MMR-deficient non-Lynch syndrome probands, 1799 of 271 suspected Lynch syndrome probands and 1239 of 186 Lynch syndrome probands. We compared CRC risk for first-degree relatives stratified by the absence or presence of specific tumour molecular pathology features in probands across each of these four groups and for all groups combined. Compared with first-degree relatives of MMR-proficient CRC cases, a higher risk of CRC was estimated for first-degree relatives of CRC cases with suspected Lynch syndrome (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.59 to 2.67) and with Lynch syndrome (HR 5.37, 95% CI 4.16 to 6.94), but not with MMR-deficient non-Lynch syndrome (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.31). A greater risk of CRC was estimated for first-degree relatives if CRC cases were diagnosed before age 50 years, had proximal colon cancer or if their tumours had any of the following: expanding tumour margin, peritumoral lymphocytes, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes or synchronous CRC. Molecular pathology features are potentially useful to refine screening recommendations for first-degree relatives of CRC cases and to identify which cases are more likely to be caused by genetic or other familial factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Frequency Domain Full-Waveform Inversion in Imaging Thrust Related Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, P.; Zelt, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic acquisition in rough terrain such as mountain belts suffers from problems related to near-surface conditions such as statics, inconsistent energy penetration, rapid decay of signal, and imperfect receiver coupling. Moreover in the presence of weakly compacted soil, strong ground roll may obscure the reflection arrivals at near offsets further diminishing the scope of estimating a reliable near surface image though conventional processing. Traveltime and waveform inversion not only overcome the simplistic assumptions inherent in conventional processing such as hyperbolic moveout and convolution model, but also use parts of the seismic coda, such as the direct arrival and refractions, that are discarded in the latter. Traveltime and waveform inversion are model-based methods that honour the physics of wave propagation. Given the right set of preconditioned data and starting model, waveform inversion in particular has been realized as a powerful tool for velocity model building. This paper examines two case studies on waveform inversion using real data from the Naga Thrust Belt in the Northeast India. Waveform inversion in this paper is performed in the frequency domain and is multiscale in nature i.e., the inversion progressively ascends from the lower to the higher end of the frequency spectra increasing the wavenumber content of the recovered model. Since the real data are band limited, the success of waveform inversion depends on how well the starting model can account for the missing low wavenumbers. In this paper it is observed that the required starting model can be prepared using the regularized inversion of direct and reflected arrival times.

  7. Constructing organic D-A-π-A-featured sensitizers with a quinoxaline unit for high-efficiency solar cells: the effect of an auxiliary acceptor on the absorption and the energy level alignment.

    PubMed

    Pei, Kai; Wu, Yongzhen; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Qiong; Chen, Baoqin; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

    2012-06-25

    Four organic D-A-π-A-featured sensitizers (TQ1, TQ2, IQ1, and IQ2) have been studied for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We employed an indoline or a triphenylamine unit as the donor, cyanoacetic acid as the acceptor/anchor, and a thiophene moiety as the conjugation bridge. Additionally, an electron-withdrawing quinoxaline unit was incorporated between the donor and the π-conjugation unit. These sensitizers show an additional absorption band covering the broad visible range in solution. The contribution from the incorporated quinoxaline was investigated theoretically by using DFT and time-dependent DFT. The incorporated low-band-gap quinoxaline unit as an auxiliary acceptor has several merits, such as decreasing the band gap, optimizing the energy levels, and realizing a facile structural modification on several positions in the quinoxaline unit. As demonstrated, the observed additional absorption band is favorable to the photon-to-electron conversion because it corresponds to the efficient electron transitions to the LUMO orbital. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) Bode plots reveal that the replacement of a methoxy group with an octyloxy group can increase the injection electron lifetime by a factor of 2.4. IQ2 and TQ2 can perform well without any co-adsorbent, successfully suppress the charge recombination from TiO(2) conduction band to I(3)(-) in the electrolyte, and enhance the electron lifetime, resulting in a decreased dark current and enhanced open circuit voltage (V(oc)) values. By using a liquid electrolyte, DSSCs based on dye IQ2 exhibited a broad incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) action spectrum and high efficiency (η=8.50 %) with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 15.65 mA cm(-2), a V(oc) value of 776 mV, a fill factor (FF) of 0.70 under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, the overall efficiency remained at 97% of the initial value after 1000 h of visible

  8. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  9. Physical exercise antagonizes clinical and anatomical features characterizing Lieber-DeCarli diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Torrella, Joan R; Rizo, David; Santos-Alves, Estela; Portincasa, Piero; Martins, Maria J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2015-04-01

    Lieber-DeCarli diet has been used to induce obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). As scarce anatomical and clinical-related information on this diet model exists and being exercise an advised strategy to counteract metabolic diseases, we aimed to analyze the preventive (voluntary physical activity - VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training - ET) effect of exercise on clinical/anatomical features of rats fed with Lieber-DeCarli diet. In the beginning of the protocol, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n = 20), standard-diet VPA (SVPA, n = 10), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n = 20) and high-fat diet VPA (HVPA, n = 10) groups. After 9-weeks, half (n = 10) of SS and HS groups were engaged in an ET program (8 wks/5 d/wk/60 min/day). At this time, a blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. At the end of protocol (17-weeks) anatomic measures were assessed. Heart, liver, femur and visceral fat were weighted and blood was collected again. Liver section was used for histopathological examination. At 17-weeks, high-fat diet increased visceral adiposity (HS vs. SS), which was counteracted by both exercises. However, ET was the only intervention able to diminished obesity-related measures and the histological features of NASH. Moreover, blood analysis at 9 weeks showed that high-fat diet increased ALT, AST, cholesterol and HDL while VLDL and TG levels were decreased (HS vs. SS). Notably, although these parameters were counteracted after 9-weeks of VPA, they were transitory and not observed after 17-weeks. ET used as a therapeutic tool mitigated the clinical/anatomical-related features induced by Liber-DeCarli diet, thus possibly contributing to control obesity and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. DDAH2 mRNA expression is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk-related features in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  11. Expression Profile of Drug and Nutrient Absorption Related Genes in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells Grown under Differentiation Conditions.

    PubMed

    Quan, Yong; Jin, Yisheng; Faria, Teresa N; Tilford, Charles A; He, Aiqing; Wall, Doris A; Smith, Ronald L; Vig, Balvinder S

    2012-06-18

    The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days) or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2) genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05) between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5-7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells.

  12. Expression Profile of Drug and Nutrient Absorption Related Genes in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells Grown under Differentiation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Yong; Jin, Yisheng; Faria, Teresa N.; Tilford, Charles A.; He, Aiqing; Wall, Doris A.; Smith, Ronald L.; Vig, Balvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days) or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2) genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05) between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5–7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells. PMID:24300234

  13. Analysis of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Inter-relations and association to simple nocturnal features.

    PubMed

    Ghandeharioun, H; Rezaeitalab, F; Lotfi, R

    2016-01-01

    This study carefully evaluates the association of different respiration-related events to each other and to simple nocturnal features in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS). The events include apneas, hypopneas, respiratory event-related arousals and snores. We conducted a statistical study on 158 adults who underwent polysomnography between July 2012 and May 2014. To monitor relevance, along with linear statistical strategies like analysis of variance and bootstrapping a correlation coefficient standard error, the non-linear method of mutual information is also applied to illuminate vague results of linear techniques. Based on normalized mutual information weights (NMIW), indices of apnea are 1.3 times more relevant to AHI values than those of hypopnea. NMIW for the number of blood oxygen desaturation below 95% is considerable (0.531). The next relevant feature is "respiratory arousals index" with NMIW of 0.501. Snore indices (0.314), and BMI (0.203) take the next place. Based on NMIW values, snoring events are nearly one-third (29.9%) more dependent to hypopneas than RERAs. 1. The more sever the OSAS is, the more frequently the apneic events happen. 2. The association of snore with hypopnea/RERA revealed which is routinely ignored in regression-based OSAS modeling. 3. The statistical dependencies of oximetry features potentially can lead to home-based screening of OSAS. 4. Poor ESS-AHI relevance in the database under study indicates its disability for the OSA diagnosis compared to oximetry. 5. Based on poor RERA-snore/ESS relevance, detailed history of the symptoms plus polysomnography is suggested for accurate diagnosis of RERAs. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. RELATIONSHIP OF LATE POSITIVE ERPS (EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS), AGE, INTELLIGENCE AND LEAD ABSORPTION IN SOCIOECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families are at risk for malnutrition, learning disabilities, and many other problems associated with poverty. Increasing application of event-related potentials (ERP) methods has been made in studies of aberrant development, although...

  15. How to Modify (Implicit) Evaluations of Fear-Related Stimuli: Effects of Feature-Specific Attention Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Vanaelst, Jolien; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that feature-specific attention allocation influences the way in which repeated exposure modulates implicit and explicit evaluations toward fear-related stimuli. During an exposure procedure, participants were encouraged to assign selective attention either to the evaluative meaning (i.e., Evaluative Condition) or a non-evaluative, semantic feature (i.e., Semantic Condition) of fear-related stimuli. The influence of the exposure procedure was captured by means of a measure of implicit evaluation, explicit evaluative ratings, and a measure of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies. As predicted, the implicit measure of evaluation revealed a reduced expression of evaluations in the Semantic Condition as compared to the Evaluative Condition. Moreover, this effect generalized toward novel objects that were never presented during the exposure procedure. The explicit measure of evaluation mimicked this effect, although it failed to reach conventional levels of statistical significance. No effects were found in terms of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies. Potential implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:27242626

  16. How to Modify (Implicit) Evaluations of Fear-Related Stimuli: Effects of Feature-Specific Attention Allocation.

    PubMed

    Vanaelst, Jolien; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that feature-specific attention allocation influences the way in which repeated exposure modulates implicit and explicit evaluations toward fear-related stimuli. During an exposure procedure, participants were encouraged to assign selective attention either to the evaluative meaning (i.e., Evaluative Condition) or a non-evaluative, semantic feature (i.e., Semantic Condition) of fear-related stimuli. The influence of the exposure procedure was captured by means of a measure of implicit evaluation, explicit evaluative ratings, and a measure of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies. As predicted, the implicit measure of evaluation revealed a reduced expression of evaluations in the Semantic Condition as compared to the Evaluative Condition. Moreover, this effect generalized toward novel objects that were never presented during the exposure procedure. The explicit measure of evaluation mimicked this effect, although it failed to reach conventional levels of statistical significance. No effects were found in terms of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies. Potential implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders are discussed.

  17. Validity of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory in a criminal offender sample: relations with disinhibitory psychopathology, personality, and psychopathic features.

    PubMed

    Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2012-03-01

    The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. In the current study, we used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interviews, personality traits assessed with self-reports, and psychopathic features as assessed with both interviews and self-reports. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential usefulness as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness.

  18. Validity of the Externalizing Spectrum Inventory in a Criminal Offender Sample: Relations with Disinhibitory Psychopathology, Personality, and Psychopathic Features

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007) provides a self-report based method for indexing a range of correlated problem behaviors and traits in the domain of deficient impulse control. The ESI organizes lower-order behaviors and traits of this kind around higher-order factors encompassing general disinhibitory proneness, callous-aggression, and substance abuse. The current study used data from a male prisoner sample (N = 235) to evaluate the validity of ESI total and factor scores in relation to external criterion measures consisting of externalizing disorder symptoms (including child and adult antisocial deviance and substance-related problems) assessed via diagnostic interview, personality traits assessed by self-report, and psychopathic features as assessed by both interview and self-report. Results provide evidence for the validity of the ESI measurement model and point to its potential utility as a referent for research on the neurobiological correlates and etiological bases of externalizing proneness. PMID:21787091

  19. Cloud and convection frequencies over the southeast United States as related to small-scale geographic features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Harold M.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    Based on relatively high spatial and temporal resolution satelite data collected at 0700 CST and at each hour from 1000 CST to 1700 CST during the summer of 1986, cloud and convection variations over the area from Mississippi east to Georgia and from the Gulf of Mexico north to Tennessee are discussed. The data analyses show an average maximum cloud frequency over the land areas at 1400 local time and a maximum of deep convection one hour later. Both cloudiness and deep convection are found to be at a maximum during the nocturnal hours over the Gulf of Mexico. Cloud frequency shows a strong relationship to small terrain features. Small fresh water bodies have cloud minima relative to the surroundings in the afternoon hours. Higher, steep terrain shows cloud maxima and the adjacent lower terrain exhibits afternoon cloud minima due to a divergence of mountain breeze caused by the valley.

  20. Visual search for feature conjunctions: an fMRI study comparing alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) to ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Conaill, Carrie R; Malisza, Krisztina L; Buss, Joan L; Bolster, R Bruce; Clancy, Christine; de Gervai, Patricia Dreessen; Chudley, Albert E; Longstaffe, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) falls under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis of ARND is difficult because individuals do not demonstrate the characteristic facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). While attentional problems in ARND are similar to those found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the underlying impairment in attention pathways may be different. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted at 3 T. Sixty-three children aged 10 to 14 years diagnosed with ARND, ADHD, and typically developing (TD) controls performed a single-feature and a feature-conjunction visual search task. Dorsal and ventral attention pathways were activated during both attention tasks in all groups. Significantly greater activation was observed in ARND subjects during a single-feature search as compared to TD and ADHD groups, suggesting ARND subjects require greater neural recruitment to perform this simple task. ARND subjects appear unable to effectively use the very efficient automatic perceptual 'pop-out' mechanism employed by TD and ADHD groups during presentation of the disjunction array. By comparison, activation was lower in ARND compared to TD and ADHD subjects during the more difficult conjunction search task as compared to the single-feature search. Analysis of DTI data using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) showed areas of significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in ARND compared to TD subjects. Damage to the white matter of the ILF may compromise the ventral attention pathway and may require subjects to use the dorsal attention pathway, which is associated with effortful top-down processing, for tasks that should be automatic. Decreased functional activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of ARND subjects may be due to a

  1. Optical activity and electronic absorption spectra of some simple nucleosides related to cytidine and uridine: all-valence-shell molecular orbital calculations.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D W; Redington, P K; Miles, D L; Eyring, H

    1981-01-01

    The circular dichroism and electronic absorption of three simple model systems for cytidine and uridine have been measured to 190 nm. The molecular spectral properties (excitation wavelengths, oscillator strengths, rotational strengths, and polarization directions) and electronic transitional patterns were investigated by using wave functions of the entire nucleoside with the goal of establishing the reliability of the theoretical method. The computed electronic absorption quantities were shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. It was found that the computed optical rotatory strengths of the B2u and E1u electronic transitions and lowest observed n-pi transition are in good agreement with experimental values. Electronic transitions were characterized by their electronic transitional patterns derived from population analysis of the transition density matrix. The theoretical rotational strengths associated with the B2u and E1u transitions stabilize after the use of just a few singly excited configurations in the configuration interaction basis and, hypothetically, are more reliable as indicators of conformation in pyrimidine nucleosides related to cytidine. PMID:6950393

  2. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy ofmore » M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.« less

  3. Adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs: Relationship with demographic features, psychological distress, well-being and health-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sirri, Laura; Ricci Garotti, Maria Grazia; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana

    2015-10-01

    There is little previous literature on hypochondriacal attitudes in teens. We examined the relationship between adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, demographic features, psychological distress and well-being, and health-related behaviors. Nine hundred and forty-eight students (53.4% males), aged 14-19years (mean 15.8±1.3years), completed the Illness Attitude Scales, the Symptom Questionnaire, and the Psychological Well-Being scales. Demographic features and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit substance use, and sedentary, eating and sleep habits) were also collected. Hypochondriacal concerns were significantly higher among females and correlated with increased psychological distress and reduced well-being. One hundred and forty-nine participants (15.7% of the sample) reached the threshold of the "hypochondriacal responses", identified by Kellner as a screening method for clinically significant hypochondriacal symptoms. The "hypochondriacal responses" were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, decreased well-being, and some unhealthy behaviors: smoking, use of illicit substances, physical inactivity, and short sleep. Female gender, physical inactivity, and higher levels of hostility independently predicted the "hypochondriacal responses" pattern. A substantial percentage of adolescents experience significant concerns about health. Excessive illness fears are associated with less healthy behaviors. A thorough assessment of illness-related concerns may be crucial for the prevention of both the development of more structured forms of abnormal illness behavior (e.g., severe health anxiety) and the engagement in some unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. However, it may also be that unhealthy behaviors lead to increased preoccupation with one's own health through adolescents' implicit knowledge about possible consequences of such behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The discontent degree in relations with the proximal social environment and adolescent personality features in Timis County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2015-01-01

    In our study we investigated whether there is a relation between the degree of discontent in relations with the proximal social environment (family and peer groups) and adolescent personality features. The study was conducted on a statistical representative and homogenous sample consisting of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5 % boys, aged between 15 and 19 years). It was an observational (case) study and it consisted in 2 questionnaires applying: Freiburg Personality Inventory (212 items) and CORT 2004 questionnaire (116 items, 6 referring to the discontent levels created by proximal social environment). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0,910 for CORT 2004. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (χ2) and gamma (γ) correlation. Depression and Emotional lability correlated positively and powerfully with q15 (discontent degree of relations with present friend-peers) (γ = 0.471, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.383, Sig. 0.000, respectively) and q5 (discontent degree of the relation with parents) (γ = 0.380, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.337, Sig. 0.000, respectively). Sociability and calm correlated negative with q5 (γ = -0.14, Sig. 0.000, and γ = -0.35, Sig. 0.000, respectively), q15 (γ = -0.33, Sig. 000 and γ = -0.18, Sig. 000, respectively). In conclusion, there is direct proportional relation between the discontent degree of relations with friend-peers and parents and depression and emotional lability, and inverse proportional relation of friend-peers and parents with sociability and calm.

  5. Clinical Features of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis-Related Autoantibody in Comparison with Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Eri; Kitamura, Hideya; Yamanaka, Yumie; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iso, Shinichiro; Okudela, Koji; Iwasawa, Tae; Takemura, Tamiko; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias sometimes have a few features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and yet do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for any specific CTD. Objective This study was conducted to elucidate the characteristics, prognosis, and disease behavior in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibodies. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 72 ILD patients: 40 patients with SSc (SSc-ILD) and 32 patients with SSc-related autoantibody-positive ILD but not with CTD (ScAb-ILD), indicating lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody. Results Patients with SSc-ILD were predominantly females and non-smokers, and most had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological analysis. However, about half of the patients with ScAb-ILD were male and current or ex-smokers. On HRCT analysis, honeycombing was more predominant in patients with ScAb-ILD than with SSc-ILD. Pathological analysis showed the severity of vascular intimal or medial thickening in the SSc-ILD patients to be significantly higher than that in the ScAb-ILD patients. Survival curves showed that the patients with ScAb-ILD had a significantly poorer outcome than those with SSc-ILD. Conclusion Data from this study suggest that lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody is a different disease entity from SSc-ILD. PMID:27564852

  6. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  7. Feature precedence in processing multifeature visual information in the human brain: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Meng, X; Wu, G; Huang, Y

    2012-05-17

    In this article, we aimed to study whether feature precedence existed in the cognitive processing of multifeature visual information in the human brain. In our experiment, we paid attention to two important visual features as follows: color and shape. In order to avoid the presence of semantic constraints between them and the resulting impact, pure color and simple geometric shape were chosen as the color feature and shape feature of visual stimulus, respectively. We adopted an "old/new" paradigm to study the cognitive processing of color feature, shape feature and the combination of color feature and shape feature, respectively. The experiment consisted of three tasks as follows: Color task, Shape task and Color-Shape task. The results showed that the feature-based pattern would be activated in the human brain in processing multifeature visual information without semantic association between features. Furthermore, shape feature was processed earlier than color feature, and the cognitive processing of color feature was more difficult than that of shape feature. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Classification of passive auditory event-related potentials using discriminant analysis and self-organizing feature maps.

    PubMed

    Schönweiler, R; Wübbelt, P; Tolloczko, R; Rose, C; Ptok, M

    2000-01-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) and self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) were used to classify passively evoked auditory event-related potentials (ERP) P(1), N(1), P(2) and N(2). Responses from 16 children with severe behavioral auditory perception deficits, 16 children with marked behavioral auditory perception deficits, and 14 controls were examined. Eighteen ERP amplitude parameters were selected for examination of statistical differences between the groups. Different DA methods and SOFM configurations were trained to the values. SOFM had better classification results than DA methods. Subsequently, measures on another 37 subjects that were unknown for the trained SOFM were used to test the reliability of the system. With 10-dimensional vectors, reliable classifications were obtained that matched behavioral auditory perception deficits in 96%, implying central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The results also support the assumption that CAPD includes a 'non-peripheral' auditory processing deficit. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Centronuclear myopathy related to dynamin 2 mutations: Clinical, morphological, muscle imaging and genetic features of an Italian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Catteruccia, Michela; Fattori, Fabiana; Codemo, Valentina; Ruggiero, Lucia; Maggi, Lorenzo; Tasca, Giorgio; Fiorillo, Chiara; Pane, Marika; Berardinelli, Angela; Verardo, Margherita; Bragato, Cinzia; Mora, Marina; Morandi, Lucia; Bruno, Claudio; Santoro, Lucio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mercuri, Eugenio; Bertini, Enrico; D’Amico, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in dynamin 2 (DNM2) gene cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy and occur in around 50% of patients with centronuclear myopathy. We report clinical, morphological, muscle imaging and genetic data of 10 unrelated Italian patients with centronuclear myopathy related to DNM2 mutations. Our results confirm the clinical heterogeneity of this disease, underlining some peculiar clinical features, such as severe pulmonary impairment and jaw contracture that should be considered in the clinical follow-up of these patients. Muscle MRI showed a distinct pattern of involvement, with predominant involvement of soleus and tibialis anterior in the lower leg muscles, followed by hamstring muscles and adductor magnus at thigh level and gluteus maximus. The detection of three novel DNM2 mutations and the first case of somatic mosaicism further expand the genetic spectrum of the disease. PMID:23394783

  10. Neuropsychological features of indigent murder defendants and death row inmates in relation to homicidal aspects of their crimes.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Robert E; Rubin, Leah H; Jensen, Marie; Daoust, Sarah

    2010-02-01

    Neuropsychological features of 77 indigent murder defendants and death row inmates were examined in relation to criminal variables underlying their homicidal acts. Clinically, the sample was characterized by elevated rates of developmental disorders (49%), personality disorders (54%), Axis I psychiatric disorders (45%), substance abuse (86%), and history of violence (43%). By statute, killing more than one person is an aggravating factor in many jurisdictions that renders a murder defendant eligible for the death penalty. Individuals who committed a single murder were characterized by executive dysfunction, lower intelligence, slower speed of information processing, and a higher frequency of developmental disorders (58%), relative to those charged and/or convicted of killing two or more people, who were characterized by a significantly higher rate of personality disorders (79%) and a lower rate of developmental disorders (34%). Additionally, using the FBI criminal classification system for categorizing homicide by motive, a significant difference in the frequency of psychosis was found among subgroups associated with the following motives: Criminal enterprise; personal cause; and sex. The collective neuropsychological profile of the sample revealed that executive functions were significantly decreased, relative to memory functions, with over half of the sample (55%) demonstrating executive dysfunction.

  11. Adults' age-related differences in strategy perseveration are modulated by response-stimulus intervals and problem features.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2014-10-01

    Ageing results in the tendency of older adults to repeat the same strategy across consecutive problems more often than young adults, even when such strategy perseveration is not appropriate. Here, we examined how these age-related differences in strategy perseveration are modulated by response-stimulus intervals and problem characteristics. We asked participants to select the best strategy while accomplishing a computational estimation task (i.e., provide approximate sums to two-digit addition problems like 38 + 74). We found that participants repeated the same strategy across consecutive problems more often when the duration between their response and next problem display was short (300 ms) than when it was long (1300 ms). We also found more strategy perseverations in older than in young adults under short Response-Stimulus Intervals, but not under long Response-Stimulus Intervals. Finally, age-related differences in strategy perseveration decreased when problem features helped participants to select the best strategy. These modulations of age-related differences in strategy perseveration by response-stimulus intervals and characteristics of target problems are important for furthering our understanding of mechanisms underlying strategy perseveration and, more generally, ageing effects on strategy selection.

  12. "Retweet to Pass the Blunt": Analyzing Geographic and Content Features of Cannabis-Related Tweeting Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Lamy, Francois R; Smith, G Alan; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Sheth, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Twitter data offer new possibilities for tracking health-related communications. This study is among the first to apply advanced information processing to identify geographic and content features of cannabis-related tweeting in the United States. Tweets were collected using streaming Application Programming Interface (March-May 2016) and were processed by eDrugTrends to identify geolocation and classify content by source (personal communication, media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral). States were grouped by cannabis legalization policies into "recreational," "medical, less restrictive," "medical, more restrictive," and "illegal." Permutation tests were performed to analyze differences among four groups in adjusted percentages of all tweets, unique users, personal communications only, and positive-to-negative sentiment ratios. About 30% of all 13,233,837 cannabis-related tweets had identifiable state-level geo-information. Among geolocated tweets, 76.2% were personal communications, 21.1% media, and 2.7% retail. About 71% of personal communication tweets expressed positive sentiment toward cannabis; 16% expressed negative sentiment. States in the recreational group had significantly greater average adjusted percentage of cannabis tweets (3.01%) compared with other groups. For personal communication tweets only, the recreational group (2.47%) was significantly greater than the medical, more restrictive (1.84%) and illegal (1.85%) groups. Similarly, the recreational group had significantly greater average positive-to-negative sentiment ratio (4.64) compared with the medical, more restrictive (4.15) and illegal (4.19) groups. Average adjusted percentages of unique users showed similar differences between recreational and other groups. States with less restrictive policies displayed greater cannabis-related tweeting and conveyed more positive sentiment. The study demonstrates the potential of Twitter data to become a valuable indicator of drug-related

  13. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Anokhin, Andrey P.; Bauer, Lance O.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. Methods EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12–25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. Conclusions As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders. PMID:26580209

  14. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features.

    PubMed

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Chorlian, David B; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T; Anokhin, Andrey P; Bauer, Lance O; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Schuckit, Marc A; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12-25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders.

  15. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  16. Mega deposits and erosive features related to the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø outburst flood, southeastern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høgaas, Fredrik; Longva, Oddvar

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a suite of erosional remnants, mega deposits and subtle bar morphology that we relate to the outburst flood from the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø at the end of the last Ice Age. By using large datasets of airborne LiDAR data implemented in a geographic information system (GIS), we have mapped flood related features along the Glomma and Vrangselva rivers in southeastern Norway. The unprecedented overview of the valley reaches obtained by the vegetation-free LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM) has revealed a set of hitherto undocumented landforms. Persisting erosive lines - indicators of the uppermost flooded level - are carved into surficial deposits in the hillsides and are found as high as 80-90 m above the modern valley floor. By using the indicators as an upper flood boundary, we have computed cross-sectional profiles showing that the flood in some reaches inundated more than 120 000 m2 of the valley. Large, streamlined bed forms, which we interpret as flood bars, drape sections of the valley floor, some several kilometers long. The most morphologically striking - pendant bars - are developed behind flood flow projections, such as bedrock knolls or in lee of a valley bend. Flood bars occur in the entire study area, but are more widespread in the north and generally decrease in size moving in a downstream direction. Kettle holes and ice-block obstacle marks from icebergs arrested during the flood are common. These features support the theory of a catastrophic drainage event, but also indicate a pattern of differential erosion and deposition that allowed us to interpret palaeoflow on individual bars. Vast aeolian dune fields in the region are interpreted as a secondary product of the flood, as deposits related to the event were mobilised by northerly winds momentarily after the flood waned. The dune fields cover an excess of 50 km2 and reveal that the region was a highly active periglacial desert after the flood. Our mapping

  17. The recruiter's excitement--features of thoracic vibrations during the honey bee's waggle dance related to food source profitability.

    PubMed

    Hrncir, Michael; Maia-Silva, Camila; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Farina, Walter M

    2011-12-01

    The honey bee's waggle dance constitutes a remarkable example of an efficient code allowing social exploitation of available feeding sites. In addition to indicating the position (distance, direction) of a food patch, both the occurrence and frequency of the dances depend on the profitability of the exploited resource (sugar concentration, solution flow rate). During the waggle dance, successful foragers generate pulsed thoracic vibrations that putatively serve as a source of different kinds of information for hive bees, who cannot visually decode dances in the darkness of the hive. In the present study, we asked whether these vibrations are a reliable estimator of the excitement of the dancer when food profitability changes in terms of both sugar concentration and solution flow rate. The probability of producing thoracic vibrations as well as several features related to their intensity during the waggle phase (pulse duration, velocity amplitude, duty cycle) increased with both these profitability variables. The number of vibratory pulses, however, was independent of sugar concentration and reward rate exploited. Thus, pulse number could indeed be used by dance followers as reliable information about food source distance, as suggested in previous studies. The variability of the dancer's thoracic vibrations in relation to changes in food profitability suggests their role as an indicator of the recruiter's motivational state. Hence, the vibrations could make an important contribution to forager reactivation and, consequently, to the organisation of collective foraging processes in honey bees.

  18. Source environment feature related phylogenetic distribution pattern of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria as revealed by pufM analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yonghui; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2007-06-01

    Anoxygenic photosynthesis, performed primarily by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (APB), has been supposed to arise on Earth more than 3 billion years ago. The long established APB are distributed in almost every corner where light can reach. However, the relationship between APB phylogeny and source environments has been largely unexplored. Here we retrieved the pufM sequences and related source information of 89 pufM containing species from the public database. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) most likely occurred within 11 out of a total 21 pufM subgroups, not only among species within the same class but also among species of different phyla or subphyla. A clear source environment feature related phylogenetic distribution pattern was observed, with all species from oxic habitats and those from anoxic habitats clustering into independent subgroups, respectively. HGT among ancient APB and subsequent long term evolution and adaptation to separated niches may have contributed to the coupling of environment and pufM phylogeny.

  19. Optical Absorption in Liquid Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Florian Gene

    An infrared absorption cell has been developed which is suitable for high temperature liquids which have absorptions in the range .1-10('3) cm('-1). The cell is constructed by clamping a gasket between two flat optical windows. This unique design allows the use of any optical windows chemically compatible with the liquid. The long -wavelength limit of the measurements is therefore limited only by the choice of the optical windows. The thickness of the cell can easily be set during assembly, and can be varied from 50 (mu)m to .5 cm. Measurements of the optical absorption edge were performed on the liquid alloy Se(,1-x)Tl(,x) for x = 0, .001, .002, .003, .005, .007, and .009, from the melting point up to 475(DEGREES)C. The absorption was found to be exponential in the photon energy over the experimental range from 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. The absorption increased linearly with concentration according to the empirical relation (alpha)(,T)(h(nu)) = (alpha)(,1) + (alpha)(,2)x, and the absorption (alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption in the absence of T1. (alpha)(,1) also agreed with the measured absorption in 100% Se at corresponding temperatures and energies. The excess absorption defined by (DELTA)(alpha) = (alpha)(,T)(h(nu))-(alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption associated with Tl and was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy E(,t) = 0.5 eV. The exponential edge is explained as absorption on atoms immersed in strong electric fields surrounding ions. The strong fields give rise to an absorption tail similar to the Franz-Keldysh effect. A simple calculation is performed which is based on the Dow-Redfield theory of absorption in an electric field with excitonic effects included. The excess absorption at low photon energies is proportional to the square of the concentration of ions, which are proposed to exist in the liquid according to the relation C(,i) (PROPORTIONAL) x(' 1/2)(.)e('-E)t('/kT), which is the origin of the thermal activation

  20. Nonheme-iron absorption in first-degree relatives is highly correlated: a stable-isotope study in mother-child pairs.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Harrington, Mary; Villalpando, Salvador; Hurrell, Richard F

    2010-03-01

    Iron absorption in humans is highly variable even after iron status and dietary components that influence iron absorption are controlled for. Inherited factors may help explain this variance. Our objective was to compare nonheme-iron absorption from a noninhibitory, stable-isotope-labeled test meal in preschool-aged children and their mothers. We provided 72 test meals based on degermed maize flour and milk powder and fortified with [(57)Fe]ferrous fumarate or [(58)Fe]ferrous sulfate to healthy Mexican preschool children [n = 18; mean (+/-SD) age: 3.6 +/- 1.0 y] and their mothers [n = 18; mean (+/-SD) age: 28.0 +/- 5.2 y]. Iron absorption was calculated on the basis of incorporation of isotopes into erythrocytes after 14 d and was adjusted for differences in iron status. There was a wide variation in iron absorption from the test meals: in the mothers and children, the median fractional absorption of ferrous sulfate was 22.55% (range: 1.65-54.83%) and 5.51% (range: 2.23-17.20%), respectively (P < 0.0001). After adjustment for serum ferritin, the significant difference in absorption between mothers and their children disappeared. Despite this broad range of iron absorption, corrected fractional iron absorption from the ferrous fumarate-fortified (r(2) = 0.582) and the ferrous sulfate-fortified test meals (r(2) = 0.557) was strongly correlated in mothers and their children (P < 0.0001). There was a striking positive correlation between the mean corrected fractional iron absorption from both test meals in mothers and their children (r(2) = 0.782, P < 0.0001). In regression analyses that included age, sex, and hemoglobin, the only significant predictor of corrected fractional iron absorption in children was corrected fractional iron absorption in their mothers (standardized beta = 0.884, P < 0.001). Nonheme-iron absorption exhibits a strong familial tendency. After differences in meal matrix and serum ferritin are accounted for, these data suggest that inheritance and

  1. Photoacoustic and filter measurements related to aerosol light absorption during the Northern Front Range Air Quality Study (Colorado 1996/1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosmüller, H.; Arnott, W. P.; Rogers, C. F.; Chow, J. C.; Frazier, C. A.; Sherman, L. E.; Dietrich, D. L.

    1998-11-01

    A new photoacoustic instrument for the measurement of aerosol light absorption was collocated with conventional aerosol instrumentation during the 1996-1997 winter intensive monitoring period of the Northern Front Range Air Quality Study. Measurements of the light absorption efficiency for black carbon were 5 m2/g at 685 nm and 10 m2/g at 532 nm, and for elemental carbon, they were 3.6 m2/g at 685 nm. We show that these values together with previous photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption shed some light on the wavelength dependence of absorption efficiency for carbonaceous aerosol in the visible and near-visible region. Integrating plate type filter measurements of aerosol light absorption result in far larger values than those measured with the photoacoustic instrument. We demonstrate that a recently published correction technique [Horvath, 1997] can yield improved agreement.

  2. Numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating disk related to development of a spacecraft absorption cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating and a stationary disk related to the development of an absorber unit for a high capacity spacecraft absorption cooling system, is described. The creation of artificial gravity by the use of a centrifugal field was focused upon in this report. Areas covered include: (1) One-dimensional computation of thin liquid film flows; (2) Experimental measurement of film height and visualization of flow; (3) Two-dimensional computation of the free surface flow of a thin liquid film using a pressure optimization method; (4) Computation of heat transfer in two-dimensional thin film flow; (5) Development of a new computational methodology for the free surface flows using a permeable wall; (6) Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin film in the presence and absence of gravity; and (7) Comparison of theoretical prediction and experimental data. The basic phenomena related to fluid flow and heat transfer on rotating systems reported here can also be applied to other areas of space systems.

  3. Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 induces cancer-associated fibroblast features in prostate-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Kryza, Thomas; Silva, Lakmali M; Bock, Nathalie; Fuhrman-Luck, Ruth A; Stephens, Carson R; Gao, Jin; Samaratunga, Hema; Lawrence, Mitchell G; Hooper, John D; Dong, Ying; Risbridger, Gail P; Clements, Judith A

    2017-10-01

    The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peristromal interface. KLK4 induced CAF-like features in the prostate-derived WPMY1 normal stromal cell line, including increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ESR1 and SFRP1. KLK4 activated protease-activated receptor-1 in WPMY1 cells increasing expression of several factors (FGF1, TAGLN, LOX, IL8, VEGFA) involved in prostate cancer progression. In addition, KLK4 induced WPMY1 cell proliferation and secretome changes, which in turn stimulated HUVEC cell proliferation that could be blocked by a VEGFA antibody. Importantly, the genes dysregulated by KLK4 treatment of WPMY1 cells were also differentially expressed between patient-derived CAFs compared to matched nonmalignant fibroblasts and were further increased by KLK4 treatment. Taken together, we propose that epithelial-derived KLK4 promotes tumour progression by actively promoting CAF differentiation in the prostate stromal microenvironment. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Computed tomographic features of idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia: comparison with pulmonary fibrosis related to collagen vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Hwa; Misumi, Shigeki; Sahin, Hakan; Brown, Kevin K; Newell, John D; Lynch, David A

    2009-01-01

    To compare the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia with those of pulmonary fibrosis related to collagen vascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the CT scans of 177 patients with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, of which 97 had idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia and 80 had CVD. The CT images were systematically scored for the presence and extent of pulmonary and extrapulmonary abnormalities. Computed tomographic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was assigned. A CT pattern of UIP was identified in 59 (60.8%) of patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia compared with 15 (18.7%) of those patients with CVD; conversely, the CT diagnosis of NSIP was made in 51 (64%) of patients with CVD compared with 36 (37%) of patients with idiopathic disease (P < 0.01). In 113 patients who had lung biopsy, the CT diagnoses of UIP and NSIP were concordant with the histologic diagnoses in 36 of 50 patients and 34 of 41 patients, respectively. Pleural effusions, esophageal dilation, and pericardial abnormalities were more frequent in patients with CVD than in patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Compared with patients with CVD, those patients with an idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia showed a higher prevalence of a UIP pattern and lower prevalence of an NSIP pattern as determined by CT. Identification of coexisting extrapulmonary abnormalities on CT can support a diagnosis of CVD.

  5. [Features of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-related Lymphoma on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography].

    PubMed

    Niu, Na; Zhu, Zhao-hui; Ma, Yan-ru; Xing, Hai-qun; Li, Fang

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the imaging features of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography (CT) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL) patients correlated with their clinical signs, symptoms, and treatments. Five ARL patients underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2008 to January 2013. Two patients received two additional follow-up studies 6 months later. Among these 5 patients, ¹⁸FDG-PET/CT helped in diagnosis of two patient and changed therapeutic strategy in other two patients. In two patients underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT brain scans, low-metabolism lesion was newly found in cerebral cortex. Of 4 patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, PET/CT also demonstrated diffusely elevated ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue in two patients. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT is a highly useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of ARL patients, in particular in the identification of associated encephalopathy and lipodystrophy.

  6. Gas gangrene and related infection: classification, clinical features and aetiology, management and mortality. A report of 88 cases.

    PubMed

    Darke, S G; King, A M; Slack, W K

    1977-02-01

    The clinical features of gas gangrene and related infection seen in 88 patients over a 10-year period are described. It is suggested that clostridial infection could be simply classified as either 'gas-forming' or 'non-gas-forming'. The gas-forming group represents the more severe form of infection. Non-clostridial gas gangrene may present in a variety of forms. The anaerobic streptococcus was the organism most frequently responsible, but these cases were indistinguishable from clostridial infection on clinical grounds. The treatment of gas gangrene in this series of patients is reported. Emphasis is laid on the importance of adequate prophylaxis with penicillin in patients at risk. The value of antibiotics in established infection remains equivocal. The evidence supporting the value of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is assessed and an attempt made to quantify the response to this treatment. Benefit was apparent in only a proportion of patients. A favourable response indicated clostridial infection and guaranteed immediate survival. Extensive debridement or amputation is unnecessary in this group. No response following hyperbaric oxygen therapy indicated widespread mixed clostridial and non-clostridial infection, or infection due to organisms other than clostridia. Urgent and extensive debridement and amputation remain the predominant measures in this group.

  7. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue. PMID:20942943

  8. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    PubMed

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  9. Prevalence, topographic and morphometric features of femoral cam-type deformity: changes in relation to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avalos, R; Leyva-Villegas, J I; Sánchez-Mejorada, G; Reynaga-Obregón, J; Galindo-de León, S; Vílchez-Cavazos, F; Espinosa-Uribe, A G; Acosta-Olivo, C; de la Garza-Castro, O; Guzmán-Avilan, R I; Elizondo-Omaña, R E; Guzmán-López, S

    2016-09-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is a frequent cause of pain and in recent years considered to be a precursor of premature hip osteoarthritis. The structural abnormalities which characterize FAI syndrome, such as the cam-type deformity, are associated with morphological alterations that may lead to hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and topographic and morphometric features of the cam deformity in a series of 326 femur specimens obtained from a Mexican population, as well as changes in prevalence in relation to age and gender. The specimens were subdivided into groups according to gender and age. A standardized photograph of the proximal femur of each specimen was taken, and the photograph was used to determine the alpha angle using a computer program; the location of the lesion was determined by quadrant and the morphometric characteristics were determined by direct observation. The overall prevalence of cam deformities in the femur specimens was 29.8 % (97/326), with a prevalence by gender of 35.2 % (64/182) in men and 22.9 % (33/144) in women. The mean alpha angle was 54.6° ± 8.5° in all of the osteological specimens and 65.6° ± 7.5° in those specimens exhibiting a cam deformity. Cam deformities were found topographically in the anterior-superior quadrant of the femoral head-neck junction in 86.6 % (84/97) of the femurs. Deformities were found in 28.2 % of the right femurs and 31.3 % of the left femurs. The prevalence of cam deformity was higher in the femur specimens of young men and in those of middle-aged and older women. There were no significant differences in this deformity in relation to the alpha angle according to age and gender.

  10. Clinical features and prognostic implications of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related to the cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene.

    PubMed

    Charron, P; Dubourg, O; Desnos, M; Bennaceur, M; Carrier, L; Camproux, A C; Isnard, R; Hagege, A; Langlard, J M; Bonne, G; Richard, P; Hainque, B; Bouhour, J B; Schwartz, K; Komajda, M

    1998-06-09

    Little information is available on phenotype-genotype correlations in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that are related to the cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) gene. The aim of this study was to perform this type of analysis. We studied 76 genetically affected subjects from nine families with seven recently identified mutations (SASint20, SDSint7, SDSint23, branch point int23, Glu542Gln, a deletion in exon 25, and a duplication/deletion in exon 33) in the MYBPC3 gene. Detailed clinical, ECG, and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed. An intergene analysis was performed by comparing the MYBPC3 group to seven mutations in the beta-myosin heavy-chain gene (beta-MHC) group (n=52). There was no significant phenotypic difference among the different mutations in the MYBPC3 gene. However, in the MYBPC3 group compared with the beta-MHC group, (1) prognosis was significantly better (P<0.0001), and no deaths occurred before the age of 40 years; (2) the age at onset of symptoms was delayed (41+/-19 versus 35+/-17 years, P<0.002); and (3) before 30 years of age, the phenotype was particularly mild because penetrance was low (41% versus 62%), maximal wall thicknesses lower (12+/-4 versus 16+/-7 mm, P<0.03), and abnormal T waves less frequent (9% versus 45%, P<0.02). These results are consistent with specific clinical features related to the MYBPC3 gene: onset of the disease appears delayed and the prognosis is better than that associated with the beta-MHC gene. These findings could be particularly important for the purpose of clinical management and genetic counseling in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  11. Increased intestinal absorption in the rat caused by sodium lauryl sulphate, and its possible relation to the cAMP system.

    PubMed

    Briseid, G; Briseid, K; Kirkevold, K

    1976-01-01

    The increases in the absorption of ouabain, phenolsulphonphthalein and pralidoxime caused by 17 mM sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) from jejunal loops of anaesthetized rats were significantly reduced if sodium and chloride (Briseid et al., 1974) or chloride and bicarbonate were replaced by other ions in the loop fluid. Separate substitutions of sodium, chloride of bicarbonate did not significantly alter the SLS-caused absorption, except that the substitution of choline for sodium reduced the absorption of pralidoxime, both in the presence and in the absence of SLS. The increases in the absorption of phenolsulphonphthalein and pralidoxime caused by SLS were potentiated by theophylline (25 mM) and reduced by imidazole (25 mM). The addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (2.5 mM) to the loop fluid increased this absorption of the test substances. This effect was reduced by imidazole, but under the experimental conditions it was not potentiated by theophylline. Determinations of cyclic AMP in the rat intestinal mucosa showed that the level of this substance was significantly higher in the presence than in the absence of SLS. The experimental conditions were as described for the absorption experiments. It is concluded that the data obtained support the idea of an increased level of cyclic AMP as the main basis for the effect of SLS on the absorption.

  12. Absorption characteristics of forest fire particulate matter

    Treesearch

    E.M. Patterson; Charles K. McMahon

    1984-01-01

    Abstract. Absorption properties of smokes from laboratory fires that represent prescription hums in the Southern states have been quantified to relate variations in measured absorption parameters to variation in fire conditions and to estimate emission factors for elemental carbon. Results showed significant differences in absorption of the smoke...

  13. Comparison of femoroacetabular impingement-related radiographic features in a convenience sample of Japanese patients with and without herniation pits.

    PubMed

    Mineta, Kazuaki; Goto, Tomohiro; Wada, Keizo; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Hamada, Daisuke; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of herniation pits (HPs) and to evaluate differences in radiographic features related to femoroacetabular impingement-a hip disorder with abnormal abutment between the acetabulum and femur-between hips with and without HPs in a convenience sample of Japanese patients. We reviewed 1,178 hips on each side (695 men, 483 women; mean age, 58.2 years) using computed tomographic images. The radiological assessments of hip morphology were performed by measuring the lateral center edge angle, acetabular index, acetabular version, alpha angle, and femoral head-neck offset. HPs were defined as the round or oval cystic lesions surrounded by sclerotic bone located below the anterior femoral neck cortex. Intraclass and interclass reproducibility of all radiographic measurements was acceptable (ICC: 0.71-0.98). The prevalence of HPs was 13.9 % in all subjects and was significantly higher in men (18.1 %) than in women (7.8 %; p < 0.001). HPs were larger in male (p < 0.001) and elderly subjects (p < 0.005). In subjects with HPs, the alpha angle was larger and femoral head-neck offset and offset ratio were smaller in the cohort overall and in men. Logistic regression analysis revealed the association between radiological cam-type FAI and HPs in all subjects (odds ratio: 1.86, p < 0.001). We revealed the prevalence of HPs and showed it has a predilection for men in this Japanese cohort. Femoral head asphericity or small head-neck offset was more common in subjects with HPs than those without HPs.

  14. Mapping epibenthic assemblages and their relations to sedimentary features in shallow-water, high-energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, John D.; Shimeta, Jeff; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann; Traykovski, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of spatial relationships among benthic biota and sedimentary features in shallow-water (<30 m) high-energy environments has been severely limited by sampling technology. We describe and report tests of a SCUBA-diving mapping method specifically for this region. Underwater acoustic location is used to achieve meter-scale resolution over kilometer-scale regions of the sea floor. A triad of acoustic transponders is bottom-mounted at known positions, 300-500 m apart. Transported by underwater personal vehicles, SCUBA-divers map the bed using hand-held acoustic receivers that record ranges to the transponders. The mean error of acoustic fixes was 2.4±1.2 m in a 0.5 km×1.0 km test area. Dense assemblages of epibenthic animals were mapped relative to sediment texture and bedforms off the exposed south coast of Martha's Vineyard Island, Massachusetts, USA. Surveys one month apart within a 0.6 km×0.6 km area (8-12 m depth) revealed 100-m-scale patches of the tube worm Spiophanes bombyx (⩽30,000 m -2) in fine sand and of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma (⩽55 m -2) in coarse sand. Raised mud patches that, together with fine sand, occurred in two shore-perpendicular belts are likely exposed, ancient marsh deposits. Depth gradients of sand-ripple geometry indicated that ripples in deeper areas were not in equilibrium with wave conditions monitored during surveys; i.e., they were relict ripples. Thus, sand dollars in some areas may have had >1 month to rework surficial sands since their transformation by physical processes. Linear regressions of ripple characteristics against sand dollar or tube worm densities were not significant, although such relationships would be highly dependent on temporal scale. The survey method described here can be used at more frequent intervals to explore such interactions between epibenthic animals and sediment-transport dynamics.

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy and age: Age-related clinical features and effectiveness in treatment resistant major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Socci, Chiara; Medda, Pierpaolo; Toni, Cristina; Lattanzi, Lorenzo; Tripodi, Beniamino; Vannucchi, Giulia; Perugi, Giulio

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to compare clinical features, treatments outcomes and tolerability between young (18-45 years), middle age (46-64 years) and old (≥ 65 years) patients treated with bilateral ECT for treatment resistant major depressive episode. 402 patients were evaluated 1 day prior to ECT and a week after the treatment termination using the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 items (HAM-D-17), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Response was defined as a reduction of at least 50% from baseline on the HAM-D-17 score. Remission was defined as a score ≤ 7 on the HAM-D-17 at the final evaluation. Rates of response were not statistically different in the three groups (69.6% in old versus 63.5% in young and 55.5% in middle age groups). No significant differences were also observed in the proportions of remitters between the age groups (31.4% in young group, 27.7% in middle age group and 29.3% in old group). One week after the end of the ECT course the middle and old age groups showed a statistically significant increase in the MMSE score compared to baseline. We did not find significant differences between the three age groups in rates of premature drops-out due to ECT-related side effects. Our data support the use of ECT in elderly patients with treatment-resistant major depressive episode, with rates of response around 70% and effectiveness being independent from age. In the old age group the baseline cognitive impairment improved after ECT and no life-threatening adverse event was detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enterovirus-related diarrhoea in Guangdong, China: clinical features and implications in hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Tao; Yi, Hai-Su; Guo, Yong-Hui; Pan, Yu-Xian; Tao, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Man-Jun; Yang, Mei; Yu, Nan

    2016-03-16

    A series of complications caused by enteroviruses, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute cardiopulmonary failure, respiratory infection, and myocardial injury have been reported in hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina (HFMD/HA). However, the complication of diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses has been neglected, and a summary of its clinical features and impact on HFMD/HA is unavailable. We included inpatients with HFMD/HA admitted to the Paediatric Department of Zhujiang Hospital during 2009-2012. We summarised and compared clinical data for cases with and without diarrhoea, and determined enterovirus serotypes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and genotyping based on a partial-length fragment of viral protein 1 or the 5'-untranslated region. There were 804 inpatients with HFMD/HA and 28 (3.5%) presented with diarrhoea. Gastrointestinal symptoms were mild in most cases of diarrhoea (82.1%), with high prevalence of no dehydration (82.1%), short duration of diarrhoea (78.6%) and watery stools (75.0%). The prevalence of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (10.7 vs 0.40%) (p = 0.001), hepatic injury (14.3 vs 3.4%) (p = 0.019), myocardial injury (21.4 vs 6.1%) (p = 0.002) and convulsion (21.4 vs 7.2%) (p = 0.016) was significantly higher in the diarrhoea than no diarrhoea group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding prevalence of death, altered consciousness, paralysis, central nervous system involvement, or acute respiratory infection. Most patients with diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses circulating in Guangdong Province in 2009-2012 had mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Although enterovirus-related diarrhoea caused additional multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, hepatic injury and myocardial injury in children with HFMD/HA, timely intervention efficiently reduced disease severity and improved outcome.

  17. Search for correlated UV and x ray absorption of NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Christopher; Halpern, Jules P.; Kolman, Michiel

    1991-01-01

    NGC 3516, a low-luminosity Seyfert galaxy, is one of a small fraction of Seyfert galaxies that exhibit broad absorption in a resonance line. In order to determine whether the UV and x ray absorption in NGC 3516 are related, 5 IUE observations were obtained, quasi-simultaneously with 4 Ginga observations. The results are presented and discussed. The following subject areas are covered: short-term UV variability; emission lines; galactic absorption lines; the C IV, N V, and Si IV absorption features; lower limit on the carbon column density; estimate of the distance from the absorber to the continuum source; variability in the continuum and absorption; a comparison with BAL QSO's; and the x ray-UV connection.

  18. The influence of local electric fields on photoinduced absorption in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cappel, Ute B; Feldt, Sandra M; Schöneboom, Jan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2010-07-07

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) challenges conventional photovoltaics with its potential for low-cost production and its flexibility in terms of color and design. Transient absorption spectroscopy is widely used to unravel the working mechanism of DSCs. A surprising, unexplained feature observed in these studies is an apparent bleach of the ground-state absorption of the dye, under conditions where the dye is in the ground state. Here, we demonstrate that this feature can be attributed to a change of the local electric field affecting the absorption spectrum of the dye, an effect related to the Stark effect first reported in 1913. We present a method for measuring the effect of an externally applied electric field on the absorption of dye monolayers adsorbed on flat TiO(2) substrates. The measured signal has the shape of the first derivative of the absorption spectra of the dyes and reverses sign along with the reversion of the direction of the change in dipole moment upon excitation relative to the TiO(2) surface. A very similar signal is observed in photoinduced absorption spectra of dye-sensitized TiO(2) electrodes under solar cell conditions, demonstrating that the electric field across the dye molecules changes upon illumination. This result has important implications for the analysis of transient absorption spectra of DSCs and other molecular optoelectronic devices and challenges the interpretation of many previously published results.

  19. Machine-based classification of ADHD and nonADHD participants using time/frequency features of event-related neuroelectric activity.

    PubMed

    Öztoprak, Hüseyin; Toycan, Mehmet; Alp, Yaşar Kemal; Arıkan, Orhan; Doğutepe, Elvin; Karakaş, Sirel

    2017-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent diagnosis among children who are referred to psychiatry departments. Although ADHD was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, its diagnosis is still confronted with many problems. A novel classification approach that discriminates ADHD and nonADHD groups over the time-frequency domain features of event-related potential (ERP) recordings that are taken during Stroop task is presented. Time-Frequency Hermite-Atomizer (TFHA) technique is used for the extraction of high resolution time-frequency domain features that are highly localized in time-frequency domain. Based on an extensive investigation, Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) was used to obtain the best discriminating features. When the best three features were used, the classification accuracy for the training dataset reached 98%, and the use of five features further improved the accuracy to 99.5%. The accuracy was 100% for the testing dataset. Based on extensive experiments, the delta band emerged as the most contributing frequency band and statistical parameters emerged as the most contributing feature group. The classification performance of this study suggests that TFHA can be employed as an auxiliary component of the diagnostic and prognostic procedures for ADHD. The features obtained in this study can potentially contribute to the neuroelectrical understanding and clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The relative validity and repeatability of an FFQ for estimating intake of zinc and its absorption modifiers in young and older Saudi adults.

    PubMed

    Alsufiani, Hadeil M; Yamani, Fatmah; Kumosani, Taha A; Ford, Dianne; Mathers, John C

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relative validity and repeatability of a sixty-four-item FFQ for estimating dietary intake of Zn and its absorption modifiers in Saudi adults. In addition, we used the FFQ to investigate the effect of age and gender on these intakes. To assess validity, all participants completed the FFQ (FFQ1) and a 3 d food record. After 1 month, the FFQ was administered for a second time (FFQ2) to assess repeatability. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One hundred males and females aged 20-30 years and 60-70 years participated. Mean intakes of Zn and protein from FFQ1 were significantly higher than those from the food record while there were no detectable differences between tools for measurement of phytic acid intake. Estimated intakes of Zn, protein and phytate by both approaches were strongly correlated (P<0·001). Bland-Altman analysis showed for protein that the difference in intake as measured by the two methods was similar across the range of intakes while for Zn and phytic acid, the difference increased with increasing mean intake. Zn and protein intakes from FFQ1 and FFQ2 were highly correlated (r>0·68, P<0·001) but were significantly lower at the second measurement (FFQ2). Older adults consumed less Zn and protein compared with young adults. Intakes of all dietary components were lower in females than in males. The FFQ developed and tested in the current study demonstrated reasonable relative validity and high repeatability and was capable of detecting differences in intakes between age and gender groups.

  1. The Memory Is in the Details: Relations between Memory for the Specific Features of Events and Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Lukowski, Angela F.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life is marked by pronounced changes in the length of time over which events are remembered. We tested whether the age-related differences are related to differences in memory for the specific features of events. In our study, 16- and 20-month-olds were tested for immediate and long-term recall of individual actions and temporal…

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder Features Are Associated with Concurrent Pain-Related Disability in a Chronic Pain Sample.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Caleb J; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2018-04-03

    To determine whether core features of borderline personality disorder are associated with increased rates of being on disability benefits due to chronic pain conditions. A total of 147 patients currently in treatment for chronic pain at a multimodal chronic pain clinic. We tested for a concurrent relationship between borderline personality disorder features and employment status using self-report measures. Borderline personality disorder features were associated with increased likelihood of currently being on disability due to pain conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 23.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-318.73), on disability due to other conditions (OR = 33.65, 95% CI = 2.15-526.13), and unemployed (OR = 20.14, 95% CI = 1.38-294.93), even while controlling for pain severity and interference, depression, and trait anxiety. A follow-up analysis revealed that these associations were due to the negative relationships facet of borderline personality disorder features. Borderline personality disorder features, particularly negative relationships, are associated with increased rates of pain disability, general disability, and unemployment in a chronic pain sample. Future research should examine mechanisms by which the maladaptive interpersonal behaviors and cognitions of borderline personality disorder might result in worse long-term employment outcomes of chronic pain.

  3. CT-measured bone attenuation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: relation to clinical features and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romme, Elisabeth A P M; Murchison, John T; Edwards, Lisa D; van Beek, Edwin; Murchison, David M; Rutten, Erica P A; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Williams, Michelle C; Wouters, Emiel F M; MacNee, William

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and has been related to several clinical features. However, most studies have been in relatively small COPD cohorts. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare bone attenuation measured on low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) between COPD subjects and smoker and nonsmoker controls, and to relate bone attenuation to clinical parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, and outcomes in a large, well-characterized COPD cohort. We studied 1634 COPD subjects, 259 smoker controls, and 186 nonsmoker controls who participated in a large longitudinal study (ECLIPSE). We measured bone attenuation, extent of emphysema, and coronary artery calcification (Agatston score) on baseline CT scans, and clinical parameters, inflammatory biomarkers, and outcomes. Bone attenuation was lower in COPD subjects compared with smoker and nonsmoker controls (164.9 ± 49.5 Hounsfield units [HU] versus 183.8 ± 46.1 HU versus 212.1 ± 54.4 HU, p < 0.001). Bone attenuation was not significantly different between COPD subjects and smoker controls after adjustment for age, sex, and pack-years of smoking. In the COPD subjects, bone attenuation correlated positively with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁, r = 0.062, p = 0.014), FEV₁/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (r = 0.102, p < 0.001), body mass index (r = 0.243, p < 0.001), fat-free mass index (FFMI, r = 0.265, p < 0.001), and C-reactive protein (r = 0.104, p < 0.001), and correlated negatively with extent of emphysema (r = -0.090, p < 0.001), Agatston score (r = -0.177, p < 0.001), and interleukin-8 (r = -0.054, p = 0.035). In a multiple regression model, older age, lower FFMI and higher Agatston score were associated with lower bone attenuation. Lower bone attenuation was associated with higher exacerbation (r = -0.057, p = 0.022) and

  4. Basic features of the predictive tools of early warning systems for water-related natural hazards: examples for shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Roberto; Pagano, Luca

    2017-12-01

    To manage natural risks, an increasing effort is being put in the development of early warning systems (EWS), namely, approaches facing catastrophic phenomena by timely forecasting and alarm spreading throughout exposed population. Research efforts aimed at the development and implementation of effective EWS should especially concern the definition and calibration of the interpretative model. This paper analyses the main features characterizing predictive models working in EWS by discussing their aims and their features in terms of model accuracy, evolutionary stage of the phenomenon at which the prediction is carried out and model architecture. Original classification criteria based on these features are developed throughout the paper and shown in their practical implementation through examples of flow-like landslides and earth flows, both of which are characterized by rapid evolution and quite representative of many applications of EWS.

  5. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella) salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kazachkova, Yana; Khan, Asif; Acuña, Tania; López-Díaz, Isabel; Carrera, Esther; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress. In addition, halophytes could provide a food source on marginal lands. However, despite halophytes being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of several halophytic species will not germinate on saline soils. Yet, little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella) salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5, and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed

  6. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps).

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  7. Relating Sub-Surface Ice Features to Physiological Stress in a Climate Sensitive Mammal, the American Pika (Ochotona princeps)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkening, Jennifer L.; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features. PMID:25803587

  8. Oxidized derivatives of Octopus vulgaris and Carcinus aestuarii hemocyanins at pH 7.5 and related models by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Elena; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Di Muro, Paolo; Salvato, Benedetto

    2002-01-01

    The binuclear copper sites of the met and met-azido derivatives of Octopus vulgaris and Carcinus aestuarii hemocyanins at pH 7.5 were characterized by high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the low energy region (XANES) and in the higher region (EXAFS). The accuracy of the analysis of the data was tested with two mononuclear and six binuclear copper(II) complexes of the poly(benzimidazole) ligand systems 2-BB, L-5,5 and L-6,6 (Casella et al., 1993, Inorg. Chem. 32:2056-2067; 1996, Inorg. Chem. 35:1101-1113). Their structural and reactivity properties are related to those of the protein's derivatives. The results obtained for those models with resolved x-ray structure (the 2-BB-aquo and azido mononuclear complexes, and the binuclear L-5,5 Cu(II)-bis(hydroxo) (Casella et al., unpublished)), extends the validity of our approach to the other poly(benzimidazole)-containing complexes and to the hemocyanin derivatives. Comparison between the protein's and the complexes' data, support a description of the met-derivatives as a five-coordinated O-bridged binuclear copper(II) center and favors, for both species, a bis(hydroxo) structure with a 3-A Cu-Cu distance. For O. vulgaris met-azido derivative a mu-1,3 bridging mode for the ligand appears the most likely. The structural situation of C. aestuarii met-azido-derivative is less clear: a mu-1,1 mode is favored, but a terminal mode cannot be excluded. PMID:12023249

  9. Determination of silver, antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium and indium in ores, concentrates and related materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after methyl isobutyl ketone extraction as iodides.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M; Wang, M

    1986-03-01

    Methods for determining ~ 0.2 mug g or more of silver and cadmium, ~ 0.5 mug g or more of copper and ~ 5 mug g or more of antimony, bismuth and indium in ores, concentrates and related materials are described. After sample decomposition and recovery of antimony and bismuth retained by lead and calcium sulphates, by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric oxide at pH 6.20 +/- 0.05, iron(III) is reduced to iron(II) with ascorbic acid, and antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium and indium are separated from the remaining matrix elements by a single methyl isobutyl ketone extraction of their iodides from ~2M sulphuric acid-0.1M potassium iodide. The extract is washed with a sulphuric acid-potassium iodide solution of the same composition to remove residual iron and co-extracted zinc, and the extracted elements are stripped from the extract with 20% v v nitric acid-20% v v hydrogen peroxide. Alternatively, after the removal of lead sulphate by filtration, silver, copper, cadmium and indium can be extracted under the same conditions and stripped with 40% v v nitric acid-25% v v hydrochloric acid. The strip solutions are treated with sulphuric and perchloric acids and ultimately evaporated to dry ness. The individual elements are determined in a 24% v v hydrochloric acid medium containing 1000 mug of potassium per ml by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with an air-acetylene flame. Tin, arsenic and molybdenum are not co-extracted under the conditions above. Results obtained for silver, antimony, bismuth and indium in some Canadian certified reference materials by these methods are compared with those obtained earlier by previously published methods.

  10. Cell segmentation in phase contrast microscopy images via semi-supervised classification over optics-related features.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Yin, Zhaozheng; Huh, Seungil; Kanade, Takeo

    2013-10-01

    Phase-contrast microscopy is one of the most common and convenient imaging modalities to observe long-term multi-cellular processes, which generates images by the interference of lights passing through transparent specimens and background medium with different retarded phases. Despite many years of study, computer-aided phase contrast microscopy analysis on cell behavior is challenged by image qualities and artifacts caused by phase contrast optics. Addressing the unsolved challenges, the authors propose (1) a phase contrast microscopy image restoration method that produces phase retardation features, which are intrinsic features of phase contrast microscopy, and (2) a semi-supervised learning based algorithm for cell segmentation, which is a fundamental task for various cell behavior analysis. Specifically, the image formation process of phase contrast microscopy images is first computationally modeled with a dictionary of diffraction patterns; as a result, each pixel of a phase contrast microscopy image is represented by a linear combination of the bases, which we call phase retardation features. Images are then partitioned into phase-homogeneous atoms by clustering neighboring pixels with similar phase retardation features. Consequently, cell segmentation is performed via a semi-supervised classification technique over the phase-homogeneous atoms. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach produces quality segmentation of individual cells and outperforms previous approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Posner's "beam" the same as Treisman's "glue"?: On the relation between visual orienting and feature integration theory.

    PubMed

    Briand, K A; Klein, R M

    1987-05-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the visually allocated "beam" studied by Posner and others is the same visual attentional resource that performs the role of feature integration in Treisman's model. Subjects were cued to attend to a certain spatial location by a visual cue, and performance at expected and unexpected stimulus locations was compared. Subjects searched for a target letter (R) with distractor letters that either could give rise to illusory conjunctions (PQ) or could not (PB). Results from three separate experiments showed that orienting attention in response to central cues (endogenous orienting) showed similar effects for both conjunction and feature search. However, when attention was oriented with peripheral visual cues (exogenous orienting), conjunction search showed larger effects of attention than did feature search. It is suggested that the attentional systems that are oriented in response to central and peripheral cues may not be the same and that only the latter performs a role in feature integration. Possibilities for future research are discussed.

  12. Method of assessing the state of a rolling bearing based on the relative compensation distance of multiple-domain features and locally linear embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shouqiang; Ma, Danyang; Wang, Yujing; Lan, Chaofeng; Chen, Qingguo; Mikulovich, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    To effectively assess different fault locations and different degrees of performance degradation of a rolling bearing with a unified assessment index, a novel state assessment method based on the relative compensation distance of multiple-domain features and locally linear embedding is proposed. First, for a single-sample signal, time-domain and frequency-domain indexes can be calculated for the original vibration signal and each sensitive intrinsic mode function obtained by improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition, and the singular values of the sensitive intrinsic mode function matrix can be extracted by singular value decomposition to construct a high-dimensional hybrid-domain feature vector. Second, a feature matrix can be constructed by arranging each feature vector of multiple samples, the dimensions of each row vector of the feature matrix can be reduced by the locally linear embedding algorithm, and the compensation distance of each fault state of the rolling bearing can be calculated using the support vector machine. Finally, the relative distance between different fault locations and different degrees of performance degradation and the normal-state optimal classification surface can be compensated, and on the basis of the proposed relative compensation distance, the assessment model can be constructed and an assessment curve drawn. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively assess different fault locations and different degrees of performance degradation of the rolling bearing under certain conditions.

  13. Study of ice-related flow features around Tanaica Montes, Mars: Implications for late amazonian debris-covered glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Rishitosh K.; Vijayan, S.; Bharti, Rajiv R.

    2017-11-01

    Lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF) have been broadly recognized in the mid-latitudes of Mars and their subsequent analyses using data from the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument has suggested evidence for contemporary ice preserved beneath these features. In this study, we conduct detailed characterization of newly identified LDA flow units within the Tanaica Montes region (39.55˚ N, 269.17˚ E) of Mars to assess and understand the similarities in their emplacement with respect to LDA flow units mapped in other regions of Mars. We utilize the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images and SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) datasets for geomorphic and subsurface analysis and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) point tracks for topographic analysis. Geomorphic observation of LDA flow units surrounding the montes flanks and massif walls reveal integrated pattern of convergence and divergence and evidence of bending and deflection within the flow lines that resulted in concentric, loop-like flow patterns in the downslope. Brain-terrain texture and craters with varying morphological characteristics (ring-mold type) is suggestive that LDAs may be similar to ice-rich, debris-covered glaciers. MOLA point track based convex-up topographic profiles of LDAs suggest that their thickness vary in the range of ∼100-200 m in both the northwestern and southeastern portions of study region. Further, the slope values of mapped LDA surfaces within the study region are within ∼0.1˚-4˚. The extent of mapped LDAs within the study region is such that some of the low elevation (∼0.8-1.3 km) portions of montes flanks are surrounded by relatively less extent (up to ∼0.5-0.8 km) of LDA flow units. Geomorphic and topographic evidence for flow units that appear to be superposed on the main LDA body collectively suggest the possibility of episodic glacial activity in the region. Furthermore, based on the alignment of subsurface

  14. Io: Near-Infrared Absorptions Not Attributable to SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.; Clark, R. N.; Soderblom, L. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Kamp, L. W.; Galileo NIMS Team

    2001-11-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) onboard the Galileo spacecraft imaged the leading side of Jupiter's satellite Io at full spectral resolution and with triple Nyquist spatial sampling during the fifteenth orbital encounter (E15). New despiking and "dejittering" algorithms have been applied to this high S/N observation (15INHRSPEC01A). Spectral absorption features not attributable to SO2 are found between 3.0-3.4 microns and near 4.65 microns. The patterns of the spatial distributions of both absorbers differ from that of the omnipresent SO2. The broad 3.0-3.4 micron absorption is most pronounced in polar regions. Preliminary work suggests that the 4.65 micron feature may be associated with an unidentified sulfate mineral, while the 3.0-3.4 micron feature may result from the presence of more than one absorbing material. Hydrogen-bearing species are likely candidates. For example, H2O ice provides a good match for the absorption near 3.2 microns, but the absorption is shifted to wavelengths longer than that in pure H2O ice. If only one absorber is present, then hydrogen bonding of small numbers of H2O molecules could perhaps account for the shift. The absorption is weak; if H20 related, optical path lengths of a fraction of a micron are indicated. Portions of this research were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Review of the absorption spectra of solid O2 and N2 as they relate to contamination of a cooled infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    During contamination studies for the liquid helium cooled shuttle infrared telescope facility, a literature search was conducted to determine the absorption spectra of the solid state of homonuclear molecules of O2 and N2, and ascertain what laboratory measurements of the solid have been made in the infrared. With the inclusion of one unpublished spectrum, the absorption spectrum of the solid oxygen molecule has been thoroughly studied from visible to millimeter wavelengths. Only two lines appear in the solid that do not also appear in the gas or liquid. A similar result is implied for the solid nitrogen molecule because it also is homonuclear. The observed infrared absorption lines result from lattice modes of the alpha phase of the solid, and disappear at the warmer temperatures of the beta, gamma, and liquid phases. They are not observed from polycrystalline forms of O2, while strong scattering is. Scattering, rather than absorption, is considered to be the principal natural contamination problem for cooled infrared telescopes in low earth orbit.

  16. Electric-dipole absorption resonating with longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon system and its effect on dispersion relations of interface phonon polariton modes in metal/semiconductor-stripe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hironori; Takeuchi, Eito; Yoshida, Kouki; Morita, Ken; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Interface phonon polaritons (IPhPs) in nano-structures excluding metal components are thoroughly investigated because they have lower loss in optical emission or absorption and higher quality factors than surface plasmon polaritons. In previous reports, it is found that strong infrared (IR) absorption is based on the interaction of p-polarized light and materials, and the resonance photon energy highly depends on the structure size and angle of incidence. We report the optical absorption by metal/semiconductor (bulk-GaAs and thin film-AlN)-stripe structures in THz to mid-IR region for the electric field of light perpendicular to the stripes, where both of s- and p-polarized light are absorbed. The absorption resonates with longitudinal optical (LO) phonon or LO phonon-plasmon coupling (LOPC) modes, and thus is independent of the angle of incidence or structure size. This absorption is attributed to the electric dipoles by the optically induced polarization charges at the metal/semiconductor, heterointerfaces, or interfaces of high electron density layers and depression ones. The electric permittivity is modified by the formation of these dipoles. It is found to be indispensable to utilize our form of altered permittivity to explain the experimental dispersion relations of metal/semiconductor-IPhP and SPhP in these samples. This analysis reveals that the IPhPs in the stripe structures of metal/AlN-film on a SiC substrate are highly confined in the AlN film, while the permittivity of the structures of metal/bulk-GaAs is partially affected by the electric-dipoles. The quality factors of the electric-dipole absorption are found to be 42-54 for undoped samples, and the value of 62 is obtained for Al/AlN-IPhP. It is thought that metal-contained structures are not obstacles to mode energy selectivity in phonon energy region of semiconductors.

  17. Iron deficiency up-regulates iron absorption from ferrous sulphate but not ferric pyrophosphate and consequently food fortification with ferrous sulphate has relatively greater efficacy in iron-deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Biebinger, Ralf; Egli, Ines; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F

    2011-04-01

    Fe absorption from water-soluble forms of Fe is inversely proportional to Fe status in humans. Whether this is true for poorly soluble Fe compounds is uncertain. Our objectives were therefore (1) to compare the up-regulation of Fe absorption at low Fe status from ferrous sulphate (FS) and ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and (2) to compare the efficacy of FS with FPP in a fortification trial to increase body Fe stores in Fe-deficient children v. Fe-sufficient children. Using stable isotopes in test meals in young women (n 49) selected for low and high Fe status, we compared the absorption of FPP with FS. We analysed data from previous efficacy trials in children (n 258) to determine whether Fe status at baseline predicted response to FS v. FPP as salt fortificants. Plasma ferritin was a strong negative predictor of Fe bioavailability from FS (P < 0·0001) but not from FPP. In the efficacy trials, body Fe at baseline was a negative predictor of the change in body Fe for both FPP and FS, but the effect was significantly greater with FS (P < 0·01). Because Fe deficiency up-regulates Fe absorption from FS but not from FPP, food fortification with FS may have relatively greater impact in Fe-deficient children. Thus, more soluble Fe compounds not only demonstrate better overall absorption and can be used at lower fortification levels, but they also have the added advantage that, because their absorption is up-regulated in Fe deficiency, they innately 'target' Fe-deficient individuals in a population.

  18. A Comparative Study of Coping Strategies and the Features of Interpersonal Relations and Life Orientations of People with Congenital and Acquired Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanova, E. V.; Tolkacheva, O. N.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of a comparative study of the features of the coping strategies, life orientations, and interpersonal relations of disabled people with acquired and congenital diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The authors discovered differences in interpersonal behavior in the area of control, and they revealed factors that…

  19. Oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takanori; Imai, Hideto

    2018-03-01

    The time changes of the white line and pre-edge intensities of Co and Fe K-edge in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ (BSCF) were observed to estimate the oxide ion diffusion related to Co and Fe ions by using in - situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during oxidation. The 20 μm self-standing BSCF film was prepared for in - situ XAS measurements. The time changes of absorption were fitted to the exponential decay function with two terms. The longer relaxation time (τ), related to the oxide ion diffusion during the oxidation of BSCF, is dependent on temperature. The oxide ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from the τ s estimated by in - situ XAS. The values of the activation energy (Ea) for D related to Co K-edge white line, Co pre-edge, and Fe pre-edge were 1.8-2.0 eV. The value of Ea for D related to Fe K-edge white line, however, was higher than other absorption values at approximately 2.3 eV. We discussed the oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in BSCF using in - situ XAS.

  20. Relationship of Cigarette-Related Perceptions to Cigarette Design Features: Findings From the 2009 ITC U.S. Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many governments around the world have banned the use of misleading cigarette descriptors such as “light” and “mild” because the cigarettes so labeled were found not to reduce smokers’ health risks. However, underlying cigarette design features, which are retained in many brands, likely contribute to ongoing belief that these cigarettes are less harmful by producing perceptions of lightness/smoothness through lighter taste and reduced harshness and irritation. Methods: Participants (N = 320) were recruited from the International Tobacco Control U.S. Survey conducted in 2009 and 2010, when they answered questions about smoking behavior, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco products, and key mediators and moderators of tobacco use behaviors. Participants also submitted an unopened pack of their usual brand of cigarettes for analysis using established methods. Results: Own-brand filter ventilation level (M 29%, range 0%–71%) was consistently associated with perceived lightness (p < .001) and smoothness (p = .005) of own brand. Those whose brand bore a light/mild label (55% of participants) were more likely to report their cigarettes were lighter [71.9% vs. 41.9%; χ2(2) = 38.1, p < .001] and smoother than other brands [75.5% vs. 68.7%; χ2(2) = 7.8, p = .020]. Conclusion: Product design features, particularly filter ventilation, influence smokers’ beliefs about product attributes such as lightness and smoothness, independent of package labels. Regulation of cigarette design features such as filter ventilation should be considered as a complement to removal of misleading terms in order to reduce smokers’ misperceptions regarding product risks. PMID:23943847

  1. Intraocular pressure and superior ophthalmic vein blood flow velocity in Graves' orbitopathy: relation with the clinical features.

    PubMed

    Konuk, Onur; Onaran, Zafer; Ozhan Oktar, Suna; Yucel, Cem; Unal, Mehmet

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of intraocular pressure (IOP) and superior ophthalmic vein blood flow velocity (SOV-BFV) with the clinical features of Graves' orbitopathy. During the 2002-2007 period, 66 eyes of 34 Graves' orbitopathy cases were classified as mild, moderate and severe orbital disease, and evaluated according to their clinical features as: i)type 1 vs type 2 cases, and ii) cases with or without dysthyroid optic neuropathy. In all patients, a full ophthalmic examination including IOP and Hertel measurements was performed. SOV-BFV was analyzed with color Doppler sonography. The Hertel value, IOP in primary and upgaze position were higher, and SOV-BFV was lower in moderate and severe Graves' orbitopathy cases that showed statistical significance from mild cases, and controls (p = 0.001). Moderate and severe Graves' orbitopathy cases showed comparable Hertel measures and IOP in primary and upgaze position (p = 0.39); however, SOV-BFV was significantly lower in severe cases when compared to moderate cases (p = 0.001).This study demonstrated statistically significant negative correlation between IOP in both primary (r = 0.43,p = 0.008) and upgaze position (r = 0.51,p = 0.002), and SOV-BFV. Additionally, statistically significant positive correlation was detected between Hertel values and SOV-BFV(r = 0.402,p = 0.007).There was a statistical difference between type 1 and 2 cases in Hertel values(p = 0.006), IOP in upgaze position (p = 0.026) and SOV-BFV (p = 0.003). SOV-BFV of the eyes showing dysthyroid optic neuropathy was statistically lower than eyes without dysthyroid optic neuropathy (p = 0.006). IOP and SOV-BFV have significant association with the clinical features of Graves' orbitopathy. The decrease in SOV-BFV increases the severity of Graves' orbitopathy, and may have a role in the clinical course of dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

  2. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Inda, Márcia A; van Batenburg, Marinus F; Roos, Marco; Belloum, Adam S Z; Vasunin, Dmitry; Wibisono, Adianto; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Breit, Timo M

    2008-08-08

    Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic) features in a (DNA) sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs) in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the proof-of-principle for the modular e-Science based concept

  3. Feature-based attention and conflict monitoring in criminal offenders: interactive relations of psychopathy with anxiety and externalizing.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Joshua D; Newman, Joseph P

    2013-08-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study, male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.

  5. Clinical features and gene mutational spectrum of CDKL5-related diseases in a cohort of Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) (NM_003159.2) gene have been associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies or Hanefeld variants of RTT(Rett syndrome). In order to clarify the CDKL5 genotype-phenotype correlations in Chinese patients, CDKL5 mutational screening in cases with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT without MECP2 mutation were performed. Methods The detailed clinical information including clinical manifestation, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood, urine amino acid and organic acid screening of 102 Chinese patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT were collected. CDKL5 gene mutations were analyzed by PCR, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) were studied in the female patients with CDKL5 gene mutation. Results De novo CDKL5 gene mutations were found in ten patients including one missense mutation (c.533G > A, p.R178Q) which had been reported, two splicing mutations (ISV6 + 1A > G, ISV13 + 1A > G), three micro-deletions (c.1111delC, c.2360delA, c.234delA), two insertions (c.1791 ins G, c.891_892 ins TT in a pair of twins) and one nonsense mutation (c.1375C > T, p.Q459X). Out of ten patients, 7 of 9 females with Hanefeld variants of RTT and the remaining 2 females with early onset epileptic encephalopathy, were detected while only one male with infantile spasms was detected. The common features of all female patients with CDKL5 gene mutations included refractory seizures starting before 4 months of age, severe psychomotor retardation, Rett-like features such as hand stereotypies, deceleration of head growth after birth and poor prognosis. In contrast, the only one male patient with CDKL5 mutation showed no obvious Rett-like features as females in our cohort. The X-chromosome inactivation patterns of all the female patients were random. Conclusions Mutations in CDKL

  6. Clinical features and gene mutational spectrum of CDKL5-related diseases in a cohort of Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoying; Bao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qingping; Zhang, Jingjing; Cao, Guangna; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jiarui; Wei, Liping; Pan, Hong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-02-25

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) (NM_003159.2) gene have been associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies or Hanefeld variants of RTT(Rett syndrome). In order to clarify the CDKL5 genotype-phenotype correlations in Chinese patients, CDKL5 mutational screening in cases with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT without MECP2 mutation were performed. The detailed clinical information including clinical manifestation, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood, urine amino acid and organic acid screening of 102 Chinese patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT were collected. CDKL5 gene mutations were analyzed by PCR, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) were studied in the female patients with CDKL5 gene mutation. De novo CDKL5 gene mutations were found in ten patients including one missense mutation (c.533G > A, p.R178Q) which had been reported, two splicing mutations (ISV6 + 1A > G, ISV13 + 1A > G), three micro-deletions (c.1111delC, c.2360delA, c.234delA), two insertions (c.1791 ins G, c.891_892 ins TT in a pair of twins) and one nonsense mutation (c.1375C > T, p.Q459X). Out of ten patients, 7 of 9 females with Hanefeld variants of RTT and the remaining 2 females with early onset epileptic encephalopathy, were detected while only one male with infantile spasms was detected. The common features of all female patients with CDKL5 gene mutations included refractory seizures starting before 4 months of age, severe psychomotor retardation, Rett-like features such as hand stereotypies, deceleration of head growth after birth and poor prognosis. In contrast, the only one male patient with CDKL5 mutation showed no obvious Rett-like features as females in our cohort. The X-chromosome inactivation patterns of all the female patients were random. Mutations in CDKL5 gene are responsible for 7 with

  7. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  8. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  9. [Clinical Feature in Infants of Breast Feeding Allergy and Its Possible Relation with Gastrointestinal Peptide Change in Breast Milk].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yong-Mei; Gao, Shan; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Cai, Xiao-Tang; Zhou, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To investigate clinical features in infants of breast milk allergy(BMA), and the possible relationship with the changes of somatostatin (SST) and motilin (MTL) in breast milk. Twenty three cases of pure breast feeding infants with allergic gastroenteritis were collected, while another 23 normal infants with pure breast feeding were enrolled as normal controls. Samples of infant stools and breast milk were collected for the measurement of SST and MTL levels detected by by radioimmunity. The levels of SST and MTL in stool samples (pg/mg) were 32.6±8.9, 2.3±3.7 in BMA group and 56.2±12.7, 21.6±4.7 in normal control group, respectively. Those in breast milk (pg/mg) were 236.7±28.9, 159.4±36.7 in BMA group and 412.6±36.7, 216.8±59.7 in normal control group, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05). In BMA infants, the clinical features were 91.3% (20/23) of diarrhea, 86.9% (21/23) of vomiting, 69.6% (16/23) of hematochezia, 95.7% (22/23) of C-reactive protein (CRP) increasing, 87.0% (20/23) of occult blood in stools, 73.9% (17/23) of neutrophil increasing, 39.1% (9/23) of WBC in stools. For those infants of breast feeding with persisting and repeated gastrointestinal symptoms, allergy for breast milk should be considered. Deficiency of SST and MTL in breast milk may be a possible cause for food allergy.

  10. Genital and reproductive organ complications of Crohn disease: technical considerations as it relates to perianal disease, imaging features, and implications on management.

    PubMed

    Kammann, Steven; Menias, Christine; Hara, Amy; Moshiri, Mariam; Siegel, Cary; Safar, Bashar; Brandes, Steven; Shaaban, Akram; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2017-06-01

    A relatively large proportion of patients with Crohn disease (CD) develop complications including abscess formation, stricture, and penetrating disease. A subset of patients will have genital and reproductive organ involvement of CD, resulting in significant morbidity. These special circumstances create unique management challenges that must be tailored to the activity, location, and extent of disease. Familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment strategies for patients with genital CD can aid imaging diagnoses and guide appropriate patient management. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the spectrum of CD in the genital tract and reproductive organs and discuss the complex management strategies in these patients as it relates to imaging. Given the impact on patient outcome and treatment planning, familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment of patients with genital Crohn disease can aid radiologic diagnoses and guide appropriate patient management.

  11. Pronounced and sustained central hypernoradrenergic function in major depression with melancholic features: relation to hypercortisolism and corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Kling, M A; Munson, P J; Listwak, S; Licinio, J; Prolo, P; Karp, B; McCutcheon, I E; Geracioti, T D; DeBellis, M D; Rice, K C; Goldstein, D S; Veldhuis, J D; Chrousos, G P; Oldfield, E H; McCann, S M; Gold, P W

    2000-01-04

    Both stress-system activation and melancholic depression are characterized by fear, constricted affect, stereotyped thinking, and similar changes in autonomic and neuroendocrine function. Because norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can produce these physiological and behavioral changes, we measured the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels each hour for 30 consecutive hours in controls and in patients with melancholic depression. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels were obtained every 30 min. Depressed patients had significantly higher CSF NE and plasma cortisol levels that were increased around the clock. Diurnal variations in CSF NE and plasma cortisol levels were virtually superimposable and positively correlated with each other in both patients and controls. Despite their hypercortisolism, depressed patients had normal levels of plasma ACTH and CSF CRH. However, plasma ACTH and CSF CRH levels in depressed patients were inappropriately high, considering the degree of their hypercortisolism. In contrast to the significant negative correlation between plasma cortisol and CSF CRH levels seen in controls, patients with depression showed no statistical relationship between these parameters. These data indicate that persistent stress-system dysfunction in melancholic depression is independent of the conscious stress of the disorder. These data also suggest mutually reinforcing bidirectional links between a central hypernoradrenergic state and the hyperfunctioning of specific central CRH pathways that each are driven and sustained by hypercortisolism. We postulate that alpha-noradrenergic blockade, CRH antagonists, and treatment with antiglucocorticoids may act at different loci, alone or in combination, in the treatment of major depression with melancholic features.

  12. Reduced expression of ASS is closely related to clinicopathological features and post-resectional survival of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Lin, Ming; Xiong, Fu Xia; Yang, Yu; Nie, Xiu; Zhou, Rou Li

    2010-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) has previously been proven to be reductively expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and various types of HCC cell lines. Arginine, the product of ASS, has been used as a target in HCC by recombinant human arginase or arginine deiminase, which is now in the phase II clinical trial stage. This study aimed to present the levels of ASS expression in HCCs and its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC patients. Immunohistochemical detection of ASS was performed on samples from 71 patients with HCC. Positive staining was found in 21 HCCs, with a score of 2, as well as in normal liver tissues. Reduced ASS staining was found in 70.4% (50/71) of HCC tissues, including 21 with a score of 0 and 29 with a score of 1. The staining score in cancer tissues was significantly associated with gender, background liver, histopathological differentiation, recurrence, TNM staging and portal vein invasion (P<0.05), but not with age, viral status, tumor size and serum α-fetoprotein level. Patients with a high ASS expression had significantly poorer overall and disease-free survival (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). These data showed that ASS was reductively or negatively expressed in a large portion of HCC, and that ASS levels in HCCs correlated inversely with prognosis. In conclusion, a high expression of ASS may be a novel marker of poor prognosis of patients presenting with HCC.

  13. MicroRNA and mRNA Features of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Benign Asbestos-Related Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Guntulu; Tomaszek, Sandra C.; Kosari, Farhad; Metintas, Muzaffer; Jett, James R.; Metintas, Selma; Yildirim, Huseyin; Dundar, Emine; Dong, Jie; Aubry, Marie Christine; Wigle, Dennis A.; Thomas, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated the expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in pleural tissues from patients with either malignant pleural mesothelioma or benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Methods. Fresh frozen tissues from a total of 18 malignant pleural mesothelioma and 6 benign asbestos-related pleural effusion patients were studied. Expression profiling of mRNA and microRNA was performed using standard protocols. Results. We discovered significant upregulation of multiple microRNAs in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Hsa-miR-484, hsa-miR-320, hsa-let-7a, and hsa-miR-125a-5p were able to discriminate malignant from benign disease. Dynamically regulated mRNAs were also identified. MET was the most highly overexpressed gene in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Integrated analyses examining microRNA-mRNA interactions suggested multiple altered targets within the Notch signaling pathway. Conclusions. Specific microRNAs and mRNAs may have diagnostic utility in differentiating patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. These studies may be particularly helpful in patients who reside in a region with a high incidence of mesothelioma. PMID:25756049

  14. Inherited Fe and Ti electron transition spectroscopic features in altered ultramafic-carbonatite intrusives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, E. J.; Ghulam, A.; Encarnacion, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopic reflectance in the visible to short-wave infrared region is an important tool for remote geologic mapping and is applied at scales from satellite to field measurements. Remote geologic mapping is challenging in regions subject to significant surficial weathering. Here we identify absorption features found in altered volcanic pipes and dikes in the Avon Volcanic District, Missouri, that are inherited from the original ultramafic and carbonatite lithology. Alteration ranges from small degree hydrothermal alteration to extensive laterization. The absorption features are three broad minima centered near 690, 890, and 1100 nm. Features in this region are recognized to be caused by ferric and ferrous Fe minerals including olivine, carbonates, chlorite, and goethite all of which are found among the Avon pipes and dikes that are in various stages of alteration. Iron-related intervalence charge transfer and crystal field perturbations of ions are the principal causes of the spectroscopic features in the visible to near-infrared region yet spectra are also distorted by factors like texture and the presence of opaque minerals known to reduce overall reflectance. In the Avon samples, Fe oxide content can reach >15 wt% leading to prominent absorption features even in the less altered ultramafics with reflectance curve maxima as low as 5%. The exaggerated minima allow the altered intrusive rocks to stand out among other weathered lithologies that will often have clay features in the region yet have lower iron concentration. The absorption feature centered near 690 nm is particularly noteworthy. Broad mineral-related absorption features centered at this wavelength are rare but have been linked to Ti3+ in octahedral coordination. The reduced form of Ti is not common in surface lithologies. Titanium-rich andradite has Ti3+ in the octahedral position, is resistant to weathering, is found among the Avon lithologies including ultramafic, carbonatite, and carbonated

  15. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μm IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ˜15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ˜15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  16. Soluble Mediators and Clinical Features Discern Risk of Transitioning to Classified Disease in Relatives of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Melissa E.; Young, Kendra A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Weisman, Michael H.; Ishimori, Mariko L.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Karp, David R.; Harley, John B.; Norris, Jill M.; James, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases cause significant morbidity. Identifying populations at risk of developing SLE is essential to curtail irreversible inflammatory damage. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with transition to classified disease that inform SLE risk. Methods Previously identified lupus patient blood relatives with < 4 American College of Rheumatology SLE classification criteria at baseline (n=409) were enrolled in this follow-up study. Participants provided detailed family, demographic, and clinical information, including the SLE-specific portion of the Connective Tissue Disease Screening Questionnaire (SLE-CSQ). Plasma samples were tested for the presence of lupus-associated autoantibodies and 52 soluble mediators. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were applied to identify factors anticipating disease transition. Results Forty-five relatives (11%) transitioned to classified SLE during follow-up (mean time=6.4 years). Relatives who transitioned displayed more lupus-associated autoantibody specificities and higher SLE-CSQ scores (p<0.0001) at baseline than non-transitioned relatives. Importantly, they also had elevated baseline plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, including B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), stem cell factor (SCF), and interferon-associated chemokines (p≤0.02), with concurrent decreases in levels of regulatory mediators, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 (p≤0.03). GEE revealed that baseline SLE-CSQ or ACR scores and plasma levels of SCF and TGF-β (p≤0.03), but not autoantibodies, were significant and independent predictors of SLE transition. Conclusions Altered levels of soluble mediators anticipate transition to classified disease in lupus relatives. Thus, immune perturbations precede SLE classification and can help identify high-risk relatives for rheumatology referral and potential enrollment in prevention trials. PMID:27863174

  17. Conserved and divergent features of the structure and function of La and La-related proteins (LARPs)

    PubMed Central

    Bayfield, Mark A.; Yang, Ruiqing; Maraia, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Genuine La proteins contain two RNA binding motifs, a La motif (LAM) followed by a RNA recognition motif (RRM), arranged in a unique way to bind RNA. These proteins interact with an extensive variety of cellular RNAs and exhibit activities in two broad categories: i) to promote the metabolism of nascent pol III transcripts, including precursor-tRNAs, by binding to their common, UUU-3’OH containing ends, and ii) to modulate the translation of certain mRNAs involving an unknown binding mechanism. Characterization of several La-RNA crystal structures as well as biochemical studies reveal insight into their unique two-motif domain architecture and how the LAM recognizes UUU-3’OH while the RRM binds other parts of a pre-tRNA. Recent studies of members of distinct families of conserved La-related proteins (LARPs) indicate that some of these harbor activity related to genuine La proteins, suggesting that their UUU-3’OH binding mode has been appropriated for the assembly and regulation of a specific snRNP (e.g., 7SK snRNA assembly by hLARP7/PIP7S). Analyses of other LARP family members (i.e., hLARP4, hLARP6) suggest more diverged RNA binding modes and specialization for cytoplasmic mRNA-related functions. Thus it appears that while genuine La proteins exhibit broad general involvement in both snRNA-related and mRNA-related functions, different LARP families may have evolved specialized activities in either snRNA or mRNA related functions. In this review, we summarize recent progress that has led to greater understanding of the structure and function of La proteins and their roles in tRNA processing and RNP assembly dynamics, as well as progress on the different LARPs. PMID:20138158

  18. Conserved and divergent features of the structure and function of La and La-related proteins (LARPs).

    PubMed

    Bayfield, Mark A; Yang, Ruiqing; Maraia, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Genuine La proteins contain two RNA binding motifs, a La motif (LAM) followed by a RNA recognition motif (RRM), arranged in a unique way to bind RNA. These proteins interact with an extensive variety of cellular RNAs and exhibit activities in two broad categories: i) to promote the metabolism of nascent pol III transcripts, including precursor-tRNAs, by binding to their common, UUU-3'OH containing ends, and ii) to modulate the translation of certain mRNAs involving an unknown binding mechanism. Characterization of several La-RNA crystal structures as well as biochemical studies reveal insight into their unique two-motif domain architecture and how the LAM recognizes UUU-3'OH while the RRM binds other parts of a pre-tRNA. Recent studies of members of distinct families of conserved La-related proteins (LARPs) indicate that some of these harbor activity related to genuine La proteins, suggesting that their UUU-3'OH binding mode has been appropriated for the assembly and regulation of a specific snRNP (e.g., 7SK snRNP assembly by hLARP7/PIP7S). Analyses of other LARP family members suggest more diverged RNA binding modes and specialization for cytoplasmic mRNA-related functions. Thus it appears that while genuine La proteins exhibit broad general involvement in both snRNA-related and mRNA-related functions, different LARP families may have evolved specialized activities in either snRNA or mRNA-related functions. In this review, we summarize recent progress that has led to greater understanding of the structure and function of La proteins and their roles in tRNA processing and RNP assembly dynamics, as well as progress on the different LARPs.

  19. The ties to unbind: age-related differences in feature (un)binding in working memory for emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Pehlivanoglu, Didem; Jain, Shivangi; Ariel, Robert; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust) from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions), as a hyper-binding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back) under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition), the face's emotional expression (expression condition), or both identity and expression of the face (both condition). The two age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the both condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/STM and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/STM version of the task (1-Back) is more effortful for older adults than younger adults.

  20. Perceived Pain Extent is Not Associated With Widespread Pressure Pain Sensitivity, Clinical Features, Related Disability, Anxiety, or Depression in Women With Episodic Migraine.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Falla, Deborah; Palacios-Ceña, María; Fuensalida-Novo, Stella; Arias-Buría, Jose L; Schneebeli, Alessandro; Arend-Nielsen, Lars; Barbero, Marco

    2018-03-01

    People with migraine present with varying pain extent and an expanded distribution of perceived pain may reflect central sensitization. The relationship between pain extent and clinical features, psychological outcomes, related disability, and pressure pain sensitivity in migraine has been poorly investigated. Our aim was to investigate whether the perceived pain extent, assessed from pain drawings, relates to measures of pressure pain sensitivity, clinical, psychological outcomes, and related disability in women with episodic migraine. A total of 72 women with episodic migraine completed pain drawings, which were subsequently digitized allowing pain extent to be calculated utilising novel software. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the temporalis muscle (trigeminal area), the cervical spine (extratrigeminal area), and tibialis anterior muscle (distant pain-free area). Clinical features of migraine, migraine-related disability (migraine disability assessment questionnaire [MIDAS]), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale [HADS]) were also assessed. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were computed to reveal correlations between pain extent and the remaining outcomes. No significant associations were observed between pain extent and pressure pain thresholds in trigeminal, extratrigeminal or distant pain-free areas, migraine pain features, or psychological variables including anxiety or depression, and migraine-related disability. Pain extent within the trigeminocervical area was not associated with any of the measured clinical outcomes and not related to the degree of pressure pain sensitization in women with episodic migraine. Further research is needed to determine if the presence of expanded pain areas outside of the trigeminal area can play a relevant role in the sensitization processes in migraine.

  1. Influence of image charge effect on impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.

  2. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497

  3. The ties to unbind: age-related differences in feature (un)binding in working memory for emotional faces

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivanoglu, Didem; Jain, Shivangi; Ariel, Robert; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust) from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions), as a hyper-binding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back) under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition), the face’s emotional expression (expression condition), or both identity and expression of the face (both condition). The two age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the both condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/STM and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/STM version of the task (1-Back) is more effortful for older adults than younger adults. PMID:24795660

  4. Magmatic gas emissions at Holocene volcanic features near Mono Lake, California, and their relation to regional magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Silicic lavas have erupted repeatedly in the Mono Basin over the past few thousand years, forming the massive domes and coulees of the Mono Craters chain and the smaller island vents in Mono Lake. We report here on the first systematic study of magmatic CO2 emissions from these features, conducted during 2007–2010. Most notably, a known locus of weak steam venting on the summit of North Coulee is actually enclosed in a large area (~ 0.25 km2) of diffuse gas discharge that emits 10–14 t/d of CO2, mostly at ambient temperature. Subsurface gases sampled here are heavily air-contaminated, but after standard corrections are applied, show average δ13C-CO2 of − 4.72‰, 3He/4He of 5.89RA, and CO2/3He of 0.77 × 1010, very similar to the values in fumarolic gas from Mammoth Mountain and the Long Valley Caldera immediately to the south of the basin. If these values also characterize the magmatic gas source at Mono Lake, where CO2 is captured by the alkaline lake water, a magmatic CO2 upflow beneath the lake of ~ 4 t/d can be inferred. Groundwater discharge from the Mono Craters area transports ~ 13 t/d of 14C-dead CO2 as free gas and dissolved carbonate species, and adding in this component brings the estimated total magmatic CO2 output to 29 t/d for the two silicic systems in the Mono Basin. If these emissions reflect intrusion and degassing of underlying basalt with 0.5 wt.% CO2, a modest intrusion rate of 0.00075 km3/yr is indicated. Much higher intrusion rates are required to account for CO2 emissions from Mammoth Mountain and the West Moat of the Long Valley Caldera.

  5. Salient Features of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake in Relation to Earthquake Cycle and Dynamic Rupture Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampuero, J. P.; Meng, L.; Hough, S. E.; Martin, S. S.; Asimaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Two salient features of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake provide new opportunities to evaluate models of earthquake cycle and dynamic rupture. The Gorkha earthquake broke only partially across the seismogenic depth of the Main Himalayan Thrust: its slip was confined in a narrow depth range near the bottom of the locked zone. As indicated by the belt of background seismicity and decades of geodetic monitoring, this is an area of stress concentration induced by deep fault creep. Previous conceptual models attribute such intermediate-size events to rheological segmentation along-dip, including a fault segment with intermediate rheology in between the stable and unstable slip segments. We will present results from earthquake cycle models that, in contrast, highlight the role of stress loading concentration, rather than frictional segmentation. These models produce "super-cycles" comprising recurrent characteristic events interspersed by deep, smaller non-characteristic events of overall increasing magnitude. Because the non-characteristic events are an intrinsic component of the earthquake super-cycle, the notion of Coulomb triggering or time-advance of the "big one" is ill-defined. The high-frequency (HF) ground motions produced in Kathmandu by the Gorkha earthquake were weaker than expected for such a magnitude and such close distance to the rupture, as attested by strong motion recordings and by macroseismic data. Static slip reached close to Kathmandu but had a long rise time, consistent with control by the along-dip extent of the rupture. Moreover, the HF (1 Hz) radiation sources, imaged by teleseismic back-projection of multiple dense arrays calibrated by aftershock data, was deep and far from Kathmandu. We argue that HF rupture imaging provided a better predictor of shaking intensity than finite source inversion. The deep location of HF radiation can be attributed to rupture over heterogeneous initial stresses left by the background seismic activity

  6. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  7. Different Timing Features in Brain Processing of Core and Moral Disgust Pictures: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youxue; Lou, Liandi; Ding, Daoqun

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust. PMID:26011635

  8. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at <30 years and ≥35 years of age for young and late onset groups, respectively. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis I disorders (SCID-P) was used prospectively for diagnoses. Premorbid personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Different timing features in brain processing of core and moral disgust pictures: an event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Youxue; Lou, Liandi; Ding, Daoqun

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust.

  10. Phytoplankton variability and community structure in relation to hydrographic features in the NE Aegean frontal area (NE Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagaria, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Mara, P.; Frangoulis, C.; Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Pitta, P.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Tsiola, A.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    The structure of phytoplankton community in the salinity-stratified Northeastern Aegean frontal area adjacent to the Dardanelles Straits was investigated on a seasonal basis (autumn, spring and summer) and in relation to circulating water masses: the modified Black Sea Water (BSW) and the Levantine Water (LW). By employing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the analysis of phytoplankton pigments in conjunction with conventional cell counting methodologies (i.e. inverted light microscopy, flow cytometry) and primary production measurements, a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative characterization of phytoplankton community composition and its activity was conducted. Chlorophyll-a normalized production and estimated growth rates presented the highest values within the 'fresh' BSW mass during summer, though generally growth rates were low (<0.4 d-1) at all seasons. The spatiotemporal variation of BSW outflow was found to greatly affect the relative contribution of pico-, nano- and micro-phytoplankton to total phytoplankton biomass and production. Large cell organisms, and in particular diatoms, were closely associated with the surface BSW masses outflowing from the Straits. Our results showed that all phytoplankton size components were significant over time and space suggesting a rather multivorous food web functioning of the system.

  11. Selection of features within and without objects: effects of gestalt appearance and object-based instruction on behavior and event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Groen, Margriet; Heide, Wolfgang; Sobieralska, Kinga; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-05-01

    We studied how physical and instructed embedding of features in gestalts affects perceptual selection. Four ovals on the horizontal midline were either unconnected or pairwise connected by circles, forming ears of left and right heads (gestalts). Relevant to responding was the position of one colored oval, either within its pair or relative to fixation ("object-based" or "fixation-based" instruction). Responses were faster under fixation- than object-based instruction, less so with gestalts. Previously reported increases of N1 when evoked by features within objects were replicated for fixation-based instruction only. There was no effect of instruction on N2pc. However P1 increased under the adequate instruction, object-based for gestalts, fixation-based for unconnected items, which presumably indicated how foci of attention were set by expecting specific stimuli under instructions that specified how to bind these stimuli to objects.

  12. Counterrotating prop-fan simulations which feature a relative-motion multiblock grid decomposition enabling arbitrary time-steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, J. Mark; Whitfield, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Improvements are presented of a computer algorithm developed for the time-accurate flow analysis of rotating machines. The flow model is a finite volume method utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for interface flux definitions. The numerical scheme is a block LU implicit iterative-refinement method which possesses apparent unconditional stability. Multiblock composite gridding is used to orderly partition the field into a specified arrangement of blocks exhibiting varying degrees of similarity. Block-block relative motion is achieved using local grid distortion to reduce grid skewness and accommodate arbitrary time step selection. A general high-order numerical scheme is applied to satisfy the geometric conservation law. An even-blade-count counterrotating unducted fan configuration is chosen for a computational study comparing solutions resulting from altering parameters such as time step size and iteration count. The solutions are compared with measured data.

  13. Neural differentiation of lexico-syntactic categories or semantic features? event-related potential evidence for both.

    PubMed

    Kellenbach, Marion L; Wijers, Albertus A; Hovius, Marjolijn; Mulder, Juul; Mulder, Gijsbertus

    2002-05-15

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate whether processing differences between nouns and verbs can be accounted for by the differential salience of visual-perceptual and motor attributes in their semantic specifications. Three subclasses of nouns and verbs were selected, which differed in their semantic attribute composition (abstract, high visual, high visual and motor). Single visual word presentation with a recognition memory task was used. While multiple robust and parallel ERP effects were observed for both grammatical class and attribute type, there were no interactions between these. This pattern of effects provides support for lexical-semantic knowledge being organized in a manner that takes account both of category-based (grammatical class) and attribute-based distinctions.

  14. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  15. The memory is in the details: relations between memory for the specific features of events and long-term recall during infancy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Lukowski, Angela F

    2010-09-01

    The second year of life is marked by pronounced changes in the length of time over which events are remembered. We tested whether the age-related differences are related to differences in memory for the specific features of events. In our study, 16- and 20-month-olds were tested for immediate and long-term recall of individual actions and temporal order of actions of three-step sequences in an elicited imitation paradigm as well as for forced-choice recognition of the specific feature of the props used to produce the sequences. Memory for the props was related to long-term recall of the events only for the 20-month-olds. It accounted for unique variance above and beyond the variance explained by immediate recall of the individual actions and the temporal order of actions of the sequences. The different pattern of relations in the older and younger infants seemingly reflects a developmental difference in the determinants of long-term recall over the second year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual search and the aging brain: discerning the effects of age-related brain volume shrinkage on alertness, feature binding, and attentional control.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2013-01-01

    Decline in visuospatial abilities with advancing age has been attributed to a demise of bottom-up and top-down functions involving sensory processing, selective attention, and executive control. These functions may be differentially affected by age-related volume shrinkage of subcortical and cortical nodes subserving the dorsal and ventral processing streams and the corpus callosum mediating interhemispheric information exchange. Fifty-five healthy adults (25-84 years) underwent structural MRI and performed a visual search task to test perceptual and attentional demands by combining feature-conjunction searches with "gestalt" grouping and attentional cueing paradigms. Poorer conjunction, but not feature, search performance was related to older age and volume shrinkage of nodes in the dorsolateral processing stream. When displays allowed perceptual grouping through distractor homogeneity, poorer conjunction-search performance correlated with smaller ventrolateral prefrontal cortical and callosal volumes. An alerting cue attenuated age effects on conjunction search, and the alertness benefit was associated with thalamic, callosal, and temporal cortex volumes. Our results indicate that older adults can capitalize on early parallel stages of visual information processing, whereas age-related limitations arise at later serial processing stages requiring self-guided selective attention and executive control. These limitations are explained in part by age-related brain volume shrinkage and can be mitigated by external cues.

  17. Structural and Antimicrobial Features of Peptides Related to Myticin C, a Special Defense Molecule from the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Domeneghetti, Stefania; Franzoi, Marco; Damiano, Nunzio; Norante, Rosa; El Halfawy, Nancy M; Mammi, Stefano; Marin, Oriano; Bellanda, Massimo; Venier, Paola

    2015-10-28

    Mussels (Mytilus spp.) have a large repertoire of cysteine-stabilized α,β peptides, and myticin C (MytC) was identified in some hundreds of transcript variants after in vivo immunostimulation. Using a sequence expressed in Italian mussels, we computed the MytC structure and synthesized the mature MytC and related peptide fragments (some of them also prepared in oxidized form) to accurately assess their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Only when tested at pH 5 was the reduced MytC as well as reduced and oxidized fragments including structural β-elements able to inhibit Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (MIC ranges of 4-32 and 8-32 μM, respectively). Such fragments caused selective Escherichia coli killing (MBC of 8-32 μM) but scarcely inhibited two fungal strains. In detail, the antimicrobial β-hairpin MytC[19-40]SOX caused membrane-disrupting effects in E. coli despite its partially ordered conformation in membrane-mimetic environments. In perspective, MytC-derived peptides could be employed to protect acidic mucosal tissues, in cosmetic and food products, and, possibly, as adjuvants in aquaculture.

  18. Distinct molecular features facilitating ice-binding mechanisms in hyperactive antifreeze proteins closely related to an Antarctic sea ice bacterium.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rachana; Chakraborti, Pratim; Bhowmick, Rupa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasish

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins or ice-binding proteins (IBPs) facilitate the survival of certain cellular organisms in freezing environment by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals in solution. Present study identifies orthologs of the IBP of Colwellia sp. SLW05, which were obtained from a wide range of taxa. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of conserved regions (predicted as the 'ice-binding domain' [IBD]) present in all the orthologs, separates the bacterial and archaeal orthologs from that of the eukaryotes'. Correspondence analysis pointed out that the bacterial and archaeal IBDs have relatively higher average hydrophobicity than the eukaryotic members. IBDs belonging to bacterial as well as archaeal AFPs contain comparatively more strands, and therefore are revealed to be under higher evolutionary selection pressure. Molecular docking studies prove that the ice crystals form more stable complex with the bacterial as well as archaeal proteins than the eukaryotic orthologs. Analysis of the docked structures have traced out the ice-binding sites (IBSs) in all the orthologs which continue to facilitate ice-binding activity even after getting mutated with respect to the well-studied IBSs of Typhula ishikariensis and notably, all these mutations performing ice-binding using 'anchored clathrate mechanism' have been found to prefer polar and hydrophilic amino acids. Horizontal gene transfer studies point toward a strong selection pressure favoring independent evolution of the IBPs in some polar organisms including prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes because these proteins facilitate the polar organisms to acclimatize to the adversities in their niche, thus safeguarding their existence.

  19. Endocrine tumors of the duodenum. A study of 55 cases relative to clinicopathological features and hormone content.

    PubMed

    Heymann, M F; Hamy, A; Triau, S; Miraillé, E; Toquet, C; Chomarat, H; Cohen, C; Maitre, F; Le Bodie, M F

    2004-01-01

    Study of prognosis of duodenal endocrine tumors. Retrospective study concerned 55 duodenal endocrine tumors discovered in biopsy or surgical specimens. Follow-up records available for 49 patients indicated that inconspicuous associated clinical manifestations were often found subsequently. Seven patients were classified as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and seven as multiple endocrine neoplasia (6 MEN I and 1 MEN II). Tumors were small (mean 1.28cm) and located preferentially in the first and second part of the duodenum. Fifty-four were well-differentiated and one poorly differentiated. Immunochemistry revealed 30 G-cell tumors (54.6%), 15 D-cell (27.3%), two plurihormonal (EC cell and G cell), and one GRH-cell, whereas seven could not be classified. Fifteen patients died (five in relation to their disease). Twenty-one had metastases (liver, nodes, lung), eight of whom are still alive. Eighty-eight percent of duodenal endocrine tumors were gastrinomas, small plurifocal tumors and somatostatinomas preferentially located in the ampullar region and diagnosed because of hematemesis or icterus. Size is an important prognostic factor in determining whether surgery is required. The prognosis is better for D- and G-cell tumors than pancreatic endocrine tumors. Duodenal endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia have a good prognosis, but can be associated with pancreatic plurihormonal tumors and metastases.

  20. Breathlessness and Restrictive Lung Disease: An Important Diabetes-Related Feature in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Stefan; Groener, Jan B; Kender, Zoltan; Fleming, Thomas; Brune, Maik; Riedinger, Christin; Volk, Nadine; Herpel, Esther; Pesta, Dominik; Szendrödi, Julia; Wielpütz, Mark O; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Katus, Hugo A; Kreuter, Michael; Nawroth, Peter P

    2018-06-06

    Diabetes mellitus is a significant comorbidity of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of restrictive lung disease (RLD) and ILD in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Forty-eight nondiabetics, 68 patients with prediabetes, 29 newly diagnosed T2D, and 110 patients with long-term T2D were examined for metabolic control, diabetes-related complications, breathlessness, and lung function. Five participants with T2D, breathlessness, and RLD underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and a Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Lung tissue from 4 patients without diabetes and from 3 patients with T2D was histologically examined for presence of pulmonary fibrosis. Breathlessness in combination with RLD was significantly increased in patients with prediabetes and T2D (p < 0.01). RLD was found in 9% of patients with prediabetes, in 20% of patients with newly diagnosed T2D, and in 27% of patients with long-term T2D. Thus, patients with long-term T2D had an increased risk of RLD (OR 5.82 [95% CI 1.71-20.5], p < 0.01). RLD was significantly associated with glucose metabolism and albuminuria (p < 0.01); furthermore, presence of nephropathy increased the risk of RLD (OR 8.57 [95% CI 3.4-21.9], p < 0.01) compared to nondiabetics. MDCT revealed ILD in 4 patients, the 6MWT correlated with the extent of ILD, and histological analysis showed fibrosing ILD in patients with T2D. This study demonstrates increased breathlessness and a high prevalence of RLD in patients with T2D, indicating an association between diabetes and fibrosing ILD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Comparative genome analysis of Prevotella intermedia strain isolated from infected root canal reveals features related to pathogenicity and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yunfeng; Shen, Lu; Zou, Yan; Qi, Zhengnan; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Jie; Guo, Liang; He, Lin; Chen, Zijiang; Tang, Zisheng; Qin, Shengying

    2015-02-25

    Many species of the genus Prevotella are pathogens that cause oral diseases. Prevotella intermedia is known to cause various oral disorders e.g. periodontal disease, periapical periodontitis and noma as well as colonize in the respiratory tract and be associated with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. It is of clinical significance to identify the main drive of its various adaptation and pathogenicity. In order to explore the intra-species genetic differences among strains of Prevotella intermedia of different niches, we isolated a strain Prevotella intermedia ZT from the infected root canal of a Chinese patient with periapical periodontitis and gained a draft genome sequence. We annotated the genome and compared it with the genomes of other taxa in the genus Prevotella. The raw data set, consisting of approximately 65X-coverage reads, was trimmed and assembled into contigs from which 2165 ORFs were predicted. The comparison of the Prevotella intermedia ZT genome sequence with the published genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia 17 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC25611 revealed that ~14% of the genes were strain-specific. The Preveotella intermedia strains share a set of conserved genes contributing to its adaptation and pathogenic and possess strain-specific genes especially those involved in adhesion and secreting bacteriocin. The Prevotella intermedia ZT shares similar gene content with other taxa of genus Prevotella. The genomes of the genus Prevotella is highly dynamic with relative conserved parts: on average, about half of the genes in one Prevotella genome were not included in another genome of the different Prevotella species. The degree of conservation varied with different pathways: the ability of amino acid biosynthesis varied greatly with species but the pathway of cell wall components biosynthesis were nearly constant. Phylogenetic tree shows that the taxa from different niches are scarcely distributed among clades. Prevotella intermedia ZT

  2. Parietal-Occipital Interactions Underlying Control- and Representation-Related Processes in Working Memory for Nonspatial Visual Features.

    PubMed

    Gosseries, Olivia; Yu, Qing; LaRocque, Joshua J; Starrett, Michael J; Rose, Nathan S; Cowan, Nelson; Postle, Bradley R

    2018-05-02

    unconfounded these two factors by varying load with items drawn from the same stimulus category ("high demands on context binding") versus items drawn from different stimulus categories ("low demands on context binding"). The results provide evidence for the dissociability, and the neural bases, of these two theorized factors, and they specify that the functions of intraparietal sulcus may relate more strongly to the control of representations than to the general allocation of attention. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/384357-10$15.00/0.

  3. Natural landscape features, human-related attractants, and conflict hotspots: A spatial analysis of human-grizzly bear conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Burchfield, J.A.; Belsky, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a long history of conflict in the western United States between humans and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) involving agricultural attractants. However, little is known about the spatial dimensions of this conflict and the relative importance of different attractants. This study was undertaken to better understand the spatial and functional components of conflict between humans and grizzly bears on privately owned agricultural lands in Montana. Our investigations focused on spatial associations of rivers and creeks, livestock pastures, boneyards (livestock carcass dump sites), beehives, and grizzly bear habitat with reported human-grizzly bear conflicts during 1986-2001. We based our analysis on a survey of 61 of 64 livestock producers in our study in the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana. With the assistance of livestock and honey producers, we mapped the locations of cattle and sheep pastures, boneyards, and beehives. We used density surface mapping to identify seasonal clusters of conflicts that we term conflict hotspots. Hotspots accounted for 75% of all conflicts and encompassed approximately 8% of the study area. We also differentiated chronic (4 or more years of conflicts) from non-chronic hotspots (fewer than 4 years of conflict). The 10 chronic hotpots accounted for 58% of all conflicts. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we found that conflict locations were most strongly associated with rivers and creeks followed by sheep lambing areas and fall sheep pastures. Conflicts also were associated with cattle calving areas, spring cow-calf pastures, summer and fall cattle pastures, and boneyards. The Monte Carlo simulations indicated associations between conflict locations and unprotected beehives at specific analysis scales. Protected (fenced) beehives were less likely to experience conflicts than unprotected beehives. Conflicts occurred at a greater rate in riparian and wetland vegetation than would be expected. The majority of conflicts occurred in a

  4. Relating nutrient and herbicide fate with landscape features and characteristics of 15 subwatersheds in the Choptank River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; McConnell, Laura L.; Fisher, Thomas R.; Rice, Clifford P.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Whitall, David R.; Downey, Peter M.; de Guzman, Gabriela T. Nino; Bialek-Kalinski, Krystyna; Lang, Megan W.; Gustafson, Anne B.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Sefton, Kerry A.; Harman Fetcho, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Excess nutrients and agrochemicals from non-point sources contribute to water quality impairment in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and their loading rates are related to land use, agricultural practices, hydrology, and pollutant fate and transport processes. In this study, monthly baseflow stream samples from 15 agricultural subwatersheds of the Choptank River in Maryland USA (2005 to 2007) were characterized for nutrients, herbicides, and herbicide transformation products. High-resolution digital maps of land use and forested wetlands were derived from remote sensing imagery. Examination of landscape metrics and water quality data, partitioned according to hydrogeomorphic class, provided insight into the fate, delivery, and transport mechanisms associated with agricultural pollutants. Mean Nitrate-N concentrations (4.9 mg/L) were correlated positively with percent agriculture (R2 = 0.56) and negatively with percent forest (R2 = 0.60). Concentrations were greater (p = 0.0001) in the well-drained upland (WDU) hydrogeomorphic region than in poorly drained upland (PDU), reflecting increased denitrification and reduced agricultural land use intensity in the PDU landscape due to the prevalence of hydric soils. Atrazine and metolachlor concentrations (mean 0.29 μg/L and 0.19 μg/L) were also greater (p = 0.0001) in WDU subwatersheds than in PDU subwatersheds. Springtime herbicide concentrations exhibited a strong, positive correlation (R2 = 0.90) with percent forest in the WDU subwatersheds but not in the PDU subwatersheds. In addition, forested riparian stream buffers in the WDU were more prevalent than in the PDU where forested patches are typically not located near streams, suggesting an alternative delivery mechanism whereby volatilized herbicides are captured by the riparian forest canopy and subsequently washed off during rainfall. Orthophosphate, CIAT (6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), CEAT (6-chloro-N-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and

  5. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  6. Inhibitory effect of calcium on non-heme iron absorption may be related to translocation of DMT-1 at the apical membrane of enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ben A V; Sharp, Paul A; Elliott, Ruan; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2010-07-28

    Many studies show that calcium reduces iron absorption from single meals, but the underlying mechanism is not known. We tested the hypothesis that calcium alters the expression and/or functionality of iron transport proteins. Differentiated Caco-2 cells were treated with ferric ammonium citrate and calcium chloride, and ferritin, DMT-1, and ferroportin were quantified in whole-cell lysate and cell-membrane fractions. Calcium attenuated the iron-induced increase in cell ferritin levels in a dose-dependent manner; a significant decrease was seen at calcium concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mM but was only evident after a 16-24 h incubation period. Calcium and iron treatments decreased DMT-1 protein in Caco-2 cell membranes, although total DMT-1 in whole cell lysates was unchanged by either iron or calcium. No change was seen in ferroportin expression. Our data suggest that calcium reduces iron bioavailability by decreasing DMT-1 expression at the apical cell membrane, thereby downregulating iron transport into the cell.

  7. Spatial database of mining-related features in 2001 at selected phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Kayser, Helen Z.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the spatial database, PHOSMINE01, and the processes used to delineate mining-related features (active and inactive/historical) in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The spatial data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, for many of the closed or inactive mines the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study, three active phosphate mines - Enoch Valley (nearing closure), Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon - and 16 inactive (or historical) phosphate mines - Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Dry Valley, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Approximately 6,000 hc (15,000 ac), or 60 km2 (23 mi2) of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage. Spatial data for the inactive mines is current because no major changes have occurred; however, the spatial data for active mines were derived from digital maps prepared in early 2001 and therefore recent activity is not included. The inactive Gay Mine has the largest total area of disturbance, 1,900 hc (4,700 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda Mine with 610 hc (1,500 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon Mine, the largest of the active mines with about 550 hc (1,400 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (141) from various industry maps were reduced to 15 types or features based on a generic classification system used for this study: mine pit; backfilled mine pit; waste rock dump; adit and waste rock dump; ore stockpile; topsoil stockpile; tailings or tailings pond; sediment

  8. Different underlying mechanisms for face emotion and gender processing during feature-selective attention: Evidence from event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailing; Ip, Chengteng; Fu, Shimin; Sun, Pei

    2017-05-01

    Face recognition theories suggest that our brains process invariant (e.g., gender) and changeable (e.g., emotion) facial dimensions separately. To investigate whether these two dimensions are processed in different time courses, we analyzed the selection negativity (SN, an event-related potential component reflecting attentional modulation) elicited by face gender and emotion during a feature selective attention task. Participants were instructed to attend to a combination of face emotion and gender attributes in Experiment 1 (bi-dimensional task) and to either face emotion or gender in Experiment 2 (uni-dimensional task). The results revealed that face emotion did not elicit a substantial SN, whereas face gender consistently generated a substantial SN in both experiments. These results suggest that face gender is more sensitive to feature-selective attention and that face emotion is encoded relatively automatically on SN, implying the existence of different underlying processing mechanisms for invariant and changeable facial dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clusters of ancestrally related genes that show paralogy in whole or in part are a major feature of the genomes of humans and other species.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael B; King, Benjamin L; Paigen, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Arrangements of genes along chromosomes are a product of evolutionary processes, and we can expect that preferable arrangements will prevail over the span of evolutionary time, often being reflected in the non-random clustering of structurally and/or functionally related genes. Such non-random arrangements can arise by two distinct evolutionary processes: duplications of DNA sequences that give rise to clusters of genes sharing both sequence similarity and common sequence features and the migration together of genes related by function, but not by common descent. To provide a background for distinguishing between the two, which is important for future efforts to unravel the evolutionary processes involved, we here provide a description of the extent to which ancestrally related genes are found in proximity.Towards this purpose, we combined information from five genomic datasets, InterPro, SCOP, PANTHER, Ensembl protein families, and Ensembl gene paralogs. The results are provided in publicly available datasets (http://cgd.jax.org/datasets/clustering/paraclustering.shtml) describing the extent to which ancestrally related genes are in proximity beyond what is expected by chance (i.e. form paraclusters) in the human and nine other vertebrate genomes, as well as the D. melanogaster, C. elegans, A. thaliana, and S. cerevisiae genomes. With the exception of Saccharomyces, paraclusters are a common feature of the genomes we examined. In the human genome they are estimated to include at least 22% of all protein coding genes. Paraclusters are far more prevalent among some gene families than others, are highly species or clade specific and can evolve rapidly, sometimes in response to environmental cues. Altogether, they account for a large portion of the functional clustering previously reported in several genomes.

  10. Design Features for Linguistically-Mediated Meaning Construction: The Relative Roles of the Linguistic and Conceptual Systems in Subserving the Ideational Function of Language

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2016-01-01

    meaning. I consider the nature of these qualitatively distinct representations. And second, language itself is adapted to the conceptual system—the semantic potential—that it marshals in the meaning construction process. Hence, a linguistic system itself exhibits a bifurcation, in terms of the symbolic resources at its disposal. This design feature I dub the birfucation in linguistic organization. As I shall argue, this relates to two distinct reference strategies available for symbolic encoding in language: what I dub words-to-world reference and words-to-words reference. In slightly different terms, this design feature of language amounts to a distinction between a lexical subsystem, and a grammatical subsystem. PMID:26925000

  11. Design Features for Linguistically-Mediated Meaning Construction: The Relative Roles of the Linguistic and Conceptual Systems in Subserving the Ideational Function of Language.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2016-01-01

    nature of these qualitatively distinct representations. And second, language itself is adapted to the conceptual system-the semantic potential-that it marshals in the meaning construction process. Hence, a linguistic system itself exhibits a bifurcation, in terms of the symbolic resources at its disposal. This design feature I dub the birfucation in linguistic organization. As I shall argue, this relates to two distinct reference strategies available for symbolic encoding in language: what I dub words-to-world reference and words-to-words reference. In slightly different terms, this design feature of language amounts to a distinction between a lexical subsystem, and a grammatical subsystem.

  12. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  13. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  14. Site Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and were combined into one region-wide layer.

  15. Synopsis of Mid-latitude Radio Wave Absorption in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torkar, K. M.; Friedrich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Radio wave absorption data covering almost two years from Europe to Central Asia are presented. They are normalized by relating them to a reference absorption. Every day these normalized data are fitted to a mathematical function of geographical location in order to obtain a daily synopsis of radio wave absorption. A film of these absorption charts was made which is intended to reveal movements of absorption or absorption anomaly. In addition, radiance (temperature) data from the lower D-region are also plotted onto these charts.

  16. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem

    2016-10-01

    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  17. Sandy beaches in a coastline vulnerable to erosion in Atlantic Canada: Macrobenthic community structure in relation to backshore and physical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, Mitchell R.; Duarte, Cristian; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2017-07-01

    Most literature suggests that sandy beach macrobenthic communities are structured by physical factors. However, an aspect that has not been studied in detail is whether those physical factors change with erosion or the association of beaches to backshore features like sand dunes, till bluffs, and sandstone cliffs. We addressed this question by sampling 14 sandy beaches on the north shore of Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Canada. Two null hypotheses were tested: first, there is no relationship between physical factors and community descriptors across sandy beaches, and second, there is no difference among beaches associated with distinct backshore features both in terms of physical factors and community descriptors. In order to test these hypotheses, samples of macrobenthic organisms and measurements of grain size, slope, beach deposit index and erosion rates were obtained. Our surveys collected a total of 14 taxa numerically dominated by the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata. With regards to the first hypothesis, regression analyses showed that community descriptors were all positively related to erosion rates while unrelated to the variation in grain size, slope and beach deposit index. As for the second hypothesis, erosion rates were significantly different among beaches associated to till bluffs (highest), dunes and sandstone cliffs (lowest). Meanwhile, the other physical factors did not significantly differ among backshore features. Species richness was highest in beaches associated to till bluffs and lowest in those associated to sandstone cliffs. Abundance values were also lowest in beaches associated to sandstone cliffs, and their community composition was significantly different to those associated to dunes and till bluffs. We suggest that the relationship between erosion rates and community descriptors is complex and may be mediated by the availability of nutrients: higher erosion levels might account for higher concentrations of nutrients for

  18. On the Agreement between Manual and Automated Methods for Single-Trial Detection and Estimation of Features from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Biurrun Manresa, José A.; Arguissain, Federico G.; Medina Redondo, David E.; Mørch, Carsten D.; Andersen, Ole K.

    2015-01-01

    The agreement between humans and algorithms on whether an event-related potential (ERP) is present or not and the level of variation in the estimated values of its relevant features are largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the categorical and quantitative agreement between manual and automated methods for single-trial detection and estimation of ERP features. To this end, ERPs were elicited in sixteen healthy volunteers using electrical stimulation at graded intensities below and above the nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold. Presence/absence of an ERP peak (categorical outcome) and its amplitude and latency (quantitative outcome) in each single-trial were evaluated independently by two human observers and two automated algorithms taken from existing literature. Categorical agreement was assessed using percentage positive and negative agreement and Cohen’s κ, whereas quantitative agreement was evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and the coefficient of variation. Typical values for the categorical agreement between manual and automated methods were derived, as well as reference values for the average and maximum differences that can be expected if one method is used instead of the others. Results showed that the human observers presented the highest categorical and quantitative agreement, and there were significantly large differences between detection and estimation of quantitative features among methods. In conclusion, substantial care should be taken in the selection of the detection/estimation approach, since factors like stimulation intensity and expected number of trials with/without response can play a significant role in the outcome of a study. PMID:26258532

  19. Electronic Absorption and MCD Spectra for Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), and Related Platinum-Centered Gold Cluster Complexes.

    PubMed

    Adrowski, Michael J.; Mason, W. Roy

    1997-03-26

    Electronic absorption and 7.0 T magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the UV-vis region, 1.6 to approximately 4.0 &mgr;m(-)(1) (1 &mgr;m(-)(1) = 10(4) cm(-)(1)) are reported for [Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) and [Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) in acetonitrile solutions at room temperature. The MCD spectra are better resolved than the absorption spectra and consist of both A and B terms. The spectra are interpreted in terms of D(4)(d)() skeletal geometry and MO's that are approximated by 5s and 6s orbitals for Pd and Pt/Au atoms, respectively. The lowest energy excited configurations and states are attributed to intraframework (IF) Au(8)(2+) transitions. Evidence is also presented for Pt 5d --> Au 6s transitions in the MCD spectra for Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+). Acetonitrile solution absorption and MCD spectra for the related Pt-centered cluster complexes [Pt(CO)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AuP(p-tolyl)(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(CuCl)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AgNO(3))(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(Hg)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(HgCl)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2), and [Pt(HgNO(3))(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2) are also reported and interpreted within the context of the model developed for the M(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+) complexes.

  20. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  1. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  2. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  3. Application of Mls Data to the Assessment of Safety-Related Features in the Surrounding Area of Automatically Detected Pedestrian Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, A.; González-deSantos, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    During the last few years, there has been a huge methodological development regarding the automatic processing of 3D point cloud data acquired by both terrestrial and aerial mobile mapping systems, motivated by the improvement of surveying technologies and hardware performance. This paper presents a methodology that, in a first place, extracts geometric and semantic information regarding the road markings within the surveyed area from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data, and then employs it to isolate street areas where pedestrian crossings are found and, therefore, pedestrians are more likely to cross the road. Then, different safety-related features can be extracted in order to offer information about the adequacy of the pedestrian crossing regarding its safety, which can be displayed in a Geographical Information System (GIS) layer. These features are defined in four different processing modules: Accessibility analysis, traffic lights classification, traffic signs classification, and visibility analysis. The validation of the proposed methodology has been carried out in two different cities in the northwest of Spain, obtaining both quantitative and qualitative results for pedestrian crossing classification and for each processing module of the safety assessment on pedestrian crossing environments.

  4. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  5. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  6. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  7. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorptionmore » and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.« less

  8. A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

  9. Development of a new Sonovue™ contrast-enhanced ultrasound approach reveals temporal and age-related features of muscle microvascular responses to feeding

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, William Kyle; Phillips, Bethan E; Williams, John P; Rankin, Debbie; Smith, Kenneth; Lund, Jonathan N; Atherton, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Compromised limb blood flow in aging may contribute to the development of sarcopenia, frailty, and the metabolic syndrome. We developed a novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique using Sonovue™ to characterize muscle microvasculature responses to an oral feeding stimulus (15 g essential amino acids) in young (∼20 years) and older (∼70 years) men. Intensity-time replenishment curves were made via an ultrasound probe “fixed” over the quadriceps, with intermittent high mechanical index destruction of microbubbles within muscle vasculature. This permitted real-time measures of microvascular blood volume (MBV), microvascular flow velocity (MFV) and their product, microvascular blood flow (MBF). Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured by Doppler and insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Steady-state contrast concentrations needed for comparison between different physiological states were achieved <150 sec from commencing Sonovue™ infusion, and MFV and MBV measurements were completed <120 sec thereafter. Interindividual coefficients of variation in MBV and MFV were 35–40%, (N = 36). Younger men (N = 6) exhibited biphasic vascular responses to feeding with early increases in MBV (+36%, P < 0.008 45 min post feed) reflecting capillary recruitment, and late increases in MFV (+77%, P < 0.008) and MBF (+130%, P < 0.007 195 min post feed) reflecting more proximal vessel dilatation. Early MBV responses were synchronized with peak insulin but not increased LBF, while later changes in MFV and MBF occurred with insulin at post absorptive values but alongside increased LBF. All circulatory responses were absent in old men (N = 7). Thus, impaired postprandial circulation could impact age-related declines in muscle glucose disposal, protein anabolism, and muscle mass. PMID:24303186

  10. Implications of high-velocity interstellar H I absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L.; York, D. G.; Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to the interstellar H I column density at high velocities from immediate postshock gas and from the cooling gas behind a shock are compared. The detection of high-velocity H I in L-epsilon and L-delta for Iota Ori is reported and interpreted as cooling gas behind a shock of 100 km/s velocity. The immediate postshock gas should be observable for shock velocities greater than 200 km/s and permits direct determination of the velocities of adiabatic shocks in the interstellar medium. It is pointed out that interstellar L-alpha and L-beta lines may not have purely Lorentzian profiles if high-velocity H I is a widespread phenomenon.

  11. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  12. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relationsmore » obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.« less

  13. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  14. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  15. The age related slow and fast contributions to the overall changes in tibialis anterior contractile features disclosed by maximal single twitch scan.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Claudio; Cogliati, Marta; Bissolotti, Luciano; Diemont, Bertrand; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if maximal electrically evoked single twitch (STmax) scan discloses the relative functional weight of fast and slow small bundles of fibres (SBF) in determining the contractile features of tibialis anterior (TA) with ageing. SBFs were recruited by TA main motor point stimulation through 60 increasing levels of stimulation (LS): 20 stimuli at 2Hz for each LS. The lowest and highest LS provided the least ST and STmax, respectively. The scanned STmax was decomposed into individual SBF STs. They were identified when twitches from adjacent LS were significantly different and then subtracted from each other. Nine young (Y) and eleven old (O) subjects were investigated. Contraction time (CT) and STarea/STpeak (A/PT) were calculated per each SBF ST. 143 and 155 SBF STs were obtained in Y and O, respectively. Y: CT and A/PT range: 45-105ms and 67-183mNs/mN, respectively. Literature data set TA fast fibres at 34% so, from the arrays of CT and A/PT, 65ms and 100mNs/mN were identified as the upper limit for SBF fast ST classification. O: no SBF ST could be classified as fast. STmax scan reveals age-related changes in the relative contribution of fast and slow SBFs to the overall muscle mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  17. High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder; a study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls

    PubMed Central

    Vreeker, Annabel; Boks, Marco P.M.; Abramovic, Lucija; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H.; Hillegers, Manon H.J.; Spijker, Annet T.; Hoencamp, Erik; Regeer, Eline J.; Riemersma-Van der Lek, Rixt F.; Stevens, Anja W.M.M.; Schulte, Peter F.J.; Vonk, Ronald; Hoekstra, Rocco; van Beveren, Nico J.M.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; MacCabe, James H.; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with lower intelligence and poor educational performance relative to the general population. This is, to a lesser degree, also found in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. It is unclear whether bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and their relatives have similar lower intellectual and educational performance as that observed in schizophrenia. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated intelligence and educational performance in two outpatient samples (494 BD-I patients, 952 schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ) patients), 2,231 BD-I and SCZ relatives patients, 1,104 healthy controls and 100 control siblings. Mixed-effects- and regression models were used to compare groups on intelligence and educational performance. Results BD-I patients were more likely to have completed the highest level of education (OR=1.88 [1.66–2.70]) despite having a lower IQ compared with controls (β=−9.09, SE=1.27, p<0.001). In contrast, SCZ patients showed both a lower IQ (β= −15.31, SE=0.86, p<0.001) and lower educational levels compared with controls. Siblings of both patient groups had significantly lower IQ than control siblings, but did not differ on educational performance. IQ scores did not differ between BD-I parents and SCZ parents, but BD-I parents had completed higher educational levels. Conclusions Although BD-I patients had a lower IQ than controls, they were more likely to have completed the highest level of education. This contrasts with SCZ patients, who showed both intellectual and educational deficits compared to healthy controls. Since relatives of BD-I patients did not demonstrate superior educational performance, our data suggest that high educational performance may be a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder patients. PMID:26621616

  18. An inulin-type fructan enhances calcium absorption primarily via an effect on colonic absorption in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calcium absorption efficiency and bone mineral mass are increased in adolescents who regularly consume inulin-type fructans (ITF). The mechanism of action in increasing absorption is unknown but may be related to increased colonic calcium absorption. We conducted a study in young adults designed to ...

  19. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-12-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The AV/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous materials in

  20. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The A(sub V)/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous

  1. Numerical indicators of absorption spectra of green leaf extract obtained from plants of different life forms.

    PubMed

    Koldaev, Vladimir M; Manyakhin, Artem Yu

    2018-06-05

    The study was carried out using 58 species of terrestrial plants of different life forms at the start of their fruiting stage. Photoreceptive systems of the leaves were assessed by means of unconventional numerical indicators of absorption spectra, relative photoabsorption coefficient, photosynthetic pigments' integral absorption intensity and relative absorption intensity coefficient. As the study showed, the leaves of all trees and light-demanding grasses favoring open spaces, which were subjected to the study were featured by the lowest values of numerical indicators of absorption spectra (NIAS). Shade-demanding grasses, which grow beneath the canopy, by contrast, were featured by the highest NIAS values. These values of the shrub leaves were in between those of light-demanding plants and shade-demanding ones. The results obtained are consistent with modern visions concerning the biochemistry and the physiology of plants' photoreceptive system. It is appropriate to apply the NIAS, which were used in this study and reflect a leaf's photoreceptive properties, as spectrophotometric criteria for monitoring and environmental management of natural plant resources and agricultural plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiplexed absorption tomography with calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F., E-mail: cfk23@cam.ac.uk

    2014-04-14

    We propose a multiplexed absorption tomography technique, which uses calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with tunable semiconductor lasers for the simultaneous imaging of temperature and species concentration in harsh combustion environments. Compared with the commonly used direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) counterpart, the present variant enjoys better signal-to-noise ratios and requires no baseline fitting, a particularly desirable feature for high-pressure applications, where adjacent absorption features overlap and interfere severely. We present proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations of the technique using realistic phantom models of harsh combustion environments and prove that the proposed techniques outperform currently available tomography techniques based on DAS.

  3. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Perception and the Recognition of Face, Facial Features, and Objects in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shen, I-Hsuan; Lin, Shih-Chi; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2016-12-07

    The study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) showed atypical patterns of brain specialization for face processing, whether the response to familiar and unfamiliar faces, facial features, and objects were different from typically developing children. Event-related potentials were recorded in 5- to 8-year-old children (12 children with ASD, 12 typically developing children) using passive viewing paradigm. The fastest P1 latencies to faces and the largest P1 amplitudes to objects were observed in both participant groups. Both groups exhibited larger N170 response to faces and eyes, F(3, 66) = 46.94, p < .0001). However, earlier P1 and N170 latencies were found on left hemisphere in children with ASD, respectively, F(1, 83) = 4.32, p = .04; F(1, 83) = 6.73, p = .01, indicating an atypical face processing pattern. All children showed a significant effect of familiarity for objects and mouths, F(1, 71) = 33.97, p < .0001; F(1, 71 = 15.94, p = .0002. Children with ASD revealed smaller negative central to faces relative to typically developing children. Face processing abnormalities revealed in children with ASD very likely exist. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  6. Laser Absorption by Over-Critical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2015-11-01

    Absorption of high intensity laser light by matter has important applications to emerging sciences and technology, such as Fast Ignition ICF and ion acceleration. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of this absorption is key to developing these technologies. Critical features which distinguish the interaction of high intensity light - defined here as a laser field having a normalized vector potential greater than unity - are that the reaction of the material to the fields results in sharp high-density interfaces; and that the movement of the electrons is in general relativistic, both in a fluid and a thermal sense. The results of these features are that the absorption mechanisms are qualitatively distinct from those at lower intensities. We will review previous work, by our group and others, on the absorption mechanisms, and highlight current research. We will show that the standing wave structure of the reflected laser light is key to particle dynamics for normally incident lasers. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  7. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  8. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Transition Features from Simplicity-Universality to Complexity-Diversification Under UHNTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Li, Yong

    2010-02-01

    A large unified hybrid network model with a variable speed growth (LUHNM-VSG) is proposed as third model of the unified hybrid network theoretical framework (UHNTF). A hybrid growth ratio vg of deterministic linking number to random linking number and variable speed growth index α are introduced in it. The main effects of vg and α on topological transition features of the LUHNM-VSG are revealed. For comparison with the other models, we construct a type of the network complexity pyramid with seven levels, in which from the bottom level-1 to the top level-7 of the pyramid simplicity-universality is increasing but complexity-diversity is decreasing. The transition relations between them depend on matching of four hybrid ratios (dr, fd, gr, vg). Thus the most of network models can be investigated in the unification way via four hybrid ratios (dr, fd, gr, vg). The LUHNM-VSG as the level-1 of the pyramid is much better and closer to description of real-world networks as well as has potential application.

  9. Relation of glypican-3 and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohammad, Mie Ali; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal

    2015-06-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a member of the membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycans. E-cadherin is an adhesive receptor that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies had investigated E-cadherin expressions in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) while only one study had investigated GPC3 expression in CRC. This study aims to investigate expression of GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal mucinous carcinoma (MA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) using manual tissue microarray technique. Tumor tissue specimens are collected from 75 cases of MC and 75 cases of NMA who underwent radical surgery from Jan 2007 to Jan 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. Their clinicopathological parameters and survival data were revised and analyzed using established statistical methodologies. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique and immunohistochemistry for GPC3 and E-cadherin was done. NMA showed higher expression of GPC3 than MA with no statistically significant relation. NMA showed a significantly higher E-cadherin expression than MA. GPC3 and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in NMA, but not in MA, group. In NMA group, there was no significant relation between either GPC3 or E-cadherin expression and the clinicopathological features. In a univariate analysis, neither GPC3 nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). GPC3 and E-cadherin expressions are not independent prognostic factors in CRC. However, expressions of both are significantly interrelated in NMA patients, suggesting an excellent interplay between both, in contrast to MA. Further molecular studies are needed to further explore the relationship between GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Single feature polymorphism (SFP)-based selective sweep identification and association mapping of growth-related metabolic traits in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana are characterized by a high level of phenotypic variation that can be used to investigate the extent and mode of selection on the primary metabolic traits. A collection of 54 A. thaliana natural accession-derived lines were subjected to deep genotyping through Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) detection via genomic DNA hybridization to Arabidopsis Tiling 1.0 Arrays for the detection of selective sweeps, and identification of associations between sweep regions and growth-related metabolic traits. Results A total of 1,072,557 high-quality SFPs were detected and indications for 3,943 deletions and 1,007 duplications were obtained. A significantly lower than expected SFP frequency was observed in protein-, rRNA-, and tRNA-coding regions and in non-repetitive intergenic regions, while pseudogenes, transposons, and non-coding RNA genes are enriched with SFPs. Gene families involved in plant defence or in signalling were identified as highly polymorphic, while several other families including transcription factors are depleted of SFPs. 198 significant associations between metabolic genes and 9 metabolic and growth-related phenotypic traits were detected with annotation hinting at the nature of the relationship. Five significant selective sweep regions were also detected of which one associated significantly with a metabolic trait. Conclusions We generated a high density polymorphism map for 54 A. thaliana accessions that highlights the variability of resistance genes across geographic ranges and used it to identify selective sweeps and associations between metabolic genes and metabolic phenotypes. Several associations show a clear biological relationship, while many remain requiring further investigation. PMID:20302660

  11. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranyl by TBP: the TBP and ions models and related interfacial features revisited by MD and PMF simulations.

    PubMed

    Benay, G; Wipff, G

    2014-03-20

    We report a molecular dynamics (MD) study of biphasic systems involved in the liquid-liquid extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) to hexane, from "pH neutral" or acidic (3 M nitric acid) aqueous solutions, to assess the model dependence of the surface activity and partitioning of TBP alone, of its UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 complex, and of UO2(NO3)2 or UO2(2+) uncomplexed. For this purpose, we first compare several electrostatic representations of TBP with regards to its polarity and conformational properties, its interactions with H2O, HNO3, and UO2(NO3)2 species, its relative free energies of solvation in water or oil environments, the properties of the pure TBP liquid and of the pure-TBP/water interface. The free energies of transfer of TBP, UO2(NO3)2, UO2(2+), and the UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 complex across the water/oil interface are then investigated by potential of mean force (PMF) calculations, comparing different TBP models and two charge models of uranyl nitrate. Describing uranyl and nitrate ions with integer charges (+2 and -1, respectively) is shown to exaggerate the hydrophilicity and surface activity of the UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 complex. With more appropriate ESP charges, mimicking charge transfer and polarization effects in the UO2(NO3)2 moiety or in the whole complex, the latter is no more surface active. This feature is confirmed by MD, PMF, and mixing-demixing simulations with or without polarization. Furthermore, with ESP charges, pulling the UO2(NO3)2 species to the TBP phase affords the formation of UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 at the interface, followed by its energetically favorable extraction. The neutral complexes should therefore not accumulate at the interface during the extraction process, but diffuse to the oil phase. A similar feature is found for an UO2(NO3)2(Amide)2 neutral complex with fatty amide extracting ligands, calling for further simulations and experimental studies (e.g., time evolution of the nonlinear spectroscopic signature and of surface