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Sample records for absorption fluorescence spectroscopy

  1. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy on a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    A self-powered smartphone-based field-portable "dual" spectrometer has been developed for both absorption and fluorescence measurements. The smartphone's existing flash LED has sufficient optical irradiance to undertake absorption measurements within a 3D-printed case containing a low cost nano-imprinted polymer diffraction grating. A UV (λex ~ 370 nm) and VIS (λex ~ 450 nm) LED are wired into the circuit of the flash LED to provide an excitation source for fluorescence measurements. Using a customized app on the smartphone, measurements of absorption and fluorescence spectra are demonstrated using pH-sensitive and Zn2+-responsive probes. Detection over a 300 nm span with 0.42 nm/pixel spectral resolution is demonstrated. Despite the low cost and small size of the portable spectrometer, the results compare well with bench top instruments.

  2. Fluorescence and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy studies on polymer blend films for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stam, Jan; Lindqvist, Camilla; Hansson, Rickard; Ericsson, Leif; Moons, Ellen

    2015-08-01

    The quinoxaline-based polymer TQ1 (poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5- diyl]) is a promising candidate as electron donor in organic solar cells. In combination with the electron acceptor [6,6]- phenyl-C71- butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM), TQ1 has resulted in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 7 %. We have studied TQ1 films, with and without PC70BM, spin-casted from different solvents, by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. We used chloroform (CF), chlorobenzene (CB), and odichlorobenzene (o-DCB) as solvents for the coating solutions and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as solvent additive. CN addition has been shown to enhance photo-conversion efficiency of these solar cells. Phase-separation causes lateral domain formation in the films and the domain size depends on the solvent . These morphological differences coincide with changes in the spectroscopic patterns of the films. From a spectroscopic point of view, TQ1 acts as fluorescent probe and PC70BM as quencher. The degree of fluorescence quenching is coupled to the morphology through the distance between TQ1 and PC70BM. Furthermore, if using a bad solvent for PC70BM, morphological regions rich in the fullerene yield emission characteristic for aggregated PC70BM. Clear differences were found, comparing the TQ1:PC70BM blend films casted from different solvents and at different ratios between the donor and acceptor. The morphology also influences the UV/VIS absorption spectra, yielding further information on the composition. The results show that fluorescence and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy can be used to detect aggregation in blended films and that these methods extend the morphological information beyond the scale accessible with microscopy.

  3. Transient absorption spectroscopy detection of sensitized delayed fluorescence in chiral benzophenone/naphthalene systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2011-10-01

    Transient absorption spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation and decay of excited singlet states upon triplet-triplet annihilation, following T-T energy transfer from a selectively excited sensitizer. Thus, upon selective excitation of benzophenone (BZP) by laser flash photolysis (LFP) at λ = 355 nm in the presence of naphthalene (NPT), a negative band centered at 340 nm has been detected, with growth and decay in the microsecond timescale. It has been assigned to the P-type NPT delayed-fluorescence. In the case of chiral BZP/NPT systems, stereodifferentiation has been observed in the kinetics of the involved photophysical processes.

  4. Serial Femtosecond Crystallography and Ultrafast Absorption Spectroscopy of the Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein IrisFP.

    PubMed

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Sliwa, Michel; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sugahara, Michihiro; Guillon, Virginia; Schirò, Giorgio; Coquelle, Nicolas; Woodhouse, Joyce; Roux, Laure; Gotthard, Guillaume; Royant, Antoine; Uriarte, Lucas Martinez; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Joti, Yasumasa; Byrdin, Martin; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Adam, Virgile; Cammarata, Marco; Schlichting, Ilme; Bourgeois, Dominique; Weik, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins find growing applications in cell biology, yet mechanistic details, in particular on the ultrafast photochemical time scale, remain unknown. We employed time-resolved pump-probe absorption spectroscopy on the reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein IrisFP in solution to study photoswitching from the nonfluorescent (off) to the fluorescent (on) state. Evidence is provided for the existence of several intermediate states on the pico- and microsecond time scales that are attributed to chromophore isomerization and proton transfer, respectively. Kinetic modeling favors a sequential mechanism with the existence of two excited state intermediates with lifetimes of 2 and 15 ps, the second of which controls the photoswitching quantum yield. In order to support that IrisFP is suited for time-resolved experiments aiming at a structural characterization of these ps intermediates, we used serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free electron laser and solved the structure of IrisFP in its on state. Sample consumption was minimized by embedding crystals in mineral grease, in which they remain photoswitchable. Our spectroscopic and structural results pave the way for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography aiming at characterizing the structure of ultrafast intermediates in reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins. PMID:26866390

  5. Diagnostics of a see-through hollow cathode discharge by emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nicholas

    Atomic line filters have been suggested to be attractive in areas of Doppler velocimetry, resonance fluorescence detection, and resonance ionization detection. They are based on the resonant absorption of photons by an atomic vapor, and allow all other radiation to pass. This allows the detection of very low levels of light superimposed on a large optical background. Several elements have been studied for use as atomic line filters, such as the alkali metals, alkaline earths, and thallium. As previously recognized, thallium is especially attractive since the 535.046 nm metastable transition overlaps with the second harmonic output of an Nd:La2Be2O 5 (BEL) laser (1070 nm). This makes thallium ideal for certain applications as an atomic line filter. Recently a see-through hollow cathode lamp, or galvatron (Hamamatsu), was made commercially available. The galvatron geometry is unique compared to traditional hollow cathode lamps since the cathode and cell are oriented in a T-shape, with the cathode bored completely through to allow the propagation of a light source through the cathode. This allows multi-step excitation of the atomic vapor, not easily accomplished with a traditional hollow cathode lamp. The advantages that a galvatron offers over conventional atomic reservoirs make it an attractive candidate for the application as an atomic line filter; however, little spectroscopic data have been found in the literature. For this reason, Doppler temperatures, number densities, quantum efficiencies, and lifetimes have been determined in order to characterize this atomic reservoir as a potential atomic line filter. These parameters are determined by use of various spectroscopic techniques which include emission, absorption, time-resolved fluorescence, and time-resolved laser-induced saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. From these measurements, it has been demonstrated that a galvatron is an attractive atomic reservoir for applications as an atomic line filter. The

  6. Far wing depolarization of light - Generalized absorption profiles. [in laser fluorescence spectroscopy of Sr vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, P.; Burnett, K.; Cooper, J.

    1981-01-01

    An absorption (and/or emission) event which takes place during a strong collision is called a 'correlated event'. It is discussed how correlated events affect the far red wing depolarization of fluorescence. Attention is given to an atomic vapor which is irradiated by linearly polarized light of a frequency on the red side of the resonance line. Two limiting cases are considered, corresponding to excitation in the impact region and in the quasi-static wing. In the quasi-static wing, absorption of a photon followed by fluorescence (rather than Rayleigh scattering), occurs mostly during a collision. Correlated events dominate the scattering process. Expressions derived for the polarization of the fluorescent light are applied to far red wing depolarization. It is found that the polarization of the fluorescent light does not go to zero in the far wing, but depends crucially on the detailed nature of the anisotropy in the long-range part of the interatomic potential.

  7. A multi-channel monolithic Ge detector system for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, J.J.; Allen, P.G.; Edelstein, N.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Madden, N.W.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Pehl, D.; Malone, D.

    1995-03-01

    Construction and performance of a monolithic quad-pixel Ge detector for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at synchrotron radiation sources are described. The detector semiconductor element has an active surface area of 4.0 cm{sup 2} which is electrically separated into four 1.0 cm{sup 2} pixels, with little interfacial dead volume. Spatial response of the array shows that cross-talk between adjacent pixels is < 10% for 5.9 keV photons that fall within 0.5 mm of the pixel boundaries. The detector electronics system uses pre-amplifiers built at LBNL with commercial Tennelec Model TC 244 amplifiers. Using an {sup 55}Fe test source (MnK{sub {alpha}}, 5.9 keV), energy resolution of better than 200 eV is achieved with a 4 {mu}sec peaking time. At 0.5 {mu}sec peaking time, pulse pileup results in a 75% throughput efficiency for an incoming count rate of 100 kHz. Initial XAS fluoresncece measurements at the beamline 4 wiggler end stations at SSRL show that the detector system has several advantages over commercial x-ray spectrometers for low-concentration counting.

  8. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  9. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  10. Excitation energy dependence of excited states dynamics in all- trans-carotenes determined by femtosecond absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Nishio, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2005-06-01

    Ultrafast relaxation kinetics in β-carotene and lycopene has been investigated by femtosecond absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies using tunable excitation pulses. The transient signals induced by the photoexcitation with larger excess energy have broader bands and longer lifetimes both in the 11Bu+and21Ag- excited states. The excess vibrational energy remains longer than several picoseconds and slows the relaxation kinetics in carotenoids.

  11. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J.

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution

  12. Spectroscopy of α,ω-dithienyl polyenes: evidence for two-photon absorption states from fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Lalgudi V.; Kirkpatrick, Sean M.; Sutherland, Richard L.; Sowards, Laura A.; Spangler, Charles W.; Fleitz, Paul A.; Cooper, Thomas M.

    1998-10-01

    The photophysics of a series (alpha) ,(omega) -dithienyl polyenes was studied. Both one photon excited fluorescence and fluorescence originating from two photon absorption states were investigated. There is strong evidence of two photon absorption from fluorescence studies in agreement with our earlier studies involving nonlinear absorption.

  13. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  14. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Geon Joon Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  15. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  16. Investigating ligand-receptor interactions at bilayer surface using electronic absorption spectroscopy and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Navneet; Li, Xuelian; Kohli, Punit

    2012-01-01

    We investigate interactions between receptors and ligands at bilayer surface of polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomal nanoparticles using changes in electronic absorption spectroscopy and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). We study the effect of mode of linkage (covalent versus non-covalent) between the receptor and liposome bilayer. We also examine the effect of size dependent interactions between liposome and analyte through electronic absorption and FRET responses. Glucose (receptor) molecules were either covalently or non-covalently attached at the bilayer of nanoparticles, and they provided selectivity for molecular interactions between glucose and glycoprotein ligands of E. coli. The receptor-ligand interactions between glucose and ligand on E. Coli surface induced stress on conjugated PDA chain which resulted in changes (blue to red) in the absorption spectrum of PDA. The changes in electronic absorbance also led to changes in FRET efficiency between conjugated PDA chains (acceptor) and fluorophores (Sulphorhodamine-101) (donor) attached to the bilayer surface. Interestingly, we did not find significant differences in UV-Vis and FRET responses for covalently- and non-covalently-bound glucose to liposomes following their interactions with E. Coli. We attributed these results to close proximity of glucose receptor molecules to the liposome bilayer surface such that induced stress were similar in both the cases. We also found that PDA emission from direct excitation mechanism was ~ 2 - 10 times larger than that of FRET based response. These differences in emission signals were attributed to three major reasons: non-specific interactions between E. Coli and liposomes; size differences between analyte and liposomes; and a much higher PDA concentration with respect to sulpho-rhodamine (SR-101). We have proposed a model to explain our experimental observations. Our fundamental studies reported here will help in enhancing our knowledge regarding interactions

  17. Curium analysis in plutonium uranium mixed oxide by x-ray fluorescence and absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, C; Borca, C; Cozzo, C

    2013-10-15

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are being used in commercial nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regards to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the local occurrence, speciation and next-neighbour environment of curium (Cm) in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice within an irradiated (60 MW d kg(-1) average burn-up) MOX sample was performed employing micro-x-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-x-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Cm (≈ 0.7 wt% in the rim and ≈ 0.03 wt% in the centre) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its centre and peripheral (rim) zones of the fuel. Curium occurrence is also reduced from the centre (hot) to the periphery (colder) because of the condensation of these volatile oxides. In the irradiated sample Cm builds up as Cm(3+) species (>90%) within a [CmO8](13-) or [CmO7](11-) coordination environment and no (<10%) Cm(IV) can be detected in the rim zone. Curium dioxide is reduced because of the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix and of its thermodynamic instability. PMID:24054692

  18. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years. PMID:23955041

  19. Spectroscopy in an extremely thin vapor cell: Comparing the cell-length dependence in fluorescence and in absorption techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisyan, D.; Varzhapetyan, T.; Sarkisyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.; Papoyan, A.; Lezama, A.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M.

    2004-06-01

    We compare the behavior of absorption and of resonance fluorescence spectra in an extremely thin Rb vapor cell as a function of the ratio of L/λ , with L the cell thickness (L˜150 1800 nm) and λ the wavelength of the Rb D2 line (λ=780 mn) . The Dicke-type coherent narrowing [

    G. Dutier et al., Europhys. Lett. 63, 35 (2003)
    ] is observed only in transmission measurements, in the linear regime, with its typical collapse and revival, which reaches a maximum for L= (2n+1) λ/2 ( n integer). It is shown not to appear in fluorescence, whose behavior-amplitude, and spectral width, is more monotonic with L . Conversely, at high-intensity, the sub-Doppler saturation effects are shown to be the most visible in transmission around L=nλ .

  20. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  2. Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer of 2-acetylindan-1,3-dione studied by ultrafast absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pramod Kumar; Steinbacher, Andreas; Schmiedel, Alexander; Nuernberger, Patrick; Brixner, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We employ transient absorption from the deep-UV to the visible region and fluorescence upconversion to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dynamics in a biologically relevant drug molecule, 2-acetylindan-1,3-dione. The molecule is a ß-diketone which in the electronic ground state exists as exocyclic enol with an intramolecular H-bond. Upon electronic excitation at 300 nm, the first excited state of the exocyclic enol is initially populated, followed by ultrafast proton transfer (≈160 fs) to form the vibrationally hot endocyclic enol. Subsequently, solvent-induced vibrational relaxation takes place (≈10 ps) followed by decay (≈390 ps) to the corresponding ground state. PMID:26798837

  3. Transmission and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy cell/flow reactor for powder samples under vacuum or in reactive atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, A. S.; Debefve, L. M.; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, A.; Ouldchikh, S.; Bare, Simon R.; Basset, J.-M.; Gates, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is an element-specific technique for probing the local atomic-scale environment around an absorber atom. It is widely used to investigate the structures of liquids and solids, being especially valuable for characterization of solid-supported catalysts. Reported cell designs are limited in capabilities—to fluorescence or transmission and to static or flowing atmospheres, or to vacuum. Our goal was to design a robust and widely applicable cell for catalyst characterizations under all these conditions—to allow tracking of changes during genesis and during operation, both under vacuum and in reactive atmospheres. Herein, we report the design of such a cell and a demonstration of its operation both with a sample under dynamic vacuum and in the presence of gases flowing at temperatures up to 300 °C, showing data obtained with both fluorescence and transmission detection. The cell allows more flexibility in catalyst characterization than any reported.

  4. Transmission and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy cell/flow reactor for powder samples under vacuum or in reactive atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A S; Debefve, L M; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, A; Ouldchikh, S; Bare, Simon R; Basset, J-M; Gates, B C

    2016-07-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is an element-specific technique for probing the local atomic-scale environment around an absorber atom. It is widely used to investigate the structures of liquids and solids, being especially valuable for characterization of solid-supported catalysts. Reported cell designs are limited in capabilities-to fluorescence or transmission and to static or flowing atmospheres, or to vacuum. Our goal was to design a robust and widely applicable cell for catalyst characterizations under all these conditions-to allow tracking of changes during genesis and during operation, both under vacuum and in reactive atmospheres. Herein, we report the design of such a cell and a demonstration of its operation both with a sample under dynamic vacuum and in the presence of gases flowing at temperatures up to 300 °C, showing data obtained with both fluorescence and transmission detection. The cell allows more flexibility in catalyst characterization than any reported. PMID:27475549

  5. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Emission and Absorption Spectra of meso-Pyridyl Porphyrins upon Soret Band Excitation Studied by Fluorescence Up-Conversion and Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Yeduru; Venkatesan, M; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study of ultrafast molecular relaxation processes of isomeric meso-(pyridyl) porphyrins (TpyPs) has been carried out by using femtosecond time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopic techniques upon pumping at 400 nm, Soret band (B band or S2), in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent mixture. By combined studies of fluorescence up-conversion, time-correlated single photon counting, and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques, a complete model with different microscopic rate constants associated with elementary processes involved in electronic manifolds has been reported. Besides, a distinct coherent nuclear wave packet motion in Qy state is observed at low-frequency mode, ca. 26 cm(-1) region. Fluorescence up-conversion studies constitute ultrafast time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) over the whole emission range (430-710 nm) starting from S2 state to Qx state via Qy state. Careful analysis of time profiles of up-converted signals at different emission wavelengths helps to reveal detail molecular dynamics. The observed lifetimes are as indicated: A very fast decay component with 80 ± 20 fs observed at ∼435 nm is assigned to the lifetime of S2 (B) state, whereas being a rise component in the region of between 550 and 710 nm emission wavelength pertaining to Qy and Qx states, it is attributed to very fast internal conversion (IC) occurring from B → Qy and B → Qx as well. Two distinct components of Qy emission decay with ∼200-300 fs and ∼1-1.5 ps time constants are due to intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) induced by solute-solvent inelastic collisions and vibrational redistribution induced by solute-solvent elastic collision, respectively. The weighted average of these two decay components is assigned as the characteristic lifetime of Qy, and it ranges between 0.3 and 0.5 ps. An additional ∼20 ± 2 ps rise component is observed in Qx emission, and it is assigned to the formation time of

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  7. Silver speciation in liver of marine mammals by synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Emiko; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Hokura, Akiko; Terada, Yasuko; Kunito, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamada, Tadasu K; Rosas, Fernando C W; Fillmann, Gilberto; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakai, Izumi

    2011-06-01

    The chemical form of Ag in the livers of five species of marine mammals was examined using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopies. The XAFS analysis suggested that Ag(2)Se was present in the livers of the Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), whereas Ag(2)S was present in the livers of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). XRF spectroscopy results revealed that the distribution patterns of Ag and Se in a thin section of the liver of the Franciscana dolphin were the same; this also implied that Ag was associated with Se in the liver. Thus, the interaction of Ag with Se or S may offer significant protection against the toxicity of Ag in marine mammals. The formation of either Ag(2)Se or Ag(2)S might depend on the Hg levels in the liver. Ag(2)Se was observed in liver samples with relatively high Ag/Hg ratio, whereas liver samples with low Ag/Hg ratio contained Ag(2)S. PMID:21491037

  8. The UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy indicators for monitoring the evolution of green waste composts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounier, Stéphane; Abaker, Madi; Domeizel, Mariane; Rapetti, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The maturity process of compost goes through several phases that have to be monitored in order to optimize the production process which in turn assure a good quality product and less time consumption. In order to estimate rapidly the phase where the compost is present and to measure the cellulose, the ratio C:N and the Stability Index Organic Matter (ISMO) a crucial parameter that needs to be monitored and controlled is the temperature. However, the temperature is not really a good indicator for the maturity of the compost because it is not constant and it depends on the mixing and environmental processes. The final measurements are performed at the end of the production process after certain time period that is subjectively determined by the producer. The work presented here is based on the optical properties of the organic matter that are observed each month for a period of six months. The organic matter of 5 composts was extracted by water and analyzed by UV-VIS spectroscopic technique [1] and 3D fluorescence emission technique [2]. The usual indexes were calculated (E2/E3, E4/E6, EBZ/EET, SUVA254), but also the PARAFAC decomposition of the 3D fluorescence response by Milori [3] and the Hx indexes [4]. The comparison of these results and the cellulose composition with the corresponding ISMO index indicates that the maturity process occurs more rapidly then the expectation of the producers. Further, the combination of the indicators gives useful information about different processes that take place during the maturity of the compost such as aromatization, the condensation and the stabilization of the parameters.

  9. V oxidation state in Fe-Ti oxides by high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordage, Amélie; Balan, Etienne; de Villiers, Johan P. R.; Cromarty, Robert; Juhin, Amélie; Carvallo, Claire; Calas, Georges; Sunder Raju, P. V.; Glatzel, Pieter

    2011-06-01

    The oxidation state of vanadium in natural and synthetic Fe-Ti oxides is determined using high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS). Eleven natural magnetite-bearing samples from a borehole of the Main Magnetite Layer of the Bushveld Complex (South Africa), five synthetic Fe oxide samples, and three natural hematite-bearing samples from Dharwar supergroup (India) are investigated. V K edge spectra were recorded on the ID26 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France), and the pre-edge features were used to determine the local environment and oxidation state of vanadium. In the case of the magnetite samples (natural and synthetic), we show that vanadium is incorporated in the octahedral site of the spinel structure under two oxidation states: +III and +IV. The variations of the pre-edge area are interpreted as various proportions in V3+ and V4+ (between 9.5 and 16.3% of V4+), V3+ being the main oxidation state. In particular, the variations of the V4+/V3+ ratio along the profile of the Main Magnetite Layer seem to follow the crystallization sequence of the layer. In the case of the hematite samples from India, the pre-edge features indicate that vanadium is substituted to Fe and mainly incorporated as V4+ (between 40 and 72% of V4+). We also demonstrate the potentiality of HERFD-XAS for mineralogical studies, since it can filter out the unwanted fluorescence and give better resolved spectra than conventional XAS.

  10. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  11. Distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissue and fluids by X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; James, Simon A; Kirby, Jason K; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-05-01

    Bromine is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous trace elements in the biosphere and until recently had not been shown to perform any essential biological function in animals. A recent study demonstrated that bromine is required as a cofactor for peroxidasin-catalysed formation of sulfilimine crosslinks in Drosophila. In addition, bromine dietary deficiency is lethal in Drosophila, whereas bromine replenishment restores viability. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissues and fluids to provide further insights into the role and function of this element in biological systems. In this study we used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to examine the distribution of bromine in bovine ovarian tissue samples, follicular fluid and aortic serum, as well as human whole blood and serum and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical species of bromine in a range of mammalian tissue (bovine, ovine, porcine and murine), whole blood and serum samples (bovine, ovine, porcine, murine and human), and marine samples (salmon (Salmo salar), kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Scleractinian coral). Bromine was found to be widely distributed across all tissues and fluids examined. In the bovine ovary in particular it was more concentrated in the sub-endothelial regions of arterioles. Statistical comparison of the near-edge region of the X-ray absorption spectra with a library of bromine standards led to the conclusion that the major form of bromine in all samples analysed was bromide. PMID:25675086

  12. Smartphone fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hojeong; Tan, Yafang; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the first use of smartphone spectrophotometry for readout of fluorescence-based biological assays. We evaluated the smartphone fluorimeter in the context of a fluorescent molecular beacon (MB) assay for detection of specific nucleic acid sequences in a liquid test sample and compared performance against a conventional laboratory fluorimeter. The capability of distinguishing a one-point mismatch is also demonstrated by detecting single-base mutation in target nucleic acids. Our approach offers a route toward portable biomolecular assays for viral/bacterial pathogens, disease biomarkers, and toxins. PMID:25098859

  13. Smartphone fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hojoeng; Tan, Yafang; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the first use of smartphone spectrophotometry for readout of fluorescence-based biological assays. We evaluated the smartphone fluorimeter in the context of a fluorescent molecular beacon (MB) assay for detection of a specific nucleic acid sequences in a liquid test sample. The capability of distinguishing a one-point mismatch is also demonstrated by detecting single-base mutation in target nucleic acids. Our approach offers a route towards portable biomolecular assays for viral/bacterial pathogens, disease biomarkers, and toxins.

  14. High-Pressure Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Akihiro; Akasaka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The combination of fluorescence and pressure perturbation is a widely used technique to study the effect of pressure on a protein system to obtain thermodynamic, structural and kinetic information on proteins. However, we often encounter the situation where the available pressure range up to 400 MPa of most commercial high-pressure fluorescence spectrometers is insufficient for studying highly pressure-stable proteins like inhibitors and allergenic proteins. To overcome the difficulty, we have recently developed a new high-pressure fluorescence system that allows fluorescence measurements up to 700 MPa. Here we describe the basic design of the apparatus and its application to study structural and thermodynamic properties of a couple of highly stable allergenic proteins, hen lysozyme and ovomucoid, using Tryptophan and Tyrosine/Tyrosinate fluorescence, respectively. Finally, we discuss the utility and the limitation of Trp and Tyr fluorescence. We discuss pitfalls of fluorescence technique and importance of simultaneous use of other high-pressure spectroscopy, particularly high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26174405

  15. Spatial distribution and speciation of lead around corroding bullets in a shooting range soil studied by micro-X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vantelon, Delphine; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Scheinost, Andreas C; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution and speciation of Pb in the weathering crust and soil surrounding corroding metallic Pb bullets in a shooting range soil. The soil had a neutral pH, loamy texture, and was highly contaminated with Pb, with total Pb concentrations in the surface soil up to 68 000 mg kg(-1). Undisturbed soil samples containing corroding bullets were collected and embedded in resin, and polished sections were prepared for micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) elemental mapping and micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Bullet weathering crust material was separated from the metallic Pb cores and analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Our results show a steep decrease in total Pb concentrations from the bullet weathering crust into the surrounding soil matrix. The weathering crust consisted of a mixture of litharge [alpha-PbO], hydrocerussite [Pb3(CO3)2-(OH)2], and cerussite [PbCO3], with litharge dominating near the metallic Pb core and cerussite dominating in the outer crust, which is in contact with the soil matrix. On the basis of these results and thermodynamic considerations, we propose that the transition of Pb species after oxidation of Pb(O) to Pb(II) follows the sequence litharge --> hydrocerussite --> cerussite. Consequently, the solubility of cerussite limits the activity of Pb2+ in the soil solution in contact with weathering bullets to < or =1.28 x 10(-6) at pH 7, assuming that the CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) in the soil is equal or larger than in the atmosphere (PCO2 > or = 0.000 35 atm). PMID:16053078

  16. Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Shoebox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq Wahab, M.

    2007-08-01

    This article describes construction of a simple, inexpensive fluorometer. It utilizes a flashlight or sunlight source, highlighter marker ink, bowl of water with mirror as dispersing element, and colored cellophane sheets as filters. The human eye is used as a detector. This apparatus is used to demonstrate important concepts related to fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ink from a highlighter marker, one can demonstrate the difference between light scattering and fluorescence emission, the need for an intense light source, phenomenon of the Stokes shift, the choice of filters, the preferred geometry of excitation source and emission detector, and the low detection limits that can be achieved by fluorescence measurements. By reflecting the fluorescence emission from a compact disk, it can be seen that the light emitted by molecules is not monochromatic. Furthermore, a spectrofluorometer is constructed using gratings made from a DVD or a CD. The shoebox fluorometer and spectrofluorometer can serve as useful teaching aids in places where commercial instruments are not available, and it avoids the black box problem of modern instruments.

  17. Absorption Spectroscopy in Homogeneous and Micellar Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Sadiq; Henscheid, Leonard G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment which has helped physical chemistry students learn principles of absorption spectroscopy, the effect of solvent polarity on absorption spectra, and some micellar chemistry. Background information and experimental procedures are provided. (JN)

  18. Supercritical Angle Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Jonas; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Verdes, Dorinel; Schwille, Petra

    2008-01-01

    We explore the potential of a supercritical angle (SA) objective for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This novel microscope objective combines tight focusing by an aspheric lens with strong axial confinement of supercritical angle fluorescence collection by a parabolic mirror lens, resulting in a small detection volume. The tiny axial extent of the detection volume features an excellent surface sensitivity, as is demonstrated by diffusion measurements in model membranes with an excess of free dye in solution. All SA-FCS measurements are directly compared to standard confocal FCS, demonstrating a clear advantage of SA-FCS, especially for diffusion measurements in membranes. We present an extensive theoretical framework that allows for accurate and quantitative evaluation of the SA-FCS correlation curves. PMID:17827221

  19. Graphene intracavity spaser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovik, Yu. E.; Nechepurenko, I. A.; Dorofeenko, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an intracavity plasmon absorption spectroscopy method based on graphene active plasmonics. It is shown that the plasmonic cavity contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to the quality factor Q of the graphene plasmonic cavity and reaches two orders of magnitude. The addition of gain medium into the cavity increases the sensitivity of method. Maximum sensitivity is reached in the vicinity of the plasmon generation threshold. The gain contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to Q1/2. The giant amplification of sensitivity in the graphene plasmon generator is associated with a huge path length, limited only by the decoherence processes. An analytical estimation of the sensitivity to loss caused by analyzed particles (molecules, nanoparticles, etc.) normalized by the single pass plasmon scheme is derived. Usage of graphene nanoflakes as plasmonic cavity allows a high spatial resolution to be reached, in addition to high sensitivity.

  20. Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2014-01-01

    An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

  1. Chromophore detection by fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue-like phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Fantini, Sergio; Maier, John S.; Mantulin, William W.; Gratton, Enrico

    1997-08-01

    In the near-infrared spectral region (700 - 900 nm) light penetrates a few centimeters into tissues and hemoglobin dominates the absorption. Consequently, in vivo near-infrared tissue absorption spectroscopy becomes difficult for endogenous compounds of biological interest other than hemoglobin. Exogenous chromophore detection by fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity and specificity for in vivo optical tissue spectroscopy, facilitating the study of many important metabolites in tissues other than hemoglobin. We have performed measurements of the dc fluorescence intensity generated by a fluorophore (rhodamine B) homogeneously dissolved inside a highly scattering tissue-simulating phantom (aqueous suspension of titanium-dioxide particles). The phantom was prepared with optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) similar to those of tissue in the near-infrared; these coefficients were measured with a frequency-domain spectrometer. Measurable dc fluorescence intensity signals from 1 nM rhodamine concentrations inside the phantom are reported. Furthermore, we were able to resolve changes in rhodamine concentration on the order of 1% using the dc fluorescence intensity. This dc fluorescence sensitivity is characterized experimentally at two concentrations (55 and 360 nM) and over a range of source-detector separations. Other aspects of the sensitivity are discussed over a large range of concentrations using a fluorescence photon migration model.

  2. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  3. The dependence of the ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the S2 and S1 states in β-carotene homologs and lycopene on conjugation length studied by femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The ultrafast relaxation kinetics of all-trans-β-carotene homologs with varying numbers of conjugated double bonds n(n =7-15) and lycopene (n =11) has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies, both carried out under identical excitation conditions. The nonradiative relaxation rates of the optically allowed S2(1Bu+1) state were precisely determined by the time-resolved fluorescence. The kinetics of the optically forbidden S1(2Ag-1) state were observed by the time-resolved absorption measurements. The dependence of the S1 relaxation rates upon the conjugation length is adequately described by application of the energy gap law. In contrast to this, the nonradiative relaxation rates of S2 have a minimum at n =9 and show a reverse energy gap law dependence for values of n above 11. This anomalous behavior of the S2 relaxation rates can be explained by the presence of an intermediate state (here called the Sx state) located between the S2 and S1 states at large values of n (such as n =11). The presence of such an intermediate state would then result in the following sequential relaxation pathway S2→Sx→S1→S0. A model based on conical intersections between the potential energy curves of these excited singlet states can readily explain the measured relationships between the decay rates and the energy gaps.

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  5. Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes: fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy under two-photon (1200-1500 nm) and one-photon (600-750 nm) excitation by laser femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, Il'ya A.; Kompanets, Viktor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Makhneva, Zoya K.; Moskalenko, Andrey A.; Razjivin, Andrei P.

    2010-09-01

    The pathways of excitation energy transfer (EET) via pigments of the light-harvesting antenna are still in discussion. The bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence of peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple bacteria can be observed upon two-photon excitation (TPE) within 1200-1500 nm spectral range (a broad band near 1300 nm). Earlier the occurrence of this band was taken as an evidence for the participation of "dark" carotenoid S1 state in EET processes (see [Walla et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 10808-10813 (2000)] and references in it). However we showed that TPE spectrum of LH2 fluorescence within 1200-1500 nm is not associated with carotenoids [Stepanenko et al., J. Phys. Chem. B. 113(34), 11720-11723 (2009)]. Here we present TPE spectra of fluorescence for chromatophores and lightharvesting complexes LH2 and LH1 from wild-type cells and from carotenoid-depleted or carotenoidless mutant cells of several purple bacteria. The broad band within 1300-1400 nm was found for all preparations. Absorption pump-probe femtosecond spectroscopy applied to LH2 complex from Rb. sphaeroides revealed the similar spectral and kinetic patterns for TPE at 1350 nm and one-photon excitation at 675 nm. Analysis of pigment composition of this complex by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that even under mild isolation conditions some bacteriochlorophyll molecules were oxidized to 3-acetyl-chlorophyll molecules having the long-wavelength absorption peak in the 650-700 nm range. It is proposed that these 3-acetyl-chlorophyll molecules are responsible for the broad band in TPE spectra within the 1200-1500 nm region.

  6. Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes: fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy under two-photon (1200-1500 nm) and one-photon (600-750 nm) excitation by laser femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, Il'ya A.; Kompanets, Viktor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Makhneva, Zoya K.; Moskalenko, Andrey A.; Razjivin, Andrei P.

    2011-02-01

    The pathways of excitation energy transfer (EET) via pigments of the light-harvesting antenna are still in discussion. The bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence of peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from purple bacteria can be observed upon two-photon excitation (TPE) within 1200-1500 nm spectral range (a broad band near 1300 nm). Earlier the occurrence of this band was taken as an evidence for the participation of "dark" carotenoid S1 state in EET processes (see [Walla et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 10808-10813 (2000)] and references in it). However we showed that TPE spectrum of LH2 fluorescence within 1200-1500 nm is not associated with carotenoids [Stepanenko et al., J. Phys. Chem. B. 113(34), 11720-11723 (2009)]. Here we present TPE spectra of fluorescence for chromatophores and lightharvesting complexes LH2 and LH1 from wild-type cells and from carotenoid-depleted or carotenoidless mutant cells of several purple bacteria. The broad band within 1300-1400 nm was found for all preparations. Absorption pump-probe femtosecond spectroscopy applied to LH2 complex from Rb. sphaeroides revealed the similar spectral and kinetic patterns for TPE at 1350 nm and one-photon excitation at 675 nm. Analysis of pigment composition of this complex by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that even under mild isolation conditions some bacteriochlorophyll molecules were oxidized to 3-acetyl-chlorophyll molecules having the long-wavelength absorption peak in the 650-700 nm range. It is proposed that these 3-acetyl-chlorophyll molecules are responsible for the broad band in TPE spectra within the 1200-1500 nm region.

  7. Further advancement of differential optical absorption spectroscopy: theory of orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liudchik, Alexander M

    2014-08-10

    A modified version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is presented. The technique is called orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy (OOAS). A widespread variant of DOAS with smoothing of the registered spectrum and absorption cross sections being made employing a polynomial regression is a particular case of OOAS. The concept of OOAS provides a variety of new possibilities for constructing computational schemes and analyzing the influence of different error sources on calculated concentrations. PMID:25320931

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodopsins: insights and approaches.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Farrens, David L

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has become an established tool at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics because of its exquisite sensitivity and recent technical advancements. However, rhodopsin proteins present the fluorescence spectroscopist with a unique set of challenges and opportunities due to the presence of the light-sensitive retinal chromophore. This review briefly summarizes some approaches that have successfully met these challenges and the novel insights they have yielded about rhodopsin structure and function. We start with a brief overview of fluorescence fundamentals and experimental methodologies, followed by more specific discussions of technical challenges rhodopsin proteins present to fluorescence studies. Finally, we end by discussing some of the unique insights that have been gained specifically about visual rhodopsin and its interactions with affiliate proteins through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks. PMID:24183695

  9. Fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodopsins: Insights and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Farrens, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has become an established tool at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics because of its exquisite sensitivity and recent technical advancements. However, rhodopsin proteins present the fluorescence spectroscopist with a unique set of challenges and opportunities due to the presence of the light-sensitive retinal chromophore. This review briefly summarizes some approaches that have successfully met these challenges and the novel insights they have yielded about rhodopsin structure and function. We start with a brief overview of fluorescence fundamentals and experimental methodologies, followed by more specific discussions of technical challenges rhodopsin proteins present to fluorescence studies. Finally, we end by discussing some of the unique insights that have been gained specifically about visual rhodopsin and its interactions with affiliate proteins through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24183695

  10. The development of attenuation compensation models of fluorescence spectroscopy signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, Victor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Vinokurov, Andrey Y.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Dunaev, Andrey V.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the effect of blood absorption on the endogenous fluorescence signal intensity of biological tissues. Experimental studies were conducted to identify these effects. To register the fluorescence intensity, the fluorescence spectroscopy method was employed. The intensity of the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. We proposed one possible implementation of the Monte Carlo method for the theoretical analysis of the effect of blood on the fluorescence signals. The simulation is constructed as a four-layer skin optical model based on the known optical parameters of the skin with different levels of blood supply. With the help of the simulation, we demonstrate how the level of blood supply can affect the appearance of the fluorescence spectra. In addition, to describe the properties of biological tissue, which may affect the fluorescence spectra, we turned to the method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Using the spectral data provided by the DRS, the tissue attenuation effect can be extracted and used to correct the fluorescence spectra.

  11. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Harilal, S S; LaHaye, N L; Phillips, M C

    2016-08-01

    We use a two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to measure the coupled absorption and emission properties of atomic species in plasmas produced via laser ablation of a solid aluminum target at atmospheric pressure. Emission spectra from the Al I 394.4 nm and Al I 396.15 nm transitions are measured while a frequency-doubled, continuous wave (cw) Ti:sapphire laser is tuned across the Al I 396.15 nm transition. The resulting two-dimensional spectra show the energy coupling between the two transitions via increased emission intensity for both transitions during resonant absorption of the cw laser at one transition. Time-delayed, gated detection of the emission spectrum is used to isolate resonantly excited fluorescence emission from thermally excited emission from the plasma. In addition, the tunable cw laser measures the absorption spectrum of the Al transition with ultrahigh resolution after the plasma has cooled, resulting in narrower spectral linewidths than observed in emission spectra. Our results highlight that fluorescence spectroscopy employing cw laser re-excitation after pulsed laser ablation combines benefits of both traditional emission and absorption spectroscopic methods. PMID:27472615

  12. Cavity Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Thomas K.; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Chen, Yuning

    2015-06-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy on gas phase systems is typically restricted to techniques involving photoionization, whereas solution phase experiments utilize the detection of light. At Stony Brook, we are developing new techniques for performing femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy using frequency combs and high-finesse optical resonators. A large detection sensitivity enhancement over traditional methods enables the extension of all-optical ultrafast spectroscopies, such as broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and 2D spectroscopy, to dilute gas phase samples produced in molecular beams. Here, gas phase data can be directly compared to solution phase data. Initial demonstration experiments are focusing on the photodissociation of iodine in small neutral argon clusters, where cluster size strongly influences the effects solvent-caging and geminate recombination. I will discuss these initial results, our high power home-built Yb:fiber laser systems, and also extensions of the methods to the mid-IR to study the vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonded clusters.

  13. Multiphoton excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of fluorescent DNA base analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Woodbury, Neal W.

    2004-06-01

    Two- and three-photon excitation was used to investigate the properties of two fluorescent DNA base analogs: 2-aminopurine and 6-methylisoxanthopterin. 2-aminopurine is a widely used fluorescent analog of the DNA base adenine. Three-photon excitation of 2-aminopurine is achievable by using intense femtosecond laser pulses in 850-950 nm spectral region. Interestingly, the three-photon excitation spectrum is blue-shifted relative to the three-times-wavelength single-photon excitation spectrum. The maximum of the absorbance band in the UV is at 305 nm, while the three-photon excitation spectrum has a maximum at around 880 nm. Fluorescence correlation measurements were attempted to evaluate the feasibility of using three-photon excitation of 2-aminopurine for DNA-protein interaction studies. However, due to relatively small three-photon absorption cross-section, a good signal-to-noise fluorescence correlation curves take very long time to obtain. Fluorescence properties of 6-methylisoxanthopterin, the fluorescent analog of guanine, were investigated using two-photon excitation. This molecule has the lowest energy absorption band centered around 350 nm, thus, two-photon excitation is attainable using 700 to 760 nm output of Ti-sapphire laser. The excitation spectrum of this molecule in the infrared well matches the doubled-wavelength single-photon excitation spectrum in the UV. The high fluorescence quantum yield of 6-methylisoxanthopterin allows efficient fluorescence correlation measurements and makes this molecule a very good candidate for using in in vitro DNA-protein interaction studies.

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy for neoplasms control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratchenko, I. A.; Kristoforova, Yu. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Zakharov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of malignant skin tumors diagnosis was performed involving two setups for native tissues fluorescence control in visible and near infrared regions. Combined fluorescence analysis for skin malignant melanomas and basal cell carcinomas was performed. Autofluorescence spectra of normal skin and oncological pathologies stimulated by 457 nm and 785 nm lasers were registered for 74 skin tissue samples. Spectra of 10 melanomas and 27 basal cell carcinomas were registered ex vivo. Skin tumors analysis was made on the basis of autofluorescence spectra intensity and curvature for analysis of porphyrins, lipo-pigments, flavins and melanin. Separation of melanomas and basal cell carcinomas was performed on the basis of discriminant analysis. Overall accuracy of basal cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas separation in current study reached 86.5% with 70% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.

  15. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Laura; Jo, Javier A; Butte, Pramod V; Yong, William H; Pikul, Brian K; Black, Keith L; Thompson, Reid C

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of the endogenous emission of brain tumors has been researched as a potentially important method for the intraoperative localization of brain tumor margins. We investigated the use of time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for demarcation of primary brain tumors by studying the time-resolved spectra of gliomas. The fluorescence of human brain samples (glioblastoma multiforme, cortex and white matter: six patients, 23 sites) was induced ex vivo with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 3 ns). The time-resolved spectra were detected in a 360-550 nm wavelength range using a fast digitizer and gated detection. Parameters derived from both the spectral- (intensities from narrow spectral bands) and the time domain (average lifetime) measured at 390 and 460 nm were used for tissue characterization. We determined that high-grade gliomas are characterized by fluorescence lifetimes that varied with the emission wavelength (>3 ns at 390 nm, <1 ns at 460 nm) and their emission is overall longer than that of normal brain tissue. Our study demonstrates that the use of fluorescence lifetime not only improves the specificity of fluorescence measurements but also allows a more robust evaluation of data collected from brain tissue. Combined information from both the spectral- and the time domain can enhance the ability of fluorescence-based techniques to diagnose and detect brain tumor margins intraoperatively. PMID:15339216

  16. Effects of sampling methods on the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter in sediment pore waters as revealed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meilian; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hur, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Despite literature evidence suggesting the importance of sampling methods on the properties of sediment pore waters, their effects on the dissolved organic matter (PW-DOM) have been unexplored to date. Here, we compared the effects of two commonly used sampling methods (i.e., centrifuge and Rhizon sampler) on the characteristics of PW-DOM for the first time. The bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, and excitation-emission matrixes coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) of the PW-DOM samples were compared for the two sampling methods with the sediments from minimal to severely contaminated sites. The centrifuged samples were found to have higher average values of DOC, UV absorption, and protein-like EEM-PARAFAC components. The samples collected with the Rhizon sampler, however, exhibited generally more humified characteristics than the centrifuged ones, implying a preferential collection of PW-DOM with respect to the sampling methods. Furthermore, the differences between the two sampling methods seem more pronounced in relatively more polluted sites. Our observations were possibly explained by either the filtration effect resulting from the smaller pore size of the Rhizon sampler or the desorption of DOM molecules loosely bound to minerals during centrifugation, or both. Our study suggests that consistent use of one sampling method is crucial for PW-DOM studies and also that caution should be taken in the comparison of data collected with different sampling methods. PMID:25994263

  17. Online fluorescence suppression in modulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Mazilu, Michael; Riches, Andrew; Herrington, C Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2010-01-15

    Label-free chemical characterization of single cells is an important aim for biomedical research. Standard Raman spectroscopy provides intrinsic biochemical markers for noninvasive analysis of biological samples but is often hindered by the presence of fluorescence background. In this paper, we present an innovative modulated Raman spectroscopy technique to filter out the Raman spectra from the fluorescence background. The method is based on the principle that the fluorescence background does not change whereas the Raman scattering is shifted by the periodical modulation of the laser wavelength. Exploiting this physical property and importantly the multichannel lock-in detection of the Raman signal, the modulation technique fulfills the requirements of an effective fluorescence subtraction method. Indeed, once the synchronization and calibration procedure is performed, minimal user intervention is required, making the method online and less time-consuming than the other fluorescent suppression methods. We analyze the modulated Raman signal and shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) signal of 2 mum-sized polystyrene beads suspended in a solution of fluorescent dye as a function of modulation rate. We show that the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulated Raman spectra at the highest modulation rate is 3 times higher than the SERDS one. To finally evaluate the real benefits of the modulated Raman spectroscopy, we apply our technique to Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). Specifically, by analyzing separate spectra from the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of CHO cells, we demonstrate the ability of this method to obtain localized sensitive chemical information from cells, away from the interfering fluorescence background. In particular, statistical analysis of the Raman data and classification using PCA (principal component analysis) indicate that our method allows us to distinguish between different cell locations with higher sensitivity and

  18. Micro-x-ray fluorescence, micro-x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and micro-x-ray diffraction investigation of lead speciation after the addition of different phosphorus amendments to a smelter-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lucas R; Pierzynski, Gary M; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Newville, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The stabilization of Pb on additions of P to contaminated soils and mine spoil materials has been well documented. It is clear from the literature that different P sources result in different efficacies of Pb stabilization in the same contaminated material. We hypothesized that the differences in the efficacy of Pb stabilization in contaminated soils on fluid or granular P amendment addition is due to different P reaction processes in and around fertilizer granules and fluid droplets. We used a combination of several synchrotron-based techniques (i.e., spatially resolved micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction) to speciate Pb at two incubation times in a smelter-contaminated soil on addition of several fluid and granular P amendments. The results indicated that the Pb phosphate mineral plumbogummite was an intermediate phase of pyromorphite formation. Additionally, all fluid and granular P sources were able to induce Pb phosphate formation, but fluid phosphoric acid (PA) was the most effective with time and distance from the treatment. Granular phosphate rock and triple super phosphate (TSP) amendments reacted to generate Pb phosphate minerals, with TSP being more effective at greater distances from the point of application. As a result, PA and TSP were the most effective P amendments at inducing Pb phosphate formation, but caution needs to be exercised when adding large amounts of soluble P to the environment. PMID:25602650

  19. Multipoint fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with total internal reflection fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Ohsugi, Yu; Kinjo, Masataka

    2009-01-01

    We report simultaneous determination of diffusion coefficients at different points of a cell membrane using a multipoint fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) system. A system carrying seven detection areas in the evanescent field is achieved by using seven optical fibers on the image plane in the detection port of an objective-type total internal reflection FCS (TIR-FCS) system. Fluctuation of fluorescence intensity is monitored and evaluated using seven photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and a newly constructed multichannel correlator. We demonstrate simultaneous-multipoint FCS, with a 3-mus time resolution, to investigate heterogeneous structures such as cell membranes and membrane-binding molecular dynamics near glass surfaces in live cells. PMID:19256718

  20. Absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers operating near lambda=8 micrometers were used for detection and quantification of trace gases in ambient air by means of sensitive absorption spectroscopy. N2O, 12CH4, 13CH4, and different isotopic species of H2O were detected. Also, a highly selective detection of ethanol vapor in air with a sensitivity of 125 parts per billion by volume (ppb) was demonstrated.

  1. Solid-phase fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Déléris, Stéphane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Dudal, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The production of solid organic waste (SOW) such as sewage sludge (SS) or municipal solid waste (MSW) has been continuously increasing in Europe since the beginning of the 1990'. Today, the European Union encourages the stabilization of these wastes using biologic processes such as anaerobic digestion and/or composting to produce bio-energy and organic fertilizers. However, the design and management of such biologic processes require knowledge about the quantity and quality of the organic matter (OM) contained in the SOW. The current methods to characterize SOW are tedious, time-consuming and often insufficiently informative. In this paper, we assess the potential of solid-phase fluorescence (SPF) spectroscopy to quickly provide a relevant characterization of SOW. First, we tested well known model compounds (tryptophan, bovine serum albumin, lignin and humic acid) and biologic matrix (Escherichia coli) in three dimensional solid-phase fluorescence (3D-SPF) spectroscopy. We recorded fluorescence spectra from proteinaceous samples but we could not record the fluorescence emitted by lignin and humic acid powders. For SOW samples, fluorescence spectra were successfully recorded for MSW and most of its sub-components (foods, cardboard) but impossible for SS, sludge compost (SC) and ligno-cellulosic wastes. Based on visual observations and additional assays, we concluded that the presence of highly light-absorptive chemical structures in such dark-colored samples was responsible for this limitation. For such samples, i.e. lignin, humic acid, SS, SC and ligno-cellulosic wastes, we show that laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy enables the acquisition of 2D fluorescence spectra. PMID:21696938

  2. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuning; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Keleher, Kevin; Allison, Thomas K.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, which employs frequency combs and high-finesse optical cavities. % The schematic of apparatus is shown in Figure 1. Sub-100 fs pulses with a repetition rate of 90 MHz are generated by a home-built Ytterbium fiber laser. The amplified light has a power up to 10 W, which is used to pump an optical parametric oscillator, followed by second-harmonic generation(SHG) that converts the wavelength from near-IR to visible. A pump comb at 530 nm is separately generated by SHG. Both pump and probe combs are coupled into high-finesse cavities. Compared to the conventional transient absorption spectroscopy method, the detection sensitivity can be improved by a factor of (F/π)^2 ˜ 10^5, where F is the finesse of cavity. This ultrasensitive technology enables the direct all-optical dynamics study in molecular beams. We will apply the cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of visible chromophores and then extend the wavelength to mid-IR to study vibrational dynamics of small hydrogen-bonded clusters.

  3. Phase Fluctuation Absorption Spectroscopy of Small Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluckiger, David Ulrich

    The purpose of this dissertation is to establish a viable mass measurement technique for in situ aerosol. Adaptation of the photothermal effect in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer provided high mass sensitivity in an instrument employing Phase Fluctuation Laser Optical Heterodyne (PFLOH) absorption spectroscopy. The theory of aerosol absorption of electromagnetic energy and subsequent thermalization in continuum, Rayleigh regime region is presented. From this theory the general behavior of PFLOH detection of aerosol is described and shown to give a signal proportional to the absorption species mass. Furthermore the signal is shown to be linear in excitation energy and modulation frequency, and scalable. The instrument is calibrated and shown to behave as predicted. PFLOH detection is then used in determining the mass size distribution of the aerosol component of the ozone-isoprene and ozone -(alpha)-pinene products as a function of isoprene and (alpha) -pinene concentration.

  4. CO2 Absorption Spectroscopy and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Mlawer, Eli; Mlynczak, Martin; Gero, Jon; Collins, William; Torn, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Most of the absorption, and therefore radiative forcing, due to increased atmospheric CO2 occurs in line wings, so utilizing an accurate line shape is necessary for climate science. Recent advances in CO2 absorption spectroscopy have been incorporated into benchmark line-by-line radiative transfer models. These updates include the Energy Corrected Sudden Approximation to represent isolated line profiles, line mixing, and line clusters. The CO2 line profiles are sub-Lorentzian and are explicitly modeled up to 25 cm-1 from each line's center. Consistent continuum absorption is implemented over the remainder of the profile except for modest empirical adjustments based on observations. Thus, line-by-line models calculate the absorption effects of CO2 that agree with theory and measurements. This is validated with long-term spectroscopic measurements from the ARM program's AERI instrument. This spectroscopy trains computationally-efficient correlated-k methods for climate model radiative transfer, but they overpredict instantaneous radiative forcing from doubled CO2 by approximately 7% in part because they have larger errors handling the impact of increased CO2 in the stratosphere than the troposphere. The implications of this can be tested with supercomputers. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Biol. & Env. Res., Clim. & Env. Sci. Div., of the U.S. D.O.E., Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 as part of the Atmos. Sys. Res.

  5. Differentiating tissue by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, Stefan; Huen, Julien; Malthan, Dirk

    2004-03-01

    A common problem in several surgical applications is the lack of navigational information. Most often, the only source of information about the location of crucial structures, in relation to the surgical instrument, is the visible and tactile sensory input of the surgeon. In some cases, this leads to time-consuming procedures and a high risk for the patient. Therefore, we developed a spectroscopic sensor system for automatic differentiation between several tissue types. For example in milling processes, a sensor that is able to detect bone in contrast to nerve or vein tissue can be used to control the milling process. We showed exemplarily for the cochlea implant, a typical ENT-surgery, that with the help of our sensor system, the milling of bone can be accelerated without increasing the risk for the patient. It is also possible to use this type of sensor system in the area of medical robotics in soft-tissue applications. With real-time information, a continuous registration can take place, in contrast to a registration that is done using static preoperatively acquired images. We showed that our sensor system can be used to dynamically update the location of the patient in relation to CT or MR-images. In conclusion, we have been able to show that well-known spectroscopy sensors can be used to open new possibilities in medical treatment with and without the use of robotics.

  6. Absorption effects in diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Gomez, Erick; Morales-Cruzado, Beatriz; Castillo, Rolando

    2014-07-20

    The effect of absorption in diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) was studied using an absorption-dependent diffusive equation for describing the light propagation within a turbid liquid where dielectric microspheres have been embedded. Here, we propose an expression for the time-averaged light intensity autocorrelation function that correctly describes the time fluctuations for the scattered light, in the regime where the diffusion approximation accurately describes the light propagation. This correction was suspected previously, but it was not formally derived from a light diffusive equation. As in the case of no absorption, we obtained that time fluctuations of the scattered light can be related to the mean square displacement of the embedded particles. However, if a correction for absorption is not taken into account, the colloidal dynamics can be misinterpreted. Experimental results show that this new formulation correctly describes the time fluctuations of scattered light. This new procedure extends the applicability of DWS, and it opens the possibility of doing microrheology with this optical method in systems where absorption cannot be avoided. PMID:25090203

  7. Methane overtone absorption by intracavity laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, James J.

    1990-01-01

    Interpretation of planetary methane (CH4) visible-near IR spectra, used to develop models of planetary atmospheres, has been hampered by a lack of suitable laboratory spectroscopic data. The particular CH4 spectral bands are due to intrinsically weak, high overtone-combination transitions too complex for classical spectroscopic analysis. The traditional multipass cell approach to measuring spectra of weakly absorbing species is insufficiently sensitive to yield reliable results for some of the weakest CH4 absorption features and is difficult to apply at the temperatures of the planetary environments. A time modulated form of intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS), has been shown to provide effective absorption pathlengths of 100 to 200 km with sample cells less than 1 m long. The optical physics governing this technique and the experimental parameters important for obtaining reliable, quantitative results are now well understood. Quantitative data for CH4 absorption obtained by ILS have been reported recently. Illustrative ILS data for CH4 absorption in the 619.7 nm and 681.9 nm bands are presented. New ILS facilities at UM-St. Louis will be used to measure CH4 absorption in the 700 to 1000 nm region under conditions appropriate to the planetary atmospheres.

  8. OH absorption spectroscopy in a flame using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bartula, Renata J; Ghandhi, Jaal B; Sanders, Scott T; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J; Roesler, Fred L; Harlander, John M

    2007-12-20

    We demonstrate measurements of OH absorption spectra in the post-flame zone of a McKenna burner using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS). SHS permits high-resolution, high-throughput measurements. In this case the spectra span approximately 308-310 nm with a resolution of 0.03 nm, even though an extended source (extent of approximately 2x10(-7) m(2) rad(2)) was used. The high spectral resolution is important for interpreting spectra when multiple absorbers are present for inferring accurate gas temperatures from measured spectra and for monitoring weak absorbers. The present measurement paves the way for absorption spectroscopy by SHS in practical combustion devices, such as reciprocating and gas-turbine engines. PMID:18091974

  9. OH absorption spectroscopy in a flame using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartula, Renata J.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.; Sanders, Scott T.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Roesler, Fred L.; Harlander, John M.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate measurements of OH absorption spectra in the post-flame zone of a McKenna burner using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS). SHS permits high-resolution, high-throughput measurements. In this case the spectra span ~308-310 nm with a resolution of 0.03 nm, even though an extended source (extent of ~2×10-7 m2 rad2) was used. The high spectral resolution is important for interpreting spectra when multiple absorbers are present for inferring accurate gas temperatures from measured spectra and for monitoring weak absorbers. The present measurement paves the way for absorption spectroscopy by SHS in practical combustion devices, such as reciprocating and gas-turbine engines.

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-05-15

    Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to ×10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of

  11. Spectroscopy and nonlinear optical absorption of bis(diphenylamino) diphenyl polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Lalgudi V.; Kirkpatrick, Sean M.; Sutherland, Richard L.; Fleitz, Paul A.; Cooper, Thomas M.; Sowards, Laura A.; Spangler, Charles W.; Reeves, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    The spectroscopy and nonlinear absorption of bis(diphenylamino) diphenyl polyenes have been studied in octane and dichloromethane solvents. The amines exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield and two photon excited emission. Two photon absorption cross section, (sigma) 2, was measured by Z-scan experiments. Strong two photon absorption is indicated by high values for (sigma) 2. Solvent has strong influence in the measurement of (sigma) 2 values.

  12. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  13. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: The Case of Subdiffusion

    PubMed Central

    Lubelski, Ariel; Klafter, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is revisited here for the case of subdiffusing molecules. Subdiffusion is assumed to stem from a continuous-time random walk process with a fat-tailed distribution of waiting times and can therefore be formulated in terms of a fractional diffusion equation (FDE). The FDE plays the central role in developing the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy expressions, analogous to the role played by the simple diffusion equation for regular systems. Due to the nonstationary nature of the continuous-time random walk/FDE, some interesting properties emerge that are amenable to experimental verification and may help in discriminating among subdiffusion mechanisms. In particular, the current approach predicts 1), a strong dependence of correlation functions on the initial time (aging); 2), sensitivity of correlation functions to the averaging procedure, ensemble versus time averaging (ergodicity breaking); and 3), that the basic mean-squared displacement observable depends on how the mean is taken. PMID:19289033

  14. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  15. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  16. Tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy using Tikhonov regularization.

    PubMed

    Guha, Avishek; Schoegl, Ingmar

    2014-12-01

    The application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) to flames with nonhomogeneous temperature and concentration fields is an area where only few studies exist. Experimental work explores the performance of tomographic reconstructions of species concentration and temperature profiles from wavelength-modulated TDLAS measurements within the plume of an axisymmetric McKenna burner. Water vapor transitions at 1391.67 and 1442.67 nm are probed using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f). A single collimated laser beam is swept parallel to the burner surface, where scans yield pairs of line-of-sight (LOS) data at multiple radial locations. Radial profiles of absorption data are reconstructed using Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, which suppresses the amplification of experimental noise that is typically observed for reconstructions with high spatial resolution. Based on spectral data reconstructions, temperatures and mole fractions are calculated point-by-point. Here, a least-squares approach addresses difficulties due to modulation depths that cannot be universally optimized due to a nonuniform domain. Experimental results show successful reconstructions of temperature and mole fraction profiles based on two-transition, nonoptimally modulated WMS-2f and Tikhonov regularized Abel inversion, and thus validate the technique as a viable diagnostic tool for flame measurements. PMID:25607968

  17. Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new paradigm in fluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Ray, Krishanu; Chowdhury, Mustafa; Szmacinski, Henryk; Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Nowaczyk, Kazimierz

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used in biological research. Until recently, essentially all fluorescence experiments were performed using optical energy which has radiated to the far-field. By far-field we mean at least several wavelengths from the fluorophore, but propagating far-field radiation is usually detected at larger macroscopic distances from the sample. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the interactions of fluorophores with metallic surfaces or particles. Near-field interactions are those occurring within a wavelength distance of an excited fluorophore. The spectral properties of fluorophores can be dramatically altered by near-field interactions with the electron clouds present in metals. These interactions modify the emission in ways not seen in classical fluorescence experiments. In this review we provide an intuitive description of the complex physics of plasmons and near-field interactions. Additionally, we summarize the recent work on metal–fluorophore interactions and suggest how these effects will result in new classes of experimental procedures, novel probes, bioassays and devices. PMID:18810279

  18. Position-Sensitive Scanning Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Joseph P.; Chen, Yan; Müller, Joachim D.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) uses a stationary laser beam to illuminate a small sample volume and analyze the temporal behavior of the fluorescence fluctuations within the stationary observation volume. In contrast, scanning FCS (SFCS) collects the fluorescence signal from a moving observation volume by scanning the laser beam. The fluctuations now contain both temporal and spatial information about the sample. To access the spatial information we synchronize scanning and data acquisition. Synchronization allows us to evaluate correlations for every position along the scanned trajectory. We use a circular scan trajectory in this study. Because the scan radius is constant, the phase angle is sufficient to characterize the position of the beam. We introduce position-sensitive SFCS (PSFCS), where correlations are calculated as a function of lag time and phase. We present the theory of PSFCS and derive expressions for diffusion, diffusion in the presence of flow, and for immobilization. To test PSFCS we compare experimental data with theory. We determine the direction and speed of a flowing dye solution and the position of an immobilized particle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for applications in living cells we present data of enhanced green fluorescent protein measured in the nucleus of COS cells. PMID:15894645

  19. Characterization and measurement results of fluorescence in absorption optical filter glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, S.; Biertümpfel, R.; Engel, A.

    2015-09-01

    Optical filter glasses (absorption filters) are for example used for spectroscopy. The filter glass absorbs the unwanted light and has a nearly angle independent spectral characteristic. The absorbed light can lead to (self-) fluorescence, i. e. the filter glass itself re-emits fluorescence light at a different wavelength - compared to the incident (excitation) light. This fluorescence light can disturb the measurement signal. In order to obtain an optimized optical design the fluorescence properties of the glasses must be known. By knowing fluorescence properties one can design a system with a good signal-to-noise ratio. We will present our measurement set-up for fluorescence measurements of optical filter glass. This set-up was used to obtain fluorescence measurement results for different optical filter glasses. For the first time we present results on the fluorescence level for different optical filter glasses. In addition the effect of excitation wavelength on the fluorescence level will be studied. Besides other factors, fluorescence depends on impurities of the raw material of the glass melt. Due to small fluctuations of the raw material used for the glass production the fluorescence of the same filter glass type can fluctuate from melt-to-melt. Thus, results from different melts will be shown for the same filter glass type.

  20. Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Red Fluorescent Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konold, Patrick Eugene

    Red-emitting homologues (RFPs) of the native Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with emission wavelengths beyond 650 nm are desirable probes for in vivo imaging experiments. They offer the potential for deeper tissue penetration and lower background scatter given a cleaner spectral window. However, bioimaging applications are hindered by poor photophysics ( e.g. low fluorescence quantum yield, high photobleaching), which limits experimental resolution and represents a significant obstacle towards utilization for low copy-number, long-duration imaging applications. In this thesis, a variety of femtosecond nonlinear electronic spectroscopies were employed jointly with site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the photophysical properties of RFPs. In one study, the molecular mechanism of red emission was pursued in two notable RFPs, mPlum and TagRFP675. Solvation dynamics observed with time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy were interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations to indicate that their red-emission is correlated with the ability of specific chromophore-sidechain hydrogen-bonding interactions to interconvert between direct and water-mediated states. In a second set of studies, two-dimensional double quantum coherence spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic transitions of mPlum. It was discovered that it displayed a response distinctly different from an organic dye in bulk solvent. Modeling indicate of these spectra indicate the spectral features may be attributed to the existence of multiple high-lying (n>1) excited states. The results provide new insight into the electronic structure of these widely used fluorescent probes.

  1. Two-Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Fischer, David G.

    2002-01-01

    We will describe a two-photon microscope currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is composed of a Coherent Mira 900 tunable, pulsed Titanium:Sapphire laser system, an Olympus Fluoview 300 confocal scanning head, and a Leica DM IRE inverted microscope. It will be used in conjunction with a technique known as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study intracellular protein dynamics. We will briefly explain the advantages of the two-photon system over a conventional confocal microscope, and provide some preliminary experimental results.

  2. Absorption Reconstruction Improves Biodistribution Assessment of Fluorescent Nanoprobes Using Hybrid Fluorescence-mediated Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gremse, Felix; Theek, Benjamin; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Lederle, Wiltrud; Pardo, Alessa; Barth, Stefan; Lammers, Twan; Naumann, Uwe; Kiessling, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) holds potential for accelerating diagnostic and theranostic drug development. However, for proper quantitative fluorescence reconstruction, knowledge on optical scattering and absorption, which are highly heterogeneous in different (mouse) tissues, is required. We here describe methods to assess these parameters using co-registered micro Computed Tomography (µCT) data and nonlinear whole-animal absorption reconstruction, and evaluate their importance for assessment of the biodistribution and target site accumulation of fluorophore-labeled drug delivery systems. Methods: Besides phantoms with varying degrees of absorption, mice bearing A431 tumors were imaged 15 min and 48 h after i.v. injection of a fluorophore-labeled polymeric drug carrier (pHPMA-Dy750) using µCT-FMT. The outer shape of mice and a scattering map were derived using automated segmentation of the µCT data. Furthermore, a 3D absorption map was reconstructed from the trans-illumination data. We determined the absorption of five interactively segmented regions (heart, liver, kidney, muscle, tumor). Since blood is the main near-infrared absorber in vivo, the absorption was also estimated from the relative blood volume (rBV), determined by contrast-enhanced µCT. We compared the reconstructed absorption with the rBV-based values and analyzed the effect of using the absorption map on the fluorescence reconstruction. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated that absorption reconstruction is possible and necessary for quantitative fluorescence reconstruction. In vivo, the reconstructed absorption showed high values in strongly blood-perfused organs such as the heart, liver and kidney. The absorption values correlated strongly with the rBV-based absorption values, confirming the accuracy of the absorption reconstruction. Usage of homogenous absorption instead of the reconstructed absorption map resulted in reduced values in the heart, liver and kidney, by

  3. Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.A. ); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. ); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. ); Moodenbaugh, A.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

  4. Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.A.; Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M.; Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    1993-06-01

    Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

  5. Atmospheric Measurements by Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Wu, Tao; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Fertein, Eric; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Weixiong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Since the last decade, atmospheric environmental monitoring has benefited from the development of novel spectroscopic measurement techniques owing to the significant breakthroughs in photonic technology from the UV to the infrared spectral domain [1]. In this presentation, we will overview our recent development and applications of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy techniques for in situ optical monitoring of chemically reactive atmospheric species (such as HONO, NO3, NO2, N2O5) in intensive campaigns [2] and/or in smog chamber studies [3]. These field deployments demonstrated that modern photonic technologies (newly emergent light sources combined with high sensitivity spectroscopic techniques) can provide a useful tool to improve our understanding of tropospheric chemical processes which affect climate, air quality, and the spread of pollution. Experimental detail and preliminary results will be presented. Acknowledgements. The financial support from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under the NexCILAS (ANR-11-NS09-0002) and the CaPPA (ANR-10-LABX-005) contracts is acknowledged. References [1] X. Cui, C. Lengignon, T. Wu, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez,L. Croisé, W. Chen, et al., "Photonic Sensing of the Atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 113 (2012) 1300-1316 [2] T. Wu, Q. Zha, W. Chen, Z. XU, T. Wang, X. He, "Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 in Hong Kong", Atmos. Environ. 95 (2014) 544-551 [3] T. Wu, C. Coeur-Tourneur, G. Dhont,A. Cassez, E. Fertein, X. He, W. Chen,"Application of IBBCEAS to kinetic study of NO3 radical formation from O3 + NO2 reaction in an atmospheric simulation chamber", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 133 (2014)199-205

  6. APD detectors for biological fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazères, S.; Borrel, V.; Magenc, C.; Courrech, J. L.; Bazer-Bachi, R.

    2006-11-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a very convenient and widely used method for studying the molecular background of biological processes [L. Salomé, J.L. Cazeil, A. Lopez, J.F. Tocanne, Eur. Biophys. J. 27 (1998) 391-402]. Chromophores are included in the structure under study and a flash of laser light induces fluorescence (Fluorescence Recovery After Photo-bleaching), the decay of which yields information on the polarity, the speed of rotation, and the speed of diffusion as well as on the temporal and spatial evolution of interactions between molecular species. The method can even be used to study living cells [J.F. Tocanne, L. Cézanne, A. Lopez, Prog. Lipid Res. 33 (1994) 203-237, L. Cezanne, A. Lopez, F. Loste, G. Parnaud, O. Saurel, P. Demange, J.F. Tocanne, Biochemistry 38 (1999) 2779-2786]. This is classically performed with a PM-based system. For biological reasons a decrease of the excitation of the cells is highly desirable. Because the fluorescence response then becomes fainter a significant improvement in detector capability would be welcome. We present here results obtained with an Avalanche Photo Diode (APD)-based system. The small sensitive area of detection allows a very significant improvement in signal/noise ratio, improvement in gain, and the opening-up of a new parameter space. With these new detectors we can begin the study of information transmission between cells through morphine receptors. This work involves both electronics engineers and biophysicists, so results and techniques in both fields will be presented here.

  7. Self-absorption Effects on Alpha-Induced Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    SciTech Connect

    Bachelor, Paula P.; Jordan, David V.; Harper, Warren W.; Cannon, Bret D.; Finn, Erin C.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen fluorescence induced by alpha, beta and gamma radiation can be used to detect the presence of radioactive contamination in the environment. Successful measurement of fluorescence yield involves a number of factors, including: known fluorescence signal rate during the measurement; the effective alpha spectrum of the radioactive sources used in the measurement; optical attenuation length of the fluorescence signal in air during the measurement; the absolute throughput of the instrumentation; calibration of the instrumentation; and radiation transport modeling of the "effective" array exposure rate given the spectrum of the alpha particles. Field testing of optical instrumentation was conducted to measure the nitrogen fluorescence yield from the alpha radiation generated from americium-241 (241Am) decay. The 241Am test sources were prepared by direct evaporation of ~1 mCi in nitric acid solution, and some solids were visible on the surface of the sources. A laboratory study was conducted with lower activities of 241Am to determine whether the presence of solids on the surface of the sources prepared both by direct evaporation and by electrodeposition onto stainless steel disks produced sufficient self-absorption to cause a decrease in expected fluorescence. Alpha spectroscopy was used to determine the apparent activity of the sources versus the known activity deposited on the surface. Results from the self-absorption laboratory studies were used to correct the activity values in the model and calculate the nitrogen fluorescence generated by the 241Am during the field experiments.

  8. Atomic Absorption, Atomic Fluorescence, and Flame Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horlick, Gary

    1984-01-01

    This review is presented in six sections. Sections focus on literature related to: (1) developments in instrumentation, measurement techniques, and procedures; (2) performance studies of flames and electrothermal atomizers; (3) applications of atomic absorption spectrometry; (4) analytical comparisons; (5) atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and (6)…

  9. Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence lifetimes of terbium doped dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makoui, Anali

    We have investigated the use of deep UV laser induced fluorescence for the sensitive detection and spectroscopic lifetime studies of terbium doped dipicolinic acid (DPA-Tb) and used this to study the optical characteristics of DPA which is a chemical surrounding most bacterial spores. Background absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra were made of the DPA-Tb complex, using both fixed 266 nm wavelength and tunable (220 nm--280 nm) UV laser excitations. Of importance, the fluorescence lifetimes of the four main fluorescence peaks (488 nm, 543 nm, 581 nm, and 618 nm) of the DPA-Tb complex have been measured for the first time to our knowledge. The lifetimes of all the fluorescing lines have been measured as a function of DPA-Tb concentration, solvent pH, and solvent composition, including that for the weakest fluorescing line of DPA-Tb at 618 nm. In addition, a new spectroscopic lifetime measurement technique, which we call "Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy", was developed. In this technique, a weak, quasi-CW, amplitude modulated UV laser (8.5 kHz) was used to measure the lifetimes of the fluorescence lines, and yields insight into energy transfer and excitation lifetimes within the system. This technique is especially useful when a high power laser is not either available or not suitable. In the latter case, this would be when a high power pulsed deep-UV laser could produce bleaching or destruction of the biological specimen. In addition, this technique simulated the excitation and fluorescence emission of the DPA-Tb using a 4-level energy model, and solved the dynamic transient rate equations to predict the temporal behavior of the DPA-Tb emitted fluorescence. Excellent agreement between the experiments and the simulation were found. This technique has the potential to provide a more accurate value for the fluorescence lifetime values. In addition, with the use of asymmetric excitation waveforms, the dynamic

  10. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Investigations of Cutaneous Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Bliznakova, I.; Momchilov, N.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2007-04-01

    Fluorescence Spectroscopy of the human skin is very prominent for early diagnosis and differentiation of cutaneous diseases. Selection of proper excitation sources and sensitive detectors gives wide range of possibilities related to real-time determination of existing pathological conditions. A problem with using laser as an excitation source is the high expenses associated with the operation of these types of installations. This is why we test capability of a cheaper excitation sources - ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes. Initially, we investigate the spectral response of normal skin from different anatomic areas, as well as from different phototypes volunteers. Our first results obtained demonstrated promising possibility to implement an inexpensive system for detection of cutaneous lesions with wide clinical applications. The results achieved will be introduced in development of diagnostic algorithms for improvement of diagnostic sensitivity of benign and malignant tumor lesions determination.

  11. Glucose Recognition in Vitro Using Fluorescent Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Noronha, G; Heiss, A M; Reilly, J R; Vachon, Jr, D J; Cary, D R; Zaitseva, N P; Reibold, R A; Lane, S M; Peyser, T A; Satcher, J H

    2001-04-25

    Diabetes is a disease that affects over 16 million people in the USA at a cost of 100 billion dollars annually. The ability to regulate insulin delivery in people with Type 1 diabetes is imperative as is the need to manage glucose levels in all people with this disease. Our current method for monitoring glucose is a (FDA approved) minimally invasive enzymatic sensor that can measure glucose levels in vivo for three days. We are focused on developing a noninvasive implantable glucose sensor that will be interrogated by an external device. The material must be robust, easy to process, biocompatible and resistant to biofouling. In this Presentation we will discuss the development of a new polymeric matrix that can recognize physiological levels of glucose in vitro using fluorescent spectroscopy.

  12. Studies in atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy-V The fluorescence characteristics and determination of antimony.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, R M; Thompson, K C; West, T S

    1967-10-01

    Atomic-fluorescence of antimony may be generated in an air-propane flame by nebulizing aqueous solutions of antimony salts whilst irradiating the flame by means of a microwave-excited electrode-less discharge tube operating at 30 W. The strongest fluorescence is exhibited by the (4)S(11 2 ) --> (4)P(1 3 ) 2311 A resonance line and weaker signals are observed at the 2068 and 2176 A resonance lines and at four intercombination lines, at 2598, 2671, 2770 and 2878 A. A process of thermally assisted direct-line fluorescence is postulated to account for the otherwise inexplicable intensity of the 2598 A line emission. Atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy at 2176 A permits the determination of antimony in the range 0.1-120 ppm with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. With the same equipment and source, the range of measurement for atomic-absorption was 6-120 ppm and the detection limit was 1 ppm. No interferences were observed from 100-fold molar amounts of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, NH(4), Pb and Zn or from arsenate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. PMID:18960212

  13. Preparation, fluorescence spectroscopy, and AFM analysis of erbium oxide nanocolloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Darayas; Vance, Calvin; King, Newton; Jessup, Malcolm; Sarkisov, Sergey

    2009-02-01

    Nanocolloids of compounds containing fluorescent rare earth ions have recently attracted significant attention as agents for biolabeling, bioimaging, bio- and chemical sensing, and other applications. Erbium oxide nanocolloids have been prepared for the first time in water and gammabutyrolactone. Optical dynamic scatterometry and atomic force microscopy determined an average size (average mean height) of erbium oxide nanoparticles to be 10-11 nm. Prominent optical absorption peaks of the nanocolloids at 442.5 nm, 450.0 nm, 487.2 nm (strong), 492.0 nm, 523.0 nm (strong), 541.6 nm, 548.6 nm, 652.6 nm, and 665.7 nm (strong) can be attributed to erbium ions hosted within nanoparticles. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of the nanocolloids was conducted using excitations with the lines of argon-ion laser (514 nm, 488 nm, 476 nm, and 458 nm) and 980-nm semiconductor laser. Strong green emission at 571 nm is more likely from transition between 4S3/2 and 4I15/2 levels and relatively weak red emissions from transition between 4I9/2 and 4I15/2 level of erbium was observed at excitation with visible laser radiation 488 nm and 476 nm. The reported nanocolloids thus showed to be good candidates for fluorescent biosensing applications and also as a new lasing filling medium in fiber lasers.

  14. Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with high count rates and low background using dielectric microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Aouani, Heykel; Schön, Peter; Brasselet, Sophie; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence is a powerful technique commonly used for biological imaging. However, the low absorption cross section of this non-linear process is a critical issue for performing biomolecular spectroscopy at the single molecule level. Enhancing the two-photon fluorescence signal would greatly improve the effectiveness of this technique, yet current methods struggle with medium enhancement factors and/or high background noise. Here, we show that the two-photon fluorescence signal from single Alexa Fluor 488 molecules can be enhanced up to 10 times by using a 3 µm diameter latex sphere while adding almost no photoluminescence background. We report a full characterization of the two-photon fluorescence enhancement by a single microsphere using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This opens new routes to enhance non-linear optical signals and extend biophotonic applications. PMID:21258531

  15. Research of the interaction between kangai injection and human serum albumin by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changbin; Lin, Xiaogang; Zhu, Hao; Li, Wenchao; Wu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The interaction between drugs and serum albumin is the theoretical basis of pharmacology research. Kangai injection with invigorating Qi, enhancing the immune function, is widely used for a variety of malignant tumor treatment. Fluorescence spectroscopy was adopted due to its high sensitivity and other advantages. The interaction between kangai injection and human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results of fluorescence spectrum at three temperature (296K, 303K and 310K) showed the degree of binding at 310K is the highest. Also, the maximum emission peak has a slight blue shift, which indicates that the interaction between kangai injection and HSA has an effect on the conformation of HSA. That is, the microenvironment of tryptophan increase hydrophobic due to the increase of the concentration of kangai injection. Results obtained from analysis of fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence intensity indicated that kangai injection has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA. And according to the Stern-Volume equation, the quenching mechanism is static quenching, which is further proved by the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  16. A fluorescent benzothiazole probe with efficient two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Lorenzo; Moreno, Iván; Camacho, José; Salazar, Mary Carmen; Hernández, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we report the two-photon absorption of 2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carbonitrile (DBC) in DMSO solution pumping at 779 nm with a 10 ns pulse laser-Nd:YAG system. The obtained two-photon absorption cross-section in DBC (407 ± 18 GM) is considerably high. Because DBC is a novel compound and have high values of fluorescence quantum yield, this result is expected to have an impact in biomolecules detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Similar structures have previously been reported to show remarkable antitumour effects.

  17. Review on VUV to MIR absorption spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Stephan; Santos Sousa, Joao; Stancu, Gabi Daniel; Hubertus van Helden, Jean-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Absorption spectroscopy (AS) represents a reliable method for the characterization of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets. The method’s simplicity stands out in comparison to competing diagnostic techniques. AS is an in situ, non-invasive technique giving absolute densities, free of calibration procedures, which other diagnostics, such as laser-induced fluorescence or optical emission spectroscopy, have to rely on. Ground state densities can be determined without the knowledge of the influence of collisional quenching. Therefore, absolute densities determined by absorption spectroscopy can be taken as calibration for other methods. In this paper, fundamentals of absorption spectroscopy are presented as an entrance to the topic. In the second part of the manuscript, a review of AS performed on cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets, as they are used e.g. in the field of plasma medicine, is presented. The focus is set on special techniques overcoming not only the drawback of spectrally overlapping absorbing species, but also the line-of-sight densities that AS usually provides or the necessity of sufficiently long absorption lengths. Where references are not available for measurements on cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets, other plasma sources including low-pressure plasmas are taken as an example to give suggestions for possible approaches. The final part is a table summarizing examples of absorption spectroscopic measurements on cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets. With this, the paper provides a ‘best practice’ guideline and gives a compendium of works by groups performing absorption spectroscopy on cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets.

  18. Two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine at 170 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Dyer, Mark J.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Bischel, William K.

    1988-01-01

    Two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine is reported. A doubled dye laser at 286-nm is Raman shifted in H2 to 170 nm (sixth anti-Stokes order) to excite ground-state 2P(0)J fluorine atoms to the 2D(0)J level. The fluorine atoms are detected by one of two methods: observing the fluorescence decay to the 2PJ level or observing F(+) production through the absorption of an additional photon by the excited atoms. Relative two-photon absorption cross sections to and the radiative lifetimes of the 2D(0)J states are measured.

  19. Absorption and Transport of Fluorescent Brighteners by Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Darken, Marjorie A.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of brighteners by living cells and their transport to subsequent growth is described. Brighteners are highly fluorescent, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds which appear to be essentially nontoxic, stable biological markers. They have been effectively absorbed by growing cultures of bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, and higher fungi, with active growth centers evidencing the greatest flourescence. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10-11 PMID:14025111

  20. Spectral signatures of fluorescence and light absorption to identify crude oils found in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2014-08-01

    To protect the natural marine ecosystem, it is necessary to continuously enhance knowledge of environmental contamination, including oil pollution. Therefore, to properly track the qualitative and quantitative changes in the natural components of seawater, a description of the essential spectral features describing petroleum products is necessary. This study characterises two optically-different types of crude oils (Petrobaltic and Romashkino) - substances belonging to multi-fluorophoric systems. To obtain the spectral features of crude oils, the excitation-emission spectroscopy technique was applied. The fluorescence and light absorption properties for various concentrations of oils at a stabilised temperature are described. Both excitation-emission spectra (EEMs) and absorption spectra of crude oils are discussed. Based on the EEM spectra, both excitation end emission peaks for the wavelengthindependent fluorescence maximum (Exmax/ Emmax) - characteristic points for each type of oil - were identified and compared with the literature data concerning typical marine chemical structures.

  1. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Fast and non-invasive, diagnostic techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy have the potential to link the biochemical and morphologic properties of tissues to individual patient care. One of the most widely explored applications of fluorescence spectroscopy is the detection of endoscopically invisible, early neoplastic growth in epithelial tissue sites. Currently, there are no effective diagnostic techniques for these early tissue transformations. If fluorescence spectroscopy can be applied successfully as a diagnostic technique in this clinical context, it may increase the potential for curative treatment, and thus, reduce complications and health care costs. Steady-state, fluorescence measurements from small tissue regions as well as relatively large tissue fields have been performed. To a much lesser extent, time-resolved, fluorescence measurements have also been explored for tissue characterization. Furthermore, sources of both intrinsic (endogenous fluorophores) and extrinsic fluorescence (exogenous fluorophores) have been considered. The goal of the current report is to provide a comprehensive review on steady-state and time-resolved, fluorescence measurements of neoplastic and non-neoplastic, biologic systems of varying degrees of complexity. First, the principles and methodology of fluorescence spectroscopy are discussed. Next, the endogenous fluorescence properties of cells, frozen tissue sections and excised and intact bulk tissues are presented; fluorescence measurements from both animal and human tissue models are discussed. This is concluded with future perspectives. PMID:10933071

  2. Absorption and fluorescent spectral studies of imidazophenazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, O A; Zozulya, V N; Voloshin, I M; Karachevtsev, V A; Makitruk, V L; Stepanian, S G

    2004-07-01

    Absorption and fluorescent spectra as well as fluorescence polarization degree of imidazo-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F1) and its two modified derivatives, 2-trifluoridemethylimidazo-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F2) and 1,2,3-triazole-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F3), were investigated in organic solvents of various polarities and hydrogen bonding abilities. Extinction coefficients of F2 and F3 are increased, their fluorescence Stokes shifts are reduced in comparison with those for unmodified imidazophenazine. For F3 a red shift of the longwave absorption band is observed by 15-20 nm. Modifications of imidazophenazine have led to a sufficient increase of fluorescence polarization degrees that enables to use F2 and F3 as promising fluorescent probes with polarization method application. The configuration, atomic charge distribution and dipole moments of the isolated dye molecules in the ground state were calculated by the DFT method. The computation has revealed that ground state dipole moments of F1, F2, and F3 differ slightly and are equal to 3.5, 3.2, and 3.7D, respectively. The changes in dipole moments upon the optical excitation for all derivatives estimated using Lippert equation were found to be Deltamu = 9 D. The energies of the electronic S1<--S0 transition in solvents of different proton donor abilities were determined, and energetic diagram illustrating the substituent effect was plotted. For nucleoside analogs of these compounds, covalently incorporated into a nucleotide chain, we have considered a possibility to use them as fluorescent reporters of hybridization of antisense oligonucleotides, as well as molecular anchors for its stabilization. PMID:15248979

  3. Photoelectron and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Of Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J; Chung, B; Schulze, R; Farr, J; Shuh, D

    2003-11-12

    We have performed Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy upon highly radioactive samples of Plutonium at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, USA. First results from alpha and delta Plutonium are reported as well as plans for future studies of actinide studies.

  4. Quantitative Determination of DNA-Ligand Binding Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eamonn F.

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of fluorescence spectroscopy for determining the binding of the intercalcating agent crhidium bromide to DNA is being described. The analysis used simple measurement techniques and hence can be easily adopted by the students for a better understanding.

  5. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of thymus and fat tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gui C.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Reid, V.; Steinglass, K.; Ginsberg, Mark D.; Jacobowitz, Larry; Alfano, Robert R.

    1993-08-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of the human thymus gland and surrounding mediastinal fat were measured to evaluate this approach in distinguishing between thymus and fat tissues during therapeutic surgery for myasthenia gravis disease.

  6. Multiplexed absorption tomography with calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2014-04-14

    We propose a multiplexed absorption tomography technique, which uses calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with tunable semiconductor lasers for the simultaneous imaging of temperature and species concentration in harsh combustion environments. Compared with the commonly used direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) counterpart, the present variant enjoys better signal-to-noise ratios and requires no baseline fitting, a particularly desirable feature for high-pressure applications, where adjacent absorption features overlap and interfere severely. We present proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations of the technique using realistic phantom models of harsh combustion environments and prove that the proposed techniques outperform currently available tomography techniques based on DAS.

  7. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.

    2007-02-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is proving invaluable in determining the average chemical form of metals or metalloids in intact biological tissues. As most tissues have spatial structure, there is great additional interest in visualizing the spatial location of the metal(loid) as well as its chemical forms. XAS imaging gives the opportunity of producing maps of specific chemical types of elements in vivo in dilute biological systems. X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques are routinely used to study samples with spatial heterogeneity. Microprobe produces elemental maps, with chemical sensitivity obtained by recording micro-XAS spectra at selected point locations on the map. Unfortunately, using these procedures spatial detail may be lost as the number of point spectra recorded generally is limited. A powerful extension of microprobe is XAS imaging or chemically specific imaging. Here, the incident energy is tuned to features in the near-edge which are characteristic of the expected chemical forms of the element. With a few simple assumptions, these XAS images can then be converted to quantitative images of specific chemical form, yielding considerable clarity in the distributions.

  8. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis. PMID:25239063

  9. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Measurement of SOx using Tunable Infrared Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    The absorption characteristics of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) in the infrared region were measured using a quantum cascade laser and an absorption cell of length 1 m heated to 150°C. The laser was scanned over the wavelength range 6.9-7.4 μm, which included the absorption bands of SO2 and SO3. Measurement results showed that the absorption bands of SO2 and SO3 partially overlapped, with peaks at 7.28 μm and 7.35 μm for SO2 and 7.14 μm and 7.25 μm for SO3. These results showed the possbility of using infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for measurement of sulfur oxides (SOx) in flue gas. For SO3 measurement, infrared absorption spectroscopy was shown to be more suitable than ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. The absorption characteristics of open air in the same wavelength region showed that the interference due to water vapor must be efficiently removed to perform SOx measurement in flue gas.

  10. Absorption and Fluorescence Properties of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced by Algae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tong; Lu, Xiao-lan; Su, Rong-guo; Zhang, Dong-mei

    2015-09-01

    Four kinds of diatom (Chaetoceros curvisetus, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima and Navicula halophile) and two kinds of dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum donghaiense and Gymnodinium) were cultured under laboratory conditions. Variations of optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were studied with absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy(EEM) during growth of marine microalgae in incubation experiment. Absorption spectrum revealed absorption coefficient a(355) (CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm) of 6 kinds of marine microalgae above increased by 64.8%, 242.3%, 535.1%, 903.2%, 836% and 196.4%, respectively. Simultaneously, the absorption spectral slope (Sg), determined between 270 and 350 nm, representing the size of molecular weight of CDOM and humic-like composition, decreased by 8.7%, 34.6%, 39.4%, 53.1%, 46.7%, and 35.7%, respectively. Applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) together with EEM got four components of CDOM: C1(Ex/Em=350(260) nm/450 nm), C2 (Ex/Em=260(430) nm/525 nm), C3 (Ex/Em=325 nm/400 nm) and C4(Ex/Em=275 nm/325 nm), which were relative to three humic-like and one protein-like fluorescent components of Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima and Navicula halophile. In incubation experiment, fluorescence intensity of these four components during growth of Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima increased by, respectively, 8.68, 24.9, 7.19 and 39.8 times, and those of Navicula halophile increased by 2.64, 0.07, 4.39 and 12.4 times, respectively. Significant relationships were found between the fluorescence intensity of four components of CDOM, a(355) and Sg. All results demonstrated that both content and molecular weight of CDOM produced by diatom and dinoflagellate studied in incubation experiment increased, but these two parameters changed more obviously of the diatom than those of dinoflagellate; the proportion of humic-like components in the composition of CDOM

  11. Fluorescence imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of steroid using confocal synchrotron radiation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerritsen, Hans C.; van der Oord, C. J. R.; Levine, Yehudi K.; Munro, Ian H.; Jones, Gareth R.; Shaw, D. A.; Rommerts, Fokko F.

    1994-08-01

    The Confocal Synchrotron Radiation Microscope at Daresbury was used in a study of the transport and distribution of the steroid Coumestrol in single Leydig cells. The broad spectrum of synchrotron radiation in combination with UV compatible microscope optics affords the extension of confocal microscopy from the visible to the UV region down to about 200 nm. Consequently fluorescent molecules with absorption bands in the UV can be imaged. In addition the pulsed nature of the light source allows us to perform time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on microscopic volumes. Coumestrol is a naturally fluorescing plant steroid exhibiting estrogenic activity. In physiological environments it has an absorption peak in the UV at 340 nm and it emits around 440 nm. First results indicate that the Coumestrol transport through the cell membrane is diffusion limited. The weak fluorescence observed in the nuclei of the Leydig cells may be due to fluorescence quenching arising from the interaction of the Coumesterol with nuclear components. However, micro-volume time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on cell nuclei have revealed the same decay behavior for Coumesterol in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cells.

  12. Polarized fluorescence and absorption of macroscopically aligned Light Harvesting Complex II.

    PubMed Central

    van Amerongen, H; Kwa, S L; van Bolhuis, B M; van Grondelle, R

    1994-01-01

    Polarized absorption and fluorescence measurements have been performed at 77 K on isotropic and anisotropic preparations of trimeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHC-II) from spinach. The results enable a decomposition of the absorption spectrum into components parallel and perpendicular to the trimeric plane. For the first time, it is shown quantitatively that the strong absorption band around 676 nm is polarized essentially parallel to the plane of the trimer, i.e., the average angle between the corresponding transition dipole moments and this plane is at most 12 degrees. The different absorption bands for LHC-II should not be considered as corresponding to individual pigments but to collective excitations of different pigments. Nevertheless, the average angle between the Qy transition dipole moments of all chlorophyll a pigments in LHC-II and the trimeric plane could be determined and was found to be 17.5 degrees +/- 2.5 degrees. For the chlorophyll b pigments, this angle is significantly larger (close to 35 degrees). At 77 K, most of the fluorescence stems from a weak band above 676 nm and the corresponding transition dipole moments are oriented further out of plane than the dipole moments corresponding to the 676-nm band. The results are shown to be of crucial significance for understanding the relation between the LHC-II structure and its spectroscopy. PMID:7948696

  13. [Study of retrieving formaldehyde with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jin; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Qu, Xiao-Ying; Hu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper introduces the method of retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The authors measured ambient HCHO in Beijing region with the help of differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument made by ourself, and discussed numerous factors in retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), especially, the choice of HCHO wave band, how to avoid absorption of ambient SO2, NO2 and O3, and the influence of the Xenon lamp spectrum structure on the absorption of ambient HCHO. The authors achieved the HCHO concentration by simultaneously retrieving the concentrations of HCHO, SO2, NO2 and O3 with non-linear least square fitting method, avoiding the effect of choosing narrow wave of HCHO and the residual of SO2, NO2, O3 and the Xenon lamp spectrum structure in retrieving process to attain the concentration of HCHO, Finally the authors analyzed the origin of error in retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and the total error is within 13.7% in this method. PMID:19385238

  14. Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Boens, Noël; Qin, Wenwu; Basarić, Nikola; Hofkens, Johan; Ameloot, Marcel; Pouget, Jacques; Lefèvre, Jean-Pierre; Valeur, Bernard; Gratton, Enrico; vandeVen, Martin; Silva, Norberto D; Engelborghs, Yves; Willaert, Katrien; Sillen, Alain; Rumbles, Garry; Phillips, David; Visser, Antonie J W G; van Hoek, Arie; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Malak, Henryk; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Szabo, Arthur G; Krajcarski, Don T; Tamai, Naoto; Miura, Atsushi

    2007-03-01

    A series of fluorophores with single-exponential fluorescence decays in liquid solution at 20 degrees C were measured independently by nine laboratories using single-photon timing and multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry instruments with lasers as excitation source. The dyes that can serve as fluorescence lifetime standards for time-domain and frequency-domain measurements are all commercially available, are photostable under the conditions of the measurements, and are soluble in solvents of spectroscopic quality (methanol, cyclohexane, water). These lifetime standards are anthracene, 9-cyanoanthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, N-methylcarbazole, coumarin 153, erythrosin B, N-acetyl-l-tryptophanamide, 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)benzene, 2,5-diphenyloxazole, rhodamine B, rubrene, N-(3-sulfopropyl)acridinium, and 1,4-diphenylbenzene. At 20 degrees C, the fluorescence lifetimes vary from 89 ps to 31.2 ns, depending on fluorescent dye and solvent, which is a useful range for modern pico- and nanosecond time-domain or mega- to gigahertz frequency-domain instrumentation. The decay times are independent of the excitation and emission wavelengths. Dependent on the structure of the dye and the solvent, the excitation wavelengths used range from 284 to 575 nm, the emission from 330 to 630 nm. These lifetime standards may be used to either calibrate or test the resolution of time- and frequency-domain instrumentation or as reference compounds to eliminate the color effect in photomultiplier tubes. Statistical analyses by means of two-sample charts indicate that there is no laboratory bias in the lifetime determinations. Moreover, statistical tests show that there is an excellent correlation between the lifetimes estimated by the time-domain and frequency-domain fluorometries. Comprehensive tables compiling the results for 20 (fluorescence lifetime standard/solvent) combinations are given. PMID:17269654

  15. Quantitative frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in tissues and tissue-like media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert Edward

    1999-09-01

    In the never-ending quest for improved medical technology at lower cost, modern near-infrared optical spectroscopy offers the possibility of inexpensive technology for quantitative and non-invasive diagnoses. Hemoglobin is the dominant chromophore in the 700-900 nm spectral region and as such it allows for the optical assessment of hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation by absorption spectroscopy. However, there are many other important physiologically relevant compounds or physiological states that cannot be effectively sensed via optical methods because of poor optical contrast. In such cases, contrast enhancements are required. Fluorescence spectroscopy is an attractive component of optical tissue spectroscopy. Exogenous fluorophores, as well as some endogenous ones, may furnish the desperately needed sensitivity and specificity that is lacking in near-infrared optical tissue spectroscopy. The main focus of this thesis was to investigate the generation and propagation of fluorescence photons inside tissues and tissue-like media (i.e., scattering dominated media). The standard concepts of fluorescence spectroscopy have been incorporated into a diffusion-based picture that is sometimes referred to as photon migration. The novelty of this work lies in the successful quantitative recovery of fluorescence lifetimes, absolute fluorescence quantum yields, fluorophore concentrations, emission spectra, and both scattering and absorption coefficients at the emission wavelength from a tissue-like medium. All of these parameters are sensitive to the fluorophore local environment and hence are indicators of the tissue's physiological state. One application demonstrating the capabilities of frequency-domain lifetime spectroscopy in tissue-like media is a study of the binding of ethidium bromide to bovine leukocytes in fresh milk. Ethidium bromide is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used to label DNA, and hence visualize chromosomes in cells. The lifetime of

  16. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with high temperature flames.

    PubMed

    Willis, J B

    1968-07-01

    An account is given of the history of the development of high temperature flames for the atomic absorption measurement of metals forming refractory oxides. The principles governing the design of premix burners for such flames, and the relative merits of different types of nebulizer burner systems are described. After a brief account of the structure and emission characteristics of the premixed oxygen-acetylene and nitrous oxide-acetylene flames, the scope and limitations of the latter flame in chemical analysis are discussed. PMID:20068790

  17. Theoretical investigations of absorption and fluorescence spectra of protonated pyrene.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Sheng Hsien

    2016-05-25

    The equilibrium geometry and 75 vibrational normal-mode frequencies of the ground and first excited states of protonated pyrene isomers were calculated and characterized in the adiabatic representation by using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. Electronic absorption spectra of solid neon matrixes in the wavelength range 495-415 nm were determined by Maier et al. and they were analyzed using time-dependent density functional theory calculations (TDDFT). CASSCF calculations and absorption and emission spectra simulations by one-photon excitation equations were used to optimize the excited and ground state structures of protonated pyrene isomers. The absorption band was attributed to the S0 → S1 electronic transition in 1H-Py(+), and a band origin was used at 20580.96 cm(-1). The displaced harmonic oscillator approximation and Franck-Condon approximation were used to simulate the absorption spectrum of the (1) (1)A' ← X[combining tilde](1)A' transition of 1H-Py(+), and the main vibronic transitions were assigned for the first ππ* state. It shows that the vibronic structures were dominated by one of the eight active totally symmetric modes, with ν15 being the most crucial. This indicates that the electronic transition of the S1((1)A') state calculated in the adiabatic representation effectively includes a contribution from the adiabatic vibronic coupling through Franck-Condon factors perturbed by harmonic oscillators. The present method can adequately reproduce experimental absorption and fluorescence spectra of a gas phase. PMID:27181017

  18. Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Mustafa; Nizzero, Sara; Hoggard, Anneli; Wang, Lin-Yung; Cai, Yi-Yu; Su, Man-Nung; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2015-05-13

    Removing effects of sample heterogeneity through single-molecule and single-particle techniques has advanced many fields. While background free luminescence and scattering spectroscopy is widely used, recording the absorption spectrum only is rather difficult. Here we present an approach capable of recording pure absorption spectra of individual nanostructures. We demonstrate the implementation of single-particle absorption spectroscopy on strongly scattering plasmonic nanoparticles by combining photothermal microscopy with a supercontinuum laser and an innovative calibration procedure that accounts for chromatic aberrations and wavelength-dependent excitation powers. Comparison of the absorption spectra to the scattering spectra of the same individual gold nanoparticles reveals the blueshift of the absorption spectra, as predicted by Mie theory but previously not detectable in extinction measurements that measure the sum of absorption and scattering. By covering a wavelength range of 300 nm, we are furthermore able to record absorption spectra of single gold nanorods with different aspect ratios. We find that the spectral shift between absorption and scattering for the longitudinal plasmon resonance decreases as a function of nanorod aspect ratio, which is in agreement with simulations. PMID:25849105

  19. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivty to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection. PMID:21456877

  20. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-03-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivty to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection.

  1. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-03-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivity to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection. PMID:21456877

  2. Undistorted X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Using s-Core-Orbital Emissions.

    PubMed

    Golnak, Ronny; Xiao, Jie; Atak, Kaan; Unger, Isaak; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Aziz, Emad F

    2016-05-12

    Detection of secondary emissions, fluorescence yield (FY), or electron yield (EY), originating from the relaxation processes upon X-ray resonant absorption has been widely adopted for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements when the primary absorption process cannot be probed directly in transmission mode. Various spectral distortion effects inherent in the relaxation processes and in the subsequent transportation of emitted particles (electron or photon) through the sample, however, undermine the proportionality of the emission signals to the X-ray absorption coefficient. In the present study, multiple radiative (FY) and nonradiative (EY) decay channels have been experimentally investigated on a model system, FeCl3 aqueous solution, at the excitation energy of the Fe L-edge. The systematic comparisons between the experimental spectra taken from various decay channels, as well as the comparison with the theoretically simulated Fe L-edge XA spectrum that involves only the absorption process, indicate that the detection of the Fe 3s → 2p partial fluorescence yield (PFY) gives rise to the true Fe L-edge XA spectrum. The two key characteristics generalized from this particular decay channel-zero orbital angular momentum (i.e., s orbital) and core-level emission-set a guideline for obtaining undistorted X-ray absorption spectra in the future. PMID:27101344

  3. Molecular shock response of explosives: electronic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrne, Shawn D; Moore, David S; Whitley, Von H; Bolme, Cindy A; Eakins, Daniel E

    2009-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy in the range 400-800 nm was coupled to ultrafast laser generated shocks to begin addressing the question of the extent to which electronic excitations are involved in shock induced reactions. Data are presented on shocked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films and single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Shocked PMMA exhibited thin film interference effects from the shock front. Shocked PETN exhibited interference from the shock front as well as broadband increased absorption. Relation to shock initiation hypotheses and the need for time dependent absorption data (future experiments) is briefly discussed.

  4. Time-resolved FRET fluorescence spectroscopy of visible fluorescent protein pairs.

    PubMed

    Visser, A J W G; Laptenok, S P; Visser, N V; van Hoek, A; Birch, D J S; Brochon, J-C; Borst, J W

    2010-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful method for obtaining information about small-scale lengths between biomacromolecules. Visible fluorescent proteins (VFPs) are widely used as spectrally different FRET pairs, where one VFP acts as a donor and another VFP as an acceptor. The VFPs are usually fused to the proteins of interest, and this fusion product is genetically encoded in cells. FRET between VFPs can be determined by analysis of either the fluorescence decay properties of the donor molecule or the rise time of acceptor fluorescence. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is the technique of choice to perform these measurements. FRET can be measured not only in solution, but also in living cells by the technique of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), where fluorescence lifetimes are determined with the spatial resolution of an optical microscope. Here we focus attention on time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of purified, selected VFPs (both single VFPs and FRET pairs of VFPs) in cuvette-type experiments. For quantitative interpretation of FRET-FLIM experiments in cellular systems, details of the molecular fluorescence are needed that can be obtained from experiments with isolated VFPs. For analysis of the time-resolved fluorescence experiments of VFPs, we have utilised the maximum entropy method procedure to obtain a distribution of fluorescence lifetimes. Distributed lifetime patterns turn out to have diagnostic value, for instance, in observing populations of VFP pairs that are FRET-inactive. PMID:19693494

  5. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  6. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: inception, biophysical experimentations, and prospectus.

    PubMed

    Webb, W W

    2001-08-20

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy examines the chemical and the photophysical dynamics of dilute molecular solutions by measurement of the dynamic optical fluctuations of the fluorescence of a few molecules, even averaging less than one molecule at a time, in open focal volumes that are usually less than a femtoliter (<10(-18) m(3)). It applies the same principles of statistical thermodynamics as does quasi-elastic light scattering. Molecular interactions, conformational changes, chemical reactions, and photophysical dynamics that are not ordinarily detectable by quasi-elastic light scattering can be analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in cases in which molecular fluorescence changes in the dynamic range 10(-7)-10(2) s. PMID:18360431

  7. [Study on interaction of caffeine with myoglobin by fluorescence spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, He-Yong; Gu, Xiao-Tian; Ding, Yan; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Feng, Yu-Ying

    2009-10-01

    The interaction of caffein and myoglobin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The intrinsic fluorescence of myoglobin was significantly quenched by caffein under the physiological condition (pH 7.4). The results indicated that caffeine was capable of binding with myoglobin to form a 1:1 complex and the quenching mechanism of myoglobin affected by caffeine was shown to be a static quenching procedure by calculating quenching constant, binding sites and binding constant. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the main binding force of the interaction is electrostatic force and hydrophobic force. The change in the micro-circumstance of aminos of myoglobin was analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The result indicated that caffeine can change the conformation of the protein, leading to the change in the micro-environment of tryptophane and tyrosine residues from hydrophobic environment to hydrophilic environment to different extent. PMID:20038063

  8. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The Present and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Walter

    1982-01-01

    The status of current techniques and methods of atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy (flame, hybrid, and furnace AA) is discussed, including limitations. Technological opportunities and how they may be used in AA are also discussed, focusing on automation, microprocessors, continuum AA, hybrid analyses, and others. (Author/JN)

  9. Visualizing the Solute Vaporization Interference in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Christopher R.; Blew, Michael J.; Goode, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, tens of thousands of chemists use analytical atomic spectroscopy in their work, often without knowledge of possible interferences. We present a unique approach to study these interferences by using modern response surface methods to visualize an interference in which aluminum depresses the calcium atomic absorption signal. Calcium…

  10. Laser photothermal spectroscopy of light-induced absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A

    2013-01-31

    Basic methods of laser photothermal spectroscopy, which are used to study photoinduced absorption in various media, are briefly considered. Comparative analysis of these methods is performed and the latest results obtained in this field are discussed. Different schemes and examples of their practical implementation are considered. (review)

  11. Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy of a Lasing Material: Ruby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposti, C. Degli; Bizzocchi, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ruby is a crystalline material, which comes very expensive and is of great significance, as it helped in the creation of first laser. An experiment to determine the absorption and emission spectroscopy, in addition to the determination of the room-temperature lifetime of the substance is being described.

  12. Developing a Transdisciplinary Teaching Implement for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explain why I wrote the set of teaching notes on Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and why they look the way they do. The notes were intended as a student reference to question, highlight and write over as much as they wish during an initial practical demonstration of the threshold concept being introduced, in this case…

  13. Pancreatic tissue assessment using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Malavika; Heidt, David; Simeone, Diane; McKenna, Barbara; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2007-07-01

    The ability of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to detect signals from pancreatic tissue was demonstrated by studying human pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice and freshly excised human pancreatic tumor tissue. Measured optical spectra and fluorescence decays were correlated with tissue morphological and biochemical properties. The measured spectral features and decay times correlated well with expected pathological differences in normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue states. The observed differences between the fluorescence and reflectance properties of normal, pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma tissue indicate a possible application of multi-modal optical spectroscopy to differentiating between the three tissue classifications.

  14. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. PMID:26093843

  15. Intrinsic photosensitizer fluorescence measured using multi-diameter single-fiber spectroscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen-van Zaane, Floor; Gamm, Ute A.; van Driel, Pieter B. A. A.; Snoeks, Thomas J.; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Löwik, Clemens W.; Amelink, Arjen; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of fluorescence in vivo is complicated by the influence of tissue optical properties on the collected fluorescence signal. When tissue optical properties in the measurement volume are quantified, one can obtain the intrinsic fluorescence, which equals the product of fluorophore absorption coefficient and quantum yield. We applied this method to in vivo single-fiber fluorescence spectroscopy measurements on mouse tongue, skin, liver, and oral squamous cell carcinoma, where we detected intrinsic fluorescence spectra of the photosensitizers chlorin e6 and Bremachlorin at t=[3,4.5,6,24,48] h incubation time. We observed a tissue-dependent maximum of 35% variation in the total correction factor over the visible wavelength range. Significant differences in spectral shape over time between sensitizers were observed. Although the wavelength position of the fluorescence intensity maximum for ce6 shifted to the red, Bremachlorin showed a blue shift. Furthermore, the Bremachlorin peak appeared to be broader than the ce6 fluorescence peak. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity, which can be related to photosensitizer concentration, was decreasing for all time points but showed significantly more Bremachlorin present compared to ce6 at long incubation times. Results from this study can be used to define an optimal treatment protocol for Bremachlorin-based photodynamic therapy.

  16. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy of vitiligo skin in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Richer, Vincent; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Zandi, Soodabeh; Kollias, Nikiforos; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence signals depend on the intensity of the exciting light, the absorption properties of the constituent molecules, and the efficiency with which the absorbed photons are converted to fluorescence emission. The optical features and appearance of vitiligo have been explained primarily on the basis of reduced epidermal pigmentation, which results in abnormal white patches on the skin. The objective of this study is to explore the fluorescence properties of vitiligo and its adjacent normal skin using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Thirty five (35) volunteers with vitiligo were acquired using a double-grating spectrofluorometer with excitation and emission wavelengths of 260-450 nm and 300-700 nm respectively. As expected, the most pronounced difference between the spectra obtained from vitiligo lesions compared to normally pigmented skin was that the overall fluorescence was much higher in vitiligo; these differences increased at shorter wavelengths, thus matching the characteristic spectral absorption of epidermal melanin. When comparing the fluorescence spectra from vitiligo to normal skin we detected three distinct spectral bands centered at 280nm, 310nm, and 335nm. The 280nm band may possibly be related to inflammation, whereas the 335 nm band may arise from collagen or keratin cross links. The source of the 310 nm band is uncertain; it is interesting to note its proximity to the 311 nm UV lamps used for vitiligo phototherapy. These differences are accounted for not only by changes in epidermal pigment content, but also by other optically active cutaneous biomolecules.

  17. Moving in on the Action: An Experimental Comparison of Fluorescence Excitation and Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Sydney M J; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2015-06-18

    Photodissociation action spectroscopy is often used as a proxy for measuring gas-phase absorption spectra of ions in a mass spectrometer. Although the potential discrepancy between linear optical and photodissociation spectra is generally acknowledged, direct experimental comparisons are lacking. In this work, we use a quadrupole ion trap that has been modified to enable both photodissociation and laser-induced fluorescence to assess how closely the visible photodissociation action spectrum of a fluorescent dye reflects its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Our results show the photodissociation action spectrum of gaseous rhodamine 110 is both substantially narrower and slightly red-shifted (∼120 cm(-1)) compared to its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Power dependence measurements reveal that the photodissociation of rhodamine 110 requires, on average, the absorption of three photons whereas fluorescence is a single-photon process. These differing power dependences are the key to interpreting the differences in the measured spectra. The experimental results provide much-needed quantification and insight into the differences between action spectra and linear optical spectra, and emphasize the utility of fluorescence excitation spectra to provide a more reliable benchmark for comparison with theory. PMID:26020810

  18. Intramolecular Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy in a Feedback Tracking Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, Kevin; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2010-07-01

    We derive the statistics of the signals generated by shape fluctuations of large molecules studied by feedback tracking microscopy. We account for the influence of intramolecular dynamics on the response of the tracking system, and derive a general expression for the fluorescence autocorrelation function that applies when those dynamics are linear. We show that tracking provides enhanced sensitivity to translational diffusion, molecular size, heterogeneity and long time-scale decays in comparison to traditional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We demonstrate our approach by using a three-dimensional tracking microscope to study genomic $\\lambda$-phage DNA molecules with various fluorescence label configurations.

  19. Tracking-FCS: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of individual particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Andrew J.; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2005-10-01

    We exploit recent advances in single-particle tracking to perform fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on individual fluorescent particles, in contrast to traditional methods that build up statistics over a sequence of many measurements. By rapidly scanning the focus of an excitation laser in a circular pattern, demodulating the measured fluorescence, and feeding these results back to a piezoelectric translation stage, we track the Brownian motion of fluorescent polymer microspheres in aqueous solution in the plane transverse to the laser axis. We discuss the estimation of particle diffusion statistics from closed-loop position measurements, and we present a generalized theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for the case that the motion of a single fluorescent particle is actively tracked by a time-dependent laser intensity. We model the motion of a tracked particle using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck statistics, using a general theory that contains a umber of existing results as specific cases. We find good agreement between our theory and experimental results, and discuss possible future applications of these techniques to passive, single-shot, single-molecule fluorescence measurements with many orders of magnitude in time resolution.

  20. Two-photon fluorescence excitation spectroscopy of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yuri P.; Alfimov, E. E.; Groshev, D. E.; Makukha, V. K.

    1996-06-01

    The UV fluorescence spectra of aromatic amino-acids and some proteins at two photon excitation by second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser are received. Two-photon absorption cross sections of tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine and proteins: bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, trypsin, (alpha) - chymotrypsinogen and pepsin at wavelength 532 nm were measured by means of the two-quantum standard method.

  1. Communication: XUV transient absorption spectroscopy of iodomethane and iodobenzene photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, L.; Galbraith, M. C. E.; Reitsma, G.; Dura, J.; Zhavoronkov, N.; Patchkovskii, S.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Mikosch, J.

    2016-07-01

    Time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy of iodomethane and iodobenzene photodissociation at the iodine pre-N4,5 edge is presented, using femtosecond UV pump pulses and XUV probe pulses from high harmonic generation. For both molecules the molecular core-to-valence absorption lines fade immediately, within the pump-probe time-resolution. Absorption lines converging to the atomic iodine product emerge promptly in CH3I but are time-delayed in C6H5I. We attribute this delay to the initial π → σ* excitation in iodobenzene, which is distant from the iodine reporter atom. We measure a continuous shift in energy of the emerging atomic absorption lines in CH3I, attributed to relaxation of the excited valence shell. An independent particle model is used to rationalize the observed experimental findings.

  2. Communication: XUV transient absorption spectroscopy of iodomethane and iodobenzene photodissociation.

    PubMed

    Drescher, L; Galbraith, M C E; Reitsma, G; Dura, J; Zhavoronkov, N; Patchkovskii, S; Vrakking, M J J; Mikosch, J

    2016-07-01

    Time-resolved extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy of iodomethane and iodobenzene photodissociation at the iodine pre-N4,5 edge is presented, using femtosecond UV pump pulses and XUV probe pulses from high harmonic generation. For both molecules the molecular core-to-valence absorption lines fade immediately, within the pump-probe time-resolution. Absorption lines converging to the atomic iodine product emerge promptly in CH3I but are time-delayed in C6H5I. We attribute this delay to the initial π → σ(*) excitation in iodobenzene, which is distant from the iodine reporter atom. We measure a continuous shift in energy of the emerging atomic absorption lines in CH3I, attributed to relaxation of the excited valence shell. An independent particle model is used to rationalize the observed experimental findings. PMID:27394091

  3. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Matthews, Thomas E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain ˜46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  4. Light-induced changes in subband absorption in a-Si:H using photoluminescence absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, S. Q.; Taylor, P. C.; Nitta, S.

    1991-08-01

    We have used the photoluminescence (PL) generated in a thin-film sample of a-Si:H to probe low absorption levels by measuring the absorption of the PL as it travels down the length of the film in a waveguide mode. This technique, which we have called PL absorption spectroscopy of PLAS, allows the measurement of values of the absorption coefficient α down to about 0.1 cm-1. Because this technique probes the top and bottom surfaces of the a-Si:H sample, it is important to separate surface from bulk absorption mechanisms. An improved sample geometry has been employed to facilitate this separation. One sample consisted of an a-Si1-xNix:H/a-Si:H/ a-Si1-xNx:H/NiCr layered structure where the silicon nitride layers served as the cladding layers for the waveguide. In a second sample the a-Si:H layer was interrupted near the middle for two separate, thin (100 Å) layers of a-Si1-xNx:H in order to check for the importance of the absorption at the silicon/silicon nitride interfaces in these PLAS measurements. Changes in the below-gap absorption on light soaking were examined using irradiation from an Ar+ laser (5145 Å, ˜200 mW/cm2 for 5.5 hours at 300 K). The silicon/silicon nitride interface is responsible for an absorption which has a shoulder near 1.2 eV while the bulk a-Si:H absorption exhibits no such shoulder. The metastable, optically-induced increase in the below gap absorption appears to come entirely from the bulk of the a-Si:H. These low temperature PLAS measurements are compared with those obtained at 300 K by photothermal deflection spectroscopy.

  5. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  6. Solvent-induced multicolour fluorescence of amino-substituted 2,3-naphthalimides studied by fluorescence and transient absorption measurements.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mayu; Namba, Misa; Yamaji, Minoru; Okamoto, Hideki

    2016-07-01

    A series of amino-2,3-naphthalimide derivatives having the amino functionality at 1-, 5- and 6-positions (, and , respectively) were prepared, and their photophysical properties were systematically investigated based on the measurements of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetimes as well as transient absorption spectra. The s efficiently fluoresced in solution, and the emission spectra appreciably shifted depending on the solvent polarity. displayed only a slight fluorescence red-shift upon increasing the solvent polarity. In contrast, and showed marked positive solvatofluorochromism with large Stokes shifts displaying multicolour fluorescence; the fluorescence colours of and varied from violet-blue in hexane to orange-red in methanol. and , thus, serve as micro-environment responding fluorophores. In methanol, the intensity of the fluorescence emission band of and significantly reduced. Based on the fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and transient absorption measurements, it has been revealed that internal conversion from the S1 state of s to the ground state was accelerated by the protic medium, resulting in a reduction in their fluorescence efficiency, while intersystem crossing from the S1 state to a triplet state was not responsible for the decrease of fluorescence intensity. PMID:27251860

  7. Fibre optic fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring fish freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Wu; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien; Chu, Shou-Chia; Hu, Hung-Hsi; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a portable Y-type fibreoptic fluorescence spectroscopy measurement system was used to evaluate the freshness of eight cobias (Rachycentron canadum). The results showed that the ratio of fluorescent intensity, which F480 nm/Fexci+50 nm was belong with the range of collagen type I and type V characteristic spectra, was positive correlated to the frozen time by hours. It was a strong approach to be a potential index for differentiating the fish freshness during delivery process. Besides, the different pattern results of dorsum and abdomen were shown in this study. In further, fibreoptic fluorescence spectroscopy could be a way not only to measure and quantify the freshness of different fish body but also to verify the level of taste.

  8. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P.

    1993-12-01

    This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

  9. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  10. Characterizing caged molecules through flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joseph P Y; Muralidharan, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Caged molecules are photosensitive molecules with latent biological activity. Upon exposure to light, they are rapidly transformed into bioactive molecules such as neurotransmitters or second messengers. They are thus valuable tools for using light to manipulate biology with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. Since the temporal performance of the caged molecule depends critically on the rate at which bioactive molecules are generated by light, it is important to characterize the kinetics of the photorelease process. This is accomplished by initiating the photoreaction with a very brief but intense pulse of light (i.e., flash photolysis) and monitoring the course of the ensuing reactions through various means, the most common of which is absorption spectroscopy. Practical guidelines for performing flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy are described in this chapter. PMID:23494372

  11. Ultra-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of isolated surface-adsorbed molecules using an optical nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Stiebeiner, A; Rehband, O; Garcia-Fernandez, R; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2009-11-23

    The strong radial confinement and the pronounced evanescent field of the guided light in optical nanofibers yield favorable conditions for ultra-sensitive surface spectroscopy of molecules deposited on the fiber. Using the guided mode of the nanofiber for both excitation and fluorescence collection, we present spectroscopic measurements on 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride molecules (PTCDA) at ambient conditions. Surface coverages as small as 1 per thousand of a compact monolayer still give rise to fluorescence spectra with a good signal to noise ratio. Moreover, we analyze and quantify the self-absorption effects due to reabsorption of the emitted fluorescence light by circumjacent surface-adsorbed molecules distributed along the fiber waist. PMID:19997412

  12. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-soluble, fluorescent gold nanoclusters capped with small organic molecules and a revealing fluorescence and X-ray absorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, C.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frank, W.

    2015-03-01

    Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES spectra in comparison to several gold references, optically transparent fluorescent AuNC are predicted to be ligand-stabilized Au5+ species. Additionally, their near edge structure compared with analogous results of polynuclear clusters known from the literature discloses an increasing intensity of the feature close to the absorption edge with decreasing cluster size. As a result, a linear relationship between the cluster size and the X-ray absorption coefficient can be established for the first time.Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES

  13. Fluorescence spectroscopy to assess apoptosis in myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranji, Mahsa; Matsubara, Muneaki; Grosso, Michael A.; Jaggard, Dwight L.; Chance, Britton; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H., III

    2007-02-01

    Apoptosis induced mitochondrial destruction and dysfunction has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of both acute cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic myocardial infarction-induced ventricular remodeling. Unfortunately this understanding has not translated into effective therapeutic strategies for either condition-mostly due to an inability to assess mitochondrial dysfunction/apoptosis effectively in humans. All current measures of apoptosis are pseudo-quantitative and require invasive tissue biopsy. Our group has developed an optical, non-tissue destructive catheter based device that allows the quantitative regional assessment of this pathological process in vivo. This instrument has been designed to acquire fluorescence signals of intrinsic mitochondrial fluorophores, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) and Flavoprotein (FP). The normalized ratio of these fluorophores (FP/FP+NADH) called the redox ratio, is an indicator of the in vivo mitochondrial dysfunction. 1-3 We have demonstrated in a rabbit reperfusion model of apoptotic myocyte injury that this redox ratio is drastically increased which is consistent with profound apoptosis-induced "unhinging" of the mitochondrial respiratory function.

  14. Total absorption spectroscopy of the β decay of 76Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombos, A. C.; Fang, D.-L.; Spyrou, A.; Quinn, S. J.; Simon, A.; Brown, B. A.; Cooper, K.; Gehring, A. E.; Liddick, S. N.; Morrissey, D. J.; Naqvi, F.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2016-06-01

    The β decay of 76Ga was studied using the technique of total absorption spectroscopy for the first time. The experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the Summing NaI(Tl) detector. The extracted β -decay feeding intensity distribution and Gamow-Teller transition strength distribution are compared to shell-model calculations to help constrain nuclear matrix elements relevant to the neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge.

  15. Label free detection of phospholipids by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Vigil, Genevieve; Khan, Aamir A.; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott S.

    2014-08-01

    We present our study on compact, label-free dissolved lipid sensing by combining capillary electrophoresis separation in a PDMS microfluidic chip online with mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectroscopy for biomarker detection. On-chip capillary electrophoresis is used to separate the biomarkers without introducing any extrinsic contrast agent, which reduces both cost and complexity. The label free biomarker detection could be done by interrogating separated biomarkers in the channel by MIR absorption spectroscopy. Phospholipids biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases are detectable using this label free technique. These phospholipids exhibit strong absorption resonances in the MIR and are present in biofluids including urine, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. MIR spectroscopy of a 12-carbon chain phosphatidic acid (PA) (1,2-dilauroyl-snglycero- 3-phosphate (sodium salt)) dissolved in N-methylformamide, exhibits a strong amide peak near wavenumber 1660 cm-1 (wavelength 6 μm), arising from the phosphate headgroup vibrations within a low-loss window of the solvent. PA has a similar structure to many important phospholipids molecules like phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), making it an ideal molecule for initial proof-of-concept studies. This newly proposed detection technique can lead us to minimal sample preparation and is capable of identifying several biomarkers from the same sample simultaneously.

  16. Reduced-background gas-phase absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sweetser, J N; Trebino, R

    1998-08-15

    We propose and demonstrate a new method for single-shot multiplex absorption spectroscopy that permits enhanced sensitivity in the simultaneous measurement of multiple spectral lines in rapidly changing gas-phase media, such as turbulent flames. It uses an ultrashort laser pulse that propagates through the absorbing medium, for which the relevant absorption information resides in the free-induction decay that is trailing behind the transmitted pulse. Time gating out most of the transmitted pulse, but not the free-induction decay, enhances the relative fraction of light that contains absorption information when the spectrum is measured. This procedure reduces the background associated with the input light, thus enhancing detection sensitivity. PMID:18087501

  17. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS): Concepts, Applications and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Kapusta, Peter; Macháň, Radek; Benda, Aleš; Hof, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS) is a variant of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which uses differences in fluorescence intensity decays to separate contributions of different fluorophore populations to FCS signal. Besides which, FLCS is a powerful tool to improve quality of FCS data by removing noise and distortion caused by scattered excitation light, detector thermal noise and detector after pulsing. We are providing an overview of, to our knowledge, all published applications of FLCS. Although these are not numerous so far, they illustrate possibilities for the technique and the research topics in which FLCS has the potential to become widespread. Furthermore, we are addressing some questions which may be asked by a beginner user of FLCS. The last part of the text reviews other techniques closely related to FLCS. The generalization of the idea of FLCS paves the way for further promising application of the principle of statistical filtering of signals. Specifically, the idea of fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy is here outlined. PMID:23202928

  18. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Diagnostics for sparse molecules

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Sudipta; Haupts, Ulrich; Webb, Watt W.

    1997-01-01

    The robust glow of molecular fluorescence renders even sparse molecules detectable and susceptible to analysis for concentration, mobility, chemistry, and photophysics. Correlation spectroscopy, a statistical-physics-based tool, gleans quantitative information from the spontaneously fluctuating fluorescence signals obtained from small molecular ensembles. This analytical power is available for studying molecules present at minuscule concentrations in liquid solutions (less than one nanomolar), or even on the surfaces of living cells at less than one macromolecule per square micrometer. Indeed, routines are becoming common to detect, locate, and examine individual molecules under favorable conditions. PMID:9342306

  19. X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF YB3+-DOPED OPTICAL FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

  20. Variation of fluorescence spectroscopy during the menstrual cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaulay, Calum; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Utzinger, Urs; Fedyk, Amanda; Neely Atkinson, E.; Cox, Dennis; Follen, Michele

    2002-06-01

    Cervical autofluorescence has been demonstrated to have potential for real-time diagnosis. Inter-patient and intra-patient variations in fluorescence intensity have been measured. Inter-patient measurements may vary by a factor of ten, while intra-patient measurements may vary by a factor of two. Age and menopausal status have been demonstrated to account for some of the variations, while race and smoking have not. In order to explore in detail the role of the menstrual cycle in intra-patient variation, a study was designed to measure fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs) in patients daily throughout one cycle. Ten patients with a history of normal menstrual cycles and normal Papanicolaou smears underwent daily measurements of fluorescence EEMs from three colposcopically normal sites throughout one menstrual cycle. Changes in signals from porphyrin, NADH, and FAD fluorescence and blood absorption were noted when the data was viewed in a graphical format. Visually interpreted features of the EEMs in this graphical format did not appear to correlate with the day of the menstrual cycle with the exception that blood absorption features were more prominent during the menstrual phase (during which bleeding occurs), suggesting that measurements during the menstrual phase should be avoided. Variations in cycle date likely do not account for inter- or intra-patient variations.

  1. Electronic excited states of guanine-cytosine hairpins and duplexes studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brazard, Johanna; Thazhathveetil, Arun K; Vayá, Ignacio; Lewis, Frederick D; Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    2013-08-01

    Guanine-cytosine hairpins, containing a hexaethylene glycol bridge, are studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single photon counting; their properties are compared to those of duplexes with the same sequence. It is shown that, both in hairpins and in duplexes, base pairing induces quenching of the ππ* fluorescence, the quantum yield decreasing by at least two orders of magnitude. When the size of the systems increases from two to ten base pairs, a fluorescent component decaying on the nanosecond time-scale appears at energy higher than that stemming from the bright states of non-interacting mono-nucleotides (ca. 330 nm). For ten base pairs, this new fluorescence forms a well-defined band peaking at 305 nm. Its intensity is about 20% higher for the hairpin compared to the duplex. Its position (red-shifted by 1600 cm(-1)) and width (broader by 1800 cm(-1) FWHM) differ from those observed for large duplexes containing 1000 base pairs, suggesting the involvement of electronic coupling. Fluorescence anisotropy reveals that the excited states responsible for high energy emission are not populated directly upon photon absorption but are reached during a relaxation process. They are assigned to charge transfer states. According to the emerging picture, the amplitude of conformational motions determines whether instantaneous deactivation to the ground state or emission from charge transfer states will take place, while ππ* fluorescence is associated to imperfect base-pairing. PMID:23736116

  2. Fluorescence suppression using micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Conti, Claudia; Botteon, Alessandra; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-09-21

    We present a new concept of fluorescence suppression in Raman microscopy based on micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy which is applicable to thin stratified turbid (diffusely scattering) matrices permitting the retrieval of the Raman signals of sublayers below intensely fluorescing turbid over-layers. The method is demonstrated to yield good quality Raman spectra with dramatically suppressed fluorescence backgrounds enabling the retrieval of Raman sublayer signals even in situations where conventional Raman microscopy spectra are fully overwhelmed by intense fluorescence. The concept performance was studied theoretically using Monte Carlo simulations indicating the potential of up to an order or two of magnitude suppression of overlayer fluorescence backgrounds relative to the Raman sublayer signals. The technique applicability was conceptually demonstrated on layered samples involving paints, polymers and stones yielding fluorescence suppression factors between 12 to above 430. The technique has potential applications in a number of analytical areas including cultural heritage, archaeology, polymers, food, pharmaceutical, biological, biomedical, forensics and catalytic sciences and quality control in manufacture. PMID:27338230

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy of excitation transfer in Photosystem 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, I.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis centers on the study of excitation transfer in a photosynthetic antenna array. The spectroscopic properties of two pigment-protein complexes were investigated. These complexes, isolated from higher plants, display an unusual temperature dependent fluorescence behavior. The author have chosen to study this fluorescence behavior with respect to energy transfer to the reaction center and in an isolated intact antenna preparation. A Photosystem 1 complex, PSI-200, was isolated from spinach. We have characterized this system by both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence polarization measurements indicate that this emission arises from pigments which absorb in the long wavelength region of the spectrum and comprise a relatively small portion of the antenna population. Comparison of spectral characteristics were made with a PSI complex isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus, sp. To address the role of Chl b in stimulating long wavelength fluorescence and the temperature dependence of the system, we have studied the energy transfer dynamics in an antenna complex, LHC-I isolated from PSI-200. Kinetic measurements indicate that initially absorbed excitation is rapidly redistributed to longer wavelength emitting pigments within 40 ps. The temperature dependence of F685 results from increased back transfer from long wavelength emitters to F685. We suggest that changes in excitation transfer between the various emitting species and a non-radiative fluorescence quenching mechanism account for the temperature dependence of the system. 144 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  5. Investigation on the interaction of cefpirome sulfate with lysozyme by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong; Liu, Baosheng; Li, Gaixia; Zhang, Qiuju

    2016-03-01

    The reaction mechanism of cefpirome sulfate with lysozyme at different temperatures (298, 310 and 318 K) was investigated using fluorescence quenching and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under simulated physiological conditions. The results clearly demonstrated that cefpirome sulfate caused strong quenching of the fluorescence of lysozyme by a static quenching mechanism. The binding constants obtained using the above methods were of the same order of magnitude and very similar. Static electric forces played a key role in the interaction between cefpirome sulfate and lysozyme, and the number of binding sites in the interaction was close to 1. The values of Hill's coefficients were > 1, indicating that drugs or proteins showed a very weakly positive cooperativity in the system. In addition, the conclusions obtained from the two methods using the same equation were consistent. The results indicated that synchronous fluorescence spectrometry could be used to study the binding mechanism between drug and protein, and was a useful supplement to the fluorescence quenching method. In addition, the effect of cefpirome sulfate on the secondary structure of lysozyme was analyzed using circular dichroism spectroscopy. PMID:26304690

  6. Electrostatic Interactions of Fluorescent Molecules with Dielectric Interfaces Studied by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Hans; Hassler, Kai; Chmyrov, Andriy; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between dielectric surfaces and different fluorophores used in ultrasensitive fluorescence microscopy are investigated using objective-based Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). The interfacial dynamics of cationic rhodamine 123 and rhodamine 6G, anionic/dianionic fluorescein, zwitterionic rhodamine 110 and neutral ATTO 488 are monitored at various ionic strengths at physiological pH. As analyzed by means of the amplitude and time-evolution of the autocorrelation function, the fluorescent molecules experience electrostatic attraction or repulsion at the glass surface depending on their charges. Influences of the electrostatic interactions are also monitored through the triplet-state population and triplet relaxation time, including the amount of detected fluorescence or the count-rate-per-molecule parameter. These TIR-FCS results provide an increased understanding of how fluorophores are influenced by the microenvironment of a glass surface, and show a promising approach for characterizing electrostatic interactions at interfaces. PMID:20386645

  7. Simultaneous Surface-Near and Solution Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winterflood, Christian M; Seeger, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    We report the first simultaneous measurement of surface-confined and solution fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). We use an optical configuration for tightly focused excitation and separate detection of light emitted below (undercritical angle fluorescence, UAF) and above (supercritical angle fluorescence, SAF) the critical angle of total internal reflection of the coverslip/sample interface. This creates two laterally coincident detection volumes which differ in their axial extent. While detection of far-field UAF emission producesa standard confocal volume, near-field-mediated SAF produces a highly surface-confined detection volume at the coverslip/sample interface which extends only ~200 nm into the sample. A characterization of the two detection volumes by FCS of free diffusion is presented and compared with analytical models and simulations. The presented FCS technique allows to determine bulk solution concentrations and surface-near concentrations at the same time. PMID:27001472

  8. Biochemical applications of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented on the application of surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy to biochemical problems. Use of SEIRA results in high surface sensitivity by enhancing the signal of the adsorbed molecule by approximately two orders of magnitude and has the potential to enable new studies, from fundamental aspects to applied sciences. This report surveys studies of DNA and nucleic acid adsorption to gold surfaces, development of immunoassays, electron transfer between metal electrodes and proteins, and protein–protein interactions. Because signal enhancement in SEIRA uses surface properties of the nano-structured metal, the biomaterial must be tethered to the metal without hampering its functionality. Because many biochemical reactions proceed vectorially, their functionality depends on proper orientation of the biomaterial. Thus, surface-modification techniques are addressed that enable control of the proper orientation of proteins on the metal surface. Figure Surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) on the studies of tethered protein monolayer (cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c) on gold substrate (left), and its potential induced surface enhanced infrared difference absorption (SEIDA) spectrum PMID:17242890

  9. APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY TO ACTINIDE PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R.; Sharma, V.

    2010-06-03

    The characteristic strong colors of aqueous actinide solutions form the basis of analytical techniques for actinides based on absorption spectroscopy. Colorimetric measurements of samples from processing activities have been used for at least half a century. This seemingly mature technology has been recently revitalized by developments in chemometric data analysis. Where reliable measurements could formerly only be obtained under well-defined conditions, modern methods are robust with respect to variations in acidity, concentration of complexants and spectral interferents, and temperature. This paper describes two examples of the use of process absorption spectroscopy for Pu analysis at the Savannah River Site, in Aiken, SC. In one example, custom optical filters allow accurate colorimetric measurements of Pu in a stream with rapid nitric acid variation. The second example demonstrates simultaneous measurement of Pu and U by chemometric treatment of absorption spectra. The paper concludes with a description of the use of these analyzers to supplement existing technologies in nuclear materials monitoring in processing, reprocessing, and storage facilities.

  10. Pathlength determination for gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor), the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen) to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique. PMID:24573311

  11. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor), the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen) to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique. PMID:24573311

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 μM and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  13. In Vivo Fluorescence Correlation and Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mütze, Jörg; Ohrt, Thomas; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra

    In this manuscript, we describe the application of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS), and scanning FCS (sFCS) to two in vivo systems. In the first part, we describe the application of two-photon standard and scanning FCS in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The differentiation of a single fertilized egg into a complex organism in C. elegans is regulated by a number of protein-dependent processes. The oocyte divides asymmetrically into two daughter cells of different developmental fate. Two of the involved proteins, PAR-2 and NMY-2, are studied. The second investigated system is the mechanism of RNA interference in human cells. An EGFP based cell line that allows to study the dynamics and localization of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with FCS in vivo is created, which has so far been inaccessible with other experimental methods. Furthermore, Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy is employed to highlight the asymmetric incorporation of labeled siRNAs into RISC.

  14. Principles and applications of fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranová, Lenka; Humpolícková, Jana; Hof, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Two fluorescence spectroscopy concepts, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) are employed in fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS) - a relatively new technique with several experimental benefits. In FLCS experiments, pulsed excitation is used and data are stored in a special time-tagged time-resolved mode. Mathematical treatment of TCSPC decay patterns of distinct fluorophores and their mixture enables to calculate autocorrelation functions of each of the fluorophores and thus their diffusion properties and concentrations can be determined separately. Moreover, crosscorrelation of the two signals can be performed and information on interaction of the species can be obtained. This technique is particularly helpful for distinguishing different states of the same fluorophore in different microenvironments. The first application of that concept represents the simultaneous determination of two-dimensional diffusion in planar lipid layers and three-dimensional vesicle diffusion in bulk above the lipid layers. The lifetime in both investigated systems differed because the lifetime of the dye is considerably quenched in the layer near the light-absorbing surface. This concept was also used in other applications: a) investigation of a conformational change of a labeled protein, b) detection of small amounts of labeled oligonucleotides bound to metal particles or c) elucidation of the compaction mechanism of different sized labeled DNA molecules. Moreover, it was demonstrated that FLCS can help to overcome some FCS experimental drawbacks.

  15. Studies on external electric field effects on absorption and fluorescence spectra of NADH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Islam, Md. Serajul; Li, Liming; Yasuda, Masahide; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Electric field effects on absorption and fluorescence spectra have been investigated for NADH that is a representative autofluorescent chromophore in cells. The change in electric dipole moment following absorption is significant in the electroabsorption spectrum, indicating charge transfer character in the excited state. The fluorescence intensity decreases in the presence of an electric field, which arises from the field-induced increase in the rate of the non-radiative process. The blue shift of the fluorescence spectrum and the increase in the fluorescence lifetime of NADH are measured in yeast cells, which is discussed in terms of a local electric field around NADH.

  16. Study on the elemental mercury absorption cross section based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haiming; Yao, Penghui

    2015-08-01

    With the method of ultraviolet absorption spectrum, the exact absorption cross-section with the light source of the low-pressure mercury lamp was determined, during which the optimum wavelength for mercury concentrations inversion was 253.69 nm, the highest detection limit was 0.177 μg/cm3, and the lowest detection limit was 0.034 μg/cm3. Furthermore, based on the differential optical absorption spectroscopy(DOAS), the relationship between the integral parameters (IP) and the concentration as well as the signal-noise ration (SNR) under the conditions of gas flow was determined and the lowest detection limit was figured out to be 0.03524 μg/cm3, providing a method of DOAS to de-noise through the comparison between the mercury concentration values produced by DOAS and that produced by the wavelet de-noising method (db5). It turned out that the differential optical absorption spectroscopy had a strong anti-interference ability, while the wavelet de-noising method was not suitable for measuring the trace concentration change.

  17. Internal standards in fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy1 1 Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, I.; Axelrod, J.M.

    1955-01-01

    The use of internal standards in the analysis of ores and minerals of widely-varying matrix by means of fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy is frequently the most practical approach. Internal standards correct for absorption and enhancement effects except when an absorption edge falls between the comparison lines or a very strong emission line falls between the absorption edges responsible for the comparison lines. Particle size variations may introduce substantial errors. One method of coping with the particle size problem is grinding the sample with an added abrasive. ?? 1955.

  18. Stark Spectroscopy of Rubrene. II. Stark Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Quenching Induced by an External Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Iimori, Toshifumi; Ito, Ryuichi; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-21

    We report Stark fluorescence spectroscopy investigation of rubrene dispersed in a poly(methyl methacrylate) film. The features of the fluorescence spectrum are analogous to those in solutions. In the Stark fluorescence spectrum, the decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield in the presence of an external electric field is observed. This result shows that the yield of nonradiative decay processes is increased by the application of an external electric field. It is known that the fluorescence quantum yield for rubrene, which is nearly unity at room temperature, depends on temperature, and a major nonradiative decay process in photoexcited rubrene is ascribed to a thermally activated intersystem crossing (ISC). Equations that express the field-induced fluorescence quenching in terms of the molecular parameters are derived from the ensemble average of electric field effects on the activation energy of the reaction rate constant in random orientation systems. The molecular parameters are then extracted from the observed data. It is inferred that the field-induced increase in the yield of other intramolecular and intermolecular photophysical processes in addition to the ISC should be taken into account. PMID:27341859

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Iwao; Tanida, Hajime; Kawauchi, Sigehiro; Harada, Makoto; Nomura, Masaharu

    1997-09-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of elements at air/aqueous solution interface. Its surface sensitivity is gained from glancing incidence of synchrotron radiation under total reflection condition. The absorption is detected by total conversion He ion-yield method. This apparatus was operated at the beam line 7C of Photon Factory, where the incident photon beam comes from a sagittal focus double-crystal monochromator via a 70-cm-long bent mirror. The mirror focuses the beam vertically and changes the beam direction downward by 1 mrad to irradiate solution surface. The essential requirement of this technique, ripple-free liquid surface at accurate position, was attained by introducing a trough on a floating boat, continuous surface level monitoring, and an automatic Z-stage control. The x-ray absorption edge jump demonstrated that surface concentration of bromide ion follows the Langmuir type adsorption for tetraalkylammonuim bromide solution. By comparing the jump values for surface-active and -inactive bromide salt solutions, the detecting depth of the present technique was determined to be 8.8 nm. An extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of bromide ion segregated to the surface by stearyltrimethylammonium cation indicated that its solvation structure is different from that of bulk.

  20. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21} - 10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time-evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the lineshape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  1. Operando X-ray absorption and infrared fuel cell spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Emily A.; Kendrick, Ian; Jia, Qingying; Grice, Corey; Segre, Carlo U.; Smotkin, Eugene S.

    2011-11-17

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell enables operando X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy of the membrane electrode assembly catalytic layer with flowing fuel and air streams at controlled temperature. Time-dependent X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of the Pt and Ni edge of Pt based catalysts of an air-breathing cathode show that catalyst restructuring, after a potential step, has time constants from minutes to hours. The infrared Stark tuning plots of CO adsorbed on Pt at 100, 200, 300 and 400 mV vs. hydrogen reference electrode were obtained. The Stark tuning plots of CO adsorbed at 400 mV exhibit a precipitous drop in frequency coincident with the adsorption potential. The turn-down potential decreases relative to the adsorption potential and is approximately constant after 300 mV. These Stark tuning characteristics are attributed to potential dependent adsorption site selection by CO and competitive adsorption processes.

  2. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  3. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  4. Lifetime fluorescence spectroscopy for in situ investigation of osteogenic differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura; Elbarbary, Amir; Zuk, Patricia; De Ugarte, Daniel A.; Benhaim, Prosper; Kurt, Hamza; Hedrick, Marc H.; Ashjian, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) represents a potential tool for the in-situ characterization of bioengineered tissues. In this study, we evaluate the application of TR-LIFS to non-intrusive monitoring of matrix composition during osteogenetic differentiation. Human adipose-derived stem cells, harvested from 3 patients, were induced in osteogenic media for 3, 5, and 7 weeks. Samples were subsequently collected and probed for time-resolved fluorescence emission with a pulsed nitrogen laser. Fluorescence parameters, derived from both spectral- and time-domain, were used for sample characterization. The samples were further analyzed using Western blot analysis and computer-based densitometry. A significant change in the fluorescence parameters was detected for samples beyond 3 weeks of osteogenic differentiation. The spectroscopic observations: 1) show increase of collagen I when contrasted against the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of commercially available collagens; and 2) are in agreement with Western blot analysis that demonstrated significant increase in collagen I content between 3- vs. 5-weeks and 3- vs. 7-weeks and no changes for collagens III, IV, and V. Our results suggest that TR-LIFS can be used as a non-invasive means for the detection of specific collagens in maturing connective tissues.

  5. Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of 51 PAHs whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of PAHs, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of PAHs can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics. PMID:26208268

  6. Spatially resolved concentration measurements based on backscatter absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze; Sanders, Scott T.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of spatially resolved measurements of gas properties using direct absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with backscattered signals. We report a 1-D distribution of H2O mole fraction with a spatial resolution of 5 mm. The peak and average discrepancy between the measured and expected mole fraction are 21.1 and 8.0 %, respectively. The demonstration experiment is related to a diesel aftertreatment system; a selective catalytic reduction brick made of cordierite is used. The brick causes volume scattering interference; advanced baseline fitting based on a genetic algorithm is used to reduce the effects of this interference by a factor of 2.3.

  7. Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of 51 PAHs whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of PAHs, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of PAHs can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.

  8. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Gas-phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. D.; Witt, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to produce fluorescence spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the gas-phase for comparison with blue luminescence (BL) emission observed in astrophysical sources Vijh et al. (2004, 2005a,b). The BL occurs roughly from 350 to 450 nm, with a sharp peak near 380 nm. PAHs with three to four rings, e.g. anthracene and pyrene, were found to produce luminescence in the appropriate spectral region, based on existing studies. Relatively few studies of the gas-phase fluorescence of PAHs exist; those that do exist have dealt primarily with the same samples commonly available for purchase such as pyrene and anthracene. In an attempt to understand the chemistry of the nebular environment we also obtained several nitrogen substituted PAHs from our colleagues at NASA Ames. In order to simulate the astrophysical environment we also took spectra by heating the PAHs in a flame. The flame environment counteracts the formation of eximers and permits the spectroscopy of free-flying neutral molecules. Experiments with coal tar demonstrate that fluorescence spectroscopy reveals primarily the presence of the smallest molecules, which are most abundant and which possess the highest fluorescence efficiencies. One gas-phase PAH that seems to fit the BL spectrum most closely is phenanthridine. In view of the results from the spectroscopy of coal tar, a compound containing a mixture of PAHs ranging from small to very large PAH molecules, we can not preclude the presence of larger PAHs in interstellar sources exhibiting BL.

  9. Electronic relaxation dynamics of PCDA-PDA studied by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joung, Joonyoung F; Baek, Junwoo; Kim, Youngseo; Lee, Songyi; Kim, Myung Hwa; Yoon, Juyoung; Park, Sungnam

    2016-08-17

    Photo-curable polymers originating from 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA-PDA) are commonly used polydiacetylenes (PDAs). PCDA-PDA exhibits thermochromic properties undergoing a unique colorimetric transition from blue to red as the temperature is increased from low to high. In this work, we have carefully studied the temperature-dependent optical properties of PCDA-PDA by using UV-visible absorption, FTIR, Raman, and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations. Temperature-dependent UV-visible absorption spectra indicate that PCDA-PDA exhibits reversible thermochromic properties up to 60 °C and its thermochromic properties become irreversible above 60 °C. Such distinct thermochromic properties are also manifested in TA signals so that the electronically excited PCDA-PDA relaxes to the ground state via an intermediate state at 20 °C (blue form) but it relaxes directly back to the ground state at 80 °C (red form). The electronic relaxation dynamics of PCDA-PDA are comprehensively analyzed based on different kinetic models by using the global fitting analysis method. The intermediate state in the blue form of PCDA-PDA is clearly found to be responsible for fluorescence quenching. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations confirm that the H-bonds between the carboxylic acid groups in PCDA-PDA are broken at high temperatures leading to an irreversible structural change of PCDA-PDA. PMID:27492212

  10. Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy of dynamic processes by multifocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krmpot, Aleksandar J.; Nikolić, Stanko N.; Vitali, Marco; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Oasa, Sho; Thyberg, Per; Tisa, Simone; Kinjo, Masataka; Nilsson, Lennart; Gehring, Walter J.; Terenius, Lars; Rigler, Rudolf; Vukojevic, Vladana

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging without scanning is developed for the study of fast dynamical processes. The method relies on the use of massively parallel Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mpFCS). Simultaneous excitation of fluorescent molecules across the specimen is achieved by passing a single laser beam through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to generate a quadratic illumination matrix of 32×32 light sources. Fluorescence from 1024 illuminated spots is detected in a confocal arrangement by a matching matrix detector consisting of the same number of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). Software was developed for data acquisition and fast autoand cross-correlation analysis by parallel signal processing using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). Instrumental performance was assessed using a conventional single-beam FCS instrument as a reference. Versatility of the approach for application in biomedical research was evaluated using ex vivo salivary glands from Drosophila third instar larvae expressing a fluorescently-tagged transcription factor Sex Combs Reduced (Scr) and live PC12 cells stably expressing the fluorescently tagged mu-opioid receptor (MOPeGFP). We show that quantitative mapping of local concentration and mobility of transcription factor molecules across the specimen can be achieved using this approach, which paves the way for future quantitative characterization of dynamical reaction-diffusion landscapes across live cells/tissue with a submillisecond temporal resolution (presently 21 μs/frame) and single-molecule sensitivity.

  11. Monitoring PVD metal vapors using laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, D.G.; Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Hagans, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) has been used by the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program for over 10 years to monitor the co-vaporization of uranium and iron in its separators. During that time, LAS has proven to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both the density and composition of the vapor. It has distinct advantages over other rate monitors, in that it is completely non-obtrusive to the vaporization process and its accuracy is unaffected by the duration of the run. Additionally, the LAS diagnostic has been incorporated into a very successful process control system. LAS requires only a line of sight through the vacuum chamber, as all hardware is external to the vessel. The laser is swept in frequency through an absorption line of interest. In the process a baseline is established, and the line integrated density is determined from the absorption profile. The measurement requires no hardware calibration. Through a proper choice of the atomic transition, a wide range of elements and densities have been monitored (e.g. nickel, iron, cerium and gadolinium). A great deal of information about the vapor plume can be obtained from the measured absorption profiles. By monitoring different species at the same location, the composition of the vapor is measured in real time. By measuring the same density at different locations, the spatial profile of the vapor plume is determined. The shape of the absorption profile is used to obtain the flow speed of the vapor. Finally, all of the above information is used evaluate the total vaporization rate.

  12. Ultrafast Dynamics of Polythiophene with Phenyl Vinylene Branches Studied by Femtosecond Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sai-Sai; Gao, Chao; Wang, Shu-Feng; Gong, Qi-Huang

    2011-11-01

    Two polythiophene based polymers, poly[(3-[2-[4-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-phenyl]-vinyl]-thiophene)-co-thiophene] (PT1) and poly(3-[2-[4-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-phenyl]-vinyl]-thiophene) (PT2), are synthesized and investigated by static, picosecond fluorescence spectroscopies and the femtosecond up-conversion technique in solution. Compared with pristine poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), PT1 and PT2, in which the main chains are decorated with phenyl vinylene present a ‘camel back’ structure in the absorption spectra. Phenyl vinylene side chains induce a new process of charge transfer, chain twisting motion and defect-induced fluorescence quenching at time scales of 1 ps, 10 ps and 150 ps, respectively.

  13. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.

  14. Coded spectroscopy for ethanol detection in diffuse, fluorescent media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Scott Thomas

    Optical sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum has many useful applications. One particularly interesting one is the non-invasive analysis of tissue since a high penetration depth is possible. With the use of Raman spectroscopy, a high degree of chemical specificity is available with laser powers that are harmless to living tissue. Such systems, however, are plagued by the low efficiency of the Raman scattering process by molecules and the intense background fluorescence from some biological materials. To address these drawbacks, we have investigated the use of coded spectroscopy to make Raman spectroscopy more feasible in routine use. By coding the input aperture of a dispersive spectrometer, throughput gains of 10-100 are possible over a traditional slit spectrometer. The theory, design, and performance characteristics of this static aperture coding will be discussed in this thesis. In addition, by coding the excitation light sources one can filter out the shifting Raman signals from the stationary fluorescent background. The theory and implementation of an expectation maximization algorithm for Raman signal reconstruction will be analyzed. In addition, the design of a multi-excitation, coded-aperture Raman spectrometer will be described, which uses both of the coding mechanisms described.

  15. [Retrieval of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xie, Pin-Hua; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Qin, Min; Li, Ang; Liu, Shi-Sheng; Wei, Qing-Nong

    2006-09-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique has been used to measure trace gases in the atmosphere by their strongly structured absorption of radiation in the UV and visible spectral range, e. g. SO2, NO2, O3 etc. However, unlike the absorption spectra of SO2 and NO2, the analysis of aromatic compounds is difficult and strongly suffers from the cross interference of other absorbers (Herzberg bands of oxygen, ozone and sulfur dioxide), especially with relatively low concentrations of aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. In the present paper, the DOAS evaluation of aromatic compounds was performed by nonlinear least square fit with two interpolated oxygen optical density spectra at different path lengths and reference spectra of ozone at different temperature and SO2 cross section to correct the interference from absorbers of O2, O3 and SO2. The measurement of toluene, benzene, (m, p, o) xylene and phenol with a DOAS system showed that DOAS method is suitable for monocyclic aromatic compounds monitoring in the atmosphere. PMID:17112022

  16. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .

  17. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  18. Investigation of asphaltene association by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Flávio Cortiñas; Nicodem, David E; Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy

    2003-07-01

    The tendency of asphaltenes to aggregate and form clusters in solvents was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. This was done by evaluating the relative fluorescence quantum yield of asphaltenes diluted at several concentrations in toluene and by studying the changes in the fluorescence spectra of asphaltene solutions as the composition of the solvent, toluene and cyclohexane, is changed. The asphaltene fraction (heptane insoluble) was collected from a Brazilian heavy crude oil, and solutions of this material varying from 0.016 g/L up to 10 g/L were prepared in toluene. Front-face emission spectra were obtained in two wavelength ranges, from 310 to 710 nm, excited at 300 nm (short range), and from 410 to 710 nm, excited at 400 nm (long range). Severe quenching was observed at concentrations above about 0.1 g/L. Stern-Volmer plots (reciprocal of quantum yield against concentration) exhibited nonlinear, downward-curved behavior, indicating that a more complex suppression mechanism, probably influenced by the association of the asphaltene molecules, is taking place. The same asphaltenes were dissolved (0.1 g/L) in binary mixtures of toluene and cyclohexane, and emission spectra in both the short range and long range were obtained. Fluorescence was progressively quenched at longer wavelengths of the spectra as the proportion of cyclohexane in the solvent grew. Cyclohexane, a poor asphaltene solvent, is probably inducing static quenching through association of asphaltenes. PMID:14658659

  19. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in (bio)catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; De Cremer, Gert; Uji-i, Hiroshi; Muls, Benîot; Sels, Bert F.; Jacobs, Pierre A.; De Schryver, Frans C.; De Vos, Dirk E.; Hofkens, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The ever-improving time and space resolution and molecular detection sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy offer unique opportunities to deepen our insights into the function of chemical and biological catalysts. Because single-molecule microscopy allows for counting the turnover events one by one, one can map the distribution of the catalytic activities of different sites in solid heterogeneous catalysts, or one can study time-dependent activity fluctuations of individual sites in enzymes or chemical catalysts. By experimentally monitoring individuals rather than populations, the origin of complex behavior, e.g., in kinetics or in deactivation processes, can be successfully elucidated. Recent progress of temporal and spatial resolution in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is discussed in light of its impact on catalytic assays. Key concepts are illustrated regarding the use of fluorescent reporters in catalytic reactions. Future challenges comprising the integration of other techniques, such as diffraction, scanning probe, or vibrational methods in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy are suggested. PMID:17664433

  20. Cytoskeleton dynamics studied by dispersion-relation fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ru; Lei, Lei; Wang, Yingxiao; Levine, Alex; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence is the most widely used microscopy technique for studying the dynamics and function in both medical and biological sciences due to its sensitivity and specificity. Inspired by the spirit of spatial fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we propose a new method to study the transport dynamics over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The molecules of interest are labeled with a fluorophore whose motion gives rise to spontaneous fluorescence intensity fluctuations that can be further analyzed to quantify the governing molecular mass transport dynamics. We analyze these data by the dispersion relation in the form of a power law, Γ(q) ~qα , which describe the relaxation rate of fluorescence intensity fluctuations, Γ, vs. the wavenumber, q. We used this approach to study the interplay of various cytoskeletal components in intracellular transport under the influence of protein-motor inhibitors. We found that after actin is depolymerized, the transport becomes completely random for a few minutes and then it starts to organize deterministically again. We conclude that the disrupted cytoskeletal components first diffuse in the cytoplasm, but then become attached to microtubules and get transported deterministically.

  1. New approach on fluorescence spectroscopy for caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Paulus, Robert

    1999-05-01

    Today the diagnosis of caries is based mainly on examinations by visual inspection, dental probe or by x- rays. All methods are very limited when either initial or undermining caries have to be found. For initial caries promising results have been demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy with excitation wavelengths in the (ultra-)violet to green spectral region, especially 406 nm or 488 nm. In our investigations, we extended the considered excitation wavelength range into red. As expected, total fluorescence yield is decreasing with increasing wavelength, but this decrease is much more pronounced for sound compared to carious enamel or dentin. For 640 nm or 655 nm excitation for example, integral (λ>680nm) fluorescence intensity of cares can exceed that of healthy tissue by about one order of magnitude. This allows to detect caries by fluorescence intensity rather than by spectral analysis. On the basis of these results we have built up a system using a diode laser as light source, and a photo diode combined with a long pass filter as detector. It provides quantitatively reproducible measurements and detection even through sound enamel of 1 mm thickness. Clinical applications include detection of undermining caries and monitoring of the decay process.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  3. An analog filter approach to frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trainham, Clifford P.; O'Neill, Mary D.; McKenna, Ian J.

    2015-10-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modeled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as Spicea can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modeling of the entiremore » system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. Furthermore, the techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.« less

  4. An Analog Filter Approach to Frequency Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trainham, R; O'Neill, M; McKenna, I J

    2015-11-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modelled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as SPICE can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modelling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response. The simplification of the analysis mathematics, and the ability to model the entire detection chain, make it possible to develop more compact instruments for remote sensing applications. PMID:26429345

  5. An analog filter approach to frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, Clifford P.; O'Neill, Mary D.; McKenna, Ian J.

    2015-10-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modeled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as Spicea can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modeling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. Furthermore, the techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.

  6. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leen, J. Brian; O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10−10 cm−1/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\sqrt {{\\rm Hz;}}$\\end{document} Hz ; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  7. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leen, J Brian; O'Keefe, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10(-10) cm(-1)/√Hz; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  8. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Leen, J. Brian O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-09-15

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup −1}/√(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  9. Improved Sensitivity for Frequency Modulation Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Chi-Man

    1990-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a two-tone harmonic frequency modulation technique to reduce the residue amplitude modulation (RAM) background in frequency modulation (FM) laser absorption spectroscopy. This RAM noise, generated during electro-optically phase modulating the laser carrier, is several orders of magnitude larger than the shot-noise detection limit. When our two-tone method was used, the RAM signal was reduced by a factor of 4. We have also provided a thorough signal-to-noise analysis which leads to a detection limit consistent with out experimental results. A vital element in the work of FM spectroscopy is the electro-optic phase modulator. We have designed and fabricated two phase modulators, both employing a lithium tantalate single crystal. The first device is a broad -band design called the traveling wave phase modulator. With microstrip transmission line construction techniques, the impedance of the device is matched to 50 Omega within a bandwidth of more than 500 MHz. The second modulator was a novel design built to provide enhanced modulation index at a resonant frequency tunable over a frequency range of approximately 350 MHz. This resonant modulator can provide the same modulation efficiency as that from the traveling wave device with as much as 50% less modulation power. Both modulators have useful applications in FM spectroscopy depending on the experimental conditions.

  10. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  11. Toward quantitative "in vivo biochemistry" with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Brian D; Li, Rong

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative description of protein dynamics and interactions in vivo with temporal and spatial resolution is a key step in dissecting molecular mechanisms in cell biology. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) has recently emerged as a powerful in vivo tool for assessing molecular concentration and movement and formation of hetero- and homo-oligomeric complexes. This article discusses point FFS-based analysis methods that have proven useful to cell biologists, focusing on the kinds of information they provide, their pros and cons, and the basic instrumentation required. Along the way, we describe briefly a few recent examples where these analyses have helped address important biological questions. PMID:21160072

  12. Stochastic fractal behavior in concentration fluctuation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Gary M.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the concentration of Brownian particles in one and two dimensions, or any reasonable measurement of the concentration such as in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, is shown to be a stochastic fractal with a long tail. Being singular at ω = 0, the power spectrum of the fluctuation S(ω) ~ ω −1/2 for diffusion in one dimension, ~ log ω in two dimensions, but non-singular in three dimensions. This discovery provides one simple physical mechanism for possible long-memory fractal behavior, and its implications to various biological processes are discussed. PMID:10457592

  13. Monitoring of volcanic sulphur dioxide emissions using differential absorption lidar (DIAL), differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibring, P.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Cecchi, G.; Pantani, L.; Ferrara, R.; Caltabiano, T.

    1998-10-01

    The total fluxes of sulphur dioxide from the Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano were studied using optical remote sensing techniques in three shipborne field experiments (1992, 1994, and 1997). The main purpose of the experiments was to compare active (laser) techniques with passive monitoring. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements were implemented by placing the Swedish mobile lidar system on board the Italian research vessel Urania, sailing under the volcanic plumes. Simultaneously, the passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique was used for assessing the total overhead gas burden. Finally, correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC) was also implemented in one of the campaigns. Differences in integrated gas column assessment are expected and observed, mostly connected to complex scattering conditions influencing the passive measurements. Since such measurements are much employed in routine volcanic monitoring it is of great interest to model and provide corrections to the raw data obtained. Lidar measurements proved to be quite useful for this purpose. By combining the integrated gas concentration over the plume cross section with wind velocity data, SO2 fluxes of the order of 1000, 100, and 10 tonnes/day were measured for Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano, respectively.

  14. Fluorescence-excitation and Emission Spectroscopy on Single FMO Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Löhner, Alexander; Ashraf , Khuram; Cogdell, Richard J.; Köhler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In green-sulfur bacteria sunlight is absorbed by antenna structures termed chlorosomes, and transferred to the RC via the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. FMO consists of three monomers arranged in C3 symmetry where each monomer accommodates eight Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules. It was the first pigment-protein complex for which the structure has been determined with high resolution and since then this complex has been the subject of numerous studies both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report about fluorescence-excitation spectroscopy as well as emission spectroscopy from individual FMO complexes at low temperatures. The individual FMO complexes are subjected to very fast spectral fluctuations smearing out any possible different information from the ensemble data that were recorded under the same experimental conditions. In other words, on the time scales that are experimentally accessible by single-molecule techniques, the FMO complex exhibits ergodic behaviour. PMID:27545197

  15. Detectors for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    MICHALET, X.; SIEGMUND, O.H.W.; VALLERGA, J.V.; JELINSKY, P.; MILLAUD, J.E.; WEISS, S.

    2010-01-01

    Single-molecule observation, characterization and manipulation techniques have recently come to the forefront of several research domains spanning chemistry, biology and physics. Due to the exquisite sensitivity, specificity, and unmasking of ensemble averaging, single-molecule fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy have become, in a short period of time, important tools in cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics. These methods led to new ways of thinking about biological processes such as viral infection, receptor diffusion and oligomerization, cellular signaling, protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions, and molecular machines. Such achievements require a combination of several factors to be met, among which detector sensitivity and bandwidth are crucial. We examine here the needed performance of photodetectors used in these types of experiments, the current state of the art for different categories of detectors, and actual and future developments of single-photon counting detectors for single-molecule imaging and spectroscopy. PMID:20157633

  16. Fluorescence-excitation and Emission Spectroscopy on Single FMO Complexes.

    PubMed

    Löhner, Alexander; Ashraf, Khuram; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In green-sulfur bacteria sunlight is absorbed by antenna structures termed chlorosomes, and transferred to the RC via the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. FMO consists of three monomers arranged in C3 symmetry where each monomer accommodates eight Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules. It was the first pigment-protein complex for which the structure has been determined with high resolution and since then this complex has been the subject of numerous studies both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report about fluorescence-excitation spectroscopy as well as emission spectroscopy from individual FMO complexes at low temperatures. The individual FMO complexes are subjected to very fast spectral fluctuations smearing out any possible different information from the ensemble data that were recorded under the same experimental conditions. In other words, on the time scales that are experimentally accessible by single-molecule techniques, the FMO complex exhibits ergodic behaviour. PMID:27545197

  17. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  18. Airborne intercomparison of vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence and tunable diode laser absorption measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, John S.; Jakoubek, Roger O.; Parrish, David D.; Gerbig, Christoph; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Schmitgen, Sandra; Fried, Alan; Wert, Brian; Henry, Bruce; Drummond, James R.

    2000-01-01

    During the fall 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97), two separate intercomparisons of aircraft-based carbon monoxide measurement instrumentation were conducted. On September 2, CO measurements were simultaneously made aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3 by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence and by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). On September 18, an intercomparison flight was conducted between two separate instruments, both employing the VUV fluorescence method, on the NOAA WP-3 and the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules. The results indicate that both of the VUV fluorescence instruments and the TDLAS system are capable of measuring ambient CO accurately and precisely with no apparent interferences in 5 s. The accuracy of the measurements, based upon three independent calibration systems, is indicated by the agreement to within 11% with systematic offsets of less than 1 ppbv. In addition, one of the groups participated in the Measurement of Air Pollution From Satellite (MAPS) intercomparison [Novelli et al., 1998] with a different measurement technique but very similar calibration system, and agreed with the accepted analysis to within 5%. The precision of the measurements is indicated by the variability of the ratio of simultaneous measurements from the separate instruments. This variability is consistent with the estimated precisions of 1.5 ppbv and 2.2 ppbv for the 5 s average results of the C-130 and the WP-3 instruments, respectively, and indicates a precision of approximately 3.6% for the TDLAS instrument. The excellent agreement of the instruments in both intercomparisons demonstrates that significant interferences in the measurements are absent in air masses that ranged from 7 km in the midtroposphere to boundary layer conditions including subtropical marine air and continental outflow with embedded urban plumes. The intercomparison of the two VUV instruments that differed widely

  19. Identification of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Carotid Artery by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Rick; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Silveira, Landulfo; Costa, Maricília Silva; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Brugnera, Aldo

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery using the Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The most important pathogeny in the cardiovascular disorders is the atherosclerosis, which may affect even younger individuals. With approximately 1.2 million heart attacks and 750,000 strokes afflicting an aging American population each year, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death. Carotid artery samples were obtained from the Autopsy Service at the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) taken from cadavers. After a histopathological analysis the 60 carotid artery samples were divided into two groups: normal (26) and atherosclerotic plaques (34). Samples were irradiated with the wavelength of 488 nm from an Argon laser. A 600 μm core optical fiber, coupled to the Argon laser, was used for excitation of the sample, whereas another 600 optical fiber, coupled to the spectrograph entrance slit, was used for collecting the fluorescence from the sample. Measurements were taken at different points on each sample and then averaged. Fluorescence spectra showed a single broad line centered at 549 nm. The fluorescence intensity for each sample was calculated by subtracting the intensity at the peak (550 nm) and at the bottom (510 nm) and then data were statistically analyzed, looking for differences between both groups of samples. ANOVA statistical test showed a significant difference (p<0,05) between both types of tissues, with regard to the fluorescence peak intensities. Our results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the presence of the atherosclerotic in carotid tissue.

  20. Absorption spectroscopy characterization measurements of a laser-produced Na atomic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, C.H.; Bailey, J.E.; Lake, P.W.; Filuk, A.B.; Adams, R.G.; McKenney, J.

    1996-06-01

    This work describes a pulsed Na atomic beam source developed for spectroscopic diagnosis of a high-power ion diode on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. The goal is to produce a {approximately} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3}-density Na atomic beam that can be injected into the diode acceleration gap to measure electric and magnetic fields from the Stark and Zeeman effects through laser-induced-fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. A {approximately} 10 ns fwhm, 1.06 {micro}m, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} laser incident through a glass slide heats a Na-bearing thin film, creating a plasma that generates a sodium vapor plume. A {approximately} 1 {micro}sec fwhm dye laser beam tuned to 5,890 {angstrom} is used for absorption measurement of the Na I resonant doublet by viewing parallel to the film surface. The dye laser light is coupled through a fiber to a spectrograph with a time-integrated CCD camera. A two-dimensional mapping of the Na vapor density is obtained through absorption measurements at different spatial locations. Time-of-flight and Doppler broadening of the absorption with {approximately} 0.1 {angstrom} spectral resolution indicate that the Na neutral vapor temperature is about 0.5 to 2 eV. Laser-induced-fluorescence from {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3} Na I 3s-3p lines observed with a streaked spectrograph provides a signal level sufficient for {approximately} 0.06 {angstrom} wavelength shift measurements in a mock-up of an ion diode experiment.

  1. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C. Rosa, M. I. de la

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  2. Evidence for excitation of fluorescence in RPE melanin by multiphoton absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Stolarski, David J.; Denton, Michael L.

    2002-06-01

    Previously, we reported that ultrashort, near infrared (NIR) laser pulses caused more DNA breakage in cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells than did CW, NIR laser radiation delivering a similar radiant exposure. We hypothesized that this difference was due to multiphoton absorption in an intracellular chromophore such as the RPE melanin. We investigated two-photon excitation of fluorescence in a suspension of isolated bovine RPE melanosomes exposed to a 1-KHz train of approximately 50- fsec laser pulses at 810 nm from a Ti:Sapphire laser, and compared this to the fluorescence excited by CW exposures at 406 nm from a Krypton ion laser. Fluorescence was measured with a PC-based spectrometer. The CW sources excited fluorescence with a peak at 525 nm. The fluorescence intensity depended on the irradiance of the sample, as well as the melanosome concentration. Peak fluorescence was obtained with a suspension of ~2 x 107 melanin granules/ml. The 810-nm, ultrashort pulses also excited fluorescence, but with a broader, lower-amplitude peak. The weaker fluorescence signal excited by the 810-nm ultrashort pulse laser for a given melanosome concentration, compared to 406-nm CW excitation, is possibly due to the smaller two- photon absorption cross-section. These results indicate the involvement of multiphoton absorption in DNA damage.

  3. Sub millimeter absorption spectroscopy of oxygen containing fluorocarbon etching plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benck, Eric; Siegrist, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The role of oxygen in fluorocarbon etching plasmas is investigated using sub millimeter wavelength absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas were created in a specially modified capacitively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) Reference Reactor with a commercial electrostatic chuck. Photoresist and SiO2 blanket coated wafers were etched in C_4F_8/O_2/Ar, C_5F_8/O_2/Ar, and C_4F_6/O_2/Ar discharges. The absolute density of various radicals (CF, CF_2, CHF_3, COF_2, CO, etc.) were measured as a function of the percentage of oxygen in the feed gas mixture using a sub millimeter source based on a 48x frequency multiplication chain. These results are also compared with C_xF_y/O_2/Xe mixtures.

  4. La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.

  5. Investigating Actinide Molecular Adducts From Absorption Edge Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Den Auwer, C.; Conradson, S.D.; Guilbaud, P.; Moisy, P.; Mustre de Leon, J.; Simoni, E.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    Although Absorption Edge Spectroscopy has been widely applied to the speciation of actinide elements, specifically at the L{sub III} edge, understanding and interpretation of actinide edge spectra are not complete. In that sense, semi-quantitative analysis is scarce. In this paper, different aspects of edge simulation are presented, including semi-quantitative approaches. Comparison is made between various actinyl (U, Np) aquo or hydroxy compounds. An excursion into transition metal osmium chemistry allows us to compare the structurally related osmyl and uranyl hydroxides. The edge shape and characteristic features are discussed within the multiple scattering picture and the role of the first coordination sphere as well as contributions from the water solvent are described.

  6. High Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy using Externally Dispersed Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, J; Erskine, D J

    2005-07-06

    We describe the use of Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. By adding a small fixed-delay interferometer to a dispersive spectrograph, a precise fiducial grid in wavelength is created over the entire spectrograph bandwidth. The fiducial grid interacts with narrow spectral features in the input spectrum to create a moire pattern. EDI uses the moire pattern to obtain new information about the spectra that is otherwise unavailable, thereby improving spectrograph performance. We describe the theory and practice of EDI instruments and demonstrate improvements in the spectral resolution of conventional spectrographs by a factor of 2 to 6. The improvement of spectral resolution offered by EDI can benefit space instruments by reducing spectrograph size or increasing instantaneous bandwidth.

  7. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O; Collado, V; Rubio-Zuazo, J; Monton, C; Castro, G R; García, M A

    2012-08-01

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10(-3) to 10(-5), depending on the particular experiment. PMID:22938268

  8. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, A.; Rodriguez de la Fuente, O.; Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Castro, G. R.; Monton, C.; Garcia, M. A.

    2012-08-15

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, depending on the particular experiment.

  9. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetics of Free Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Curl, Robert F; Glass, Graham

    2004-11-01

    This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of the chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. Work on the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde has been completed and published and work on the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} has been completed and submitted for publication. In the course of our investigation of branching ratios of the reactions of O({sup 1}D) with acetaldehyde and methane, we discovered that hot atom chemistry effects are not negligible at the gas pressures (13 Torr) initially used. Branching ratios of the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} have been measured at a tenfold higher He flow and fivefold higher pressure.

  10. Quantitative absorption and fluorescence studies of NO between 1060 and 2000 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, J. A.; Lee, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation in the 1060 to 2000 A region was used to measure the average absorption and fluorescence cross sections of NO and to determine approximate photodissociation quantum yields. Several vibrational levels of the D(2) sigma(+), E(2) sigma(+), and B(2) delta states have high fluorescence quantum yields. The C(2) and B(2) states do not fluoresce when the excitation energies are above the first dissociation limit, in accord with previous experiments. In general, the fluorescence yields decrease with increasing photon energy. The quantitative measurements are compared with spectroscopic observations and are found to be reasonably consistent.

  11. Classification of plum spirit drinks by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sádecká, J; Jakubíková, M; Májek, P; Kleinová, A

    2016-04-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was used in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the differentiation of plum spirits according to their geographical origin. A total of 14 Czech, 12 Hungarian and 18 Slovak plum spirit samples were used. The samples were divided in two categories: colorless (22 samples) and colored (22 samples). Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) obtained at a wavelength difference of 60 nm provided the best results. Considering the PCA-LDA applied to the SFS of all samples, Czech, Hungarian and Slovak colorless samples were properly classified in both the calibration and prediction sets. 100% of correct classification was also obtained for Czech and Hungarian colored samples. However, one group of Slovak colored samples was classified as belonging to the Hungarian group in the calibration set. Thus, the total correct classifications obtained were 94% and 100% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Applying PCA-LDA to NIR spectra (5500-6000 cm(-1)), the total correct classifications were 91% and 92% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively, which were slightly lower than those obtained using SFS. PMID:26593555

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-phenylpropargyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Nakajima, Masakazu; Gibson, Bligh A.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Kable, Scott H.

    2009-04-01

    The D1(A2″)-D0(A2″) electronic transition of the resonance-stabilized 1-phenylpropargyl radicalooled discharge of 3-phenyl-1-propyne, has been investigated in detail by laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed single vibronic level fluorescence (SVLF) spectroscopy. The transition is dominated by the origin band at 21 007 cm-1, with weaker Franck-Condon activity observed in a' fundamentals and even overtones and combinations of a″ symmetry. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations of the D0 and D1 geometries and frequencies were performed to support and guide the experimental assignments throughout. Analysis of SVLF spectra from 16 D1 vibronic levels has led to the assignment of 15 fundamental frequencies in the excited state and 19 fundamental frequencies in the ground state; assignments for many more normal modes not probed directly by fluorescence spectroscopy are also suggested. Duschinsky mixing, in which the excited state normal modes are rotated with respect to the ground state modes, is prevalent throughout, in vibrations of both a' and a″ symmetry.

  13. Temperature and pressure measurement based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with gas absorption linewidth detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yunxia; Liu, Tiegen; Liu, Kun; Jiang, Junfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ranran

    2014-11-01

    A gas temperature and pressure measurement method based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) detecting linewidth of gas absorption line was proposed in this paper. Combined with Lambert-Beer Law and ideal gas law, the relationship between temperature, pressure and gas linewidth with Lorentzian line shape was investigated in theory. Taking carbon monoxide (CO) at 1567.32 nm for example, the linewidths of gas absorption line in different temperatures and pressures were obtained by simulation. The relationship between the linewidth of second harmonic and temperature, pressure with the coefficient 0.025 pm/K and 0.0645 pm/kPa respectively. According to the relationship of simulation results and detected linewidth, the undefined temperature and pressure of CO gas were measured. The gas temperature and pressure measurement based on linewidth detection, avoiding the influence of laser intensity, is an effective temperature and pressure measurement method. This method also has the ability to detect temperature and pressure of other gases with Lorentzian line shape.

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric modeling for bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Saskia M; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables. PMID:25942644

  15. Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Abhinav; Trexler, Adam J.; Koo, Peter; Miranker, Andrew D.; Atkins, William M.; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are a new class of model membranes that are being used to solubilize and study a range of integral membrane proteins and membrane-associated proteins. Unlike other model membranes, the Nanodisc bilayer is bounded by a scaffold protein coat that confers enhanced stability and a narrow particle size distribution. The bilayer diameter can be precisely controlled by changing the diameter of the protein coat. All these properties make Nanodiscs excellent model membranes for single molecule fluorescence applications. In this chapter, we describe our work using Nanodiscs to apply total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study the integral membrane protein cytochrome P450 3A4 and the membrane-binding proteins islet amyloid popypeptide (IAPP) and α-synuclein, respectively. The monodisperse size distribution of Nanodiscs enhances control over the oligomeric state of the membrane protein of interest, and also facilitates accurate solution-based measurements. Nanodiscs also comprise an excellent system to stably immobilize integral membrane proteins in a bilayer without covalent modification, enabling a range of surface-based experiments where accurate localization of the protein of interest is required. PMID:20580961

  16. Remote excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Liang; Yuan, Haifeng; Lu, Gang; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten; Uji-i, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a powerful tool to resolve local properties, dynamical process of molecules, rotational and translational diffusion motions, relies on the fluctuations of florescence observables in the observation volume. In the case of rare transition events or small dynamical fluctuations, FCS requires few molecules or even single molecules in the observation volume at a time to minimize the background signals. Metal nanoparticle which possess unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have been used to reduce the observation volume down to sub-diffraction limited scale while maintain at high analyst concentration up to tens of micromolar. Nevertheless, the applications of functionalized nanoparticles in living cell are limited due to the continuous diffusion after cell uptake, which makes it difficult to target the region of interests in the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the use of silver nanowires for remote excitation FCS on fluorescent molecules in solution. By using propagation surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) which supported by the silver nanowire to excite the fluorescence, both illumination and observation volume can be reduced simultaneously. In such a way, less perturbation is induced to the target region, and this will broaden the application scope of silver nanowire as tip in single cell endoscopy.

  17. Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometric Modeling for Bioprocess Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Saskia M.; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables. PMID:25942644

  18. Non-destructive plant health sensing using absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Manukian, Ara; Pearce, Michael; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The sensor group of the 1988 EGM 4001 class, working on NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) project, investigated many different plant health indicators and the technologies used to test them. The project selected by the group was to measure chlorophyll levels using absorption spectroscopy. The spectrometer measures the amount of chlorophyll in a leaf by measuring the intensity of light of a specific wavelength that is passed through a leaf. The three wavelengths of light being used corresponded to the near-IR absorption peaks of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll-free structures. Experimentation showed that the sensor is indeed measuring levels of chlorophyll a and b and their changes before the human eye can see any changes. The detector clamp causes little damage to the leaf and will give fairly accurate readings on similar locations on a leaf, freeing the clamp from having to remain on the same spot of a leaf for all measurements. External light affects the readings only slightly so that measurements may be taken in light or dark environments. Future designs and experimentation will concentrate on reducing the size of the sensor and adapting it to a wider range of plants.

  19. High-dispersion absorption-line spectroscopy of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, J.; Smith, Robert Connon; Costero, R.; Zharikov, S.; Michel, R.

    2008-07-01

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the unique magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aqr is presented. A radial velocity analysis of the absorption lines yields K2 = 168.7 +/- 1kms-1. Substantial deviations of the radial velocity curve from a sinusoid are interpreted in terms of intensity variations over the secondary star's surface. A complex rotational velocity curve as a function of orbital phase is detected which has a modulation frequency of twice the orbital frequency, leading to an estimate of the binary inclination angle that is close to 70°. The minimum and maximum rotational velocities are used to indirectly derive a mass ratio of q = 0.6 and a radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf of K1 = 101 +/- 3kms-1. We present an atmospheric temperature indicator, based on the absorption-line ratio of FeI and CrI lines, whose variation indicates that the secondary star varies from K0 to K4 as a function of orbital phase. The ephemeris of the system has been revised, using more than 1000 radial velocity measurements, published over nearly five decades. From the derived radial velocity semi-amplitudes and the estimated inclination angle, we calculate that the masses of the stars are M1 = 0.63 +/- 0.05Msolar M2 = 0.37 +/- 0.04Msolar, and their separation is a = 2.33 +/- 0.02Rsolar. Our analysis indicates the presence of a late-type star whose radius is larger, by a factor of nearly 2, than the radius of a normal main-sequence star of the same mass. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the measured variations in the rotational velocity, temperature and spectral type of the secondary star as functions of orbital phase may, like the radial velocity variations, be attributable to regions of enhanced absorption on the star's surface.

  20. Multiphoton microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, Melissa Caroline

    2007-12-01

    the ultraviolet to visible wavelength range indicated that the most diagnostic optical signals originate from sub-surface tissue layers. Optical properties extracted from these spectroscopy measurements showed a significant decrease in the hemoglobin saturation, absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and fluorescence intensity (at 400 nm excitation) in neoplastic compared to normal tissues. The results from these studies indicate that multiphoton microscopy and optical spectroscopy can non-invasively provide information on tissue structure and function in vivo that is related to tissue pathology.

  1. Photoadaptation in marine phytoplankton: changes in spectral absorption and excitation of chlorophyll a fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Neori, A.; Holm-Hansen, O.; Mitchell, B.G.; Kiefer, D.A.

    1984-10-01

    The optical properties of marine phytoplankton were examined by measuring the absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra of chlorophyll a for natural marine particles collected on glass fiber filters. Samples were collected at different depths from stations in temperate waters of the Southern California Bight and in polar waters of the Scotia and Ross Seas. At all stations, phytoplankton fluorescence excitation and absorption spectra changed systematically with depth and vertical stability of the water columns. In samples from deeper waters, both absorption and chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra showed enhancement in the blue-to-green portion of the spectrum (470-560 nm) relative to that at 440 nm. Since similar changes in absorption and excitation were induced by incubating sea water samples at different light intensities, the changes in optical properties can be attributed to photoadaptation of the phytoplankton. The data indicate that in the natural populations studied, shade adaptation caused increases in the concentration of photosynthetic accessory pigments relative to chlorophyll a. These changes in cellular pigment composition were detectable within less than 1 day. Comparisons of absorption spectra with fluorescence excitation spectra indicate an apparent increase in the efficiency of sensitization of chlorophyll a fluorescence in the blue and green spectral regions for low light populations. 30 references, 6 figures.

  2. Live-cell multiphoton fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with an improved large Stokes shift fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yinghua; Meurer, Matthias; Raghavan, Sarada; Rebane, Aleksander; Lindquist, Jake R.; Santos, Sofia; Kats, Ilia; Davidson, Michael W.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Hughes, Thomas E.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Knop, Michael; Shah, Jagesh V.

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved variant of mKeima, a monomeric long Stokes shift red fluorescent protein, hmKeima8.5. The increased intracellular brightness and large Stokes shift (∼180 nm) make it an excellent partner with teal fluorescent protein (mTFP1) for multiphoton, multicolor applications. Excitation of this pair by a single multiphoton excitation wavelength (MPE, 850 nm) yields well-separable emission peaks (∼120-nm separation). Using this pair, we measure homo- and hetero-oligomerization interactions in living cells via multiphoton excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (MPE-FCS). Using tandem dimer proteins and small-molecule inducible dimerization domains, we demonstrate robust and quantitative detection of intracellular protein–protein interactions. We also use MPE-FCCS to detect drug–protein interactions in the intracellular environment using a Coumarin 343 (C343)-conjugated drug and hmKeima8.5 as a fluorescence pair. The mTFP1/hmKeima8.5 and C343/hmKeima8.5 combinations, together with our calibration constructs, provide a practical and broadly applicable toolbox for the investigation of molecular interactions in the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:25877871

  3. Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

  4. Note: Sample chamber for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pelliccione, CJ; Timofeeva, EV; Katsoudas, JP; Segre, CU

    2014-12-01

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides element-specific characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and enables direct correlations between electrochemical performance and structural characteristics of cathode and anode materials. In situ XAS measurements are very demanding to the design of the experimental setup. We have developed a sample chamber that provides electrical connectivity and inert atmosphere for operating electrochemical cells and also accounts for x-ray interactions with the chamber and cell materials. The design of the sample chamber for in situ measurements is presented along with example XAS spectra from anode materials in operating pouch cells at the Zn and Sn K-edges measured in fluorescence and transmission modes, respectively. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  5. Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 2. Application.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-10-01

    In the preceding article, we introduced the theoretical framework of two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS). In this article, we report the experimental implementation of 2D FLCS. In this method, two-dimensional emission-delay correlation maps are constructed from the photon data obtained with the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and then they are converted to 2D lifetime correlation maps by the inverse Laplace transform. We develop a numerical method to realize reliable transformation, employing the maximum entropy method (MEM). We apply the developed actual 2D FLCS to two real systems, a dye mixture and a DNA hairpin. For the dye mixture, we show that 2D FLCS is experimentally feasible and that it can identify different species in an inhomogeneous sample without any prior knowledge. The application to the DNA hairpin demonstrates that 2D FLCS can disclose microsecond spontaneous dynamics of biological molecules in a visually comprehensible manner, through identifying species as unique lifetime distributions. A FRET pair is attached to the both ends of the DNA hairpin, and the different structures of the DNA hairpin are distinguished as different fluorescence lifetimes in 2D FLCS. By constructing the 2D correlation maps of the fluorescence lifetime of the FRET donor, the equilibrium dynamics between the open and the closed forms of the DNA hairpin is clearly observed as the appearance of the cross peaks between the corresponding fluorescence lifetimes. This equilibrium dynamics of the DNA hairpin is clearly separated from the acceptor-missing DNA that appears as an isolated diagonal peak in the 2D maps. The present study clearly shows that newly developed 2D FLCS can disclose spontaneous structural dynamics of biological molecules with microsecond time resolution. PMID:23977902

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopy: considerations for highly absorbing dissolved organic matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, B. E.; Miller, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust method for characterizing organic matter (OM). However, proper collection and correction of spectra are necessary to provide useful data. One important correction is the inner-filter correction, which primarily accounts for the inner-filter effect by adjusting for the wavelength dependent attenuation of emitted light by the solution prior to detection by the fluorometer. The most commonly used correction is based on an assumption that light is emitted at the center of the pathlength. Thus, the inner-filter effect is more pronounced in highly absorbing samples, and has the potential to skew the fluorescence spectra. For this study, the terrestrially derived Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and microbially derived Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA), from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), were diluted to incremental absorbances at a wavelength of 254 nm from 0.05 to 1.0 at pH 4 and 7. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra were measured and modeled with the Cory and McKnight (2005) parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model which resolves the fluorescence spectra into 13 components, including quinone-like and protein-like components. In the absence of inner-filter effects, plots of absorbance vs. loadings should be linear. Using the data from absorbance of 0.05 to 0.3, where the inner-filter affect is least pronounced, a linear regression was created and used as a baseline to predict component loadings at higher absorbance values in the absence of inner-filter effects. Results indicate that at absorbance values greater than 0.3, the commonly-used inner-filter correction is not able to remove the inner-filter effect. Therefore, in order to obtain reliable component loadings and correctly interpret the spectra, samples should be diluted to absorbance values less than 0.3 at 254 nm prior to collection of three dimensional fluorescence scans. The recommendation of a maximum absorbance of 0.3 agrees with the results of a

  7. Magnetic fluorescent lamp having reduced ultraviolet self-absorption

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Samuel M.; Richardson, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly (10) is enhanced by providing means (30) for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb (12) of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  8. Two-photon absorption of fluorescent protein chromophores incorporating non-canonical amino acids: TD-DFT screening and classical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Alaraby Salem, M; Brown, Alex

    2015-10-14

    Two-photon spectroscopy of fluorescent proteins is a powerful bio-imaging tool characterized by deep tissue penetration and little damage. However, two-photon spectroscopy has lower sensitivity than one-photon microscopy alternatives and hence a protein with a large two-photon absorption cross-section is needed. We use time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory to screen twenty-two possible chromophores that can be formed upon replacing the amino-acid Tyr66 that forms the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore with a non-canonical amino acid. A proposed chromophore with a nitro substituent was found to have a large two-photon absorption cross-section (29 GM) compared to other fluorescent protein chromophores as determined at the same level of theory. Classical molecular dynamics are then performed on a nitro-modified fluorescent protein to test its stability and study the effect of the conformational flexibility of the chromophore on its two-photon absorption cross-section. The theoretical results show that the large cross-section is primarily due to the difference between the permanent dipole moments of the excited and ground states of the nitro-modified chromophore. This large difference is maintained through the various conformations assumed by the chromophore in the protein cavity. The nitro-derived protein appears to be very promising as a two-photon absorption probe. PMID:26370051

  9. Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy -- Laser Spectroscopy in Unconventional Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2010-02-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The GASMAS technique combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with optical propagation in diffuse media. Whereas solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures. These are typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. Molecular oxygen and water vapor have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen gas, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the human sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen, while breathing normally through the mouth. A clinical study comprising 40 patients has been concluded.

  10. Quantitative investigation of two metallohydrolases by X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Chu, W. S.; Yang, F. F.; Yu, M. J.; Chen, D. L.; Guo, X. Y.; Zhou, D. W.; Shi, N.; Marcelli, A.; Niu, L. W.; Teng, M. K.; Gong, W. M.; Benfatto, M.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2007-09-01

    The last several years have witnessed a tremendous increase in biological applications using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS), thanks to continuous advancements in synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and detector technology. However, XAS applications in many biological systems have been limited by the intrinsic limitations of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique e.g., the lack of sensitivity to bond angles. As a consequence, the application of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy changed this scenario that is now continuously changing with the introduction of the first quantitative XANES packages such as Minut XANES (MXAN). Here we present and discuss the XANES code MXAN, a novel XANES-fitting package that allows a quantitative analysis of experimental data applied to Zn K-edge spectra of two metalloproteins: Leptospira interrogans Peptide deformylase ( LiPDF) and acutolysin-C, a representative of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis on these two metallohydrolases reveals that proteolytic activities are correlated to subtle conformation changes around the zinc ion. In particular, this quantitative study clarifies the occurrence of the LiPDF catalytic mechanism via a two-water-molecules model, whereas in the acutolysin-C we have observed a different proteolytic activity correlated to structural changes around the zinc ion induced by pH variations.

  11. Vibronic Structures in Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of Firefly Oxyluciferin in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Miyabi; Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kenta; Koga, Nobuaki

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the factors determining the spectral shapes and widths of the absorption and fluorescence spectra for keto and enol oxyluciferin and their conjugate bases in aqueous solutions, the intensities of vibronic transitions between their ground and first electronic excited states were calculated for the first time via estimation of the vibrational Franck-Condon factors. The major normal modes, overtones and combination tones in absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar for all species. The theoretical full widths at half maximum of absorption spectra are 0.4-0.7 eV and those for the fluorescence spectra are 0.4-0.5 eV, except for phenolate-keto that exhibits exceptionally sharp peak widths due to the dominance of the 0-0' or 0'-0 band. These spectral shapes and widths explain many relevant features of the experimentally observed spectra. PMID:25946599

  12. Quantitative Fluorescence Studies in Living Cells: Extending Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy to Peripheral Membrane Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elizabeth Myhra

    The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with both membrane lipids and proteins are vital for many cellular processes including membrane trafficking, cellular signaling, and cell growth/regulation. Building accurate biophysical models of these processes requires quantitative characterization of the behavior of peripheral membrane proteins, yet methods to quantify their interactions inside living cells are very limited. Because peripheral membrane proteins usually exist both in membrane-bound and cytoplasmic forms, the separation of these two populations is a key challenge. This thesis aims at addressing this challenge by extending fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) to simultaneously measure the oligomeric state of peripheral membrane proteins in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. We developed a new method based on z-scan FFS that accounts for the fluorescence contributions from cytoplasmic and membrane layers by incorporating a fluorescence intensity z-scan through the cell. H-Ras-EGFP served as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. The resolvability and stability of z-scanning was determined as well as the oligomeric state of H-Ras-EGFP at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. Further, we successfully characterized the binding affinity of a variety of proteins to the plasma membrane by quantitative analysis of the z-scan fluorescence intensity profile. This analysis method, which we refer to as z-scan fluorescence profile deconvoution, was further used in combination with dual-color competition studies to determine the lipid specificity of protein binding. Finally, we applied z-scan FFS to provide insight into the early assembly steps of the HTLV-1 retrovirus.

  13. New aspects concerning the energy transfer in carotenoids by measuring intracavity absorption spectra and delayed fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettermann, Hans; Bouschen, Werner; Ulrich, Lars; Domnick, Gabriele; Martin, H. D.

    1999-05-01

    The first excited singlet state and the lower energetic triplet states of carotenoids are considered to be involved in the light-harvesting as well as in the photochemical protection of cells, respectively. For this reason, the symmetry-forbidden S 0-S 1 (1 1A g-2 1A g) transitions and the multiplicity-forbidden S 0-T 2 (1 1A g-2 3A g) transition of the model carotenoid 8,13-dimethyl-2,2,19,19-tetramethoxy-icosa-4,6,8,10,12,14,16-heptaene-3,18-dione were investigated by intracavity absorption spectroscopy from low-concentrated ethanolic solutions. Both transitions are shaped by promoting modes caused by Herzberg-Teller coupling and the sequence of these modes allows the precise determination of the non-visible S 0-S 1 (0-0)- and S 0-T 2 (0-0)-transitions. The assignments of the singlet-triplet transitions were additionally supported by measuring delayed fluorescence from crystalline samples by directly exciting vibronic triplet states. The vibronic coupling is promoted by C-H bending vibrations of the chain and mainly by deformation modes of the terminating groups of the carotenoid.

  14. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Neutral and Ionized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Cosmic Simulation Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejaoui, Salma; Salama, Farid

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are considered the best carriers to account for the ubiquitous infrared emission bands. PAHs have also been proposed as candidates to explain the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), a series of absorption features seen on the interstellar extinction curve and are plausible carriers for the extended red emission (ERE), a photoluminescent process associated with a wide variety of interstellar environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted over the past two decades to characterize the physical and chemical properties of PAH molecules and ions in space. Absorption spectra of PAH molecules and ions trapped in solid matrices have been compared to the DIBs [1, 2]. Absorption spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have also been measured under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions [see 3 for a review]. The purpose of this study is to provide a new dimension to the existing spectroscopic database of neutral and single ionized PAHs that is largely based on absorption spectra by adding emission spectroscopy data. The measurements are based on the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique [4] and are performed with the Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) of the COSmIC laboratory facility at NASA Ames laboratory. The PDN generates plasma in a free supersonic jet expansion to simulate the physical and the chemical conditions in interstellar environments. We focus, here, on the fluorescence spectra of large neutral PAHs and their cations where there is a lack of fluorescence spectroscopy data. The astronomical implications of the data (e.g., ERE) are examinedReferences[1] F. Salama, E. Bakes, L.J. Allamandola, A.G.G.M. Tielens, Astrophys. J., 458 (1996) p.621[2] F. Salama, The ISO Revolution, EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France (1999) p.65[3] Salama F., In Organic Matter in Space, IAU Symposium 251, Kwok & Sandford Eds.Cambridge University Press,4, S251,(2008), p. 357 (2008) and references therein.[4

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bacterial sulfur globules

    SciTech Connect

    George, Graham N.

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful in situ probe of sulfur biochemistry in intact cells and tissues. Under favorable circumstances the technique can provide quantitative information on the chemical identify of the sulfur species that are present in a sample. Prange et al. have recently reported an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of bacterial sulfur storage globules. Unfortunately there are substantial problems with the experimental technique employed that, they contend, lead to completely erroneous conclusions. In the more recent of their two papers Prange et al. employed a curve-fitting method similar to that used by us (for more than 10 years). In essence, the method employs simply fitting a linear combination of the spectra of standard compounds to that of the unknown, in this case cultures of bacterial cells. This type of analysis can provide quantitative estimates of the individual sulfur types in the sample, but is critically dependent upon the choice of reference spectra. Prange et al. deduce substantial differences between the chemical forms of sulfur stored in the globules of different organisms; they conclude that the globules of Beggiatoa alba and Thiomargarita namibiensis contain cyclo-octasulfur (S{sub 8}), while those of other organisms contain polythionates (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) and polymeric sulfur (e.g. Allochromatium vinosum). This is in contradiction with an earlier study, in which they found that sulfur in all globule species examined resembled that expected for various sized spherical particles of S{sub 8}. The discrepancy is due to an experimental artefact in the work of Prange et al. arising from their choice of transmittance detection, which is also discussed.

  16. Fluorescence and UV-vis Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Marie J.; Stojilovic, Nenad; Kovacik, Mark W.

    2009-10-01

    Total joint arthroplasty involves replacing the worn cartilaginous surfaces of the joint with man-made materials that are designed to be biocompatible and to withstand mechanical stresses. Commonly these bearing materials consist of metallic alloys (TiAlV or CoCrMo) and UHMWPE. Following joint arthroplasty, the normal generation of micro-metallic wear debris particles that dislodge from the prosthesis has been shown to cause inflammatory aseptic osteolysis (bone loss) that ultimately results in the failure of the implant. Here we report our results on the novel use of Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the metallic content of synovial fluid specimens taken from postoperative total knee arthroplasties. Preliminary finding showed presence of alumina and chromium is some specimens. The ability to detect and monitor the wear rate of these implants could have far reaching implications in the prevention of metallic wear-debris induced osteolysis and impending implant failure.

  17. Shedding light on azopolymer brush dynamics by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kollarigowda, R H; De Santo, I; Rianna, C; Fedele, C; Manikas, A C; Cavalli, S; Netti, P A

    2016-09-14

    Understanding the response to illumination at a molecular level as well as characterising polymer brush dynamics are key features that guide the engineering of new light-stimuli responsive materials. Here, we report on the use of a confocal microscopy technique that was exploited to discern how a single molecular event such as the photoinduced isomerisation of azobenzene can affect an entire polymeric material at a macroscopic level leading to photodriven mass-migration. For this reason, a set of polymer brushes, containing azobenzene (Disperse Red 1, DR) on the side chains of poly(methacrylic acid), was synthesised and the influence of DR on the polymer brush dynamics was investigated for the first time by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). Briefly, two dynamics were observed, a short one coming from the isomerisation of DR and a long one related to the brush main chain. Interestingly, photoinduced polymer aggregation in the confocal volume was observed. PMID:27491890

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy, exciton dynamics, and photochemistry of single allophycocyanin trimers

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, L.; Sie, X.S.

    1998-12-10

    The authors report a study of the allophycocyanin trimer (APC), a light-harvesting protein complex from cyanobacteria, by room-temperature single-molecule measurements of fluorescence spectra, lifetimes, intensity trajectories, and polarization modulation. Emission spectra of individual APC trimers are found to be homogeneous on the time scale of seconds. In contrast, their emission lifetimes are found to be widely distributed because of generation of long-lived exciton traps during the course of measurements. The intensity trajectories and polarization modulation experiments indicate reversible exciton trap formation within the three quasi-independent pairs of strong interacting {alpha}84 and {beta}84 chromophores in APC, as well as photobleaching of individual chromophores. Comparison experiments under continuous-wave and pulsed excitation reveal a two-photon mechanism for generating exciton traps and/or photobleaching, which involves exciton-exciton annihilation. These single-molecule experiments provide new insights into the spectroscopy, exciton dynamics, and photochemistry of light-harvesting complexes.

  19. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy evidence for structural heterogeneity in ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J C; Baker, G. A.; Hillesheim, P. C.; Dai, S.; Shaw, R. W.; Mahurin, S., M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we provide new experimental evidence for chain length-dependent self-aggregation in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In studying a homologous series of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [C{sub n}MPy][Tf{sub 2}N] RTILs of varying alkyl chain length (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), biphasic rhodamine 6G solute diffusion dynamics were observed; both the fast and slow diffusion coefficients decreased with increasing alkyl chain length, with the relative contribution from slower diffusion increasing for longer-chain [C{sub n}MPy][Tf{sub 2}N]. We propose that the biphasic diffusion dynamics originate from self-aggregation of the nonpolar alkyl chains in the cationic [CnMPy]{sup +}.

  20. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy at Micromolar Concentrations without Optical Nanoconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, Ted A.; Ly, Sonny; Bourguet, Feliza; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2014-08-14

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an important technique for studying biochemical interactions dynamically that may be used in vitro and in cell-based studies. It is generally claimed that FCS may only be used at nM concentrations. We show that this general consensus is incorrect and that the limitation to nM concentrations is not fundamental but due to detector limits as well as laser fluctuations. With a high count rate detector system and applying laser fluctuation corrections, we demonstrate FCS measurements up to 38 μM with the same signal-to-noise as at lower concentrations. Optical nanoconfinement approaches previously used to increase the concentration range of FCS are not necessary, and further increases above 38 μM may be expected using detectors and detector arrays with higher saturation rates and better laser fluctuation corrections. This approach greatly widens the possibilities of dynamic measurements of biochemical interactions using FCS at physiological concentrations.

  1. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  2. Dynamic and unique nucleolar microenvironment revealed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Hweon; Han, Sung-Sik; Sako, Yasushi; Pack, Chan-Gi

    2015-03-01

    Organization and functions of the nucleolus is maintained by mobilities and interactions of nucleolar factors. Because the nucleolus is a densely packed structure, molecular crowding effects determined by the molecular concentrations and mobilities in the nucleolus should also be important for regulating nucleolar organization and functions. However, such molecular property of nucleolar organization is not fully understood. To understand the biophysical property of nucleolar organization, the diffusional behaviors of inert green fluorescent protein (GFP) oligomers with or without nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were analyzed under various conditions by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Our result demonstrates that the mobility of GFPs inside the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm can be represented by single free diffusion under normal conditions, even though the mobility in the nucleolus is considerably slower than that in the chromatin region. Moreover, the free diffusion of GFPs is found to be significantly size- and NLS-dependent only in the nucleolus. Interestingly, the mobility in the nucleolus is highly sensitive to ATP depletion, as well as actinomycin D (ActD) treatment. In contrast, the ultra-structure of the nucleolus was not significantly changed by ATP depletion but was changed by ActD treatment. These results suggest that the nucleolus behaves similarly to an open aqueous-phase medium with an increased molecular crowding effect that depends on both energy and transcription. PMID:25404711

  3. Diagnosis of meningioma by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Butte, Pramod V; Pikul, Brian K; Hever, Aviv; Yong, William H; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for the intraoperative rapid evaluation of tumor specimens and delineation of tumor from surrounding normal tissue. Tissue autofluorescence is induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the intensity decay profiles are recorded in the 370 to 500 nm spectral range with a fast digitizer (0.2 ns resolution). Experiments are conducted on excised specimens (meningioma, dura mater, cerebral cortex) from 26 patients (97 sites). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site are used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis algorithm is used for tissue classification. Our results reveal that meningioma is characterized by unique fluorescence characteristics that enable discrimination of tumor from normal tissue with high sensitivity (>89%) and specificity (100%). The accuracy of classification is found to increase (92.8% cases in the training set and 91.8% in the cross-validated set correctly classified) when parameters from both the spectral and the time domain are used for discrimination. Our findings establish the feasibility of using TR-LIFS as a tool for the identification of meningiomas and enables further development of real-time diagnostic tools for analyzing surgical tissue specimens of meningioma or other brain tumors. PMID:16409091

  4. Continuous fluorescence microphotolysis and correlation spectroscopy using 4Pi microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arkhipov, Anton; Hüve, Jana; Kahms, Martin; Peters, Reiner; Schulten, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    Continuous fluorescence microphotolysis (CFM) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) permit measurement of molecular mobility and association reactions in single living cells. CFM and FCS complement each other ideally and can be realized using identical equipment. So far, the spatial resolution of CFM and FCS was restricted by the resolution of the light microscope to the micrometer scale. However, cellular functions generally occur on the nanometer scale. Here, we develop the theoretical and computational framework for CFM and FCS experiments using 4Pi microscopy, which features an axial resolution of approximately 100 nm. The framework, taking the actual 4Pi point spread function of the instrument into account, was validated by measurements on model systems, employing 4Pi conditions or normal confocal conditions together with either single- or two-photon excitation. In all cases experimental data could be well fitted by computed curves for expected diffusion coefficients, even when the signal/noise ratio was small due to the small number of fluorophores involved. PMID:17704168

  5. Continuous-wave laser fluorescence spectroscopy of impurities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Norem, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied as an in-situ diagnostic for impurity atoms in the edge region of the plasma in the Argonne Plasma Engineering Experiment (APEX) tokamak. Zirconium atoms introduced from a moveable probe were excited by a cw single-mode ring dye laser and monitored on lines of the a/sup 3/F-z/sup 3/F/sup 0/ manifold. The fluorescence signal from a 0.03 cm/sup 3/ volume was recorded at 1-ms intervals with a computer-controlled 4-channel 100-MHz scaler system. Acousto-optic modulation of the laser beam at 100 kHz allowed subtraction of plasma background light. Absolute calibration by Rayleigh scattering gave a detectability limit approx.10/sup 10/ Zr atoms/cm/sup 3/ in this apparatus. The detectability limit was determined by a detailed consideration of power and transit time broadening. The effects of several experimental parameters were examined and suggestions for increasing detection sensitivity are presented. Doppler-shift experiments indicated a thermal-velocity distribution for the detected Zr atoms. Intrinsic-velocity resolution of the experiments, calculated from effective excitation linewidths, was approx.25 m/s.

  6. Continuous-wave laser fluorescence spectroscopy of impurities in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Gruen, D. M.; Norem, J. H.

    1982-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied as an in-situ diagnostic for impurity atoms in the edge region of the plasma in the Argonne Plasma Engineering Experiment (APEX) tokamak. Zirconium atoms introduced from a moveable probe were excited by a cw single-mode ring dye laser and monitored on lines of the a3F-z3F0 manifold. The fluorescence signal from a 0.03 cm3 volume was recorded at 1-ms intervals with a computer-controlled 4-channel 100-MHz scaler system. Acousto-optic modulation of the laser beam at 100 kHz allowed subtraction of plasma background light. Absolute calibration by Rayleigh scattering gave a detectability limit ˜1010 Zr atoms/cm3 in this apparatus. The detectability limit was determined by a detailed consideration of power and transit time broadening. The effects of several experimental parameters were examined and suggestions for increasing detection sensitivity are presented. Doppler-shift experiments indicated a thermal-velocity distribution for the detected Zr atoms. Intrinsic-velocity resolution of the experiments, calculated from effective excitation linewidths, was ˜25 m/s.

  7. Nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongshen; Pei, Yihui

    2007-11-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a new kind of real-time, high-speed and single-molecule technique. It is used to detect the kinetic characteristics of fluorescent dye such as diffusion coefficient in the aqueous solution. Combined with confocal microscope optics, it has been now widely applied in cell biological research. Through a time correlation analysis of spontaneous intensity fluctuations, this technique with EGFP as a probe is capable of determining viscosity of fluids according to Stokes-Einstein equation. Nucleoplasmic viscosity is an important physical parameter to quantify the rheological characteristics of the nucleoplasm. Investigation on nucleoplasmic viscosity plays an important role in further understanding intranuclear environment. In this paper, FCS is introduced to noninvasively investigate nucleoplasmic viscosity of living cells. The results show that nucleoplasmic viscosity of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells is 2.55+/-0.61 cP and nucleoplasmic viscosity is larger than cytoplasmic viscosity at 37 °C (pH 7.4). In addition, significant changes in nucleoplasmic viscosity are detected by FCS when cells are exposed to hyper or hypotonic medium. Our study suggests that FCS can be used to detect the kinetic characteristics of biomolecules in living cells and thus helps to investigate the dynamic changes of the microenvironment in the cell.

  8. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in biology, chemistry, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Perevoshchikova, I V; Kotova, E A; Antonenko, Y N

    2011-05-01

    This review describes the method of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and its applications. FCS is used for investigating processes associated with changes in the mobility of molecules and complexes and allows researchers to study aggregation of particles, binding of fluorescent molecules with supramolecular complexes, lipid vesicles, etc. The size of objects under study varies from a few angstroms for dye molecules to hundreds of nanometers for nanoparticles. The described applications of FCS comprise various fields from simple chemical systems of solution/micelle to sophisticated regulations on the level of living cells. Both the methodical bases and the theoretical principles of FCS are simple and available. The present review is concentrated preferentially on FCS applications for studies on artificial and natural membranes. At present, in contrast to the related approach of dynamic light scattering, FCS is poorly known in Russia, although it is widely employed in laboratories of other countries. The goal of this review is to promote the development of FCS in Russia so that this technique could occupy the position it deserves in modern Russian science. PMID:21639831

  9. Evaluation of actinic cheilitis using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Takahama, Ademar; Souza Azevedo, Rebeca; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant disorder that mostly affects the vermilion border of the lower lip and can lead to squamous cell carcinoma. Because of its heterogeneous clinical aspect, it is difficult to indicate representative biopsy area. Late diagnosis is a limiting factor of therapeutic possibilities available to treat oral cancer. The diagnosis of actinic cheilitis is mainly based on clinical and histopathological analysis and it is a time consuming procedure to get the results. Information about the organization and chemical composition of the tissues can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy techniques without the need for biopsy. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and allow a quick and non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries and to help clinicians with the early diagnosis of actinic cheilitis. This study aims to evaluate the fluorescence lifetime parameters at the discrimination of three degrees of epithelial dysplasia, the most important predictor of malignant development, described in up to 100% of actinic cheilitis cases.

  10. Absorption and emission spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.

    The advent of controllable synthetic methods for the production of semiconductor nanostructures has led to their use in a host of applications, including light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, sensors, and even television displays. This is, in part, due to the size, shape, and morphologically dependent optical and electrical properties that make this class of materials extremely customizable; wire-, rod- and sphere-shaped nanocrystals are readily synthesized through common wet chemical methods. Most notably, confining the physical dimension of the nanostructure to a size below its Bohr radius (aB) results in quantum confinement effects that increase its optical energy gap. Not only the size, but the shape of a particle can be exploited to tailor its optical and electrical properties. For example, confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanowires (NWs) of equivalent diameter possess significantly different optical gaps. This phenomenon has been ascribed to electrostatic contributions arising from dielectric screening effects that are more pronounced in an elongated (wire-like) morphology. Semiconducting nanostructures have thus received significant attention over the past two decades. However, surprisingly little work has been done to elucidate their basic photophysics on a single particle basis. What has been done has generally been accomplished through emission-based measurements, and thus does not fully capture the full breadth of these intriguing systems. What is therefore needed then are absorption-based studies that probe the size and shape dependent evolution of nanostructure photophysics. This thesis summarizes the single particle absorption spectroscopy that we have carried out to fill this knowledge gap. Specifically, the diameter-dependent progression of one-dimensional (1D) excitonic states in CdSe NWs has been revealed. This is followed by a study that focuses on the polarization selection rules of 1D excitons within single CdSe NWs. Finally

  11. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Statistical analysis and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarian, Saveez

    2002-01-01

    The experimental design and realization of an apparatus which can be used both for single molecule fluorescence detection and also fluorescence correlation and cross correlation spectroscopy is presented. A thorough statistical analysis of the fluorescence correlation functions including the analysis of bias and errors based on analytical derivations has been carried out. Using the methods developed here, the mechanism of binding and cleavage site recognition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) for their substrates has been studied. We demonstrate that two of the MMP family members, Collagenase (MMP-1) and Gelatinase A (MMP-2) exhibit diffusion along their substrates, the importance of this diffusion process and its biological implications are discussed. We show through truncation mutants that the hemopexin domain of the MMP-2 plays and important role in the substrate diffusion of this enzyme. Single molecule diffusion of the collagenase MMP-1 has been observed on collagen fibrils and shown to be biased. The discovered biased diffusion would make the MMP-1 molecule an active motor, thus making it the first active motor that is not coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The possible sources of energy for this enzyme and their implications are discussed. We propose that a possible source of energy for the enzyme can be in the rearrangement of the structure of collagen fibrils. In a separate application, using the methods developed here, we have observed an intermediate in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein folding process through the changes in its hydrodynamic radius also the fluctuations in the structure of the IFABP in solution were measured using FCS.

  12. Dynamic nuclear protein interactions investigated using fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Amanda P.; Hays, Nicole M.; Day, Richard N.

    2012-03-01

    The discovery and engineering of novel fluorescent proteins (FPs) from diverse organisms is yielding fluorophores with exceptional characteristics for live-cell imaging. In particular, the development of FPs for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy and fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) provide important tools for monitoring dynamic protein interactions inside living cells. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) quantitatively maps changes in the spatial distribution of donor FP lifetimes that result from FRET with acceptor FPs. FFS probes dynamic protein associations through its capacity to monitor localized protein diffusion. Here, we use FRET-FLIM combined with FFS in living cells to investigate changes in protein mobility due to protein-protein interactions involving transcription factors and chromatin modifying proteins that function in anterior pituitary gene regulation. The heterochromatin protein 1 alpha (HP1α) plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin through its interactions with histone methyltransferases. Recent studies, however, also highlight the importance of HP1α as a positive regulator of active transcription in euchromatin. Intriguingly, we observed that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) interacts with HP1α in regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin in mouse pituitary cells. These observations prompted us to investigate the relationship between HP1α dynamic interactions in pituitary specific gene regulation.

  13. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Dinuclear Metallohydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, David L.; Schenk, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review, we briefly discuss the physical origin of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) before illustrating its application using dinuclear metallohydrolases as exemplary systems. The systems we have selected for illustrative purposes present a challenging problem for XAS, one that is ideal to demonstrate the potential of this methodology for structure/function studies of metalloenzymes in general. When the metal ion is redox active, XAS provides a sensitive measure of oxidation-state-dependent differences. When the metal ion is zinc, XAS is the only spectroscopic method that will provide easily accessible structural information in solution. In the case of heterodimetallic sites, XAS has the unique ability to interrogate each metal site independently in the same sample. One of the strongest advantages of XAS is its ability to examine metal ion site structures with crystallographic precision, without the need for a crystal. This is key for studying flexible metal ion sites, such as those described in the selected examples, because it allows one to monitor structural changes that occur during substrate turnover. PMID:25229134

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Rare Earth orthophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Shuh, D.K.; Terminello, L.J.; Boatner, L.A.; Abraham, M.M.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of the Rare Earth (RE) 3d levels yields sharp peaks near the edges as a result of strong, quasi-atomic 3d{sup 10}4f{sup n} {yields} 3d-{sup 9}4f{sup n+1} transitions and these transitions exhibit a wealth of spectroscopic features. The XAS measurements of single crystal REPO{sub 4} (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er) at the 3d edge were performed in the total yield mode at beam line 8-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). The XAS spectra of the RE ions in the orthophosphate matrix generally resemble the XAS of the corresponding RE metal. This is not unexpected and emphasizes the major contribution of the trivalent state to the electronic transitions at the RE 3d edges. These spectra unequivocally identify the transitions originating from well-characterized RE cores and correlate well with previous theoretical investigations.

  15. Decay Heat Measurements Using Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, S.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Taín, J. L.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Z.; Agramunt, J.; Gelletly, W.; Nichols, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    A knowledge of the decay heat emitted by thermal neutron-irradiated nuclear fuel is an important factor in ensuring safe reactor design and operation, spent fuel removal from the core, and subsequent storage prior to and after reprocessing, and waste disposal. Decay heat can be readily calculated from the nuclear decay properties of the fission products, actinides and their decay products as generated within the irradiated fuel. Much of the information comes from experiments performed with HPGe detectors, which often underestimate the beta feeding to states at high excitation energies. This inability to detect high-energy gamma emissions effectively results in the derivation of decay schemes that suffer from the pandemonium effect, although such a serious problem can be avoided through application of total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy (TAS). The beta decay of key radionuclei produced as a consequence of the neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu are being re-assessed by means of this spectroscopic technique. A brief synopsis is given of the Valencia-Surrey (BaF2) TAS detector, and their method of operation, calibration and spectral analysis.

  16. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M.; Specht, Christian G.; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling. PMID:26711992

  17. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M; Specht, Christian G; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-19

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling. PMID:26711992

  18. Intracavity Dye-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (IDLAS) for application to planetary molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Todd M.; Allen, John E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved, quasi-continuous wave, intracavity dye-laser absorption spectroscopy is applied to the investigation of absolute absorption coefficients for vibrational-rotational overtone bands of water at visible wavelengths. Emphasis is placed on critical factors affecting detection sensitivity and data analysis. Typical generation-time dependent absorption spectra are given.

  19. Determination of the biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends: a method based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Marisa D; Oliveira, Samuel L; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Caires, Anderson R L

    2011-05-01

    Blends of biodiesel and diesel are being used increasingly worldwide because of environmental, economic, and social considerations. Several countries use biodiesel blends with different blending limits. Therefore, it is necessary to develop or improve methods to quantify the biodiesel level in a diesel/biodiesel blend, to ensure compliance with legislation. The optical technique based on the absorption of light in the mid-infrared has been successful for this application. However, this method presents some challenges that must be overcome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blend, which allows in loco measurements by using portable systems. The results showed that this method is both practical and more sensitive than the standard optical method. PMID:21213028

  20. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Human Nonmalignant and Malignant Cells and Tissues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Wenling Sha

    This thesis explores steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy from human malignant and non -malignant cells and tissues. The focus of these studies are the analysis of the excitation spectra, emission spectra, and decay time based on the contribution from several key intrinsic fluorophors: NAD(P)H, flavins, tryptophan, elastin and collagen that exist in different amounts in the human tissues and cells. The comparison between the spectra from malignant and non-malignant cells and tissues gives information on the changes that occur from non-malignancy to malignancy in the cells and tissues. The spectra of tissues and cells are also compared to help in understanding what fluorophors are responsible for fluorescence spectral differences between the malignant and non-malignant tissues and cells. The results in this thesis show that the spectral differences between the normal and cancerous tissues and cells exist in various wavelength ranges. The experimental data from GYN tissues have shown with over 95% of the sensitivity and specificity to separate malignant from non-malignant tissues using 300nm excitation. The 340nm band, which is mostly in response to intrinsic fluorophor (amino acid tryptophan), from malignant tissues were relatively higher then that from the non-malignant tissues. This might have been caused by the higher concentration of free tryptophan in the malignant tumor when compared to that of the normal tissue. This has been found in medical clinical study. The experimental data in this thesis also show that the fluorescence intensities around 450nm-460nm, which are mostly due to the intrinsic fluorophor coenzyme NADH, from both malignant cells in vitro and tissues in vitro are relatively higher than from non-malignant cells in vitro and tissues in vitro. These findings are reinforced by the faster decay time of the NADH fluorescence from normal cells in vitro than from neoplasm cells in vitro. Thus, the NADH in the mitochondria might be

  1. Fluorescence spectroscopy of soil pellets : The use of CP/PARAFAC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounier, Stéphane; Nicolodeli, Gustavo; Redon, Roland; Hacherouf, Kalhed; Milori, Debora M. B. P.

    2014-05-01

    performed in pellets (boric and humic acids mixture) using a portable system built by Embrapa Instrumentation. It comprises a diode laser (Coherent - CUBE) emitting at 405 nm (50 mW), and the detection of emission by a high sensitivity mini-spectrometer (USB4000 - Ocean Optics) using a range from 440 to 800 nm. In first step, the 3D tensors were then treated by the CP/PARAFAC algorithm to decompose the signal response after removing the diffusion signal : three components were extracted with a CORCONDIA over 60%. The first component can be associate an artefact of the measurement or boric acid fluorescence, the second and third component could the related to the two different fluorescence contributions of tryptophan molecule, one with central excitation/emission in 290/360 nm and other in 350/465 nm. The presence of a small quantity (i.e. few percent in mass) of humic acid (HA) is quenching drastically the TRP fluorescence. Complementary, measurements will be performed to understand this behaviour taking in account the absorption wavelength by the surface (colour) and by measuring the time life fluorescence of the samples. Humic acid fluorescence in pellets (BA and HA) cannot be observed using lamp + monochromator excitation due to low intensity of source. The same pellets were measure using LIFS system, and fluorescence intensity increased as a function of concentration of HA until occur the inner filter effect from 300 ppm, similar to the behaviour of HA in solution. Even whether solid surface measurements are easier, understanding is not yet clear. More investigation needs to be done. Moreover, it should be important to know if the use of CP/PARAFAC decomposition for such data is relevant with the trilinear model. References Milori, D.M.B.P., Galeti, H.V.A., Martin-Neto, L., Dieckow, J., González-Pérez, M., Bayer, C., Salton, J., 2006. Organic Matter Study of Whole Soil Samples Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70

  2. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  3. [The measurement and analysis of visible-absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of lycopene].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhan; Li, Ping; Dai, Song-hui; Wu, Da-cheng; Li, Rui-xia; Yang, Jian-hui; Xiao, Hai-bo

    2005-11-01

    Using ICCD spectral detection system, the absorbency of lycopene-carbon bisulfide solution with different concentration was measured, and the result shows that in a specified range the absorption rule of lycopene solution agrees with Lambert-Beer Law. Absorption spectral wavelength shifts were measured respectively when lycopene was dissolved in acetone, normal hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, and carbon bisulfide, and comparing to acetone, different red-shift appeared when lycopene was dissolved in benzene, ethyl acetate, and carbon bisulfide when water was added in lycopene-acetone solution, t he absorbency of lycopene dropped, the fine structure of absorption spectrum became indistinct, and a new absorption peak appeared in UV. The reason for these phenomena is that the solvent molecule had different effect on lycopene molecule when lycopene was dissolved in different solvent. Using fluorecence spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectra of lycopene in different concentrations were collected, and the results show that the fluorescence spectra of lycopene were mainly in 500-680 nm. When concentration was lower than 50 microg x mL(-1), the fluorescence intensity linearly increased with increasing concentration, and when concentration was higher than 60 microg x mL(-1), the fluorescence intensity dropped because of the interaction between lycopene molecules. PMID:16499057

  4. Orthogonal spectra and cross sections: Application to optimization of multi-spectral absorption and fluorescence lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Shokair, I.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the problem of selection of lidar parameters, namely wavelengths for absorption lidar and excitation fluorescence pairs for fluorescence lidar, for optimal detection of species. Orthogonal spectra and cross sections are used as mathematical representations which provide a quantitative measure of species distinguishability in mixtures. Using these quantities, a simple expression for the absolute error in calculated species concentration is derived and optimization is accomplished by variation of lidar parameters to minimize this error. It is shown that the optimum number of wavelengths for detection of a species using absorption lidar (excitation fluorescence pairs for fluorescence lidar) is the same as the number of species in the mixture. Each species present in the mixture has its own set of optimum wavelengths. There is usually some overlap in these sets. The optimization method is applied to two examples, one using absorption and the other using fluorescence lidar, for analyzing mixtures of four organic compounds. The effect of atmospheric attenuation is included in the optimization process. Although the number of optimum wavelengths might be small, it is essential to do large numbers of measurements at these wavelengths in order to maximize canceling of statistical errors.

  5. Characterising legacy spent nuclear fuel pond materials using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bower, W R; Morris, K; Mosselmans, J F W; Thompson, O R; Banford, A W; Law, K; Pattrick, R A D

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of a radioactive, coated concrete core from the decommissioned, spent nuclear fuel cooling pond at the Hunterston-A nuclear site (UK) has provided a unique opportunity to study radionuclides within a real-world system. The core, obtained from a dividing wall and sampled at the fill level of the pond, exhibited radioactivity (dominantly (137)Cs and (90)Sr) heterogeneously distributed across both painted faces. Chemical analysis of the core was undertaken using microfocus spectroscopy at Diamond Light Source, UK. Mapping of Sr across the surface coatings using microfocus X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that Sr was bound to TiO2 particles in the paint layers, suggesting an association between TiO2 and radiostrontium. Stable Sr and Cs sorption experiments using concrete coupons were also undertaken to assess their interactions with the bulk concrete in case of a breach in the coating layers. μXRF and scanning electron microscopy showed that Sr was immobilized by the cement phases, whilst at the elevated experimental concentrations, Cs was associated with clay minerals in the aggregates. This study provides a crucial insight into poorly understood infrastructural contamination in complex systems and is directly applicable to the UK's nuclear decommissioning efforts. PMID:27262277

  6. Nocturnal Measurements of HONO by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtal, P.; McLaren, R.

    2011-12-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used to quantify the concentration of HONO, NO2 and SO2 in the nocturnal urban atmosphere at York University over a period of one year. These measurements form a comprehensive HONO data set, including a large range of temperatures, relative humidity, surface conditions (snow, water, dry, etc.) and NO2 concentrations. Laboratory studies and observations within the nocturnal boundary layer reported in the literature suggest heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on surface adsorbed water as the major nighttime source of HONO. HONO formation and photolysis is believed to represent a major source term in the hydroxyl radical budget in polluted continental regions. Currently, most air quality models tend to significantly underpredict HONO, caused by the lack of understanding of HONO formation processes and the parameters that affect its concentration. Recently, we reported nocturnal pseudo steady states (PSS) of HONO in an aqueous marine environment and a conceptual model for HONO formation on aqueous surfaces was proposed. The data set collected at York University is being analyzed with a view towards further understanding the nighttime HONO formation mechanism and testing several hypotheses: 1) A HONO PSS can exist during certain times at night in an urban area in which the HONO concentration is independent of NO2, given the surface contains sufficient water coverage and is saturated with nitrogen containing precursors; 2) The concentration of HONO is positively correlated with temperature during periods where a PSS exists; 3) Different conversion efficiencies of NO2 to HONO exist on dry, wet and snow surfaces; 4) HONO formation has a NO2 order dependence between 0 and 2nd order, dependant on NO2 concentration, relative humidity, etc. The data set will be presented along with statistical analysis that sheds new light on the source of HONO in urban areas at night.

  7. Experimental recovery of intrinsic fluorescence and fluorophore concentration in the presence of hemoglobin: spectral effect of scattering and absorption on fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Le, Vinh Nguyen; Patterson, Michael S.; Farrell, Thomas J.; Hayward, Joseph E.; Fang, Qiyin

    2015-12-01

    The ability to recover the intrinsic fluorescence of biological fluorophores is crucial to accurately identify the fluorophores and quantify their concentrations in the media. Although some studies have successfully retrieved the fluorescence spectral shape of known fluorophores, the techniques usually came with heavy computation costs and did not apply for strongly absorptive media, and the intrinsic fluorescence intensity and fluorophore concentration were not recovered. In this communication, an experimental approach was presented to recover intrinsic fluorescence and concentration of fluorescein in the presence of hemoglobin (Hb). The results indicated that the method was efficient in recovering the intrinsic fluorescence peak and fluorophore concentration with an error of 3% and 10%, respectively. The results also suggested that chromophores with irregular absorption spectra (e.g., Hb) have more profound effects on fluorescence spectral shape than chromophores with monotonic absorption and scattering spectra (e.g., black India ink and polystyrene microspheres).

  8. Tubulin equilibrium unfolding followed by time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Susana A.; Brunet, Juan E.; Jameson, David M.; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2004-01-01

    The pathway for the in vitro equilibrium unfolding of the tubulin heterodimer by guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) has been studied using several spectroscopic techniques, specifically circular dichroism (CD), two-photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), and time-resolved fluorescence, including lifetime and dynamic polarization. The results show that tubulin unfolding is characterized by distinct processes that occur in different GdmCl concentration ranges. From 0 to 0.5 M GdmCl, a slight alteration of the tubulin heterodimer occurs, as evidenced by a small, but reproducible increase in the rotational correlation time of the protein and a sharp decrease in the secondary structure monitored by CD. In the range 0.5–1.5 M GdmCl, significant decreases in the steady-state anisotropy and average lifetime of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence occur, as well as a decrease in the rotational correlation time, from 48 to 26 nsec. In the same GdmCl range, the number of protein molecules (labeled with Alexa 488), as determined by two-photon FCS measurements, increases by a factor of two, indicating dissociation of the tubulin dimer into monomers. From 1.5 to 4 M GdmCl, these monomers unfold, as evidenced by the continual decrease in the tryptophan steady-state anisotropy, average lifetime, and rotational correlation time, concomitant with secondary structural changes. These results help to elucidate the unfolding pathway of the tubulin heterodimer and demonstrate the value of FCS measurements in studies on oligomeric protein systems. PMID:14691224

  9. Immunoglobulin surface-binding kinetics studied by total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, N L; Axelrod, D

    1983-01-01

    An experimental application of total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR/FCS) is presented. TIR/FCS is a new technique for measuring the binding and unbinding rates and surface diffusion coefficient of fluorescent-labeled solute molecules in equilibrium at a surface. A laser beam totally internally reflects at the solid-liquid interface, selectively exciting surface-adsorbed molecules. Fluorescence collected by a microscope from a small, well-defined surface area approximately 5 micron2 spontaneously fluctuates as solute molecules randomly bind to, unbind from, and/or diffuse along the surface in chemical equilibrium. The fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier and autocorrelated on-line by a minicomputer. The shape of the autocorrelation function depends on the bulk and surface diffusion coefficients, the binding rate constants, and the shape of the illuminated and observed region. The normalized amplitude of the autocorrelation function depends on the average number of molecules bound within the observed area. TIR/FCS requires no spectroscopic or thermodynamic change between dissociated and complexed states and no extrinsic perturbation from equilibrium. Using TIR/FCS, we determine that rhodamine-labeled immunoglobulin and insulin each nonspecifically adsorb to serum albumin-coated fused silica with both reversible and irreversible components. The characteristic time of the most rapidly reversible component measured is approximately 5 ms and is limited by the rate of bulk diffusion. Rhodamine-labeled bivalent antibodies to dinitrophenyl (DNP) bind to DNP-coated fused silica virtually irreversibly. Univalent Fab fragments of these same antibodies appear to specifically bind to DNP-coated fused silica, accompanied by a large amount of nonspecific binding. TIR/FCS is shown to be a feasible technique for measuring absorption/desorption kinetic rates at equilibrium. In suitable systems where nonspecific binding is low, TIR

  10. Picosecond time-resolved absorption and fluorescence dynamics in the artificial bacteriorhodopsin pigment BR6.11.

    PubMed Central

    Brack, T. L.; Delaney, J. K.; Atkinson, G. H.; Albeck, A.; Sheves, M.; Ottolenghi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The picosecond molecular dynamics in an artificial bacteriorhodopsin (BR) pigment containing a structurally modified all-trans retinal chromphore with a six-membered ring bridging the C11=C12-C13 positions (BR6.11) are measured by picosecond transient absorption and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Time-dependent intensity and spectral changes in absorption in the 570-650-nm region are monitored for delays as long as 5 ns after the 7-ps, 573-nm excitation of BR6.11. Two intermediates, J6.11 and K6.11/1, both with enhanced absorption to the red (> 600 nm) of the BR6.11 spectrum are observed within approximately 50 ps. The J6.11 intermediate decays with a time constant of 12 +/- 3 ps to form K6.11/1. The K6.11/1 intermediate decays with an approximately 100-ps time constant to form a third intermediate, K6.11/2, which is observed through diminished 650-nm absorption (relative to that of K6.11/1). No other transient absorption changes are found during the remainder of the initial 5-ns period of the BR6.11 photoreaction. Fluorescence in the 650-900-nm region is observed from BR6.11, K6.11/1, and K6.11/2, but no emission assignable to J6.11 is found. The BR6.11 fluroescence spectrum has a approximately 725-nm maximum which is blue-shifted by approximately 15 nm relative to that of native BR-570 and is 4.2 +/- 1.5 times larger in intensity (same sample optical density). No differences in the profile of the fluorescence spectra of BR6.11 and the intermediates K6.11/1 and K6.11/2 are observed. Following ground-state depletion of the BR6.11 population, the time-resolved fluroescence intensity monitored at 725 nm increases with two time constants, 12 +/- 3 and approximately 100 ps, both of which correlate well with changes in the picosecond transient absorption data. The resonance Raman spectrum of ground-state BR6.11, measured with low-energy, 560-nm excitation, is significantly different from the spectrum of native BR-570, thus confirming that the

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy of soil pellets : The use of CP/PARAFAC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounier, Stéphane; Nicolodeli, Gustavo; Redon, Roland; Hacherouf, Kalhed; Milori, Debora M. B. P.

    2014-05-01

    performed in pellets (boric and humic acids mixture) using a portable system built by Embrapa Instrumentation. It comprises a diode laser (Coherent - CUBE) emitting at 405 nm (50 mW), and the detection of emission by a high sensitivity mini-spectrometer (USB4000 - Ocean Optics) using a range from 440 to 800 nm. In first step, the 3D tensors were then treated by the CP/PARAFAC algorithm to decompose the signal response after removing the diffusion signal : three components were extracted with a CORCONDIA over 60%. The first component can be associate an artefact of the measurement or boric acid fluorescence, the second and third component could the related to the two different fluorescence contributions of tryptophan molecule, one with central excitation/emission in 290/360 nm and other in 350/465 nm. The presence of a small quantity (i.e. few percent in mass) of humic acid (HA) is quenching drastically the TRP fluorescence. Complementary, measurements will be performed to understand this behaviour taking in account the absorption wavelength by the surface (colour) and by measuring the time life fluorescence of the samples. Humic acid fluorescence in pellets (BA and HA) cannot be observed using lamp + monochromator excitation due to low intensity of source. The same pellets were measure using LIFS system, and fluorescence intensity increased as a function of concentration of HA until occur the inner filter effect from 300 ppm, similar to the behaviour of HA in solution. Even whether solid surface measurements are easier, understanding is not yet clear. More investigation needs to be done. Moreover, it should be important to know if the use of CP/PARAFAC decomposition for such data is relevant with the trilinear model. References Milori, D.M.B.P., Galeti, H.V.A., Martin-Neto, L., Dieckow, J., González-Pérez, M., Bayer, C., Salton, J., 2006. Organic Matter Study of Whole Soil Samples Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70

  12. Inference of protein diffusion probed via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Fluctuations are an inherent part of single molecule or few particle biophysical data sets. Traditionally, ``noise'' fluctuations have been viewed as a nuisance, to be eliminated or minimized. Here we look on how statistical inference methods - that take explicit advantage of fluctuations - have allowed us to draw an unexpected picture of single molecule diffusional dynamics. Our focus is on the diffusion of proteins probed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we discuss how - in collaboration with the Bustamante and Marqusee labs at UC Berkeley - we determined using FCS data that individual enzymes are perturbed by self-generated catalytic heat (Riedel et al, Nature, 2014). Using the tools of inference, we found how distributions of enzyme diffusion coefficients shift in the presence of substrate revealing that enzymes performing highly exothermic reactions dissipate heat by transiently accelerating their center of mass following a catalytic reaction. Next, when molecules diffuse in the cell nucleus they often appear to diffuse anomalously. We analyze FCS data - in collaboration with Rich Day at the IU Med School - to propose a simple model for transcription factor binding-unbinding in the nucleus to show that it may give rise to apparent anomalous diffusion. Here inference methods extract entire binding affinity distributions for the diffusing transcription factors, allowing us to precisely characterize their interactions with different components of the nuclear environment. From this analysis, we draw key mechanistic insight that goes beyond what is possible by simply fitting data to ``anomalous diffusion'' models.

  13. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy at Micromolar Concentrations without Optical Nanoconfinement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Laurence, Ted A.; Ly, Sonny; Bourguet, Feliza; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2014-08-14

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an important technique for studying biochemical interactions dynamically that may be used in vitro and in cell-based studies. It is generally claimed that FCS may only be used at nM concentrations. We show that this general consensus is incorrect and that the limitation to nM concentrations is not fundamental but due to detector limits as well as laser fluctuations. With a high count rate detector system and applying laser fluctuation corrections, we demonstrate FCS measurements up to 38 μM with the same signal-to-noise as at lower concentrations. Optical nanoconfinement approaches previously used to increase themore » concentration range of FCS are not necessary, and further increases above 38 μM may be expected using detectors and detector arrays with higher saturation rates and better laser fluctuation corrections. This approach greatly widens the possibilities of dynamic measurements of biochemical interactions using FCS at physiological concentrations.« less

  14. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Del Razo, Mauricio; Pan, Wenxiao; Qian, Hong; Lin, Guang

    2014-05-30

    The currently existing theory of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is based on the linear fluctuation theory originally developed by Einstein, Onsager, Lax, and others as a phenomenological approach to equilibrium fluctuations in bulk solutions. For mesoscopic reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear chemical reactions among a small number of molecules, a situation often encountered in single-cell biochemistry, it is expected that FCS time correlation functions of a reaction-diffusion system can deviate from the classic results of Elson and Magde [Biopolymers (1974) 13:1-27]. We first discuss this nonlinear effect for reaction systems without diffusion. For nonlinear stochastic reaction-diffusion systems there are no closed solutions; therefore, stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out. We show that the deviation is small for a simple bimolecular reaction; the most significant deviations occur when the number of molecules is small and of the same order. Extending Delbrück-Gillespie’s theory for stochastic nonlinear reactions with rapidly stirring to reaction-diffusion systems provides a mesoscopic model for chemical and biochemical reactions at nanometric and mesoscopic level such as a single biological cell.

  15. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Evidence for Structural Heterogeneity in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianchang; Baker, Gary A; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Dai, Sheng; Shaw, Robert W; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2011-01-01

    Self-aggregation in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) has been a subject of intense interest in recent years. In this work, we provide new experimental evidence for chain length-dependent self-aggregation in RTILs using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In studying a homologous series of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [CnMPy][Tf2N] RTILs of varying alkyl chain length (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), biphasic rhodamine 6G solute diffusion dynamics were observed; both the fast and slow diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing alkyl chain length, with the relative contribution from slower diffusion increasing for longer-chained [CnMPy][Tf2N]. We propose that the biphasic diffusion dynamics originate from self-aggregation of the nonpolar alkyl chains in the cationic [CnMPy]+. The presence of this local liquid structuring provides important insight into the behavior of RTILs relevant to their application in photovoltaics, fuel cells, and batteries.

  16. Monitoring spacecraft atmosphere contaminants by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained which will provide a test of the accuracy of the differential absorption method for trace contaminant detection in many-component gas mixtures. The necessary accurate absorption coefficient determinations were carried out for several gases; acetonitrile, 1,2-dichloroethane, Freon-113, furan, methyl ethyl ketone, and t-butyl alcohol. The absorption coefficients are displayed graphically. An opto-acoustic method was tested for measuring absorbance, similar to the system described by Dewey.

  17. The photophysics of phenylenevinylene oligomers and self-absorption of their fluorescence in polymer films.

    PubMed

    Winch, Nicola M; Smith, Gerald J; Breukers, Robert D; Bhuiyan, Delower H; Kay, Andrew J; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Raymond, Sebastiampillai G

    The fluorescence spectra, quantum yields and lifetimes of a series of alkoxy-substituted phenylenevinylene molecules, which serve as short chain oligomer models for poly(p-phenylenevinylene), have been determined in fluid solvents and in a high viscosity polymer matrix. The effects of solvent polarity and a high viscosity molecular environment on the fluorescence yields and spectral shapes have been established. Alkoxy group substitution on the phenyl ring moieties of the molecules has an important effect on the vibronic structures and profiles of the absorption spectra. This was interpreted in terms of hot-band, ground to excited singlet state transitions from energetically closely-spaced torsional vibrational levels of the vinylene double bond in the ground state. The shapes of the absorption bands affect the overlaps of the absorption and fluorescence spectra. This has been quantified as the probability of fluorescence reabsorption in solid polymer films as a function of pathlength. This is an important determinant of the efficacies of these compounds for "harvesting" solar energy in luminescent solar concentrator systems. The reabsorption probabilities of these compounds are lower for all pathlengths than those determined in the same polymer film for the fluorophores, perylene and perylene diimide, which have been considered for concentrating spatially diffuse sunlight. PMID:27480331

  18. Study of the Many Fluorescent Lines and the Absorption Variability in GX 301-2 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerst, F.; Suchy, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Ferrigno, C.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-depth study of the High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) GX 301-2 during its pre-periastron flare using data from the XMM-Newton satellite. The energy spectrum shows a power law continuum absorbed by a large equivalent hydrogen column on the order of 10(exp 24)/ sq cm and a prominent Fe K-alpha fluorescent emission line. Besides the Fe K-alpha line, evidence for Fe K-Beta, Ni K-alpha, Ni K-Beta, S K-alpha, Ar K-alpha, Ca K-alpha, and Cr K-alpha fluorescent lines is found. The observed line strengths are consistent with fluorescence in a cold absorber. This is the first time that Cr K-alpha is seen in emission in the X-ray spectrum of a HMXB. In addition to the modulation by the strong pulse period of approx 685 sec the source is highly variable and shows different states of activity. We perform time-resolved as well as pulse-to-pulse resolved spectroscopy to investigate differences between these states of activity. We find that fluorescent line fluxes are strongly variable and generally follow the overall flux. The N-H value is variable by a factor of 2, but not correlated to continuum normalization. We find an interval of low flux in the light curve in which the pulsations cease almost completely, without any indication of an increasing absorption column. We investigate this dip in detail and argue that it is most likely that during the dip the accretion ceased and the afterglow of the fluorescent iron accounted for the main portion of the X-ray flux. A similar dip was found earlier in RXTE data, and we compare our findings to these results.

  19. One trinucleus dimethine cyanine dye: Experimental and theoretical studies on molecular structure as well as absorption and fluorescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. D.; Wang, L. Y.; Su, J. J.; Zhang, X. F.; Lei, Y. B.; Zhai, G. H.; Wen, Z. Y.

    2013-05-01

    A kind of trinucleus dimethine cyanine dye: 1-methyl-2,6-bis[2-(furan-2-yl)vinyl]pyridinium iodide (1) was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The crystals of dye 1, obtained from slow evaporation of solvent acetone, crystallized in the triclinic space group P - 1 with a = 9.6501(16) Å, b = 10.2308(17) Å, c = 10.7341(17) Å, V = 887.2(3) Å3, and Z = 2 (at 298(2) K), and it was stabilized by the hydrogen bonds and intermolecular face-to-face π⋯π aromatic stacking interactions. Crystallographic, IR, 1H NMR and UV-Vis data of dye 1 were compared with the results of density functional theory (DFT) method, and the calculated molecular geometries, vibrational bands, 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-Vis maximum absorption were consistent with the experimental results. The fluorescence spectra were predicted in four different solvents with CIS/PCM methods. Compared with experimental values, the absolute deviations of emission maxima were -17.4 nm in chloroform, 6.3 nm in DMSO, 4.9 nm in methanol, and 6.8 nm in water, respectively. And the experimental fluorescence spectra were nicely reproduced by the simulated fluorescence spectra for each solvent.

  20. In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, Collin S.; Pery, Mary Jane

    1995-01-01

    An inverse model was developed to extract the absortion and scattering (elastic and inelastic) properties of oceanic constituents from surface spectral reflectance measurements. In particular, phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients, solar-stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence spectra, and particle backscattering spectra were modeled. The model was tested on 35 reflectance spectra obtained from irradiance measurements in optically diverse ocean waters (0.07 to 25.35 mg/cu m range in surface chlorophyll a concentrations). The universality of the model was demonstrated by the accurate estimation of the spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficents over a range of 3 orders of magnitude (rho = 0.94 at 500 nm). Under most oceanic conditions (chlorophyll a less than 3 mg/cu m) the percent difference between measured and modeled phytoplankton absorption coefficents was less than 35%. Spectral variations in measured phytoplankton absorption spectra were well predicted by the inverse model. Modeled volume fluorescence was weakly correlated with measured chl a; fluorescence quantum yield varied from 0.008 to 0.09 as a function of environment and incident irradiance. Modeled particle backscattering coefficients were linearly related to total particle cross section over a twentyfold range in backscattering coefficents (rho = 0.996, n = 12).

  1. Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of rainwater CDOM and contribution to Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Gao, Guang; Shi, Kun; Niu, Cheng; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang; Liu, Xiaohan

    2014-12-01

    We characterized the composition and sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rainwater, and assessed the relative contribution of rainwater CDOM to lake water in Lake Taihu based on rainwater collected during 35 rainfall events in 2012. Chemical analysis, ultraviolet-visible absorbance, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize CDOM. The CDOM absorption coefficient at 254 nm (a254) had a significant seasonal variation, with a mean of 3.67 ± 1.69 m-1 in the wet season (from April to early August), which was significantly lower than the means in the two dry seasons (8.26 ± 2.94 m-1 from January to March, and 7.60 ± 3.80 m-1 from late August to December). The mean humification index and the mean index of recent autochthonous contribution were 0.74 ± 0.48 and 1.31 ± 0.35, respectively, indicating that rainwater CDOM was dominated by an atmospheric microbial origin component. We identified four fluorescence components using parallel factor analysis modeling in the rainwater CDOM, i.e., two protein-like components (C1 and C2) and two fulvic-like components (C3 and C4), which had characteristics similar to those of protein and humic-like substances, respectively. The a254 was significantly and positively (p < 0.001) correlated with each of the five nutrient parameters: total dissolved nitrogen (r2 = 0.76), ammonium (r2 = 0.65), nitrate (r2 = 0.36), total dissolved phosphorus (r2 = 0.55), and phosphate (r2 = 0.50) showing the tightly coupling between CDOM and nutrients. Based on the deposition of the rainwater CDOM and the storage of the CDOM in Lake Taihu, the annual relative contribution of rainwater CDOM to the lake water was 11.7% in 2012. The results showed the important effect of wet deposition on CDOM sources in Lake Taihu, which is located in a region with severe air pollution in the Yangtze River Delta.

  2. Resonant inelastic scattering in dilute magnetic semiconductors by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. |; Jia, J.J.; Underwood, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    As modern, technologically important materials have become more complex, element specific techniques have become invaluable in studying the electronic structure of individual components from the system. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) and absorption (SXA) spectroscopies provide a unique means of measuring element and angular momentum density of electron states, respectively, for the valence and conducting bands in complex materials. X-ray absorption and the decay through x-ray emission are generally assumed to be two independent one-photon processes. Recent studies, however have demonstrated that SXF excited near the absorption threshold generate an array of spectral features that depend on nature of materials, particularly on the localization of excited states in s and d-band solids and that these two processes can no be longer treated as independent. Resonant SXF offers thus the new way to study the dynamics of the distribution of electronic valence states in the presence of a hole which is bound to the electron low lying in the conduction band. This process can simulate the interaction between hole-electron pair in wide gap semiconductors. Therefore such studies can help in understanding of transport and optics phenomena in the wide gap semiconductors. The authors report the result of Mn and S L-resonant emission in Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}S (with x=0.2 and 0.3) and MnS as the energy of exciting radiation is tuned across the Mn and S L{sub 3,2} absorption edge, along with the resonant excited spectra from elemental Mn as a reference.

  3. Analyses of the Dynamic Properties of Nuclear Lamins by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS).

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Shimi; Pack, Chan-Gi; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The major structural components of the nuclear lamina are the A- and B-type nuclear lamin proteins which are also present in the nucleoplasm. Studies of molecular movements of the lamins in both the lamina and nucleoplasm of living cell nuclei have provided insights into their roles in maintaining nuclear architecture. In this chapter, we present protocols for quantitatively measuring the mobilities of lamin proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in mammalian cell nuclei. PMID:27147036

  4. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy: ushering in a new age of enlightenment for cellular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, David M.; Ross, Justin A.; Albanesi, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Originally developed for applications in physics and physical chemistry, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is becoming widely used in cell biology. This review traces the development of the method and describes some of the more important applications. Specifically, the methods discussed include fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), scanning FCS, dual color cross-correlation FCS, the photon counting histogram and fluorescence intensity distribution analysis approaches, the raster scanning image correlation spectroscopy method, and the Number and Brightness technique. The physical principles underlying these approaches will be delineated, and each of the methods will be illustrated using examples from the literature. PMID:21547245

  5. Cure characterization of an unsaturated polyester resin using near-infrared, fluorescence and UV/visible reflection spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunden, Bradley Lyn

    This dissertation seeks to characterize the cure reaction of an unsaturated polyester resin using near-infrared, fluorescence and UV/Visible reflection spectroscopies. The results will provide a foundation for developing fiber-optic in-situ cure monitoring techniques based on near-infrared, fluorescence, and UV/Visible reflection spectroscopies for an unsaturated polyester resin system. Near-infrared spectra of the unsaturated polyester resin during cure showed a decrease in absorption at 1629, 2087, 2117, and 2227 nm. Model compounds representing the reactants and products of the cure reaction were characterized, and assignment of peaks in the NIR were made. Conversion of styrene and vinylene, determined from NIR measurements, were compared with values obtained using conventional FTIR measurements. Discrepancies between conversion values determined from NIR and FTIR measurements were attributed to a difference in sample sizes used for measurement. Using a microgel based reaction mechanism, the effects of temperature on the conversion of styrene and vinylene was discussed. A strong fluorescence emission was found during cure of the unsaturated polyester resin. As the reaction proceeded, the emission intensity at 306 nm increased. Model compound studies confirmed that the unsaturated polyester vinylene component exhibits negligible fluorescence when excited at 250 nm. The fluorescence emission at 306 nm was attributed to a reduced self-quenching effect of styrene monomer. In-situ fluorescence characterization of the cure reaction was also attempted. Fiber-optic fluorescence measurements taken in-situ at 75°C were found to be higher than those taken by fiber-optics at room temperature, indicating a temperature effect on the fluorescence emission. These results may be a consequence of the static quenching behavior of styrene monomer. UV/Visible reflection spectra of styrene showed a decrease in the % Reflectance at 255 nm with reaction time. This decrease was

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring reduction of natural organic matter and halogenated furanone precursors by biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Peleato, Nicolás M; McKie, Michael; Taylor-Edmonds, Lizbeth; Andrews, Susan A; Legge, Raymond L; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-06-01

    The application of fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor natural organic matter (NOM) reduction as a function of biofiltration performance was investigated. This study was conducted at pilot-scale where a conventional media filter was compared to six biofilters employing varying enhancement strategies. Overall reductions of NOM were identified by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance at 254 nm, as well as characterization of organic sub-fractions by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC) of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM). The biofilter using granular activated carbon media, with exhausted absorptive capacity, was found to provide the highest removal of all identified PARAFAC components. A microbial or processed humic-like component was found to be most amenable to biodegradation by biofilters and removal by conventional treatment. One refractory humic-like component, detectable only by FEEM-PARAFAC, was not well removed by biofiltration or conventional treatment. All biofilters removed protein-like material to a high degree relative to conventional treatment. The formation potential of two halogenated furanones, 3-chloro-4(dichloromethyl)-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mucochloric acid (MCA), as well as overall treated water genotoxicity are also reported. Using the organic characterization results possible halogenated furanone and genotoxicity precursors are identified. Comparison of FEEM-PARAFAC and LC-OCD results revealed polysaccharides as potential MX/MCA precursors. PMID:27016810

  7. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed. PMID:25577254

  8. Versatile plug flow catalytic cell for in situ transmission/fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centomo, P.; Meneghini, C.; Zecca, M.

    2013-05-01

    A novel flow-through catalytic cell has been developed for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on heterogeneous catalysts under working conditions and in the presence of a liquid and a gas phase. The apparatus allows to carry out XAS measurements in both the transmission and fluorescence modes, at moderate temperature (from RT to 50-80 °C) and low-medium gas pressure (up to 7-8 bars). The materials employed are compatible with several chemicals such as those involved in the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (O2, H2, H2O2, methanol). The versatile design of the cell allows to fit it to different experimental setups in synchrotron radiation beamlines. It was used successfully for the first time to test nanostructured Pd catalysts during the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in methanol solution from dihydrogen and dioxygen.

  9. Aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal modulation of Mie scattered light

    SciTech Connect

    Campillo, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-09-15

    Absorption spectroscopy of suspended submicron-sized aqueous ammonium-sulfate aerosol droplets has been performed by employing a CO/sub 2/ laser to photothermally modulate visible Mie scattered light. (AIP)

  10. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microlens array integrated with microfluidic channel for fluorescence spectroscopy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujihan, Suparat; Damrongsak, Badin; Kittidachachan, Pattareeya

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy detection has been commonly used in chemical and biochemical applications as it provides a good reliability and high sensitivity. Commercially available fluorescence spectroscopy system is typically bulky and expensive, hence making it inconvenience for on-site measurement which requires portable systems. However, the drawback of small devices is that it has a low detection volume, resulting in low fluorescence signal. In this paper, we report a microfluidic channel implemented with a microlens array for enhancing the performance of fluorescence spectroscopy detection. The microlens array was used to focus an excitation light onto the microchannel, thus expecting the increase in fluorescence detection signal. Both microchannels and microlens arrays were individually fabricated from poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using low-cost printed-circuit-board master molds. The fabrication and characterization of PDMS-based microlens arrays are discussed. In short, the microlens in plano-convex shape was designed with diameters of 700, 800 and 900 microns. The fabricated microlens arrays were characterized for radius of curvatures, SAGs and focal lengths. The plano-convex microlens array was then integrated into a microfluidic system in order to investigate the overall performance of fluorescence spectroscopy detection. Experiments were conducted with two fluorescence dyes, i.e. Rhodamine 6G and Coumarin 153. The preliminary results revealed that the PDMS microlens array implemented on the designed system shows potential for improving excitation and emission light intensity and, as a consequence, signal to background ratio of the fluorescence spectroscopy detection.

  11. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  12. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-12-31

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Absorption spectroscopy in hollow-glass waveguides using infrared laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Thomas A.; Kelly, James F.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Hartman, John S.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.

    2002-07-10

    Hollow-glass waveguides may be a viable technology that, in some cases, may supplant heavier multi-pass cells such as White or Herriott cells for performing trace detection using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. We report here a series of experiments for testing the suitability of waveguides for infrared spectroscopy. The loss characteristics of 1 mm bore diameter waveguides have been measured for straight and coiled lengths. Using direct absorption spectroscopy we have found that the absorption pathlength is approximately equal to the physical length of the waveguide. Broadband FM diode laser spectroscopy produces a comparable signal-to-noise ratio with less than a second of signal averaging. Finally, we have also performed near-infrared spectroscopy of nitrous oxide flowing through a waveguide using a telecommunications diode laser.

  14. Dicyanostilbene-derived two-photon fluorescence dyes with large two-photon absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chibao; Lin, Changhua; Ren, Anxiang; Yang, Nianfa

    2011-12-01

    Four dicyanostilbene-derived two-photon fluorescence (TPF) dyes were synthesized as the model compounds to systematically study the effect of the dicyano and the terminal substituent on the two-photon absorption (TPA). These four compounds ( DSO, DCY, DTO and DPH) exhibit very large two-photon absorption cross sections ( δ). DCY (A- π-A) with the terminal cyano group has especially high fluorescence quantum yield (0.71) and relatively large δ (1480 GM), while DPH (D- π-A) with the substitutedamino group at its terminus possesses the largest δ (2800 GM) and the longest emission wavelength (620 nm). The idealest terminal substituent should not be the alkoxy group but the substitutedamino group. This class of dicyanostilbene dyes possess small molecule size, large δ (830-2800 GM), long-wavelength emission (459-620 nm) and large Stokes shift (80-206 nm), and are ideal chromophores for TPF labels and probes.

  15. Relationship of CDOM fluorescence and absorption on the South West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conmy, R. N.; Coble, P. G.; Hastings, R. H.

    2005-12-01

    The WFS is a complex subtropical coastal region affected by multiple river systems. In recent years, the southern portion of the shelf has been the focus of much study due to the initiation of persistent harmful algal blooms. During this time, great effort has been put forth in collecting seasonal measurements of CDOM (Colored Dissolved Organic Matter) inherent optical properties via in situ and discrete sampling techniques. This sizeable dataset now allows for establishing robust regional relationships of CDOM fluorescence and absorption. Discussed here will be factors affecting that relationship and how it covaries with chlorophyll and DOC (Dissolve Organic Carbon). This relationship also demonstrates the potential for using in situ CDOM fluorescence measurements from moored locations to provide reliable CDOM absorption values for current bio-optical models.

  16. Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongtao; Bec, Julien; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Lam, Matthew; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Marcu, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) system designed to continuously acquire fluorescence emission and to reconstruct fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) from a luminal surface by using a catheter-based optical probe with rotary joint and pull-back device. The ability of the system to temporally and spectrally resolve the fluorescence emission from tissue was validated using standard dyes and tissue phantoms (e.g., ex vivo pig aorta phantom). Current results demonstrate that this system is capable to reliably resolve the fluorescence emission of multiple fluorophores located in the lumen; and suggest its potential for intravascular detection of distinct biochemical features of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:22808425

  17. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for breast cancer margins assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Zhang, Yanhong; Bold, Richard; Marcu, Laura

    2015-03-01

    During breast conserving surgery (BCS), which is the preferred approach to treat most early stage breast cancers, the surgeon attempts to excise the tumor volume, surrounded by thin margin of normal tissue. The intra-operative assessment of cancerous areas is a challenging procedure, with the surgeon usually relying on visual or tactile guidance. This study evaluates whether time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) presents the potential to address this problem. Point TRFS measurements were obtained from 19 fresh tissue slices (7 patients) and parameters that characterize the transient signals were quantified via constrained least squares deconvolution scheme. Fibrotic tissue (FT, n=69), adipose tissue (AT, n=76), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, n=27) were identified in histology and univariate statistical analysis, followed by multi-comparison test, was applied to the corresponding lifetime data. Significant differentiation between the three tissue types exists at 390 nm and 500 nm bands. The average lifetime is 3.23+/-0.74 ns for AT, 4.21+/-0.83 ns for FT and 4.71+/-0.35 ns (p<0.05) for IDC at 390 nm. Due to the smaller contribution of collagen in AT the average lifetime value is different from FT and IDC. Additionally, although intensity measurements do not show difference between FT and IDC, lifetime can distinguish them. Similarly, in 500 nm these values are 7.01+/-1.08 ns, 5.43+/-1.05 ns and 4.39+/-0.88 ns correspondingly (p<0.05) and this contrast is due to differentiation in retinol or flavins relative concentration, mostly contributing to AT. Results demonstrate the potential of TRFS to intra-operatively characterize BCS breast excised tissue in real-time and assess tumor margins.

  18. Simulation of autocorrelation function and photon counting distribution in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shingaryov, Igor P; Skakun, Victor V; Apanasovich, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    In modern fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy, the autocorrelation function and photon counting distribution are two widely used statistical characteristics of the measured fluctuating fluorescence intensity signal. Applying special analysis methods such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) to these properties, it is possible to recover values of different parameters of fluorescent molecules such as the concentration, diffusion coefficient, molecular brightness, and kinetic rate constants. The development of new analysis methods is senseless without testing their validity, accuracy, and robustness. The most appropriate check of a method is its application to experimental data. However, sometimes it is more convenient and easier to verify a method on simulated data. Simulation is also useful for better understanding the processes that were modeled during the development of analysis methods. Here, we present two simulation models providing an autocorrelation function and photon counting distribution of a sequence of photon arrival times detected in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy. PMID:24108653

  19. Direct and quantitative photothermal absorption spectroscopy of individual particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Jonathan K.; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Eon Han, Sang; Burg, Brian R.; Chen, Gang; Zheng, Ruiting; Shen, Sheng

    2013-12-23

    Photonic structures can exhibit significant absorption enhancement when an object's length scale is comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of light. This property has enabled photonic structures to be an integral component in many applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, and photothermal therapy. To characterize this enhancement at the single particulate level, conventional methods have consisted of indirect or qualitative approaches which are often limited to certain sample types. To overcome these limitations, we used a bilayer cantilever to directly and quantitatively measure the spectral absorption efficiency of a single silicon microwire in the visible wavelength range. We demonstrate an absorption enhancement on a per unit volume basis compared to a thin film, which shows good agreement with Mie theory calculations. This approach offers a quantitative approach for broadband absorption measurements on a wide range of photonic structures of different geometric and material compositions.

  20. Miniaturized King furnace permits absorption spectroscopy of small samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoli, B.; Tompkins, F. S.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature King-type furnace, consisting of an inductively heated, small diameter tantalum tube supported in a radiation shield eliminates the disadvantages of the conventional furnace in obtaining absorption spectra of metal vapors.

  1. Characterization of humic acids by two-dimensional correlation fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, K.; Xing, Shaoyong; Gong, Yongkuan; Miyajima, Toru

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated interaction between humic acids and heavy metal ions by fluorescence spectroscopy. The humic acids examined are Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and Dando humic acid (DHA), and heavy metal ions are Cu 2+ and Pb 2+. The binding constants between the humic acids and the heavy metal ions are obtained by a conventional fluorescence quenching technique. The two prominent bands in the fluorescence spectra of the humic acids give different binding constants, implying that the two bands are originated from different fluorescent species in the matrices of the humic acids. This was confirmed by two-dimensional correlation analysis based on the quenching perturbation on the fluorescence spectra. Two prominent cross peaks corresponding to the two fluorescence bands are obtained in the asynchronous maps, indicating that the two fluorescence bands belong to different species. The order of the response of the two fluorescence bands to the quenching perturbation is also elucidated based on Noda's rule.

  2. Protein oligomerization monitored by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy: Self-assembly of Rubisco activase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is presented to characterize complex protein assembly pathways by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We have derived the total autocorrelation function describing the behavior of mixtures of labeled and unlabeled protein under equilibrium conditions. Our modeling approach allows us...

  3. The use of CNDO in spectroscopy. XV. Two photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, Francis T.; Seliskar, C. J.; Jaffé, H. H.

    1980-04-01

    Two-photon absorptivities have been calculated within the CNDO/S-CI molecular orbital framework of Del Bene and Jaffé utilizing the second order time dependent perturbation equations of Göppert-Mayer and polarization methods of McClain. Good agreement is found between this theory and experiment for transition energies, symmetries, and two-photon absorptivities for the following molecules: biphenyl, terphenyl, 2,2'-difluorobiphenyl, 2,2'-bipyridyl, phenanthrene, and the isoelectronic series: fluorene, carbazole, dibenzofuran.

  4. Characterization of the binding of paylean and DNA by fluorescence, UV spectroscopy and molecular docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huifeng; Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of paylean (PL) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption, melting studies, ionic strength, viscosity experiments and molecular docking under simulated physiological conditions. Values for the binding constant Ka between PL and DNA were 5.11 × 10(3) , 2.74 × 10(3) and 1.74 × 10(3)  L mol(-1) at 19, 29 and 39°C respectively. DNA quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of PL via a static quenching procedure as shown from Stern-Volmer plots. The relative viscosity and the melting temperature of DNA were basically unchanged in the presence of PL. The fluorescence intensity of PL-DNA decreased with increasing ionic strength. The value of Ka for PL with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was larger than that for PL with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). All the results revealed that the binding mode was groove binding, and molecular docking further indicated that PL was preferentially bonded to A-T-rich regions of DNA. The values for ΔH, ΔS and ΔG suggested that van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding might be the main acting forces between PL and DNA. The binding distance was determined to be 3.37 nm based on the theory of Förster energy transference, which indicated that a non-radiation energy transfer process occurred. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26597997

  5. Experimental study of the light absorption in sea water by thermal lens spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, A.; Sira, E.; Silva, S.; Cabrera, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy is well known as highly sensitive technique enabling measurements of low absorption and concentration determination of various compounds. The optical absorption coefficients of doubly distilled water and samples of water from different places of the open Ocean and different coastal regions have been measured at 532.8 nm wavelength using this technique. The method enables sensitive, rapid and reproducible determination of small variations of the absorption coefficient which are related with small trace contaminations in sea water.

  6. Fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium dyes induced by two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guibao; Hu, Dawei; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Liu, Huijun; Tian, Yupeng

    2007-06-01

    We report the fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium toluene- p-sulfonates having donor- π-acceptor (D- π-A) structure under two-photon excitation at 1064 nm. The experimental results show that both the two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence lifetime and the two-photon pumped (TPP) energy upconversion efficiency were increased with the enhancement of electron-donating capability of the donor in the molecule. It is also indicated that an overlong alkyl group tends to result in a weakened molecular conjugation, leading to a decreased two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section. By choosing the donor, we can obtain a longest fluorescence lifetime of 837 ps, a highest energy upconversion efficiency of ˜6.1%, and a maximum TPA cross-section of 8.74×10 -48 cm 4 s/photon in these dyes.

  7. Multiple stimulated emission fluorescence photoacoustic sensing and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoming; Gao, Fei; Qiu, Yishen; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2016-07-01

    Multiple stimulated emission fluorescence photoacoustic (MSEF-PA) phenomenon is demonstrated in this letter. Under simultaneous illumination of pumping light and stimulated emission light, the fluorescence emission process is speeded up by the stimulated emission effect. This leads to nonlinear enhancement of photoacoustic signal while the quantity of absorbed photons is more than that of fluorescent molecules illuminated by pumping light. The electronic states' specificity of fluorescent molecular can also be labelled by the MSEF-PA signals, which can potentially be used to obtain fluorescence excitation spectrum in deep scattering tissue with nonlinearly enhanced photoacoustic detection. In this preliminary study, the fluorescence excitation spectrum is reconstructed by MSEF-PA signals through sweeping the wavelength of exciting light, which confirms the theoretical derivation well.

  8. Excitation–emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Ts; Borisova, E.; Penkov, N.; Vladimirov, B.; Zhelyazkova, A.; Avramov, L.

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an improved fluorescence technique for cancer diagnostics in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigate the fluorescence of ex vivo colorectal (cancerous and healthy) tissue samples using excitation–emission matrix (EEM) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) steady-state approaches. The obtained results are processed for revealing characteristic fluorescence spectral features with a valuable diagnostic meaning. The main tissue fluorophores, contributing to the observed fluorescence, are tyrosine, tryptophan, NADH, FAD, collagen and elastin. Based on the results of the Mann–Whitney test as useful parameters for differentiation of gastrointestinal cancer from normal mucosa, we suggest using excitation wavelengths in the range 300 – 360 nm for fluorescence spectroscopy and wavelengths intervals of 60 nm and 90 nm for SFS.

  9. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  10. Tryptophan content for monitoring breast cancer cell aggressiveness by native fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Xu, Baogang; Achilefu, Samuel; Alfano, R. R.

    2014-03-01

    This study shows tryptophan as the key native marker in cells to determine the level of aggressive cancer in breast cell lines using native fluorescence spectroscopy. An algorithm based on the ratio of tryptophan fluorescence intensity at 340 nm to intensity at 460 nm is associated with aggressiveness of the cancer cells. The higher the ratio is, the more aggressive the tumor towards metastasis.

  11. Endogenous synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of basal cell carcinoma-initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Keremedchiev, M.; Penkov, N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Avramov, L.

    2016-01-01

    The human skin is a complex, multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with spatially varying optical properties. Analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra could be a very complicated task; therefore researchers apply complex mathematical tools for data evaluation, or try to find some specific approaches, that would simplify the spectral analysis. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) allows improving the spectral resolution, which could be useful for the biological tissue fluorescence characterization and could increase the tumour detection diagnostic accuracy.

  12. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R.S.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (< 5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterize anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution {approx} 5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  13. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  14. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Acetylene in the Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Thomas E.; Sanders, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    Lecture-based experimental methods that include topics ranging from basic signal processing to the proper use of thermocouples to advanced optical techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence are described. The data obtained from this demonstration could be provided to the students in digital form to obtain useful engineering results such as an…

  15. Characterization of Metalloproteins by High-throughput X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    W Shi; M Punta; J Bohon; J Sauder; R DMello; M Sullivan; J Toomey; D Abel; M Lippi; et al.

    2011-12-31

    High-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure transition metal content based on quantitative detection of X-ray fluorescence signals for 3879 purified proteins from several hundred different protein families generated by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics. Approximately 9% of the proteins analyzed showed the presence of transition metal atoms (Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, or Mn) in stoichiometric amounts. The method is highly automated and highly reliable based on comparison of the results to crystal structure data derived from the same protein set. To leverage the experimental metalloprotein annotations, we used a sequence-based de novo prediction method, MetalDetector, to identify Cys and His residues that bind to transition metals for the redundancy reduced subset of 2411 sequences sharing <70% sequence identity and having at least one His or Cys. As the HT-XAS identifies metal type and protein binding, while the bioinformatics analysis identifies metal-binding residues, the results were combined to identify putative metal-binding sites in the proteins and their associated families. We explored the combination of this data with homology models to generate detailed structure models of metal-binding sites for representative proteins. Finally, we used extended X-ray absorption fine structure data from two of the purified Zn metalloproteins to validate predicted metalloprotein binding site structures. This combination of experimental and bioinformatics approaches provides comprehensive active site analysis on the genome scale for metalloproteins as a class, revealing new insights into metalloprotein structure and function.

  16. Characterization of metalloproteins by high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wuxian; Punta, Marco; Bohon, Jen; Sauder, J. Michael; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Sullivan, Mike; Toomey, John; Abel, Don; Lippi, Marco; Passerini, Andrea; Frasconi, Paolo; Burley, Stephen K.; Rost, Burkhard; Chance, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure transition metal content based on quantitative detection of X-ray fluorescence signals for 3879 purified proteins from several hundred different protein families generated by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics. Approximately 9% of the proteins analyzed showed the presence of transition metal atoms (Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, or Mn) in stoichiometric amounts. The method is highly automated and highly reliable based on comparison of the results to crystal structure data derived from the same protein set. To leverage the experimental metalloprotein annotations, we used a sequence-based de novo prediction method, MetalDetector, to identify Cys and His residues that bind to transition metals for the redundancy reduced subset of 2411 sequences sharing <70% sequence identity and having at least one His or Cys. As the HT-XAS identifies metal type and protein binding, while the bioinformatics analysis identifies metal- binding residues, the results were combined to identify putative metal-binding sites in the proteins and their associated families. We explored the combination of this data with homology models to generate detailed structure models of metal-binding sites for representative proteins. Finally, we used extended X-ray absorption fine structure data from two of the purified Zn metalloproteins to validate predicted metalloprotein binding site structures. This combination of experimental and bioinformatics approaches provides comprehensive active site analysis on the genome scale for metalloproteins as a class, revealing new insights into metalloprotein structure and function. PMID:21482623

  17. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  18. A fluorescence spectroscopy study of traditional Chinese medicine Angelica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Song, Feng; Liu, Shujing; Chen, Guiyang; Wei, Chen; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Jiadong

    2013-10-01

    By measuring the fluorescence spectra of Chinese medicine (CM) Angelica water solutions with different concentrations from 0.025 to 2.5 mg/mL, results showed that the fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration. Through fluorescence spectra of Angelica solution under different pH values, results indicated coumarin compounds were the active ingredients of Angelica. We also observed fluorescence quenching of the Angelica solution in the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles with radius of 12 nm. Keeping a certain value for the volume of the silver nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity at 402 nm was linearly proportional to the Angelica in the range of 1-3 mg/mL.

  19. Single gold nanoparticles to enhance the detection of single fluorescent molecules at micromolar concentration using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punj, Deep; Rigneault, Hervé; Wenger, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Single nanoparticles made of noble metals are strongly appealing to develop practical applications to detect fluorescent molecules in solution. Here, we detail the use of a single gold nanoparticle of 100 nm diameter to enhance the detection of single Alex Fluor 647 fluorescent molecules at high concentrations of several micromolar. We discuss the implementation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and provide a new method to reliably extract the enhanced fluorescence signal stemming from the nanoparticle near-field from the background generated in the confocal volume. The applicability of our method is checked by reporting the invariance of the single molecule results as function of the molecular concentration, and the experimental data is found in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  20. Absorption spectra and spectral-kinetic characteristics of the fluorescence of Sanguinarine in complexes with polyelectrolytes and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal, N. D.; Nowicky, J. W.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2010-07-01

    The absorption spectra and stationary and time resolved fluorescence spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid sanguinarine are studied in aqueous media and during interactions with synthetic polyelectrolytes (polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine) and a natural polyelectrolyte (DNA).

  1. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanoparticles in different ethylene glycols.

    PubMed

    Flessau, Sandra; Wolter, Christopher; Pöselt, Elmar; Kröger, Elvira; Mews, Alf; Kipp, Tobias

    2014-06-14

    The optical properties of single colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) are considerably influenced by the direct environment of the NPs. Here, the influence of different liquid and solid glycol matrices on CdSe-based NPs is investigated. Since the fluorescence of individual NPs varies from one NP to another, it is highly desirable to study the very same individual NPs in different matrices. This was accomplished by immobilizing NPs in a liquid cell sample holder or in microfluidic devices. The samples have been investigated by space-resolved wide-field fluorescence microscopy and energy- and time-resolved confocal scanning fluorescence microscopy with respect to fluorescence intensities, emission energies, blinking behavior, and fluorescence decay dynamics of individual NPs. During the measurements the NPs were exposed to air, to liquid ethylene glycols H(OCH2CH2)nOH (also called EGn) with different chain lengths (1 ≤ n ≤ 7), to liquid 2-methylpentane-2,3-diol, or to solid polyethylene oxide. It was found that EG6-7 (also known as PEG 300) is very well suited as a liquid matrix or solvent for experiments that correlate chemical and physical modifications of the surface and of the immediate environment of individual NPs to their fluorescence properties since it leads to intense and stable fluorescence emission of the NPs. PMID:24788878

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy: A promising tool for carbonate petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, M.A.; Bensley, D.F.; Utgaard, J.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Responses of depositional and diagenetic components in samples of the Mission Canyon Limestone to blue-light excitation vary most noticeably with mineralogy and crystal size. The finely crystalline micrites, dolomicrites and argillaceous carbonates fluoresce more intensely than the more coarsely crystalline sparry calcite cements, dolospar cements and coarsely crystalline dolomites. Low intensity spectral analysis of cherts, anhydrites, and the carbonate phases provides an objective manner for quantifying fluorescence responses and for comparing them statistically. Nineteen of the optical parameters used in organic petrology are evaluated for their utility in carbonate petrology. Results of the discriminant function analysis suggest that red-weighted fluorescence chromaticity indices and yellow-weighted ones are more useful for mineral identification than the blue-weighted or equal-energy chromaticity indices. Statistical analysis of the optical data, mineralogy, and minor element compositions suggests correlations between the fluorescence responses and major minerals, carbonate diagenetic components, and the minor element geochemistry of carbonate components. Although no single element is identified as an activator of fluorescence in this study, the complex correlations of optical indices with Fe suggest that it does act to quench fluorescence. The four fluorescence cy chromaticity indices correlate significantly and positively with mineralogy and negatively with MgCo[sub 3]. In organic petrology, these indices are related to maceral content. The positive correlations of the four fluorescence cx chromaticity indices with Fe and Mn likely reflect fluorescence response to changes in compositions of pore fluids during diagenesis. This trend parallels the increase in cx indices with increasing maturation of organic materials.

  4. Studies of Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry using Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica

    The objective of this Ph.D. project is to investigate Arctic middle atmosphere chemistry using solar infrared absorption spectroscopy. These measurements were made at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut, which is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). This research is part of the CANDAC/PEARL Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry theme and aims to improve our understanding of the processes controlling the stratospheric ozone budget using measurements of the concentrations of stratospheric constituents. The instrument, a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, has been specifically designed for high-resolution measurements over a broad spectral range and has been used to measure reactive species, source gases, reservoirs, and dynamical tracers at PEARL since August 2006. The first part of this research focuses on the optimization of ozone retrievals, for which 22 microwindows were studied and compared. The spectral region from 1000 to 1005 cm-1 was found to be the most sensitive in both the stratosphere and troposphere, giving the highest number of independent pieces of information and the smallest total error for retrievals at Eureka. Similar studies were performed in coordination with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change for nine other species, with the goal of improving and harmonizing the retrieval parameters among all Infrared Working Group sites. Previous satellite validation exercises have identified the highly variable polar conditions of the spring period to be a challenge. In this work, comparisons between the 125HR and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer) from 2007 to 2010 have been used to develop strict criteria that allow the ground and satellite-based instruments to be confidently compared. After applying these criteria, the differences between the two instruments were generally

  5. Optical spectroscopy of a highly fluorescent aggregate of bacteriochlorophyll c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causgrove, T. P.; Cheng, P.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c and a similar model compound, Mg-methyl bacteriopheophorbide d, form several types of aggregates in nonpolar solvents. One of these aggregates is highly fluorescent, with a quantum yield higher than that of the monomer. This aggregate is also unusual in that it shows a rise time in its fluorescence emission decay at certain wavelengths, which is ascribed to a change in conformation of the aggregate. An analysis of fluorescence depolarization data is consistent with either a linear aggregate of four or five monomers or preferably a cyclic arrangement of three dimers.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the secondary cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, N. A.; Larionov, P. M.; Rozhin, I. A.; Druzhinin, I. B.; Chernykh, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Excitation-emission matrices of laser-induced fluorescence of lens capsule epithelium, the lens nucleus, and the lens capsule are investigated. A solid-state laser in combination with an optical parametric generator tunable in the range from 210 to 350 nm was used for excitation of fluorescence. The spectra of fluorescence of all three types of tissues exhibit typical features that are specific to them and drastically differ from one another. This effect can be used for intrasurgical control of presence of residual lens capsule epithelium cells in the capsular bag after surgical treatment of a cataract.

  7. Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

  8. Absorption and fluorescence of alexandrite and of titanium in sapphire and glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Hess, R. V.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    The fluorescence and absorption data for titanium in crystalline sapphire and titanium doped into two silicate and one phosphate glass structures are analyzed. It is observed that the Ti-doped silicate glass sample exhibits no absorption related to the Ti(III) ion, the Ti-doped phosphate glass is deep blue, the absorption line width of the glass samples are a factor of two larger than that of sapphire, and the absorption peak for the Ti in the glass shifted about 100 nm to the red from the Ti:sapphire absorption peak. This shift reveals that the Ti(III) ion is sensitive to the crystalline environment and not to the glass environment. The photoluminescence spectra for Ti-doped sapphire and alexandrite are compared. It is detected that the Ti:sapphire exhibits a broader spectrum than that for alexandrite with a peak at 750 nm. The three zero phonon transitions of Ti:Al2O3 at liquid nitrogen temperatures are studied.

  9. Problems affecting performance of the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test for syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, E F; Adams, M R; Orrison, L H; Pender, B J; Larsen, S A

    1979-01-01

    Immunofluorescent staining of Treponema pallidum was studied to clarify the effect of three factors on the results of the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test: (i) heat inactivation of sera at 56 degrees C for 30 min before testing, (ii) use of multicircle slides, and (iii) tungsten illumination to visualize and assess unstained treponemes on reactive as well as nonreactive smears. It was found that serum inactivation before testing was not necessary for detection of immunoglobin G antibody, but an immunoglobulin M prozone was detected in unheated serum. On multicircle slides, it was demonstrated that a false-positive reaction could be obtained in 30 s at 37 and 25 degrees C if a smear where a nonreactive serum had been placed was crossed by a strongly reactive serum from another circle. Tungsten illumination proved necessary for correct assessment of unstained treponemes on all fluorescent treponemal antibody-aborption test smears, reactive or nonreactive. The possible role of these factors in incorrect fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test results is discussed. PMID:372219

  10. Comparative studies on the interaction of cefixime with bovine serum albumin by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Baosheng; Li, Zhiyun; Guo, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Under simulated physiological conditions, the reaction mechanism between cefixime and bovine serum albumin at different temperatures (293, 303 and 310 K) was investigated using a fluorescence quenching method and synchronous fluorescence method, respectively. The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity and synchronous fluorescence intensity of bovine serum albumin decreased regularly on the addition of cefixime. In addition, the quenching mechanism, binding constants, number of binding sites, type of interaction force and energy-transfer parameters of cefixime with bovine serum albumin obtained from two methods using the same equation were consistent. The results indicated that the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry could be used to study the binding mechanism between drug and protein, and was a useful supplement to the conventional method. PMID:25351241

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.; Kisker, C.

    1999-05-17

    Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

  12. Limiting resolution of linear absorption spectroscopy in thin gas cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, A. Ch.

    2010-06-01

    The most narrow sub-Doppler frequency resonances in the linear absorption of monochromatic radiation that propagates in the normal direction through a cell containing a layer of rarefied gas medium with a thickness smaller than or on the order of the wavelength of this radiation are theoretically studied. The calculation is performed using as an example a three-dimensional gas cell shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped. It is shown that the width and amplitude of considered sub-Doppler resonances (in the vicinity of centers of rather weak quantum transitions) significantly depend on the transit relaxation of atomic particles, which is determined by their transit times through the irradiated region of the cell both in longitudinal and in transverse directions. The restrictions of the approximation of the planar one-dimensional cell that was previously used in such calculations are determined. Possible applications of linear absorption resonances in ultrathin (nanometer) gas cells as references for optical frequency standards are discussed.

  13. Ultrafast Fluorescence Spectroscopy via Upconversion: Applications to Biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Knutson, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews basic concepts of nonlinear fluorescence upconversion, a technique whose temporal resolution is essentially limited only by the pulse width of the ultrafast laser. Design aspects for upconversion spectrophotofluorometers are discussed, and a recently developed system is described. We discuss applications in biophysics, particularly the measurement of time-resolved fluorescence spectra of proteins (with subpicosecond time resolution). Application of this technique to biophysical problems such as dynamics of tryptophan, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids is reviewed. PMID:19152860

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy of anisole at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, K. H.; Morin, C.; Kühni, M.; Guibert, P.

    2014-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence of anisole as tracer of isooctane at an excitation wavelength of 266 nm was investigated for conditions relevant to rapid compression machine studies and for more general application of internal combustion engines regarding temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition. An optically accessible high pressure and high temperature chamber was operated by using different ambient gases (Ar, N2, CO2, air, and gas mixtures). Fluorescence experiments were investigated at a large range of pressure and temperature (0.2-4 MPa and 473-823 K). Anisole fluorescence quantum yield decreases strongly with temperature for every considered ambient gas, due to efficient radiative mechanisms of intersystem crossing. Concerning the pressure effect, the fluorescence signal decreases with increasing pressure, because increasing the collisional rate leads to more important non-radiative collisional relaxation. The quenching effect is strongly efficient in oxygen, with a fluorescence evolution described by Stern-Volmer relation. The dependence of anisole fluorescence versus thermodynamic parameters suggests the use of this tracer for temperature imaging in specific conditions detailed in this paper. The calibration procedure for temperature measurements is established for the single-excitation wavelength and two-color detection technique.

  15. [Laser-time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in immunoassays].

    PubMed

    Pan, L; Du, J; Xie, W; Du, Q; Yun, Q

    2000-06-01

    This paper described a laser-excited time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay set. It made lanthanide ion to couple the anhydrde of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPAA) for labeling antibodies. The experiment used polystyrene tap coated with HCV antigen as the solid phase and a chelate of the rare earth metal europium as fluorescent label. A nitrogen laser beam was used to excite the Eu3- chelates and after 60 microseconds delay time, the emission fluorescence was measured. Background fluorescence of short lifetimes caused by serum components and Raman scattering can be eliminated by set the delay time. In the system condition, fluorescent spectra and fluorescent lifetimes of Eu3+ beta-naphthoyltrifluroacetone (NTA) chelates were measured. The fluorescent lifetime value is 650 microseconds. The maximum emission wavelength is 613 nm. The linear range of europium ion concentration is 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-11) g.mL-1 and the detection limit is 1 x 10(-13) g.mL-1. The relative standard deviation of determination (n = 12) for samples at 0.01 ng.mL-1 magnitude is 6.4%. Laser-TRFIA was also found to be suitable for diagnosis of HCV. The sensitivity and specificity were comparable to enzyme immunoassay. The result was obtained with laser-TRFIA for 29 human correlated well with enzyme immunoassay. PMID:12958930

  16. Intracellular distribution of fluorescent copper and zinc bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes measured with fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hickey, James L; James, Janine L; Henderson, Clare A; Price, Katherine A; Mot, Alexandra I; Buncic, Gojko; Crouch, Peter J; White, Jonathan M; White, Anthony R; Smith, Trevor A; Donnelly, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular distribution of fluorescently labeled copper and zinc bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes was investigated in M17 neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons with a view to providing insights into the neuroprotective activity of a copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complex known as Cu(II)(atsm). Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed the identification of the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes as well as the free ligand inside the cells by virtue of the distinct fluorescence lifetime of each species. Confocal fluorescent microscopy of cells treated with the fluorescent copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complex revealed significant fluorescence associated with cytoplasmic puncta that were identified to be lysosomes in primary cortical neurons and both lipid droplets and lysosomes in M17 neuroblastoma cells. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed that the fluorescence signal emanating from the lipid droplets could be attributed to the copper(II) complex but also that some degree of loss of the metal ion led to diffuse cytosolic fluorescence that could be attributed to the metal-free ligand. The accumulation of the copper(II) complex in lipid droplets could be relevant to the neuroprotective activity of Cu(II)(atsm) in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. PMID:26397162

  17. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Of Thin Foils Irradiated By An Ultra-short Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Renaudin, P.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, P.; Faussurier, G.; Lecherbourg, L.; Audebert, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J.-P.; Shepherd, R.

    2007-08-02

    Point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure absorption spectra of transient plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse. The 1s-2p and 1s-3p absorption lines of weakly ionized aluminum and the 2p-3d absorption lines of bromine were measured over an extended range of densities in a low-temperature regime. Independent plasma characterization was obtained using frequency domain interferometry diagnostic (FDI) that allows the interpretation of the absorption spectra in terms of spectral opacities. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, spectral opacity calculations have been performed using the density and temperature inferred from the FDI diagnostic to compare to the measured absorption spectra. A good agreement is obtained when non-equilibrium effects due to non-stationary atomic physics are negligible at the x-ray probe time.

  18. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Of Thin Foils Irradiated By An Ultra-short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaudin, P.; Lecherbourg, L.; Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.; Faussurier, G.; Audebert, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J.-P.; Shepherd, R.

    2007-08-01

    Point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure absorption spectra of transient plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse. The 1s-2p and 1s-3p absorption lines of weakly ionized aluminum and the 2p-3d absorption lines of bromine were measured over an extended range of densities in a low-temperature regime. Independent plasma characterization was obtained using frequency domain interferometry diagnostic (FDI) that allows the interpretation of the absorption spectra in terms of spectral opacities. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, spectral opacity calculations have been performed using the density and temperature inferred from the FDI diagnostic to compare to the measured absorption spectra. A good agreement is obtained when non-equilibrium effects due to non-stationary atomic physics are negligible at the x-ray probe time.

  19. Do fluorescence and transient absorption probe the same intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile?

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Fujiwara, Takashige; Lim, Edward C.

    2009-07-21

    We present here the results of time-resolved absorption and emission experiments for 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile in solution, which suggest that the fluorescent intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state may differ from the twisted ICT (TICT) state observed in transient absorption.

  20. Noninvasive fluorescence excitation spectroscopy for the diagnosis of oral neoplasia in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan; Renganathan, Kannan; Saraswathy, Thillai Rajasekaran

    2012-09-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy (FES) is an emerging approach to cancer detection. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of FES technique for the detection and characterization of normal and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. Fluorescence excitation (FE) spectra from oral mucosa were recorded in the spectral range of 340 to 600 nm at 635 nm emission using a fiberoptic probe spectrofluorometer to obtain spectra from the buccal mucosa of 30 sites of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 sites of 10 cancerous patients. Significant FE spectral differences were observed between normal and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC) oral lesions. The FE spectra of healthy volunteers consists of a broad emission band around 440 to 470 nm, whereas in WDSCC lesions, a new primary peak was seen at 410 nm with secondary peaks observed at 505, 540, and 580 nm due to the accumulation of porphyrins in oral lesions. The FE spectral bands of the WDSCC lesions resemble the typical absorption spectra of a porphyrin. Three potential ratios (I410/I505, I410/I540, and I410/I580) were calculated from the FE spectra and used as input variables for a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) for normal and WDSCC groups. Leave-one-out (LOO) method of cross-validation was performed to check the reliability on spectral data for tissue characterization. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined for normal and WDSCC lesions from the scatter plot of the discriminant function scores. It was observed that diagnostic algorithm based on discriminant function scores obtained by SLDA-LOO method was able to distinguish WDSCC from normal lesions with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Results of the pilot study demonstrate that the FE spectral changes due to porphyrin have a good diagnostic potential; therefore, porphyrin can be used as a native tumor marker.

  1. Comparing Compositions of Modern Cast Bronze Sculptures: Optical Emission Spectroscopy Versus x-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. L.; Dunand, D. C.

    2015-07-01

    Bulk elemental compositions of 74 modern cast bronze sculptures from the collection at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Rodin Museum (Philadelphia, PA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and a handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The elemental compositions of the cast sculptures as measured previously by ICP-OES and presently by XRF are compared: A good match is found between the two methods for the base metal (Cu) and the two majority alloying elements (Zn and Sn). For both ICP-OES and XRF data, when the Zn composition is plotted versus the Sn composition, three discernable clusters are found that are related to the artist, foundry, casting date, and casting method; they consist of (A) high-zinc brass, (B) low-zinc, low-tin brass, and (C) low-zinc, tin bronze. Thus, our study confirms that the relatively fast, nondestructive XRF spectrometry can be used effectively over slower and invasive, but more accurate, ICP-OES to help determine a sculpture's artist, foundry, date of creation, date of casting, and casting method.

  2. Multinozzle supersonic expansion for Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, R.; Durry, G.; Bach, M.; Pétrisse, R.; Jost, R.; Herman, M.

    1995-12-01

    A new supersonic expansion made of several, up to 31 aligned nozzles, on top of a set of powerful Roots blowers has been built. Adequate optics allowed the recording of infrared absorption spectra in a cell with a Fourier transform interferometer, at high spectral resolution. The system was tested with N 2O, between 2000 and 4800 cm -1. The ν1 + 2 ν2 + ν3 combination band, estimated to be some 10000 times weaker than the ν2 fundamental, could be observed among all the other expected bands, thus setting a limit for the sensitivity of the system. The formation of large N 2O clusters was observed.

  3. Absorption spectroscopy of a laboratory photoionized plasma experiment at Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, I. M.; Durmaz, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J.

    2014-03-15

    The Z facility at the Sandia National Laboratories is the most energetic terrestrial source of X-rays and provides an opportunity to produce photoionized plasmas in a relatively well characterised radiation environment. We use detailed atomic-kinetic and spectral simulations to analyze the absorption spectra of a photoionized neon plasma driven by the x-ray flux from a z-pinch. The broadband x-ray flux both photoionizes and backlights the plasma. In particular, we focus on extracting the charge state distribution of the plasma and the characteristics of the radiation field driving the plasma in order to estimate the ionisation parameter.

  4. Single-dot absorption spectroscopy and theory of silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychugov, Ilya; Pevere, Federico; Luo, Jun-Wei; Zunger, Alex; Linnros, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Photoluminescence excitation measurements have been performed on single, unstrained oxide-embedded Si nanocrystals. Having overcome the challenge of detecting weak emission, we observe four broad peaks in the absorption curve above the optically emitting state. Atomistic calculations of the Si nanocrystal energy levels agree well with the experimental results and allow identification of some of the observed transitions. An analysis of their physical nature reveals that they largely retain the indirect band-gap structure of the bulk material with some intermixing of direct band-gap character at higher energies.

  5. A GAS TEMPERATURE PROFILE BY INFRARED EMISSION-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program calculates the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas. Emphasis is on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing water vapor or carbon dioxide as radiating gases. The temperature profile is assumed to be axisymmetric with a functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters are calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Infrared emission and absorption measurements at two or more wavelengths provide a method of determining a gas temperature profile along a path through the gas by using a radiation source and receiver located outside the gas stream being measured. This permits simplified spectral scanning of a jet or rocket engine exhaust stream with the instrumentation outside the exhaust gas stream. This program provides an iterative-cyclic computation in which an initial assumed temperature profile is altered in shape until the computed emission and absorption agree, within specified limits, with the actual instrument measurements of emission and absorption. Temperature determination by experimental measurements of emission and absorption at two or more wavelengths is also provided by this program. Additionally, the program provides a technique for selecting the wavelengths to be used for determining the temperature profiles prior to the beginning of the experiment. By using this program feature, the experimenter has a higher probability of selecting wavelengths which will result in accurate temperature profile measurements. This program provides the user with a technique for determining whether this program will be sufficiently accurate for his particular application, as well as providing a means of finding the solution. The input to the program consists of four types of data: (1) computer program control constants, (2) measurements of gas radiance and transmittance at selected wavelengths, (3) tabulations from the literature of gas

  6. A heated chamber burner for atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venghiattis, A A

    1968-07-01

    A new heated chamber burner is described. The burner is of the premixed type, and burner heads of the types conventionally used in atomic absorption may be readily adapted to it. This new sampling system has been tested for Ag, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, and Zn in aqueous solutions. An improvement of the order of ten times has been obtained in sensitivity, and in detection limits as well, for the elements determined. Interferences controllable are somewhat more severe than in conventional burners but are controllable. PMID:20068792

  7. Simulation-based comparison of noise effects in wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, B.; Zinn, P.; Engelbrecht, R.; Schmauss, B.

    2010-08-01

    A simulative investigation of noise effects in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and direct absorption diode laser absorption spectroscopy is presented. Special attention is paid to the impact of quantization noise of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) of the photodetector signal in the two detection schemes with the goal of estimating the necessary ADC resolution for each technique. With laser relative intensity noise (RIN), photodetector shot noise and thermal amplifier noise included, the strategies used for noise reduction in direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy are compared by simulating two respective systems. Results show that because of the combined effects of dithering by RIN and signal averaging, the resolutions required for the direct absorption setup are only slightly higher than for the WMS setup. Only for small contributions of RIN an increase in resolution will significantly improve signal quality in the direct scheme.

  8. [Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 by multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Xie, Pin-hua; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Li, Ang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Wen-qing

    2010-09-01

    A method of retrieving NO2 in troposphere based on multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) was introduced. The differential slant column density (dSCD) of NO2 was evaluated by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), removing the Fraunhofer structure and Ring effect. Combining the results of different observing directions, the tropospheric NO2 differential slant column density (deltaSCD) was evaluated, and the air mass factor (AMF) was calculated with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN and the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) was retrieved. To ensure the accuracy of the results, it was compared with the results of long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS), a good accordance was shown with the correlation coefficients of 0.94027 and 0.96924. PMID:21105419

  9. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the assessment of skin photoaging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Campos, Carolina; Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    pathology. The optical properties of these intrinsic fluorophores respond to the microenvironment and the metabolic status, thus making fluorescence spectroscopy a valuable tool to study the conditions of biological tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hairless mice skin metabolic changes during the photoaging process through lifetime and fluorescence measurements targeting NADH and FAD. Two lasers centered at 378 nm and 445 nm, respectively, perform excitation of NADH and FAD. The fluorescence acquisition is carried out at mice dorsal and ventral regions throughout the photoaging protocol and aging process. Differences in fluorescence and lifetime data between young and photoaged mice measurements were observed. The endogenous fluorescence spectrum of photoaged dorsal skin showed an increase compared to young and aged skin. Lifetime of bound NADH and free FAD presented an increase in the first week that continued until the end of the protocol. Aging process is being investigated to complement the information obtained from fluorescence data and lifetime of photoaging process.

  10. Thermochromic Absorption, Fluorescence Band Shifts and Dipole Moments of BADAN and ACRYLODAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawski, A.; Kukliński, B.; Bojarski, P.

    2002-08-01

    Using the thermochromic shift method of absorption and fluorescence bands, the electric dipole moments in the ground (μg) and excited (μe) state are simultaneously determined for BADAN (6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylamino-naphtalene) and ACRYLODAN (6-acrylolyl-2-dimethylamino-naphtalene) in ethyl acetate. For these compounds the same ratio μe/μg = 2.9 was found, which is similar to that of PRODAN (6-propionyl-2-dimethylamino-naphtalene). The estimated empirical Onsager radii afor BADAN and ACRYLODAN are the same, and they are somewhat smaller than the calculated geometrical values.

  11. Picosecond kinetic absorption and fluorescence studies of bovine rhodopsin with a fixed 11-ene.

    PubMed Central

    Buchert, J; Stefancic, V; Doukas, A G; Alfano, R R; Callender, R H; Pande, J; Akita, H; Balogh-Nair, V; Nakanishi, K

    1983-01-01

    A synthetic retinal having a fixed 11-cis geometry has been used to prepare a nonbleachable analogue of bovine rhodopsin. Marked differences in the picosecond absorption and fluorescence behavior of this analogue at room temperature, compared with that of natural rhodopsin, were observed. This not only indicates that the 11-cis to trans isomerization of the retinal moiety is the crucial primary event in the photolysis of rhodopsin, but also it establishes that this isomerization must occur on the picosecond time scale or faster. PMID:6626668

  12. Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure of low-Z absorbates using fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stoehr, J.; Kollin, E.B.; Fischer, D.A.; Hastings, J.B.; Zaera, F.; Sette, F.

    1985-05-01

    Comparison of x-ray fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra above the S K-edge for c(2 x 2) S on Ni(100) reveals an order of magnitude higher sensitivity of the FY technique. Using FY detection, thiophene (C/sub 4/H/sub 4/S) chemisorption on Ni(100) is studied with S coverages down to 0.08 monolayer. The molecule dissociates at temperatures as low as 100K by interaction with fourfold hollow Ni sites. Blocking of these sites by oxygen leaves the molecule intact.

  13. Unravelling molecular mechanisms in the fluorescence spectra of doxorubicin in aqueous solution by femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Changenet-Barret, Pascale; Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Manet, Ilse; Monti, Sandra

    2013-02-28

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-tumoral agent widely used for cancer therapy. Despite numerous studies, the fluorescence properties of DOX, usually exploited for the characterization of the interaction with biological media, have until now led to controversial interpretations, mainly due to self-association of the drug in aqueous solution. We present here the first femtosecond study of DOX based on measurements with the fluorescence up-conversion technique in combination with time-correlated single photon counting using the same laser source. We provide evidence that fluorescence signals of DOX stem from monomers and dimers. DOX dimerization induces a dramatic decrease in the fluorescence quantum yield from 3.9 × 10(-2) to 10(-5) associated with the red shift of the fluorescence spectrum by ~25 nm. While the fluorescence lifetime of the monomer is 1 ns, the dimer fluorescence is found to decay with a lifetime of about 2 ps. In contrast to monomers, the fluorescence anisotropy of dimers is found to be negative. These experimental observations are consistent with an ultrafast internal conversion (<200 fs) between two exciton states, possibly followed by a charge separation process. PMID:23340955

  14. Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy for applications in chemical sensing and optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumi Barimah, Eric

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an innovative technique that has been used as a method for fast elemental analysis in real time. Conventional ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) LIBS has been applied to detect the elemental composition of different materials, including explosives, pharmaceutical drugs, and biological samples. The extension of conventional LIBS to the infrared region (˜1-12 mum) promises to provide additional information on molecular emission signatures due to rotational-vibrational transitions. In this research, a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm was focused onto several sodium compounds (NaCl, NaClO3, Na2CO3 and NaClO4) and potassium compounds (KCl, KClO3, K2CO3 and KClO4) to produce an intense plasma at the target surface. Several distinct infrared (IR) atomic emission signatures were observed from all sodium and potassium containing compounds. The atomic emission lines observed from the investigated samples matched assigned transitions of neutral sodium and potassium atoms published in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) atomic database. In addition to the intense atomic lines, the rst evidence of molecular LIBS emission structures were observed at ˜10.0 m in KClO3 and NaClO3 for the chlorate anion (ClO3 --1), at ˜6.7 to 8.0 mum in KNO3 and NaNO 3 for the nitrate anion (NO3--1 ), ˜8.0 to 10.0 mum in KClO4 and NaClO4 for perchlorate anion (ClO4--1 ), and ˜6.88 mum and 11.53 mum in Na2CO3 for the carbonate anion (CO3--1 ). The observed molecular emission showed strong correlation with the conventional Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) absorption spectra of the investigated samples. IR LIBS was also applied to determine the limit of detection (LOD) for the perchlorate anion in KClO4 using the 8.0 -11.0 mum IR-LIBS emission band. The calibration curve of ClO4 in KClO4 was constructed using peak and integrated emission intensities for known concentrations of mixed KClO4/NH4NO3 samples. The

  15. Charge Carrier Dynamics of Quantum Confined Semiconductor Nanoparticles Analyzed via Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, Arthur Joseph, III

    were passivated for water solubility via two different methods: hydrosilylation produced 3-aminopropenyl-terminated Si quantum dots, and a modified Stöber process produced silica-encapsulated Si quantum dots. Both methods produce water-soluble quantum dots with maximum emission at 414 nm, and after purification, the quantum dots exhibit intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield efficiencies of 15 and 23%, respectively. Even though the quantum dots have different surfaces, they exhibit nearly identical absorption and fluorescence spectra. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was used for temporal resolution of the photoexcited carrier dynamics between the quantum dots and ligand. The transient dynamics of the 3-aminopropenyl-terminated Si quantum dots is interpreted as a formation and decay of a charge-transfer excited state between the delocalized π electrons of the carbon linker and the Si core excitons. This charge transfer state is stable for ~4 ns before reverting back to a more stable, long-living species. The silica-encapsulated Si QDs show a simpler spectrum without charge transfer dynamics. Appendix I (Chem. Mat., 1220, 2010), addresses the long-time (μs) transient kinetics associated with TiO2 and layered titanates (TBA2 2Ti4O9), which were synthesized in the Osterloh laboratory (UCD). Transient absorption data reveal that photogenerated electrons become trapped in mid band-gap states, from which they decay exponentially with a time-constant of 43.67 + 0.28 ms in titanates, which is much slower than the 68 + 1 ns observed for TiO2 nanocrystals. The slower kinetics observed for the TBA 2Ti4O9 nanosheets originates either from the presence of deeper trap sites on the sheets vs. the nanoparticles, more trap sites, or from more effective electron-hole separation because of the micrometer dimensions of the 2D lattice. Appendix II, depicts the visible solar spectrum at sea level detailing the percentage of photons and energy that exist within certain

  16. Diagnosis of corneal pathology by laser fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, V. V.; Lazarenko, V. I.; Salmina, A. B.; Hovalyg, M. Sh.; Vladimirova, E. S.

    2012-09-01

    We have studied the difference between the fluorescence spectra of the human cornea in vivo under normal conditions and after contact lenses have been worn for different lengths of time, with excitation by emission from a nitrogen laser (337 nm). The most significant sections of the difference spectrum were identified, corresponding to peaks for endogenous fluorophores (NADH and collagen). A high correlation was found between how long the contact lenses have been worn and the fluorescence intensity ratio for wavelengths 460 nm and 410 nm.

  17. Time-resolved Hyperspectral Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Frequency Modulated Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    ,; Neill, M

    2012-07-01

    An intensity-modulated excitation light source is used together with a micro channel plate intensified CCD (ICCD) detector gated at a slightly different frequency to generate a beat frequency from a fluorescent sample. The addition of a spectrograph produces a hyperspectral time-resolved data product where the resulting beat frequency is detected with a low frame rate camera. Measuring the beat frequency of the spectrum as a function of time allows separation of the excited fluorescence from ambient constant light sources. The excitation and detector repetition rates are varied over a range of discrete frequencies, and the phase shift of the beat wave maps out the emission decay rate(s).

  18. Investigation of two-photon absorption properties in new A-D-A compounds emitting blue and yellow fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fan; Cai, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Jiu-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Li; Tian, Yu-Peng

    2015-08-01

    Three new acceptor-donor-acceptor compounds (LBQ, DBQ, BYQ) were synthesized and characterized by infrared, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Their photophysical properties were investigated including linear absorption, single-photon excited fluorescence, fluorescence quantum yield and two-photon absorption. These compounds in CH2Cl2 exhibit good fluorescence quantum yield which are 0.36, 0.26, and 0.25 and the largest two-photon absorption cross-section which are 48, 36, and 181 GM respectively. Under the excitation of Ti: sapphire laser with a pulse width of 140 fs, LBQ and DBQ emit blue two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), while BYQ emits bright yellow TPEF. BYQ has a good solubility in water and the σ can be as large as 130 GM, so it shows promising applications in many pharmaceutical and biological fields.

  19. Absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visible spectral range of hexavalent chromium aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Spadoni, Lorenzo

    1999-09-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of performing direct absorption spectroscopy of Hexavalent Chromium aqueous solutions, absorption measurements were performed at the dual- beam spectrophotometer in the 250 - 850 nm spectral range, with 10 mm and 100 mm path lengths. Low concentration (26 - 520 (mu) g/l) (and high concentration (2.6 - 52 mg/l) solutions were analyzed, showing that it is possible to implement a basic instrumentation for risk condition monitoring and a more advanced instrumentation for quantitative measurements.

  20. Quantitative analysis of essential oils of Thymus daenensis using laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khoshroo, H; Khadem, H; Bahreini, M; Tavassoli, S H; Hadian, J

    2015-11-10

    Laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are used for the investigation of different genotypes of Thymus daenensis native to the Ilam province of Iran. Different genotypes of T. daenensis essential oils, labeled T1 through T7, possess slight differences with regard to the composition of the thymol. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is performed to determine the concentration of each constituent as a reference method. The Raman spectra of different concentrations of pure thymol dissolved in hexane as standard samples are obtained via a laboratory prototype Raman spectroscopy setup for the calculation of the calibration curve. The regression coefficient and limit of detection are calculated. The possibility of the differentiation of different genotypes of T. daenensis is also examined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, although we do not know the exact amounts of their components. All the fluorescence spectral information is used jointly by cluster analysis to differentiate between 7 genotypes. Our results demonstrate the acceptable precision of Raman spectroscopy with GC-MS and corroborate the capacity of Raman spectroscopy in applications in the quantitative analysis field. Furthermore, the cluster analysis results show that laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is an acceptable technique for the rapid classification of different genotypes of T. daenensis without having any previous information of their exact amount of constituents. So, the ability to rapidly and nondestructively differentiate between genotypes makes it possible to efficiently select high-quality herbs from many samples. PMID:26560783

  1. Monitoring spacecraft atmosphere contaminants by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants include Raman backscattering (LIDAR) and passive radiometry (LOPAIR). Remote sensing techniques using laser spectrometry are presented and in particular a simple long-path laser absorption method (LOLA), which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels is discussed. A number of species were selected for study which are representative of those most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Computer programs were developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations, and comparison with other methods of analysis, are given.

  2. Total absorption spectroscopy of N = 51 nucleus 85Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, K. C.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Karny, M.; Fialkowska, A.; Wolinska-Cichocka, M.; Rasco, B. C.; Zganjar, E. F.; Johnson, J. W.; Gross, C. J.

    2014-09-01

    An experimental campaign utilizing the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) was conducted at the HRIBF facility in January of 2012. The campaign studied 22 isotopes, many of which were identified as the highest priority for decay heat analysis during a nuclear fuel cycle, see the report by the OECD-IAEA Nuclear Energy Agency in 2007. The case of 85Se will be discussed. 85Se is a Z = 34, N = 51 nucleus with the valence neutron located in the positive parity sd single particle state. Therefore, its decay properties are determined by interplay between first forbidden decays of the valence neutron and Gamow-Teller decay of a 78Ni core. Analysis of the data obtained during the January 2012 run indicates a significant increase of the beta strength function when compared with previous measurements, see Ref..

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the retina from scrapie-infected mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we have proposed that the fluorescence spectra of sheep retina can be well correlated to the presence or absence of scrapie. Scrapie is the most widespread TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) affecting sheep and goats worldwide. Mice eyes have been previously reported as a model ...

  4. Quantitative Tissue Spectroscopy of Near Infrared Fluorescent Nanosensor Implants.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Nicole M; Bisker, Gili; Farias, Edgardo; Ivanov, Vsevolod; Ahn, Jiyoung; Wogan, Gerald N; Strano, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Implantable, near infrared (nIR) fluorescent nanosensors are advantageous for in vivo monitoring of biological analytes since they can be rendered selective for a particular target molecule while utilizing their unique optical properties and the nIR tissue transparency window for information transfer without an internal power source or telemetry. However, basic questions remain regarding the optimal encapsulation platform, geometrical properties, and concentration ranges required for high signal to noise ratio and effective detection through biological tissue. In this work, we systematically explore these variables quantitatively to optimize the performance of such optical nanosensors for biomedical applications. We investigate both alginate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as model hydrogel systems, encapsulating d(GT)15 ssDNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as model fluorescent nanoparticle sensors, responsive to riboflavin. Hydrogel sensors implanted 0.5 mm into thick tissue samples exhibit 50% reduction of initial fluorescence intensity, allowing an optical detection limit of 5.4 mm and 5.1 mm depth in tissue for alginate and PEG gels, respectively, at a SWNT concentration of 10 mg L(-1), and 785 nm laser excitation of 80 mW and 30 s exposure. These findings are supported with in vivo nIR fluorescent imaging of SWNT hydrogels implanted subcutaneously in mice. For the case of SWNT, we find that the alginate system is preferable in terms of emission intensity, sensor response, rheological properties, and shelf life. PMID:27305824

  5. Diagnosis of atherosclerotic tissue by resonance fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, Walter; Haase, Karl K.; Tischler, Christian; Nyga, Ralf; Karsch, Karl R.

    1991-05-01

    Resonantly enhanced fluorescence emission induced by a tunable dye laser can be used for the identification of ablated atherosclerotic tissue. This method has been tested with anorganic samples exposed to air and to saline solution. A XeCl excimer laser pulse ((lambda) = 308 nm), delivered by a fused silica optical fiber, causes an efficient ablation of the irradiated samples. The wavelength of the narrow-band dye laser radiation is set to a strong transition of a specific species to be detected in the ablation plume. Taking into account the formation of the plume, the dye laser pulse is applied with a certain delay in order to excite resonantly the selected species in the plume. The resulting resonance fluorescence then is guided by optical fibers to an optical multi-channel analyzer system. Compared to the broad-band fluorescence during excimer laser ablation the resonance fluorescence signal shows a distinct and easily detectable sharp peak. The signal-to-background ratio is improved by one order of magnitude.

  6. New method for tissue indentification: resonance fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, Walter

    1991-11-01

    The method proposed in this paper is based on the detection of resonantly enhanced fluorescence emission induced by a tunable dye laser. First test on anorganic samples exposed to air and to saline solution demonstrate the potential of this technique. A XeCl excimer-laser ((lambda) equals308 nm) pulse, guided by quartz fibers, causes an efficient ablation of the irradiated samples. The specific species to be detected in the ablation plume determines the wavelength of the narrow-band dye-laser radiation. Preferably, it is set to a strong transition of the selected ablation product. Taking into account the formation of the plume, the dye-laser pulse is applied with a certain delay in order to excite resonantly the chosen species in the plume. The resulting resonance fluorescence is then guided by optical fibers to an OMA system. Compared to the broad-band excimer-laser-indiced fluorescence during the ablation process, the resonance fluorescence signal shows a distinct and easily detectable sharp peak. The signal-to-background ratio is improved by one order of magnitude. The achieved increase in sensitivity as well as selectivity is for the benefit of a reliable identification of ablated tissue.

  7. Optical spectroscopy of the bladder washout fluid to optimize fluorescence cystoscopy with Hexvix®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martoccia, Carla; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Jichlinski, Patrice; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence cystoscopy enhances detection of early bladder cancer. Water used to inflate the bladder during the procedure rapidly contains urine, which may contain fluorochromes. This frequently degrades fluorescence images. Samples of bladder washout fluid (BWF) or urine were collected (15 subjects). We studied their fluorescence properties and assessed changes induced by pH (4 to 9) and temperature (15°C to 41°C). A typical fluorescence spectrum of BWF features a main peak (excitation/emission: 320/420 nm, FWHM=50/100 nm) and a weaker (5% to 20% of main peak intensity), secondary peak (excitation/emission: 455/525 nm, FWHM=80/50 nm). Interpatient fluctuations of fluorescence intensity are observed. Fluorescence intensity decreases when temperature increases (max 30%) or pH values vary (max 25%). Neither approach is compatible with clinical settings. Fluorescence lifetime measurements suggest that 4-pyridoxic acid/riboflavin is the most likely molecule responsible for urine's main/secondary fluorescence peak. Our measurements give an insight into the spectroscopy of the detrimental background fluorescence. This should be included in the optical design of fluorescence cystoscopes. We estimate that restricting the excitation range from 370-430 nm to 395-415 nm would reduce the BWF background by a factor 2.

  8. Time-Resolved Light Scattering and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Biomedical and Model Random Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bidyut Baran

    Optical spectroscopy, light scattering and ultrafast time-gated imaging have been shown to offer novel approaches to study the optical characteristics of various biomedical and other random media. Fluorescence spectra from human malignant and nonmalignant breast tissues were measured at 300 nm excitation and a significant spectral difference was found between the two tissue types by using the ratio of fluorescence intensities at 340 and 440 nm. Optical density measurements on thin breast tissues show that the scattering cross-sections of breast tissues are relatively constant over the visible and the uv region. Transport mean free paths and the absorption lengths for various tissues and model random media were measured using time-resolved transmission. The scattering coefficients for human breast and chicken tissues were found to remain relatively constant in 570-630 nm wavelength region while they change significantly at 1064 nm. Chicken breast and fat tissues were found to be good models for human breast tissues as the values of the optical parameters of the two tissue types are about the same. The less scattering observed at 1064 nm makes tissues more transparent in the NIR region making it easier to image in thick tissues. Time-resolved backscattering measurements show that the scattering and the absorption parameters of a random medium can be obtained accurately in a two-fiber configuration as long as the radial distance is more than about seven times the transport mean free path of the sample. The single point source-detection configuration provides a tool to diagnose breast malignancy though it fails to give accurate values of the optical parameters of tissues. This failure is attributed to the invalidity of the diffusion approximation in this experimental configuration. A 2.5 mm thin chicken fat strip was imaged inside a 40 mm thick chicken breast tissue using snake photons at 625 nm with ultrafast time-gated detection. A simple model to describe the effect

  9. Combining chemical sequential extractions with 3D fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize sludge organic matter.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mathieu; Jimenez, Julie; Antonini, Maxime; Dudal, Yves; Latrille, Eric; Vedrenne, Fabien; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    The design and management of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (SS) require a relevant characterisation of the sludge organic matter (OM). Methods currently used are time-consuming and often insufficiently informative. A new method combining chemical sequential extractions (CSE) with 3D fluorescence spectroscopy was developed to provide a relevant SS characterisation to assess both OM bioaccessibility and complexity which govern SS biodegradability. CSE fractionates the sludge OM into 5 compartments of decreasing accessibility. First applied on three SS samples with different OM stability, fractionation profiles obtained were in accordance with the latter. 3D fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the bioaccessible compartments were mainly constituted of simple and easily biodegradable OM while the unaccessible ones were largely made of complex and refractory OM. Then, primary, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge with different biodegradabilities were tested. Complexity revealed by 3D fluorescence spectroscopy was linked with biodegradability and chemical accessibility was correlated with sludge bioaccessibility. PMID:25223440

  10. Examination of the local structure in composite and lowdimensional semiconductor by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Demchenko, I.N.; Piskorska, E.; Wolska,A.; Talik, E.; Zakharov, D.N.; Liliental-Weber, Z.

    2006-09-25

    X-ray absorption methods have been successfully used to obtain quantitative information about local atomic composition of two different materials. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy allowed us to determine seven chemical compounds and their concentrations in c-BN composite. Use of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure in combination with Transmission Electron Microscopy enabled us to determine the composition and size of buried Ge quantum dots. It was found that the quantum dots consisted out of pure Ge core covered by 1-2 monolayers of a layer rich in Si.

  11. Absorption spectroscopy of powdered materials using time-resolved diffuse optical methods.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Cosimo; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A; Farina, Andrea; Taroni, Paola; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2012-11-10

    In this paper a novel method, based on time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy, is proposed to measure the absorption of small amounts of nanostructured powder materials independent of scattering. Experimental validation, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, has been carried out on India Inkparticles. The effectiveness of the technique to measure scattering-free absorption is demonstrated on carbon nanotubes. The comparison between the absorption spectra acquired by the proposed method and conventional measurements performed with a commercial spectrophotometer is discussed. PMID:23142900

  12. Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields have been measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 + or - 2 percent and it falls off to 53.4 + or - 2 percent and 44.0 + or - 4 percent at 284 and 248 nm, respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I(asterisk) quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I(asterisk) yields reported here. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I(asterisk) quantum yield results.

  13. Difference Between Far-Infrared Photoconductivity Spectroscopy and Absorption Spectroscopy: Theoretical Evidence of the Electron Reservoir Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Tadashi; Fujita, Maho; Uchida, Tomohisa; Hiraiwa, Nobuyoshi; Fukuda, Taturo; Koizumi, Hideki; Zhang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    The intriguing difference between far-infrared photoconductivity spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy in the measurement of the magnetoplasmon frequency in GaAs quantum wells reported by Holland et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 186804 (2004)] remains unexplained to date. This Letter provides a consistent mechanism to solve this puzzle. The mechanism is based on the electron reservoir model for the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene [Phys. Lett. A 376, 616 (2012)]. We predict sharp kinks to appear in the magnetic induction dependence of the magnetoplasmon frequency at very low temperatures such as 14 mK in the same GaAs quantum well sample used by Holland et al..

  14. Changes and characteristics of dissolved organic matter in a constructed wetland system using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Yun-Zhen; Guo, Xu-Jing; Huang, Tao; Gao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Pei; Yuan, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Domestic wastewater was treated by five constructed wetland beds in series. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected from influent and effluent samples from the constructed wetland was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI), parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis, and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This study evaluates the capability of these methods in detecting the spectral characteristics of fluorescent DOM fractions and their changes in constructed wetlands. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with FRI analysis showed that protein-like materials displayed a higher removal ratio compared to humic-like substances. The PARAFAC analysis of wastewater DOM indicated that six fluorescent components, i.e., two protein-like substances (C1 and C6), three humic-like substances (C2, C3 and C5), and one non-humic component (C4), could be identified. Tryptophan-like C1 was the dominant component in the influent DOM. The removal ratios of six fluorescent components (C1-C6) were 56.21, 32.05, 49.19, 39.90, 29.60, and 45.87 %, respectively, after the constructed wetland treatment. Furthermore, 2D-COS demonstrated that the sequencing of spectral changes for fluorescent DOM followed the order 298 nm → 403 nm → 283 nm (310-360 nm) in the constructed wetland, suggesting that the peak at 298 nm is associated with preferential tryptophan fluorescence removal. Variation of the fluorescence index (FI) and the ratio of fluorescence components indicated that the constructed wetland treatment resulted in the decrease of fluorescent organic pollutant with increasing the humification and chemical stability of the DOM. PMID:26976008

  15. Remote filament-induced fluorescence spectroscopy from thin clouds of smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, J.-F.; Kamali, Y.; Roy, G.; Chin, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    Remote filament-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is used to probe a cloud of smoke, produced from burning mosquito coils, located at a distance of 25 m from the laser source and LIDAR detector. CN, CH and C2 molecular fragments were identified in the sample. We demonstrate that temporally gated measurement is an efficient technique to easily suppress spectral contaminations, such as white light and atmospheric N2 fluorescence.

  16. Efficient encapsulation of chloroform with cryptophane-M and the formation of exciplex studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanqi; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jianchun; Gao, Fang; Tao, Chuanyi

    2011-03-01

    Efficient encapsulation of small molecules with supermolecules is one of significantly important subjects due to strong application potentials. This article presents the interaction between cryptophane-M and chloroform by fluorescence spectroscopy. The sonicated cryptophane-M solution exhibits light green color in chloroform, and the solid obtained from the evaporation of chloroform also has different color from that of cryptophane-M. In contrast, the sonicated cryptophane-M solutions in other solvents are colorless, and the solid obtained from the evaporation of these solvents has the same color as that of cryptophane-M. Furthermore, the freshly prepared cryptophane-M solution in different solvents is almost colorless, and the solid obtained from the evaporation of these solvents displays the same color as that of cryptophane-M. Although the sonicated cryptophane-M solutions in different solvents have very similar absorption spectra, they exhibit quite different emission spectra in chloroform. In contrast, the freshly-prepared cryptophane-M solutions show similar absorption and emission spectroscopy in various solvents. The variation of the fluorescence spectroscopy in binary solvents with the increasing chloroform ratio suggests that cryptophane-M and chloroform form a 1:1 exciplex, and the binding constant is estimated to be 292.95 M(-1). Although all solvents are able to enter into the cavity of cryptophane-M, only chloroform can stay in the cavity of cryptophane-M for a while, which is mostly due to the strong intermolecular interaction between cryptophane-M and chloroform, and this results in the formation of the exciplex between them. PMID:20953823

  17. Quartz crystal microbalance and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy characterization of bisphenol A absorption in the poly(acrylate) thin films.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifeng; Morita, Shigeaki; Ye, Shen; Tanaka, Masaru; Osawa, Masatoshi

    2004-02-01

    The absorption process of bisphenol A (BPA) in a number of poly(acrylate) thin films, such as poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA), poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), has been investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) measurements. Both QCM and IRRAS measurements show that the BPA molecules absorb in PMEA, PEA, and PBMA thin films but not in PMMA thin film. The differences in the BPA absorption behavior are mainly attributed to the difference in the glass transition temperature (T(g)) between these polymers. This absorption behavior also depends on the BPA concentration and polymer film thickness. Furthermore, IRRAS characterization demonstrates that the hydrogen bonding is formed between the hydroxyl group in BPA and the carbonyl group in the poly(acrylate) thin films. BPA molecule absorbed in these polymer thin films can be removed by ethanol rinse treatment. By optimizing experimental conditions for the QCM electrode modified by PMEA thin film, detection limitation of approximately 1 ppb for BPA can be realized by the in situ QCM measurement. This method is expected to be a sensitive in situ detection way for trace BPA in the environmental study. PMID:14750877

  18. Detection of cancerous biological tissue areas by means of infrared absorption and SERS spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicka, M.; Urboniene, V.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel approach to the detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by measuring vibrational spectra (IR absorption or SERS) of intercellular fluid taken from the tissue. The method is based on spectral analysis of cancerous and normal tissue areas in order to find specific spectral markers. The samples were prepared by sliding the kidney tissue over a substrate - surface of diamond ATR crystal in case of IR absorption or calcium fluoride optical window in case of SERS. For producing the SERS signal the dried fluid film was covered by silver nanoparticle colloidal solution. In order to suppress fluorescence background the measurements were performed in the NIR spectral region with the excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. The most significant spectral differences - spectral markers - were found in the region between 400 and 1800 cm-1, where spectral bands related to various vibrations of fatty acids, glycolipids and carbohydrates are located. Spectral markers in the IR and SERS spectra are different and the methods can complement each other. Both of them have potential to be used directly during surgery. Additionally, IR absorption spectroscopy in ATR mode can be combined with waveguide probe what makes this method usable in vivo.

  19. Laboratory atomic transition data for precise optical quasar absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael T.; Berengut, Julian C.

    2014-02-01

    Quasar spectra reveal a rich array of important astrophysical information about galaxies which intersect the quasar line of sight. They also enable tests of the variability of fundamental constants over cosmological time- and distance-scales. Key to these endeavours are the laboratory frequencies, isotopic and hyperfine structures of various metal-ion transitions. Here, we review and synthesize the existing information about these quantities for 43 transitions which are important for measuring possible changes in the fine-structure constant, α, using optical quasar spectra, i.e. those of Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn. We also summarize the information currently missing that precludes more transitions being used. We present an up-to-date set of coefficients, q, which define the sensitivity of these transitions to variations in α. New calculations of isotopic structures and q-coefficients are performed for Si II and Ti II, including Si II λ1808 and Ti IIλλ1910.6/1910.9 for the first time. Finally, simulated absorption-line spectra are used to illustrate the systematic errors expected if the isotopic/hyperfine structures are omitted from profile fitting analyses. To ensure transparency, repeatability and currency of the data and calculations, we supply a comprehensive data base as Supporting Information. This will be updated as new measurements and calculations are performed.

  20. Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

  1. Noncontact point spectroscopy guided by two-channel fluorescence imaging in a hamster cheek pouch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Victor X.; Yeow, Jenny; Lilge, Lothar D.; Kost, James; Mang, Thomas S.; Wilson, Brian C.

    1999-07-01

    A system for in vivo, fluorescence image-guided, non-contact point fluorescence spectroscopy is presented. A 442 nm HeCd laser is used as the fluorescence excitation source. An intensified CCD serves as the detector for both imaging and spectroscopy, on which two regions of 300 X 300 pixels were used for green (500 +/- 18 nm) and red (630 +/- 18 nm) imaging channels, and a strip of 600 X 120 pixels are used for emission spectroscopy (450 - 750 nm). At a working distance of 40 mm, the system has a spatial resolution of 0.16 mm and a spectral resolution of 5 nm. System performance is demonstrated in a carcinogenesis model in hamsters, where tumors were induced by painting DMBA in the cheek pouch. Autofluorescence and Photofrin-induced fluorescence measurements were performed every 2 weeks during the 18 weeks of tumor induction. Punch biopsies on selected animals were taken for histological staging. The results show that autofluorescence fluorescence can distinguish dysplasia from normal mucosal tissue model, utilizing the peak red intensity (or the red-to-green intensity ratio). Photofrin-induced fluorescence was superior to autofluorescence for differentiating high grade dysplasia from invasive cancer.

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1996-07-01

    A family of sensors is presented with fluorescence decay-time measurements used as the sensing technique. The concept is to take a single fluorophore with a suitably long fluorescence decay time as the basic building block for numerous different sensors. Analyte recognition can be performed by different functional groups that are necessary for selective interaction with the analyte. To achieve this, the principle of excited-state electron transfer is applied with pyrene as the fluorophore. Therefore the same instrumentation based on a small, ambient air-nitrogen laser and solid-state electronics can be used to measure different analytes, for example, oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, potassium, ammonium, lead, cadmium, zinc, and phosphate.

  3. Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy for axial resolution of flurorophore distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Maximilian G. O.; Hoffmann, Andreas; Spielmann, Christian

    2014-12-01

    A new method for determining the fluorophore distribution along the propagation axis of an ultrashort optical pulse is presented. The axial resolution is obtained by temporal gating of the backward emitted fluorescence via optical parametric amplification, and we demonstrated a resolution in the order of a few 100 μm. With this approach, sampling of the fluorophore concentration of thin layers without using optics with a large numerical aperture will be possible, such as investigating the human retina via time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Additionally, we verified the gain is orders of magnitude higher for coherent seeding, making optical parametric gating very interesting for discriminating between coherently and incoherently scattered light for other multimodal imaging applications.

  4. A scanning fluorescence spectroscopy of decorin under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoda, Takahito; Kim, Yun-Jung; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2013-06-01

    High pressure processing is able to tenderize not only meat but also intramuscular connective tissue, which is mainly composed of collagen. Decorin, one of the proteoglycans, binds to and stabilizes collagen fibrils. It has been suggested that structural weakening of intramuscular connective tissue may result from the disappearance of the decorin-collagen interaction. In this study, the fluorescence spectra and the surface hydrophobicity of decorin molecules were measured under high pressure in order to examine the resulting change in the tertiary structure. The fluorescence intensity and the surface hydrophobicity of decorin molecules both decreased with increasing applied pressure and with applied time at the constant applied pressure, respectively. The observations indicate that the native structure of decorin is maintained during 200 MPa pressurization for less than 30 min.

  5. Spectral fluorescence signature techniques and absorption measurements for continuous monitoring of biofuel-producing microalgae cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín de la Cruz, M. C.; Gonzalez Vilas, L.; Yarovenko, N.; Spyrakos, E.; Torres Palenzuela, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae can be both sustainable and economically viable. Particularly in the case of algal growth in wastewater an extra benefit is the removal or biotransformation of pollutants from these types of waters. A continuous monitoring system of the microalgae status and the concentration of different wastewater contaminants could be of great help in the biomass production and the water characterisation. In this study we present a system where spectral fluorescence signature (SFS) techniques are used along with absorption measurements to monitor microalgae cultures in wastewater and other mediums. This system aims to optimise the microalgae production for biofuel applications or other uses and was developed and tested in prototype indoor photo-bioreactors at the University of Vigo. SFS techniques were applied using the fluorescence analyser INSTAND-SCREENER developed by Laser Diagnostic Instruments AS. INSTAND-SCREENER permits wavelength scanning in two modes, one in UV and another in VIS. In parallel, it permits the on-line monitoring and rapid analysis of both water quality and phytoplankton status without prior treatment of the sample. Considering that different contaminants and microalgae features (density, status etc.) have different spectral signatures of fluorescence and absorption properties, it is possible to characterise them developing classification libraries. Several algorithms were used for the classification. The implementation of this system in an outdoor raceway reactor in a Spanish wastewater treatment plant is also discussed. This study was part of the Project EnerBioAlgae (http://www.enerbioalgae.com/), which was funded by the Interreg SUDOE and led by the University of Vigo.

  6. Impurity studies in fusion devices using laser-fluorescence-spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Husinsky, W.R.

    1980-08-01

    Resonance fluorescence excitation of neutral atoms using tunable radiation from dye lasers offers a number of unique advantages for impurity studies in fusion devices. Using this technique, it is possible to perform local, time-resolved measurements of the densities and velocity distributions of metallic impurities in fusion devices without disturbing the plasma. Velocities are measured by monitoring the fluorescence intensity while tuning narrow bandwidth laser radiation through the Doppler - broadened absorbtion spectrum of the transition. The knowledge of the velocity distribution of neutral impurities is particularly useful for the determination of impurity introduction mechanisms. The laser fluorescence technique will be described in terms of its application to metallic impurities in fusion devices and related laboratory experiments. Particular attention will be given to recent results from the ISX-B tokamak using pulsed dye lasers where detection sensitivities for neutral Fe of 10/sup 6/ atoms/cm/sup 3/ with a velocity resolution of 600 m/sec (0.1 eV) have been achieved. Techniques for exciting plasma particles (H,D) will also be discussed.

  7. Femtosecond broadband fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy: Spectral coverage versus efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gerecke, Mario; Bierhance, Genaro; Gutmann, Michael; Ernsting, Nikolaus P; Rosspeintner, Arnulf

    2016-05-01

    Sum frequency mixing of fluorescence and ∼1300 nm gate pulses, in a thin β-barium borate crystal and non-collinear type II geometry, is quantified as part of a femtosecond fluorimeter [X.-X. Zhang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 063108 (2011)]. For a series of fixed phasematching angles, the upconversion efficiency is measured depending on fluorescence wavelength. Two useful orientations of the crystal are related by rotation around the surface normal. Orientation A has higher efficiency (factor ∼3) compared to B at the cost of some loss of spectral coverage for a given crystal angle. It should be used when subtle changes of an otherwise stationary emission band are to be monitored. With orientation B, the fluorescence range λF > 420-750 nm is covered with a single setting of the crystal and less gate scatter around time zero. The accuracy of determining an instantaneous emission band shape is demonstrated by comparing results from two laboratories. PMID:27250400

  8. Using the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastichuman breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Hage, R; Galhanone, P R; Zângaro, R A; Rodrigues, K C; Pacheco, M T T; Martin, A A; Netto, M M; Soares, F A; da Cunha, I W

    2003-01-01

    This article reports results of the in vitro study for potential evaluation of the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastic human breast tissue. A coumarine dye laser pumped by nitrogen laser generated an excitation light centered at 458 nm. In order to collect the fluorescence signal was used an optical fiber catheter coupled to a spectrometer and CCD detector. Fluorescence spectra were recorded from normal and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissue, adding up 94 different areas. The discrimination between normal and neoplasm groups reach a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. PMID:14505202

  9. High Resolution Phonon-assisted Quasi-resonance Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Czarnocki, Cyprian; Kerfoot, Mark L; Casara, Joshua; Jacobs, Andrew R; Jennings, Cameron; Scheibner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical spectroscopy methods are demanding in terms of either technology, equipment, complexity, time or a combination of these. Here we demonstrate an optical spectroscopy method that is capable of resolving spectral features beyond that of the spin fine structure and homogeneous linewidth of single quantum dots (QDs) using a standard, easy-to-use spectrometer setup. This method incorporates both laser and photoluminescence spectroscopy, combining the advantage of laser line-width limited resolution with multi-channel photoluminescence detection. Such a scheme allows for considerable improvement of resolution over that of a common single-stage spectrometer. The method uses phonons to assist in the measurement of the photoluminescence of a single quantum dot after resonant excitation of its ground state transition. The phonon's energy difference allows one to separate and filter out the laser light exciting the quantum dot. An advantageous feature of this method is its straight forward integration into standard spectroscopy setups, which are accessible to most researchers. PMID:27405015

  10. Subpicosecond IR transient absorption spectroscopy: measurement of internal conversion rates in DABCO vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glownia, J. H.; Misewich, J.; Sorokin, P. P.

    1987-09-01

    An apparatus combining subpicosecond 248.5 nm pump pulses with a time-resolved subpicosecond broadband infrared absorption spectroscopy probe has been utilized to measure an internal conversion rate in 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane vapor. A subpicosecond (⪅ 500 fs) internal conversion rate has been determined.

  11. LISA: the Italian CRG beamline for x-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at ESRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Acapito, F.; Trapananti, A.; Puri, A.

    2016-05-01

    LISA is the acronym of Linea Italiana per la Spettroscopia di Assorbimento di raggi X (Italian beamline for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy) and is the upgrade of the former GILDA beamline installed on the BM08 bending magnet port of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Within this contribution a full description of the project is provided.

  12. Application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of corrosion and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for determination of valency and coordination. Measurements can be made in air or in situ under electrochemical control. The technique will be described and its application to the analysis of passive oxide films, corrosion products, and inhibitors will be reviewed.

  13. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  14. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  15. Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

  16. Determination of dissolved organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstea, Elfrida M.; Bridgeman, John

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the removal efficiency of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in several wastewater treatment works, at different processing stages. The correlation between fluorescence values and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) has been examined. Fluorescence was measured for unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.20 μm) samples of crude, settled and secondary treated wastewater (activated sludge), and final effluent. Moreover, the potential of using portable fluorimeters has been explored in a laboratory scale activated sludge process. Good correlations were observed for filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples between protein-like fluorescence intensity (excitation 280 nm, emission 350 nm) and BOD (r = 0.78), COD (r = 0.90) and TOC (r = 0.79). BOD displayed a higher correlation at the 0.20 μm filtered samples compared to COD and TOC. Slightly better relation was seen between fluorescence and conventional parameters at the portable fluorimeters compared to laboratory-based instruments. The results indicated that fluorescence spectroscopy, in particular protein-like fluorescence, could be used for continuous, real-time assessment of DOM removal efficiency in wastewater treatment works.

  17. Gas concentration measurement by optical similitude absorption spectroscopy: methodology and experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2016-06-13

    We propose a new methodology to measure gas concentration by light-absorption spectroscopy when the light source spectrum is larger than the spectral width of one or several molecular gas absorption lines. We named it optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS), as the gas concentration is derived from a similitude between the light source and the target gas spectra. The main OSAS-novelty lies in the development of a robust inversion methodology, based on the Newton-Raphson algorithm, which allows retrieving the target gas concentration from spectrally-integrated differential light-absorption measurements. As a proof, OSAS is applied in laboratory to the 2ν3 methane absorption band at 1.66 µm with uncertainties revealed by the Allan variance. OSAS has also been applied to non-dispersive infra-red and the optical correlation spectroscopy arrangements. This all-optics gas concentration retrieval does not require the use of a gas calibration cell and opens new tracks to atmospheric gas pollution and greenhouse gases sources monitoring. PMID:27410280

  18. Optical nonlinearities in hyperbranched polyyne studied by two-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Beltran, R.; Ramos-Ortiz, G.; Jim, C. K. W.; Maldonado, J. L.; Häußler, M.; Peralta-Dominguez, D.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-Garcia, O.; Tang, B. Z.

    2009-10-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of a hyperbranched polyyne ( hb-Polyyne) have been measured at infrared wavelengths by using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed excitation. This hyperbranched polyyne exhibited strong and intrinsic (simultaneous) two-photon absorption and upconverted blue fluorescent emission under femtosecond excitation around 800 nm. The hb-Polyyne in chloroform solution is characterized by a large two-photon absorption cross section of 9068 GM (1 GM=10-50 cm4 s) and a fluorescence quantum yield of 0.57. On the other hand, by third-harmonic generation (THG) spectroscopy with nanosecond excitation, the measured third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) for solid films of hb-Polyyne ranged from 2.4×10-11 to 6.1×10-11 esu in the spectral range of 1100-1600 nm, with results comparable to the values exhibited by the well-known conjugated polymer MEH:PPV, but with a much better transparency for visible wavelengths.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the basis of hybrid X-pinch radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tilikin, I. N. Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    Results of experiments on X-ray absorption spectroscopy carried out at the BIN (270 kA, 100 ns) and XP (450 kA, 45 ns) facilities are presented. Continuum radiation of a Mo hybrid X-pinch was used as probing radiation, against which absorption lines of the plasma of exploded Al wires placed in the return current circuit of a hybrid X-pinch, as well as in a two- and four-wire array, were observed. The experiments have demonstrated that the radiation of a hybrid X-pinch hot spot can be used as probing radiation for X-ray absorption spectroscopy and that, in many parameters, such a source surpasses those on the basis of laser-produced plasma. The plasma parameters in arrays made of two and four Al wires were studied experimentally.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the basis of hybrid X-pinch radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilikin, I. N.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    Results of experiments on X-ray absorption spectroscopy carried out at the BIN (270 kA, 100 ns) and XP (450 kA, 45 ns) facilities are presented. Continuum radiation of a Mo hybrid X-pinch was used as probing radiation, against which absorption lines of the plasma of exploded Al wires placed in the return current circuit of a hybrid X-pinch, as well as in a two- and four-wire array, were observed. The experiments have demonstrated that the radiation of a hybrid X-pinch hot spot can be used as probing radiation for X-ray absorption spectroscopy and that, in many parameters, such a source surpasses those on the basis of laser-produced plasma. The plasma parameters in arrays made of two and four Al wires were studied experimentally.

  1. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) investigations of gastrointestinal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Ts.; Borisova, E.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Penkov, N.; Keremedchiev, M.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this report we will present our recent investigations of the fluorescence properties of lower part gastrointestinal tissues using excitation-emission matrix and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy measurement modalities. The spectral peculiarities observed will be discussed and the endogenous sources of the fluorescence signal will be addressed. For these fluorescence spectroscopy measurements the FluoroLog 3 system (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) was used. It consists of a Xe lamp (300 W, 200-650 nm), a double mono-chromators, and a PMT detector with a work region at 220- 850 nm. Autofluorescence signals were detected in the form of excitation-emission matrices for the samples of normal mucosa, dysphasia and colon carcinoma and specific spectral features for each tissue were found. Autofluorescence signals from the same samples are observed through synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, which is a novel promising modality for fluorescence spectroscopy measurements of bio-samples. It is one of the most powerful techniques for multicomponent analysis, because of its sensitivity. In the SFS regime, the fluorescence signal is recorded while both excitation λexc and emission wavelengths λem are simultaneously scanned. A constant wavelength interval is maintained between the λexc and λem wavelengths throughout the spectrum. The resulted fluorescence spectrum shows narrower peak widths, in comparison with EEMs, which are easier for identification and minimizes the chance for false determinations or pretermission of specific spectral feature. This modality is also faster, than EEMs, a much smaller number of data points are required.1 In our measurements we use constant wavelength interval Δλ in the region of 10-200 nm. Measurements are carried out in the terms of finding Δλ, which results in a spectrum with most specific spectral features for comparison with spectral characteristics observed in EEMs. Implementing synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in optical

  2. Classification evaluation of tobaccos using LED-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weijia; Dong, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuan; Lin, Hongze; Mei, Liang; Yan, Chunsheng

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco is one of the most important economic crops in the world, assessment of its quality has a very important business significance. A compact, low-cost, and maneuverable optical sensor system for classification evaluation of different tobaccos was described in this paper using light-emitting-diodes (LEDs)-induced fluorescence. The principal components analysis (PCA) method is used to extract the dominant features of the tobaccos for identifying the classification of tobaccos. The technique is suitable for practical identification due to the use of a straightforward data evaluation method and compact system.

  3. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  4. [Influence of silver/silicon dioxide on infrared absorption spectroscopy of sodium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Ling; Yue, Li; Jia, Zhi-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Quickly detecting of ocean nutrient was one important task in marine pollution monitoring. We discovered the application of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in the detection of ocean nutrient through researching the evaporation of sodium nitrate solution. The silicon dioxide (SiO2) with highly dispersion was prepared by Stober method, The silver/silica (Ag/SiO2) composite materials were prepared by mixing ammonia solution and silicon dioxide aqueous solution. Three kinds of composite materials with different surface morphology were fabricated through optimizing the experimental parameter and changing the experimental process. The surface morphology, crystal orientation and surface plasmon resonance were investigated by means of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible absorption spectrum and infrared ab- sorption spectroscopy. The SEM images showed that the sample A was purified SiO2, sample B and sample C were mixture of silver nanoparticle and silicon dioxide, while sample D was completed nanoshell structure. The absorption spectroscopy showed that there was surface plasmon resonance in the UV-visible region, while there was possibility of surface plasmon resonance in the Infrared absorption region. The effect of Ag/SiO2 composite material on the infrared absorption spectra of sodium nitrite solution was investigated through systematically analyzing the infrared absorption spectroscopy of sodium nitrate solution during its evaporation, i. e. the peak integration area of nitrate and the peak integration area of water molecule. The experimental results show that the integration area of nitrate was enhanced greatly during the evaporation process while the integration area of water molecule decreased continuously. The integration area of nitrate comes from the anti-symmetric stretch vibration and the enhancement of the vibration is attributed to the interface effect of Ag/SiO2 which is consistent with Jensen T

  5. [A Method for Determination of Migratable Fluorescent Whitening Agents in Paper Products by Dual-Wavelength UV Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Chai, Xin-sheng; Tian, Ying-xin; Chen, Run-quan

    2015-07-01

    The current national standard method GB/T 27741-2011, i.e., "quantitative determination of migratable fluorescent whitening agents-UV spectroscopy", overestimates the migratable fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) in the paper based products because of the spectral interference of the leached lignin from the cellulose fibers. To minimize such interference, a spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength (305 and 348 nm) measurement was proposed. It was observed that the dual-wavelength spectroscopy can effectively subtract the spectral absorption contributed by the leached lignin in the extraction medium, thus more accurately determination of migratable FWA can be performed. The results showed that the present method has a relative standard deviation of 2.17%, the quantitative detection limit of 16.9 mg x kg(-1), and recovery of 98%-103%. Compared with the current alternative standard-HPLC method, the present method possesses advantages of low operation and maintenance costs, simple, and practical in application. Therefore, it is more suitable for the rapid determination of migratable FWA in the product quality control in the production process and sample examination in the commercial market. PMID:26717753

  6. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  7. The temperature measurement research for high-speed flow based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yue; Jin, Yi; Jiang, Hong-liang; Zhai, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Due to the particularity of the high-speed flow, in order to accurately obtain its' temperature, the measurement system should has some characteristics of not interfereing with the flow, non-contact measurement and high time resolution. The traditional measurement method cannot meet the above requirements, however the measurement method based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology can meet the requirements for high-speed flow temperature measurement. When the near-infared light of a specific frequency is through the media to be measured, it will be absorbed by the water vapor molecules and then the transmission light intensity is detected by the detector. The temperature of the water vapor which is also the high-speed flow temperature, can be accurately obtained by the Beer-Lambert law. This paper focused on the research of absorption spectrum method for high speed flow temperature measurement with the scope of 250K-500K. Firstly, spectral line selection method for low temperature measurement of high-speed flow is discussed. Selected absorption lines should be isolated and have a high peak absorption within the range of 250-500K, at the same time the interference of the other lines should be avoided, so that a high measurement accuracy can be obtained. According to the near-infrared absorption spectra characteristics of water vapor, four absorption lines at the near 1395 nm and 1409 nm are selected. Secondly, a system for the temperature measurement of the water vapor in the high-speed flow is established. Room temperature are measured through two methods, direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) ,the results show that this system can realize on-line measurement of the temperature and the measurement error is about 3%. Finally, the system will be used for temperature measurement of the high-speed flow in the shock tunnel, its feasibility of measurement is analyzed.

  8. Nitric oxide γ band fluorescent scattering and self-absorption in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Michael H.

    1995-08-01

    The fluorescent scattering of UV sunlight and self-absorption by the nitric oxide (NO) γ bands between 2000-2500 Å are quantified for the purpose of inferring NO density profiles as a function of altitude in the mesosphere and above. Rotational line emission rate factors and cross sections are calculated at a variety of temperatures. The observed variation of the solar spectrum across the γ bands and its effect on emission rate factors are explored by using irradiance measurements that resolve features down to 0.1 Å. The model also includes quenching by O2 and N2, multiple scattering, temperature effects, attenuation of the solar irradiance by O2 and ozone, and self-absorption with the summation of adjacent rotational features. Results indicate that for resonant γ bands, the rotational structure in emission is not symmetric to that in absorption so that as self-absorption increases the shape of the observed emission envelope changes. For γ(1,0) this is largely characterized by an increase in the integrated emission observed longward of 2151 Å compared to shortward. It is found that solar irradiances measured at 0.1 Å resolution decrease the calculated γ(1,0) and γ(0,0) band emission rate factors by less than 3% compared to those measured at 2 Å resolution. However, more Fraunhofer structure included in the calculation is reflected in the relative intensities of the rotational features. It is also found that extinction of the solar irradiance by ozone and quenching by O2 rapidly reduce the γ(1,0) emission rate factor with decreasing altitude below 60 km.

  9. Versatile plug flow catalytic cell for in situ transmission/fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Centomo, P.; Zecca, M.; Meneghini, C.

    2013-05-15

    A novel flow-through catalytic cell has been developed for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on heterogeneous catalysts under working conditions and in the presence of a liquid and a gas phase. The apparatus allows to carry out XAS measurements in both the transmission and fluorescence modes, at moderate temperature (from RT to 50-80 Degree-Sign C) and low-medium gas pressure (up to 7-8 bars). The materials employed are compatible with several chemicals such as those involved in the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, methanol). The versatile design of the cell allows to fit it to different experimental setups in synchrotron radiation beamlines. It was used successfully for the first time to test nanostructured Pd catalysts during the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in methanol solution from dihydrogen and dioxygen.

  10. 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring ion-exchange membrane based technologies - Reverse electrodialysis (RED).

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Galinha, Claudia F; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based technologies for harvesting salinity gradient energy. In RED process, fouling is an undesirable operation constraint since it leads to a decrease of the obtainable net power density due to increasing stack electric resistance and pressure drop. Therefore, early fouling detection is one of the main challenges for successful RED technology implementation. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was used, for the first time, as a tool for fouling monitoring in RED. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of ion-exchange membrane surfaces and of natural aqueous streams were acquired during one month of a RED stack operation. Fouling evolvement on the ion-exchange membrane surfaces was successfully followed by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and quantified using principal components analysis (PCA). Additionally, the efficiency of cleaning strategy was assessed by measuring the membrane fluorescence emission intensity before and after cleaning. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) surface in contact with river water showed to be significantly affected due to fouling by humic compounds, which were found to cross through the membrane from the lower salinity (river water) to higher salinity (sea water) stream. The results obtained show that the combined approach of using 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and PCA has a high potential for studying fouling development and membrane cleaning efficiency in ion exchange membrane processes. PMID:26497936

  11. Near-Field Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy on Planar Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The organization and dynamics of plasma membrane components at the nanometer scale are essential for biological functions such as transmembrane signaling and endocytosis. Planarized nanoscale apertures in a metallic film are demonstrated as a means of confining the excitation light for multicolor fluorescence spectroscopy to a 55 ± 10 nm beam waist. This technique provides simultaneous two-color, subdiffraction-limited fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy on planar membranes. The fabrication and implementation of this technique are demonstrated for both model membranes and live cells. Membrane-bound proteins were observed to cluster upon the addition of a multivalent cross-linker: On supported lipid bilayers, clusters of cholera toxin subunit B were formed upon cross-linking by an antibody specific for this protein; on living cells, immunoglobulin E bound to its receptor (FcεRI) on the plasma membranes of RBL mast cells was observed to form clusters upon exposure to a trivalent antigen. The formation of membrane clusters was quantified via fluorescence intensity vs time and changes in the temporal auto- and cross-correlations above a single nanoscale aperture. The illumination profile from a single aperture is analyzed experimentally and computationally with a rim-dominated illumination profile, yielding no change in the autocorrelation dwell time with changes in aperture diameter from 60 to 250 nm. This near-field fluorescence cross-correlation methodology provides access to nanoscale details of dynamic membrane interactions and motivates further development of near-field optical methods. PMID:25004429

  12. Fluorescence kinetics of Trp-Trp dipeptide and its derivatives in water via ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Menghui; Yi, Hua; Chang, Mengfang; Cao, Xiaodan; Li, Lei; Zhou, Zhongneng; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Sanjun; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast fluorescence dynamics of Tryptophan-Tryptophan (Trp-Trp/Trp2) dipeptide and its derivatives in water have been investigated using a picosecond resolved time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) apparatus together with a femtosecond resolved upconversion spectrophotofluorometer. The fluorescence decay profiles at multiple wavelengths were fitted by a global analysis technique. Nanosecond fluorescence kinetics of Trp2, N-tert-butyl carbonyl oxygen-N'-aldehyde group-l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan (NBTrp2), l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan methyl ester (Trp2Me), and N-acetyl-l-tryptophan-l-tryptophan methyl ester (NATrp2Me) exhibit multi-exponential decays with the average lifetimes of 1.99, 3.04, 0.72 and 1.22ns, respectively. Due to the intramolecular interaction between two Trp residues, the "water relaxation" lifetime was observed around 4ps, and it is noticed that Trp2 and its derivatives also exhibit a new decay with a lifetime of ∼100ps, while single-Trp fluorescence decay in dipeptides/proteins shows 20-30ps. The intramolecular interaction lifetime constants of Trp2, NBTrp2, Trp2Me and NATrp2Me were then calculated to be 3.64, 0.93, 11.52 and 2.40ns, respectively. Candidate mechanisms (including heterogeneity, solvent relaxation, quasi static self-quenching or ET/PT quenching) have been discussed. PMID:26111991

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging and Spectroscopy of Fluorescently Coupled Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase in Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malak, H.; Mahtani, H.; Herman, P.; Vecer, J.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Richmond, Robert C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A high-performance hyperspectral imaging module with high throughput of light suitable for low-intensity fluorescence microscopic imaging and subsequent analysis, including single-pixel-defined emission spectroscopy, was tested on Sf21 insect cells expressing green fluorescence associated with recombinant green fluorescent protein linked or not with the membrane protein acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. The imager utilized the phenomenon of optical activity as a new technique providing information over a spectral range of 220-1400 nm, and was inserted between the microscope and an 8-bit CCD video-rate camera. The resulting fluorescence image did not introduce observable image aberrations. The images provided parallel acquisition of well resolved concurrent spatial and spectral information such that fluorescence associated with green fluorescent protein alone was demonstrated to be diffuse within the Sf21 insect cell, and that green fluorescence associated with the membrane protein was shown to be specifically concentrated within regions of the cell cytoplasm. Emission spectra analyzed from different regions of the fluorescence image showed blue shift specific for the regions of concentration associated with the membrane protein.

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectroscopy for Characterization of Humic Substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in natural organic matter (NOM) studies. In this study, we characterized five fulvic acids, six humic acids and two unprocessed NOM samples obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) using these two ana...

  15. Photocarrier dynamics in anatase TiO{sub 2} investigated by pump-probe absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, H. E-mail: okamotoh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Matsui, Y.; Uchida, R.; Yada, H.; Terashige, T.; Li, B.-S.; Sawa, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Okamoto, H. E-mail: okamotoh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-07

    The dynamics of photogenerated electrons and holes in undoped anatase TiO{sub 2} were studied by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy from the visible to mid-infrared region (0.1–2.0 eV). The transient absorption spectra exhibited clear metallic responses, which were well reproduced by a simple Drude model. No mid-gap absorptions originating from photocarrier localization were observed. The reduced optical mass of the photocarriers obtained from the Drude-model analysis is comparable to theoretically expected one. These results demonstrate that both photogenerated holes and electrons act as mobile carriers in anatase TiO{sub 2}. We also discuss scattering and recombination dynamics of photogenerated electrons and holes on the basis of the time dependence of absorption changes.

  16. A quantitative study of the intracellular dynamics of fluorescently labelled glyco-gold nanoparticles via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard A; Qiu, Yuan; Chiodo, Fabrizio; Marradi, Marco; Penadés, Soledad; Moya, Sergio E

    2014-07-01

    The dynamic behaviour of gold nanoparticles functionalised with glucose (Glc-Au NPs) has been studied here by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Meaningful data on the state of aggregation and dynamics of Glc-Au NPs fluorescently-labelled with HiLyte Fluor647 (Glc-Au-Hi NPs) in the intracellular environment were obtained. Moreover, the work presented here shows that FCS can be used to visualise the presence of single NPs or NP aggregates following uptake and to estimate, locally, NP concentrations within the cell. FCS measurements become possible after applying a "prebleaching" methodology, when the immobile NP fraction has been effectively removed and thus significant FCS data has been recorded. In this study, Glc-Au-Hi NPs have been incubated with HepG2 cells and their diffusion time in the intracellular environment has been measured and compared with their diffusion value in water and cell media. PMID:24639360

  17. Nonlinear Theory of Anomalous Diffusion and Application to Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jean Pierre; Lutsko, James F.

    2015-12-01

    The nonlinear theory of anomalous diffusion is based on particle interactions giving an explicit microscopic description of diffusive processes leading to sub-, normal, or super-diffusion as a result of competitive effects between attractive and repulsive interactions. We present the explicit analytical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation which we then use to compute the correlation function which is experimentally measured by correlation spectroscopy. The theoretical results are applicable in particular to the analysis of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of marked molecules in biological systems. More specifically we consider the cases of fluorescently labeled lipids in the plasma membrane and of fluorescent apoferritin (a spherically shaped oligomer) in a crowded dextran solution and we find that the nonlinear correlation spectra reproduce very well the experimental data indicating sub-diffusive molecular motion.

  18. High-throughput single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy using parallel detection

    PubMed Central

    Michalet, X.; Colyer, R. A.; Scalia, G.; Kim, T.; Levi, Moran; Aharoni, Daniel; Cheng, Adrian; Guerrieri, F.; Arisaka, Katsushi; Millaud, Jacques; Rech, I.; Resnati, D.; Marangoni, S.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.; Tisa, S.; Zappa, F.; Cova, S.; Weiss, S.

    2011-01-01

    Solution-based single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful new experimental approach with applications in all fields of natural sciences. The basic concept of this technique is to excite and collect light from a very small volume (typically femtoliter) and work in a concentration regime resulting in rare burst-like events corresponding to the transit of a single-molecule. Those events are accumulated over time to achieve proper statistical accuracy. Therefore the advantage of extreme sensitivity is somewhat counterbalanced by a very long acquisition time. One way to speed up data acquisition is parallelization. Here we will discuss a general approach to address this issue, using a multispot excitation and detection geometry that can accommodate different types of novel highly-parallel detector arrays. We will illustrate the potential of this approach with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule fluorescence measurements obtained with different novel multipixel single-photon counting detectors. PMID:21625288

  19. Optofluidic jet waveguide for laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Gianluca; Testa, Genni; Bernini, Romeo

    2012-12-15

    An optofluidic water-jet waveguide on chip for fluorescence analysis is presented. A high-speed water stream produced by means of a microchannel acts at the same time as the solution to analyze and as the collecting optical waveguide. The absence of solid walls and the very optically smooth surface of the liquid stream permits a strong increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. The device layout allows a self-alignment direct coupling of a water-jet waveguide with a multimode optical fiber connected to the detector. The performances of the integrated system are tested on Cy5 water solutions. For a 4.5 mm long water-jet waveguide, the measured limit of detection (LOD) is 2.56 nM and filter-free detection is possible with an LOD of 6.11 nM. PMID:23258023

  20. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hambly, A C; Arvin, E; Pedersen, L-F; Pedersen, P B; Seredyńska-Sobecka, B; Stedmon, C A

    2015-10-15

    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs, stocked with rainbow trout and operated at steady state at four feed loadings, were analysed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. The fluorescence dataset was then decomposed by PARAFAC analysis using the drEEM toolbox. This revealed that the fluorescence character of the RAS water could be represented by five components, of which four have previously been identified in fresh water, coastal marine water, wetlands and drinking water. The fluorescence components as well as the DOC showed positive correlations with feed loading, however there was considerable variation between the five fluorescence components with respect to the degree of accumulation with feed loading. The five components were found to originate from three sources: the feed; the influent tap water (groundwater); and processes related to the fish and the water treatment system. This paper details the first application of fluorescence EEM spectroscopy to assess DOM in RAS, and highlights the potential applications of this technique within future RAS management strategies. PMID:26141427

  1. Determination of changes in wastewater quality through a treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Carstea, Elfrida

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize municipal wastewater at various stages of treatment in order to understand how its fluorescence signature changes with treatment and how the signal relates to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The impact of size fractionation on the fluorescence signal was also investigated. Fluorescence measurements were taken for unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.20 microm) samples of crude, settled and secondary treated wastewater (activated sludge and trickling filter), and final effluent. Good correlations were observed for unfiltered, diluted wastewater samples between BOD and fluorescence intensity at excitation 280 nm, emission 350 nm (Peak T1) (r = 0.92) and between COD and Peak T1 intensity (r = 0.85). The majority of the T1 and T2 signal was found to be derived from the <0.20 microm fraction. Initial results indicate that fluorescence spectroscopy, and changes in Peak T1 intensity in particular, could be used for continuous, real-time wastewater quality assessment and process control of wastewater treatment works. PMID:24617065

  2. Invited Review Article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carriles, Ramón; Schafer, Dawn N.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus; Sylvester, Anne W.; Squier, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphoton imaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms employed in microscopy are reviewed, namely, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation. Techniques for optimizing these nonlinear mechanisms through a careful measurement of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal volume are discussed, and a brief summary of photobleaching effects is provided. Finally, we consider three new applications of multiphoton microscopy: nonlinear imaging in microfluidics as applied to chemical analysis and the use of two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation as contrast mechanisms applied to imaging problems in the medical sciences. PMID:19725639

  3. New Approaches for Correction of Interlayer Absorption Effects in X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Paintings.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Paweł M; Frączek, Piotr; Lankosz, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray fluorescence imaging technique allows not only the imaging itself but also the identification of the hidden paint layers what makes it much more versatile as compared with X-ray radiography. One of the main disadvantages of the former method is the fact that the characteristic X-rays from the deeper paint layers are absorbed in the covering layers. This effect is manifested by some artifacts that impede a proper interpretation of the acquired images. In this work, it is shown that the methodology for correction of the interlayer absorption effects can be extended to the case of polychromatic excitation. Additionally, a new approach for determination of the optimal correction parameters has also been presented. The methodology was verified using either the test painting or the mock-up painting both measured with a table-top micro-XRF setup. PMID:26708500

  4. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators. PMID:27423469

  5. Minute Concentration Measurements of Simple Hydrocarbon Species Using Supercontinuum Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Traina, Nicholas; Halloran, Michael; Lee, Tonghun

    2016-06-01

    Minute concentration measurements of simple hydrocarbon gases are demonstrated using near-infrared supercontinuum laser absorption spectroscopy. Absorption-based gas sensors, particularly when combined with optical fiber components, can significantly enhance diagnostic capabilities to unprecedented levels. However, these diagnostic techniques are subject to limitations under certain gas sensing applications where interference and harsh conditions dominate. Supercontinuum laser absorption spectroscopy is a novel laser-based diagnostic technique that can exceed the above-mentioned limitations and provide accurate and quantitative concentration measurement of simple hydrocarbon species while maintaining compatibility with telecommunications-grade optical fiber components. Supercontinuum radiation generated using a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber is used to probe rovibrational absorption bands of four hydrocarbon species using full-spectral absorption diagnostics. Absorption spectra of methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), and ethylene (C2H4) were measured in the near-infrared spectrum at various pressures and concentrations to determine the accuracy and feasibility of the diagnostic strategy. Absorption spectra of propane (C3H8) were subsequently probed between 1650 nm and 1700 nm, to demonstrate the applicability of the strategy. Measurements agreed very well with simulated spectra generated using the HITRAN database as well as with previous experimental results. Absorption spectra of CH4, C2H2, and C2H4 were then analyzed to determine their respective measurement accuracy and detection limit. Concentration measurements integrated from experimental results were in very good agreement with independent concentration measurements. Calculated detection limits of CH4, C2H2, and C2H4 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure are 0.1%, 0.09%, and 0.17%, respectively. PMID:27091905

  6. Intercomparison of OH Radical Measurements by Long-Path Absorption and Laser Induced Fluorescence in the Atmosphere Simulation Chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, H.-P.; Brauers, T.; Greif, J.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Rupp, L.

    2003-04-01

    A striking advantage of the SAPHIR chamber is the availability of two spectroscopic detection instruments for OH radicals: Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) and Long-Path Differential Optical Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Both instruments have already been compared in 1994 during the field measurement campaign POPCORN. They agreed well with a correlation coefficient of r=0.90 and a weighted linear fit with a slope of 1.09 +- 0.12. However, OH measurements in the simulation chamber differ significantly from measurements in ambient air. While DOAS measures OH as an integral value along the central longitudinal axis of SAPHIR, LIF samples the air locally and close (2 cm) to the floor of the chamber. Thus, the LIF measurements might be possibly affected by local concentration gradients caused by insufficient mixing of the chamber air or by deposition to the wall. On the other hand, if turbulent mixing of the chamber air is weak and high concentrations of ozone are used in experiments, the DOAS instrument might be subject to artificial formation of OH radicals in the air volume which is illuminated by the detection laser. This interference results from laser induced photolysis of ozone and the subsequent reaction of water vapor with the excited oxygen atoms formed. Thus it is of decisive importance to compare OH measurements from both instruments in order to investigate potential disturbing effects due to the specific sampling properties of both instruments within SAPHIR. We report on OH measurements accomplished simultaneously with both instruments using different trace gas compositions and experimental conditions.

  7. Solvent dependence of two-photon absorption spectra of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Haruko; Tayama, Ryo; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-06-01

    Two-photon absorption spectra of 4‧-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone, a model chromophore of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), were measured in various solvents. The two-photon absorption band of its anionic form is markedly blue-shifted from the corresponding one-photon absorption band in all solvents. Moreover, the magnitude of the blue shift varies largely depending on the solvent, which does not accord with the assignment of the two-photon absorption band to the transitions to the vibrationally excited S1 state. Our finding is readily rationalized by considering overlapping contributions of the S1 ← S0 and S2 ← S0 transitions, suggesting the involvement of the S2 state also in two-photon fluorescence of eGFP.

  8. Deconvolution of C-phycocyanin beta-84 and beta-155 chromophore absorption and fluorescence spectra of cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, A A; Mimuro, M

    1995-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the C-phycocyanin beta-subunit were quantitatively deconvoluted into component spectra of the beta-84 and beta-155 chromophores. The deconvolution procedure was based on a theoretical treatment of polarization properties. Four kinds of spectra (absorption, emission, emission polarization, and excitation polarization) measured on C-phycocyanin isolated from the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus were used as the experimental data set. Without any assumption of spectral shape, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of both chromophores were unambiguously resolved and their fluorescence quantum yields were evaluated. By combining the spectra of the alpha-subunit, independently measured, with the resolved spectra of the beta-subunit, the fluorescence and fluorescence polarization spectra and the fluorescence quantum yield of the monomer were estimated; they agree with experimental values to within an acceptable error. Further, the matrix of energy transfer rates in the monomer was estimated; it gave a significantly different result (by up to 40%) from previously estimated ones. PMID:7787035

  9. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexander; Witzel, Oliver; Ebert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS) spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS) and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS). The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 μm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K). A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer. PMID:25405508

  10. pH-Induced changes in electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of phenazine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazanova, O. A.; Voloshin, I. M.; Makitruk, V. L.; Zozulya, V. N.; Karachevtsev, V. A.

    2007-04-01

    The visible electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence polarization degrees of imidazo-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F1), 2-methylimidazo-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F2), 2-trifluoridemethylimidazo-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F3), 1,2,3-triazole-[4,5-d]-phenazine (F4) and their glycosides, imidazo-[4,5-d]-phenazine-N1-β- D-ribofuranoside (F1rib), 1,2,3-triazole-[4,5-d]-phenazine-N1-β- D-glucopyranoside (F4gl), were investigated in aqueous buffered solutions over the pH range of 0-12, where the spectral transformations were found to be reversible. The effects of protonation and deprotonation on spectral properties of these dyes were studied. We have determined the ranges of pH, where individual ionic species are predominant. In aqueous buffered solutions the fluorescence was found only for neutral species of F1, F1rib, F2, and F4gl dyes, whereas for the ionic forms of these dyes, as well as for F3 and F4 ones, the fluorescence has not been detected. The concentrational deprotonation p Ka values were evaluated from experimental data. It was shown that donor-acceptor properties of the substituent group in the second position of the pentagonal ring substantially affect the values of the deprotonation constants and the character of protonation for chromophore. The substitution of a hydrogen atom in the NH-group by the sugar residue blocks the formation of the anionic species, and results in enhancement of the dye emission intensity. The steep emission dependence for F1 and F1rib over pH range of 0-7 with intensities ratio of IpH 7/ IpH 1 = 60 allows us to propose them as possible indicator dyes in luminescence based pH sensors for investigation of processes accompanied by acidification, e.g. as gastric pH-sensors. A comparative analysis of the studied dyes has shown that F4gl is the most promising compound to be used as a fluorescent probe for investigation of molecular hybridization of nucleic acids.

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy incorporating a ratiometric approach for the diagnosis and classification of urothelial carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Crisci, Alfonso; Nesi, Gabriella; Carini, Marco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-02-01

    The current most popular clinical method for the screening of urothelial carcinoma is white light cystoscopy. This method has inherent disadvantages making a strong genesis towards developing more powerful diagnostic techniques. Laser induced intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as an adjunct to current methods for the detection of tumors. This technique allows real time results based on the changes in spectral profile between normal and tumor tissues. We conducted a pilot study based on fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths 378 and 445 nm excitation for the differentiation of urothelial carcinoma. At both the excitation wavelengths, the measured fluorescence signal showed an increased intensity at wavelengths greater than 520 nm. In addition, the emission profile showed modulation at 580 nm which is due to the reabsorption of emitted fluo- rescence due to hemoglobin. Additionally, we developed a tissue characterizing algorithm, based on fluorescence intensity ratios, F510/F600 and F520/F580 at 378 and 445 nm excitation wavelengths respectively. Further, the results were correlated with the pathologists assessment of urothelial carcinoma. This ratiometric classification algorithm yielded 81% sensitivity and 83% specificity at 378 nm and while at 445 nm excitation we achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 86% for classifying normal and tumor bladder tissues. In this study we have demonstrated the potential of a simple ratiometric algorithm based on fluorescence spectroscopy could be an alternative tool to tissue biopsy. Furthermore, this technique based fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy could be integrated into an endoscopy system for use in the operating room.

  12. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been proven to have tremendous potential as biomedical analytical tool for spectroscopic disease diagnostics. The use of fiberoptic coupled Raman spectroscopy systems can enable in-vivo characterization of suspicious lesions. However, Raman spectroscopy has the drawback of rather long acquisition times of several hundreds of milliseconds which makes scanning of larger regions quite challenging. By combining Raman spectroscopy with a fast imaging technique this problem can be alleviate in part. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) offers a great potential for such a combination. FLIm can allow for fast tissue area pre-segmentation and location of the points for Raman spectra acquisition. Here, we introduce an optical fiber probe combining FLIm and Raman spectroscopy with an outer diameter of 2 mm. Fluorescence is generated via excitation with a fiber laser at 355 nm. The fluorescence emission is spectrally resolved using a custom-made wavelength-selection module (WSM). The Raman excitation power at 785 nm was set to 50 mW for the in-vivo measurements to prevent sample drying. The lateral probe resolution was determined to be <250 μm for both modalities. This value was taken as step size for several raster scans of different tissue types which were conducted to show the overlap of both modalities under realistic conditions. Finally the probe was used for in vivo raster scans of a rat's brain and subsequently to acquire FLIm guided Raman spectra of several tissues in and around the craniotomy.

  13. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250–450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl‑ negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Studies of the residual absorption of HTSC at submillimeter wavelengths by means of photothermal interference spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barowski, H.S.; Arnold, A.; Eder, R.

    1996-12-31

    The determination of the residual, low temperature absorption of high temperature superconductors is of interest for applications of this new materials at submillimeter wavelengths and of basic interest. The photothermal interference spectroscopy allows to measure the residual, low temperature absorption of a HTSC. For the determination of the residual absorption of a superconductor a far-infrared beam is periodically modulated and focused on the sample. Absorption leads to a periodic change of the temperature of the sample surface and, due to heat diffusion, also in the gas volume adjacent to the sample. This temperature change in the gas is detected via the refractive index change using a two beam interferometer. The authors studied the residual losses of YBaCuO thin films on various substrates and of BiSrCaCuO (2212) single crystals at submillimeter wavelengths. They find that the frequency dependence of the absorptivity, which shows a frequency squared behavior at microwave frequencies, is less than quadratic at THz-frequencies. The YBaCuO thin films show a plateau between 0.6 THz and 4 THz with an absolute value of the absorptivity of about 10{sup {minus}2}. A BiSrCaCuO single crystal shows a plateau between 1 THz and 4 THz with an absorptivity in the order of 10{sup {minus}3}.

  15. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  16. Heavy Metals Effect on Cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis Study Using Absorption, Fluorescence, Flow Cytometry, and Photothermal Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowiak, A.; Olejarz, B.; Łukasiewicz, J.; Banaszek, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiktorowicz, K.

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effect of six heavy metals on cyanobacteria Synechocystis aquatilis was studied by absorption, fluorescence, flow cytometry, and photothermal measurements. This study indicates that at the concentration used, the cyanobacteria are more sensitive to silver, copper, and mercury than to cadmium, lead, and zinc metals. Disregarding the decrease in the yields of the related radiative processes caused by photochemical processes and/or damage to phycobilisomes, no changes were detected in the efficiency of thermal deactivation processes within a few microseconds, which can indicate the lack of disturbances in the photosynthetic light reaction and the lack of damage to the photosystem caused by the heavy metal ions in the concentrations used. The results demonstrate that the relative values of fluorescence yield as well as promptly generated heat calculated for the metal-affected and unaffected (reference) bacteria are sensitive indicators of environmental pollution with heavy metal ions, whereas the complementary methods proposed could be used as a noninvasive and fast procedure for in vivo assessment of their toxicity.

  17. Infrared-laser spectroscopy using a long-pathlength absorption cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.C.; Briesmeister, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The absorption measurements in an ordinary cell may require typically a few torr pressure of sample gas. At these pressures the absorption lines are usually pressure-broadened and, therefore, closely spaced transitions are poorly resolved even at diode-laser resolution. This situation is greatly improved in Doppler-limited spectroscopy at extremely low sample pressures. Two very long-pathlength absorption cells were developed to be used in conjunction with diode lasers. They were designed to operate at controlled temperatures with the optical pathlength variable up to approx. 1.5 km. Not only very low sample pressures are used for studies with such cells but also the spectroscopic sensitivity is enhanced over conventional methods by a factor of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/, improving the analytical capability of measuring particle densities to the order of 1 x 10'' molecules/cm/sup 3/. This paper presents some analytical aspects of the diode laser spectroscopy using the long-pathlength absorption cells in the areas of absorption line widths, pressure broadening coefficients, isotope composition measurements and trace impurity analysis.

  18. Photodissociation of thioglycolic acid studied by femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Attar, Andrew R.; Blumling, Daniel E.; Knappenberger, Kenneth L. Jr.

    2011-01-14

    Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies were employed to study the photodissociation of both the neutral (HS-CH{sub 2}-COOH) and doubly deprotonated ({sup -}S-CH{sub 2}-COO{sup -}) forms of thioglycolic acid (TGA), a common surface-passivating ligand used in the aqueous synthesis and organization of semiconducting nanostructures. Room temperature UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy indicated strong absorption by the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} excited states at 250 nm and 185 nm, respectively. The spectrum also contained a weaker absorption band that extended to approximately 550 nm, which was assigned to the {pi}{sub CO}{sup *}(leftarrow)n{sub O} transition. Femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy was performed on TGA using 400 nm excitation and a white-light continuum probe to provide the temporally and spectrally resolved data. Both forms of TGA underwent a photoinduced dissociation from the excited state to form an {alpha}-thiol-substituted acyl radical ({alpha}-TAR, S-CH{sub 2}-CO). For the acidic form of TGA, radical formation occurred with an apparent time constant of 60 {+-} 5 fs; subsequent unimolecular decay took 400 {+-} 60 fs. Similar kinetics were observed for the deprotonated form of TGA (70 {+-} 10 fs radical formation; 420 {+-} 40 fs decay). The production of the {alpha}-TAR was corroborated by the observation of its characteristic optical absorption. Time-resolved data indicated that the photoinduced dissociation of TGA via cleavage of the C-OH bond occurred rapidly ({<=}100 fs). The prevalence of TGA in aqueous semiconducting nanoparticles makes its absorption in the visible spectral region and subsequent dissociation key to understanding the behavior of nanoscale systems.

  19. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rey-Raap, Natalia

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.

  20. Laser-induced fluorescence-cued, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy biological-agent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hybl, John D.; Tysk, Shane M.; Berry, Shaun R.; Jordan, Michael P

    2006-12-01

    Methods for accurately characterizing aerosols are required for detecting biological warfare agents. Currently, fluorescence-based biological agent sensors provide adequate detection sensitivity but suffer from high false-alarm rates. Combining single-particle fluorescence analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides additional discrimination and potentially reduces false-alarm rates. A transportable UV laser-induced fluorescence-cued LIBS test bed has been developed and used to evaluate the utility of LIBS for biological-agent detection. Analysis of these data indicates that LIBS adds discrimination capability to fluorescence-based biological-agent detectors.However, the data also show that LIBS signatures of biological agent simulants are affected by washing. This may limit the specificity of LIBS and narrow the scope of its applicability in biological-agent detection.

  1. Depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and dysplastic cervical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Qu, Jianan Y.; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yu, Mei-Yung

    2005-01-01

    A portable confocal system with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm was instrumented to investigate the depth-resolved fluorescence of cervical tissue. The study focused on extracting biochemical and morphological information carried in the depth-resolved signals measured from the normal squamous epithelial tissue and squamous intraepithelial lesions. Strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen were observed from the topmost keratinizing layer of all tissue samples. It was found that NADH and FAD fluorescence measured from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.

  2. Describing two-photon absorptivity of fluorescent proteins with a new vibronic coupling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Drobizhev, M; Makarov, N S; Tillo, S E; Hughes, T E; Rebane, A

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are widely used in two-photon microscopy as genetically encoded probes. Understanding the physical basics of their two-photon absorption (2PA) properties is therefore crucial for creation of two-photon brighter mutants. On the other hand, it can give us better insight into molecular interactions of the FP chromophore with a complex protein environment. It is known that, compared to the one-photon absorption spectrum, where the pure electronic transition is the strongest, the 2PA spectrum of a number of FPs is dominated by a vibronic transition. The physical mechanism of such intensity redistribution is not understood. Here, we present a new physical model that explains this effect through the "Herzberg-Teller"-type vibronic coupling of the difference between the permanent dipole moments in the ground and excited states (Δμ) to the bond-length-alternating coordinate. This model also enables us to quantitatively describe a large variability of the 2PA peak intensity in a series of red FPs with the same chromophore through the interference between the "Herzberg-Teller" and Franck-Condon terms. PMID:22224830

  3. Assignment of benzodiazepine UV absorption spectra by the use of photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostenko, O. G.; Tzeplin, E. E.; Lomakin, G. S.

    2002-04-01

    Correlations between singlet transition energies and energy gaps of corresponding pairs of occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals were revealed in a series of benzodiazepines. The occupied orbital energies were taken from the photoelectron spectra of the compound investigated, the unoccupied ones were obtained from MNDO/d calculations, and the singlet energies were taken from the UV absorption spectra. The correspondence of the singlet transitions to certain molecular orbitals was established using MNDO/d calculations and comparing between UV and photoelectron spectra. It has been concluded that photoelectron spectroscopy can be applied for interpretation of UV absorption spectra of various compounds on the basis of similar correlations.

  4. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  5. Prediction of two-photon absorption enhancement in red fluorescent protein chromophores made from non-canonical amino acids.

    PubMed

    Salem, M Alaraby; Twelves, Isaac; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-21

    Two-photon spectroscopy of fluorescent proteins is a powerful bio-imaging tool known for deep tissue penetration and little cellular damage. Being less sensitive than the one-photon microscopy alternatives, a protein with a large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section is needed. Here, we use time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) levels of theory to screen twenty-two possible chromophores that can be formed upon replacing the amino-acid Tyr66 that forms the red fluorescent protein (RFP) chromophore with a non-canonical amino acid. The two-level model for TPA was used to assess the properties (i.e., transition dipole moment, permanent dipole moment difference, and the angle between them) leading to the TPA cross-sections determined via response theory. Computing TPA cross-sections with B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP yields similar overall trends. Results using both functionals agree that the RFP-derived model of the Gold Fluorescent Protein chromophore (Model 20) has the largest intrinsic TPA cross-section at the optimized geometry. TPA was further computed for selected chromophores following conformational changes: variation of both the dihedral angle of the acylimine moiety and the tilt and twist angles between the rings of the chromophore. The TPA cross-section assumed an oscillatory trend with the rotation of the acylimine dihedral, and the TPA is maximized in the planar conformation for almost all models. Model 21 (a hydroxyquinoline derivative) is shown to be comparable to Model 20 in terms of TPA cross-section. The conformational study on Model 21 shows that the acylimine angle has a much stronger effect on the TPA than its tilt and twist angles. Having an intrinsic TPA ability that is more than 7 times that of the native RFP chromophore, Models 20 and 21 appear to be very promising for future experimental investigation. PMID:27534378

  6. Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiyuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui

    2014-03-01

    The Yangtze Estuary is heavily influenced by coast-continent geochemical processes and anthropogenic activity; thus, the source and distribution of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the estuary are strongly impacted by these processes. Here, a series of samples were collected from across the Yangtze Estuary to investigate the source and spatial dynamics of CDOM and its components throughout the system. Three indices (a(355), spectral slope, and fluorescence) were then calculated and interpreted. The results indicated that the distribution of CDOM was dominated by allochthonous input, conservative mixing, and phase transfer. The contribution of biogenic CDOM to total CDOM increased with salinity, and three individual CDOM components were identified upon fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis of the water samples: C1, corresponding to humic substance-like CDOM, C2, corresponding to tryptophan-like CDOM, and C3, corresponding to tyrosine-like CDOM. C1 primarily originated from a terrestrial source, C2 had widespread origins, none of which played a dominant role, and C3 mainly originated from allochthonous input in the medium salinity area. Unexpectedly, no marine humic-like component was found in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary, possibly because turbidity decreased the depth of sunlight penetration, limiting production of this component. PMID:24243263

  7. Assembly and characterization of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for skin lesions diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Texiera Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis in biological tissues has been presented as a technique of a great potential for tissue characterization for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study is to assemble and characterize a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for diagnostic of clinically similar skin lesions in vivo. The fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (Becker & Hickl, Berlin, Germany) technique. Two lasers, one emitting at 378 nm and another at 445 nm, are used for excitation with 20, 50 and 80 MHz repetition rate. A bifurcated optical fiber probe conducts the excitation light to the sample, the collected light is transmitted through bandpass filters and delivered to a hybrid photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence spectra were obtained by using a portable spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB-2000-FLG) with the same excitation sources. An instrument response function of about 300 ps was obtained and the spectrum and fluorescence lifetime of a standard fluorescent molecule (Rhodamine 6G) was measured for the calibration of the system ((4.1 +/- 0.3) ns). The assembled system was considered robust, well calibrated and will be used for clinical measurements of skin lesions.

  8. Probing Ternary Complex Equilibria of Crown Ether Ligands by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ternary complex formation with solvent molecules and other adventitious ligands may compromise the performance of metal-ion-selective fluorescent probes. As Ca(II) can accommodate more than 6 donors in the first coordination sphere, commonly used crown ether ligands are prone to ternary complex formation with this cation. The steric strain imposed by auxiliary ligands, however, may result in an ensemble of rapidly equilibrating coordination species with varying degrees of interaction between the cation and the specific donor atoms mediating the fluorescence response, thus diminishing the change in fluorescence properties upon Ca(II) binding. To explore the influence of ligand architecture on these equilibria, we tethered two structurally distinct aza-15-crown-5 ligands to pyrazoline fluorophores as reporters. Due to ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) quenching of the fluorophore by the ligand moiety, the fluorescence decay profile directly reflects the species composition in the ground state. By adjusting the PET driving force through electronic tuning of the pyrazoline fluorophores, we were able to differentiate between species with only subtle variations in PET donor abilities. Concluding from a global analysis of the corresponding fluorescence decay profiles, the coordination species composition was indeed strongly dependent on the ligand architecture. Altogether, the combination of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with selective tuning of the PET driving force represents an effective analytical tool to study dynamic coordination equilibria and thus to optimize ligand architectures for the design of high-contrast cation-responsive fluorescence switches. PMID:25313708

  9. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy identifies residual tumor cells in wounds

    PubMed Central

    Holt, David; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Okusanya, Olugbenga; Keating, Jane; Venegas, Ollin; Deshpande, Charuhas; Karakousis, Giorgos; Madajewski, Brian; Durham, Amy; Nie, Shuming; Yodh, Arjun G.; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Surgery is the most effective method to cure patients with solid tumors, and 50% of all cancer patients undergo resection. Local recurrences are due to tumor cells remaining in the wound, thus we explore near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging to identify residual cancer cells after surgery. Fifteen canines and two human patients with spontaneously occurring sarcomas underwent intraoperative imaging. During the operation, the wounds were interrogated with NIR fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. NIR monitoring identified the presence or absence of residual tumor cells after surgery in 14/15 canines with a mean fluorescence signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of ∼16. Ten animals showed no residual tumor cells in the wound bed (mean SBR<2, P<0.001). None had a local recurrence at >1-year follow-up. In five animals, the mean SBR of the wound was >15, and histopathology confirmed tumor cells in the postsurgical wound in four/five canines. In the human pilot study, neither patient had residual tumor cells in the wound bed, and both remain disease free at >1.5-year follow up. Intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy identifies residual tumor cells in surgical wounds. These observations suggest that NIR imaging techniques may improve tumor resection during cancer operations. PMID:26160347

  10. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy identifies residual tumor cells in wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, David; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Okusanya, Olugbenga; Keating, Jane; Venegas, Ollin; Deshpande, Charuhas; Karakousis, Giorgos; Madajewski, Brian; Durham, Amy; Nie, Shuming; Yodh, Arjun G.; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Surgery is the most effective method to cure patients with solid tumors, and 50% of all cancer patients undergo resection. Local recurrences are due to tumor cells remaining in the wound, thus we explore near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging to identify residual cancer cells after surgery. Fifteen canines and two human patients with spontaneously occurring sarcomas underwent intraoperative imaging. During the operation, the wounds were interrogated with NIR fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. NIR monitoring identified the presence or absence of residual tumor cells after surgery in 14/15 canines with a mean fluorescence signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of ˜16. Ten animals showed no residual tumor cells in the wound bed (mean SBR<2, P<0.001). None had a local recurrence at >1-year follow-up. In five animals, the mean SBR of the wound was >15, and histopathology confirmed tumor cells in the postsurgical wound in four/five canines. In the human pilot study, neither patient had residual tumor cells in the wound bed, and both remain disease free at >1.5-year follow up. Intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy identifies residual tumor cells in surgical wounds. These observations suggest that NIR imaging techniques may improve tumor resection during cancer operations.

  11. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy identifies residual tumor cells in wounds.

    PubMed

    Holt, David; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B; Okusanya, Olugbenga; Keating, Jane; Venegas, Ollin; Deshpande, Charuhas; Karakousis, Giorgos; Madajewski, Brian; Durham, Amy; Nie, Shuming; Yodh, Arjun G; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Surgery is the most effective method to cure patients with solid tumors, and 50% of all cancer patients undergo resection. Local recurrences are due to tumor cells remaining in the wound, thus we explore near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging to identify residual cancer cells after surgery. Fifteen canines and two human patients with spontaneously occurring sarcomas underwent intraoperative imaging. During the operation, the wounds were interrogated with NIR fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. NIR monitoring identified the presence or absence of residual tumor cells after surgery in 14/15 canines with a mean fluorescence signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of ∼16 . Ten animals showed no residual tumor cells in the wound bed (mean SBR<2 , P<0.001 ). None had a local recurrence at >1-year follow-up. In five animals, the mean SBR of the wound was >15 , and histopathology confirmed tumor cells in the postsurgical wound in four/five canines. In the human pilot study, neither patient had residual tumor cells in the wound bed, and both remain disease free at >1.5-year follow up. Intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy identifies residual tumor cells in surgical wounds. These observations suggest that NIR imaging techniques may improve tumor resection during cancer operations. PMID:26160347

  12. Cy3 in AOT reverse micelles II. Probing intermicellar interactions using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jeffrey T; Scott, Eric; Levinger, Nancy E; Van Orden, Alan

    2011-08-11

    Cyanine-3 (Cy3) fluorescent dye molecules confined in sodium di-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles were examined using dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to probe the kinetics of Cy3 dye and reverse micelle aggregation. This study explored a range of reverse micelle sizes, defined as w(0) = [H(2)O]/[AOT], in which the occupation number ranged from one Cy3 molecule per ∼10(5) to ∼10(6) reverse micelles. These measurements reveal that in the smallest reverse micelle, w(0) = 1, the Cy3 molecules aggregate to form H-aggregate dimers, and the Cy3 dimerization is accompanied by the formation of a transient dimer between reverse micelles. Transient reverse micelle dimer particles are only observed in the small fraction of Cy3-labeled reverse micelles probed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and are not observed in the bulk solution probed by dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy makes it possible to probe the size and shape of these dimers, revealing prolate ellipsoid-shaped particles with twice the volume and surface area of a single reverse micelle. PMID:21761943

  13. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy for art conservation: looking back and looking forward.

    PubMed

    Cotte, Marine; Susini, Jean; Dik, Joris; Janssens, Koen

    2010-06-15

    A variety of analytical techniques augmented by the use of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), are now readily available, and they differ little, conceptually, from their common laboratory counterparts. Because of numerous advantages afforded by SR-based techniques over benchtop versions, however, SR methods have become popular with archaeologists, art historians, curators, and other researchers in the field of cultural heritage (CH). Although the CH community now commonly uses both SR-XRF and SR-XRD, the use of synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS) techniques remains marginal, mostly because CH specialists rarely interact with SR physicists. In this Account, we examine the basic principles and capabilities of XAS techniques in art preservation. XAS techniques offer a combination of features particularly well-suited for the chemical analysis of works of art. The methods are noninvasive, have low detection limits, afford high lateral resolution, and provide exceptional chemical sensitivity. These characteristics are highly desirable for the chemical characterization of precious, heterogeneous, and complex materials. In particular, the chemical mapping capability, with high spatial resolution that provides information about local composition and chemical states, even for trace elements, is a unique asset. The chemistry involved in both the object's history (that is, during fabrication) and future (that is, during preservation and restoration treatments) can be addressed by XAS. On the one hand, many studies seek to explain optical effects occurring in historical glasses or ceramics by probing the molecular environment of relevant chromophores. Hence, XAS can provide insight into craft skills that were mastered years, decades, or centuries ago but were lost over the course of time. On the other hand, XAS can also be used to characterize unwanted reactions, which are then considered

  14. High-resolution absorption spectroscopy of photoionized silicon plasma, a step toward measuring the efficiency of Resonant Auger Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, James; Hansen, Stephanie; Nagayama, Taisuke; Rochau, Gregory; Liedhal, Duane; Mancini, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    A remarkable opportunity to observe matter in a regime where the effects of General Relativity are significant has arisen through measurements of strongly red-shifted iron x-ray lines emitted from black hole accretion disks. A major uncertainty in the spectral formation models is the efficiency of Resonant Auger Destruction (RAD), in which fluorescent K α photons are resonantly absorbed by neighbor ions. The absorbing ion preferentially decays by Auger ionization, thus reducing the emerging K α intensity. If K α lines from L-shell ions are not observed in iron spectral emission, why are such lines observed from silicon plasma surrounding other accretion powered objects? To help answer this question, we are investigating photoionized silicon plasmas produced using intense x-rays from the Z facility. The incident spectral irradiance is determined with time-resolved absolute power measurements, multiple monochromatic gated images, and a 3-D view factor model. The charge state distribution, electron temperature, and electron density are determined using space-resolved backlit absorption spectroscopy. The measurements constrain photoionized plasma models and set the stage for future emission spectroscopy directly investigating the RAD process. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Electrochemical flowcell for in-situ investigations by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwanke, C.; Lange, K. M.; Golnak, R.; Xiao, J.

    2014-10-15

    A new liquid flow-cell designed for electronic structure investigations at the liquid-solid interface by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. A thin membrane serves simultaneously as a substrate for the working electrode and solid state samples as well as for separating the liquid from the surrounding vacuum conditions. In combination with counter and reference electrodes this approach allows in-situ studies of electrochemical deposition processes and catalytic reactions at the liquid-solid interface in combination with potentiostatic measurements. As model system in-situ monitoring of the deposition process of Co metal from a 10 mM CoCl{sub 2} aqueous solution by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented.

  16. Applicability of Fluorescence and Absorbance Spectroscopy to Estimate Organic Pollution in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Heloise Garcia; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; de Azevedo, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues; do Amaral Porto, Monica Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the applicability of fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy for estimating organic pollution in polluted rivers. The relationship between absorbance, fluorescence intensity, dissolved organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other water quality parameters were used to characterize and identify the origin and the spatial variability of the organic pollution in a highly polluted watershed. Analyses were performed for the Iguassu River, located in southern Brazil, with area about 2,700 km2 and ∼3 million inhabitants. Samples were collect at six monitoring sites covering 107 km of the main river. BOD, COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration indicates a high input of sewage to the river. Specific absorbance at 254 and 285 nm (SUVA254 and A285/COD) did not show significant variation between sites monitored, indicating the presence of both dissolved compounds found in domestic effluents and humic and fulvic compounds derived from allochthonous organic matter. Correlations between BOD and tryptophan-like fluorescence peak (peak T2, r=0.7560, and peak T1, r=0.6949) and tyrosine-like fluorescence peak (peak B, r=0.7321) indicated the presence of labile organic matter and thus confirmed the presence of sewage in the river. Results showed that fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy provide useful information on pollution in rivers from critical watersheds and together are a robust method that is simpler and more rapid than traditional methods employed by regulatory agencies. PMID:25469076

  17. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy to detect hepatic necrosis after normothermic ischemia: animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Renan A.; Vollet-Filho, Jose D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Fernandez, Jorge L.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Sankarankutty, Ajith K.

    2015-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for liver failure. However, the success of the transplantation procedure depends on liver graft conditions. The tissue function evaluation during the several transplantation stages is relevant, in particular during the organ harvesting, when a decision is made concerning the viability of the graft. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy is a good option because it is a noninvasive and fast technique. A partial normothermic hepatic ischemia was performed in rat livers, with a vascular occlusion of both median and left lateral lobes, allowing circulation only for the right lateral lobe and the caudate lobe. Fluorescence spectra under excitation at 532 nm (doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser) were collected using a portable spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA). The fluorescence emission was collected before vascular occlusion, after ischemia, and 24 hours after reperfusion. A morphometric histology analysis was performed as the gold standard evaluation - liver samples were analyzed, and the percentage of necrotic tissue was obtained. The results showed that changes in the fluorescence emission after ischemia can be correlated with the amount of necrosis evaluated by a morphometric analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the generated model was 0.90 and the root mean square error was around 20%. In this context, the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique after normothermic ischemia showed to be a fast and efficient method to differentiate ischemic injury from viable tissues.

  18. Fluorescence suppression using wavelength modulated Raman spectroscopy in fiber-probe-based tissue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, Bavishna B.; Ashok, Praveen C.; Mazilu, Michael; Riches, Andrew; Herrington, Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-07-01

    In the field of biomedical optics, Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for probing the chemical composition of biological samples. In particular, fiber Raman probes play a crucial role for in vivo and ex vivo tissue analysis. However, the high-fluorescence background typically contributed by the auto fluorescence from both a tissue sample and the fiber-probe interferes strongly with the relatively weak Raman signal. Here we demonstrate the implementation of wavelength-modulated Raman spectroscopy (WMRS) to suppress the fluorescence background while analyzing tissues using fiber Raman probes. We have observed a significant signal-to-noise ratio enhancement in the Raman bands of bone tissue, which have a relatively high fluorescence background. Implementation of WMRS in fiber-probe-based bone tissue study yielded usable Raman spectra in a relatively short acquisition time (~30 s), notably without any special sample preparation stage. Finally, we have validated its capability to suppress fluorescence on other tissue samples such as adipose tissue derived from four different species.

  19. Assessing the photoaging process at sun exposed and non-exposed skin using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photoaging is the skin premature aging due to exposure to ultraviolet light, which damage the collagen, elastin and can induce alterations on the skin cells DNA, and, then, it may evolve to precancerous lesions, which are widely investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis has been presented as a technique of great potential for biological tissue characterization at optical diagnostics. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and may contribute to a non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries such as skin lesions. These lesions and the possible areas where they may develop can be interrogated using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy taking into account the variability of skin phototypes and the changes related to melanin, collagen and elastin, endogenous fluorophores which have emissions that spectrally overlap to the NADH and FAD emission. The objective of this study is to assess the variation on fluorescence lifetimes of normal skin at sun exposed and non-exposed areas and associate this variation to the photoaging process.

  20. Towards in situ fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy investigations of asphaltene precipitation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Franco, Juliana C; Gonçalves, Grasiele; Souza, Monique S; Rosa, Samantha B C; Thiegue, Larissa M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Rosa, Paulo T V; Nome, René A

    2013-12-16

    We perform a spectroscopic analysis of asphaltene in solution and in crude oil with the goal of designing an optical probe of asphaltene precipitation inside high-pressure cells. Quantitative analysis of steady-state spectroscopic data is employed to identify fluorescence and Raman contributions to the observed signals. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that fluorescence lifetime can be used as a spectroscopic probe of asphaltene in crude oil. Quantitative confocal laser-scanning microscopy studies of asphaltene in n-heptane are used to calculate particle-size distributions as a function of time, both at the sample surface and asphaltene interior. The resulting precipitation kinetics is well described by stochastic numerical simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation. Based on these results, we present the design and construction of an apparatus to optically probe the in situ precipitation of asphaltene suitable for studies inside high pressure cells. Design considerations include the use of a spatial light modulator for aberration correction in microscopy measurements, together with the design of epi-fluorescence spectrometer, both fiber-based and for remote sensing fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24514660

  1. Precise quantification of cellular uptake of cell-penetrating peptides using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rezgui, Rachid; Blumer, Katy; Yeoh-Tan, Gilbert; Trexler, Adam J; Magzoub, Mazin

    2016-07-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have emerged as a potentially powerful tool for drug delivery due to their ability to efficiently transport a whole host of biologically active cargoes into cells. Although concerted efforts have shed some light on the cellular internalization pathways of CPPs, quantification of CPP uptake has proved problematic. Here we describe an experimental approach that combines two powerful biophysical techniques, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), to directly, accurately and precisely measure the cellular uptake of fluorescently-labeled molecules. This rapid and technically simple approach is highly versatile and can readily be applied to characterize all major CPP properties that normally require multiple assays, including amount taken up by cells (in moles/cell), uptake efficiency, internalization pathways, intracellular distribution, intracellular degradation and toxicity threshold. The FACS-FCS approach provides a means for quantifying any intracellular biochemical entity, whether expressed in the cell or introduced exogenously and transported across the plasma membrane. PMID:27033412

  2. Strengths and Weaknesses of Recently Engineered Red Fluorescent Proteins Evaluated in Live Cells Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Amanda P.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Day, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    The scientific community is still looking for a bright, stable red fluorescent protein (FP) as functional as the current best derivatives of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The red FPs exploit the reduced background of cells imaged in the red region of the visible spectrum, but photophysical short comings have limited their use for some spectroscopic approaches. Introduced nearly a decade ago, mCherry remains the most often used red FP for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and other single molecule techniques, despite the advent of many newer red FPs. All red FPs suffer from complex photophysics involving reversible conversions to a dark state (flickering), a property that results in fairly low red FP quantum yields and potential interference with spectroscopic analyses including FCS. The current report describes assays developed to determine the best working conditions for, and to uncover the shortcoming of, four recently engineered red FPs for use in FCS and other diffusion and spectroscopic studies. All five red FPs assayed had potential shortcomings leading to the conclusion that the current best red FP for FCS is still mCherry. The assays developed here aim to enable the rapid evaluation of new red FPs and their smooth adaptation to live cell spectroscopic microscopy and nanoscopy. PMID:24129172

  3. Speciation of metal(loid)s in environmental samples by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, Markus; Donner, Erica; Collins, Richard N; Lombi, Enzo

    2014-04-25

    Element specificity is one of the key factors underlying the widespread use and acceptance of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a research tool in the environmental and geo-sciences. Independent of physical state (solid, liquid, gas), XAS analyses of metal(loid)s in complex environmental matrices over the past two decades have provided important information about speciation at environmentally relevant interfaces (e.g. solid-liquid) as well as in different media: plant tissues, rhizosphere, soils, sediments, ores, mineral process tailings, etc. Limited sample preparation requirements, the concomitant ability to preserve original physical and chemical states, and independence from crystallinity add to the advantages of using XAS in environmental investigations. Interpretations of XAS data are founded on sound physical and statistical models that can be applied to spectra of reference materials and mixed phases, respectively. For spectra collected directly from environmental matrices, abstract factor analysis and linear combination fitting provide the means to ascertain chemical, bonding, and crystalline states, and to extract quantitative information about their distribution within the data set. Through advances in optics, detectors, and data processing, X-ray fluorescence microprobes capable of focusing X-rays to micro- and nano-meter size have become competitive research venues for resolving the complexity of environmental samples at their inherent scale. The application of μ-XANES imaging, a new combinatorial approach of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and XANES spectroscopy at the micron scale, is one of the latest technological advances allowing for lateral resolution of chemical states over wide areas due to vastly improved data processing and detector technology. PMID:24725743

  4. Near-infrared spectrum of ZrF by intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jack C.; O'Brien, Leah C.; Ni, Ann; Mahkdoom, Bilal; O'Brien, James J.

    2015-04-01

    The (1, 1) band of the CΩ = 3/2 - X2Δ3/2 transition of ZrF has been recorded at high resolution using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. The ZrF molecules were produced using a Zr-lined copper hollow cathode sputter source with a trace amount of SF6 as a fluoride source. Molecular constants from the analysis are presented and compared with previous work.

  5. Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

    1988-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

  6. Third order nonlinear optical susceptibility of fluorescein-containing polymers determined by electro-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo; Beristain, Miriam F.; Ortega, Alejandra; Martínez-Viramontes, Jaquelin; Ogawa, Takeshi; Fernández-Hernández, Roberto C.; Tamayo-Rivera, Lis; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Isoshima, Takashi; Hara, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    Novel polymers containing xanthene groups with high dye concentrations were prepared, and their third order nonlinear optical properties were studied by electroabsorption spectroscopy technique. The polymers were amorphous with refractive indices above 1.6 in the non-resonant region. The UV-Visible absorption spectra indicate the fluoresceins molecules in the polymers are H-aggregated. They showed third order nonlinear susceptibility, χ(3) (-ω:ω, 0, 0), of 2.5-3.5 × 10-12 esu.

  7. Narrow-band, tunable, semiconductor-laser-based source for deep-UV absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kliner, D A; Koplow, J P; Goldberg, L

    1997-09-15

    Tunable, narrow-bandwidth (<200-MHz), ~215-nm radiation was produced by frequency quadrupling the ~860-nm output of a high-power, pulsed GaAlAs tapered amplifier seeded by an external-cavity diode laser. Pulsing the amplifier increased the 860 nm?215 nm conversion efficiency by 2 orders of magnitude with respect to cw operation. Detection of nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide by high-resolution absorption spectroscopy was demonstrated. PMID:18188256

  8. Quantitation of vitamin B 12 by first-derivative absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karşilayan, Huriye

    1996-08-01

    Quantitation of vitamin B 12 by first-derivative absorption spectroscopy is described. Peak-to-peak (355 nm to 370 nm) amplitudes were measured from the first derivative spectra. The method permits rapid determination of vitamin B 12, and increases the detection limit while decreasing interference by impurities. The effects of the majority of other absorbing macromolecules which may also be present in biological samples are eliminated or very considerably minimized by this method.

  9. Capturing Transient Electronic and Molecular Structures in Liquids by Picosecond X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gawelda, W.; Pham, V. T.; El Nahhas, A.; Kaiser, M.; Zaushitsyn, Y.; Bressler, C.; Chergui, M.; Johnson, S. L.; Grolimund, D.; Abela, R.; Hauser, A.

    2007-02-02

    We describe an advanced setup for time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) Spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution. It combines an intense femtosecond laser source synchronized to the x-ray pulses delivered into the microXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The setup is applied to measure the short-lived high-spin geometric structure of photoexcited aqueous Fe(bpy)3 at room temperature.

  10. In situ x-ray-absorption spectroscopy study of hydrogen absorption by nickel-magnesium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farangis, B.; Nachimuthu, P.; Richardson, T. J.; Slack, J. L.; Perera, R. C.; Gullikson, E. M.; Lindle, D. W.; Rubin, M.

    2003-02-01

    Structural and electronic properties of co-sputtered Ni-Mg thin films with varying Ni to Mg ratio were studied by in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the Ni L-edge and Mg K-edge regions. Codeposition of the metals led to increased disorder and decreased coordination around Ni and Mg compared to pure metal films. Exposure of the metallic films to hydrogen resulted in formation of hydrides and increased disorder. The presence of hydrogen as a near neighbor around Mg caused a drastic reduction in the intensities of multiple scattering resonances at higher energies. The optical switching behavior and changes in the x-ray spectra varied with Ni to Mg atomic ratio. Pure Mg films with Pd overlayers were converted to MgH2: The H atoms occupy regular sites as in bulk MgH2. Although optical switching was slow in the absence of Ni, the amount of H2 absorption was large. Incorporation of Ni in Mg films led to an increase in the speed of optical switching but decreased maximum transparency. Significant shifts in the Ni L3 and L2 peaks are consistent with strong interaction with hydrogen in the mixed films.

  11. A new screening method for flunitrazepam in vodka and tequila by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leesakul, Nararak; Pongampai, Sirintip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Sudkeaw, Pravit; Tantirungrotechai, Yuthana; Buranachai, Chittanon

    2013-01-01

    A new screening method for flunitrazepam in colourless alcoholic beverages based on a spectroscopic technique is proposed. Absorption and steady-state fluorescence of flunitrazepam and its protonated form with various acids were investigated. The redshift of the wavelength of maximum absorption was distinctively observed in protonated flunitrazepam. An emissive fluorescence at 472 nm was detected in colourless spirits (vodka and tequila) at room temperature. 2-M perchloric acid was the most appropriated proton source. By using electron ionization mass spectrometry and time-dependent density functional theory calculations, the possible structure of protonated flunitrazepam was identified to be 2-nitro-N-methylacridone, an acridone derivative as opposed to 2-methylamino-5-nitro-2'-fluorobenzophenone, a benzophenone derivative. PMID:22354877

  12. Rapid detection of authenticity and adulteration of walnut oil by FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingning; Wang, Haixia; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Ouyang, Jie; Wu, Yanwen

    2015-08-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least square (PLS) were used to detect the authenticity of walnut oil and adulteration amount of soybean oil in walnut oil. A SIMCA model of FTIR spectra could differentiate walnut oil and other oils into separate categories; the classification limit of soybean oil in walnut oil was 10%. Fluorescence spectroscopy could differentiate oil composition by the peak position and intensity of emission spectrum without multivariate analysis. The classification limit of soybean oil adulterated in walnut oil by fluorescence spectroscopy was below 5%. The deviation of the prediction model for fluorescence spectra was lower than that for FTIR spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy was more applicable than FTIR in the adulteration detection of walnut oil, both from the determination limit and prediction deviation. PMID:25794716

  13. Portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Alessandro D.; Rossi, Giuliano; de Castro, Guilherme Cunha; Ortega, Tiago A.; de Castro N., Jarbas C.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the development of a portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection is presented. The equipment consists of an excitation blue LED light source, a commercial miniature spectrometer and embedded software. Measurements of healthy, HLB-symptomatic and HLB-asymptomatic citrus leafs were performed. Leafs were excited with the blue LED and their fluorescence spectra collected. Embedded electronics and software were responsible for the spectrum processing and classification via partial least squares regression. Global success rates above 80% and 100% distinction of healthy and HLB-symptomatic leafs were obtained.

  14. Far-field infrared super-resolution microscopy using picosecond time-resolved transient fluorescence detected IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Makoto; Kawashima, Yasutake; Takeda, Akihiro; Ohmori, Tsutomu; Fujii, Masaaki

    2007-05-01

    A new far-field infrared super-resolution microscopy combining laser fluorescence microscope and picosecond time-resolved transient fluorescence detected IR (TFD-IR) spectroscopy is proposed. TFD-IR spectroscopy is a kind of IR-visible/UV double resonance spectroscopy, and detects IR transitions by the transient fluorescence due to electronic transition originating from vibrationally excited level populated by IR light. IR images of rhodamine-6G solution and of fluorescent beads were clearly observed by monitoring the transient fluorescence. Super-resolution twice higher than the diffraction limit for IR light was achieved. The IR spectrum due to the transient fluorescence was also measured from spatial domains smaller than the diffraction limit.

  15. A benzo-15-crown-5-modifying ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON chemosensor for Cu(2.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; Wang, Xinxin; Wang, Kaili; Zhang, Xiuling

    2016-05-15

    One new benzo-15-crown-5-modifying fluorene Schiff base (FBC), together with the CN-linked fluorene-3,4-dimethoxybenzene (FBDMO) and fluorene-benzene (FB) references, has been designed and facilely synthesized. The binding of Cu(2+) with nitrogen atom of CN moiety in these three compounds can inhibit the photo-induced electronic transition process and induce the ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON response to Cu(2+). Whereas the employment of benzo-15-crown-5 moiety in FBC as additional binding platform for Cu(2+) not only amplifies the fluorescent enhancement of FBCvia preventing the isomerization of CN moiety, but also endows this compound high selectivity and rapid response towards Cu(2+) over the references FB and FBDMO. These results render FBC highly sensitive ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON detecting potential for Cu(2+) with the detection limit of 3.91×10(-6)M. PMID:26971023

  16. A benzo-15-crown-5-modifying ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON chemosensor for Cu2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuting; Wang, Xinxin; Wang, Kaili; Zhang, Xiuling

    2016-05-01

    One new benzo-15-crown-5-modifying fluorene Schiff base (FBC), together with the Cdbnd N-linked fluorene-3,4-dimethoxybenzene (FBDMO) and fluorene-benzene (FB) references, has been designed and facilely synthesized. The binding of Cu2 + with nitrogen atom of Cdbnd N moiety in these three compounds can inhibit the photo-induced electronic transition process and induce the ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON response to Cu2 +. Whereas the employment of benzo-15-crown-5 moiety in FBC as additional binding platform for Cu2 + not only amplifies the fluorescent enhancement of FBCvia preventing the isomerization of Cdbnd N moiety, but also endows this compound high selectivity and rapid response towards Cu2 + over the references FB and FBDMO. These results render FBC highly sensitive ratiometric-absorption and fluorescent OFF-ON detecting potential for Cu2 + with the detection limit of 3.91 × 10- 6 M.

  17. Long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy for measurement of atmospheric constituents.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Shi, Kebin; Liu, Zhiwen; Philbrick, C R

    2008-06-01

    A supercontinuum source has been proposed as a new tool for measurement of minor species concentrations on long paths through the atmosphere. The present work describes results from recent experiments that demonstrate the potential for Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (DAS) and Spectral Pattern Recognition Differential Absorption Lidar (SPR-DIAL) measurements utilizing a supercontinuum source. As an initial example of this measurement approach, the results include the quantification of water vapor concentration through indoor and outdoor path absorption measurements using a collimated supercontinuum source. Experimental spectra are compared with equivalent simulations from MODTRAN??? versions 4 and 5 to examine the water vapor band between 1300 and 1500 nm to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. PMID:18545560

  18. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  19. Deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy: A resonance-absorption trade-off illustrated by diluted liquid benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, C. T.; Willitsford, A. H.; Philbrick, C. R.; Hallen, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    The magnitude of resonance Raman intensity, in terms of the real signal level measured on-resonance compared to the signal level measured off-resonance for the same sample, is investigated using a tunable laser source. Resonance Raman enhancements, occurring as the excitation energy is tuned through ultraviolet absorption lines, are used to examine the 1332 cm-1 vibrational mode of diamond and the 992 cm-1 ring-breathing mode of benzene. Competition between the wavelength dependent optical absorption and the magnitude of the resonance enhancement is studied using measured signal levels as a function of wavelength. Two system applications are identified where the resonance Raman significantly increases the real signal levels despite the presence of strong absorption: characterization of trace species in laser remote sensing and spectroscopy of the few molecules in the tiny working volumes of near-field optical microscopy.

  20. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.