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Sample records for absorption gas imaging

  1. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  2. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  3. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  4. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas Jan [Livermore, CA; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; Sommers, Ricky [Oakley, CA; Goers, Uta-Barbara [Campbell, NY; Armstrong, Karla M [Livermore, CA

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  5. Application of backscatter absorption gas imaging to the detection of chemicals related to drug production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Garvis, Darrel G.; Kennedy, Randall B.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1991-08-01

    The application of backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) to the detection of gaseous chemical species associated with the production of illegal drugs is considered. BAGI is a gas visualization technique that allows the imaging of over 70 organic vapors at minimum concentrations of a few to several hundred ppm-m. Present BAGI capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Laser Imaging Systems are discussed. Eighteen different species of interest in drug-law enforcement are identified as being detectable by BAGI. The chemical remote sensing needs of law enforcement officials are described, and the use of BAGI in meeting some of these needs is outlined.

  6. Current Status Of The NAVSEA Backscatter Absorption Gas Imaging (BAGI) Development Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Kennedy, Randall B.; Garvis, Darrel G.; McRae, Thomas G.; Stahovec, Joe

    1989-07-01

    During the last five years, work has been underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a method for imaging gas clouds that are normally invisible to the human eye. The effort was initiated to provide an effective means of locating leaks of hazardous vapors. Although conventional point or line-of-sight detectors are well suited to the measurement of gas concentrations, their utility in identifying the origin and direction of travel of gas plumes is limited. To obtain spatial information from sensors that provide only zero- or one-dimensional readings, either sequential readings at many different locations from a single device, or multiplexed simultaneous measurements from a sensor array must be taken. The former approach is time consuming and, therefore, impractical in emergency situations where rapid action is required. The latter is useful only in cases where the probability of a hazardous release is high enough to warrant the prior installation of a sensor network. Either method demands high measuremental precision and sufficient discrimination against both interfering gases and interfering sources of the target gas. Backscatter Absorption Gas Imaging (BAGI) is a new technique that makes gas clouds and their surroundings "visible" in a real-time video image. It is superior to conventional sensors in characterizing the spatial properties of gas clouds because it provides data that are inherently two-dimensional. Less measuremental precision is required by the BAGI technique because it conveys information as contrasts between different areas in an image rather than as absolute concentration values. Furthermore, the pictorial display of this information allows it to be rapidly assimilated by emergency-response teams. The size and orientation of the plume are evident through comparison with familiar objects that also appear in the image. Subtler evaluations can be made as well, such as the distinction between innocous and hazardous

  7. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  8. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shiaguo [Champaign, IL; Lu, Yonggi [Urbana, IL; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  9. Detection of bacterial growth by gas absorption.

    PubMed

    Waters, J R

    1992-05-01

    When 24 different aerobic organisms were grown in a shaken culture, all were found to first absorb gas from the headspace. In a rudimentary medium, such as tryptic soy broth, 16 of the 24 organisms did not produce gas following the initial gas absorption. We have developed a simple, noninvasive method for detecting both gas absorption and production in multiple culture vials. The time to positivity was compared with that obtained by the BACTEC 460 blood culture system. For nearly all of these organisms, there was no difference. For some of those organisms that did not produce gas, e.g. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Moraxella osloensis, and Neisseria meningitidis, detection by gas absorption was a few hours faster. Gas absorption appears to be a promising technique for a new automated blood culture system because of its simplicity and because medium without special additives can be used to detect organisms that do not produce gas.

  10. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  11. Analysis of algebraic reconstruction technique for accurate imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Xia; Rui-Feng, Kan; Jian-Guo, Liu; Zhen-Yu, Xu; Ya-Bai, He

    2016-06-01

    An improved algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) combined with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) is presented in this paper for determining two-dimensional (2D) distribution of H2O concentration and temperature in a simulated combustion flame. This work aims to simulate the reconstruction of spectroscopic measurements by a multi-view parallel-beam scanning geometry and analyze the effects of projection rays on reconstruction accuracy. It finally proves that reconstruction quality dramatically increases with the number of projection rays increasing until more than 180 for 20 × 20 grid, and after that point, the number of projection rays has little influence on reconstruction accuracy. It is clear that the temperature reconstruction results are more accurate than the water vapor concentration obtained by the traditional concentration calculation method. In the present study an innovative way to reduce the error of concentration reconstruction and improve the reconstruction quality greatly is also proposed, and the capability of this new method is evaluated by using appropriate assessment parameters. By using this new approach, not only the concentration reconstruction accuracy is greatly improved, but also a suitable parallel-beam arrangement is put forward for high reconstruction accuracy and simplicity of experimental validation. Finally, a bimodal structure of the combustion region is assumed to demonstrate the robustness and universality of the proposed method. Numerical investigation indicates that the proposed TDLAS tomographic algorithm is capable of detecting accurate temperature and concentration profiles. This feasible formula for reconstruction research is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205151), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant

  12. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  13. Gas separation using ultrasound and light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-07-31

    An apparatus and method for separating a chosen gas from a mixture of gases having no moving parts and utilizing no chemical processing is described. The separation of particulates from fluid carriers thereof has been observed using ultrasound. In a similar manner, molecular species may be separated from carrier species. It is also known that light-induced drift may separate light-absorbing species from carrier species. Therefore, the combination of temporally pulsed absorption of light with ultrasonic concentration is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of separation by ultrasonic concentration alone. Additionally, breaking the spatial symmetry of a cylindrical acoustic concentrator decreases the spatial distribution of the concentrated particles, and increases the concentration efficiency.

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY PHASE ENHANCED GAS-LIQUID ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    A new process called phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption has been developed in its early stage. It was found that adding another phase into the absorption system of gas/aqueous phase could enhance the absorption rate. A system with three phases was studied. In the system, gas phase was carbon dioxide. Two liquid phases were used. One was organic phase. Another was aqueous phase. By addition of organic phase into the absorption system of CO{sub 2}-aqueous phase, the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} was increased significantly. CO{sub 2} finally accumulated into aqueous phase. The experimental results proved that (1) Absorption rate ofmore » carbon dioxide was enhanced by adding organic phase into gas aqueous phase system; (2) Organic phase played the role of transportation of gas solute (CO{sub 2}). Carbon dioxide finally accumulated into aqueous phase.« less

  15. Laser absorption phenomena in flowing gas devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, P. K.; Otis, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of CW CO2 laser radiation in flowing gases seeded with alkali metals. In order to motivate this development, some simple models are described of several space missions which could use laser powered rocket vehicles. Design considerations are given for a test call to be used with a welding laser, using a diamond window for admission of laser radiation at power levels in excess of 10 kW. A detailed analysis of absorption conditions in the test cell is included. The experimental apparatus and test setup are described and the results of experiments presented. Injection of alkali seedant and steady state absorption of the laser radiation were successfully demonstrated, but problems with the durability of the diamond windows at higher powers prevented operation of the test cell as an effective laser powered thruster.

  16. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY is an instrument which measures backscattered, reflected, and transmitted light from the earth's atmosphere and surface. SCIAMACHY has eight spectral channels which observe simultaneously the spectral region between 240 and 1700 nm and selected windows between 1940 and 2400 nm. Each spectral channel contains a grating and linear diode array detector. SCIAMACHY observes the atmosphere in nadir, limb, and solar and lunar occultation viewing geometries.

  17. [Purification of complicated industrial organic waste gas by complex absorption].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Sheng; Cen, Chao-Ping; Tang, Zhi-Xiong; Fang, Ping; Chen, Zhi-Hang

    2011-12-01

    Complicated industrial organic waste gas with the characteristics of low concentration,high wind volume containing inorganic dust and oil was employed the research object by complex absorption. Complex absorption mechanism, process flow, purification equipment and engineering application were studied. Three different surfactants were prepared for the composite absorbent to purify exhaust gas loaded with toluene and butyl acetate, respectively. Results show that the low surface tension of the composite absorbent can improve the removal efficiency of toluene and butyl acetate. With the advantages of the water film, swirl plate and fill absorption device, efficient absorption equipment was developed for the treatment of complicated industrial organic waste gas. It is with superiorities of simple structure, small size, anti-jam and high mass transfer. Based on absorption technology, waste gas treatment process integrated with heating stripping, burning and anaerobic and other processes, so that emissions of waste gas and absorption solution could meet the discharge standards. The technology has been put into practice, such as manufacturing and spraying enterprises.

  18. Nonequilibrium gas absorption in rotating permeable media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baev, V. K.; Bazhaikin, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    The absorption of ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide by water and aqueous solutions in rotating permeable media, a cellular porous disk, and a set of spaced-apart thin disks has been considered. The efficiency of cleaning air to remove these impurities is determined, and their anomalously high solubility (higher than equilibrium value) has been discovered. The results demonstrate the feasibility of designing cheap efficient rotor-type absorbers to clean gases of harmful impurities.

  19. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor), the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen) to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique. PMID:24573311

  20. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Patients with ... vascular diseases are more prone to spontaneously develop gas gangrene, which is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  1. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. It generally ... causing painful swelling and destruction of involved tissue. Gas gangrene is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  2. Application of gas cyclone-liquid jet absorption separator for purification of tail gas containing ammonia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Zhao, Zhi-Huang; Peng, Lv; Yang, Xue-Jing; Fu, Peng-Bo; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yuan

    2018-05-31

    In this experiment, with stainless steel gas cyclone-liquid jet absorption separator as carrier, NH 3 as experimental gas, and water and H 3 PO 4 solution as absorbents, corresponding NH 3 absorption rate change is obtained through the adjustment of experimental parameters, such as NH 3 inlet concentration, inlet velocity of mixed gas, injection flow rate of absorbent, temperature of absorbent, and H 3 PO 4 absorbent concentration. The NH 3 absorption rate decreases with the increase in NH 3 inlet concentration and inlet gas velocity. The NH 3 absorption rate will increase first and then tends to remain unchanged after reaching a certain degree with the increase in liquid injection flow rate and absorbent concentration. The NH 3 absorption rate will increase first and then decrease with the increase in the absorbent temperature. The maximum NH 3 removal efficiencies of water and H 3 PO 4 were 96% and 99%, respectively.

  3. Radiant energy absorption studies for laser propulsion. [gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Wu, P. K. S.; Pirri, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the energy absorption mechanisms and fluid dynamic considerations for efficient conversion of high power laser radiation into a high velocity flow is presented. The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the most effective absorption mechanisms for converting laser radiation into translational energy, and (2) to examine the requirements for transfer of the absorbed energy into a steady flow which is stable to disturbances in the absorption zone. A review of inverse Bremsstrahlung, molecular and particulate absorption mechanisms is considered and the steady flow and stability considerations for conversion of the laser power to a high velocity flow in a nozzle configuration is calculated. A quasi-one-dimensional flow through a nozzle was formulated under the assumptions of perfect gas.

  4. Multiphase gas in quasar absorption-line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Shull, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    In the standard model for H I Lyman-limit (LL) quasar absorption-line systems, the absorbing matter is galactic disk and halo gas, heated and photoionized by the metagalactic radiation field produced by active galaxies. In recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations (Reimers et al. 1992; Vogel & Reimers 1993; Reimers & Vogel 1993) of LL systems along the line of sight to the quasar HS 1700+6416, surprisingly high He I/H I ratios and a wide distribution of column densities of C, N, and O ions are deduced from extreme ultraviolet absorption lines. We show that these observations are incompatible with photoionization equilibrium by a single metagalactic ionizing background. We argue that these quasar absorption systems possess a multiphase interstellar medium similar to that of our Galaxy, in which extended hot, collisionally ionized gas is responsible for some or all of the high ionization stages of heavy elements. From the He/H ratios we obtain -4.0 less than or = log U less than or = -3.0, while the CNO ions are consistent with hot gas in collisional ionization equilibrium at log T = 5.3 and (O/H) = -1.6. The supernova rate necessary to produce these heavy elements and maintain the hot-gas energy budget of approximately 10(exp 41.5) ergs/s is approximately 10(exp -2)/yr, similar to that which maintains the 'three-phase' interstellar medium in our own Galaxy. As a consequence of the change in interpretation from photoionized gas to a multiphase medium, the derived heavy-element abundances (e.g., O/C) of these systems are open to question owing to substantial ionization corrections for unseen C V in the hot phase. The metal-line ratios may also lead to erroneous diagnostics of the shape of the metagalactic ionizaing spectrum and the ionizing parameter of the absorbers.

  5. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  6. Ultraviolet gas absorption and dust extinction toward M8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Don; Bohm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Interstellar absorption lines are analyzed using high-resolution IUE spectra of 11 stars in the young cluster NGC 6530 located in the M8 region. High-velocity clouds at -35 km/s and -60 km/s are seen toward all cluster stars. The components arise in gases that are part of large interstellar bubbles centered on the cluster and driven by stellar winds of the most luminous members. Absorption lines of species of different ionization states are separated in velocity. The velocity stratification is best explained as a 'champagne' flow of ionized gas away from the cluster. The C IV/Si IV ratios toward the hotter cluster members are consistent with simple photoionization models if the gas-phase C/Si ratio is increased by preferential accretion onto dust grains. High ion column densities in the central cluster decline with distance from W93, suggesting that radiation from a hot source near W93 has photoionized gas in the central cluster.

  7. Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R

    2012-06-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.

  8. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Kilgour, David P.; Konijnenburg, Marco

    2013-12-03

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here we present the first use of absorption mode formore » Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image and then these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode ?Datacubes? for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.« less

  9. Improvement of depth resolution on photoacoustic imaging using multiphoton absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Fujiwara, Katsuji; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2007-07-01

    Commercial imaging systems, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are frequently used powerful tools for observing structures deep within the human body. However, they cannot precisely visualized several-tens micrometer-sized structures for lack of spatial resolution. In this presentation, we propose photoacoustic imaging using multiphoton absorption technique to generate ultrasonic waves as a means of improving depth resolution. Since the multiphoton absorption occurs at only the focus point and the employed infrared pulses deeply penetrate living tissues, it enables us to extract characteristic features of structures embedded in the living tissue. When nanosecond pulses from a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser were focused on Rhodamine B/chloroform solution (absorption peak: 540 nm), the peak intensity of the generated photoacoustic signal was proportional to the square of the input pulse energy. This result shows that the photoacoustic signals can be induced by the two-photon absorption of infrared nanosecond pulse laser and also can be detected by a commercial low-frequency MHz transducer. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the depth resolution of multiphoton-photoacoustic imaging, we investigated the dependence of photoacoustic signal on depth position using a 1-mm-thick phantom in a water bath. We found that the depth resolution of two-photon photoacoustic imaging (1064 nm) is greater than that of one-photon photoacoustic imaging (532 nm). We conclude that evolving multiphoton-photoacoustic imaging technology renders feasible the investigation of biomedical phenomena at the deep layer in living tissue.

  10. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, airmore » toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.« less

  11. Estimation of contrast of refraction contrast imaging compared with absorption imaging-basic approach.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masatsugu; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Okada, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kitazawa, Riko; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Takashi; Kondoh, Takeshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Maeda, Sakan; Sugimura, Kazuro; Tamura, Shinichi

    2005-03-01

    We discuss the usefulness of the refraction contrast method using highly parallel X-rays as a new approach to minute lung cancer detection. The advantages of refraction contrast images are discussed in terms of contrast, and a comparison is made with absorption images. We simulated refraction contrast imaging using globules with the density of water in air as models for minute lung cancer detection. The contrast intensified by bright and dark lines was compared on a globule with the contrast of absorption images. We adopted the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the strength of the profile curve of the photon counts at the detector. The obtained contrasts were more intense by two to three digits than those obtainable with the absorption contrast imaging method. The contrast in refraction contrast imaging was more intense than that obtainable with absorption contrast imaging. A two to three digit improvement in contrast means that it is possible to greatly reduce the exposure dose necessary for imaging. Therefore, it is expected to become possible to detect the interfaces of soft tissues, which are difficult to capture with conventional absorption imaging, at low dosages and high resolution.

  12. Formaldehyde in Absorption: Tracing Molecular Gas in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) have been long-classified as the red, ellipsoidal branch of the classic Hubble tuning fork diagram of galactic structure. In part with this classification, ETGs are thought to be molecular and atomic gas-poor with little to no recent star formation. However, recent efforts have questioned this ingrained classification. Most notably, the ATLAS3D survey of 260 ETGs within ~40 Mpc found 22% contain CO, a common tracer for molecular gas. The presence of cold molecular gas also implies the possibility for current star formation within these galaxies. Simulations do not accurately predict the recent observations and further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of ETGs.CO traces molecular gas starting at densities of ~102 cm-3, which makes it a good tracer of bulk molecular gas, but does little to constrain the possible locations of star formation within the cores of dense molecular gas clouds. Formaldehyde (H2CO) traces molecular gas on the order of ~104 cm-3, providing a further constraint on the location of star-forming gas, while being simple enough to possibly be abundant in gas-poor ETGs. In cold molecular clouds at or above ~104 cm-3 densities, the structure of formaldehyde enables a phenomenon in which rotational transitions have excitation temperatures driven below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), ~2.7 K. Because the CMB radiates isotropically, formaldehyde can be observed in absorption, independent of distance, as a tracer of moderately-dense molecular clouds and star formation.This novel observation technique of formaldehyde was incorporated for observations of twelve CO-detected ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample, including NGC 4710 and PGC 8815, to investigate the presence of cold molecular gas, and possible star formation, in ETGs. We present images from the Very Large Array, used in its C-array configuration, of the J = 11,0 - 11,1 transition of formaldehyde towards these sources. We report our

  13. Instrumentation and optimization of intra-cavity fiber laser gas absorption sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yimo

    2011-11-01

    Detection of pollution, inflammable, explosive gases such as methane, acetylene, carbon monoxide and so on is very important for many areas, such as environmental, mining and petrochemical industry. Intra-cavity gas absorption sensing technique (ICGAST) based on Erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) is one of novel methods for trace gas with higher precision. It has attracted considerable attention, and many research institutes focus on it. Instrumentation and optimization of ICGAST was reported in this paper. The system consists of five parts, which are variable gain module, intelligent frequency-selection module, gas cell, DAQ module and computer respectively. Variable gain module and intelligent frequency-selection module are combined to establish the intra-cavity of the ring laser. Gas cell is used as gas sensor. DAQ module is used to realize data acquisition synchronously. And gas demodulation is finished in the computer finally. The system was optimized by adjusting the sequence of the components. Take experimental simulation as an example, the absorptance of gas was increased five times after optimization, and the sensitivity enhancement factor can reach more than twenty. By using Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon, the absorption wavelength of the detected gas can be obtained, with error less than 20 pm. The spectra of the detected gas can be swept continuously to obtain several absorption lines in one loop. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to show the repeatability of gas concentration detection. And results of CV value can be less than 0.014.

  14. AMMONIA ABSORPTION/AMMONIUM BISULFATE REGENERATION PILOT PLANT FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-plant study of the ammonia absorption/ammonium bisulfate regeneration process for removing SO2 from the stack gas of coal-fired power plants. Data were developed on the effects of such operating variable in the absorption of SO2 by ammoniacal l...

  15. Wavelength calibration of imaging spectrometer using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2012-11-01

    Imaging spectrometer is a promising remote sensing instrument widely used in many filed, such as hazard forecasting, environmental monitoring and so on. The reliability of the spectral data is the determination to the scientific communities. The wavelength position at the focal plane of the imaging spectrometer will change as the pressure and temperature vary, or the mechanical vibration. It is difficult for the onboard calibration instrument itself to keep the spectrum reference accuracy and it also occupies weight and the volume of the remote sensing platform. Because the spectral images suffer from the atmospheric effects, the carbon oxide, water vapor, oxygen and solar Fraunhofer line, the onboard wavelength calibration can be processed by the spectral images themselves. In this paper, wavelength calibration is based on the modeled and measured atmospheric absorption spectra. The modeled spectra constructed by the atmospheric radiative transfer code. The spectral angle is used to determine the best spectral similarity between the modeled spectra and measured spectra and estimates the wavelength position. The smile shape can be obtained when the matching process across all columns of the data. The present method is successful applied on the Hyperion data. The value of the wavelength shift is obtained by shape matching of oxygen absorption feature and the characteristics are comparable to that of the prelaunch measurements.

  16. Heat pipe temperature control utilizing a soluble gas absorption reservior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A new gas-controlled heat pipe design is described which uses a liquid matrix reservior, or sponge, to replace the standard gas reservior. Reservior volume may be reduced by a factor of five to ten for certain gas-liquid combinations, while retaining the same level of temperature control. Experiments with ammonia, butane, and carbon dioxide control gases with methanol working fluid are discussed.

  17. Gas absorption/desorption temperature-differential engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    Continuously operating compressor system converts 90 percent of gas-turbine plant energy to electricity. Conventional plants work in batch mode, operating at 40 percent efficiency. Compressor uses metal hydride matrix on outside of rotating drum to generate working gas, hydrogen. Rolling valve seals allow continuous work. During operation, gas is absorbed, releasing heat, and desorbed with heat gain. System conserves nuclear and fossil fuels, reducing powerplant capital and operating costs.

  18. Progress in Evaluating Quantitative Optical Gas Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of advanced fugitive emission detection and assessment technologies that facilitate cost effective leak and malfunction mitigation strategies is an ongoing goal shared by industry, regulators, and environmental groups. Optical gas imaging (OGI) represents an importan...

  19. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  20. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, David H; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-02

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry.

  1. Laser absorption spectroscopy - Method for monitoring complex trace gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    A frequency stabilized CO2 laser was used for accurate determinations of the absorption coefficients of various gases in the wavelength region from 9 to 11 microns. The gases investigated were representative of the types of contaminants expected to build up in recycled atmospheres. These absorption coefficients were then used in determining the presence and amount of the gases in prepared mixtures. The effect of interferences on the minimum detectable concentration of the gases was measured. The accuracies of various methods of solution were also evaluated.

  2. Absorption of the laser radiation by the laser plasma with gas microjet targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevichus, D. A.; Zabrodskii, V. V.; Kalmykov, S. G.; Sasin, M. E.; Seisyan, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    An upper limit of absorption of the laser radiation in the plasma produced in a gas jet Xe target with the average density of (3-6) × 1018 cm-3 and the effective diameter of 0.7 mm is found. It is equal to ≈50% and remains constant under any variation in this range of densities. This result contradicts both theoretical assessments that have predicted virtually complete absorption and results of earlier experiments with the laser spark in an unlimited stationary Xe gas with the same density, where the upper limit of absorption was close to 100%. An analysis shows that nonlinearity of absorption and plasma nonequilibrium lead to the reduction of the absorption coefficient that, along with the limited size of plasma, can explain the experimental results.

  3. Measurement of water absorption capacity in wheat flour by a headspace gas chromatographic technique.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Yu, Kong-Xian; Gong, Yi-Xian

    2018-04-17

    The purpose of this work is to introduce a new method for quantitatively analyzing water absorption capacity in wheat flour by a headspace gas chromatographic technique. This headspace gas chromatographic technique was based on measuring the water vapor released from a series of wheat flour samples with different contents of water addition. According to the different trends between the vapor and wheat flour phase before and after the water absorption capacity in wheat flour, a turning point (corresponding to water absorption capacity in wheat flour) can be obtained by fitting the data of the water gas chromatography peak area from different wheat flour samples. The data showed that the phase equilibrium in the vial can be achieved in 25 min at desired temperature (35°C). The relative standard deviation of the reaction headspace gas chromatographic technique in water absorption capacity determination was within 3.48%, the relative differences has been determined by comparing the water absorption capacity obtained from this new analytical technique with the data from the reference technique (i.e., the filtration method), which are less than 8.92%. The new headspace gas chromatographic method is automated, accurate and be a reliable tool for quantifying water absorption capacity in wheat flour in both laboratory research and mill applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  5. Infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2000-11-01

    A small light weight man portable imaging spectrometer has many applications; gas leak detection, flare analysis, threat warning, chemical agent detection, just to name a few. With support from the US Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small man portable hyperspectral imaging sensor with an embedded DSP processor for real time processing that is capable of remotely imaging various targets such as gas plums, flames and camouflaged targets. Based upon their spectral signature the species and concentration of gases can be determined. This system has been field tested at numerous places including White Mountain, CA, Edwards AFB, and Vandenberg AFB. Recently evaluation of the system for gas detection has been performed. This paper presents these results. The system uses a conventional infrared camera fitted with a diffractive optic that images as well as disperses the incident radiation to form spectral images that are collected in band sequential mode. Because the diffractive optic performs both imaging and spectral filtering, the lens system consists of only a single element that is small, light weight and robust, thus allowing man portability. The number of spectral bands are programmable such that only those bands of interest need to be collected. The system is entirely passive, therefore, easily used in a covert operation. Currently Pacific Advanced Technology is working on the next generation of this camera system that will have both an embedded processor as well as an embedded digital signal processor in a small hand held camera configuration. This will allow the implementation of signal and image processing algorithms for gas detection and identification in real time. This paper presents field test data on gas detection and identification as well as discuss the signal and image processing used to enhance the gas visibility. Flow rates as low as 0.01 cubic feet per minute have been imaged with this system.

  6. [Gas Concentration Measurement Based on the Integral Value of Absorptance Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Tao, Shao-hua; Yang, Bing-chu; Deng, Hong-gui

    2015-12-01

    The absorptance spectrum of a gas is the basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas by the law of the Lambert-Beer. The integral value of the absorptance spectrum is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of the gas absorption. Based on the measured absorptance spectrum of a gas, we collected the required data from the database of HIT-RAN, and chose one of the spectral lines and calculated the integral value of the absorptance spectrum in the frequency domain, and then substituted the integral value into Lambert-Beer's law to obtain the concentration of the detected gas. By calculating the integral value of the absorptance spectrum we can avoid the more complicated calculation of the spectral line function and a series of standard gases for calibration, so the gas concentration measurement will be simpler and faster. We studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus temperature. Since temperature variation would cause the corresponding variation in pressure, we studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus both the pressure not changed with temperature and changed with the temperature variation. Based on the two cases, we found that the integral values of the absorptance spectrums both would firstly increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with temperature increasing, but the ranges of specific changing trend were different in the two cases. In the experiments, we found that the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were much higher than 1% and still increased with temperature when we only considered the change of temperature and completely ignored the pressure affected by the temperature variation, and the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were almost constant at about only 1% when we considered that the pressure were affected by the temperature variation. As the integral value

  7. The absorption of energetic electrons by molecular hydrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Victor, G. A.; Dalgarno, A.

    1975-01-01

    The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in a weakly ionized gas of molecular hydrogen are analyzed, and calculations are carried out taking into account the discrete nature of the excitation processes. The excitation, ionization, and heating efficiencies are computed for electrons with energies up to 100 eV absorbed in a gas with fractional ionizations up to 0.01, and the mean energy per pair of neutral hydrogen atoms is calculated.

  8. Organic absorption gas-fired residential heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. P.

    The development program of a system utilizing a new absorption pair, R133a (CF3CH2Cl) as the refigerant, and ETFE (ethyletra-hydrofurfury lether) as the absorber fluid, is described. A diagram of the basic configuration is shown. The cooling mode and the heating mode are discussed. Six units of an early hardware design were constructed and tested. Two of these units were placed in home heating service during the 1980-81 season. A market evaluation of the business potential of the absorption system was made, identifying location and size of the likely market for such a system. A performance simulation analysis was performed for seven cities in the US. From these, general characteristics of the areas having the greatest performance benefits were established.

  9. Correcting for trace gas absorption when retrieving aerosol optical depth from satellite observations of reflected shortwave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, Falguni; Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana

    2018-06-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) from top-of-atmosphere (TOA) satellite-measured radiance requires separating the aerosol signal from the total observed signal. Total TOA radiance includes signal from the underlying surface and from atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, clouds and gases. Multispectral retrieval algorithms, such as the dark-target (DT) algorithm that operates upon the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, on board Terra and Aqua satellites) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, on board Suomi-NPP) sensors, use wavelength bands in window regions. However, while small, the gas absorptions in these bands are non-negligible and require correction. In this paper, we use the High-resolution TRANsmission (HITRAN) database and Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to derive consistent gas corrections for both MODIS and VIIRS wavelength bands. Absorptions from H2O, CO2 and O3 are considered, as well as other trace gases. Even though MODIS and VIIRS bands are similar, they are different enough that applying MODIS-specific gas corrections to VIIRS observations results in an underestimate of global mean AOD (by 0.01), but with much larger regional AOD biases of up to 0.07. As recent studies have been attempting to create a long-term data record by joining multiple satellite data sets, including MODIS and VIIRS, the consistency of gas correction has become even more crucial.

  10. The gas-phase absorption spectrum of a neutral GFP model chromophore.

    PubMed

    Lammich, L; Petersen, M Axman; Nielsen, M Brøndsted; Andersen, L H

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the gas-phase absorption properties of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore in its neutral (protonated) charge state in a heavy-ion storage ring. To accomplish this we synthesized a new molecular chromophore with a charged NH(3) group attached to a neutral model chromophore of GFP. The gas-phase absorption cross section of this chromophore molecule as a function of the wavelength is compared to the well-known absorption profile of GFP. The chromophore has a maximum absorption at 415 +/- 5 nm. When corrected for the presence of the charged group attached to the GFP model chromophore, the unperturbed neutral chromophore is predicted to have an absorption maximum at 399 nm in vacuum. This is very close to the corresponding absorption peak of the protein at 397 nm. Together with previous data obtained with an anionic GFP model chromophore, the present data show that the absorption of GFP is primarily determined by intrinsic chromophore properties. In other words, there is strong experimental evidence that, in terms of absorption, the conditions in the hydrophobic interior of this protein are very close to those in vacuum.

  11. Stark effect spectrophone for continuous absorption spectra monitoring. [a technique for gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A Stark effect spectrophone using a pulsed or continuous wave laser having a beam with one or more absorption lines of a constituent of an unknown gas is described. The laser beam is directed through windows of a closed cell while the unknown gas to be modified flows continuously through the cell between electric field plates disposed in the cell on opposite sides of the beam path through the cell. When the beam is pulsed, energy absorbed by the gas increases at each point along the beam path according to the spectral lines of the constituents of the gas for the particular field strengths at those points. The pressure measurement at each point during each pulse of energy yields a plot of absorption as a function of electric field for simultaneous detection of the gas constituents. Provision for signal averaging and modulation is included.

  12. Foreign-gas broadening of nitrous oxide absorption lines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, L. D.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    We have measured the foreign-gas broadening coefficients for collisional broadening of lines in the nu-3 fundamental of N2O by He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2, D2, and CH4. These coefficients, which give the ratio of the line-broadening ability of these gases to the line-broadening ability of N2, can be used with recent measurements and calculations of N2 broadening to obtain optical collision cross sections.

  13. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal–organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing; ...

    2017-06-06

    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal–organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO 2) with high capacity. Additionally, experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic–MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. Lastly, the demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO 2 using the hybrid plasmonic–MOF device proves amore » promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.« less

  14. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal–organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing

    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal–organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO 2) with high capacity. Additionally, experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic–MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. Lastly, the demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO 2 using the hybrid plasmonic–MOF device proves amore » promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.« less

  15. Real-time imaging of methane gas leaks using a single-pixel camera.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Graham M; Sun, Baoqing; Edgar, Matthew P; Phillips, David B; Hempler, Nils; Maker, Gareth T; Malcolm, Graeme P A; Padgett, Miles J

    2017-02-20

    We demonstrate a camera which can image methane gas at video rates, using only a single-pixel detector and structured illumination. The light source is an infrared laser diode operating at 1.651μm tuned to an absorption line of methane gas. The light is structured using an addressable micromirror array to pattern the laser output with a sequence of Hadamard masks. The resulting backscattered light is recorded using a single-pixel InGaAs detector which provides a measure of the correlation between the projected patterns and the gas distribution in the scene. Knowledge of this correlation and the patterns allows an image to be reconstructed of the gas in the scene. For the application of locating gas leaks the frame rate of the camera is of primary importance, which in this case is inversely proportional to the square of the linear resolution. Here we demonstrate gas imaging at ~25 fps while using 256 mask patterns (corresponding to an image resolution of 16×16). To aid the task of locating the source of the gas emission, we overlay an upsampled and smoothed image of the low-resolution gas image onto a high-resolution color image of the scene, recorded using a standard CMOS camera. We demonstrate for an illumination of only 5mW across the field-of-view imaging of a methane gas leak of ~0.2 litres/minute from a distance of ~1 metre.

  16. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  17. Gas adsorption/absorption heat switch, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    The service life and/or reliability of far-infrared sensors on surveillance satellites is presently limited by the cryocooler. The life and/or reliability, however, can be extended by using redundant cryocoolers. To reduce parasitic heat leak, each stage of the inactive redundant cryocooler must be thermally isolated from the optical system, while each stage of the active cryocooler must be thermally connected to the system. The thermal break or the thermal contact can be controlled by heat switches. Among different physical mechanisms for heat switching, mechanically activated heat switches tend to have low reliability and, furthermore, require a large contact force. Magnetoresistive heat switches are, except at very low temperatures, of very low efficiency. Heat switches operated by the heat pipe principle usually require a long response time. A sealed gas gap heat switch operated by an adsorption pump has no mechanical motion and should provide the reliability and long lifetime required in long-term space missions. Another potential application of a heat switch is the thermal isolation of the optical plane during decontamination.

  18. The Use of an Air-Natural Gas Flame in Atomic Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melucci, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that excellent results are obtained using an air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption experiments rather than using an air-acetylene flame. Good results are obtained for alkali metals, copper, cadmium, and zinc but not for the alkaline earths since they form refractory oxides. (Author/JN)

  19. Gas trace detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a review of its process in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Luo, Zhifu; Tan, Zhongqi; Long, Xingwu

    2016-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a technology in which the intracavity absorption is deduced from the intensity of light transmitted by the high finesse optical cavity. Then the samples' parameters, such as their species, concentration and absorption cross section, would be detection. It was first proposed and demonstrated by Engeln R. [1] and O'Keefe[2] in 1998. This technology has extraordinary detection sensitivity, high resolution and good practicability, so it is used in many fields , such as clinical medicine, gas detection and basic physics research. In this paper, we focus on the use of gas trace detection, including the advance of CEAS over the past twenty years, the newest research progresses, and the prediction of this technology's development direction in the future.

  20. [Gas pipeline leak detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Xing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Bing-Hai; Cai, Ting-Li; Qiao, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique was introduced. An experimental device was developed by point sampling through small multi-reflection gas cell. A specific line near 1 653. 7 nm was targeted for methane measurement using a distributed feedback diode laser as tunable light source. The linearity between the intensity of second harmonic signal and the concentration of methane was determined. The background content of methane in air was measured. The results show that gas sensors using tunable diode lasers provide a high sensitivity and high selectivity method for city gas pipeline leak detection.

  1. Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant.

    PubMed

    Casa, G; Castrillo, A; Galzerano, G; Wehr, R; Merlone, A; Di Serafino, D; Laporta, P; Gianfrani, L

    2008-05-23

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) nu1+2nu2(0)+nu3 transition in CO2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of approximately 1.6 x 10(-4).

  2. Primary Gas Thermometry by Means of Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-05-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) ν1+2ν20+ν3 transition in CO2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of ˜1.6×10-4.

  3. Utilization of red mud and bagasse for production of gas absorption materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thang, Nguyen Hoc; Quyen, Pham Vo Thi Ha; Nhung, Le Thuy; Phong, Dang Thanh; Tuyen, Nguyen Ngoc Kim

    2018-04-01

    Gas treatment or/and gas absorption is field which has more investigation from researchers. They are finding optimal solutions from catalyst or synthesized materials to obtain the best benefit for factories and community. This study would like to introduce a method to synthesis the gas absorption materials responding requirements for the process of gas treatment. More specially, raw materials used to produce the materials are industrial waste impacting negatively on the environment. In which, red mud is solid waste of Bayer process from bauxite mining which is being the hard problem to have solutions for its management and utilization, and bagasse is industrial waste of sugar factories. Both red mud and bagasse were dried, ground, and sieved and then mixed with bentonite and water for forming by wet pressing method. Continuously, the mixtures were passed processes of heat treatment at 400°C. The final samples were tested physic-chemical properties and characterized for microstructure. The productions were also tested for gas absorption capacity with data obtained very positive in comparison with others.

  4. Silicon on silicon dioxide slot waveguide evanescent field gas absorption sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, M. A.; Khonina, S. N.; Kazanskiy, N. L.

    2018-01-01

    Several trace gases such as H2O, CO, CO2, NO, N2O, NO2 and CH4 strongly absorb in the mid-IR spectral region due to their fundamental rotational and vibrational transitions. In this work, we propose an evanescent field absorption gas sensor based on silicon/silicon dioxide slot waveguide at 3.39 μm for sensing of methane gas. These waveguides can provide the highest evanescent field ratio (EFR) > 47% with adequate dimensions. Higher EFR values often come at an expense of higher propagation losses. These waveguides have relatively higher losses as compared to conventional waveguides, such as rib and slab waveguides, as these fundamental losses are static and the proposed sensing mechanism is established on the incremental loss due to the absorption of the gas. Therefore, incident power can always be incremented to compensate the waveguide losses.

  5. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  6. Probing the extent and content of low ionization gas in galaxies: QSO absorption and HI emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    The small projected separations of some QSO's and low-redshift galaxies provide unique opportunities to study the extent and content of gas in galaxies through observation of absorption in the QSO spectra. Observations of these systems provide valuable information on the connection between the absorbing gas and the galaxy, as well as detailed information on the morphology and environment of the galaxy itself. While there is direct evidence that galaxies can produce the intervening-type QSO absorption lines, over the past decade, the study of such 'QSO-galaxy pairs' (at low redshift) has been considered unsuccessful because new detections of absorption were seldom made. A fundamental problem concerning the relation between these low-redshift systems and those seen at moderate to high redshift remains unresolved. Direct and indirect measures of galaxy absorption cross sections at moderate to high redshifts (z is approximately greater than 20.5) are much larger than the optical and HI sizes of local galaxies. However, direct comparison of the low and moderate to high redshift systems is difficult since different ions are observed in different redshift regimes. Observations are presented for a new sample of QSO-galaxy pairs. Nine new QSO's which shine through nearby galaxies (on the sky-plane) were observed to search for CaII absorption in the QSO spectra at the foreground galaxy redshifts.

  7. Novel Semi-Parametric Algorithm for Interference-Immune Tunable Absorption Spectroscopy Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Umberto; Venturini, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common limits to gas sensor performance is the presence of unwanted interference fringes arising, for example, from multiple reflections between surfaces in the optical path. Additionally, since the amplitude and the frequency of these interferences depend on the distance and alignment of the optical elements, they are affected by temperature changes and mechanical disturbances, giving rise to a drift of the signal. In this work, we present a novel semi-parametric algorithm that allows the extraction of a signal, like the spectroscopic absorption line of a gas molecule, from a background containing arbitrary disturbances, without having to make any assumption on the functional form of these disturbances. The algorithm is applied first to simulated data and then to oxygen absorption measurements in the presence of strong fringes.To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the algorithm enables an unprecedented accuracy particularly if the fringes have a free spectral range and amplitude comparable to those of the signal to be detected. The described method presents the advantage of being based purely on post processing, and to be of extremely straightforward implementation if the functional form of the Fourier transform of the signal is known. Therefore, it has the potential to enable interference-immune absorption spectroscopy. Finally, its relevance goes beyond absorption spectroscopy for gas sensing, since it can be applied to any kind of spectroscopic data. PMID:28991161

  8. MAPPING THE DYNAMICS OF COLD GAS AROUND SGR A* THROUGH 21 cm ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Pierre; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: pchristian@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-11-20

    The presence of a circumnuclear stellar disk around Sgr A* and megamaser systems near other black holes indicates that dense neutral disks can be found in galactic nuclei. We show that depending on their inclination angle, optical depth, and spin temperature, these disks could be observed spectroscopically through 21 cm absorption. Related spectroscopic observations of Sgr A* can determine its HI disk parameters and the possible presence of gaps in the disk. Clumps of dense gas similar to the G2 could could also be detected in 21 cm absorption against Sgr A* radio emission.

  9. [Removal of CO2 from simulated flue gas of power plants by membrane-based gas absorption processes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Fen; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-07-01

    Three typical absorbents such as aqueous of aminoacetic acid potassium (AAAP), monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) are selected to investigate the performance of CO2 separation from flue gas via membrane contactors made of hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene porous membrane. Impacts of absorbents, concentrations and flow rates of feeding gas and absorbent solution, cyclic loading of CO2 on the removal rate and the mass transfer velocity of CO2 are discussed. The results demonstrate that the mass transfer velocity was 7.1 mol x (m2 x s)(-1) for 1 mol x L(-1) MEA with flow rate of 0.1 m x s(-1) and flue gas with that of 0.211 m x s(-1). For 1 mol L(-1) AAAP with flow rate of 0.05 m x s(-1) and flue gas of 0.211 m x s(-1), CO2 removal rate (eta) was 93.2 % and eta was 98% for 4 mol x L(-1) AAAP under the same conditions. AAAP being absorbent, eta was higher than 90% in a wider range of concentrations of CO2. It indicates that membrane-based absorption process is a widely-applied and promising way of CO2 removal from flue gas of power plants, which not only appropriates for CO2 removal of flue gas of widely-used PF and NGCC, but also for that of flue gas of IGCC can be utilized widely in future.

  10. Effective optical path length for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as gas absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wu, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Tandem diffuse cubic cavities designed by connecting two single diffuse cubic-shaped cavities, A and B, with an aperture (port fraction fap) in the middle of the connecting baffle was developed as a gas absorption cell. The effective optical path length (EOPL) was evaluated by comparing the oxygen absorption signal in the cavity and in air based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Experimental results manifested an enhancement of EOPL for the tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of fap and can be expressed as the sum of EOPL of two single cubic cavities at fap < 0.01, which coincided well with theoretical analysis. The simulating EOPL was smaller than experimental results at fap > 0.01, which indicated that back scattering light from cavity B to cavity A cannot be ignored at this condition.

  11. Ultraviolet absorption by highly ionized halo gas near the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, B. D.; Massa, D.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results are presented for a program to survey highly ionized gas in the Milky Way disk and halo. High-resolution IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) far-UV spectra were obtained for 12 stars at galactocentric distances less than 6 kpc. The stars are 0.7-2.2 kpc away from the plane. Most of the spectra contain exceedingly strong and broad interstellar absorption lines of weakly and highly ionized atoms. In addition to the normally strong lines of Si IV and C IV, strong interstellar NV lines have been detected in the spectra of eight stars. The detection of NV absorption (amounting to more than 10 times the predicted NV) provides an important new constraint on models for the origin of Galactic halo gas. A Galactic fountain operating in the presence of known UV and EUV radiation might explain the observations.

  12. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electronic structure of merocyanines in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Kulinich, Andrii V.; Bondarev, Stanislav L.; Raichenok, Tamara F.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-phase absorption spectra of a merocyanine vinylogous series have been studied for the first time. In vapour, their long-wavelength absorption bands were found to be considerably shifted hypsochromically, broader, more symmetrical, less intense, and their vinylene shift much smaller than even in low-polarity n-hexane. This indicates that in the gas phase their electronic structure closely approaches the nonpolar polyene limiting structure. The TDDFT calculations of the long-wavelength electronic transitions in the studied merocyanines in vacuo demonstrated good-to-excellent correlation - depending on the functional used - with the obtained experimental data. For comparison, the solvent effects was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) with n-hexane and ethanol as low-polarity and high-polarity media, and compared with the UV-Vis spectral data in these solvents. In this case, the discrepancy between theory and experiment was much greater, increasing at that with the polymethine chain length.

  13. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T [Austin, TX; Oyenekan, Babatunde A [Katy, TX

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  14. Far-ultraviolet absorption spectra of quasars: How to find missing hot gas and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verner, D. A.; Tytler, David; Barthel, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    We show that some high-redshift QSO absorption systems that reveal only the H I Lyman series lines at wavelengths visible from the ground maybe a new class of ultra-high-ionization metal line systems, with metal lines in the far-UV region which is now being explored with satellites. At high temperatures or in intense radiation fields metal systems will not show the usual C IV absorption, and O VI will become the most prominent metal absorber. At still higher ionization, O IV also becomes weak and the strongest metal lines are from Ne VIII, Mg X and Si XII, which have doublets in the rangs 500-800 A. Hence very high ionization metal systems will not show metal lines in existing spectra. Recent X-ray observations show that galaxy halos contain hot gas, so we predict that far-UV spectra of QSOs will also show this gas.

  15. Laser-absorption sensing of gas composition of products from coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Jay B.; Sur, Ritobrata; Sun, Kai; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2014-06-01

    A prototype in-situ laser-absorption sensor for the real-time composition measurement (CO, CH4, H2O and CO2) of synthesis gas products of coal gasification (called here syngas) was designed, tested in the laboratory, and demonstrated during field-measurement campaigns in a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier at the University of Utah and in an engineering-scale, fluidized-bed transport gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The prototype design and operation were improved by the lessons learned from each field test. Laser-absorption measurements are problematic in syngas flows because efficient gasifiers operate at elevated pressures (10-50 atm) where absorption transitions are collision broadened and absorption transitions that are isolated at 1 atm become blended into complex features, and because syngas product streams can contain significant particulate, producing significant non-absorption scattering losses of the transmission of laser light. Thus, the prototype sensor used a new wavelength-scanned, wavelength-modulation spectroscopy strategy with 2f-detection and 1f-normalization (WMS-2f/1f) that can provide sensitive absorption measurements of species with spectra blended by collision broadening even in the presence of large non-absorption laser transmission losses (e.g., particulate scattering, beam steering, etc.). The design of the sensor for detection of CO, CH4, H2O and CO2 was optimized for the specific application of syngas monitoring at the output of large-scale gasifiers. Sensor strategies, results and lessons learned from these field measurement campaigns are discussed.

  16. Effects of Radiative Emission and Absorption on the Propagation and Extinction of Premixed Gas Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Yiguang; Masuya, Goro; Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    Premixed gas flames in mixtures of CH4, O2, N2, and CO2 were studied numerically using detailed chemical and radiative emission-absorption models to establish the conditions for which radiatively induced extinction limits may exist independent of the system dimensions. It was found that reabsorption of emitted radiation led to substantially higher burning velocities and wider extinction limits than calculations using optically thin radiation models, particularly when CO2, a strong absorber, is present in the unburned gas, Two heat loss mechanisms that lead to flammability limits even with reabsorption were identified. One is that for dry hydrocarbon-air mixtures, because of the differences in the absorption spectra of H2O and CO2, most of the radiation from product H2O that is emitted in the upstream direction cannot be absorbed by the reactants. The second is that the emission spectrum Of CO2 is broader at flame temperatures than ambient temperature: thus, some radiation emitted near the flame front cannot be absorbed by the reactants even when they are seeded with CO2 Via both mechanisms, some net upstream heat loss due to radiation will always occur, leading to extinction of sufficiently weak mixtures. Downstream loss has practically no influence. Comparison with experiment demonstrates the importance of reabsorption in CO2 diluted mixtures. It is concluded that fundamental flammability limits can exist due to radiative heat loss, but these limits are strongly dependent on the emission-absorption spectra of the reactant and product -gases and their temperature dependence and cannot be predicted using gray-gas or optically thin model parameters. Applications to practical flames at high pressure, in large combustion chambers, and with exhaust-gas or flue-gas recirculation are discussed.

  17. Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in room-temperature, near-IR and visible diode laser sources for tele-communication, high-speed computer networks, and optical data storage applications are enabling a new generation of gas-dynamic and combustion-flow sensors based on laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition to conventional species concentration and density measurements, spectroscopic techniques for temperature, velocity, pressure and mass flux have been demonstrated in laboratory, industrial and technical flows. Combined with fibreoptic distribution networks and ultrasensitive detection strategies, compact and portable sensors are now appearing for a variety of applications. In many cases, the superior spectroscopic quality of the new laser sources compared with earlier cryogenic, mid-IR devices is allowing increased sensitivity of trace species measurements, high-precision spectroscopy of major gas constituents, and stable, autonomous measurement systems. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in this field and suggest likely directions for future research and development. The various laser-source technologies are briefly reviewed as they relate to sensor applications. Basic theory for laser absorption measurements of gas-dynamic properties is reviewed and special detection strategies for the weak near-IR and visible absorption spectra are described. Typical sensor configurations are described and compared for various application scenarios, ranging from laboratory research to automated field and airborne packages. Recent applications of gas-dynamic sensors for air flows and fluxes of trace atmospheric species are presented. Applications of gas-dynamic and combustion sensors to research and development of high-speed flows aeropropulsion engines, and combustion emissions monitoring are presented in detail, along with emerging flow control systems based on these new sensors. Finally, technology in nonlinear frequency conversion, UV laser materials, room

  18. Two-dimensional imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on hyperspectral tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ming-yuan; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Junling

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional imaging of gas temperature and concentration is realized by hyperspectral tomography, which has the characteristics of using multi-wavelengths absorption spectral information, so that the imaging could be accomplished in a small number of projections and viewing angles. A temperature and concentration model is established to simulate the combustion conditions and a total number of 10 near-infrared absorption spectral information of H2O is used. An improved simulated annealing algorithm by adjusting search step is performed the main search algorithm for the tomography. By adding random errors into the absorption area information, the stability of the algorithm is tested, and the results are compared with the reconstructions provided by algebraic reconstruction technique which takes advantage of 2 spectral information contents in imaging. The results show that the two methods perform equivalent in low-level noise environment, but at high-level, hyperspectral tomography turns out to be more stable.

  19. Numerical simulation of infrared radiation absorption for diagnostics of gas-aerosol medium by remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.; Egorov, O. V.; Kashirskii, D. E.; Shefer, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    Calculated absorption spectra of the mixture of gases (H2O, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) and aerosol (soot and Al2O3), contained in the exhausts of aircraft and rocket engines are demonstrated. Based on the model of gas-aerosol medium, a numerical study of the spectral dependence of the absorptance for different ratios of gas and aerosol components was carried out. The influence of microphysical and optical properties of the components of the mixture on the spectral features of absorption of gas-aerosol medium was established.

  20. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  1. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  2. ISO ammonia line absorption reveals a layer of hot gas veiling Sgr B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Walmsley, M.; Swinyard, B. M.; Caux, E.; Sidher, S. D.; Cox, P.; Gry, C.; Kessler, M.; Prusti, T.

    2002-02-01

    We report the first results of the unbiased spectral high resolution survey obtained towards Sgr B2 with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on board ISO. The survey detected more than one hundreds lines from several molecules. Ammonia is the molecule with the largest number (21) of detected lines in the survey. We detected NH3 transitions from levels with energies from 45 to 500 cm-1. The detected transitions are from both para and ortho ammonia and metastable and non-metastable levels. All the ammonia lines are in absortion against the FIR continuum of Sgr B2. With such a large number of detected lines in such a large range of energy levels, we could very efficiently constrain the main parameters of the absorbing gas layer. The gas is at (700 +/- 100) K and has a density lower than 104 cm-3. The total NH3 column density in the layer is (3+/- 1) x 1016 cm-2, equally shared between ortho and para ammonia. Given the derived relatively high gas temperature and ammonia column density, our observations support the hypothesis previously proposed of a layer of shocked gas between us and Sgr B2. We also discuss previous observations of far infrared line absorption from other molecules, like H2O and HF, in the light of this hot absorbing layer. If the absorption is done by the hot absorbing layer rather than by the warm envelope surrounding Sgr B2, as was previously supposed in order to interpret the mentioned observations, the derived H2O and HF abundances are one order of magitude larger than previously estimated. Yet, the present H2O and HF observations do not allow one to disentangle the absorption from the hot layer against the warm envelope. Our conclusions are hence that care should be applied when interpreting the absorption observations in Sgr B2, as the hot layer clearly seen in the ammonia transitions may substantially contribute to the absorption. ISO is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The

  3. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  4. The physical basis for absorption of light. [effects on wave functions of gas molecules and atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of light absorption on the wave functions of gas-phase molecules and atoms are investigated by high resolution spectral measurements of radiation emerging from a sample. A Stark-modulated sample of methyl fluoride was irradiated at the 102 GHz rotational transition and the emergent radiation was resolved by means of a spectrum analyzer. For signal oscillator frequencies below or above the molecular resonance by one modulation frequency, the amplitudes of the upper and lower modulation sidebands are found to be of nonuniform intensity, which is inconsistent with amplitude modulation. Emission due to polarization is, however, calculated to be consistent with the results observed, indicating that light absorption should be considered as a subtractive stimulated emission.

  5. Rare-gas impurities in alkali metals: Relation to optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, D.E.; Pinski, F.J.; Stocks, G.M.

    1988-04-15

    An investigation of the nature of rare-gas impurity potentials in alkali metals is performed. Results of calculations based on simple models are presented, which suggest the possibility of resonance phenomena. These could lead to widely varying values for the exponents which describe the shape of the optical-absorption spectrum at threshold in the Mahan--Nozieres--de Dominicis theory. Detailed numerical calculations are then performed with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation method. The results of these highly realistic calculations show no evidence for the resonance phenomena, and lead to predictions for the shape of the spectra which are in contradiction to observations. Absorption and emission spectramore » are calculated for two of the systems studied, and their relation to experimental data is discussed.« less

  6. Tailored Algorithm for Sensitivity Enhancement of Gas Concentration Sensors Based on Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana Dinora; Baeza-Serrato, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    In this work, a novel tailored algorithm to enhance the overall sensitivity of gas concentration sensors based on the Direct Absorption Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DA-ATLAS) method is presented. By using this algorithm, the sensor sensitivity can be custom-designed to be quasi constant over a much larger dynamic range compared with that obtained by typical methods based on a single statistics feature of the sensor signal output (peak amplitude, area under the curve, mean or RMS). Additionally, it is shown that with our algorithm, an optimal function can be tailored to get a quasi linear relationship between the concentration and some specific statistics features over a wider dynamic range. In order to test the viability of our algorithm, a basic C 2 H 2 sensor based on DA-ATLAS was implemented, and its experimental measurements support the simulated results provided by our algorithm.

  7. High reflected cubic cavity as long path absorption cell for infrared gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    One direct and efficient method to improve the sensitivity of infrared gas sensors is to increase the optical path length of gas cells according to Beer-Lambert Law. In this paper, cubic shaped cavities with high reflected inner coating as novel long path absorption cells for infrared gas sensing were developed. The effective optical path length (EOPL) for a single cubic cavity and tandem cubic cavities were investigated based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measuring oxygen P11 line at 763 nm. The law of EOPL of a diffuse cubic cavity in relation with the reflectivity of the coating, the port fraction and side length of the cavity was obtained. Experimental results manifested an increase of EOPL for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of port fraction of the connecting aperture f', and the EOPL equaled to the sum of that of two single cubic cavities at f'<0.01. The EOPL spectra at infrared wavelength range for different inner coatings including high diffuse coatings and high reflected metallic thin film coatings were deduced.

  8. Diffusion Lung Imaging with Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Sukstanskii, Alexander L; Quirk, James D

    2015-01-01

    Lung imaging using conventional 1H MRI presents great challenges due to low density of lung tissue, lung motion and very fast lung tissue transverse relaxation (typical T2* is about 1-2 ms). MRI with hyperpolarized gases (3He and 129Xe) provides a valuable alternative due to a very strong signal originated from inhaled gas residing in the lung airspaces and relatively slow gas T2* relaxation (typical T2* is about 20-30 ms). Though in vivo human experiments should be done very fast – usually during a single breath-hold. In this review we describe the recent developments in diffusion lung MRI with hyperpolarized gases. We show that a combination of modeling results of gas diffusion in lung airspaces and diffusion measurements with variable diffusion-sensitizing gradients allows extracting quantitative information on the lung microstructure at the alveolar level. This approach, called in vivo lung morphometry, allows from a less than 15-second MRI scan, providing quantitative values and spatial distributions of the same physiological parameters as are measured by means of the “standard” invasive stereology (mean linear intercept, surface-to-volume ratio, density of alveoli, etc.). Besides, the approach makes it possible to evaluate some advanced Weibel parameters characterizing lung microstructure - average radii of alveolar sacs and ducts, as well as the depth of their alveolar sleeves. Such measurements, providing in vivo information on the integrity of pulmonary acinar airways and their changes in different diseases, are of great importance and interest to a broad range of physiologists and clinicians. We also discuss a new type of experiments that are based on the in vivo lung morphometry technique combined with quantitative CT measurements as well as with the Gradient Echo MRI measurements of hyperpolarized gas transverse relaxation in the lung airspaces. Such experiments provide additional information on the blood vessel volume fraction, specific gas

  9. Forensic applications of chemical imaging: latent fingerprint detection using visible absorption and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Exline, David L; Wallace, Christie; Roux, Claude; Lennard, Chris; Nelson, Matthew P; Treado, Patrick J

    2003-09-01

    Chemical imaging technology is a rapid examination technique that combines molecular spectroscopy and digital imaging, providing information on morphology, composition, structure, and concentration of a material. Among many other applications, chemical imaging offers an array of novel analytical testing methods, which limits sample preparation and provides high-quality imaging data essential in the detection of latent fingerprints. Luminescence chemical imaging and visible absorbance chemical imaging have been successfully applied to ninhydrin, DFO, cyanoacrylate, and luminescent dye-treated latent fingerprints, demonstrating the potential of this technology to aid forensic investigations. In addition, visible absorption chemical imaging has been applied successfully to visualize untreated latent fingerprints.

  10. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy--digital detection of gas absorption harmonics based on Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a detailed study of the theoretical aspects of the Fourier analysis method, which has been utilized for gas absorption harmonic detection in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lock-in detection of the harmonic signal is accomplished by studying the phase term of the inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier spectrum that corresponds to the harmonic signal. The mathematics and the corresponding simulation results are given for each procedure when applying the Fourier analysis method. The present work provides a detailed view of the WMS technique when applying the Fourier analysis method.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of classical sound absorption in a monatomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, M.; Zander, A. C.; Huang, D. M.; Cazzolato, B. S.; Howard, C. Q.

    2018-05-01

    Sound wave propagation in argon gas is simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) in order to determine the attenuation of acoustic energy due to classical (viscous and thermal) losses at high frequencies. In addition, a method is described to estimate attenuation of acoustic energy using the thermodynamic concept of exergy. The results are compared against standing wave theory and the predictions of the theory of continuum mechanics. Acoustic energy losses are studied by evaluating various attenuation parameters and by comparing the changes in behavior at three different frequencies. This study demonstrates acoustic absorption effects in a gas simulated in a thermostatted molecular simulation and quantifies the classical losses in terms of the sound attenuation constant. The approach can be extended to further understanding of acoustic loss mechanisms in the presence of nanoscale porous materials in the simulation domain.

  12. Observing random walks of atoms in buffer gas through resonant light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Mitsui, Takahisa

    2016-07-01

    Using resonant light absorption, random-walk motions of rubidium atoms in nitrogen buffer gas are observed directly. The transmitted light intensity through atomic vapor is measured, and its spectrum is obtained, down to orders of magnitude below the shot-noise level to detect fluctuations caused by atomic motions. To understand the measured spectra, the spectrum for atoms performing random walks in a Gaussian light beam is computed, and its analytical form is obtained. The spectrum has 1 /f2 (f is frequency) behavior at higher frequencies, crossing over to a different, but well-defined, behavior at lower frequencies. The properties of this theoretical spectrum agree excellently with the measured spectrum. This understanding also enables us to obtain the diffusion constant, the photon cross section of atoms in buffer gas, and the atomic number density from a single spectral measurement. We further discuss other possible applications of our experimental method and analysis.

  13. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  14. Determination of sulfur in kerosene by combustion and molecular absorption spectrometry in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ruschak, M.L.; Syty, A.

    1982-08-01

    A technique of nonflame molecular adsorption in the gas phase developed for the determination of sulfite trapped in tetrachloromercurate, is described herein for application to the determination of total sulfur in kerosene. The burner head is removed from the atomic absorption spectrometer and replaced with a flow-through absorption cell. A special reaction vessel is used to evolve SO/sub 2/ from the sulfite in a precise and convenient manner. The transient absorbance caused by the SO/sub 2/, as it is carried through the absorption cell, is measured. Both spiked and unspiked samples of kerosene were analyzed, and the reproducibility of themore » repeated runs is evidenced by a relative standard deviation from the mean of 5% for the unspiked kerosene and 4% for the spiked kerosene. If the detection level is defined as that concentration of S which gives a % S twice the standard deviation from the mean yields, the detection limit for the present method is 0.002% S by weight in kerosene.« less

  15. A fast code for channel limb radiances with gas absorption and scattering in a spherical atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Uymin, Gennady; Flittner, David; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Mlawer, Eli; Henderson, John; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Wolff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    We present a radiative transfer code capable of accurately and rapidly computing channel limb radiances in the presence of gaseous absorption and scattering in a spherical atmosphere. The code has been prototyped for the Mars Climate Sounder measuring limb radiances in the thermal part of the spectrum (200-900 cm-1) where absorption by carbon dioxide and water vapor and absorption and scattering by dust and water ice particles are important. The code relies on three main components: 1) The Gauss Seidel Spherical Radiative Transfer Model (GSSRTM) for scattering, 2) The Planetary Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (P-LBLRTM) for gas opacity, and 3) The Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) for selecting a limited number of spectral points to simulate channel radiances and thus achieving a substantial increase in speed. The accuracy of the code has been evaluated against brute-force line-by-line calculations performed on the NASA Pleiades supercomputer, with satisfactory results. Additional improvements in both accuracy and speed are attainable through incremental changes to the basic approach presented in this paper, which would further support the use of this code for real-time retrievals and data assimilation. Both newly developed codes, GSSRTM/OSS for MCS and P-LBLRTM, are available for additional testing and user feedback.

  16. Gas-phase Absorption of {{\\rm{C}}}_{70}^{2+} below 10 K: Astronomical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    The electronic spectrum of the fullerene dication {{{C}}}702+ has been measured in the gas phase at low temperature in a cryogenic radiofrequency ion trap. The spectrum consists of a strong origin band at 7030 Å and two weaker features to higher energy. The bands have FWHMs of 35 Å indicating an excited state lifetime on the order of one-tenth of a picosecond. Absorption cross-section measurements yield (2 ± 1) × 10-15 cm2 at 7030 Å. These results are used to predict the depth of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) due to the absorption by {{{C}}}702+. At an assumed column density of 2 × 1012 cm-2 the attenuation of starlight at 7030 Å is around 0.4% and thus the detection of such a shallow and broad interstellar band would be difficult. The electronic spectrum of {{{C}}}602+ shows no absorptions in the visible. Below 4000 Å the spectra of C60, {{{C}}}60+ and {{{C}}}602+ are similar. The large intrinsic FWHM of the features in this region, ˜200 Å for the band near 3250 Å, make them unsuitable for DIB detection.

  17. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  18. Classification by diagnosing all absorption features (CDAF) for the most abundant minerals in airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasheri, Mohammad Reza; Ghamary-Asl, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    Imaging through hyperspectral technology is a powerful tool that can be used to spectrally identify and spatially map materials based on their specific absorption characteristics in electromagnetic spectrum. A robust method called Tetracorder has shown its effectiveness at material identification and mapping, using a set of algorithms within an expert system decision-making framework. In this study, using some stages of Tetracorder, a technique called classification by diagnosing all absorption features (CDAF) is introduced. This technique enables one to assign a class to the most abundant mineral in each pixel with high accuracy. The technique is based on the derivation of information from reflectance spectra of the image. This can be done through extraction of spectral absorption features of any minerals from their respected laboratory-measured reflectance spectra, and comparing it with those extracted from the pixels in the image. The CDAF technique has been executed on the AVIRIS image where the results show an overall accuracy of better than 96%.

  19. Heat and Mass Transfer of Ammonia Gas Absorption into Falling Liquid Film on a Horizontal Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Norihiro; Yabuuchi, Hironori; Goto, Masao; Koyama, Shigeru

    Heat and mass transfer coefficients during ammonia gas absorption into a falling liquid film formed by distilled water on a horizontal tube were obtained experimentally. The test absorber consists of 200 mm i.d., 600 mm long stainless steel shell, a 1 7.3 mm o.d., 14.9 mm i.d. stainless steel test tube with 600 mm working length mounted along the axis of shell, and a 12.7 mm o.d. pipe manifold of supplying the absorbent. In this paper, it was clear that heat and mass transfer coefficient could be enhanced by increasing the flow rate of absorbent and temperature difference between inlet absorbent and ammonia gas, also heat driven by the temperature difference have an effect on heat transfer of the fa1ling liquid film and mass transfer of vapor side. And the new correlation of heat transfer in dimensionless form was proposed by the temperature difference which was considered heat driven of vapor and liquid film side using a interface temperature of vapor and liquid phase. The new correlations of mass transfer on a interface of vapor and liquid phase in dimensionless form were proposed by using effect factors could be suppose from absorption phenomena.

  20. Functionalizing a Tapered Microcavity as a Gas Cell for On-Chip Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Julien; Harren, Frans J. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for field instruments designed to measure gas composition has strongly promoted the development of robust, miniaturized and low-cost handheld absorption spectrometers in the mid-infrared. Efforts thus far have focused on miniaturizing individual components. However, the optical absorption path that the light beam travels through the sample defines the length of the gas cell and has so far limited miniaturization. Here, we present a functionally integrated linear variable optical filter and gas cell, where the sample to be measured is fed through the resonator cavity of the filter. By using multiple reflections from the mirrors on each side of the cavity, the optical absorption path is elongated from the physical μm-level to the effective mm-level. The device is batch-fabricated at the wafer level in a CMOS-compatible approach. The optical performance is analyzed using the Fizeau interferometer model and demonstrated with actual gas measurements. PMID:28878167

  1. Fabrication of absorption gratings with X-ray lithography for X-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Ting; Yi, Fu-Ting; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging is promising especially in the medical area. Two or three gratings are involved in grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging in which the absorption grating of high-aspect-ratio is the most important device and the fabrication process is a great challenge. The material with large atomic number Z is used to fabricate the absorption grating for excellent absorption of X-ray, and Au is usually used. The fabrication process, which involves X-ray lithography, development and gold electroplating, is described in this paper. The absorption gratings with 4 μm period and about 100 μm height are fabricated and the high-aspect-ratio is 50.

  2. Effect of Feed Gas Flow Rate on CO2 Absorption through Super Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber membrane Contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartohardjono, Sutrasno; Alexander, Kevin; Larasati, Annisa; Sihombing, Ivander Christian

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is pollutant in natural gas that could reduce the heating value of the natural gas and cause problem in transportation due to corrosive to the pipeline. This study aims to evaluate the effects of feed gas flow rate on CO2 absorption through super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. Polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) solution was used as absorbent in this study, whilst the feed gas used in the experiment was a mixture of 30% CO2 and 70% CH4. There are three super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactors sized 6 cm and 25 cm in diameter and length used in this study, which consists of 1000, 3000 and 5000 fibers, respectively. The super hydrophobic fiber membrane used is polypropylene-based with outer and inner diameter of about 525 and 235 μm, respectively. In the experiments, the feed gas was sent through the shell side of the membrane contactor, whilst the absorbent solution was pumped through the lumen fibers. The experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient, flux, absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system and CO2 loading increased with the feed gas flow rate, but the absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system decreased. The mass transfer coefficient and the flux, at the same feed gas flow rate, decreased with the number of fibers in the membrane contactor, but the CO2 absorption efficiency and the CO2 loading increased.

  3. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.

    PubMed

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

    2013-08-01

    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples.

  4. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  5. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 microm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppmm, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min.

  6. [Measurement of atomic number of alkali vapor and pressure of buffer gas based on atomic absorption].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui-jie; Quan, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Yao; Lu, Ji-xi

    2015-02-01

    High sensitivitymagnetic measurementscanbe achieved by utilizing atomic spinmanipulation in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) regime, which uses an alkali cell as a sensing element. The atomic number density of the alkali vapor and the pressure of the buffer gasare among the most important parameters of the cell andrequire accurate measurement. A method has been proposed and developedto measure the atomic number density and the pressure based on absorption spectroscopy, by sweeping the absorption line and fittingthe experiment data with a Lorentzian profile to obtainboth parameters. Due to Doppler broadening and pressure broadening, which is mainly dominated by the temperature of the cell and the pressure of buffer gas respectively, this work demonstrates a simulation of the errorbetween the peaks of the Lorentzian profile and the Voigt profile caused by bothfactors. The results indicates that the Doppler broadening contribution is insignificant with an error less than 0.015% at 313-513 K for a 4He density of 2 amg, and an error of 0.1% in the presence of 0.6-5 amg at 393 K. We conclude that the Doppler broadening could be ignored under above conditions, and that the Lorentzianprofile is suitably applied to fit the absorption spectrumobtainingboth parameters simultaneously. In addition we discuss the resolution and the instability due to thelight source, wavelength and the temperature of the cell. We find that the cell temperature, whose uncertainty is two orders of magnitude larger than the instability of the light source and the wavelength, is one of the main factors which contributes to the error.

  7. Energy-Looping Nanoparticles: Harnessing Excited-State Absorption for Deep-Tissue Imaging.

    PubMed

    Levy, Elizabeth S; Tajon, Cheryl A; Bischof, Thomas S; Iafrati, Jillian; Fernandez-Bravo, Angel; Garfield, David J; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Maharbiz, Michel M; Sohal, Vikaas S; Schuck, P James; Cohen, Bruce E; Chan, Emory M

    2016-09-27

    Near infrared (NIR) microscopy enables noninvasive imaging in tissue, particularly in the NIR-II spectral range (1000-1400 nm) where attenuation due to tissue scattering and absorption is minimized. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals are promising deep-tissue imaging probes due to their photostable emission in the visible and NIR, but these materials are not efficiently excited at NIR-II wavelengths due to the dearth of lanthanide ground-state absorption transitions in this window. Here, we develop a class of lanthanide-doped imaging probes that harness an energy-looping mechanism that facilitates excitation at NIR-II wavelengths, such as 1064 nm, that are resonant with excited-state absorption transitions but not ground-state absorption. Using computational methods and combinatorial screening, we have identified Tm(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles as efficient looping systems that emit at 800 nm under continuous-wave excitation at 1064 nm. Using this benign excitation with standard confocal microscopy, energy-looping nanoparticles (ELNPs) are imaged in cultured mammalian cells and through brain tissue without autofluorescence. The 1 mm imaging depths and 2 μm feature sizes are comparable to those demonstrated by state-of-the-art multiphoton techniques, illustrating that ELNPs are a promising class of NIR probes for high-fidelity visualization in cells and tissue.

  8. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  9. Diode-Laser Absorption Sensor for Line-of-Sight Gas Temperature Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Scott T.; Wang, Jian; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2001-08-01

    Line-of-sight diode-laser absorption techniques have been extended to enable temperature measurements in nonuniform-property flows. The sensing strategy for such flows exploits the broad wavelength-scanning abilities ( >1.7 nm ~ 30 cm-1 ) of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to interrogate multiple absorption transitions along a single line of sight. To demonstrate the strategy, a VCSEL-based sensor for oxygen gas temperature distributions was developed. A VCSEL beam was directed through paths containing atmospheric-pressure air with known (and relatively simple) temperature distributions in the 200 -700 K range. The VCSEL was scanned over ten transitions in the R branch of the oxygen A band near 760 nm and optionally over six transitions in the P branch. Temperature distribution information can be inferred from these scans because the line strength of each probed transition has a unique temperature dependence; the measurement accuracy and resolution depend on the details of this temperature dependence and on the total number of lines scanned. The performance of the sensing strategy can be optimized and predicted theoretically. Because the sensor exhibits a fast time response ( ~30 ms) and can be adapted to probe a variety of species over a range of temperatures and pressures, it shows promise for industrial application.

  10. Repetitively Mode-Locked Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (RML-CEAS) for Near-Infrared Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuantao; Wang, Yiding

    2017-01-01

    A Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH)-based mode-locked cavity-enhanced sensor system was developed using a distributed feedback diode laser centered at 1.53 µm as the laser source. Laser temperature scanning, bias control of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control of diode laser current were used to repetitively lock the laser modes to the cavity modes. A gas absorption spectrum was obtained by using a series of absorption data from the discrete mode-locked points. The 15 cm-long Fabry-Perot cavity was sealed using an enclosure with an inlet and outlet for gas pumping and a PZT for cavity length tuning. The performance of the sensor system was evaluated by conducting water vapor measurements. A linear relationship was observed between the measured absorption signal amplitude and the H2O concentration. A minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 1.5 × 10–8 cm–1 was achieved with an averaging time of 700 s. This technique can also be used for the detection of other trace gas species by targeting the corresponding gas absorption line. PMID:29207470

  11. Experimental determination of single CdSe nanowire absorption cross sections through photothermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jay; Syed, Muhammad; Banning, Michael T; Kuno, Masaru; Hartland, Greg

    2010-01-26

    Absorption cross sections ((sigma)abs) of single branched CdSe nanowires (NWs) have been measured by photothermal heterodyne imaging (PHI). Specifically, PHI signals from isolated gold nanoparticles (NPs) with known cross sections were compared to those of individual CdSe NWs excited at 532 nm. This allowed us to determine average NW absorption cross sections at 532 nm of (sigma)abs = (3.17 +/- 0.44) x 10(-11) cm2/microm (standard error reported). This agrees well with a theoretical value obtained using a classical electromagnetic analysis ((sigma)abs = 5.00 x 10(-11) cm2/microm) and also with prior ensemble estimates. Furthermore, NWs exhibit significant absorption polarization sensitivities consistent with prior NW excitation polarization anisotropy measurements. This has enabled additional estimates of the absorption cross section parallel ((sigma)abs) and perpendicular ((sigma)abs(perpendicular) to the NW growth axis, as well as the corresponding NW absorption anisotropy ((rho)abs). Resulting values of (sigma)abs = (5.6 +/- 1.1) x 10(-11) cm2/microm, (sigma)abs(perpendicular) = (1.26 +/- 0.21) x 10(-11) cm2/microm, and (rho)abs = 0.63+/- 0.04 (standard errors reported) are again in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These measurements all indicate sizable NW absorption cross sections and ultimately suggest the possibility of future direct single NW absorption studies.

  12. Coronal gas in the galaxy. II. A statistical analysis of O VI absorptions

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.B.

    Results from the survey of interstellar O VI by Jenkins and by Jenkins and Meloy are analyzed to synthesize a global description of the properties of the coronal gas. Tests for correlations of column densities or velocities with properties of the target stars showed no evidence for a circumstellar origin for the absorption lines. An overall average density n (O VI) =2.8 x 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -3/ was found in the galactic plane, with a decrease which approximately follows exp (-z/300 pc) away from the plane.Fluctuations in column densities over various lines of sight suggest that existence of six hotmore » gas regions kpc/sup -/1, randomly distributed in space, each with an O VI column density of about 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -2/. These regions account for an average density n (O VI) =2.1 x 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -3/; the remaining 7 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup -3/ is produced by more sparsely distributed but thicker parcels of hot gas which are seen toward 10% of the stars. The statistics of radial velocity centroids and widths support the interpretation of distinct domains; each region has an internal velocity dispersion consistent with a Doppler broadening of a plasma at T> or approx. =2 x 10/sup 5/ K (near the characteristic temperature for a maximum concentration of O VI in collisional equilibrium), while the regions themselves move about with a dispersion of radial velocities equal to 26 km s/sup -1/. Systematic motions of gas away from the galactic plane could not be seen, however.Excursions from the normal O VI per unit distance have no perceptible anicorrelation with deviations in reddening by cool interstellar coulds: a fact which suggests that the average filling factor of O VI gas is less than 20% if coronal gas really displaces the cooler material and does not have large variations in density and temperature.« less

  13. Laser Absorption spectrometer instrument for tomographic 2D-measurement of climate gas emission from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Anne; Wagner, Steven; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    One of the most intricate effects in climate modelling is the role of permafrost thawing during the global warming process. Soil that has formerly never totally lost its ice cover now emits climate gases due to melting processes[1]. For a better prediction of climate development and possible feedback mechanisms, insights into physical procedures (like e.g. gas emission from underground reservoirs) are required[2]. Therefore, a long-term quantification of greenhouse gas concentrations (and further on fluxes) is necessary and the related structures that are responsible for emission need to be identified. In particular the spatial heterogeneity of soils caused by soil internal structures (e.g. soil composition changes or surface cracks) or by surface modifications (e.g. by plant growth) generate considerable complexities and difficulties for local measurements, for example with soil chambers. For such situations, which often cannot be avoided, a spatially resolved 2D-measurement to identify and quantify the gas emission from the structured soil would be needed, to better understand the influence of the soil sub-structures on the emission behavior. Thus we designed a spatially scanning laser absorption spectrometer setup to determine a 2D-gas concentration map in the soil-air boundary layer. The setup is designed to cover the surfaces in the range of square meters in a horizontal plane above the soil to be investigated. Existing field instruments for gas concentration or flux measurements are based on point-wise measurements, so structure identification is very tedious or even impossible. For this reason, we have developed a tomographic in-situ instrument based on TDLAS ('tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy') that delivers absolute gas concentration distributions of areas with 0.8m × 0.8m size, without any need for reference measurements with a calibration gas. It is a simple and robust device based on a combination of scanning mirrors and reflecting foils, so

  14. Combining Absorption and Dispersion Signals to Improve Signal-to-noise for Rapid Scan EPR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2010-01-01

    Direct detection of the rapid scan EPR signal with quadrature detection and without automatic frequency control provides both the absorption and dispersion components of the signal. The use of a cross-loop resonator results in similar signal-to-noise in the two channels. The dispersion signal can be converted to an equivalent absorption signal by means of Kramers-Kronig relations. The converted signal is added to the directly-measured absorption signal. Since the noise in the two channels is not correlated, this procedure increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the resultant absorption signal by up to a factor of √2. The utility of this method was demonstrated for 2D spectral-spatial imaging of a phantom containing 3 tubes of LiPc with different oxygen concentrations and therefore different linewidths. PMID:20181505

  15. Far-field optical imaging with subdiffraction resolution enabled by nonlinear saturation absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chenliang; Wei, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The resolution of far-field optical imaging is required to improve beyond the Abbe limit to the subdiffraction or even the nanoscale. In this work, inspired by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) imaging, in which carbon (or Au) thin films are usually required to be coated on the sample surface before imaging to remove the charging effect while imaging by electrons. We propose a saturation-absorption-induced far-field super-resolution optical imaging method (SAI-SRIM). In the SAI-SRIM, the carbon (or Au) layers in SEM imaging are replaced by nonlinear-saturation-absorption (NSA) thin films, which are directly coated onto the sample surfaces using advanced thin film deposition techniques. The surface fluctuant morphologies are replicated to the NSA thin films, accordingly. The coated sample surfaces are then imaged using conventional laser scanning microscopy. Consequently, the imaging resolution is greatly improved, and subdiffraction-resolved optical images are obtained theoretically and experimentally. The SAI-SRIM provides an effective and easy way to achieve far-field super-resolution optical imaging for sample surfaces with geometric fluctuant morphology characteristics.

  16. Highly sensitive transient absorption imaging of graphene and graphene oxide in living cells and circulating blood.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Zhang, Weixia; Chung, Ting-Fung; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Chen, Yong P; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Yang, Chen

    2015-07-23

    We report a transient absorption (TA) imaging method for fast visualization and quantitative layer analysis of graphene and GO. Forward and backward imaging of graphene on various substrates under ambient condition was imaged with a speed of 2 μs per pixel. The TA intensity linearly increased with the layer number of graphene. Real-time TA imaging of GO in vitro with capability of quantitative analysis of intracellular concentration and ex vivo in circulating blood were demonstrated. These results suggest that TA microscopy is a valid tool for the study of graphene based materials.

  17. Highly sensitive transient absorption imaging of graphene and graphene oxide in living cells and circulating blood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjie; Zhang, Weixia; Chung, Ting-Fung; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Chen, Yong P.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Yang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report a transient absorption (TA) imaging method for fast visualization and quantitative layer analysis of graphene and GO. Forward and backward imaging of graphene on various substrates under ambient condition was imaged with a speed of 2 μs per pixel. The TA intensity linearly increased with the layer number of graphene. Real-time TA imaging of GO in vitro with capability of quantitative analysis of intracellular concentration and ex vivo in circulating blood were demonstrated. These results suggest that TA microscopy is a valid tool for the study of graphene based materials. PMID:26202216

  18. Optical Absorptions of Oxygenated Carbon Chain Cations in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, F.-X.; Rice, C. A.; Chakraborty, A.; Fulara, J.; Maier, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    The gas-phase electronic spectra of linear OC4O+ and a planar C6H2O+ isomer were obtained at a rotational temperature of ≈10 K. Absorption measurements in a 6 K neon matrix were followed by gas-phase observations in a cryogenic radiofrequency ion trap. The origin bands of the 1{}2{{{\\Pi }}}u ≤ftarrow X{}2{{{\\Pi }}}g transition of OC4O+ and the 1{}2A{}2 ≤ftarrow X{}2B1 of HCCC(CO)CCH+ lie at 417.31 ± 0.01 nm and 523.49 ± 0.01 nm, respectively. These constitute the first electronic spectra of oxygenated carbon chain cations studied under conditions that are relevant to the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), as both have a visible transition. The recent analysis of the 579.5 nm DIB indicates that small carriers, five to seven heavy atoms, continue to be possible candidates (Huang & Oka 2015). Astronomical implications are discussed regarding this kind of oxygenated molecules.

  19. Floquet theory of microwave absorption by an impurity in the two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) under circular polarized microwave radiation in the presence of dilute localized impurities. Inspired by recent developments on Floquet topological insulators we obtain the Floquet wave functions of this system which allow us to predict the microwave absorption and charge density responses of the electron gas; we demonstrate how these properties can be understood from the underlying semiclassical dynamics even for impurities with a size of around a magnetic length. The charge density response takes the form of a rotating charge density vortex around the impurity that can lead to a significant renormalization of the external microwave field which becomes strongly inhomogeneous on the scale of a cyclotron radius around the impurity. We show that this inhomogeneity can suppress the circular polarization dependence which is theoretically expected for microwave induced resistance oscillations but which was not observed in experiments on semiconducting 2DEGs. Our explanation for this so far unexplained polarization independence has close similarities with the Azbel'-Kaner effect in metals where the interaction length between the microwave field and conduction electrons is much smaller than the cyclotron radius due to skin effect generating harmonics of the cyclotron resonance.

  20. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  1. Seismic imaging of gas hydrate reservoir heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-Wei

    Natural gas hydrate, a type of inclusion compound or clathrate, are composed of gas molecules trapped within a cage of water molecules. The presence of gas hydrate has been confirmed by core samples recovered from boreholes. Interests in the distribution of natural gas hydrate stem from its potential as a future energy source, geohazard to drilling activities and their possible impact on climate change. However the current geophysical investigations of gas hydrate reservoirs are still too limited to fully resolve the location and the total amount of gas hydrate due to its complex nature of distribution. The goal of this thesis is twofold, i.e., to model (1) the heterogeneous gas hydrate reservoirs and (2) seismic wave propagation in the presence of heterogeneities in order to address the fundamental questions: where are the location and occurrence of gas hydrate and how much is stored in the sediments. Seismic scattering studies predict that certain heterogeneity scales and velocity contrasts will generate strong scattering and wave mode conversion. Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) techniques can be used to calibrate seismic characterization of gas hydrate expressions on surface seismograms. To further explore the potential of VSP in detecting the heterogeneities, a wave equation based approach for P- and S-wave separation is developed. Tests on synthetic data as well as applications to field data suggest alternative acquisition geometries for VSP to enable wave mode separation. A new reservoir modeling technique based on random medium theory is developed to construct heterogeneous multi-variable models that mimic heterogeneities of hydrate-bearing sediments at the level of detail provided by borehole logging data. Using this new technique, I modeled the density, and P- and S-wave velocities in combination with a modified Biot-Gassmann theory and provided a first order estimate of the in situ volume of gas hydrate near the Mallik 5L-38 borehole. Our results suggest a

  2. Two-photon absorption and transient photothermal imaging of pigments in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tong; Fu, Dan; Matthews, Thomas E.; Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.; Warren, Warren S.

    2008-02-01

    As a main pigment in skin tissues, melanin plays an important role in photo-protecting skin from UV radiation. However, melanogenesis may be altered due to disease or environmental factors; for example, sun exposure may cause damage and mutation of melanocytes and induce melanoma. Imaging pigmentation changes may provide invaluable information to catch the malignant transformation in its early stage and in turn improve the prognosis of patients. We have demonstrated previously that transmission mode, two-photon, one- or two-color absorption microscopy could provide remarkable contrast in imaging melanin in skin. In this report we demonstrate significantly improved sensitivity, so that we are now able to image in epi-mode (or back reflection) in two-photon absorption. This improvement makes possible for us to characterize the different types of pigmentation on the skin in vivo at virtually any location. Another finding is that we can also image transient photothermal dynamics due to the light absorption of melanin. By carefully choosing excitation and probe wavelengths, we might be able to image melanin in different structures under different micro-environments in skin, which could provide useful photochemical and photophysical insights in understanding how pigments are involved in photoprotection and photodamage of cells.

  3. Absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in rare gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. J.; Balling, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    Pulsed-dye-laser excitation has been used to investigate the optical absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices at 10 °K. Attempts to stabilize Li atoms in a Ne matrix at 2 °K were unsuccessful. Results for all three rare gases were qualitatively the same. White light absorption scans showed a single absorption with three peaks centered near the free-atom 2s→2p transition wavelength. The intensity of fluorescence produced by dye-laser excitation within this absorption band was measured as a function of emission wavelength. Excitation of the longest- and shortest-wavelength absorption peaks produced identical emission profiles, but no distinct fluorescence signal was detected when the laser was tuned to the central absorption peaks, indicating that the apparent absorption triplet is actually the superposition of a singlet and a doublet absorption originating from two different trapping sites. No additional absorption bands were detected.

  4. Selective sensitivity of Mueller imaging for tissue scattering over absorption changes in cancer mimicking phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathima, Adeeba; Sharma B. S., Mahima; N., Sujatha

    2018-03-01

    Tissue characterization using optical polarimetry, especially Mueller imaging is receiving sustained interest due to its potential in achieving optical contrast between normal and malignant variations. This is particularly important in identifying the margin of malignant growth in suspected tissue regions for accurate surgical removal, or in aiding the sampling procedure during biopsy. The sensitivity of Mueller matrix derived depolarization index to the combined effects of changes in scattering and absorption occurring in a cancerous growth is illustrated in this study. Depolarization imaging is shown to be useful in demarcating the boundary of two regions of differing optical properties using a tissue phantom, modeled according to the changes expected during cancerous growth in tissue. Tissue scattering and absorption are expected to generally increase with the nuclear size change and crowding as well as angiogenesis associated with malignancy. We have observed that there is selective sensitivity for the Mueller elements and derived depolarization index to tissue scattering over absorption in the object field. Although the scattering and absorption are expected to increase and decrease depolarization respectively, the optical contrast of Mueller images and the derived depolarization index between normal and cancerous tissue is found appreciable in this region.

  5. The Gas-Absorption/Chemical-Reaction Method for Measuring Air-Water Interfacial Area in Natural Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Ying; Brusseau, Mark L.; El Ouni, Asma; Araujo, Juliana B.; Su, Xiaosi

    2017-11-01

    The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method used in chemical engineering to quantify gas-liquid interfacial area in reactor systems is adapted for the first time to measure the effective air-water interfacial area of natural porous media. Experiments were conducted with the GACR method, and two standard methods (X-ray microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests) for comparison, using model glass beads and a natural sand. The results of a series of experiments conducted under identical conditions demonstrated that the GACR method exhibited excellent repeatability for measurement of interfacial area (Aia). Coefficients of variation for Aia were 3.5% for the glass beads and 11% for the sand. Extrapolated maximum interfacial areas (Am) obtained with the GACR method were statistically identical to independent measures of the specific solid surface areas of the media. For example, the Am for the glass beads is 29 (±1) cm-1, compared to 32 (±3), 30 (±2), and 31 (±2) cm-1 determined from geometric calculation, N2/BET measurement, and microtomographic measurement, respectively. This indicates that the method produced accurate measures of interfacial area. Interfacial areas determined with the GACR method were similar to those obtained with the standard methods. For example, Aias of 47 and 44 cm-1 were measured with the GACR and XMT methods, respectively, for the sand at a water saturation of 0.57. The results of the study indicate that the GACR method is a viable alternative for measuring air-water interfacial areas. The method is relatively quick, inexpensive, and requires no specialized instrumentation compared to the standard methods.

  6. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  7. Real-time neutron imaging of gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, P. A. E.

    1987-06-01

    The current status of real-time neutron radiography imaging is briefly reviewed, and results of tests carried out on cold neutron sources are reported. In particular, attention is given to demonstrations of neutron radiography on a running gas turbine engine. The future role of real-time neutron imaging in engineering diagnostics is briefly discussed.

  8. Near-infrared incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (NIR-IBBCEAS) for detection and quantification of natural gas components.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Neeraj; Ramachandran, Arun; Varma, Ravi; Chen, Jun; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Du, Ke

    2018-06-28

    The principle of near-infrared incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy was employed to develop a novel instrument for detecting natural gas leaks as well as for testing the quality of natural gas mixtures. The instrument utilizes the absorption features of methane, butane, ethane, and propane in the wavelength region of 1100 nm to 1250 nm. The absorption cross-section spectrum in this region for methane was adopted from the HITRAN database, and those for the other three gases were measured in the laboratory. A singular-value decomposition (SVD) based analysis scheme was employed for quantifying methane, butane, ethane, and propane by performing a linear least-square fit. The developed instrument achieved a detection limit of 460 ppm, 141 ppm, 175 ppm and 173 ppm for methane, butane, ethane, and propane, respectively, with a measurement time of 1 second and a cavity length of 0.59 m. These detection limits are less than 1% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for each gas. The sensitivity can be further enhanced by changing the experimental parameters (such as cavity length, lamp power etc.) and using longer averaging intervals. The detection system is a low-cost and portable instrument suitable for performing field monitorings. The results obtained on the gas mixture emphasize the instrument's potential for deployment at industrial facilities dealing with natural gas, where potential leaks pose a threat to public safety.

  9. Rapid screening and identification of illicit drugs by IR absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengali, Sandro; Liberatore, Nicola; Luciani, Domenico; Viola, Roberto; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Elmi, Ivan; Poggi, Antonella; Zampolli, Stefano; Biavardi, Elisa; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bonadio, Federica; Delemont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Romolo, Francesco S.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical instruments based on InfraRed Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC) are today available only as bench-top instrumentation for forensic labs and bulk analysis. Within the 'DIRAC' project funded by the European Commission, we are developing an advanced portable sensor, that combines miniaturized GC as its key chemical separation tool, and IRAS in a Hollow Fiber (HF) as its key analytical tool, to detect and recognize illicit drugs and key precursors, as bulk and as traces. The HF-IRAS module essentially consists of a broadly tunable External Cavity (EC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL), thermo-electrically cooled MCT detectors, and an infrared hollow fiber at controlled temperature. The hollow fiber works as a miniaturized gas cell, that can be connected to the output of the GC column with minimal dead volumes. Indeed, the module has been coupled to GC columns of different internal diameter and stationary phase, and with a Vapour Phase Pre-concentrator (VPC) that selectively traps target chemicals from the air. The presentation will report the results of tests made with amphetamines and precursors, as pure substances, mixtures, and solutions. It will show that the sensor is capable of analyzing all the chemicals of interest, with limits of detection ranging from a few nanograms to about 100-200 ng. Furthermore, it is suitable to deal with vapours directly trapped from the headspace of a vessel, and with salts treated in a basic solution. When coupled to FAST GC columns, the module can analyze multi-components mixes in less than 5 minutes.

  10. A flexible gas flow reaction cell for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kroner, Anna B., E-mail: anna.kroner@diamond.ac.uk; Gilbert, Martin; Duller, Graham

    2016-07-27

    A capillary-based sample environment with hot air blower and integrated gas system was developed at Diamond to conduct X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of materials under time-resolved, in situ conditions. The use of a hot air blower, operating in the temperature range of 298-1173 K, allows introduction of other techniques e.g. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy for combined techniques studies. The flexibility to use either quartz or Kapton capillaries allows users to perform XAS measurement at energies as low as 5600 eV. To demonstrate performance, time-resolved, in situ XAS results of Rh catalysts during the process of activation (Rh K-edge,more » Ce L{sub 3}-edge and Cr K-edge) and the study of mixed oxide membrane (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3−δ}) under various partial oxygen pressure conditions are described.« less

  11. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  12. Functional Imaging of the Lungs with Gas Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Stanley J.; Nagle, Scott K.; Couch, Marcus J.; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Albert, Mitchell; Fain, Sean B.

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the three major classes of gas contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – hyperpolarized (HP) gas, molecular oxygen, and fluorinated gas – and their application to clinical pulmonary research. During the past several years there has been accelerated development of pulmonary MRI. This has been driven in part by concerns regarding ionizing radiation using multi-detector computed tomography (CT). However, MRI also offers capabilities for fast multi-spectral and functional imaging using gas agents that are not technically feasible with CT. Recent improvements in gradient performance and radial acquisition methods using ultra-short echo time (UTE) have contributed to advances in these functional pulmonary MRI techniques. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the main functional imaging methods and gas agents are compared and applications to measures of ventilation, diffusion, and gas exchange are presented. Functional lung MRI methods using these gas agents are improving our understanding of a wide range of chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis (CF) in both adults and children. PMID:26218920

  13. Imaging electronic trap states in perovskite thin films with combined fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; ...

    2016-04-22

    Charge carrier trapping degrades the performance of organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. To characterize the locations of electronic trap states in a heterogeneous photoactive layer, a spatially resolved approach is essential. Here, we report a comparative study on methylammonium lead tri-iodide perovskite thin films subject to different thermal annealing times using a combined photoluminescence (PL) and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) approach to spatially map trap states. This approach coregisters the initially populated electronic excited states with the regions that recombine radiatively. Although the TAM images are relatively homogeneous for both samples, the corresponding PL images are highly structured. Themore » remarkable variation in the PL intensities as compared to transient absorption signal amplitude suggests spatially dependent PL quantum efficiency, indicative of trapping events. Furthermore, detailed analysis enables identification of two trapping regimes: a densely packed trapping region and a sparse trapping area that appear as unique spatial features in scaled PL maps.« less

  14. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  15. First Scattered-light Images of the Gas-rich Debris Disk around 49 Ceti

    SciTech Connect

    Choquet, Élodie; Milli, Julien; Wahhaj, Zahed

    We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 Ceti, a ∼40 Myr A1 main-sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and molecular gas. The outer disk is revealed in reprocessed archival Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS-F110W images, as well as new coronagraphic H-band images from the Very Large Telescope SPHERE instrument. The disk extends from 1.″1 (65 au) to 4.″6 (250 au) and is seen at an inclination of 73°, which refines previous measurements at lower angular resolution. We also report no companion detection largermore » than 3 M {sub Jup} at projected separations beyond 20 au from the star (0.″34). Comparison between the F110W and H-band images is consistent with a gray color of 49 Ceti’s dust, indicating grains larger than ≳2 μ m. Our photometric measurements indicate a scattering efficiency/infrared excess ratio of 0.2–0.4, relatively low compared to other characterized debris disks. We find that 49 Ceti presents morphological and scattering properties very similar to the gas-rich HD 131835 system. From our constraint on the disk inclination we find that the atomic gas previously detected in absorption must extend to the inner disk, and that the latter must be depleted of CO gas. Building on previous studies, we propose a schematic view of the system describing the dust and gas structure around 49 Ceti and hypothetical scenarios for the gas nature and origin.« less

  16. First Scattered-Light Images of the Gas-Rich Debris Disk Around 49 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choquet, Elodie; Milli, Julien; Wahhaj, Zahed; Soummer, Remi; Roberge, Aki; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Booth, Mark; Absil, Olivier; Boccaletti, Anthony; Chen, Christine H.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 Ceti, a approximately 40 Myr A1 main-sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and molecular gas. The outer disk is revealed in reprocessed archival Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS-F110W images, as well as new coronagraphic H-band images from the Very Large Telescope SPHERE instrument. The disk extends from 1."1 (65 au) to 4." 6 (250 au) and is seen at an inclination of 73 deg, which refines previous measurements at lower angular resolution. We also report no companion detection larger than 3 MJup at projected separations beyond 20 au from the star (0." 34). Comparison between the F110W and H-band images is consistent with a gray color of 49 Ceti's dust, indicating grains larger than approximately greater than 2 micrometers. Our photometric measurements indicate a scattering efficiency/infrared excess ratio of 0.2-0.4, relatively low compared to other characterized debris disks. We find that 49 Ceti presents morphological and scattering properties very similar to the gas-rich HD 131835 system. From our constraint on the disk inclination we find that the atomic gas previously detected in absorption must extend to the inner disk, and that the latter must be depleted of CO gas. Building on previous studies, we propose a schematic view of the system describing the dust and gas structure around 49 Ceti and hypothetical scenarios for the gas nature and origin.

  17. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60more » C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.« less

  18. Scattering and absorption measurements of cervical tissues measures using low cost multi-spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bar-Am, Kfir; Cataldo, Leigh; Bolton, Frank J.; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death for women in low resource settings. In order to better detect cervical dysplasia, a low cost multi-spectral colposcope was developed utilizing low costs LEDs and an area scan camera. The device is capable of both traditional colposcopic imaging and multi-spectral image capture. Following initial bench testing, the device was deployed to a gynecology clinic where it was used to image patients in a colposcopy setting. Both traditional colposcopic images and spectral data from patients were uploaded to a cloud server for remote analysis. Multi-spectral imaging ( 30 second capture) took place before any clinical procedure; the standard of care was followed thereafter. If acetic acid was used in the standard of care, a post-acetowhitening colposcopic image was also captured. In analyzing the data, normal and abnormal regions were identified in the colposcopic images by an expert clinician. Spectral data were fit to a theoretical model based on diffusion theory, yielding information on scattering and absorption parameters. Data were grouped according to clinician labeling of the tissue, as well as any additional clinical test results available (Pap, HPV, biopsy). Altogether, N=20 patients were imaged in this study, with 9 of them abnormal. In comparing normal and abnormal regions of interest from patients, substantial differences were measured in blood content, while differences in oxygen saturation parameters were more subtle. These results suggest that optical measurements made using low cost spectral imaging systems can distinguish between normal and pathological tissues.

  19. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  20. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L [San Ramon, CA; Henderson, John R [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-04-24

    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  1. FIRST CONNECTION BETWEEN COLD GAS IN EMISSION AND ABSORPTION: CO EMISSION FROM A GALAXY–QUASAR PAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zwaan, Martin A.

    2016-04-01

    We present the first detection of molecular emission from a galaxy selected to be near a projected background quasar using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The ALMA detection of CO(1−0) emission from the z = 0.101 galaxy toward quasar PKS 0439–433 is coincident with its stellar disk and yields a molecular gas mass of M{sub mol} ≈ 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} (for a Galactic CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor), larger than the upper limit on its atomic gas mass. We resolve the CO velocity field, obtaining a rotational velocity of 134 ± 11 km s{sup −1} and a resultant dynamical mass of ≥4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}.more » Despite its high metallicity and large molecular mass, the z = 0.101 galaxy has a low star formation rate, implying a large gas consumption timescale, larger than that typical of late-type galaxies. Most of the molecular gas is hence likely to be in a diffuse extended phase, rather than in dense molecular clouds. By combining the results of emission and absorption studies, we find that the strongest molecular absorption component toward the quasar cannot arise from the molecular disk, but is likely to arise from diffuse gas in the galaxy’s circumgalactic medium. Our results emphasize the potential of combining molecular and stellar emission line studies with optical absorption line studies to achieve a more complete picture of the gas within and surrounding high-redshift galaxies.« less

  2. Thermal Pressure in Diffuse H2 Gas Measured by Herschel [C II] Emission and FUSE UV H2 Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2017-04-01

    UV absorption studies with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite have made important observations of H2 molecular gas in Galactic interstellar translucent and diffuse clouds. Observations of the 158 μm [C II] fine-structure line with Herschel trace the same H2 molecular gas in emission. We present [C II] observations along 27 lines of sight (LOSs) toward target stars of which 25 have FUSE H2 UV absorption. Two stars have only HST STIS C II λ2325 absorption data. We detect [C II] 158 μm emission features in all but one target LOS. For three target LOSs that are close to the Galactic plane, | {\\text{}}b| < 1°, we also present position-velocity maps of [C II] emission observed by Herschel Heterodyne Instrument in the Far Infrared (HIFI) in on-the-fly spectral-line mapping. We use the velocity-resolved [C II] spectra observed by the HIFI instrument toward the target LOSs observed by FUSE to identify [C II] velocity components associated with the H2 clouds. We analyze the observed velocity integrated [C II] spectral-line intensities in terms of the densities and thermal pressures in the H2 gas using the H2 column densities and temperatures measured by the UV absorption data. We present the H2 gas densities and thermal pressures for 26 target LOSs and from the [C II] intensities derive a mean thermal pressure in the range of ˜6100-7700 K cm-3 in diffuse H2 clouds. We discuss the thermal pressures and densities toward 14 targets, comparing them to results obtained using the UV absorption data for two other tracers C I and CO. Our results demonstrate the richness of the far-IR [C II] spectral data which is a valuable complement to the UV H2 absorption data for studying diffuse H2 molecular clouds. While the UV absorption is restricted to the directions of the target star, far-IR [C II] line emission offers an opportunity to employ velocity-resolved spectral-line mapping capability to study in detail the clouds’ spatial and velocity structures.

  3. Wide-band gas leak imaging detection system using UFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei-qi; Li, Jia-kun; Dun, Xiong; Jin, Minglei; Wang, Xia

    2014-11-01

    The leakage of toxic or hazardous gases not only pollutes the environment, but also threatens people's lives and property safety. Many countries attach great importance to the rapid and effective gas leak detection technology and instrument development. However, the gas leak imaging detection systems currently existing are generally limited to a narrow-band in Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) or Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) cooled focal plane imaging, which is difficult to detect the common kinds of the leaking gases. Besides the costly cooled focal plane array is utilized, the application promotion is severely limited. To address this issue, a wide-band gas leak IR imaging detection system using Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) detector is proposed, which is composed of wide-band IR optical lens, sub-band filters and switching device, wide-band UFPA detector, video processing and system control circuit. A wide-band (3µm~12µm) UFPA detector is obtained by replacing the protection window and optimizing the structural parameters of the detector. A large relative aperture (F#=0.75) wide-band (3μm~12μm) multispectral IR lens is developed by using the focus compensation method, which combining the thickness of the narrow-band filters. The gas leak IR image quality and the detection sensitivity are improved by using the IR image Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) technology and Digital Detail Enhancement (DDE) technology. The wide-band gas leak IR imaging detection system using UFPA detector takes full advantage of the wide-band (MWIR&LWIR) response characteristic of the UFPA detector and the digital image processing technology to provide the resulting gas leak video easy to be observed for the human eyes. Many kinds of gases, which are not visible to the naked eyes, can be sensitively detected and visualized. The designed system has many commendable advantages, such as scanning a wide range simultaneously, locating the leaking source quickly, visualizing the gas

  4. In vivo imaging of scattering and absorption properties of exposed brain using a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a method to estimate the spectral images of reduced scattering coefficients and the absorption coefficients of in vivo exposed brain tissues in the range from visible to near-infrared wavelength (500-760 nm) based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a digital RGB camera. In the proposed method, the multi-spectral reflectance images of in vivo exposed brain are reconstructed from the digital red, green blue images using the Wiener estimation algorithm. The Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the absorbance spectra is then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin are estimated as the absorption parameters whereas the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b in the expression of μs'=aλ-b as the scattering parameters, respectively. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and finally, the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are estimated. The estimated images of absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of reduced scattering coefficients showed a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. In vivo experiments with exposed brain of rats during CSD confirmed the possibility of the method to evaluate both hemodynamics and changes in tissue morphology due to electrical depolarization.

  5. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  6. Tunable integration of absorption-membrane-adsorption for efficiently separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Bei; Sun, Changyu; Guo, Ping; Gao, Xueteng; Yang, Lanying; Ma, Qinglan; Chen, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Separation of low boiling gas mixtures is widely concerned in process industries. Now their separations heavily rely upon energy-intensive cryogenic processes. Here, we report a pseudo-absorption process for separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature. In this process, absorption-membrane-adsorption is integrated by suspending suitable porous ZIF material in suitable solvent and forming selectively permeable liquid membrane around ZIF particles. Green solvents like water and glycol were used to form ZIF-8 slurry and tune the permeability of liquid membrane surrounding ZIF-8 particles. We found glycol molecules form tighter membrane while water molecules form looser membrane because of the hydrophobicity of ZIF-8. When using mixing solvents composed of glycol and water, the permeability of liquid membrane becomes tunable. It is shown that ZIF-8/water slurry always manifests remarkable higher separation selectivity than solid ZIF-8 and it could be tuned to further enhance the capture of light hydrocarbons by adding suitable quantity of glycol to water. Because of its lower viscosity and higher sorption/desorption rate, tunable ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry could be readily used as liquid absorbent to separate different kinds of low boiling gas mixtures by applying a multistage separation process in one traditional absorption tower, especially for the capture of light hydrocarbons. PMID:26892255

  7. Forty-five degree backscattering-mode nonlinear absorption imaging in turbid media.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liping; Knox, Wayne H

    2010-01-01

    Two-color nonlinear absorption imaging has been previously demonstrated with endogenous contrast of hemoglobin and melanin in turbid media using transmission-mode detection and a dual-laser technology approach. For clinical applications, it would be generally preferable to use backscattering mode detection and a simpler single-laser technology. We demonstrate that imaging in backscattering mode in turbid media using nonlinear absorption can be obtained with as little as 1-mW average power per beam with a single laser source. Images have been achieved with a detector receiving backscattered light at a 45-deg angle relative to the incoming beams' direction. We obtain images of capillary tube phantoms with resolution as high as 20 microm and penetration depth up to 0.9 mm for a 300-microm tube at SNR approximately 1 in calibrated scattering solutions. Simulation results of the backscattering and detection process using nonimaging optics are demonstrated. A Monte Carlo-based method shows that the nonlinear signal drops exponentially as the depth increases, which agrees well with our experimental results. Simulation also shows that with our current detection method, only 2% of the signal is typically collected with a 5-mm-radius detector.

  8. Gas Phase Absorption Spectroscopy of C+60 and C+70 in a Cryogenic Ion Trap: Comparison with Astronomical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.; Gerlich, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Bohlender, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent low-temperature laboratory measurements and astronomical observations have proved that the fullerene cation {{{C}}}60+ is responsible for four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). These absorptions correspond to the strongest bands of the lowest electronic transition. The gas phase spectrum below 10 {{K}} is reported here for the full wavelength range encompassed by the electronic transition. The absorption spectrum of {{{C}}}70+, with its origin band at 7959.2 {{\\mathringA }}, has been obtained under similar laboratory conditions. Observations made toward the reddened star {HD} 183143 were used in a specific search for the absorption of these fullerene cations in diffuse clouds. In the case of {{{C}}}60+, one further band in the astronomical spectrum at 9348.5 \\mathringA is identified, increasing the total number of assigned DIBs to five. Numerous other {{{C}}}60+ absorptions in the laboratory spectrum are found to lie below the astronomical detection limit. Special emphasis is placed on the laboratory determination of absolute absorption cross-sections. For {{{C}}}60+ this directly yields a column density, N({{{C}}}60+), of 2× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-2 in diffuse clouds, without the need to rely on theoretical oscillator strengths. The intensity of the {{{C}}}70+ electronic transition in the range 7000-8000 Å is spread over many features of similar strength. Absorption cross-section measurements indicate that even for a similar column density, the individual absorption bands of {{{C}}}70+ will be too weak to be detected in the astronomical spectra, which is confirmed giving an upper limit of 2 {{m\\mathringA }} to the equivalent width. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  9. Imaging Plasmon Hybridization of Fano Resonances via Hot-Electron-Mediated Absorption Mapping.

    PubMed

    Simoncelli, Sabrina; Li, Yi; Cortés, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A

    2018-06-13

    The inhibition of radiative losses in dark plasmon modes allows storing electromagnetic energy more efficiently than in far-field excitable bright-plasmon modes. As such, processes benefiting from the enhanced absorption of light in plasmonic materials could also take profit of dark plasmon modes to boost and control nanoscale energy collection, storage, and transfer. We experimentally probe this process by imaging with nanoscale precision the hot-electron driven desorption of thiolated molecules from the surface of gold Fano nanostructures, investigating the effect of wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Spatially resolved absorption maps allow us to show the contribution of each element of the nanoantenna in the hot-electron driven process and their interplay in exciting a dark plasmon mode. Plasmon-mode engineering allows control of nanoscale reactivity and offers a route to further enhance and manipulate hot-electron driven chemical reactions and energy-conversion and transfer at the nanoscale.

  10. Demonstration of temperature imaging by H₂O absorption spectroscopy using compressed sensing tomography.

    PubMed

    An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Lauzier, Pascal T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh; Chen, Guang-Hong; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces temperature imaging by total-variation-based compressed sensing (CS) tomography of H2O vapor absorption spectroscopy. A controlled laboratory setup is used to generate a constant two-dimensional temperature distribution in air (a roughly Gaussian temperature profile with a central temperature of 677 K). A wavelength-tunable laser beam is directed through the known distribution; the beam is translated and rotated using motorized stages to acquire complete absorption spectra in the 1330-1365 nm range at each of 64 beam locations and 60 view angles. Temperature reconstructions are compared to independent thermocouple measurements. Although the distribution studied is approximately axisymmetric, axisymmetry is not assumed and simulations show similar performance for arbitrary temperature distributions. We study the measurement error as a function of number of beams and view angles used in reconstruction to gauge the potential for application of CS in practical test articles where optical access is limited.

  11. Invited Review Article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carriles, Ramón; Schafer, Dawn N.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus; Sylvester, Anne W.; Squier, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphoton imaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms employed in microscopy are reviewed, namely, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation. Techniques for optimizing these nonlinear mechanisms through a careful measurement of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal volume are discussed, and a brief summary of photobleaching effects is provided. Finally, we consider three new applications of multiphoton microscopy: nonlinear imaging in microfluidics as applied to chemical analysis and the use of two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation as contrast mechanisms applied to imaging problems in the medical sciences. PMID:19725639

  12. LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

  13. Structural Measurements from Images of Noble Gas Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadman, Robert V.; Kadlecek, Stephen J.; Emami, Kiarash; MacDuffie Woodburn, John; Vahdat, Vahid; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of externally polarized noble gases such as ^3He has been used for pulmonary imaging for more than a decade. Because gas diffusion is impeded by the alveoli, the diffusion coefficient of gas in the lung, measured on a time scale of milliseconds, is reduced compared to that of the same gas mixture in the absence of restrictions. When the alveolar walls decay, as in emphysema, diffusivity in the lung increases. In this paper, the relationship between diffusion measurements and the size of the restricting structures will be discussed. The simple case of diffusion in an impermeable cylinder, a structure similar to the upper respiratory airways in mammals, has been studied. A procedure will be presented by which airways of order 2 mm in diameter may be accurately measured; demonstration experiments with plastic tubes will also be presented. The additional developments needed before this technique becomes practical will be briefly discussed.

  14. Analysis of gas absorption to a thin liquid film in the presence of a zero-order chemical reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the process of gas absorption to a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The film is formed by the impingement of a controlled liquid jet at the center of the disk and subsequent radial spreading of liquid along the disk. The chemical reaction between the gas and the liquid film can be expressed as a zero-order homogeneous reaction. The process was modeled by establishing equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and species concentration and solving them analytically. A scaling analysis was used to determine dominant transport processes. Appropriate boundary conditions were used to solve these equations to develop expressions for the local concentration of gas across the thickness of the film and distributions of film height, bulk concentration, and Sherwood number along the radius of the disk. The partial differential equation for species concentration was solved using the separation of variables technique along with the Duhamel's theorem and the final analytical solution was expressed using confluent hypergeometric functions. Tables for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are presented for a number of reaction rate constants. A parametric study was performed using Reynolds number, Ekman number, and dimensionless reaction rate as parameters. At all radial locations, Sherwood number increased with Reynolds number (flow rate) as well as Ekman number (rate of rotation). The enhancement of mass transfer due to chemical reaction was found to be small when compared to the case of no reaction (pure absorption), but the enhancement factor was very significant when compared to pure absorption in a stagnant liquid film. The zero-order reaction processes considered in the present investigation included the absorption of oxygen in aqueous alkaline solutions of sodiumdithionite and rhodium complex catalyzed carbonylation of methanol. Present analytical results were compared to previous theoretical

  15. Distribution and absorption of local anesthetics in inferior alveolar nerve block: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ay, Sinan; Küçük, Dervisşhan; Gümüş, Cesur; Kara, M Isa

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and absorption of local anesthetic solutions in inferior alveolar nerve block using magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers were divided into 4 groups and injected with 1.5 mL for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.3 mL for lingual nerve block. The solutions used for the different groups were 2% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine with 0.125 mg/mL epinephrine, 4% articaine with 0.006 mg/mL epinephrine, and 4% articaine with 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All subjects had axial T2-weighted and fat-suppressed images at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection. The localization, area, and intensity (signal characteristics) of the solutions were analyzed and onset and duration times of the anesthesia were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to the intensity and area of the solutions at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection, but differences were found within each group. No between-group differences were found on magnetic resonance imaging in the distribution and absorption of lidocaine with or without epinephrine and articaine with 0.006 and 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All solutions were noticeably absorbed at 120 minutes after injection. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Keiser, Jr., D.

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. In addition, this study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding provedmore » to be the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods.« less

  17. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    DOE PAGES

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Keiser, Jr., D.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. In addition, this study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding provedmore » to be the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods.« less

  18. Accelerated Fractional Ventilation Imaging with Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Kiarash; Xu, Yinan; Hamedani, Hooman; Profka, Harrilla; Kadlecek, Stephen; Xin, Yi; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the utility of accelerated imaging to enhance multi-breath fractional ventilation (r) measurement accuracy using HP gas MRI. Undersampling shortens the breath-hold time, thereby reducing the O2-induced signal decay and allows subjects to maintain a more physiologically relevant breathing pattern. Additionally it may improve r estimation accuracy by reducing RF destruction of HP gas. METHODS Image acceleration was achieved by using an 8-channel phased array coil. Undersampled image acquisition was simulated in a series of ventilation images and images were reconstructed for various matrix sizes (48–128) using GRAPPA. Parallel accelerated r imaging was also performed on five mechanically ventilated pigs. RESULTS Optimal acceleration factor was fairly invariable (2.0–2.2×) over the range of simulated resolutions. Estimation accuracy progressively improved with higher resolutions (39–51% error reduction). In vivo r values were not significantly different between the two methods: 0.27±0.09, 0.35±0.06, 0.40±0.04 (standard) versus 0.23±0.05, 0.34±0.03, 0.37±0.02 (accelerated); for anterior, medial and posterior slices, respectively, whereas the corresponding vertical r gradients were significant (P < 0.001): 0.021±0.007 (standard) versus 0.019±0.005 (accelerated) [cm−1]. CONCLUSION Quadruple phased array coil simulations resulted in an optimal acceleration factor of ~2× independent of imaging resolution. Results advocate undersampled image acceleration to improve accuracy of fractional ventilation measurement with HP gas MRI. PMID:23400938

  19. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, R.

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. This study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding proved to bemore » the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods. - Highlights: •Automated image processing can aid in the fuel qualification process. •Routines are developed to characterize fission gas bubbles in irradiated U–Mo fuel. •Frequency domain filtration effectively eliminates FIB curtaining artifacts. •Adaptive thresholding proved to be the most accurate segmentation method. •The techniques established are ready to be applied to large scale data extraction testing.« less

  20. Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Hydrogen-Helium gas mixtures at Thousands of Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Martin; Frommhold, Lothar; Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2010-10-01

    The interaction-induced absorption by collisional pairs of H2 molecules is an important opacity source in the atmospheres of the outer planets and cool stars ^[1]. The emission spectra of cool white dwarf stars differ significantly in the infrared from the expected blackbody spectra of their cores, which is largely due to absorption by collisional H2--H2, H2--He, and H2--H complexes in the stellar atmospheres. Using quantum-chemical methods we compute the atmospheric absorption from hundreds to thousands of kelvin ^[2]. Laboratory measurements of interaction-induced absorption spectra by H2 pairs exist only at room temperature and below. We show that our results reproduce these measurements closely ^[2], so that our computational data permit reliable modeling of stellar atmosphere opacities even for the higher temperatures ^[2]. [1] L. Frommhold, Collision-Induced Absorption in Gases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 1993 and 2006 [2] Xiaoping Li, Katharine L. C. Hunt, Fei Wang, Martin Abel, and Lothar Frommhold, ``Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Molecular Hydrogen Pairs at Thousands of Kelvin'', International Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2010, Article ID 371201, 11 pages, 2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/371201

  1. Imaging diffuse clouds: bright and dark gas mapped in CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, H. S.; Pety, J.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We wish to relate the degree scale structure of galactic diffuse clouds to sub-arcsecond atomic and molecular absorption spectra obtained against extragalactic continuum background sources. Methods: We used the ARO 12 m telescope to map J = 1-0 CO emission at 1' resolution over 30' fields around the positions of 11 background sources occulted by 20 molecular absorption line components, of which 11 had CO emission counterparts. We compared maps of CO emission to sub-arcsec atomic and molecular absorption spectra and to the large-scale distribution of interstellar reddening. Results: 1) The same clouds, identified by their velocity, were seen in absorption and emission and atomic and molecular phases, not necessarily in the same direction. Sub-arcsecond absorption spectra are a preview of what is seen in CO emission away from the continuum. 2) The CO emission structure was amorphous in 9 cases, quasi-periodic or wave-like around B0528+134 and tangled and filamentary around BL Lac. 3) Strong emission, typically 4-5 K at EB - V ≤ 0.15 mag and up to 10-12 K at EB - V ≲ 0.3 mag was found, much brighter than toward the background targets. Typical covering factors of individual features at the 1 K km s-1 level were 20%. 4) CO-H2 conversion factors as much as 4-5 times below the mean value N(H2)/WCO = 2 × 1020 H2 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 are required to explain the luminosity of CO emission at/above the level of 1 K km s-1. Small conversion factors and sharp variability of the conversion factor on arcminute scales are due primarily to CO chemistry and need not represent unresolved variations in reddening or total column density. Conclusions: Like Fermi and Planck we see some gas that is dark in CO and other gas in which CO is overluminous per H2. A standard CO-H2 conversion factor applies overall owing to balance between the luminosities per H2 and surface covering factors of bright and dark CO, but with wide variations between sightlines and across the faces of

  2. Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10

  3. Pixel-based absorption correction for dual-tracer fluorescence imaging of receptor binding potential

    PubMed Central

    Kanick, Stephen C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Gunn, Jason; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric approaches to quantifying molecular concentrations have been used for decades in microscopy, but have rarely been exploited in vivo until recently. One dual-tracer approach can utilize an untargeted reference tracer to account for non-specific uptake of a receptor-targeted tracer, and ultimately estimate receptor binding potential quantitatively. However, interpretation of the relative dynamic distribution kinetics is confounded by differences in local tissue absorption at the wavelengths used for each tracer. This study simulated the influence of absorption on fluorescence emission intensity and depth sensitivity at typical near-infrared fluorophore wavelength bands near 700 and 800 nm in mouse skin in order to correct for these tissue optical differences in signal detection. Changes in blood volume [1-3%] and hemoglobin oxygen saturation [0-100%] were demonstrated to introduce substantial distortions to receptor binding estimates (error > 30%), whereas sampled depth was relatively insensitive to wavelength (error < 6%). In response, a pixel-by-pixel normalization of tracer inputs immediately post-injection was found to account for spatial heterogeneities in local absorption properties. Application of the pixel-based normalization method to an in vivo imaging study demonstrated significant improvement, as compared with a reference tissue normalization approach. PMID:25360349

  4. Time-resolved photoion imaging spectroscopy: Determining energy distribution in multiphoton absorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, D. B.; Shi, F. D.; Chen, L.; Martin, S.; Bernard, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, S. F.; Chen, Z. Q.; Zhu, X. L.; Ma, X.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an approach to determine the excitation energy distribution due to multiphoton absorption in the case of excited systems following decays to produce different ion species. This approach is based on the measurement of the time-resolved photoion position spectrum by using velocity map imaging spectrometry and an unfocused laser beam with a low fluence and homogeneous profile. Such a measurement allows us to identify the species and the origin of each ion detected and to depict the energy distribution using a pure Poisson's equation involving only one variable which is proportional to the absolute photon absorption cross section. A cascade decay model is used to build direct connections between the energy distribution and the probability to detect each ionic species. Comparison between experiments and simulations permits the energy distribution and accordingly the absolute photon absorption cross section to be determined. This approach is illustrated using C60 as an example. It may therefore be extended to a wide variety of molecules and clusters having decay mechanisms similar to those of fullerene molecules.

  5. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  6. Application of imaging spectrometer in gas analysis by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Duluo; Yu, Anlan; Li, Zhe; Wang, Xingbing; Xiong, Youhui

    2015-09-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering is an effective technique in gas analysis, but the detection of minor constituents is difficult because of the low signal level and the usually existed background. Imaging spectrometer can provide highly spatial resolved spectra, so it should be much easier to pick up Raman signal of minor constituents from the Raman/fluorescence background of the sample cell and transporting optics compared with the widely used fiber-coupled spectrometers. For this reason, an imaging spectrometer was constructed from transmitting volume phase holographic grating, camera lenses and CCD detector. When it was used to analyze the gas sample in metal-lined capillary, which is a sample cell believed with great enhancement of Raman signal, the background was compressed obviously. When it was used to analyze the gas in a sample cell including a parabolic reflector, only weak background signal was observed, as the wide separation between the collecting zone (the focus point of the parabolic surface) and the wall of sample cell benefitted to the analysis by imaging spectrometer. By using the last sample cell, the signal from CO2 in ambient air was able to be found by an exposure time about 20 sec, and limits of detection for H2, CO2 and CO were estimated as 60 ppm, 100 ppm and 300 ppm respectively by the results of a longer exposure time. These results show that an imaging spectrometer paired with a well-arranged sample cell will lower the detecting limit effectively.

  7. Velocity of mist droplets and suspending gas imaged separately

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuethe, Dean O.; McBride, Amber; Altobelli, Stephen A.

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of the velocity of water droplets and velocity of the suspending gas, hexafluoroethane, are presented for a vertical and horizontal mist pipe flow. In the vertical flow, the upward velocity of the droplets is clearly slower than the upward velocity of the gas. The average droplet size calculated from the average falling velocity in the upward flow is larger than the average droplet size of mist drawn from the top of the pipe measured with a multi-stage aerosol impactor. Vertical flow concentrates larger particles because they have a longer transit time through the pipe. In the horizontal flow there is a gravity-driven circulation with high-velocity mist in the lower portion of the pipe and low-velocity gas in the upper portion. MRI has the advantages that it can image both phases and that it is unperturbed by optical opacity. A drawback is that the droplet phase of mist is difficult to image because of low average spin density and because the signal from water coalesced on the pipe walls is high. To our knowledge these are the first NMR images of mist.

  8. Estimating nanoparticle optical absorption with magnetic resonance temperature imaging and bioheat transfer simulation.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Christopher J; Fuentes, David; Elliott, Andrew M; Schwartz, Jon; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason

    2014-02-01

    Optically activated nanoparticle-mediated heating for thermal therapy applications is an area of intense research. The ability to characterise the spatio-temporal heating potential of these particles for use in modelling under various exposure conditions can aid in the exploration of new approaches for therapy as well as more quantitative prospective approaches to treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate an inverse solution to the heat equation using magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) feedback, for providing optical characterisation of two types of nanoparticles (gold-silica nanoshells and gold nanorods). The optical absorption of homogeneous nanoparticle-agar mixtures was measured during exposure to an 808 nm laser using real-time MRTI. A coupled finite element solution of heat transfer was registered with the data and used to solve the inverse problem. The L2 norm of the difference between the temperature increase in the model and MRTI was minimised using a pattern search algorithm by varying the absorption coefficient of the mixture. Absorption fractions were within 10% of literature values for similar nanoparticles. Comparison of temporal and spatial profiles demonstrated good qualitative agreement between the model and the MRTI. The weighted root mean square error was <1.5 σMRTI and the average Dice similarity coefficient for ΔT = 5 °C isotherms was >0.9 over the measured time interval. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using an indirect method for making minimally invasive estimates of nanoparticle absorption that might be expanded to analyse a variety of geometries and particles of interest.

  9. On the Time Variation of Dust Extinction and Gas Absorption for Type Ia Supernovae Observed through a Nonuniform Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Aldering, G.; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.

    2017-11-01

    For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a nonuniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the nonuniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (≳ 10 {pc}) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of an SN photosphere. Therefore, the typical amplitude of time variation due to a nonuniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths, and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that nonuniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power-law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.

  10. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  11. Optical fiber evanescent absorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, Michael P.; Ohodnicky, Paul R.; Duy, Janice

    2012-10-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  12. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  13. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.

    2015-12-15

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are usedmore » to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.« less

  14. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and imaging of heterogeneous hydrothermal mixtures using a diamond microreactor cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Darab, John G.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2001-04-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis is an important route to novel materials. Hydrothermal chemistry is also an important aspect of geochemistry and a variety of waste remediation technologies. There is a significant lack of information about the speciation of inorganic compounds under hydrothermal conditions. For these reasons we describe a high-temperature, high-pressure cell that allows one to acquire both x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra and x-ray transmission and absorption images of heterogeneous hydrothermal mixtures. We demonstrate the utility of the method by measuring the Cu(I) speciation in a solution containing both solid and dissolved Cu phases at temperatures up to 325{sup o}C.more » X-ray imaging of the various hydrothermal phases allows micro-XAFS to be collected from different phases within the heterogeneous mixture. The complete structural characterization of a soluble bichloro-cuprous species was determined. In situ XAFS measurements were used to define the oxidation state and the first-shell coordination structure. The Cu--Cl distance was determined to be 2.12 Aa for the CuCl{sub 2}{sup -} species and the complete loss of tightly bound waters of hydration in the first shell was observed. The microreactor cell described here can be used to test thermodynamic models of solubility and redox chemistry of a variety of different hydrothermal mixtures.« less

  15. Measurements of water molecule density by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in dielectric barrier discharges with gas-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Umekawa, Toyofumi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We measured water molecule (H2O) density by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for applications in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with a gas-water interface. First, the effects of water temperature and presence of gas flow were tested using a Petri dish filled with water and a gas injection nozzle. Second, the TDLAS system was applied to the measurements of H2O density in two types of DBDs; one was a normal (non-inverted) type with a dielectric-covered electrode above a water-filled counter electrode and the other was an inverted type with a water-suspending mesh electrode above a dielectric-covered counter electrode. The H2O density in the normal DBD was close to the density estimated from the saturated vapor pressure, whereas the density in the inverted DBD was about half of that in the former type. The difference is attributed to the upward gas flow in the latter type, that pushes the water molecules up towards the gas-water interface.

  16. Design of mini-multi-gas monitoring system based on IR absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiu-lin; Zhang, Wen-dong; Xue, Chen-yang; Xiong, Ji-jun; Ma, You-chun; Wen, Fen

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a novel non-dispersive infrared ray (IR) gas detection system is described. Conventional devices typically include several primary components: a broadband source (usually an incandescent filament), a rotating chopper shutter, a narrow-band filter, a sample tube and a detector. But we mainly use the mini-multi-channel detector, electrical modulation means and mini-gas-cell structure. To solve the problems of gas accidents in coal mines, and for family safety that results from using gas, this new IR detection system with integration, miniaturization and non-moving parts has been developed. It is based on the principle that certain gases absorb infrared radiation at specific (and often unique) wavelengths. The infrared detection optics principle used in developing this system is mainly analyzed. The idea of multi-gas detection is introduced and guided through the analysis of the single-gas detection. Through researching the design of cell structure, a cell with integration and miniaturization has been devised. By taking a single-chip microcomputer (SCM) as intelligence handling, the functional block diagram of a gas detection system is designed with the analyzing and devising of its hardware and software system. The way of data transmission on a controller area network (CAN) bus and wireless data transmission mode is explained. This system has reached the technology requirement of lower power consumption, mini-volume, wide measure range, and is able to realize multi-gas detection.

  17. Featured Image: H I Gas in the Triangulum Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    These spectacular images are of M33, otherwise known as the Triangulum Galaxy a spiral galaxy roughly 3 million light-years away. The views on the left and in the center are different Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) filters, and the view on the right is a full-resolution look at the H I gas distribution in M33s inner disk, made with data from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) Synthesis Telescope and Arecibo. In a new study, a team of authors led by Zacharie Sie Kam (University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; University of Montreal, Canada) uses the H I gas observations to explore how the mass is distributed throughout M33 and how the gas moves as the galaxys disk rotates. To read more about what they learned, check out the paper below.CitationS. Z. Kam et al 2017 AJ 154 41. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa79f3

  18. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  19. IR gas cloud imaging in oil and gas applications: immunity to false stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Edward; Baliga, Shakar; Park, John; Bernascolle, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Fixed gas detection equipment for the petroleum industries is no ordinary equipment. It is designed for continued unattended surveillance in harsh environments. The equipment must be reliable and require limited field maintenance. An additional requirement is a high resistance to false alarms and interferences, which can potentially reduce the detector's efficacy and the level of protection provided. In recent years, several manufactures of IR imaging devices have launched commercial models that are applicable to a wide range of chemical species and suitable for industrial use. These cameras are rugged and sufficiently sensitive to detect low concentrations of combustible and toxic gases. Nonetheless, as users become acquainted with these imaging systems, questions of resilience to solar and flame radiation and other IR sources, interferences by fog or steam, have begun to emerge. These questions, in fact, reflect similar concerns as those raised with open path IR gas detectors when they first appeared in the market over 20 years ago. This paper examines an IR gas imager's performance when exposed to several false alarm sources. Gas detection sensitivity in the presence of false stimuli and response and recovery times under an uncontrolled outdoor environment were measured. The results show the specific model tested is reasonably immune to false alarms, while response times were unaffected by the presence of these sources.

  20. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  1. Cold parsec-scale gas in a zabs ˜ 0.1 sub-damped Lyman α with disparate H2 and 21-cm absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R.; Srianand, R.; Muzahid, S.; Gupta, N.; Momjian, E.; Charlton, J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a H2-bearing metal-rich sub-damped Lyman α system at zabs = 0.10115 towards the radio-loud quasar J0441-4313, at a projected separation of ˜7.6 kpc from a star-forming galaxy. The H2, {C I}} and {Na I} absorption are much stronger in the redder of the two components seen in the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectrum. The best single-component fit to the strong H2 component gives log N(H2) = 16.61 ± 0.05. However, possible hidden saturation in the medium-resolution spectrum can allow for log N(H2) to be as high as 18.9. The rotational excitation temperature of H2 in this component is 133^{+33}_{-22} K. Photoionization models suggest 30-80 per cent of the total N(H I) is associated with the strong H2 component that has a density ≤100 cm-3 and is subject to a radiation field that is ≤0.5 times the Galactic mean field. The Very Long Baseline Array 1.4 GHz continuum image of the radio source contains only 27 per cent of the arcsecond scale emission. Using a previously published spectrum, no 21-cm absorption is found to be associated with the strong H2 component. This suggests that either the N(H I)) associated with this component is ≤50 per cent of the total N(H I)) or the gas covering factor is ≤0.27. This is consistent with the results of the photoionization model that uses ultraviolet radiation due to stars in the associated galaxy. The 21-cm absorption previously reported from the weaker H2 component suggests a spin temperature of ≤90 K, at odds with the weakness of H2, {C I} and {Na I} absorption in this component. From the inferred physical and chemical conditions, we suggest that the gas may be tracing a recent metal-rich outflow from the host galaxy.

  2. Electron photodetachment from gas phase peptide dianions. Relation with optical absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Joly, Laure; Antoine, Rodolphe; Broyer, Michel; Lemoine, Jérôme; Dugourd, Philippe

    2008-02-07

    Electron detachment from peptide dianions is studied as a function of the laser wavelength. The first step for the detachment is a resonant electronic excitation of the dianions. Electronic excitation spectra are reported for three peptides, including gramicidin. A comparative study of the detachment yield for 13 peptides was performed at 260 nm and at 220 nm. At 260 nm, the detachment yield is mainly driven by the sum of the absorption coefficients of the aromatic amino acids that are contained in the peptide. At 220 nm, no direct relation is observed between the electron photodetachement yields and the sum of absorption efficiencies. At this wavelength, the sequence and the structure of the peptide may have an influence on the photodetachment process.

  3. Absorption into fluorescence. A method to sense biologically relevant gas molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strianese, Maria; Varriale, Antonio; Staiano, Maria; Pellecchia, Claudio; D'Auria, Sabato

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative optical sensing methodology based on the use of biomolecules as molecular gating nano-systems. Here, as an example, we report on the detection ofanalytes related to climate change. In particular, we focused our attention on the detection ofnitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). Our methodology builds on the possibility of modulating the excitation intensity of a fluorescent probe used as a transducer and a sensor molecule whose absorption is strongly affected by the binding of an analyte of interest used as a filter. The two simple conditions that have to be fulfilled for the method to work are: (a) the absorption spectrum of the sensor placed inside the cuvette, and acting as the recognition element for the analyte of interest, should strongly change upon the binding of the analyte and (b) the fluorescence dye transducer should exhibit an excitation band which overlaps with one or more absorption bands of the sensor. The absorption band of the sensor affected by the binding of the specific analyte should overlap with the excitation band of the transducer. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection combined with the use of proteins as highly selective sensors makes this method a powerful basis for the development of a new generation of analytical assays. Proof-of-principle results showing that cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) for NO detection and myoglobin (Mb) for O2 detection can be successfully used by exploiting our new methodology are reported. The proposed technology can be easily expanded to the determination of different target analytes.

  4. Molecular imaging analysis of intestinal insulin absorption boosted by cell-penetrating peptides by using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Morishita, Mariko; Kanayama, Yousuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Nishimura, Mie; Hayashinaka, Emi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-08-17

    Molecular imaging technique by use of positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive tool that allows one to quantitatively analyze the function of endogenous molecules and the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents in vivo. This technique is expected to be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of diverse drug delivery systems. We demonstrated previously that intestinal insulin absorption is increased significantly by coadministration of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which are taken up effectively by several cells. However, the distribution behavior of insulin whose absorption is increased by CPPs is not clear. We used PET imaging and quantitatively analyzed the intestinal absorption and subsequent distribution of insulin and the effect of CPPs on its absorption and distribution. An unlabeled insulin solution containing tracer insulin, (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin, was administered with or without CPPs into a rat ileal closed loop. PET imaging showed that the CPPs, particularly D-R8 and L-penetratin, significantly increased the (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin level in the liver, kidney, and circulation. After absorption from the intestine, the (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin passed rapidly through the liver and accumulated in the kidney. The increase in the hepatic and renal distribution of (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin by each CPP coadministration was similar manner as that in intestinal absorption, suggesting that the increased accumulation of insulin in the liver and kidney induced by coadministration of CPPs was associated with the increased intestinal absorption of insulin. This is the first study to show that PET imaging enables one to quantitatively analyze the distribution behavior of intestinally absorbed insulin in several organs. This imaging methodology is likely to be useful for developing effective drug delivery systems targeted to specific organs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipole saturated absorption modeling in gas phase: Dealing with a Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of new accurate and sensitive spectrometers, cf. combining optical cavities (for absorption enhancement), the requirement for reliable molecular transition modeling is becoming more pressing. Unfortunately, there is no trivial approach which can provide a definitive formalism allowing us to solve the coupled systems of equations associated with nonlinear absorption. Here, we propose a general approach to deal with any spectral shape of the electromagnetic field interacting with a molecular species under saturation conditions. The development is specifically applied to Gaussian-shaped beams. To make the analytical expressions tractable, approximations are proposed. Finally, two or three numerical integrations are required for describing the Lamb-dip profile. The implemented model allows us to describe the saturated absorption under low pressure conditions where the broadening by the transit-time may dominate the collision rates. The model is applied to two specific overtone transitions of the molecular acetylene. The simulated line shapes are discussed versus the collision and the transit-time rates. The specific collisional and collision-free regimes are illustrated, while the Rabi frequency controls the intermediate regime. We illustrate how to recover the input parameters by fitting the simulated profiles.

  6. Quantitative Absorption and Kinetic Studies of Transient Species Using Gas Phase Optical Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Dmitry G.

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative measurements of the absorption cross-sections and reaction rates constants of free radicals by spectroscopic means requires the knowledge of the absolute concentration of the target species. We have demonstrated earlier that such information can be retrieved from absorption measurements of the well-known ``reporter" molecule, co-produced in radical synthesis. This method is limited to photochemical protocols allowing for production of ``reporters" stochiometrically with the target species. This limitation can be overcome by use of the optical calorimetry (OC) which measures heat signatures of a photochemical protocol. These heat signatures are directly related to the amount of species produced and the thermochemical data of the reactants and stable products whose accuracy is usually substantially higher than that of the absorption data for prospective ``reporters". The implementation of the OC method presented in this talk is based on the measurements of the frequency shift of the resonances due to the change in the optical density of the reactiove sample within a Fabry-Perot cavity caused by deposition of heat from the absorbed photolysis beam and subsequent chemical reactions. Preliminary results will be presented and future development of this experimental technique will be discussed. D. Melnik, R. Chhantyal-Pun and T. A. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, 11583, (2010)

  7. Measurement of transient gas flow parameters by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshov, M A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V

    2015-04-30

    An absorption spectrometer based on diode lasers is developed for measuring two-dimension maps of temperature and water vapour concentration distributions in the combustion zones of two mixing supersonic flows of fuel and oxidiser in the single run regime. The method of measuring parameters of hot combustion zones is based on detection of transient spectra of water vapour absorption. The design of the spectrometer considerably reduces the influence of water vapour absorption along the path of a sensing laser beam outside the burning chamber. The optical scheme is developed, capable of matching measurement results in different runs of mixture burning. Amore » new algorithm is suggested for obtaining information about the mixture temperature by constructing the correlation functions of the experimental spectrum with those simulated from databases. A two-dimensional map of temperature distribution in a test chamber is obtained for the first time under the conditions of plasma-induced combusion of the ethylene – air mixture. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)« less

  8. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M.; Specht, Christian G.; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling. PMID:26711992

  9. Small fluorescence-activating and absorption-shifting tag for tunable protein imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Plamont, Marie-Aude; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Maurin, Sylvie; Gauron, Carole; Pimenta, Frederico M; Specht, Christian G; Shi, Jian; Quérard, Jérôme; Pan, Buyan; Rossignol, Julien; Moncoq, Karine; Morellet, Nelly; Volovitch, Michel; Lescop, Ewen; Chen, Yong; Triller, Antoine; Vriz, Sophie; Le Saux, Thomas; Jullien, Ludovic; Gautier, Arnaud

    2016-01-19

    This paper presents Yellow Fluorescence-Activating and absorption-Shifting Tag (Y-FAST), a small monomeric protein tag, half as large as the green fluorescent protein, enabling fluorescent labeling of proteins in a reversible and specific manner through the reversible binding and activation of a cell-permeant and nontoxic fluorogenic ligand (a so-called fluorogen). A unique fluorogen activation mechanism based on two spectroscopic changes, increase of fluorescence quantum yield and absorption red shift, provides high labeling selectivity. Y-FAST was engineered from the 14-kDa photoactive yellow protein by directed evolution using yeast display and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Y-FAST is as bright as common fluorescent proteins, exhibits good photostability, and allows the efficient labeling of proteins in various organelles and hosts. Upon fluorogen binding, fluorescence appears instantaneously, allowing monitoring of rapid processes in near real time. Y-FAST distinguishes itself from other tagging systems because the fluorogen binding is highly dynamic and fully reversible, which enables rapid labeling and unlabeling of proteins by addition and withdrawal of the fluorogen, opening new exciting prospects for the development of multiplexing imaging protocols based on sequential labeling.

  10. The imaging and modelling of the physical processes involved in digestion and absorption.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K S

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical activity of the gastro-intestinal tract serves to store, propel and digest food. Contractions disperse particles and transform solids and secretions into the two-phase slurry called chyme; movements of the intestine deliver nutrients to mucosal sites of absorption, and from the submucosa into the lymphatic and portal venous circulation. Colonic motor activity helps to extract fluid and electrolytes from chyme and to compound and compact luminal debris into faeces for elimination. We outline how dynamic imaging by ultrasound and magnetic resonance can demonstrate intestinal flow processes critical to digestion like mixing, dilution, swelling, dispersion and elution. Computational fluid mechanics enables a numerical rendition of the forces promoting digestion: pressure and flow fields, the shear stresses dispersing particles or the effectiveness of bolus mixing can be calculated. These technologies provide new insights into the mechanical processes that promote digestion and absorption. © 2014 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2Absorption Band.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jin; Zhu, Zhen; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Following up on our previous work, we have developed one more non-contact method to measure human breathing rate. We have retrofitted our Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO2absorption band (4.3 µm). This improves the contrast between the foreground (i.e., expired air) and background (e.g., wall). Based on the radiation information within the breath flow region, we get the mean dynamic thermal signal. This signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then determine the breathing frequency through Fourier analysis. We have performed experiments on 9 subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 ft. We compared the breathing rate computed by our novel method with ground-truth measurements obtained via a traditional contact device (PowerLab/4SP from ADInstruments with an abdominal transducer). The results show high correlation between the two modalities. For the first time, we report a Fourier based breathing rate computation method on a MWIR signal in the CO2absorption band. The method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of an important vital sign, that is, breathing rate. It may find widespread applications in preventive medicine as well as sustained physiological monitoring of subjects suffering from chronic ailments.

  12. Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin C.; Liu, Henry; Piletic, Ivan R.; Ye, Tong; Yasuda, Ryohei; Warren, Warren S.

    2007-02-01

    Even though multi-photon fluorescence microscopy offers higher resolution and better penetration depth than traditional fluorescence microscopy, its use is restricted to the detection of molecules that fluoresce. Two-photon absorption (TPA) imaging can provide contrast in non-fluorescent molecules while retaining the high resolution and sectioning capabilities of nonlinear imaging modalities. In the long-wavelength water window, tissue TPA is dominated by the endogenous molecules melanin and hemoglobin with an almost complete absence of endogenous two-photon fluorescence. A complementary nonlinear contrast mechanism is self-phase modulation (SPM), which can provide intrinsic signatures that can depend on local tissue anisotropy, chemical environment, or other structural properties. We have developed a spectral hole refilling measurement technique for TPA and SPM measurements using shaped ultrafast laser pulses. Here we report on a microscopy setup to simultaneously acquire 3D, high-resolution TPA and SPM images. We have acquired data in mounted B16 melanoma cells with very modest laser power levels. We will also discuss the possible application of this measurement technique to neuronal imaging. Since SPM is sensitive to material structure we can expect SPM properties of neurons to change during neuronal firing. Using our hole-refilling technique we have now demonstrated strong novel intrinsic nonlinear signatures of neuronal activation in a hippocampal brain slice. The observed changes in nonlinear signal upon collective activation were up to factors of two, unlike other intrinsic optical signal changes on the percent level. These results show that TPA and SPM imaging can provide important novel functional contrast in tissue using very modest power levels suitable for in vivo applications.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Imaging proves differential absorption profiles of well-characterised permeability markers along the crypt-villus axis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna; Peric, Alexandra; Strimfors, Marie; Goodwin, Richard J A; Hayes, Martin A; Andrén, Per E; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2017-07-25

    Knowledge about the region-specific absorption profiles from the gastrointestinal tract of orally administered drugs is a critical factor guiding dosage form selection in drug development. We have used a novel approach to study three well-characterized permeability and absorption marker drugs in the intestine. Propranolol and metoprolol (highly permeable compounds) and atenolol (low-moderate permeability compound) were orally co-administered to rats. The site of drug absorption was revealed by high spatial resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and complemented by quantitative measurement of drug concentration in tissue homogenates. MALDI-MSI identified endogenous molecular markers that illustrated the villi structures and confirmed the different absorption sites assigned to histological landmarks for the three drugs. Propranolol and metoprolol showed a rapid absorption and shorter transit distance in contrast to atenolol, which was absorbed more slowly from more distal sites. This study provides novel insights into site specific absorption for each of the compounds along the crypt-villus axis, as well as confirming a proximal-distal absorption gradient along the intestine. The combined analytical approach allowed the quantification and spatial resolution of drug distribution in the intestine and provided experimental evidence for the suggested absorption behaviour of low and highly permeable compounds.

  14. Direct Imaging of Shale Gas Leaks Using Passive Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.; Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an energy resource in great demand worldwide. There are many types of gas fields including shale formations which are common especially in the St-Lawrence Valley (Qc). Regardless of its origin, methane (CH4) is the major component of natural gas. Methane gas is odorless, colorless and highly flammable. It is also an important greenhouse gas. Therefore, dealing efficiently with methane emanations and/or leaks is an important and challenging issue for both safety and environmental considerations. In this regard, passive remote sensing represents an interesting approach since it allows characterization of large areas from a safe location. The high propensity of methane contributing to global warming is mainly because it is a highly infrared-active molecule. For this reason, thermal infrared remote sensing represents one of the best approaches for methane investigations. In order to illustrate the potential of passive thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for research on natural gas, imaging was carried out on a shale gas leak that unexpectedly happen during a geological survey near Hospital Enfant-Jésus (Québec City) in December 2014. Methane was selectively identified in the scene by its unique infrared signature. The estimated gas column density near the leak source was on the order of 65 000 ppm×m. It was estimated that the methane content in the shale gas is on the order of 6-7 %, which is in good agreement with previous geological surveys carried out in this area. Such leaks represent a very serious situation because such a methane concentration lies within the methane lower/upper explosion limits (LEL-UEL, 5-15 %). The results show how this novel technique could be used for research work dealing with methane gas.

  15. Development of gas fire detection system using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. L.; Li, G.; Yang, T.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional fire detection methods mainly produce an alarm through detecting the changes in smoke concentration, flame radiation, heat and other physical parameters in the environment, but are unable to provide an early warning of a fire emergency. We have designed a gas fire detection system with a high detection sensitivity and high selectivity using the tunable semiconductor diode laser as a light source and combining wavelength modulation and harmonic detection technology. This system can invert the second harmonic signal obtained to obtain the concentration of carbon monoxide gas (a fire characteristic gas) so as to provide an early warning of fire. We reduce the system offset noise and the background noise generated due to the laser interference by deducting the system background spectrum lines from the second harmonic signal. This can also eliminate the interference of other gas spectral lines to a large extent. We detected the concentration of the carbon monoxide gas generated in smoldering sandalwood fire and open beech wood fire with the homemade fire simulator, and tested the lowest detectable limit of system. The test results show that the lowest detectable limit can reach 5×10-6 the system can maintain stable operation for a long period of time and can automatically trigger a water mist fire extinguishing system, which can fully meet the needs of early fire warning.

  16. Post-discharge gas composition of a large-gap DBD in humid air by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, T.; Misra, N. N.; Patil, S.; Cullen, P. J.; Bourke, P.; Keener, K. M.; Mosnier, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Large gap dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) provide non-thermal, non-equilibrium plasmas that can generate specific gas chemistry with enhanced bactericidal effects when working in humid air. The present study investigates the post-discharge gas composition of such plasmas operated in humid air using UV-Vis (200-800 nm) absorption spectroscopy. Absorbance spectra have been de-convoluted using direct deconvolution and iterative methods and results are correlated to the DBD electrical parameters. The high-voltage (56 and 70 kV rms) DBD plasma generated at 50 Hz frequency in a closed container over a 20 mm gap in air with relative humidity (RH) of 5-70% has been characterized by I-V and capacitive methods. The post-discharge gas composition at each RH is assessed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy for plasma exposure times of 15-120 s. The concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides (O3, NO2, NO3, N2O4) increases with plasma exposure time but a strong decrease in [O3] levels is obtained with increase in RH. The decrease in [O3] and an abundance of nitrogen oxides is ascribed to high specific power densities in the closed container and to increasing RH levels. The absorbance residual following deconvolution shows a strong band at 230-270 nm consistent with the presence of pernitric acid (HNO4) and other HNOx (x = 1, 3) species. Humid air large gap DBD plasmas in closed containers generate along with O3, high levels of nitrogen oxides and HNOx (x = 1, 4) acids leading to increased bactericidal rates.

  17. Site-Resolved Imaging with the Fermi Gas Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian Gerhard

    The recent development of quantum gas microscopy for bosonic rubidium atoms trapped in optical lattices has made it possible to study local structure and correlations in quantum many-body systems. Quantum gas microscopes are a perfect platform to perform quantum simulation of condensed matter systems, offering unprecedented control over both internal and external degrees of freedom at a single-site level. In this thesis, this technique is extended to fermionic particles, paving the way to fermionic quantum simulation, which emulate electrons in real solids. Our implementation uses lithium, the lightest atom amenable to laser cooling. The absolute timescales of dynamics in optical lattices are inversely proportional to the mass. Therefore, experiments are more than six times faster than for the only other fermionic alkali atom, potassium, and more then fourteen times faster than an equivalent rubidium experiment. Scattering and collecting a sufficient number of photons with our high-resolution imaging system requires continuous cooling of the atoms during the fluorescence imaging. The lack of a resolved excited hyperfine structure on the D2 line of lithium prevents efficient conventional sub-Doppler cooling. To address this challenge we have applied a Raman sideband cooling scheme and achieved the first site-resolved imaging of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice.

  18. Method for mapping a natural gas leak

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2009-02-03

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  19. Unraveling the mysteries of the Leo Ring: An absorption line study of an unusual gas cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J. L.; Haislmaier, Karl; Giroux, M. L.

    2014-07-20

    Since the discovery of the large (2 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) intergalactic cloud known as the Leo Ring in the 1980s, the origin of this object has been the center of a lively debate. Determining the origin of this object is still important as we develop a deeper understanding of the accretion and feedback processes that shape galaxy evolution. We present Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of three sightlines near the ring, two of which penetrate the high column density neutral hydrogen gas visible in 21 cm observations of the object. These observations provide the first direct measurementmore » of the metallicity of the gas in the ring, an important clue to its origin. Our best estimate of the metallicity of the ring is ∼10% Z{sub ☉}, higher than expected for primordial gas but lower than expected from an interaction. We discuss possible modifications to the interaction and primordial gas scenarios that would be consistent with this metallicity measurement.« less

  20. New Images Show Unprecedented Detail of Neighbor Galaxy's Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Using radio telescopes in the United States and Europe, astronomers have made the most detailed images ever of Hydrogen gas in a spiral galaxy other than the Milky Way. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) in the Netherlands to produce an image of the galaxy M33, known to amateur astronomers as the Pinwheel Galaxy. Doppler-Shift Image of M33's Gas "An image with the level of detail we have achieved opens the door to learning fundamental new facts about the relationship between massive stars and the galaxy's complicated gaseous environment. This, in turn, will help us better understand how galaxies age," said David Thilker, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Thilker worked with Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy and Rene Walterbos of New Mexico State University in Las Cruces. The scientists reported their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA. The VLA and WSRT received radio waves at a wavelength of 21 centimeters that are naturally emitted by Hydrogen atoms. Using this data, the astronomers produced images showing the distribution of neutral atomic Hydrogen in M33. In addition, because the atoms emit at a very specific wavelength, the scientists could detect the galaxy's rotation by tuning the telescopes' radio receivers to receive radio waves whose length has been changed by Doppler shifting. The new images show details of the galaxy smaller than 130 light-years. "With more computer processing, we will be able to see features as small as 65 light-years," Thilker said. "This, we believe, will allow us to see 'bubbles' in the galaxy's gas that have been inflated as the result of one or more supernova explosions," Thilker added. At a distance from Earth of about 2.7 million light-years, M33 is a member of the Local Group of galaxies, which

  1. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  2. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NO x emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO 2 concentration at various locationsmore » in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO 2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less

  3. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor for Calibration Free Humidity Measurements in Pure Methane and Low CO2 Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Nwaboh, Javis Anyangwe; Pratzler, Sonja; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-05-01

    We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H 2 O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO 2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H 2 O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The relative reproducibility of H 2 O amount of substance fraction measurements at 87 µmol/mol is 0.26% (0.23 µmol/mol). The maximum precision of the sensor was determined using a H 2 O in methane mixture, and found to be 40 nmol/mol for a time resolution of 100 s. This corresponds to a normalized detection limit of 330 nmol mol -1 ·m Hz -1/2 . The relative combined uncertainty of H 2 O amount fraction measurements delivered by the sensor is 1.2%.

  4. Homogenization of sample absorption for the imaging of large and dense fossils with synchrotron microtomography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Sophie; Fernandez, Vincent; Pierce, Stephanie E; Tafforeau, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Propagation phase-contrast synchrotron radiation microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) has proved to be very successful for examining fossils. Because fossils range widely in taphonomic preservation, size, shape and density, X-ray computed tomography protocols are constantly being developed and refined. Here we present a 1-h procedure that combines a filtered high-energy polychromatic beam with long-distance PPC-SRμCT (sample to detector: 4-16 m) and an attenuation protocol normalizing the absorption profile (tested on 13-cm-thick and 5.242 g cm(-3) locally dense samples but applicable to 20-cm-thick samples). This approach provides high-quality imaging results, which show marked improvement relative to results from images obtained without the attenuation protocol in apparent transmission, contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuation protocol involves immersing samples in a tube filled with aluminum or glass balls in association with a U-shaped aluminum profiler. This technique therefore provides access to a larger dynamic range of the detector used for tomographic reconstruction. This protocol homogenizes beam-hardening artifacts, thereby rendering it effective for use with conventional μCT scanners.

  5. Operating range of a gas electron multiplier for portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmark, M.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Fonte, P.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.; Östling, J.

    2001-09-01

    At the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden a new detector for portal imaging is under development, which could greatly improve the alignment of the radiation beam with respect to the tumor during radiation treatment. The detector is based on solid converters combined with gas electron multipliers (GEMs) as an amplification structure. The detector has a large area and will be operated in a very high rate environment in the presence of heavy ionizing particles. As was discovered recently high rates and alpha particles could cause discharges in GEM and discharge propagation from GEM to GEM and to the readout electronics. Since reliability is one of the main requirements for the portal imaging device, we performed systematic studies to find a safe operating range of the device, free from typical high rate problems, such as discharges.

  6. Computer Program for Calculation of a Gas Temperature Profile by Infrared Emission: Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas was presented in detail. Emphasis was on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing H2O or CO2 radiating gases. The temperature profile was assumed axisymmetric with an assumed functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters were calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared. The program also gave some information on the pressure profile. A method of selection of wavelengths was given that is likely to lead to an accurate determination of the parameters. The program is written in FORTRAN IV language and runs in less than 60 seconds on a Univac 1100 computer.

  7. CO and CO2 dual-gas detection based on mid-infrared wideband absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming; Zhong, Guo-qiang; Miao, Shu-zhuo; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2018-03-01

    A dual-gas sensor system is developed for CO and CO2 detection using a single broadband light source, pyroelectric detectors and time-division multiplexing (TDM) technique. A stepper motor based rotating system and a single-reflection spherical optical mirror are designed and adopted for realizing and enhancing dual-gas detection. Detailed measurements under static detection mode (without rotation) and dynamic mode (with rotation) are performed to study the performance of the sensor system for the two gas samples. The detection period is 7.9 s in one round of detection by scanning the two detectors. Based on an Allan deviation analysis, the 1σ detection limits under static operation are 3.0 parts per million (ppm) in volume and 2.6 ppm for CO and CO2, respectively, and those under dynamic operation are 9.4 ppm and 10.8 ppm for CO and CO2, respectively. The reported sensor has potential applications in various fields requiring CO and CO2 detection such as in the coal mine.

  8. Analysis of the red and green optical absorption spectrum of gas phase ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Nikolai F.; Coles, Phillip A.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg L.

    2018-04-01

    Room temperature NH3 absorption spectra recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory in 1980 are analyzed. The spectra cover two regions in the visible: 15,200 - 15,700 cm-1 and 17,950 - 18,250 cm-1. These high overtone rotation-vibration spectra are analyzed using both combination differences and variational line lists. Two variational line lists were computed using the TROVE nuclear motion program: one is based on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) while the other used a semi-empirical PES. Ab initio dipole moment surfaces are used in both cases. 95 energy levels with J = 1 - 7 are determined from analysis of the experimental spectrum in the 5νNH (red) region and 46 for 6νNH (green) region. These levels span four vibrational bands in each of the two regions, associated with stretching overtones.

  9. Evaluation of the structures size in the liquid-gas flow by gamma-ray absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Marcin; Hanus, Robert; Jaszczur, Marek; Świsulski, Dariusz; Petryka, Leszek; Jodłowski, Paweł; Zych, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    The rapid development of tomography methods particularly electrical, X and gamma rays allows for a wide range of the information about flow structure. However, all of such methods are quite complicated. At the same time much simpler systems as the measuring system of gamma rays absorption, allows to obtain a all key flow information which describe the two-phase flow. In the article the results of analyzes of radiometric signal that not only allow to recognize the type of flow, but also the assessment of forming structures are presented. Calculation and interpretation of the data were based on the crosscorrelation and cross-spectral density function. In order to verify the calculations the photographic documentation made during the measurements was used.

  10. Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Juan; Deng, Hao; Liu, Ningwu; Wang, Hongliang; Yu, Benli; Li, Jingsong

    2016-12-01

    We developed a laser absorption sensor based on a pulsed, broadband tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) centered at 1285 cm-1. Unlike traditional infrared spectroscopy system, a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a light detector was used for laser signal detection. Fast Fourier transform was applied to extract vibration intensity information of QCTF. The sensor system is successfully tested on nitrous oxide (N2O) spectroscopy measurements and compared with a standard infrared detector. The wide wavelength tunability of ECQCL will allow us to access the fundamental vibrational bands of many chemical agents, which are well-suited for trace explosive, chemical warfare agent, and toxic industrial chemical detection and spectroscopic analysis.

  11. Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Deng, Hao; Liu, Ningwu; Wang, Hongliang; Yu, Benli; Li, Jingsong

    2016-12-01

    We developed a laser absorption sensor based on a pulsed, broadband tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) centered at 1285 cm -1 . Unlike traditional infrared spectroscopy system, a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a light detector was used for laser signal detection. Fast Fourier transform was applied to extract vibration intensity information of QCTF. The sensor system is successfully tested on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) spectroscopy measurements and compared with a standard infrared detector. The wide wavelength tunability of ECQCL will allow us to access the fundamental vibrational bands of many chemical agents, which are well-suited for trace explosive, chemical warfare agent, and toxic industrial chemical detection and spectroscopic analysis.

  12. Abundances of O, Mg, S, Cr, Mn, Ti, NI and Zn from absorption lines of neutral gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud in front of R136

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, K. S.; Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Savage, B. D.

    1985-11-01

    The authors have searched six high-dispersion IUE spectra of R136 for weak absorption lines of C I, O I, Mg I, Mg II, Si I, Si II, P I, Cl I, Cr II, Mn II, Fe I, Ni II, Zn II, CO and C2. The absorption detected is from neutral gas in front of the 30 Doradus H II region. For the first time abundances of Mg, Cr, Mn, Ti, Ni, and Zn are determined for an extragalactic system. The LMC abundances from the absorption lines are a factor of 2 to 3 below those of the Milky Way, in agreement with general results from emission line studies. The density and temperature of the neutral gas are estimates from the observed excitation and ionization at approximately n(H) = 300 cm-3 and T = 100K, implying a gas pressure of about 3×104cm-3K.

  13. The integrated radio continuum spectrum of M33 - Evidence for free-free absorption by cool ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, F. P.; Mahoney, M. J.; Howarth, N.

    1992-01-01

    We present measurements of the integrated radio continuum flux density of M33 at frequencies between 22 and 610 MHz and discuss the radio continuum spectrum of M33 between 22 MHz and 10 GHz. This spectrum has a turnover between 500 and 900 MHz, depending on the steepness of the high frequency radio spectrum of M33. Below 500 MHz the spectrum is relatively flat. We discuss possible mechanisms to explain this spectral shape and consider efficient free-free absorption of nonthermal emission by a cool (not greater than 1000 K) ionized gas to be a very likely possibility. The surface filling factor of both the nonthermal and the thermal material appears to be small (of order 0.001), which could be explained by magnetic field/density fluctuations in the M 33 interstellar medium. We briefly speculate on the possible presence of a nuclear radio source with a steep spectrum.

  14. X-ray absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopies characterization of iron nanoclusters prepared by the gas aggregation technique.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marcos, J; Laguna-Marco, M A; Martínez-Morillas, R; Céspedes, E; Menéndez, N; Jiménez-Villacorta, F; Prieto, C

    2012-11-01

    Partially oxidized iron nanoclusters have been prepared by the gas-phase aggregation technique with typical sizes of 2-3 nm. This preparation technique has been reported to obtain clusters with interesting magnetic properties such as very large exchange bias. In this paper, a sample composition study carried out by Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies is reported. The information reached by these techniques, which is based on the iron short range order, results to be an ideal way to have a characterization of the whole sample since the obtained data are an average over a very large amount of the clusters. In addition, our results indicate the presence of ferrihydrite, which is a compound typically ignored when studying this type of systems.

  15. Limiting Short-term Noise versus Optical Density in a Direct Absorption Spectrometer for Trace Gas Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, D.

    2016-12-01

    Field-deployable trace gas monitors are important for understanding a multitude of atmospheric processes: from forest photosynthesis and respiration [1], to fugitive methane emissions [2] and satellite measurement validation [3]. Consequently, a detailed knowledge of the performance limitations of these instruments is essential in order to establish reliable datasets. We present the short-term ( >1 Hz) performance of a long-pass direct absorption spectrometer as a function of the optical density of the absorption transition being probed. In particular, we identify fluctuations in the laser intensity as limiting the optical density uncertainty to 4x10-6/√Hz for weak transitions, and noise in the laser drive current as limiting the fractional noise in the optical density to 4x10-5/√Hz for deep transitions. We provide numerical and analytical predictions for both effects, as well as using the understanding of this phenomena to estimate how noise on neighboring strong and weak transitions couple to each other. All measurements were performed using the Aerodyne Research TILDAS Monitor, but are general to any instrument that uses direct absorption spectroscopy as a detection method. Wehr, R., et al. "Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration." Nature 534.7609 (2016): 680-683. Conley, S., et al. "Methane emissions from the 2015 Aliso Canyon blowout in Los Angeles, CA." Science 351.6279 (2016): 1317-1320. Emmons, L. K., et al. "Validation of Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO retrievals with aircraft in situ profiles." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 109.D3 (2004).

  16. The Scaled SLW model of gas radiation in non-uniform media based on Planck-weighted moments of gas absorption cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, Vladimir P.; Andre, Frederic; Lemonnier, Denis; Webb, Brent W.

    2018-02-01

    The Scaled SLW model for prediction of radiation transfer in non-uniform gaseous media is presented. The paper considers a new approach for construction of a Scaled SLW model. In order to maintain the SLW method as a simple and computationally efficient engineering method special attention is paid to explicit non-iterative methods of calculation of the scaling coefficient. The moments of gas absorption cross-section weighted by the Planck blackbody emissive power (in particular, the first moment - Planck mean, and first inverse moment - Rosseland mean) are used as the total characteristics of the absorption spectrum to be preserved by scaling. Generalized SLW modelling using these moments including both discrete gray gases and the continuous formulation is presented. Application of line-by-line look-up table for corresponding ALBDF and inverse ALBDF distribution functions (such that no solution of implicit equations is needed) ensures that the method is flexible and efficient. Predictions for radiative transfer using the Scaled SLW model are compared to line-by-line benchmark solutions, and predictions using the Rank Correlated SLW model and SLW Reference Approach. Conclusions and recommendations regarding application of the Scaled SLW model are made.

  17. Development of a high-efficiency, gas-fired, absorption heat pump for residental and small-commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, B.A.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the total project is to develop a gas-fired absorption heat pump for residential and small-commercial applications that will produce at least 1.6 Btu of heating and 0.7 Btu of cooling per Btu of heat content in the gas being burned. The primary technology advances that can be used to attain the new goals are higher efficiency cycles, increased flue efficiency, and better fluids. Flue efficiency technology is well developed, and fan-assisted combustion systems with condensing heat exchangers can limit flue and insulation losses to the 10% range. If this 10% loss assumption is made, the resulting targetmore » cycle COPs are 1.78 in heating mode and 0.78 in cooling mode at the ARI rating conditions. The objective of Phase 1 was to analyze working fluids and absorption-cycle concepts that are capable of performing at the target COPs and are potentially competitive with existing space-conditioning products in cost, operating life, and reliability. Six advanced cycles were evaluated with ammonia/water as the fluid pair. Then additional analysis was performed with other fluid pairs to determine whether cycle ranking would change depending on which fluid was used. It was concluded that the preferred cycle/fluid was the generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle using ammonia/water as the fluid pair. A cost estimate made by an independent manufacturing engineering firm for a residential heat pump based on the cycle/fluid combination determined that the GAX heat pump could be cost competitive with existing products. 20 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. Passive thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for quantitative imaging of shale gas leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Morton, Vince; Giroux, Jean; Chamberland, Martin

    2017-10-01

    There are many types of natural gas fields including shale formations that are common especially in the St-Lawrence Valley (Canada). Since methane (CH4), the major component of shale gas, is odorless, colorless and highly flammable, in addition to being a greenhouse gas, methane emanations and/or leaks are important to consider for both safety and environmental reasons. Telops recently launched on the market the Hyper-Cam Methane, a field-deployable thermal infrared hyperspectral camera specially tuned for detecting methane infrared spectral features under ambient conditions and over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of this novel research instrument for natural gas imaging, the instrument was brought on a site where shale gas leaks unexpectedly happened during a geological survey near the Enfant-Jesus hospital in Quebec City, Canada, during December 2014. Quantitative methane imaging was carried out based on methane's unique infrared spectral signature. Optical flow analysis was also carried out on the data to estimate the methane mass flow rate. The results show how this novel technique could be used for advanced research on shale gases.

  19. What's in the Wind? Determining the Properties of Outflowing Gas in Powerful Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen

    2017-08-01

    A significant fraction of quasars exhibits blueshifted broadabsorption lines (BALs) in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerfuloutflows emerging from the central engine. These outflows may removeangular momentum to enable black hole growth, enrich the intergalacticmedium with metals, and trigger quenching of star formation ingalaxies. Despite years of study, the physical conditions of theoutflowing gas are poorly understood. The handful of objects that havebeen subjected to detailed analysis are atypical and characterized byrelatively narrow lines where blending is unimportant. However,investigating more powerful BAL quasars will give us better insightinto the types of outflows much more likely to impact galaxyevolution.SimBAL is a novel spectral synthesis fitting method for BAL quasarsthat uses Bayesian model calibration to compare synthetic to observedspectra. With the model inputs of ionization parameter, columndensity, and covering fraction specified, the gas properties givingrise to the BAL features can be determined. We propose to applySimBAL to archival spectra of a sample of 14 luminous BAL quasars to characterize their bulk outflow properties as a function of velocityfor the first time. Our results will show the range of parameterstypical of powerful outflows, an essential step towards constrainingthe physics behind quasar winds and thus their impact on theirenvironments.

  20. ATLAS: Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer for stratospheric trace gas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Strahan, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    The ATLAS instrument is an advanced technology diode laser based absorption spectrometer designed specifically for stratospheric tracer studies. This technique was used in the acquisition of N2O tracer data sets on the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. These data sets have proved valuable for comparison with atmospheric models, as well as in assisting in the interpretation of the entire ensemble of chemical and meteorological data acquired on these two field studies. The N2O dynamical tracer data set analysis revealed several ramifications concerning the polar atmosphere: the N2O/NO(y) correlation, which is used as a tool to study denitrification in the polar vertex; the N2O Southern Hemisphere morphology, showing subsidence in the winter polar vortex; and the value of the N2O measurements in the interpretation of ClO, O3, and NO(y) measurements and of the derived dynamical tracer, potential vorticity. Field studies also led to improved characterization of the instrument and to improved accuracy.

  1. Confocal Light Absorption and Scattering Spectroscopic (CLASS) imaging: From cancer detection to sub-cellular function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Le

    Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), an optical technique that relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles to their size, refractive index and shape, has been recently successfully employed for sensing morphological and biochemical properties of epithelial tissues and cells in vivo. LSS does not require exogenous markers, is non-invasive, and, due to its multispectral nature, can sense biological structures well beyond the diffraction limit. All that makes LSS be a very good candidate to be used both in clinical medicine for in vivo detection of disease and in cell biology to monitor cell function on the organelle scale. Recently we developed two LSS-based imaging modalities: clinical Polarized LSS (PLSS) Endoscopic Technique for locating early pre-cancerous changes in GI tract and Confocal Light Absorption and Scattering Spectroscopic (CLASS) Microscopy for studying cells in vivo without exogenous markers. One important application of the clinical PLSS endoscopic instrument, a noncontact scanning imaging device compatible with the standard clinical endoscopes and capable of detecting dysplastic changes, is to serve as a guide for biopsy in Barrett's esophagus (BE). The instrument detects parallel and perpendicular components of the polarized light, backscattered from epithelial tissues, and determines characteristics of epithelial nuclei from the residual spectra. It also can find tissue oxygenation, hemoglobin content and other properties from the diffuse light component. By rapidly scanning esophagus the PLSS endoscopic instrument makes sure the entire BE portion is scanned and examined for the presence of dysplasia. CLASS microscopy, on the other hand, combines principles of light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) with confocal microscopy. Its main purpose is to image cells on organelle scale in vivo without the use of exogenous labels which may affect the cell function. The confocal geometry selects specific region and

  2. A Preliminary Study on Designing and Testing of an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Powered by Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitupulu, F. H.; Daulay, F. A.; Dedy, P. M.; Denis; Jecson

    2017-03-01

    In order to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas of a combustion engine, an adsorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. This is a preliminary study on design and testing of a prototype of absorption refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion engine. The heat source of the cycle is a compression ignition engine which generates 122.36 W of heat in generator of the cycle. The pairs of absorbent and refrigerant are water and ammonia. Here the generator is made of a shell and tube heat exchanger with number of tube and its length are 20 and 0.69 m, respectively. In the experiments the exhaust gas, with a mass flow rate of 0.00016 kg/s, enters the generator at 110°C and leaves it at 72°C. Here, the solution is heated from 30°C to 90°C. In the evaporator, the lowest temperature can be reached is 17.9°C and COP of the system is 0.45. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that the proposed system can be used to recycle the waste heat and produced cooling. However, the COP is still low.

  3. Stitching Type Large Aperture Depolarizer for Gas Monitoring Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Li, M.; An, N.; Zhang, T.; Cao, G.; Cheng, S.

    2018-04-01

    To increase the accuracy of radiation measurement for gas monitoring imaging spectrometer, it is necessary to achieve high levels of depolarization of the incoming beam. The preferred method in space instrument is to introduce the depolarizer into the optical system. It is a combination device of birefringence crystal wedges. Limited to the actual diameter of the crystal, the traditional depolarizer cannot be used in the large aperture imaging spectrometer (greater than 100 mm). In this paper, a stitching type depolarizer is presented. The design theory and numerical calculation model for dual babinet depolarizer were built. As required radiometric accuracies of the imaging spectrometer with 250 mm × 46 mm aperture, a stitching type dual babinet depolarizer was design in detail. Based on designing the optimum structural parmeters the tolerance of wedge angle refractive index, and central thickness were given. The analysis results show that the maximum residual polarization degree of output light from depolarizer is less than 2 %. The design requirements of polarization sensitivity is satisfied.

  4. Imaging strategies for the study of gas turbine spark ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gord, James R.; Tyler, Charles; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cochran, Michael J.; Frus, John R.

    1999-10-01

    Spark-ignition systems play a critical role in the performance of essentially all gas turbine engines. These devices are responsible for initiating the combustion process that sustains engine operation. Demanding applications such as cold start and high-altitude relight require continued enhancement of ignition systems. To characterize advanced ignition systems, we have developed a number of laser-based diagnostic techniques configured for ultrafast imaging of spark parameters including emission, density, temperature, and species concentration. These diagnostics have been designed to exploit an ultrafast- framing charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera and high- repetition-rate laser sources including mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillators and regenerative amplifiers. Spontaneous-emission and laser-shlieren measurements have been accomplished with this instrumentation and the result applied to the study of a novel Unison Industries spark igniter that shows great promise for improved cold-start and high-altitude-relight capability as compared to that of igniters currently in use throughout military and commercial fleets. Phase-locked and ultrafast real-time imaging strategies are explored, and details of the imaging instrumentation, particularly the CCD camera and laser sources, are discussed.

  5. Measurement of the spectral absorption of liquid water in melting snow with an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. We present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation, the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  6. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  7. Performance Evaluations and Quality Validation System for Optical Gas Imaging Cameras That Visualize Fugitive Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical gas imaging (OGI) cameras have the unique ability to exploit the electromagnetic properties of fugitive chemical vapors to make invisible gases visible. This ability is extremely useful for industrial facilities trying to mitigate product losses from escaping gas and fac...

  8. Reactor for tracking catalyst nanoparticles in liquid at high temperature under a high-pressure gas phase with X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2018-02-01

    Structure of catalyst nanoparticles dispersed in liquid phase at high temperature under gas phase of reactant(s) at higher pressure (≥5 bars) is important for fundamental understanding of catalytic reactions performed on these catalyst nanoparticles. Most structural characterizations of a catalyst performing catalysis in liquid at high temperature under gas phase at high pressure were performed in an ex situ condition in terms of characterizations before or after catalysis since, from technical point of view, access to the catalyst nanoparticles during catalysis in liquid phase at high temperature under high pressure reactant gas is challenging. Here we designed a reactor which allows us to perform structural characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to study catalyst nanoparticles under harsh catalysis conditions in terms of liquid up to 350 °C under gas phase with a pressure up to 50 bars. This reactor remains nanoparticles of a catalyst homogeneously dispersed in liquid during catalysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization.

  9. Image stack alignment in full-field X-ray absorption spectroscopy using SIFT_PyOCL.

    PubMed

    Paleo, Pierre; Pouyet, Emeline; Kieffer, Jérôme

    2014-03-01

    Full-field X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments allow the acquisition of millions of spectra within minutes. However, the construction of the hyperspectral image requires an image alignment procedure with sub-pixel precision. While the image correlation algorithm has originally been used for image re-alignment using translations, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm (which is by design robust versus rotation, illumination change, translation and scaling) presents an additional advantage: the alignment can be limited to a region of interest of any arbitrary shape. In this context, a Python module, named SIFT_PyOCL, has been developed. It implements a parallel version of the SIFT algorithm in OpenCL, providing high-speed image registration and alignment both on processors and graphics cards. The performance of the algorithm allows online processing of large datasets.

  10. Device-scale CFD modeling of gas-liquid multiphase flow and amine absorption for CO 2 capture: Original Research Article: Device-scale CFD modeling of gas-liquid multiphase flow and amine absorption for CO 2 capture

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Wenxiao; Galvin, Janine; Huang, Wei Ling; ...

    2018-03-25

    In this paper we aim to develop a validated device-scale CFD model that can predict quantitatively both hydrodynamics and CO 2 capture efficiency for an amine-based solvent absorber column with random Pall ring packing. A Eulerian porous-media approach and a two-fluid model were employed, in which the momentum and mass transfer equations were closed by literature-based empirical closure models. We proposed a hierarchical approach for calibrating the parameters in the closure models to make them accurate for the packed column. Specifically, a parameter for momentum transfer in the closure was first calibrated based on data from a single experiment. Withmore » this calibrated parameter, a parameter in the closure for mass transfer was next calibrated under a single operating condition. Last, the closure of the wetting area was calibrated for each gas velocity at three different liquid flow rates. For each calibration, cross validations were pursued using the experimental data under operating conditions different from those used for calibrations. This hierarchical approach can be generally applied to develop validated device-scale CFD models for different absorption columns.« less

  11. Device-scale CFD modeling of gas-liquid multiphase flow and amine absorption for CO 2 capture: Original Research Article: Device-scale CFD modeling of gas-liquid multiphase flow and amine absorption for CO 2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wenxiao; Galvin, Janine; Huang, Wei Ling

    In this paper we aim to develop a validated device-scale CFD model that can predict quantitatively both hydrodynamics and CO 2 capture efficiency for an amine-based solvent absorber column with random Pall ring packing. A Eulerian porous-media approach and a two-fluid model were employed, in which the momentum and mass transfer equations were closed by literature-based empirical closure models. We proposed a hierarchical approach for calibrating the parameters in the closure models to make them accurate for the packed column. Specifically, a parameter for momentum transfer in the closure was first calibrated based on data from a single experiment. Withmore » this calibrated parameter, a parameter in the closure for mass transfer was next calibrated under a single operating condition. Last, the closure of the wetting area was calibrated for each gas velocity at three different liquid flow rates. For each calibration, cross validations were pursued using the experimental data under operating conditions different from those used for calibrations. This hierarchical approach can be generally applied to develop validated device-scale CFD models for different absorption columns.« less

  12. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:27389070

  13. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-07-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  14. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A; Kesler, Benjamin A; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M; Dallesasse, John M; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-07-08

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid's absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  15. CMOS image sensor with organic photoconductive layer having narrow absorption band and proposal of stack type solid-state image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Shunji; Ihama, Mikio; Inuiya, Masafumi

    2006-02-01

    Digital still cameras overtook film cameras in Japanese market in 2000 in terms of sales volume owing to their versatile functions. However, the image-capturing capabilities such as sensitivity and latitude of color films are still superior to those of digital image sensors. In this paper, we attribute the cause for the high performance of color films to their multi-layered structure, and propose the solid-state image sensors with stacked organic photoconductive layers having narrow absorption bands on CMOS read-out circuits.

  16. A cylindrical quadrupole ion trap in combination with an electrospray ion source for gas-phase luminescence and absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stockett, Mark H., E-mail: stockett@phys.au.dk; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian

    2016-05-15

    A relatively simple setup for collection and detection of light emitted from isolated photo-excited molecular ions has been constructed. It benefits from a high collection efficiency of photons, which is accomplished by using a cylindrical ion trap where one end-cap electrode is a mesh grid combined with an aspheric condenser lens. The geometry permits nearly 10% of the emitted light to be collected and, after transmission losses, approximately 5% to be delivered to the entrance of a grating spectrometer equipped with a detector array. The high collection efficiency enables the use of pulsed tunable lasers with low repetition rates (e.g.,more » 20 Hz) instead of continuous wave (cw) lasers or very high repetition rate (e.g., MHz) lasers that are typically used as light sources for gas-phase fluorescence experiments on molecular ions. A hole has been drilled in the cylinder electrode so that a light pulse can interact with the ion cloud in the center of the trap. Simulations indicate that these modifications to the trap do not significantly affect the storage capability and the overall shape of the ion cloud. The overlap between the ion cloud and the laser light is basically 100%, and experimentally >50% of negatively charged chromophore ions are routinely photodepleted. The performance of the setup is illustrated based on fluorescence spectra of several laser dyes, and the quality of these spectra is comparable to those reported by other groups. Finally, by replacing the optical system with a channeltron detector, we demonstrate that the setup can also be used for gas-phase action spectroscopy where either depletion or fragmentation is monitored to provide an indirect measurement on the absorption spectrum of the ion.« less

  17. A cylindrical quadrupole ion trap in combination with an electrospray ion source for gas-phase luminescence and absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stockett, Mark H; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Svendsen, Annette; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2016-05-01

    A relatively simple setup for collection and detection of light emitted from isolated photo-excited molecular ions has been constructed. It benefits from a high collection efficiency of photons, which is accomplished by using a cylindrical ion trap where one end-cap electrode is a mesh grid combined with an aspheric condenser lens. The geometry permits nearly 10% of the emitted light to be collected and, after transmission losses, approximately 5% to be delivered to the entrance of a grating spectrometer equipped with a detector array. The high collection efficiency enables the use of pulsed tunable lasers with low repetition rates (e.g., 20 Hz) instead of continuous wave (cw) lasers or very high repetition rate (e.g., MHz) lasers that are typically used as light sources for gas-phase fluorescence experiments on molecular ions. A hole has been drilled in the cylinder electrode so that a light pulse can interact with the ion cloud in the center of the trap. Simulations indicate that these modifications to the trap do not significantly affect the storage capability and the overall shape of the ion cloud. The overlap between the ion cloud and the laser light is basically 100%, and experimentally >50% of negatively charged chromophore ions are routinely photodepleted. The performance of the setup is illustrated based on fluorescence spectra of several laser dyes, and the quality of these spectra is comparable to those reported by other groups. Finally, by replacing the optical system with a channeltron detector, we demonstrate that the setup can also be used for gas-phase action spectroscopy where either depletion or fragmentation is monitored to provide an indirect measurement on the absorption spectrum of the ion.

  18. Monitoring water stable isotopic composition in soils using gas-permeable tubing and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In soils, the isotopic composition of water (δ2H and δ18O) provides qualitative (e.g., location of the evaporation front) and quantitative (e.g., evaporation flux and root water uptake depths) information. However, the main disadvantage of the isotope methodology is that contrary to other soil state variables that can be monitored over long time periods, δ2H and δ18O are typically analyzed following destructive sampling. Here we present a nondestructive method for monitoring soil liquid water δ2H and δ18O over a wide range of water availability conditions and temperatures by sampling water vapor equilibrated with soil water using gas-permeable polypropylene tubing and a cavity ring-down laser absorption spectrometer. By analyzing water vapor δ2H and δ18O sampled with the tubing from a fine sand for temperatures ranging between 8°C and 24°C, we demonstrate that our new method is capable of monitoring δ2H and δ18O in soils online with high precision and after calibration, also with high accuracy. Our sampling protocol enabled detecting changes of δ2H and δ18O following nonfractionating addition and removal of liquid water and water vapor of different isotopic compositions. Finally, the time needed for the tubing to monitor these changes is compatible with the observed variations of δ2H and δ18O in soils under natural conditions.

  19. Integrated lab-in-syringe platform incorporating a membraneless gas-liquid separator for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Miró, Manuel; Anthemidis, Aristidis

    2013-10-01

    This manuscript reports the proof-of-concept of a novel integrated lab-in-syringe/gas-liquid separation (LIS/GLS) batch-flow system based on a programmable flow for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric assays. Homogeneous mixing of metered volumes of sample and reagent solutions drawn up in a sandwich-type mode along with in situ vapor generation are accomplished inside the microsyringe in a closed manner, while the separation of vapor species is achieved via the membraneless GLS located at the top of the syringe's valve in the upright position. The potentials of the proposed manifold were demonstrated for trace inorganic mercury determination in drinking waters and seawater. For a 3.0 mL sample, the limit of detection and repeatability (RSD) were found to be 0.03 μg L(-1) Hg(II) and 3.1% (at the 2.0 μg L(-1) concentration level), respectively, with a dynamic range extending up to 10.0 μg L(-1). The proposed system fulfills the requirements of US-EPA, WHO, and EU Council Directives for measurements of the maximum allowed concentrations of inorganic mercury in drinking water.

  20. GHGSat-D: Greenhouse gas plume imaging and quantification from space using a Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeever, J.; Durak, B. O. A.; Gains, D.; Jervis, D.; Varon, D. J.; Germain, S.; Sloan, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    GHGSat, Inc. has launched the first satellite designed to detect and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from individual industrial sites. Our demonstration satellite GHGSat-D or "CLAIRE" was launched in June 2016. It weighs less than 15 kg and its primary instrument is a miniaturized Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer with spectral resolution on the order of 0.1 nm. The spectral bandpass is 1635-1670 nm, giving the instrument access to absorption bands of both CO2 and CH4. Our system is based on targeted observations rather than global coverage, and our spatial imaging resolution is a key differentiator. Specifically, with a ground sampling distance of <50 m within a 12 km field of view, we are able to spatially resolve the increased column densities associated with individual emission plumes. For a given emission rate and wind speed the magnitude of the local excess column increases approximately linearly as pixel resolution decreases. Consequently, at GHGSat's resolution the total column can exceed local background by well over 10% for many industrial sites with strong but realistic emission rates. GHGSat uses a novel measurement and retrievals concept where the emitter site of interest is captured in a sequence of 150-200 overlapping two-dimensional images. The combined effect of the Fabry-Perot resonator and the scrolling scene gives a different spectral sampling of each surface location in every image. While our data processing toolchain does not produce a conventional hyperspectral dataset, it does yield a spectral decomposition of the spatially resolved signal that is compared to a model that includes atmospheric radiative transfer and the instrument's pixel-dependent spectral responsivity. Our presentation will describe the instrument design, concept of operations and retrievals approach. We will also present images and results from GHGSat-D at different processing levels, including high-resolution column density retrievals. An observation of the degassing

  1. First results of ground-based LWIR hyperspectral imaging remote gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei-jian; Lei, Zheng-gang; Yu, Chun-chao; Wang, Hai-yang; Fu, Yan-peng; Liao, Ning-fang; Su, Jun-hong

    2014-11-01

    The new progress of ground-based long-wave infrared remote sensing is presented. The LWIR hyperspectral imaging by using the windowing spatial and temporal modulation Fourier spectroscopy, and the results of outdoor ether gas detection, verify the features of LWIR hyperspectral imaging remote sensing and technical approach. It provides a new technical means for ground-based gas remote sensing.

  2. Water Absorption in Galactic Translucent Clouds: Conditions and History of the Gas Derived from Herschel/HIFI PRISMAS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Gerin, M.; Neufeld, D.; Sonnentrucker, P.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H2O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H218O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)—as well as the first few excited transitions of H2O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)—toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H2O or H218O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 1013 cm-2. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 × 10-8 in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H2O) =5 × 10-8, which makes water a good traced of H2 in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H2O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T ex, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T ex ~= 5 K and that the density n(H2) in the translucent clouds is below 104 cm-3. We derive the water ortho-to-para ratio for each absorption feature along the line of sight and find that most of the clouds

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy of Gas-Phase and Surface Reaction Products during Si Etching in Inductively Coupled Cl2 Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Hiroki; Tsuda, Hirotaka; Fukushima, Daisuke; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2011-10-01

    A better understanding of plasma-surface interactions is indispensable during etching, including the behavior of reaction or etch products, because the products on surfaces and in the plasma are important in passivation layer formation through their redeposition on surfaces. In practice, the nanometer-scale control of plasma etching would still rely largely on such passivation layer formation as well as ion-enhanced etching on feature surfaces. This paper presents in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy of gas-phase and surface reaction products during inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of Si in Cl2. The observation was made in the gas phase by transmission absorption spectroscopy (TAS), and also on the substrate surface by reflection absorption spectroscopy (RAS). The quantum chemical calculation was also made of the vibrational frequency of silicon chloride molecules. The deconvolution of the TAS spectrum revealed absorption features of Si2Cl6 and SiClx (x = 1-3) as well as SiCl4, while that of the RAS spectrum revealed relatively increased absorption features of unsaturated silicon chlorides. A different behavior was also observed in bias power dependence between the TAS and RAS spectra.

  4. Imaging of diffuse H I absorption structure in the SSA22 protocluster region at z = 3.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Ken; Inoue, Akio K.; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki; Otsuka, Takuya; Matsuda, Yuichi; Umehata, Hideki; Ouchi, Masami; Mukae, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Using galaxies as background light sources to map intervening Ly α absorption is a novel approach to study the interplay among galaxies, the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium. Introducing a new measure of z = 3.1 H I Ly α absorption relative to the cosmic mean, ΔNB497, estimated from photometric data of star-forming galaxies at 3.3 ≲ z ≲ 3.5, we have made two-dimensional ΔNB497 maps in the z = 3.1 SSA22 protocluster region and two control fields (Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey; Great Observatory Optical Deep Survey North) with a spatial resolution of ˜5 comoving Mpc. The ΔNB497 measurements in the SSA22 field are systematically larger than those in the control fields, and this H I absorption enhancement extends more than 50 comoving Mpc. The field-averaged (I.e. ˜50 comoving Mpc scale) ΔNB497 and the overdensity of Ly α emitters (LAEs) seem to be correlated, while there is no clear dependency of the ΔNB497 on the local LAE overdensity in a few comoving Mpc scale. These results suggest that diffuse H I gas spreads out in/around the SSA22 protocluster. We have also found an enhancement of ΔNB497 at a projected distance <100 physical kpc from the nearest z = 3.1 galaxies at least in the SSA22 field, which is probably due to H I gas associated with the CGM of individual galaxies. The H I absorption enhancement in the CGM-scale tends to be weaker around galaxies with stronger Ly α emission, which suggests that the Ly α escape fraction from galaxies depends on hydrogen neutrality in the CGM.

  5. Analysis of absorption and spreading of moisturizer on the microscopic region of the skin surface with near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, H; Yanai, M; Egawa, M

    2016-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) light with high water absorption enables us to visualize the water content distribution appeared in the superficial skin layer. The light penetration depth with the wavelength of 1920 nm is almost 100 μm from the skin surface. Thus, the water distribution in the stratum corneum can be effectively imaged by detecting the wavelength band around 1920 nm. The aim of this article was to measure the time-lapse behavior of the tiny droplet of the moisturizer spreading on the skin surface by imaging in 1920 nm wavelength band for investigating the correlation with the traditional index of the skin condition such as the water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Experiment is performed with three moisturizer products and seven volunteer subjects. The NIR image is acquired by an originally designed imaging scope equipped with the white light of the strong brightness [super continuum (SC) light], the bandpass filter with the center wavelength of 1920 nm, and the NIR image sensor. A tiny droplet of the moisturizer is put on the surface of the skin and the time-lapse images are saved. Each acquired image is analyzed from a view point of the droplet area and elapsed time for absorption into the skin. The water content and TEWL of all subjects are measured by the conventional electrical method for investigating the relationship with the measured droplet dynamics parameters. Elapsed time for moisturizer droplet to be absorbed into the skin, the droplet area just before absorption for three moisturizer products, skin water contents, and TEWL for seven subjects were measured and correlation coefficients for each parameters were calculated. It was found that the skin with higher water contents or lower TEWL absorbed the moisturizer faster and spreads moisturizer wider. Also absorption and spreading speed depend on moisturizer property (moisturizing or fresh) which is originated from the moisturizer constituents. The correlation values between the

  6. Highly specific spectroscopic photoacoustic molecular imaging of dynamic optical absorption shifts of an antibody-ICG contrast agent (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Jensen, Kristen C.; Machtaler, Steven; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Juergen K.

    2017-03-01

    Improved techniques for breast cancer screening are critically needed as current methods lack diagnostic accuracy. Using spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) molecular imaging with a priori knowledge of optical absorption spectra allows suppression of endogenous background signal, increasing the overall sensitivity and specificity of the modality to exogenous contrast agents. Here, sPA imaging was used to monitor antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates as they undergo optical absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation to allow differentiation between normal murine mammary glands from breast cancer by enhancing molecular imaging signal from target (B7-H3)-bound antibody-ICG. First, B7-H3 was shown to have highly specific (AUC of 0.93) expression on both vascular endothelium and tumor stroma in malignant lesions through quantitative immunohistochemical staining of B7-H3 on 279 human samples (normal (n=53), benign lesions (11 subtypes, n=182), breast cancers (4 subtypes, n=97)), making B7-H3 a promising target for sPA imaging. Second, absorption spectra of intracellular and degraded B7-H3-ICG and Isotype control (Iso-ICG) were characterized through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Finally, a transgenic murine breast cancer model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTVPyMT)634Mul) was imaged, and sPA imaging in found a 3.01 (IQR 2.63, 3.38, P<0.001) fold increase in molecular B7-H3-ICG signal in tumors (n=80) compared to control conditions (B7-H3-ICG in tumor negative animals (n=60), Iso-ICG (n=30), blocking B7-H3+B7-H3-ICG (n=20), and free ICG (n=20)) despite significant tumor accumulation of Iso-ICG, confirmed through ex vivo histology. Overall, leveraging anti-B7-H3 antibody-ICG contrast agents, which have dynamic optical absorption spectra representative of molecular interactions, allows for highly specific sPA imaging of murine breast cancer.

  7. Imaging at an x-ray absorption edge using free electron laser pulses for interface dynamics in high energy density systems [Resonant phase contrast imaging for interface physics

    DOE PAGES

    Beckwith, M. A.; Jiang, S.; Schropp, A.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Tuning the energy of an x-ray probe to an absorption line or edge can provide material-specific measurements that are particularly useful for interfaces. Simulated hard x-ray images above the Fe K-edge are presented to examine ion diffusion across an interface between Fe 2O 3 and SiO 2 aerogel foam materials. The simulations demonstrate the feasibility of such a technique for measurements of density scale lengths near the interface with submicron spatial resolution. A proof-of-principle experiment is designed and performed at the Linac coherent light source facility. Preliminary data show the change of the interface after shock compression and heating withmore » simultaneous fluorescence spectra for temperature determination. Here, the results provide the first demonstration of using x-ray imaging at an absorption edge as a diagnostic to detect ultrafast phenomena for interface physics in high-energy-density systems.« less

  8. Relationships between visual field sensitivity and spectral absorption properties of the neuroretinal rim in glaucoma by multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Denniss, Jonathan; Schiessl, Ingo; Nourrit, Vincent; Fenerty, Cecilia H; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B

    2011-11-07

    To investigate the relationship between neuroretinal rim (NRR) differential light absorption (DLA, a measure of spectral absorption properties) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Patients diagnosed with (n = 22) or suspected of having (n = 7) POAG were imaged with a multispectral system incorporating a modified digital fundus camera, 250-W tungsten-halogen lamp, and fast-tuneable liquid crystal filter. Five images were captured sequentially within 1.0 second at wavelengths selected according to absorption properties of hemoglobin (range, 570-610 nm), and a Beer-Lambert law model was used to produce DLA maps of residual NRR from the images. Patients also underwent VF testing. Differences in NRR DLA in vertically opposing 180° and 45° sectors either side of the horizontal midline were compared with corresponding differences in VF sensitivity on both decibel and linear scales by Spearman's rank correlation. The decibel VF sensitivity scale showed significant relationships between superior-inferior NRR DLA difference and sensitivity differences between corresponding VF areas in 180° NRR sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.68; P < 0.0001), superior-/inferior-temporal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.002), and superior-/inferior-nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.59; P < 0.001). Using the linear VF sensitivity scale significant relationships were found for 180° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.62; P < 0.0002) and superior-inferior-nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.53; P < 0.002). No significant difference was found between correlations using the linear or decibel VF sensitivity scales. Residual NRR DLA is related to VF sensitivity in POAG. Multispectral imaging may provide clinically important information for the assessment and management of POAG.

  9. Relationships between Visual Field Sensitivity and Spectral Absorption Properties of the Neuroretinal Rim in Glaucoma by Multispectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Denniss, Jonathan; Schiessl, Ingo; Nourrit, Vincent; Fenerty, Cecilia H.; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between neuroretinal rim (NRR) differential light absorption (DLA, a measure of spectral absorption properties) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Patients diagnosed with (n = 22) or suspected of having (n = 7) POAG were imaged with a multispectral system incorporating a modified digital fundus camera, 250-W tungsten-halogen lamp, and fast-tuneable liquid crystal filter. Five images were captured sequentially within 1.0 second at wavelengths selected according to absorption properties of hemoglobin (range, 570–610 nm), and a Beer-Lambert law model was used to produce DLA maps of residual NRR from the images. Patients also underwent VF testing. Differences in NRR DLA in vertically opposing 180° and 45° sectors either side of the horizontal midline were compared with corresponding differences in VF sensitivity on both decibel and linear scales by Spearman's rank correlation. Results. The decibel VF sensitivity scale showed significant relationships between superior–inferior NRR DLA difference and sensitivity differences between corresponding VF areas in 180° NRR sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.68; P < 0.0001), superior-/inferior-temporal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.002), and superior-/inferior-nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.59; P < 0.001). Using the linear VF sensitivity scale significant relationships were found for 180° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.62; P < 0.0002) and superior–inferior–nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.53; P < 0.002). No significant difference was found between correlations using the linear or decibel VF sensitivity scales. Conclusions. Residual NRR DLA is related to VF sensitivity in POAG. Multispectral imaging may provide clinically important information for the assessment and management of POAG. PMID:21980002

  10. Influence of the light propagation models on a linearized photoacoustic image reconstruction of the light absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of the optical properties of the tissues and blood by noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging may provide useful information for screening and early diagnosis of diseases. Linearized 2D image reconstruction algorithm based on PA wave equation and the photon diffusion equation (PDE) can reconstruct the image with computational cost smaller than a method based on 3D radiative transfer equation. However, the reconstructed image is affected by the differences between the actual and assumed light propagations. A quantitative capability of a linearized 2D image reconstruction was investigated and discussed by the numerical simulations and the phantom experiment in this study. The numerical simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and the 2D finite element calculation of the PDE were carried out. The phantom experiment was also conducted. In the phantom experiment, the PA pressures were acquired by a probe which had an optical fiber for illumination and the ring shaped P(VDF-TrFE) ultrasound transducer. The measured object was made of Intralipid and Indocyanine green. In the numerical simulations, it was shown that the linearized image reconstruction method recovered the absorption coefficients with alleviating the dependency of the PA amplitude on the depth of the photon absorber. The linearized image reconstruction method worked effectively under the light propagation calculated by 3D MC simulation, although some errors occurred. The phantom experiments validated the result of the numerical simulations.

  11. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  12. Gas-phase Absorptions of {{\\rm{C}}}_{42}{{\\rm{H}}}_{18}^{+} near 8300 Å below 10 K: Astronomical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Maier, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    The gas-phase electronic spectrum of {{{C}}}42{{{H}}}18+ ({{HBC}}+) with an origin band at 8281 \\mathringA has been measured below 10 {{K}} by photofragmentation of helium complexes ({{{C}}}42{{{H}}}18+{--}{{He}}n) in a radiofrequency trap. {{HBC}}+ is a medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cation, and using an ion trapping technique it has been possible to record a high-quality gas-phase spectrum to directly compare with astronomical observations. No diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) have been reported at the wavelengths of the strongest absorption bands in the {{{C}}}42{{{H}}}18+ spectrum. Measurement of absolute absorption cross sections in the ion trap allows upper limits to the column density of this ion to be {10}12 {{cm}}-2, indicating that even PAH cations of this size, which are believed to be stable in the interstellar medium, should be excluded as candidates for at least the strong DIBs.

  13. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200–300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene. PMID:27929387

  14. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-12-05

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200-300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  15. Real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging system using light-absorption correction.

    PubMed

    Themelis, George; Yoo, Jung Sun; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Schulz, Ralf; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time interventional imaging applications. The system implements a correction scheme that improves the accuracy of epi-illumination fluorescence images for light intensity variation in tissues. The implementation is based on the use of three cameras operating in parallel, utilizing a common lens, which allows for the concurrent collection of color, fluorescence, and light attenuation images at the excitation wavelength from the same field of view. The correction is based on a ratio approach of fluorescence over light attenuation images. Color images and video is used for surgical guidance and for registration with the corrected fluorescence images. We showcase the performance metrics of this system on phantoms and animals, and discuss the advantages over conventional epi-illumination systems developed for real-time applications and the limits of validity of corrected epi-illumination fluorescence imaging.

  16. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods.more » The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (~739 ± 98 kPa and ~751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ~758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ~ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. As a result, the ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.« less

  17. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.; ...

    2017-01-31

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods.more » The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (~739 ± 98 kPa and ~751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ~758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ~ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. As a result, the ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.« less

  18. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.; Byler, D. D.; McClellan, K. J.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Vallerga, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (˜739 ± 98 kPa and ˜751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ˜758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ˜ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  19. HyperART: non-invasive quantification of leaf traits using hyperspectral absorption-reflectance-transmittance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bergsträsser, Sergej; Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Schmittgen, Simone; Cendrero-Mateo, Maria Pilar; Jansen, Marcus; Scharr, Hanno; Rascher, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Combined assessment of leaf reflectance and transmittance is currently limited to spot (point) measurements. This study introduces a tailor-made hyperspectral absorption-reflectance-transmittance imaging (HyperART) system, yielding a non-invasive determination of both reflectance and transmittance of the whole leaf. We addressed its applicability for analysing plant traits, i.e. assessing Cercospora beticola disease severity or leaf chlorophyll content. To test the accuracy of the obtained data, these were compared with reflectance and transmittance measurements of selected leaves acquired by the point spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec, equipped with the FluoWat device. The working principle of the HyperART system relies on the upward redirection of transmitted and reflected light (range of 400 to 2500 nm) of a plant sample towards two line scanners. By using both the reflectance and transmittance image, an image of leaf absorption can be calculated. The comparison with the dynamically high-resolution ASD FieldSpec data showed good correlation, underlying the accuracy of the HyperART system. Our experiments showed that variation in both leaf chlorophyll content of four different crop species, due to different fertilization regimes during growth, and fungal symptoms on sugar beet leaves could be accurately estimated and monitored. The use of leaf reflectance and transmittance, as well as their sum (by which the non-absorbed radiation is calculated) obtained by the HyperART system gave considerably improved results in classification of Cercospora leaf spot disease and determination of chlorophyll content. The HyperART system offers the possibility for non-invasive and accurate mapping of leaf transmittance and absorption, significantly expanding the applicability of reflectance, based on mapping spectroscopy, in plant sciences. Therefore, the HyperART system may be readily employed for non-invasive determination of the spatio-temporal dynamics of various plant

  20. Voyager 1 imaging and IRIS observations of Jovian methane absorption and thermal emission: Implications for cloud structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Kupferman, P. N.; Hart, H.

    1984-01-01

    Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide angle camera are used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190 A band methane/continuum ratio for a variety of cloud features in Jupiter's atmosphere. The dark barge features in the North Equatorial Belt have anomalously strong positive continuum spectral gradients suggesting unique composition. Methane absorption is shown at unprecedented spatial scales for the Great Red Spot and its immediate environment, for a dark barge feature in the North Equatorial Belt, and for two hot spot and plume regions in the North Equatorial Belt. Methane absorption and five micrometer emission are correlated in the vicinity of the Great Red Spot but are anticorrelated in one of the plume hot spot regions. Methane absorption and simultaneous maps of five micrometer brightness temperature is quantitatively compared to realistic cloud structure models which include multiple scattering at five micrometer as well as in the visible. Variability in H2 quadrupole lines are also investigated.

  1. Voyager 1 imaging and IRIS observations of Jovian methane absorption and thermal emission - Implications for cloud structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Kupferman, P. N.; Hart, H.

    1985-01-01

    Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide angle camera are used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190 A band methane/continuum ratio for a variety of cloud features in Jupiter's atmosphere. The dark barge features in the North Equatorial Belt have anomalously strong positive continuum spectral gradients suggesting unique composition. Methane absorption is shown at unprecedented spatial scales for the Great Red Spot and its immediate environment, for a dark barge feature in the North Equatorial Belt, and for two hot spot and plume regions in the North Equatorial Belt. Methane absorption and five micrometer emission are correlated in the vicinity of the Great Red Spot but are anticorrelated in one of the plume hot spot regions. Methane absorption and simultaneous maps of five micrometer brightness temperature are quantitatively compared to realistic cloud structure models which include multiple scattering at five micrometer as well as in the visible. Variability in H2 quadrupole lines are also investigated.

  2. Simultaneous high-speed gas property measurements at the exhaust gas recirculation cooler exit and at the turbocharger inlet of a multicylinder diesel engine using diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P

    2015-02-10

    A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well

  3. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Monitoring water stable isotope composition in soils using gas-permeable tubing and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The water stable isotopologues 1H2H16O and 1H218O are powerful tracers of processes occurring in nature. Their slightly different masses as compared to the most abundant water isotopologue (1H216O) affect their thermodynamic (e.g. during chemical equilibrium reactions or physical phase transitions with equilibration) and kinetic (liquid and vapor phases transport processes and chemical reactions without equilibration) properties. This results in measurable differences of the isotopic composition of water within or between the different terrestrial ecosystem compartments (i.e. sub-soil, soil, surface waters, plant, and atmosphere). These differences can help addressing a number of issues, among them water balance closure and flux partitioning from the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum at the field to regional scales. In soils particularly, the isotopic composition of water (δ2H and δ18O) provides qualitative information about whether water has only infiltrated or already been re-evaporated since the last rainfall event or about the location of the evaporation front. From water stable isotope composition profiles measured in soils, it is also possible, under certain hypotheses, to derive quantitative information such as soil evaporation flux and the identification of root water uptake depths. In addition, water stable isotopologues have been well implemented into physically based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models (e.g. SiSPAT-Isotope; Soil-Litter iso; TOUGHREACT) and have demonstrated their potential. However, the main disadvantage of the isotope methodology is that, contrary to other soil state variables that can be monitored over long time periods, δ2H and δ18O are typically analyzed following destructive sampling. Here, we present a non-destructive method for monitoring soil liquid water δ2H and δ18O over a wide range of water availability conditions and temperatures by sampling and measuring water vapor equilibrated with soil water using gas

  5. MR imaging of apparent 3He gas transport in narrow pipes and rodent airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minard, Kevin R.; Jacob, Richard E.; Laicher, Gernot; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2008-10-01

    High sensitivity makes hyperpolarized 3He an attractive signal source for visualizing gas flow with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Its rapid Brownian motion, however, can blur observed flow lamina and alter measured diffusion rates when excited nuclei traverse shear-induced velocity gradients during data acquisition. Here, both effects are described analytically, and predicted values for measured transport during laminar flow through a straight, 3.2-mm diameter pipe are validated using two-dimensional (2D) constant-time images of different binary gas mixtures. Results show explicitly how measured transport in narrow conduits is characterized by apparent values that depend on underlying gas dynamics and imaging time. In ventilated rats, this is found to obscure acquired airflow images. Nevertheless, flow splitting at airway branches is still evident and use of 3D vector flow mapping is shown to reveal surprising detail that highlights the correlation between gas dynamics and lung structure.

  6. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  7. Influence of total beam current on HRTEM image resolution in differentially pumped ETEM with nitrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Bright, A N; Yoshida, K; Tanaka, N

    2013-01-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) enables the study of catalytic and other reaction processes as they occur with Angstrom-level resolution. The microscope used is a dedicated ETEM (Titan ETEM, FEI Company) with a differential pumping vacuum system and apertures, allowing aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging to be performed with gas pressures up to 20 mbar in the sample area and with significant advantages over membrane-type E-cell holders. The effect on image resolution of varying the nitrogen gas pressure, electron beam current density and total beam current were measured using information limit (Young's fringes) on a standard cross grating sample and from silicon crystal lattice imaging. As expected, increasing gas pressure causes a decrease in HRTEM image resolution. However, the total electron beam current also causes big changes in the image resolution (lower beam current giving better resolution), whereas varying the beam current density has almost no effect on resolution, a result that has not been reported previously. This behavior is seen even with zero-loss filtered imaging, which we believe shows that the drop in resolution is caused by elastic scattering at gas ions created by the incident electron beam. Suitable conditions for acquiring high resolution images in a gas environment are discussed. Lattice images at nitrogen pressures up to 16 mbar are shown, with 0.12 nm information transfer at 4 mbar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Nishidate, Izumi; Ishizuka, Tomohiro; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu

    2015-05-01

    In order to estimate multispectral images of the absorption and scattering properties in the cerebral cortex of in vivo rat brain, we investigated spectral reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation method using a digital RGB camera. A Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for the corresponding spectral absorbance images at nine wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 600, 730, and 760 nm) was then used to specify the absorption and scattering parameters of brain tissue. In this analysis, the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and that of deoxygenated hemoglobin were estimated as the absorption parameters, whereas the coefficient a and the exponent b of the reduced scattering coefficient spectrum approximated by a power law function were estimated as the scattering parameters. The spectra of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were reconstructed from the absorption and scattering parameters, and the spectral images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were then estimated. In order to confirm the feasibility of this method, we performed in vivo experiments on exposed rat brain. The estimated images of the absorption coefficients were dominated by the spectral characteristics of hemoglobin. The estimated spectral images of the reduced scattering coefficients had a broad scattering spectrum, exhibiting a larger magnitude at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to the typical spectrum of brain tissue published in the literature. The changes in the estimated absorption and scattering parameters during normoxia, hyperoxia, and anoxia indicate the potential applicability of the method by which to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo brain due to the loss of tissue viability.

  9. In situ neutron diffraction study of deuterium gas absorption by AB5+y alloys used as negative electrode materials for Ni-MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latroche, M.; Joubert, J.-M.; Guégan, A. Percheron; Isnard, O.

    2004-07-01

    LaNi5-type alloys store reversibly hydrogen and are used as negative electrode materials in Ni-MH batteries. Substitutions on La and Ni crystallographic sites have led to competitive materials with complex formulae Mm(Ni4.3-xMn0.4Al0.3Cox)1+y (Mm: mishmetal). Materials involving an unexpected metastable phase γ show the best cycle lives. This phase occurrence depends on the mishmetal composition, the cobalt rate and the over-stoichiometry. It is observed as a transitory phase only for charge in electrochemical process. To confirm the appearance of this phase during gas loading, in beam D2 gas absorption has been performed on two materials for which the γ phase is expected. Phase amounts and cell volumes have been measured by in situ neutron powder diffraction analysis under controlled gas pressure as a function of the state of charge.

  10. Radiofrequency penetration and absorption in the human body: limitations to high-field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Röschmann, P

    1987-01-01

    This study presents experimental results about the effective depth of penetration and about the radiofrequency (rf) power absorption in humans as a function of frequency. The frequency range investigated covers 10 up to 220 MHz. For the main part, the results were derived from bench measurements of the quality factor Q, and of the resonance frequency shift due to the loading of the coil. Different types of head-, body-, and surface coils were investigated loaded with volunteers or metallic phantoms. For spin-echo imaging at 2 T (85 MHz), the local specific absorption rate (SAR) was found to be approximately equal to 0.05 W/kg using a pi pulse of 1-ms duration and pulse repetition time TR = 1 s. Measurements of the quality factor Q as a function of frequency show that the SAR depends upon the frequency f according to approximately f2.15. The effective depth of rf penetration as derived drops from 17 cm at 85 MHz to 7 cm at 220 MHz. Head imaging with B1 penetrating from practically all sides into the object should be possible up to 220 MHz (5 T) with SAR values staying within the local limit of 2 W/kg as set by the FDA. Whole-body imaging of large subjects as well as surface coil imaging is depth limited above 100-MHz frequency. Perturbation methods are applied in order to separate the total rf power deposition in the patient into dielectric and magnetic contributions. The observed effects due to interactions of rf magnetic fields with biological tissue contradict predictions based on homogeneous tissue models. A refined tissue model with regions of high electrical conductivity, subdivided by quasi-insulating adipose layers, provides a rationale for a better understanding of the underlying processes. At frequencies below 100 MHz, the rf power deposition in patients is apparently more evenly distributed over the exposed body volume than currently assumed.

  11. Development of a new gas puff imaging diagnostic on the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Xu, M.; Yu, Y.; Zang, L.; Hong, R.; Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Nie, L.; Ke, R.; Guo, D.; Wu, Y.; Long, T.; Gong, S.; Liu, H.; Ye, M.; Duan, X.; HL-2A team

    2018-03-01

    A new gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic has been developed on the HL-2A tokamak to study two-dimensional plasma edge turbulence in poloidal vs. radial plane. During a discharge, neutral helium or deuterium gas is puffed at the edge of the plasma through a rectangular multi\

  12. Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Lay, Christopher C.; Mathews, Marlon S.; Linskey, Mark E.; Frostig, Ron D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2009-03-01

    We describe a technique that uses spatially modulated near-infrared (NIR) illumination to detect and map changes in both optical properties (absorption and reduced scattering parameters) and tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin, and oxygen saturation) during acute ischemic injury in the rat barrel cortex. Cerebral ischemia is induced using an open vascular occlusion technique of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Diffuse reflected NIR light (680 to 980 nm) from the left parietal somatosensory cortex is detected by a CCD camera before and after MCA occlusion. Monte Carlo simulations are used to analyze the spatial frequency dependence of the reflected light to predict spatiotemporal changes in the distribution of tissue absorption and scattering properties in the brain. Experimental results from seven rats show a 17+/-4.7% increase in tissue concentration of deoxyhemoglobin and a 45+/-3.1, 23+/-5.4, and 21+/-2.2% decrease in oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin concentration and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation levels, respectively, 45 min following induction of cerebral ischemia. An ischemic index (Iisch=ctHHb/ctO2Hb) reveals an average of more then twofold contrast after MCAo. The wavelength-dependence of the reduced scattering (i.e., scatter power) decreased by 35+/-10.3% after MCA occlusion. Compared to conventional CCD-based intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI), the use of structured illumination and model-based analysis allows for generation of separate maps of light absorption and scattering properties as well as tissue hemoglobin concentration. This potentially provides a powerful approach for quantitative monitoring and imaging of neurophysiology and metabolism with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  13. Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Collisional Complexes in Dense Hydrogen-Helium Gas Mixtures at Thousands of Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Martin; Frommhold, Lothar; Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2011-06-01

    The interaction-induced absorption by collisional pairs of H{_2} molecules is an important opacity source in the atmospheres of the outer planets and cool stars. The emission spectra of cool white dwarf stars differ significantly in the infrared from the expected blackbody spectra of their cores, which is largely due to absorption by collisional H{_2}-H{_2}, H{_2}-He, and H{_2}-H complexes in the stellar atmospheres. Using quantum-chemical methods we compute the atmospheric absorption from hundreds to thousands of kelvin. Laboratory measurements of interaction-induced absorption spectra by H{_2} pairs exist only at room temperature and below. We show that our results reproduce these measurements closely, so that our computational data permit reliable modeling of stellar atmosphere opacities even for the higher temperatures. L. Frommhold, Collision-Induced Absorption in Gases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 1993 and 2006 Xiaoping Li, Katharine L. C. Hunt, Fei Wang, Martin Abel, and Lothar Frommhold, "Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Molecular Hydrogen Pairs at Thousands of Kelvin", International Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2010, Article ID 371201, 11 pages, 2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/371201 M. Abel, L. Frommhold, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, "Collision-induced absorption by H{_2} pairs: From hundreds to thousands of Kelvin," J. Phys. Chem. A, published online, DOI: 10.1021/jp109441f L. Frommhold, M. Abel, F. Wang, M. Gustafsson, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, "Infrared atmospheric emission and absorption by simple molecular complexes, from first principles", Mol. Phys. 108, 2265, 2010

  14. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R.; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Hancock, Gus

    2011-01-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations. PMID:21512147

  15. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations.

  16. In-situ Manipulation and Imaging of Switchable Two-dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-30

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0016 In-situ Manipulation and Imaging of Switchable Two-dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces CHANG BEOM EOM...Imaging of Switchable Two-dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1-4046 5c.  PROGRAM...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The recent discovery of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface between insulating perovskite oxides SrTiO3 and LaAlO3

  17. On the Time Variation of Dust Extinction and Gas Absorption for Type Ia Supernovae Observed Through Non-uniform Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Aldering, Gregory; Biederman, Moriah; Herger, Brendan

    2018-01-01

    For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a non-uniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the non-uniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (>~ 10 pc) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of a SN photosphere. Therefore the typical amplitude of time variation due to non-uniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that non-uniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.

  18. Invited Review Article: Gas puff imaging diagnostics of edge plasma turbulence in magnetic fusion devices

    DOE PAGES

    Zweben, S. J.; Terry, J. L.; Stotler, D. P.; ...

    2017-04-27

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) is a diagnostic of plasma turbulence which uses a puff of neutral gas at the plasma edge to increase the local visible light emission for improved space-time resolution of plasma fluctuations. This paper reviews gas puff imaging diagnostics of edge plasma turbulence in magnetic fusion research, with a focus on the instrumentation, diagnostic cross-checks, and interpretation issues. The gas puff imaging hardware, optics, and detectors are described for about 10 GPI systems implemented over the past similar to 15 years. Comparison of GPI results with other edge turbulence diagnostic results is described, and many common featuresmore » are observed. Here, several issues in the interpretation of GPI measurements are discussed, and potential improvements in hardware and modeling are suggested.« less

  19. High-sensitivity gas-mapping 3D imager and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Kreitinger, Aaron; Thorpe, Michael

    2018-05-15

    Measurement apparatuses and methods are disclosed for generating high-precision and -accuracy gas concentration maps that can be overlaid with 3D topographic images by rapidly scanning one or several modulated laser beams with a spatially-encoded transmitter over a scene to build-up imagery. Independent measurements of the topographic target distance and path-integrated gas concentration are combined to yield a map of the path-averaged concentration between the sensor and each point in the image. This type of image is particularly useful for finding localized regions of elevated (or anomalous) gas concentration making it ideal for large-area leak detection and quantification applications including: oil and gas pipeline monitoring, chemical processing facility monitoring, and environmental monitoring.

  20. Invited Review Article: Gas puff imaging diagnostics of edge plasma turbulence in magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S. J.; Terry, J. L.; Stotler, D. P.

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) is a diagnostic of plasma turbulence which uses a puff of neutral gas at the plasma edge to increase the local visible light emission for improved space-time resolution of plasma fluctuations. This paper reviews gas puff imaging diagnostics of edge plasma turbulence in magnetic fusion research, with a focus on the instrumentation, diagnostic cross-checks, and interpretation issues. The gas puff imaging hardware, optics, and detectors are described for about 10 GPI systems implemented over the past similar to 15 years. Comparison of GPI results with other edge turbulence diagnostic results is described, and many common featuresmore » are observed. Here, several issues in the interpretation of GPI measurements are discussed, and potential improvements in hardware and modeling are suggested.« less

  1. A study of the cool gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Properties of the cool atomic phase - a third H i absorption survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx-Zimmer, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Dickey, J. M.; Zimmer, F.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Mebold, U.

    2000-02-01

    The cool atomic interstellar medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) seems to be quite different from that in the Milky Way. In a series of three papers we study the properties of the cool atomic hydrogen in the LMC (Paper I), its relation to molecular clouds using SEST-CO-observations (Paper II) and the cooling mechanism of the atomic gas based on ISO-[\\CII]-investigations (Paper III). In this paper we present the results of a third 21 cm absorption line survey toward the LMC carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). 20 compact continuum sources, which are mainly in the direction of the supergiant shell LMC 4, toward the surroundings of 30 Doradus and toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary, have been chosen from the 1.4 GHz snapshot continuum survey of Marx et al. We have identified 20 absorption features toward nine of the 20 sources. The properties of the cool \\HI\\ clouds are investigated and are compared for the different regions of the LMC taking the results of Dickey et al. (survey 2) into account. We find that the cool \\HI\\ gas in the LMC is either unusually abundant compared to the cool atomic phase of the Milky Way or the gas is clearly colder (\\Tc\\ ~ 30 K) than that in our Galaxy (\\Tc\\ ~ 60 K). The properties of atomic clouds toward 30 Doradus and LMC 4 suggest a higher cooling rate in these regions compared to other parts of the LMC, probably due to an enhanced pressure near the shock fronts of LMC 4 and 30 Doradus. The detected cool atomic gas toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary might be the result of a high compression of gas at the leading edge. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  2. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G., E-mail: john.mccaffrey@nuim.ie

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅more » RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.« less

  3. Response surface method for modeling the removal of carbon dioxide from a simulated gas using water absorption enhanced with a liquid-film-forming device.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diem-Mai Kim; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Dang, Thanh-Loc Thi; Kanno, Ariyo; Higuchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results from using a physical absorption process to absorb gaseous CO 2 mixed with N 2 using water by producing tiny bubbles via a liquid-film-forming device (LFFD) that improves the solubility of CO 2 in water. The influence of various parameters-pressure, initial CO 2 concentration, gas-to-liquid ratios, and temperature-on the CO 2 removal efficiency and its absorption rate in water were investigated and estimated thoroughly by statistical polynomial models obtained by the utilization of the response surface method (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD). Based on the analysis, a high efficiency of CO 2 capture can be reached in conditions such as low pressure, high CO 2 concentration at the inlet, low gas/liquid ratio, and low temperature. For instance, the highest removal efficiency in the RSM-CCD experimental matrix of nearly 80% occurred for run number 20, which was conducted at 0.30MPa, CO 2 concentration of 35%, gas/liquid ratio of 0.71, and temperature of 15°C. Furthermore, the coefficients of determination, R 2 , were 0.996 for the removal rate and 0.982 for the absorption rate, implying that the predicted values computed by the constructed models correlate strongly and fit well with the experimental values. The results obtained provide essential information for implementing this method properly and effectively and contribute a promising approach to the problem of CO 2 capture in air pollution treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Mitsuya, Y.; Fushie, T.; Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A.; Toyokawa, H.; Takahashi, H.

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 μm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  5. The Production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions in Inert Gas Matrices Doped with Alkali Metals. Electronic Absorption Spectra of the Pentacene Anion (C22H14(-))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The absorption spectra of pentacene (C22H14) and its radical cation (C22H14(+)) and anion (C22H14(-)) isolated in inert-gas matrices of Ne, Ar, and Kr are reported from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion (and counterion) production in the solid matrix. In particular, the formation of isolated pentacene anions is found to be optimized in matrices doped with alkali metal (Na and K).

  6. Hard X-ray Imaging for Measuring Laser Absorption Spatial Profiles on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E L; Jones, O S; Landen, O L

    2006-04-25

    Hard x-ray (''Thin wall'') imaging will be employed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to spatially locate laser beam energy deposition regions on the hohlraum walls in indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments, relevant for ICF symmetry tuning. Based on time resolved imaging of the hard x-ray emission of the laser spots, this method will be used to infer hohlraum wall motion due to x-ray and laser ablation and any beam refraction caused by plasma density gradients. In optimizing this measurement, issues that have to be addressed are hard x-ray visibility during the entire ignition laser pulse with intensitiesmore » ranging from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, as well as simultaneous visibility of the inner and the outer laser drive cones. In this work we will compare the hard x-ray emission calculated by LASNEX and analytical modeling with thin wall imaging data recorded previously on Omega and during the first hohlraum experiments on NIF. Based on these calculations and comparisons the thin wall imaging will be optimized for ICF/NIF experiments.« less

  7. Photodissociation dynamics of bromoiodomethane from the first and second absorption bands. A combined velocity map and slice imaging study.

    PubMed

    Marggi Poullain, Sonia; Chicharro, David V; Navarro, Eduardo; Rubio-Lago, Luis; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Bañares, Luis

    2018-01-31

    The photodissociation dynamics of bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI) have been investigated at the maximum of the first A and second A' absorption bands, at 266 and 210 nm excitation wavelengths, respectively, using velocity map and slice imaging techniques in combination with a probe detection of both iodine and bromine fragments, I( 2 P 3/2 ), I*( 2 P 1/2 ), Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) via (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. Experimental results, i.e. translational energy and angular distributions, are reported and discussed in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations of potential energy curves and absorption spectra. The results indicate that in the A-band, direct dissociation through the 5A' excited state leads to the I( 2 P 3/2 ) channel while I*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms are produced via the 5A' → 4A'/4A'' nonadiabatic crossing. The presence of Br and Br* fragments upon excitation to the A-band is attributed to indirect dissociation via a curve crossing between the 5A' with upper excited states such as the 9A'. The A'-band is characterized by a strong photoselectivity leading exclusively to the Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) channels, which are likely produced by dissociation through the 9A' excited state. Avoided crossings between several excited states from both the A and A' bands entangle however the possible reaction pathways.

  8. Landsat-8/OLI images has the potential to estimate the CDOM absorption coefficient in tropical inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.

  9. Quantitative comparison of the absorption spectra of the gas mixtures in analogy to the criterion of Pearson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Sandykova, E. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    An approach to the reduction of the space of the absorption spectra, based on the original criterion for profile analysis of the spectra, was proposed. This criterion dates back to the known statistics chi-square test of Pearson. Introduced criterion allows to quantify the differences of spectral curves.

  10. Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the global ozone monitoring experiment and the scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Burrows, John P.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) are diode based spectrometers that will make atmospheric constituent and aerosol measurements from European satellite platforms beginning in the mid 1990's. GOME measures the atmosphere in the UV and visible in nadir scanning, while SCIAMACHY performs a combination of nadir, limb, and occultation measurements in the UV, visible, and infrared. A summary is presented of the sensitivity studies that were performed for SCIAMACHY measurements. As the GOME measurement capability is a subset of the SCIAMACHY measurement capability, the nadir, UV, and visible portion of the studies is shown to apply to GOME as well.

  11. Impact of neutral density fluctuations on gas puff imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional turbulence simulation of the SOL and edge regions of a toroidally limited tokamak is carried out. The simulation couples self-consistently the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations to a kinetic equation for neutral atoms. A diagnostic neutral gas puff on the low-field side midplane is included and the impact of neutral density fluctuations on D_α light emission investigated. We find that neutral density fluctuations affect the D_α emission. In particular, at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D_α fluctuations. It follows that the neutral fluctuations reduce the D_α emission in most of the observed region and, therefore, have to be taken into account when interpreting the amplitude of the D_α emission. On the other hand, higher order statistical moments (skewness, kurtosis) and turbulence characteristics (such as correlation length, or the autocorrelation time) are not significantly affected by the neutral fluctuations. At distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutral density fluctuations. There, the D_α fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations, and the high-order statistical moments and measurements of other turbulence properties are strongly affected by the neutral density fluctuations.

  12. Acoustically modulated magnetic resonance imaging of gas-filled protein nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, George J.; Farhadi, Arash; Szablowski, Jerzy O.; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Barnes, Samuel R.; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2018-05-01

    Non-invasive biological imaging requires materials capable of interacting with deeply penetrant forms of energy such as magnetic fields and sound waves. Here, we show that gas vesicles (GVs), a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures with differential magnetic susceptibility relative to water, can produce robust contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and that this contrast can be inactivated with ultrasound in situ to enable background-free imaging. We demonstrate this capability in vitro, in cells expressing these nanostructures as genetically encoded reporters, and in three model in vivo scenarios. Genetic variants of GVs, differing in their magnetic or mechanical phenotypes, allow multiplexed imaging using parametric MRI and differential acoustic sensitivity. Additionally, clustering-induced changes in MRI contrast enable the design of dynamic molecular sensors. By coupling the complementary physics of MRI and ultrasound, this nanomaterial gives rise to a distinct modality for molecular imaging with unique advantages and capabilities.

  13. Hazardous Gas Detection Sensor Using Broadband Light-Emitting Diode-Based Absorption Spectroscopy for Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Terracciano, Anthony; Thurmond, Kyle; Villar, Michael

    As space travel matures and extended duration voyages become increasingly common, it will be necessary to include arrays of early fire detection systems aboard spacefaring vessels, space habitats, and in spacesuits. As gasses that are relevant to combustion and pyrolysis have absorption features in the midinfrared range, it is possible to utilize absorption spectroscopy as a means of detecting and quantifying the concentration of these hazardous compounds. Within this work, a sensor for detecting carbon dioxide has been designed and tested autonomously on a high-altitude balloon flight. The sensor utilizes a 4.2-mm lightemitting diode source, amplitude modulation to characterize speciesmore » concentrations, and frequency modulation to characterize ambient temperature. Future work will include expanding the sensor design to detect other gases, and demonstrating suborbital flight capability.« less

  14. Hazardous Gas Detection Sensor Using Broadband Light-Emitting Diode-Based Absorption Spectroscopy for Space Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Terracciano, Anthony; Thurmond, Kyle; Villar, Michael; ...

    2018-03-12

    As space travel matures and extended duration voyages become increasingly common, it will be necessary to include arrays of early fire detection systems aboard spacefaring vessels, space habitats, and in spacesuits. As gasses that are relevant to combustion and pyrolysis have absorption features in the midinfrared range, it is possible to utilize absorption spectroscopy as a means of detecting and quantifying the concentration of these hazardous compounds. Within this work, a sensor for detecting carbon dioxide has been designed and tested autonomously on a high-altitude balloon flight. The sensor utilizes a 4.2-mm lightemitting diode source, amplitude modulation to characterize speciesmore » concentrations, and frequency modulation to characterize ambient temperature. Future work will include expanding the sensor design to detect other gases, and demonstrating suborbital flight capability.« less

  15. Strong Impact of an Axial Ligand on the Absorption by Chlorophyll a and b Pigments Determined by Gas-Phase Ion Spectroscopy Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Christina; Stockett, Mark H; Pedersen, Bjarke M; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2016-12-01

    The microenvironments in photosynthetic proteins affect the absorption by chlorophyll (Chl) pigments. It is, however, a challenge to disentangle the impact on the transition energies of different perturbations, for example, the global electrostatics of the protein (nonbonded environmental effects), exciton coupling between Chl's, conformational variations, and binding of an axial ligand to the magnesium center. This is needed to distinguish between the two most commonly proposed mechanisms for energy transport in photosynthetic proteins, relying on either weakly or strongly coupled pigments. Here, on the basis of photodissociation action spectroscopy, we establish that the redshift of the Soret absorption band due to binding of a negatively charged carboxylate (as present in aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues) is 0.1-0.2 eV for Chl a and b. This effect is almost enough to reproduce the well-known green color of plants and can account for the strong spectral variation between Chl's. The experimental data serve to benchmark future high-level calculations of excited-state energies. Finally, we demonstrate that complexes between Chl a and histidine, tagged by a quaternary ammonium ion, can be made in the gas phase by electrospray ionization, but more work is needed to produce enough ions for gas-phase spectroscopy.

  16. Measurement of gas diffusion coefficient in liquid-saturated porous media using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongchen; Hao, Min; Zhao, Yuechao; Zhang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the dual-chamber pressure decay method and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to dynamically visualize the gas diffusion process in liquid-saturated porous media, and the relationship of concentration-distance for gas diffusing into liquid-saturated porous media at different times were obtained by MR images quantitative analysis. A non-iterative finite volume method was successfully applied to calculate the local gas diffusion coefficient in liquid-saturated porous media. The results agreed very well with the conventional pressure decay method, thus it demonstrates that the method was feasible of determining the local diffusion coefficient of gas in liquid-saturated porous media at different times during diffusion process.

  17. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on themore » computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.« less

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of PEM dehydration and gas manifold flooding during continuous fuel cell operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minard, Kevin R.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Majors, Paul D.; Wang, Li-Qiong; Rieke, Peter C.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed for visualizing water inside a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell during 11.4 h of continuous operation with a constant load. Two-dimensional images acquired every 128 s revealed the formation of a dehydration front that propagated slowly over the surface of the fuel cell membrane-starting from gas inlets and progressing toward gas outlets. After traversing the entire PEM surface, channels in the gas manifold began to flood on the cathode side. To establish a qualitative understanding of these observations, acquired images were correlated to the current output and the operating characteristics of the fuel cell. Results demonstrate the power of MRI for visualizing changing water distributions during PEM fuel cell operation, and highlight its potential utility for studying the causes of cell failure and/or strategies of water management.

  19. Laser line illumination scheme allowing the reduction of background signal and the correction of absorption heterogeneities effects for fluorescence reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Frédéric; Hervé, Lionel; Poher, Vincent; Gioux, Sylvain; Mars, Jérôme I; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence imaging in reflectance geometry is an attractive imaging modality as it allows to noninvasively monitor the fluorescence targeted tumors located below the tissue surface. Some drawbacks of this technique are the background fluorescence decreasing the contrast and absorption heterogeneities leading to misinterpretations concerning fluorescence concentrations. We propose a correction technique based on a laser line scanning illumination scheme. We scan the medium with the laser line and acquire, at each position of the line, both fluorescence and excitation images. We then use the finding that there is a relationship between the excitation intensity profile and the background fluorescence one to predict the amount of signal to subtract from the fluorescence images to get a better contrast. As the light absorption information is contained both in fluorescence and excitation images, this method also permits us to correct the effects of absorption heterogeneities. This technique has been validated on simulations and experimentally. Fluorescent inclusions are observed in several configurations at depths ranging from 1 mm to 1 cm. Results obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with a classical wide-field detection scheme for contrast enhancement and with the fluorescence by an excitation ratio approach for absorption correction.

  20. Seismic imaging of a fractured gas hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.V.; Cook, A.

    2010-01-01

    Gas hydrate was discovered in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin during the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1 at Site NGHP-01-10 within a fractured clay-dominated sedimentary system. Logging-while-drilling (LWD), coring, and wire-line logging confirmed gas hydrate dominantly in fractures at four borehole sites spanning a 500m transect. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data were subsequently used to image the fractured system and explain the occurrence of gas hydrate associated with the fractures. A system of two fault-sets was identified, part of a typical passive margin tectonic setting. The LWD-derived fracture network at Hole NGHP-01-10A is to some extent seen in the seismic data and was mapped using seismic coherency attributes. The fractured system around Site NGHP-01-10 extends over a triangular-shaped area of ~2.5 km2 defined using seismic attributes of the seafloor reflection, as well as " seismic sweetness" at the base of the gas hydrate occurrence zone. The triangular shaped area is also showing a polygonal (nearly hexagonal) fault pattern, distinct from other more rectangular fault patterns observed in the study area. The occurrence of gas hydrate at Site NGHP-01-10 is the result of a specific combination of tectonic fault orientations and the abundance of free gas migration from a deeper gas source. The triangular-shaped area of enriched gas hydrate occurrence is bound by two faults acting as migration conduits. Additionally, the fault-associated sediment deformation provides a possible migration pathway for the free gas from the deeper gas source into the gas hydrate stability zone. It is proposed that there are additional locations in the KG Basin with possible gas hydrate accumulation of similar tectonic conditions, and one such location was identified from the 3D seismic data ~6 km NW of Site NGHP-01-10. ?? 2010.

  1. Narrowband HST images of M87: Evidence for a disk of ionized gas around a massive black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Harms, Richard J.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.; Hartig, George F.; Dressel, Linda L.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Davidsen, Arthur F.; Margon, Bruce; Kochhar, Ajay K.

    1994-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 (HST WFPC2) narrowband H-alpha + (N II) images of M87 which show a small disk of ionized gas with apparent spiral structure surrounding the nucleus of M87. The jet projects approximately 19.5 deg from the minor axis of the disk, which suggests that the jet is approximately normal to the disk. In a companion Letter, Harms et al. measure the radial velocities at r = +/- 0.25 sec along a line perpendicular to the jet, showing that one side of the disk is approaching at 500 +/- 50 km/s and the other side of the disk is receding at 500 +/- 50 km/s. Absorption associated with the disk and the sense of rotation imply that the apparent spiral arms trail the rotation. The observed radial velocites corrected for a 42 deg inclination of the disk imply rotation at +/- 750 km/s. Analysis of velocity measurements at four positions near the nucleus gives a total mass of approximately 2.4 +/- 0.7 x 10(exp 9) solar mass within 18 pc of the nucleus, and a mass-to-light ratio (M/L)(sub I) = 170. We conclude that there is a disk of ionized gas feeding a massive black hole in the center of M87.

  2. Development of a Random Field Model for Gas Plume Detection in Multiple LWIR Images.

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.

    This report develops a random field model that describes gas plumes in LWIR remote sensing images. The random field model serves as a prior distribution that can be combined with LWIR data to produce a posterior that determines the probability that a gas plume exists in the scene and also maps the most probable location of any plume. The random field model is intended to work with a single pixel regression estimator--a regression model that estimates gas concentration on an individual pixel basis.

  3. Determination of free and total sulfur(IV) compounds in coconut water using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in gas phase.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Michael L; Brandao, Geovani C; de Andrade, Jailson B; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2018-03-01

    This work proposes a method for the determination of free and total sulfur(IV) compounds in coconut water samples, using the high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. It is based on the measurement of the absorbance signal of the SO 2 gas generate, which is resultant of the addition of hydrochloric acid solution on the sample containing the sulfating agent. The sulfite bound to the organic compounds is released by the addition of sodium hydroxide solution, before the generation of the SO 2 gas. The optimization step was performed using multivariate methodology involving volume, concentration and flow rate of hydrochloric acid. This method was established by the sum of the absorbances obtained in the three lines of molecular absorption of the SO 2 gas. This strategy allowed a procedure for the determination of sulfite with limits of detection and quantification of 0.36 and 1.21mgL -1 (for a sample volume of 10mL) and precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.4% and 6.4% for a coconut water sample containing 38.13 and 54.58mgL -1 of free and total sulfite, respectively. The method was applied for analyzing five coconut water samples from Salvador city, Brazil. The average contents varied from 13.0 to 55.4mgL -1 for free sulfite and from 24.7 to 66.9mgL -1 for total sulfur(IV) compounds. The samples were also analyzed employing the Ripper´s procedure, which is a reference method for the quantification of this additive. A statistical test at 95% confidence level demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive Detection of Gas Plumes from Multibeam Water Column Images with Minimisation of Noise Interferences

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianhu; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Shiqi

    2017-01-01

    Multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) can record backscatter strengths of gas plumes in the water column (WC) images that may be an indicator of possible occurrence of gas at certain depths. Manual or automatic detection is generally adopted in finding gas plumes, but frequently results in low efficiency and high false detection rates because of WC images that are polluted by noise. To improve the efficiency and reliability of the detection, a comprehensive detection method is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the characteristics of WC background noise are first analyzed and given. Then, the mean standard deviation threshold segmentations are respectively used for the denoising of time-angle and depth-angle images, an intersection operation is performed for the two segmented images to further weaken noise in the WC data, and the gas plumes in the WC data are detected from the intersection image by the morphological constraint. The proposed method was tested by conducting shallow-water and deepwater experiments. In these experiments, the detections were conducted automatically and higher correct detection rates than the traditional methods were achieved. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed and discussed. PMID:29186014

  5. Imaging of Combustion Species in a Radially-Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Ockunzzi, Kelly A.; Schock, Harold J.

    1996-01-01

    Plannar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is used to characterize the complex flowfield of a unique fuel-lean, radially-staged high pressure gas turbine combustor. PLIF images of OH are presented for two fuel injector configurations. PLIF images of NO, the first acquired at these conditions, are presented and compared with gas sample extraction probe measurements. Flow field imaging of nascent C2 chemiluminescence is also investigated. An examination is made of the interaction between adjoining lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) injectors. Fluorescence interferences at conditions approaching 2000 K and 15 atm are observed and attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. All images are acquired at a position immediately downstream of the fuel injectors with combustor burning JP-5 fuel.

  6. Imaging of Combustion Species in a Radially-Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Ockunzzi, Kelly A.; Schock, Harold J.

    1996-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is used to characterize the complex flowfield of a unique fuel-lean, radially-staged, high pressure gas turbine combustor. PLIF images of OH are presented for two fuel injector configurations. PLIF images of NO, the first acquired at these conditions, are presented and compared with gas sample extraction probe measurements. Flow field imaging of nascent C2 chemiluminescence is also investigated. An examination is made of the interaction between adjoining lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) injectors. Fluorescence interferences at conditions approaching 2000 K and 15 atm are observed and attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. All images are acquired at a position immediately downstream of the fuel injectors with the combustor burning JP-5 fuel.

  7. Imaging the Hydrogen Absorption Dynamics of Individual Grains in Polycrystalline Palladium Thin Films in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Allison; Harder, Ross J.; Kanan, Matthew W.

    Defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries often control the properties of polycrystalline materials. In nanocrystalline materials, investigating this structure-function relationship while preserving the sample remains challenging because of the short length scales and buried interfaces involved. Here we use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the role of structural inhomogeneity on the hydriding phase transformation dynamics of individual Pd grains in polycrystalline films in three-dimensional detail. In contrast to previous reports on single- and polycrystalline nanoparticles, we observe no evidence of a hydrogen-rich surface layer and consequently no size dependence in the hydriding phase transformation pressure over a 125-325more » nm size range. We do observe interesting grain boundary dynamics, including reversible rotations of grain lattices while the material remains in the hydrogen-poor phase. The mobility of the grain boundaries, combined with the lack of a hydrogen-rich surface layer, suggests that the grain boundaries are acting as fast diffusion sites for the hydrogen atoms. Such hydrogen-enhanced plasticity in the hydrogen poor phase provides insight into the switch from the size-dependent behavior of single-crystal nanoparticles to the lower transformation pressures of polycrystalline materials and may play a role in hydrogen embrittlement.« less

  8. The first high resolution image of coronal gas in a starbursting cool core cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Galaxy clusters represent a unique laboratory for directly observing gas cooling and feedback due to their high masses and correspondingly high gas densities and temperatures. Cooling of X-ray gas observed in 1/3 of clusters, known as cool-core clusters, should fuel star formation at prodigious rates, but such high levels of star formation are rarely observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a leading explanation for the lack of star formation in most cool clusters, and AGN power is sufficient to offset gas cooling on average. Nevertheless, some cool core clusters exhibit massive starbursts indicating that our understanding of cooling and feedback is incomplete. Observations of 10^5 K coronal gas in cool core clusters through OVI emission offers a sensitive means of testing our understanding of cooling and feedback because OVI emission is a dominant coolant and sensitive tracer of shocked gas. Recently, Hayes et al. 2016 demonstrated that synthetic narrow-band imaging of OVI emission is possible through subtraction of long-pass filters with the ACS+SBC for targets at z=0.23-0.29. Here, we propose to use this exciting new technique to directly image coronal OVI emitting gas at high resolution in Abell 1835, a prototypical starbursting cool-core cluster at z=0.252. Abell 1835 hosts a strong cooling core, massive starburst, radio AGN, and at z=0.252, it offers a unique opportunity to directly image OVI at hi-res in the UV with ACS+SBC. With just 15 orbits of ACS+SBC imaging, the proposed observations will complete the existing rich multi-wavelength dataset available for Abell 1835 to provide new insights into cooling and feedback in clusters.

  9. Gas Uptake of 3-D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Using a Vacuum Apparatus Designed for Absorption and Desorption Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sefa, Makfir; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Fedchak, James A.; Scherschligt, Julia; Klimov, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    We describe a vacuum apparatus for determining the outgassing rate into vacuum, the diffusion coefficient, and the amount of gas absorbed for various materials. The diffusion coefficient is determined from a model applied to time-dependent desorption data taken using a throughput method. We used this method to determine the diffusion coefficient, D, for H2O in 3-D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). We found DH2O = 8.3 × 10−8 cm2/s ± 1.3 × 10−8 cm2/s (k = 1; 67% confidence interval) at 23.2 °C. This result was compared to the diffusion coefficient determined another by a gravimetric method, in which the sample weight was monitored as it absorbed gas from the atmosphere. The two methods agreed to within 3%, which is well within the uncertainty of the measurement. We also found that at least 80% of the atmospheric gas (air) absorbed by the ABS is water. The total amount of all atmospheric gas absorbed by ABS was about 0.35% by weight when exposed to ambient air in the laboratory, which was at a pressure of 101 kPa with a relative humidity of 57% at 22.2 °C. PMID:28736481

  10. Reconstruction of the absorption spectrum of an object spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its digital image: the challenge of algal colours.

    PubMed

    Coltelli, Primo; Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valter; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    A novel procedure for deriving the absorption spectrum of an object spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its image is presented. Any digital image acquired by a microscope can be used; typical applications are the analysis of cellular/subcellular metabolic processes under physiological conditions and in response to environmental stressors (e.g. heavy metals), and the measurement of chromophore composition, distribution and concentration in cells. In this paper, we challenged the procedure with images of algae, acquired by means of a CCD camera mounted onto a microscope. The many colours algae display result from the combinations of chromophores whose spectroscopic information is limited to organic solvents extracts that suffers from displacements, amplifications, and contraction/dilatation respect to spectra recorded inside the cell. Hence, preliminary processing is necessary, which consists of in vivo measurement of the absorption spectra of photosynthetic compartments of algal cells and determination of spectra of the single chromophores inside the cell. The final step of the procedure consists in the reconstruction of the absorption spectrum of the cell spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its digital image by minimization of a system of transcendental equations based on the absorption spectra of the chromophores under physiological conditions. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Influence of the gas-liquid flow configuration in the absorption column on photosynthetic biogas upgrading in algal-bacterial photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Cervantes, Alma; Madrid-Chirinos, Cindy; Cantera, Sara; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    The potential of an algal-bacterial system consisting of a high rate algal pond (HRAP) interconnected to an absorption column (AC) via recirculation of the cultivation broth for the upgrading of biogas and digestate was investigated. The influence of the gas-liquid flow configuration in the AC on the photosynthetic biogas upgrading process was assessed. AC operation in a co-current configuration enabled to maintain a biomass productivity of 15gm -2 d -1 , while during counter-current operation biomass productivity decreased to 8.7±0.5gm -2 d -1 as a result of trace metal limitation. A bio-methane composition complying with most international regulatory limits for injection into natural gas grids was obtained regardless of the gas-liquid flow configuration. Furthermore, the influence of the recycling liquid to biogas flowrate (L/G) ratio on bio-methane quality was assessed under both operational configurations obtaining the best composition at an L/G ratio of 0.5 and co-current flow operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemometric Approach to the Calibration of Light Emitting Diode Based Optical Gas Sensors Using High-Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption Data.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Leis, John; Macka, Mirek

    2018-05-15

    Modeling the propagation of light from LED sources is problematic since the emission covers a broad range of wavelengths and thus cannot be considered as monochromatic. Furthermore, the lack of directivity of such sources is also problematic. Both attributes are characteristic of LEDs. Here we propose a HITRAN ( high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database) based chemometric approach that incorporates not-perfect-monochromaticity and spatial directivity of near-infrared (NIR) LED for absorbance calculations in 1-6% methane (CH 4 ) in air, considering CH 4 as a model absorbing gas. We employed the absorbance thus calculated using HITRAN to validate the experimentally measured absorbance of CH 4 . The maximum error between the measured and calculated absorbance values were within 1%. The approach can be generalized as a chemometric calibration technique for measuring gases and gas mixtures that absorb emissions from polychromatic or not-perfect-monochromatic sources, provided the gas concentration, optical path length, as well as blank and attenuated emission spectra of the light source are incorporated into the proposed chemometric approach.

  13. Probing the regional distribution of pulmonary gas exchange through single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, S Sivaram; Freeman, Matthew S; Cleveland, Zackary I; Davies, John; Stiles, Jane; Virgincar, Rohan S; Robertson, Scott H; He, Mu; Kelly, Kevin T; Foster, W Michael; McAdams, H Page; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2013-09-01

    Although some central aspects of pulmonary function (ventilation and perfusion) are known to be heterogeneous, the distribution of diffusive gas exchange remains poorly characterized. A solution is offered by hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, because this gas can be separately detected in the lung's air spaces and dissolved in its tissues. Early dissolved-phase 129Xe images exhibited intensity gradients that favored the dependent lung. To quantitatively corroborate this finding, we developed an interleaved, three-dimensional radial sequence to image the gaseous and dissolved 129Xe distributions in the same breath. These images were normalized and divided to calculate "129Xe gas-transfer" maps. We hypothesized that, for healthy volunteers, 129Xe gas-transfer maps would retain the previously observed posture-dependent gradients. This was tested in nine subjects: when the subjects were supine, 129Xe gas transfer exhibited a posterior-anterior gradient of -2.00 ± 0.74%/cm; when the subjects were prone, the gradient reversed to 1.94 ± 1.14%/cm (P < 0.001). The 129Xe gas-transfer maps also exhibited significant heterogeneity, as measured by the coefficient of variation, that correlated with subject total lung capacity (r = 0.77, P = 0.015). Gas-transfer intensity varied nonmonotonically with slice position and increased in slices proximal to the main pulmonary arteries. Despite substantial heterogeneity, the mean gas transfer for all subjects was 1.00 ± 0.01 while supine and 1.01 ± 0.01 while prone (P = 0.25), indicating good "matching" between gas- and dissolved-phase distributions. This study demonstrates that single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging yields 129Xe gas-transfer maps that are sensitive to altered gas exchange caused by differences in lung inflation and posture.

  14. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Emittance and absorptance of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ceramic thermal barrier coating. [for gas turbine engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    The spectral emittance of a NASA developed zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coating system, consisting of a metal substrate, a layer of Ni-Cr-Al-Y bond material and a layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic material, is analyzed. The emittance, needed for evaluation of radiant heat loads on cooled coated gas turbine components, was measured over a range of temperatures that would be typical of its use on such components. Emittance data were obtained with a spectrometer, a reflectometer and a radiation pyrometer at a single bond coating thickness of 0.010 cm and at a ceramic coating thickness of 0-0.076 cm. The data were transformed into the hemispherical total emittance and were correlated to the ceramic coating thickness and temperature using multiple-regression curve-fitting techniques. The system was found to be highly reflective, and, consequently, capable of significantly reducing radiation heat loads on cooled gas turbine engine components.

  16. Imaging spectrophotometry of ionized gas in NGC 1068. I - Kinematics of the narrow-line region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Gerald; Bland, Jonathan; Tully, R. Brent

    1990-01-01

    The kinematics of collisionally excited forbidden N II 6548, 6583 across the inner 1 arcmin diameter of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 is mapped using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer and low-noise CCD. The stack of monochromatic images, which spatially resolved the high-velocity gas, was analyzed for kinematic and photometric content. Profiles agree well with previous long-slit work, and their complete spatial coverage makes it possible to constrain the gas volume distribution. It is found that the narrow-line region is distributed in a thick center-darkened, line-emitting cylinder that envelopes the collimated radio jet. Three distinct kinematic subsystems, of which the cylinder is composed, are discussed in detail. Detailed behavior of the emission-line profiles, at the few points in the NE quadrant with simple kinematics, argues that the ionized gas develops a significant component of motion perpendicular to the jet axis.

  17. Time-resolved imaging of gas phase nanoparticle synthesis by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Duscher, Gerd; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    1998-06-01

    The dynamics of nanoparticle formation, transport, and deposition by pulsed laser ablation of c-Si into 1-10 Torr He and Ar gases are revealed by imaging laser-induced photoluminescence and Rayleigh-scattered light from gas-suspended 1-10 nm SiOx particles. Two sets of dynamic phenomena are presented for times up to 15 s after KrF-laser ablation. Ablation of Si into heavier Ar results in a uniform, stationary plume of nanoparticles, while Si ablation into lighter He results in a turbulent ring of particles which propagates forward at 10 m/s. Nanoparticles unambiguously formed in the gas phase were collected on transmission electron microscope grids for Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis. The effects of gas flow on nanoparticle formation, photoluminescence, and collection are described.

  18. Confocal absorption spectral imaging of MoS2: optical transitions depending on the atomic thickness of intrinsic and chemically doped MoS2.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Jubok; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Minsu; Kan, Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-11-07

    We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a high-energy background (BG) peak at 2.84 eV displayed a gradual redshift as the MoS2 film thickness increased from the monolayer, to the bilayer, to the bulk MoS2 and this shift was attributed to the reduction of the gap energy in the Brillouin zone at the K-point as the atomic thickness increased. We also performed n-type chemical doping of MoS2 films using reduced benzyl viologen (BV) and the confocal absorption spectra modified by the doping showed a strong dependence on the atomic thickness: A and B exciton peaks were greatly quenched in the monolayer MoS2 while much less effect was shown in larger thickness and the BG peak either showed very small quenching for 1 L MoS2 or remained constant for larger thicknesses. Our results indicate that confocal absorption spectral imaging can provide comprehensive information on optical transitions of microscopic size intrinsic and doped two-dimensional layered materials.

  19. Time dependent density functional theory study of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure of benzene in gas phase and on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Asmuruf, Frans A; Besley, Nicholas A

    2008-08-14

    The near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure of benzene in the gas phase and adsorbed on the Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces is studied with time dependent density functional theory. Excitation energies computed with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals are too low compared to experiment. However, after applying a constant shift the spectra are in good agreement with experiment. For benzene on the Au(111) surface, two bands arising from excitation to the e(2u)(pi(*)) and b(2g)(pi(*)) orbitals of benzene are observed for photon incidence parallel to the surface. On Pt(111) surface, a broader band arises from excitation to benzene orbitals that are mixed with the surface and have both sigma(*)(Pt-C) and pi(*) characters.

  20. Multimodal Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with Unusually Enhanced Specific Absorption Rate for Synergetic Cancer Therapeutics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Nanasaheb D; Bohara, Raghvendra A; Malgras, Victor; Tofail, Syed A M; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-06-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy frequently face trade off between a high magnetization saturation and their good colloidal stability, high specific absorption rate (SAR), and most importantly biological compatibility. This necessitates the development of new nanomaterials, as MFH and MRI are considered to be one of the most promising combined noninvasive treatments. In the present study, we investigated polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) SPMNPs for efficient cancer hyperthermia therapy and MRI application. The superparamagnetic nanomaterial revealed excellent colloidal stability and biocompatibility. A high SAR of 390 W/g was observed due to higher colloidal stability leading to an increased Brownian and Neel's spin relaxation. Cell viability of PEG capped nanoparticles is up to 80% on different cell lines tested rigorously using different methods. PEG coating provided excellent hemocompatibility to human red blood cells as PEG functionalized SPMNPs reduced hemolysis efficiently compared to its uncoated counterpart. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia of SPMNPs resulted in cancer cell death up to 80%. Additionally, improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the PEG capped La1-xSrxMnO3 formulation in aqueous medium compared to the bare LSMO. Taken together, PEG capped SPMNPs can be useful for diagnosis, efficient magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and multimodal cancer treatment as the amphiphilicity of PEG can easily be utilized to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs.

  1. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  2. Interstellar Gas-phase Element Depletions in the Small Magellanic Cloud: A Guide to Correcting for Dust in QSO Absorption Line Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Edward B.; Wallerstein, George, E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: walleg@u.washington.edu

    We present data on the gas-phase abundances for 9 different elements in the interstellar medium of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on the strengths of ultraviolet absorption features over relevant velocities in the spectra of 18 stars within the SMC. From this information and the total abundances defined by the element fractions in young stars in the SMC, we construct a general interpretation on how these elements condense into solid form onto dust grains. As a group, the elements Si, S, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn exhibit depletion sequences similar to those in the local part of our Galaxymore » defined by Jenkins. The elements Mg and Ti deplete less rapidly in the SMC than in the Milky Way, and Mn depletes more rapidly. We speculate that these differences might be explained by the different chemical affinities to different existing grain substrates. For instance, there is evidence that the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the SMC are significantly lower than those in the Milky Way. We propose that the depletion sequences that we observed for the SMC may provide a better model for interpreting the element abundances in low-metallicity Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems that are recorded in the spectra of distant quasars and gamma-ray burst afterglows.« less

  3. The SPIRIT airborne instrument: a three-channel infrared absorption spectrometer with quantum cascade lasers for in situ atmospheric trace-gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catoire, Valéry; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Jacquet, Patrick; Guimbaud, Christophe; Krysztofiak, Gisèle

    2017-09-01

    An infrared absorption spectrometer called SPIRIT (SPectromètre Infra-Rouge In situ Toute altitude) has been developed for airborne measurements of trace gases in the troposphere. At least three different trace gases can be measured simultaneously every 1.6 s using the coupling of a single Robert multipass optical cell with three Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), easily interchangeable to select species depending on the scientific objectives. Absorptions of the mid-infrared radiations by the species in the cell at reduced pressure (<40 hPa), with path lengths adjustable up to 167.78 m, are quantified using an HgCdTe photodetector cooled by Stirling cycle. The performances of the instrument are assessed: a linearity with a coefficient of determination R 2 > 0.979 for the instrument response is found for CO, CH4, and NO2 volume mixing ratios under typical tropospheric conditions. In-flight comparisons with calibrated gas mixtures allow to show no instrumental drift correlated with atmospheric pressure and temperature changes (when vertical profiling) and to estimate the overall uncertainties in the measurements of CO, CH4, and NO2 to be 0.9, 22, and 0.5 ppbv, respectively. In-flight precision (1 σ) for these species at 1.6 s sampling is 0.3, 5, and 0.3 ppbv, respectively.

  4. ALMACAL - III. A combined ALMA and MUSE survey for neutral, molecular, and ionized gas in an H I-absorption-selected system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitsch, A.; Péroux, C.; Zwaan, M. A.; Smail, I.; Oteo, I.; Biggs, A. D.; Popping, G.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    Studying the flow of baryons into and out of galaxies is an important part of understanding the evolution of galaxies over time. We present a detailed case study of the environment around an intervening Ly α absorption line system at zabs = 0.633, seen towards the quasar J0423-0130 (zQSO = 0.915). We detect with ALMA the 12CO(2-1), 12CO(3-2), and 1.2 mm continuum emission from a galaxy at the redshift of the Ly α absorber at a projected distance of 135 kpc. From the ALMA detections, we infer interstellar medium conditions similar to those in low-redshift luminous infrared galaxies. Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field unit observations reveal the optical counterpart of the 12CO emission line source and three additional emission line galaxies at the absorber redshift, which together form a galaxy group. The 12CO emission line detections originate from the most massive galaxy in this group. While we cannot exclude that we miss a fainter host, we reach a dust-uncorrected star formation rate (SFR) limit of >0.3 M⊙yr-1 within 100 kpc from the sightline to the background quasar. We measure the dust-corrected SFR (ranging from 3 to 50 M⊙ yr-1), the morpho-kinematics and the metallicities of the four group galaxies to understand the relation between the group and the neutral gas probed in absorption. We find that the Ly α absorber traces either an outflow from the most massive galaxy or intragroup gas. This case study illustrates the power of combining ALMA and MUSE to obtain a census of the cool baryons in a bounded structure at intermediate redshift.

  5. Research on ground-based LWIR hyperspectral imaging remote gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhixiong; Yu, Chunchao; Zheng, Weijian; Lei, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Yuan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Peizhong

    2015-10-01

    The new progress of ground-based long-wave infrared remote sensing is presented, which describes the windowing spatial and temporal modulation Fourier spectroscopy imaging in details. The prototype forms the interference fringes based on the corner-cube of spatial modulation of Michelson interferometer, using cooled long-wave infrared photovoltaic staring FPA (focal plane array) detector. The LWIR hyperspectral imaging is achieved by the process of collection, reorganization, correction, apodization, FFT etc. from data cube. Noise equivalent sensor response (NESR), which is the sensitivity index of CHIPED-1 LWIR hyperspectral imaging prototype, can reach 5.6×10-8W/(cm-1.sr.cm2) at single sampling. Hyperspectral imaging is used in the field of organic gas VOC infrared detection. Relative to wide band infrared imaging, it has some advantages. Such as, it has high sensitivity, the strong anti-interference ability, identify the variety, and so on.

  6. Is Optical Gas Imaging Effective for Detecting Fugitive Methane Emissions? - A Technological and Policy Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, A. P.; Wang, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mitigating fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry has become an important concern for both businesses and regulators. While recent studies have improved our understanding of emissions from all sectors of the natural gas supply chain, cost-effectively identifying leaks over expansive natural gas infrastructure remains a significant challenge. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended the use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to be used in industry-wide leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. However, there has been little to no systematic study of the effectiveness of infrared-camera-based OGI technology for leak detection applications. Here, we develop a physics-based model that simulates a passive infrared camera imaging a methane leak against varying background and ambient conditions. We verify the simulation tool through a series of large-volume controlled release field experiments wherein known quantities of methane were released and imaged from a range of distances. After simulator verification, we analyze the effects of environmental conditions like temperature, wind, and imaging background on the amount of methane detected from a statistically representative survey program. We also examine the effects of LDAR design parameters like imaging distance, leak size distribution, and gas composition. We show that imaging distance strongly affects leak detection - EPA's expectation of a 60% reduction in fugitive emissions based on a semi-annual LDAR survey will be realized only if leaks are imaged at a distance less than 10 m from the source under ideal environmental conditions. Local wind speed is also shown to be important. We show that minimum detection limits are 3 to 4 times higher for wet-gas compositions that contain a significant fraction of ethane and propane, resulting a significantly large leakage rate. We also explore the importance of `super-emitters' on the performance of an OGI-based leak

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, D C; Benkstein, K D; Hurst, W S; Chu, P M

    2017-05-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, -5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications

    PubMed Central

    Meier, D.C.; Benkstein, K.D.; Hurst, W.S.; Chu, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, −5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals. PMID:28090126

  9. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  10. Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

  11. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  12. Lighting the Way to See Inside Two-Photon Absorption Materials: Structure–Property Relationship and Biological Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Tian, Xiaohe; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2017-01-01

    ions, including transition metals and lanthanides, can serve as an important part of the structure to control the intramolecular charge-transfer process that drives the 2PA process. As templates, transition metal ions can assemble simple to more sophisticated ligands in a variety of multipolar arrangements resulting in interesting and tailorable electronic and optical properties, depending on the nature of the metal center and the energetics of the metal-ligand interactions, such as intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) and metal-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) processes. Lanthanide complexes are attractive for a number of reasons: (i) their visible emissions are quite long-lived; (ii) their absorption and emission can be tuned with the aid of appropriate photoactive ligands; (iii) the accessible energy-transfer path between the photo-active ligands and the lanthanide ion can facilitate efficient lanthanide-based 2PA properties. Thus, the above materials with excellent 2PA properties should be applied in two-photon applications, especially two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM) and related emission-based applications. Furthermore, the progress of research into the use of those new 2PA materials with moderate 2PA cross section in the near-infrared region, good biocompatibility, and enhanced two-photon excited fluorescence for two-photon bio-imaging is summarized. In addition, several possible future directions in this field are also discussed (146 references). PMID:28772584

  13. Alternatives to argon for gas stopping volumes in the B194 neutron imager

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D. L.; Anderson, S.; Caggiano, J. A.

    2017-05-17

    In a recent experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the 40Ar(d,p)41Ar excitation function between 3-7 MeV was measured, confirming a previous estimation that there may be an intolerable radiation dose from 41Ar production by slowing to rest 6.74 MeV deuterons in the gas cell of the neutron imaging facility being constructed in B194. Gas alternatives to argon are considered, including helium, nitrogen (N2), neon, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), krypton, and xenon, as well as high atomic number solid backings such as tantalum.

  14. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma.

    PubMed

    Marshall, F J; Radha, P B

    2014-11-01

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  15. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blastwave Physics. 1; Absorption by Host Galaxy Gas and Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wiersema, K.; Rol, E.; Curran, P. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Heemskerk, M. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    We use a new approach to obtain limits on the absorbing columns towards an initial sample of 10 long Gamma-Ray Bursts observed with BeppoSAX and selected on the basis of their good optical and nIR coverage, from simultaneous fits to nIR, optical and X-ray afterglow data, in count space and including the effects of metallicity. In no cases is a MIV-like ext,inction preferred, when testing MW, LMC and SMC extinction laws. The 2175A bump would in principle be detectable in all these afterglows, but is not present in the data. An SMC-like gas-to-dust ratio or lower value can be ruled out for 4 of the hosts analysed here (assuming Sh4C metallicity and extinction law) whilst the remainder of the sample have too large an error to discriminate. We provide a more accurate estimate of the line-of-sight extinction and improve upon the uncertainties for the majority of the extinction measurements made in previous studies of this sample. We discuss this method to determine extinction values in comparison with the most commonly employed existing methods.

  17. High-speed digital holography for neutral gas and electron density imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Granstedt, E. M., E-mail: egranstedt@gmail.com; Thomas, C. E.; Kaita, R.

    2016-05-15

    An instrument was developed using digital holographic reconstruction of the wavefront from a CO{sub 2} laser imaged on a high-speed commercial IR camera. An acousto-optic modulator is used to generate 1–25 μs pulses from a continuous-wave CO{sub 2} laser, both to limit the average power at the detector and also to freeze motion from sub-interframe time scales. Extensive effort was made to characterize and eliminate noise from vibrations and second-surface reflections. Mismatch of the reference and object beam curvature initially contributed substantially to vibrational noise, but was mitigated through careful positioning of identical imaging lenses. Vibrational mode amplitudes were successfullymore » reduced to ≲1 nm for frequencies ≳50 Hz, and the inter-frame noise across the 128 × 128 pixel window which is typically used is ≲2.5 nm. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, a piezo-electric valve and a reducing-expanding nozzle were used to generate a super-sonic gas jet which was imaged with high spatial resolution (better than 0.8 lp/mm) at high speed. Abel inversions were performed on the phase images to produce 2-D images of localized gas density. This system could also be used for high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of plasma electron density or surface deformations.« less

  18. Imaging Demonstration of a Glass Gas Electron Multiplier with Electronic Charge Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuya, Yuki; Thuiner, Patrik; Oliveri, Eraldo; Resnati, Filippo; Stenis, Miranda van; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ropelewski, Leszek

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a Glass Gas Electron Multiplier (Glass GEM, G-GEM), which is composed of two copper electrodes separated by a photosensitive etchable glass substrate having holes arranged in a hexagonal pattern. In this paper, we report the result of imaging using a G-GEM combined with a 2D electronic charge readout. We used a crystallized photosensitive etchable glass as the G-GEM substrate. A precise X-ray image of a small mammal was successfully obtained with position resolutions of approximately 110 to 140 μm in RMS.

  19. Imaging Fluorescent Combustion Species in Gas Turbine Flame Tubes: On Complexities in Real Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Y. R.; Locke, R. J.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M.; Schock, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is used to visualize the flame structure via OH, NO, and fuel imaging in kerosene- burning gas turbine combustor flame tubes. When compared to simple gaseous hydrocarbon flames and hydrogen flames, flame tube testing complexities include spectral interferences from large fuel fragments, unknown turbulence interactions, high pressure operation, and the concomitant need for windows and remote operation. Complications of these and other factors as they apply to image analysis are considered. Because both OH and gas turbine engine fuels (commercial and military) can be excited and detected using OH transition lines, a narrowband and a broadband detection scheme are compared and the benefits and drawbacks of each method are examined.

  20. Multiparametric imaging of brain hemodynamics and function using gas-inhalation MRI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiying; Welch, Babu G.; Li, Yang; Gu, Hong; King, Darlene; Yang, Yihong; Pinho, Marco; Lu, Hanzhang

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases routinely require hemodynamic imaging of the brain. Current methods either only provide part of the desired information or require the injection of multiple exogenous agents. In this study, we developed a multiparametric imaging scheme for the imaging of brain hemodynamics and function using gas-inhalation MRI. The proposed technique uses a single MRI scan to provide simultaneous measurements of baseline venous cerebral blood volume (vCBV), cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), bolus arrival time (BAT), and resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI). This was achieved with a novel, concomitant O2 and CO2 gas inhalation paradigm, rapid MRI image acquisition with a 9.3 min BOLD sequence, and an advanced algorithm to extract multiple hemodynamic information from the same dataset. In healthy subjects, CVR and vCBV values were 0.23±0.03 %/mmHg and 0.0056±0.0006 %/mmHg, respectively, with a strong correlation (r=0.96 for CVR and r=0.91 for vCBV) with more conventional, separate acquisitions that take twice the scan time. In patients with Moyamoya syndrome, CVR in the stenosis-affected flow territories (typically anterior-cerebral-artery, ACA, and middle-cerebral-artery, MCA, territories) was significantly lower than that in posterior-cerebral-artery (PCA), which typically has minimal stenosis, flow territories (0.12±0.06 %/mmHg vs. 0.21±0.05 %/mmHg, p<0.001). BAT of the gas bolus was significantly longer (p=0.008) in ACA/MCA territories, compared to PCA, and the maps were consistent with the conventional contrast-enhanced CT perfusion method. FcMRI networks were robustly identified from the gas-inhalation MRI data after factoring out the influence of CO2 and O2 on the signal time course. The spatial correspondence between the gas-data-derived fcMRI maps and those using a separate, conventional fcMRI scan was excellent, showing a spatial correlation of 0.58±0.17 and 0.64±0.20 for default mode network and

  1. Multiparametric imaging of brain hemodynamics and function using gas-inhalation MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiying; Welch, Babu G; Li, Yang; Gu, Hong; King, Darlene; Yang, Yihong; Pinho, Marco; Lu, Hanzhang

    2017-02-01

    Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases routinely require hemodynamic imaging of the brain. Current methods either only provide part of the desired information or require the injection of multiple exogenous agents. In this study, we developed a multiparametric imaging scheme for the imaging of brain hemodynamics and function using gas-inhalation MRI. The proposed technique uses a single MRI scan to provide simultaneous measurements of baseline venous cerebral blood volume (vCBV), cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), bolus arrival time (BAT), and resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI). This was achieved with a novel, concomitant O 2 and CO 2 gas inhalation paradigm, rapid MRI image acquisition with a 9.3min BOLD sequence, and an advanced algorithm to extract multiple hemodynamic information from the same dataset. In healthy subjects, CVR and vCBV values were 0.23±0.03%/mmHg and 0.0056±0.0006%/mmHg, respectively, with a strong correlation (r=0.96 for CVR and r=0.91 for vCBV) with more conventional, separate acquisitions that take twice the scan time. In patients with Moyamoya syndrome, CVR in the stenosis-affected flow territories (typically anterior-cerebral-artery, ACA, and middle-cerebral-artery, MCA, territories) was significantly lower than that in posterior-cerebral-artery (PCA), which typically has minimal stenosis, flow territories (0.12±0.06%/mmHg vs. 0.21±0.05%/mmHg, p<0.001). BAT of the gas bolus was significantly longer (p=0.008) in ACA/MCA territories, compared to PCA, and the maps were consistent with the conventional contrast-enhanced CT perfusion method. FcMRI networks were robustly identified from the gas-inhalation MRI data after factoring out the influence of CO 2 and O 2 on the signal time course. The spatial correspondence between the gas-data-derived fcMRI maps and those using a separate, conventional fcMRI scan was excellent, showing a spatial correlation of 0.58±0.17 and 0.64±0.20 for default mode network and

  2. Multiphase imaging of gas flow in a nanoporous material using remote-detection NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Elad; Granwehr, Josef; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pines, Alex

    2006-04-01

    Pore structure and connectivity determine how microstructured materials perform in applications such as catalysis, fluid storage and transport, filtering or as reactors. We report a model study on silica aerogel using a time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging technique to characterize the flow field and explain the effects of heterogeneities in the pore structure on gas flow and dispersion with 129Xe as the gas-phase sensor. The observed chemical shift allows the separate visualization of unrestricted xenon and xenon confined in the pores of the aerogel. The asymmetrical nature of the dispersion pattern alludes to the existence of a stationary and a flow regime in the aerogel. An exchange time constant is determined to characterize the gas transfer between them. As a general methodology, this technique provides insights into the dynamics of flow in porous media where several phases or chemical species may be present.

  3. The radiation gas detectors with novel nanoporous converter for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, H.; Saramad, S.

    2018-02-01

    For many reason it is tried to improve the quantum efficiency (QE) of position sensitive gas detectors. For energetic X-rays, the imaging systems usually consist of a bulk converter and gas amplification region. But the bulk converters have their own limitation. For X-rays, the converter thickness should be increased to achieve a greater detection efficiency, however in this case, the chance of escaping the photoelectrons is reduced. To overcome this limitation, a new type of converter, called a nanoporous converter such as Anodizing Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane with higher surface to volume ratio is proposed. According to simulation results with GATE code, for this nanoporous converter with the 1 mm thickness and inter pore distance of 627 nm, for 20-100 keV X-ray energies with a reasonable gas pressure and different pore diameters, the QE can be one order of magnitude greater than the bulk ones, which is a new approach for proposing high QE position sensitive gas detectors for medical imaging application and also high energy physics.

  4. A wide field-of-view imaging DOAS instrument for two-dimensional trace gas mapping from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, A.; Altube, P.; Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Hartmann, J.; Meier, A. C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed for the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping. The instrument has been characterized and successfully operated from aircraft. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved from the AirMAP observations. A major benefit of the push-broom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a charge coupled device (CCD) frame-transfer detector. A broad field of view across track of around 48° is achieved with wide-angle entrance optics. This leads to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible instrument positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m depending on flight altitude. The number of viewing directions is chosen from a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 individual fibres. The selection is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Observations at 30 m spatial resolution are obtained when flying at 1000 m altitude and making use of all 35 viewing directions. This makes the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small-scale variability. The position and aircraft attitude are taken into account for accurate spatial mapping using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken in June 2011. AirMAP was operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH-2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium-sized coal-fired power plant in north

  5. VUV Absorption Spectra of Gas-Phase Quinoline in the 3.5 - 10.7 eV Photon Energy Range.

    PubMed

    Leach, Sydney; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Un, Sun

    2018-06-16

    The absorption spectrum of quinoline was measured in the gas phase between 3.5 and 10.7 eV using a synchrotron photon source. A large number of sharp and broad spectral features were observed, some of which have plasmon-type collective π-electron modes contributing to their intensities. Eight valence electronic transitions were assigned, considerably extending the number of π-π* transitions previously observed mainly in solution. The principal factor in solution red-shifts is found to be the Lorentz-Lorenz polarizability parameter. Rydberg bands, observed for the first time, are analysed into eight different series, converging to the D0 ground and two excited electronic states, D3 and D4, of the quinoline cation. The R1 series limit is 8.628 eV for the first ionization energy of quinoline, a value more precise than previously published. This value, combined with cation electronic transition data provides precise energies, respectively 10.623 eV and 11.355 eV, for the D3 and D4 states. The valence transition assignments are based on DFT calculations as well as on earlier Pariser-Parr-Pople SCF LCAO MO results. The relative quality of the P-P-P and DFT data is discussed. Both are far from spectroscopic accuracy concerning electronic excited states but were nevertheless useful for our assignments. Our time-dependent DFT calculations of quinoline are excellent for its ground state properties such as geometry, rotational constants, dipole moment and vibrational frequencies, which agree well with experimental observations. Vibrational components of the valence and Rydberg transitions mainly involve C-H bend and C=C and C=N stretch modes. Astrophysical applications of the VUV absorption of quinoline are briefly discussed.

  6. Interstellar Gas-phase Element Depletions in the Small Magellanic Cloud: A Guide to Correcting for Dust in QSO Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.; Wallerstein, George

    2017-04-01

    We present data on the gas-phase abundances for 9 different elements in the interstellar medium of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on the strengths of ultraviolet absorption features over relevant velocities in the spectra of 18 stars within the SMC. From this information and the total abundances defined by the element fractions in young stars in the SMC, we construct a general interpretation on how these elements condense into solid form onto dust grains. As a group, the elements Si, S, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn exhibit depletion sequences similar to those in the local part of our Galaxy defined by Jenkins. The elements Mg and Ti deplete less rapidly in the SMC than in the Milky Way, and Mn depletes more rapidly. We speculate that these differences might be explained by the different chemical affinities to different existing grain substrates. For instance, there is evidence that the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the SMC are significantly lower than those in the Milky Way. We propose that the depletion sequences that we observed for the SMC may provide a better model for interpreting the element abundances in low-metallicity Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems that are recorded in the spectra of distant quasars and gamma-ray burst afterglows. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and additional data obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associations of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program nr. 13778.

  7. Design and use of the IR gas-cloud scanner for measurement and imaging of the spatial distribution of gases at workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Kuile, Willem M.; van Veen, J. J.; Knoll, Bas

    1995-02-01

    Usual sampling methods and instruments for checking compliance with `threshold limit values' (TLV) of gaseous components do not provide much information on the mechanism which caused the measured workday average concentration. In the case of noncompliance this information is indispensable for the design of cost effective measures. The infrared gas cloud (IGC) scanner visualizes the spatial distribution of specific gases at a workplace in a quantitative image with a calibrated grayvalue scale. This helps to find the cause of an over- exposure, and so it permits effective abatement of high exposures in the working environment. This paper deals with the technical design of the IGC scanner. Its use is illustrated by some real-world problems. The measuring principle and the technical operation of the IGC-scanner are described. Special attention is given to the pros and cons of retro-reflector screens, the noise reduction methods and image presentation and interpretation. The latter is illustrated by the images produced by the measurements. Essentially the IGC scanner can be used for selective open-path measurement of all gases with a concentration in the ppm range and sufficiently strong distinct absorption lines in the infrared region between 2.5 micrometers and 14.0 micrometers . Further it could be useful for testing the efficiency of ventilation systems and the remote detection of gas leaks. We conclude that a new powerful technique has been added to the industrial hygiene facilities for controlling and improving the work environment.

  8. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5-6 J/cm2) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis.

  9. Technical Note: Detection of gas bubble leakage via correlation of water column multibeam images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.; Papenberg, C.

    2012-03-01

    Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast, modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. Up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations and more sophisticated visualization and processing techniques are needed. Here, we present water column backscatter data acquired with a 50 kHz prototype multibeam system over a period of 75 seconds. Display types are of swath-images as well as of a "re-sorted" singlebeam presentation. Thus, individual and/or groups of gas bubbles rising from the 24 m deep seafloor clearly emerge in the acoustic images, making it possible to estimate rise velocities. A sophisticated processing scheme is introduced to identify those rising gas bubbles in the hydroacoustic data. We apply a cross-correlation technique adapted from particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) to the acoustic backscatter images. Temporal and spatial drift patterns of the bubbles are assessed and are shown to match very well to measured and theoretical rise patterns. The application of this processing to our field data gives clear results with respect to unambiguous bubble detection and remote bubble rise velocimetry. The method can identify and exclude the main source of misinterpretations, i.e. fish-mediated echoes. Although image-based cross-correlation techniques are well known in the field of fluid mechanics for high resolution and non-inversive current flow field analysis, we present the first application of this technique as an acoustic bubble detector.

  10. A three-color absorption/scattering imaging technique for simultaneous measurements on distributions of temperature and fuel concentration in a spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yuyin

    2018-04-01

    A three-color imaging technique was proposed for simultaneous measurements on distributions of fuel/air mixture temperature and fuel vapor/liquid concentrations in evaporating sprays. The idea is based on that the vapor concentration is proportional to the absorption of vapor to UV light, the liquid-phase concentration is related to the light extinction due to scattering of droplet to visible light, and the mixture temperature can be correlated to the absorbance ratio at two absorbing wavelengths or narrow bands. For verifying the imaging system, the molar absorption coefficients of p-xylene at the three narrow bands, which were centered respectively at 265, 289, and 532 nm with FWHM of 10 nm, were measured in a specially designed calibration chamber at different temperatures (423-606 K) and pressure of 3.6 bar. It was found that the ratio of the molar absorption coefficients of p-xylene at the two narrow bands centered at the two UV wavelengths is sensitive to the mixture temperature. On the other hand, the distributions of fuel vapor/liquid concentrations can be obtained by use of absorbance due to ultraviolet absorption of vapor and visible light scattering of droplets. Combining these two methods, a simultaneous measurement on distributions of mixture temperature and fuel vapor/liquid concentrations can be realized. In addition, the temperature field obtained from the ratio of the two absorbing narrow bands can be further used to improve the measurement accuracy of vapor/liquid concentrations, because the absorption coefficients depend on temperature. This diagnostic was applied to an evaporating spray inside a high-temperature and high-pressure constant volume chamber.

  11. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA–DOE–USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5 m to 760.1 m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9 m and 661.0 m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70–75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20–120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas.

  12. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5. m to 760.1. m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9. m and 661.0. m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70-75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20-120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas. ?? 2009.

  13. Transient Electromagnetic Modelling and Imaging of Thin Resistive Structures: Applications for Gas Hydrate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    Gas hydrates are a solid, ice-like mixture of water and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. They are found under the permafrost and to a far greater extent under the ocean, usually at water depths greater than 300m. Hydrates are a potential energy resource, a possible factor in climate change, and a geohazard. For these reasons, it is critical that gas hydrate deposits are quantitatively assessed so that their concentrations, locations and distributions may be established. Due to their ice-like nature, hydrates are electrically insulating. Consequently, a method which remotely detects changes in seafloor electrical conductivity, such as marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM), is a useful geophysical tool for marine gas hydrate exploration. Hydrates are geometrically complex structures. Advanced electromagnetic modelling and imaging techniques are crucial for proper survey design and data interpretation. I develop a method to model thin resistive structures in conductive host media which may be useful in building approximate geological models of gas hydrate deposits using arrangements of multiple, bent sheets. I also investigate the possibility of interpreting diffusive electromagnetic data using seismic imaging techniques. To be processed in this way, such data must first be transformed into its non-diffusive, seismic-like counterpart. I examine such a transform from both an analytical and a numerical point of view, focusing on methods to overcome inherent numerical instabilities. This is the first step to applying seismic processing techniques to CSEM data to rapidly and efficiently image resistive gas hydrate structures. The University of Toronto marine electromagnetics group has deployed a permanent marine CSEM array offshore Vancouver Island, in the framework of the NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory, for the purposes of monitoring gas hydrate deposits. In this thesis I also propose and examine a new CSEM survey technique for gas hydrate which would

  14. Optical Pumping Spin Exchange 3He Gas Cells for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Kim, A.; Jung, Y.; Woo, S.; Yurov, M.; Jang, J.

    2009-08-01

    We present a device for spin-exchange optical pumping system to produce large quantities of polarized noble gases for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A method and design of apparatus for pumping the polarization of noble gases is described. The method and apparatus enable production, storage and usage of hyperpolarized noble gases for different purposes, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging of human and animal subjects. Magnetic imaging agents breathed into lungs can be observed by the radio waves of the MRI scanner and report back physical and functional information about lung's health and desease. The technique known as spin exchange optical pumping is used. Nuclear magnetic resonance is implemented to measure the polarization of hyperpolarized gas. The cells prepared and sealed under high vacuum after handling Alkali metals into the cell and filling with the 3He-N2 mixture. The cells could be refilled. The 3He reaches around 50% polarization in 5-15 hours.

  15. Retrieval of Vertical Aerosol and Trace Gas Distributions from Polarization Sensitive Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Friess, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    An accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols is crucial for our understanding of the chemical and dynamical processes in the lower troposphere. Their accurate determination is typically only possible by means of laborious and expensive airborne in-situ measurements but in the recent decades, numerous promising ground-based remote sensing approaches have been developed. One of them is to infer vertical distributions from "Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy" (DOAS) measurements. DOAS is a technique to analyze UV- and visible radiation spectra of direct or scattered sunlight, which delivers information on different atmospheric parameters, integrated over the light path from space to the instrument. An appropriate set of DOAS measurements, recorded under different viewing directions (Multi-Axis DOAS) and thus different light path geometries, provides information on the atmospheric state. The vertical profiles of aerosol properties and trace gas concentrations can be retrieved from such a set by numerical inversion techniques, incorporating radiative transfer models. The information content of measured data is rarely sufficient for a well-constrained retrieval, particularly for atmospheric layers above 1 km. We showed in first simulations that, apart from spectral properties, the polarization state of skylight is likely to provide a significant amount of additional information on the atmospheric state and thus to enhance retrieval quality. We present first simulations, expectations and ideas on how to implement and characterize a polarization sensitive Multi-Axis DOAS instrument and a corresponding profile retrieval algorithm.

  16. Sensing Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Grown in MW Plasma Torch: Electronic and Electrochemical Behavior, Gas Sensing, Field Emission, IR Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Prášek, Jan; Pekárek, Jan; Svatoš, Vojtěch; Bannov, Alexander G.; Jašek, Ondřej; Synek, Petr; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 μm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‐modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures. PMID:25629702

  17. Technical Note: Detection of gas bubble leakage via correlation of water column multibeam images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.; Papenberg, C.

    2011-07-01

    Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. However, up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations. More sophisticated visualization and processing techniques for water column backscatter analysis are still under development. We here present such water column backscattering data gathered with a 50 kHz prototype multibeam system. Water column backscattering data is presented in videoframes grabbed over 75 s and a "re-sorted" singlebeam presentation. Thus individual gas bubbles rising from the 24 m deep seafloor clearly emerge in the acoustic images and rise velocities can be determined. A sophisticated processing scheme is introduced to identify those rising gas bubbles in the hydroacoustic data. It applies a cross-correlation technique similar to that used in Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) to the acoustic backscatter images. Tempo-spatial drift patterns of the bubbles are assessed and match very well measured and theoretical rise patterns. The application of this processing scheme to our field data gives impressive results with respect to unambiguous bubble detection and remote bubble rise velocimetry. The method can identify and exclude the main driver for misinterpretations, i.e. fish-mediated echoes. Even though image-based cross-correlation techniques are well known in the field of fluid mechanics for high resolution and non-inversive current flow field analysis, this technique was never applied in the proposed sense for an acoustic bubble detector.

  18. Design and development of a probe-based multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor for characterizing transient gas-parameter distributions in the intake systems of I.C. engines

    DOE PAGES

    Jatana, Gurneesh; Geckler, Sam; Koeberlein, David; ...

    2016-09-01

    We designed and developed a 4-probe multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor system for gas property measurements on the intake side of commercial multi-cylinder internal-combustion (I.C.) engines; the resulting cycle- and cylinder-resolved concentration, temperature and pressure measurements are applicable for assessing spatial and temporal variations in the recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) distribution at various locations along the intake gas path, which in turn is relevant to assessing cylinder charge uniformity, control strategies, and CFD models. Furthermore, the diagnostic is based on absorption spectroscopy and includes an H 2O absorption system (utilizing a 1.39 m distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser) for measuringmore » gas temperature, pressure, and H 2O concentration, and a CO 2 absorption system (utilizing a 2.7 m DFB laser) for measuring CO 2 concentration. The various lasers, optical components and detectors were housed in an instrument box, and the 1.39- m and 2.7- m lasers were guided to and from the engine-mounted probes via optical fibers and hollow waveguides, respectively. The 5kHz measurement bandwidth allows for near-crank angle resolved measurements, with a resolution of 1.2 crank angle degrees at 1000 RPM. Our use of compact stainless steel measurement probes enables simultaneous multi-point measurements at various locations on the engine with minimal changes to the base engine hardware; in addition to resolving large-scale spatial variations via simultaneous multi-probe measurements, local spatial gradients can be resolved by translating individual probes. Along with details of various sensor design features and performance, we also demonstrate validation of the spectral parameters of the associated CO 2 absorption transitions using both a multi-pass heated cell and the sensor probes.« less

  19. Gas Evolution in Operating Lithium-Ion Batteries Studied In Situ by Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Barbara; Sommer, Heino; Mannes, David; Kaestner, Anders; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Gas generation as a result of electrolyte decomposition is one of the major issues of high-performance rechargeable batteries. Here, we report the direct observation of gassing in operating lithium-ion batteries using neutron imaging. This technique can be used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative information by applying a new analysis approach. Special emphasis is placed on high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite pouch cells. Continuous gassing due to oxidation and reduction of electrolyte solvents is observed. To separate gas evolution reactions occurring on the anode from those associated with the cathode interface and to gain more insight into the gassing behavior of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells, neutron experiments were also conducted systematically on other cathode/anode combinations, including LiFePO4/graphite, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12. In addition, the data were supported by gas pressure measurements. The results suggest that metal dissolution in the electrolyte and decomposition products resulting from the high potentials adversely affect the gas generation, particularly in the first charge cycle (i.e., during graphite solid-electrolyte interface layer formation). PMID:26496823

  20. High-resolution seismic imaging of the gas and gas hydrate system at Green Canyon 955 in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W. W.; Frye, M.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution 2D seismic data acquired by the USGS in 2013 enable detailed characterization of the gas and gas hydrate system at lease block Green Canyon 955 (GC955) in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Earlier studies, based on conventional industry 3D seismic data and logging-while-drilling (LWD) borehole data acquired in 2009, identified general aspects of the regional and local depositional setting along with two gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and one layer containing fracture-filling gas hydrate within fine-grained sediments. These studies also highlighted a number of critical remaining questions. The 2013 high-resolution 2D data fill a significant gap in our previous understanding of the site by enabling interpretation of the complex system of faults and gas chimneys that provide conduits for gas flow and thus control the gas hydrate distribution observed in the LWD data. In addition, we have improved our understanding of the main channel/levee sand reservoir body, mapping in fine detail the levee sequences and the fault system that segments them into individual reservoirs. The 2013 data provide a rarely available high-resolution view of a levee reservoir package, with sequential levee deposits clearly imaged. Further, we can calculate the total gas hydrate resource present in the main reservoir body, refining earlier estimates. Based on the 2013 seismic data and assumptions derived from the LWD data, we estimate an in-place volume of 840 million cubic meters or 29 billion cubic feet of gas in the form of gas hydrate. Together, these interpretations provide a significantly improved understanding of the gas hydrate reservoirs and the gas migration system at GC955.

  1. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn; Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera’s capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantifymore » lattice deformation and fracture; fracture is dominated by splitting cracks followed by wing cracks, and diffraction peaks are broadened likely due to mosaic spread. Our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for studying high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes.« less

  2. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; Huang, J. W.; Zeng, X. L.

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera’s capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantifymore » lattice deformation and fracture; diffraction peak broadening is largely caused by fracture-induced strain inhomogeneity. Finally, our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for revealing and understanding high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes.« less

  3. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, D.; Huang, J. W.; Zeng, X. L.; ...

    2016-05-23

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera’s capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantifymore » lattice deformation and fracture; diffraction peak broadening is largely caused by fracture-induced strain inhomogeneity. Finally, our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for revealing and understanding high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes.« less

  4. Physical characteristics of a low-dose gas microstrip detector for orthopedic x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Despres, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gilles; Gravel, Pierre

    2005-04-01

    A new scanning slit gas detector dedicated to orthopedic x-ray imaging is presented and evaluated in terms of its fundamental imaging characteristics. The system is based on the micromesh gaseous structure detector and achieves primary signal amplification through electronic avalanche in the gas. This feature, together with high quantum detection efficiency and fan-beam geometry, allows for imaging at low radiation levels. The system is composed of 1764 channels spanning a width of 44.8 cm and is capable of imaging an entire patient at speeds of up to 15 cm/s. The resolution was found to be anisotropic and significantly affected bymore » the beam quality in the horizontal direction, but otherwise sufficient for orthopedic studies. As a consequence of line-by-line acquisition, the images contain some ripple components due to mechanical vibrations combined with variations in the x-ray tube output power. The reported detective quantum efficiency (DQE) values are relatively low (0.14 to 0.20 at 0.5 mm{sup -1}) as a consequence of a suboptimal collimation geometry. The DQE values were found to be unaffected by the exposure down to 7 {mu}Gy, suggesting that the system is quantum limited even for low radiation levels. A system composed of two orthogonal detectors is already in use and can produce dual-view full body scans at low doses. This device could contribute to reduce the risk of radiation induced cancer in sensitive clientele undergoing intensive x-ray procedures, like young scoliotic women.« less

  5. Infrared imaging spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Distribution and motions of the ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, T. M.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Forrest, W. J.; Pipher, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    High spatial spectral resolution IR images of the Galactic center in the Br-gamma recombination line of hydrogen were taken. A coherent filament of gas extending from north of IRS 1, curving around IRS 16/Sgr A complex, and continuing to the southwest, is seen. Nine stellar sources have associated Br-gamma emission. The total Br-gamma line flux in the filament is approximately 3 x 10 exp -15 W/sq m. The distribution and kinematics of the northern arm suggest orbital motion; the observations are accordingly fit with elliptical orbits in the field of a central point of mass.

  6. X-ray CT imaging and image-based modelling study of gas exchange in the rice rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affholder, Marie-Cecile; Keyes, Samuel David; Roose, Tiina; Heppell, James; Kirk, Guy

    2016-04-01

    We used X-ray computer tomography and image-based modelling to investigate CO2 uptake by rice roots growing in submerged soil, and its consequences for the chemistry and biology of the rhizosphere. From previous work, three processes are known to greatly modify the rhizophere of rice and other wetland plants: (1) oxygenation of the submerged, anoxic soil by O2 transported through the root gas channels (aerenchyma); (2) oxidation of ferrous iron and resulting accumulation of ferric oxide; and (3) pH changes due to protons formed in iron oxidation and released from the roots to balance excess intake of cations over anions. A further process, so far not much investigated, is the possibility of CO2 uptake by the roots. Large amounts of CO2 accumulate in submerged soils because CO2 formed in soil respiration escapes only slowly by diffusion through the water-saturated soil pores. There is therefore a large CO2 gradient between the soil and the aerenchyma inside the root, and CO2 may be taken up by the roots and vented to the atmosphere. The extent of this and its consequences for rhizosphere chemistry and biology are poorly understood. We grew rice plants in a submerged, strongly-reduced, Philippine rice soil contained in 10-cm diameter, 20-cm deep Perspex pots. Four-week old rice seedlings, grown in nutrient culture, were transplanted into the pots at either 1 or 4 plants per pot, planted closely together. After 3 and 4 weeks, the pots were analysed with an X-ray CT scanner (Custom Nikon/Xtek Hutch; 80 mm by 56 mm field of view and 40 μm voxel size). Gas bubbles were extracted from the data by 3D median filtering and roots using a region-growth method. The images showed prominent and abundant gas bubbles in the soil bulk, but no or very few bubbles in the soil close to roots. There was a clear relation between the absence of gas bubbles and the presence of roots, as well as an increasing concentration of bubbles with depth through the soil. Analysis of the bubbles

  7. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  8. Influence of image charge effect on impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.

  9. The winter gap effect in methane leak detection and repair with optical gas imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, T. A.; Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2017-12-01

    Implementing effective leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs is essential for mitigating fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas operations. In Canada, newly proposed regulations will require that high-risk facilities be surveyed 3 times/yr for fugitive leaks. Like the United States, Canada promotes the use of Optical Gas Imaging cameras (OGIs) for detecting natural gas leaks during LDAR surveys. However, recent research suggests OGIs may perform poorly under adverse environmental conditions, especially in low temperatures. For regions like Canada that experience cold winters, OGIs may not be reliably used for months at a time, meaning that leaks may accumulate and emit for longer periods before being repaired. While considerable oil and gas activity occurs in high-latitude regions with cold winters, no research has explored how extended cold periods impact OGI-focused LDAR programs. To improve this understanding, we present a simple model exploring relationships among winter gap length, fugitive methane emissions, and investment input for LDAR programs employing OGI instruments in gas producing regions of different latitudes. Preliminary results suggest that longer gaps between LDAR surveys caused by cold temperatures result in either 1) higher total emissions for the year, or 2) greater time and equipment investment in LDAR programs to achieve emissions mitigation equivalent to LDAR programs operating under ideal conditions. When weather constraints are removed and LDAR surveys are evenly spaced throughout the year, emissions mitigation is optimized. However, as the winter gap duration and the size of the implicated area increases, fugitive leaks last longer. Furthermore, a spillover effect is observed as LDAR crews become overwhelmed with the high volume of work required as temperatures increase in the spring. Our model adds weight to the argument that LDAR programs should be tailored to regional needs, and that regulators should be more cognisant of

  10. Imaging the cold molecular gas in SDSS J1148 + 5251 at z = 6.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Irina I.; Carilli, Chris L.; Wagg, Jeff; Walter, Fabian; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Green, David A.; Fan, Xiaohui; Menten, Karl; Wang, Ran

    2015-08-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the CO (J = 2 → 1) line emission towards the z = 6.419 quasar SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 (J1148 + 5251). The molecular gas is found to be marginally resolved with a major axis of 0.9 arcsec (consistent with previous size measurements of the CO (J = 7 → 6) emission). We observe tentative evidence for extended line emission towards the south-west on a scale of ˜1.4 arcsec, but this is only detected at 3.3σ significance and should be confirmed. The position of the molecular emission region is in excellent agreement with previous detections of low-frequency radio continuum emission as well as [C II] line and thermal dust continuum emission. These CO (J = 2 → 1) observations provide an anchor for the low-excitation part of the molecular line spectral energy distribution. We find no evidence for extended low-excitation component, neither in the spectral line energy distribution nor the image. We fit a single kinetic gas temperature model of 50 K. We revisit the gas and dynamical masses in light of this new detection of a low-order transition of CO, and confirm previous findings that there is no extended reservoir of cold molecular gas in J1148 + 5251, and that the source departs substantially from the low-z relationship between black hole mass and bulge mass. Hence, the characteristics of J1148 + 5251 at z = 6.419 are very similar to z ˜ 2 quasars, in the lack of a diffuse cold gas reservoir and kpc-size compactness of the star-forming region.

  11. KPFM/AFM imaging on TiO2(110) surface in O2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Eiji; Wen, Huan Fei; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    We have carried out high-speed imaging of the topography and local contact potential difference (LCPD) on rutile TiO2(110) in O2 gas by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We succeeded in KPFM/AFM imaging with atomic resolution at 1 frame min-1 and observed the adsorbate on a hydroxylated TiO2(110) surface. The observed adsorbate is considered to be oxygen adatoms (Oa), hydroperoxyls (HO2), or terminal hydroxyls (OHt). After adsorption, changes in the topography and the LCPD of the adsorbate were observed. This phenomenon is thought to be caused by the charge transfer of the adsorbate. This technique has the potential to observe catalytic behavior with atomic resolution.

  12. Revealing H I gas in emission and absorption on pc to kpc scales in a galaxy at z ˜ 0.017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Srianand, R.; Farnes, J. S.; Pidopryhora, Y.; Vivek, M.; Paragi, Z.; Noterdaeme, P.; Oosterloo, T.; Petitjean, P.

    2018-05-01

    We present a detailed study of the quasar-galaxy pair: J1243+4043-UGC 07904. The sight line of the background quasar ( zq = 1.5266) passes through a region of the galaxy (zg = 0.0169) at an impact parameter of 6.9 kpc with high metallicity (0.5 Z⊙) and negligible dust extinction. We detect H I 21-cm absorption from the foreground galaxy at arcsecond and milliarcsecond scales. For typical cold neutral medium (CNM) temperatures in the Milky Way, this 21-cm absorber can be classified as a damped Lyα absorber (DLA). We infer the harmonic mean spin temperature of the gas to be ˜400 K and for a simple two-phase medium we estimate the CNM fraction to be fCNM = 0.27. This is remarkably consistent with the CNM fraction observed in the Galaxy and less than that of high-redshift DLAs. The quasar exhibits a core-jet morphology on milliarcsecond scales, corresponding to an overall extent of ˜9 pc at zg. We show that the size of CNM absorbing clouds associated with the foreground galaxy is >5 pc and they may be part of cold gas structures that extend beyond ˜35 pc. Interestingly, the rotation measure of quasar J1243+4043 is higher than any other source in samples of quasars with high-z DLAs. However, we do not find any detectable differences in rotation measures and polarization fraction of sight lines with or without high-z (z ≥ 2) DLAs or low-z (z ≤ 0.3) 21-cm absorbers. Finally, the foreground galaxy UGC 07904 is also part of a galaxy group. We serendipitously detect H I 21-cm emission from four members of the group, and an ˜80 kpc long H I bridge connecting two of the other members. The latter, together with the properties of the group members, suggests that the group is a highly interactive environment.

  13. A further study to investigate the detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints using visible absorption and luminescence chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Payne, Gemma; Reedy, Brian; Lennard, Chris; Comber, Bruce; Exline, David; Roux, Claude

    2005-05-28

    This study investigated the application of chemical imaging to the detection of latent fingerprints using the Condor macroscopic chemical imaging system (ChemImage Corp., Pittsburgh, USA). Methods were developed and optimised for the visualisation of untreated latent fingerprints and fingerprints processed with DFO, ninhydrin, cyanoacrylate, and cyanoacrylate plus rhodamine 6G stain. The results obtained with chemical imaging were compared to the detection achieved using conventional imaging techniques. The Condor significantly improved the detection of many prints, especially those that might be considered poor quality or borderline prints. Prints on newspaper treated with ninhydrin and DFO, and prints on white and yellow paper treated with ninhydrin, benefited the most from chemical imaging detection. In many cases, fingerprints undetectable using conventional imaging techniques could be visualised with chemical imaging. Ridge detail from untreated prints on yellow paper was also detected using the Condor. When prints of high quality were examined, both detection techniques produced quality results. The results of this project demonstrate that chemical imaging offers advantages over conventional visualisation techniques when examining latent fingerprints, especially those that would be considered difficult, such as weak prints or prints on surfaces that produce highly luminescent backgrounds. Standard testing procedures for the detection and enhancement of fingerprints by chemical imaging are presented and discussed.

  14. The role of gas in determining image quality and resolution during in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Yuanyuan; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-05-24

    As gas-solid heterogeneous catalytic reactions are molecular in nature, a full mechanistic understanding of the process requires atomic scale characterization under realistic operating conditions. While atomic resolution imaging has become a routine in modern high-vacuum (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), both image quality and resolution nominally degrade when reaction gases are introduced. In this work, we systematically assess the effects of different gases at various pressures on the quality and resolution of images obtained at room temperature in the annular dark field STEM imaging mode using a differentially pumped (DP) gas cell. This imaging mode is largely free from inelasticmore » scattering effects induced by the presence of gases and retains good imaging properties over a wide range of gas mass/pressures. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of the ESTEM with atomic resolution images of a complex oxide alkane oxidation catalyst MoVNbTeOx (M1) immersed in light and heavy gas environments.« less

  15. Multi-slice Fractional Ventilation Imaging in Large Animals with Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Kiarash; Xu, Yinan; Hamedani, Hooman; Xin, Yi; Profka, Harrilla; Rajaei, Jennia; Kadlecek, Stephen; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive assessment of regional lung ventilation is of critical importance in quantifying the severity of disease and evaluating response to therapy in many pulmonary diseases. This work presents for the first time the implementation of a hyperpolarized (HP) gas MRI technique for measuring whole-lung regional fractional ventilation (r) in Yorkshire pigs (n = 5) through the use of a gas mixing and delivery device in supine position. The proposed technique utilizes a series of back-to-back HP gas breaths with images acquired during short end-inspiratory breath-holds. In order to decouple the RF pulse decay effect from ventilatory signal build-up in the airways, regional distribution of flip angle (α) was estimated in the imaged slices by acquiring a series of back-to-back images with no inter-scan time delay during a breath-hold at the tail-end of the ventilation sequence. Analysis was performed to assess the multi-slice ventilation model sensitivity to noise, oxygen and number of flip angle images. The optimal α value was determined based on minimizing the error in r estimation; αopt = 5–6° for the set of acquisition parameters in pigs. The mean r values for the group of pigs were 0.27±0.09, 0.35±0.06, 0.40±0.04 for ventral, middle and dorsal slices, respectively, (excluding conductive airways r > 0.9). A positive gravitational (ventral-dorsal) ventilation gradient effect was present in all animals. The trachea and major conductive airways showed a uniform near-unity r value, with progressively smaller values corresponding to smaller diameter airways, and ultimately leading to lung parenchyma. Results demonstrate the feasibility of measurements of fractional ventilation in large species, and provides a platform to address technical challenges associated with long breathing time scales through the optimization of acquisition parameters in species with a pulmonary physiology very similar to that of human beings. PMID:22290603

  16. Differential-optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two-cell spectrophone detects trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants by measuring absorption coefficients of gases with various laser sources. Device measures pressure difference between two tapered cells with differential manometer. Background signal is reduced by balanced window heating and balanced carrier gas absorption in two cells.

  17. Seismic imaging of gas hydrates in the northernmost South China sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tan K.; Yang, Ben Jhong; Deng, Jia-Ming; Lee, Chao-Shing; Liu, Char-Shine

    2010-03-01

    Horizon velocity analysis and pre-stack depth migration of seismic profiles collected by R/V Maurice Ewing in 1995 across the accretionary prism off SW Taiwan and along the continental slope of the northernmost South China Sea were implemented for identifying gas hydrates. Similarly, a survey of 32 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS), with a spacing of about 500 m, was conducted for exploring gas hydrates on the accretionary prism off SW Taiwan in April 2006. Travel times of head wave, refraction, reflection and converted shear wave identified from the hydrophone, vertical and horizontal components of these OBS data were applied for imaging P-wave velocity and Poisson’s ratio of hydrate-bearing sediments. In the accretionary prism off SW Taiwan, we found hydrate-bearing sediment, with a thickness of about 100-200 m, a relatively high P-wave velocity of 1.87-2.04 km/s and a relatively low Poisson’s ratio of 0.445-0.455, below anticlinal ridges near imbricate emergent thrusts in the drainage system of the Penghu and Kaoping Canyons. Free-gas layer, with a thickness of about 30-120 m, a relatively low P-wave velocity of 1.4-1.8 km/s and a relatively high Poisson’s ratio (0.47-0.48), was also observed below most of the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSR). Subsequently, based on rock physics of the three-phase effective medium, we evaluated the hydrate saturation of about 12-30% and the free-gas saturation of about 1-4%. The highest saturation (30% and 4%) of gas hydrates is found below anticlines due to N-S trending thrust-bounded folds and NE-SW thrusting and strike-slip ramps in the lower slope of the accretionary prism. We suggest that fluid may have migrated through the relay-fault array due to decollement folding and gas hydrates have been trapped in anticlines formed by the basement rises along the thrust faults. In contrast, in the rifted continental margin of the northernmost South China Sea, P-wave velocities of 1.9-2.2 km/s and 1.3-1.6 km/s, and thicknesses

  18. Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods: a polar/imaging nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Remer, Lorraine A.; Correia, Alexandre L.; Tabacniks, Manfredo; Lima, Adriana R.

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of aerosol scattering and absorption properties is essential to accurate radiative transfer calculations in the atmosphere. Applications of this work include remote sensing of aerosols, corrections for aerosol distortions in satellite imagery of the surface, global climate models, and atmospheric beam propagation. Here we demonstrate successful instrument development at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics at UMBC that better characterizes aerosol scattering phase matrix using an imaging polar nephelometer (LACO-I-Neph) and enables measurement of spectral aerosol absorption from 200 nm to 2500 nm. The LACO-I-Neph measures the scattering phase function from 1.5° to 178.5° scattering angle with sufficient sensitivity to match theoretical expectations of Rayleigh scattering of various gases. Previous measurements either lack a sufficiently wide range of measured scattering angles or their sensitivity is too low and therefore the required sample amount is prohibitively high for in situ measurements. The LACO-I-Neph also returns expected characterization of the linear polarization signal of Rayleigh scattering. Previous work demonstrated the ability of measuring spectral absorption of aerosol particles using a reflectance technique characterization of aerosol samples collected on Nuclepore filters. This first generation methodology yielded absorption measurements from 350 nm to 2500 nm. Here we demonstrate the possibility of extending this wavelength range into the deep UV, to 200 nm. This extended UV region holds much promise in identifying and characterizing aerosol types and species. The second generation, deep UV, procedure requires careful choice of filter substrates. Here the choice of substrates is explored and preliminary results are provided.

  19. Higs-instrument: design and demonstration of a high performance gas concentration imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Klop, W. A.; Visser, H.; van Brug, H.; Human, J.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and environmental conditions are high on the political agenda of international governments. Laws and regulations are being setup all around the world to improve the air quality and to reduce the impact. The growth of a number of trace gasses, including CO2, Methane and NOx are especially interesting due to their environmental impact. The regulations made are being based on both models and measurements of the trend of those trace gases over the years. Now the regulations are in place also enforcement and therewith measurements become more and more important. Instruments enabling high spectral and spatial resolution as well as high accurate measurements of trace gases are required to deliver the necessary inputs. Nowadays those measurements are usually performed by space based spectrometers. The requirement for high spectral resolution and measurement accuracy significantly increases the size of the instruments. As a result the instrument and satellite becomes very expensive to develop and to launch. Specialized instruments with a small volume and the required performance will offer significant advantages in both cost and performance. Huib's Innovative Gas Sensor (HIGS, named after its inventor Huib Visser), currently being developed at TNO is an instrument that achieves exactly that. Designed to measure only a single gas concentration, opposed to deriving it from a spectrum, it achieves high performance within a small design volume. The instrument enables instantaneous imaging of the gas distribution of the selected gas. An instrument demonstrator has been developed for NO2 detection. Laboratory measurements proved the measurement technique to be successful. An on-sky measurement campaign is in preparation. This paper addresses both the instrument design as well as the demonstrated performances.

  20. Absorption-enhanced imaging through scattering media using carbon black nano-particles: from visible to near infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Robatjazi, Hossein; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J.

    2018-05-01

    Imaging through scattering media can be improved with the addition of absorbers, since multiply-scattered photons, with their longer path length, are absorbed with a higher probability than ballistic photons. The image resolution enhancement is substantially greater when imaging through isotropic scatterers than when imaging through an ensemble of strongly forward-scattering particles. However, since the angular scattering distribution is determined by the size of the scatterers with respect to the wavelength of incident light, particles that are forward scatterers at visible wavelengths can be isotropic scatterers at infrared (IR) wavelengths. Here, we show that substantial image resolution enhancement can be achieved in the near-infrared wavelength regime for particles that are forward scattering at visible wavelengths using carbon black nanoparticles as a broadband absorber. This observation provides a new strategy for image enhancement through scattering media: by selecting the appropriate wavelength range for imaging, in this case the near-IR, the addition of absorbers more effectively enhances the image resolution.

  1. Retrievals of atmospheric variables on the gas giants from ground-based mid-infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Fisher, B. M.; Parrish, P. D.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2009-03-01

    Thermal-infrared imaging of Jupiter and Saturn using the NASA/IRTF and Subaru observatories are quantitatively analyzed to assess the capabilities for reproducing and extending the zonal mean atmospheric results of the Cassini/CIRS experiment. We describe the development of a robust, systematic and reproducible approach to the acquisition and reduction of planetary images in the mid-infrared (7-25 μm), and perform an adaptation and validation of the optimal estimation, correlated- k retrieval algorithm described by Irwin et al. [Irwin, P., Teanby, N., de Kok, R., Fletcher, L., Howett, C., Tsang, C., Wilson, C., Calcutt, S., Nixon, C., Parrish, P., 2008. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 109 (6), 1136-1150] for channel-integrated radiances. Synthetic spectral analyses and a comparison to Cassini results are used to verify our abilities to retrieve temperatures, haze opacities and gaseous abundances from filtered imaging. We find that ground-based imaging with a sufficiently high spatial resolution is able to reproduce the three-dimensional temperature and para-H 2 fields measured by spacecraft visiting Jupiter and Saturn, allowing us to investigate vertical wind shear, pressure and, with measured cloud-top winds, Ertel potential vorticity on potential temperature surfaces. Furthermore, by scaling vertical profiles of NH 3, PH 3, haze opacity and hydrocarbons as free parameters during thermal retrievals, we can produce meridional results comparable with CIRS spectroscopic investigations. This paper demonstrates that mid-IR imaging instruments operating at ground-based observatories have access to several dynamical and chemical diagnostics of the atmospheric state of the gas giants, offering the prospect for quantitative studies over much longer baselines and often covering much wider areas than is possible from spaceborne platforms.

  2. Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Baroncelli, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.

    1995-05-01

    Our institute has recently developed a differential optical absorption spectrometry system called the gas analyzer spectrometer correlating optical absorption differences (GASCOAD), which features as a detector a linear image sensor that uses an artificial light source for long-path tropospheric-pollution monitoring. The GASCOAD, its method of eliminating interference from background sky light, and subsequent spectral analysis are reported and discussed. The spectrometer was used from 7 to 22 February 1993 in Milan, a heavily polluted metropolitan area, to measure the concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, and HNO2 averaged over a 1.7-km horizontal light path. The findings are reported and briefly discussed.

  3. Nitrogen Gas Field Ion Source (GFIS) Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Secondary Electron Imaging: A First Look.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marek E; Yasaka, Anto; Akabori, Masashi; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    The recent technological advance of the gas field ion source (GFIS) and its successful integration into systems has renewed the interest in the focused ion beam (FIB) technology. Due to the atomically small source size and the use of light ions, the limitations of the liquid metal ion source are solved as device dimensions are pushed further towards the single-digit nanometer size. Helium and neon ions are the most widely used, but a large portfolio of available ion species is desirable, to allow a wide range of applications. Among argon and hydrogen, $${\\rm N}_{2}^{{\\plus}} $$ ions offer unique characteristics due to their covalent bond and their use as dopant for various carbon-based materials including diamond. Here, we provide a first look at the $${\\rm N}_{2}^{{\\plus}} $$ GFIS-FIB enabled imaging of a large selection of microscopic structures, including gold on carbon test specimen, thin metal films on insulator and nanostructured carbon-based devices, which are among the most actively researched materials in the field of nanoelectronics. The results are compared with images acquired by He+ ions, and we show that $${\\rm N}_{2}^{{\\plus}} $$ GFIS-FIB can offer improved material contrast even at very low imaging dose and is more sensitive to the surface roughness.

  4. A new approach for direct imaging of Alpha radiation by using Micro Pattern Gas Detectors in SQS mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, R.; Negarestani, A.; Mahani, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the design, simulation and construction of three micro pattern gas-detectors, THGEM, with different geometric dimensions are presented. Moreover, their ability of operation in SQS mode to determine the incident rays position without using any conventional imaging system is investigated. In the presence of UV absorbing gas mixtures, the proportional mode of the gas detector operation is followed by SQS mode as soon as the visible light column appears at the ray entrance location. In the method employed, each THGEM hole as an image pixel independent of other holes can operate in SQS mode with emerging a light column. As a consequence, it can be used for alpha beam imaging since the brightness of each hole at a certain voltage is proportional to the number of primary electrons entering the hole.

  5. Noncontact and Wide-Field Characterization of the Absorption and Scattering Properties of Apple Fruit Using Spatial-Frequency Domain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dong; Fu, Xiaping; He, Xueming; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-01

    Spatial-frequency domain imaging (SFDI), as a noncontact, low-cost and wide-field optical imaging technique, offers great potential for agro-product safety and quality assessment through optical absorption (μa) and scattering (μ) property measurements. In this study, a laboratory-based SFDI system was constructed and developed for optical property measurement of fruits and vegetables. The system utilized a digital light projector to generate structured, periodic light patterns and illuminate test samples. The diffuse reflected light was captured by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with the resolution of 1280 × 960 pixels. Three wavelengths (460, 527, and 630 nm) were selected for image acquisition using bandpass filters in the system. The μa and μ were calculated in a region of interest (ROI, 200 × 300 pixels) via nonlinear least-square fitting. Performance of the system was demonstrated through optical property measurement of ‘Redstar’ apples. Results showed that the system was able to acquire spatial-frequency domain images for demodulation and calculation of the μa and μ. The calculated μa of apple tissue experiencing internal browning (IB) were much higher than healthy apple tissue, indicating that the SFDI technique had potential for IB tissue characterization.

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering holography for time-resolved imaging of methane gas.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Edenharder, Stefan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pulsed digital holographic detection is coupled to the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process for imaging gases. A Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm) has been used to pump methane gas (CH4) at pressures up to 12 bars. The frequency-tripled (355 nm) beam from the same laser was used to pump an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The Stokes beam (from the OPO) has been tuned to 629.93 nm so that the frequency difference between the pump (532 nm) and the Stokes beams fits a Raman active vibrational mode of the methane molecule (2922  cm-1). The pump beam has been spatially modulated with fringes produced in a Michelson interferometer. The pump and the Stokes beams were overlapped in time, space, and polarization on the gas molecules, resulting in a stimulated Raman gain of the Stokes beam and a corresponding loss of the pump beam through the SRS process. The resulting gain of the Stokes beam has been detected using pulsed digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two holograms of the Stokes beam, without and with the pump beam fringes present, were recorded. Intensity maps calculated from the recorded digital holograms showed amplification of the Stokes beam at the position of overlap with the pump beam fringes and the gas molecules. The gain of the Stokes beam has been separated from the background in the Fourier domain. A gain of about 4.5% at a pump beam average intensity of 4  MW/cm2 and a Stokes beam intensity of 0.16  MW/cm2 have been recorded at a gas pressure of 12 bars. The gain decreased linearly with decreasing gas pressure. The results show that SRS holography is a promising technique to pinpoint a specific species and record its spatial and temporal distribution.

  7. Tracing Cadmium from Culture to Spikelet: Noninvasive Imaging and Quantitative Characterization of Absorption, Transport, and Accumulation of Cadmium in an Intact Rice Plant1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shu; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishioka, Noriko S.; Kawachi, Naoki; Ito, Sayuri; Chino, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the absorption and short-term translocation of cadmium (Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa ‘Nipponbare’) quantitatively using serial images observed with a positron-emitting tracer imaging system. We fed a positron-emitting 107Cd (half-life of 6.5 h) tracer to the hydroponic culture solution and noninvasively obtained serial images of Cd distribution in intact rice plants at the vegetative stage and at the grain-filling stage every 4 min for 36 h. The rates of absorption of Cd by the root were proportional to Cd concentrations in the culture solution within the tested range of 0.05 to 100 nm. It was estimated that the radial transport from the culture to the xylem in the root tissue was completed in less than 10 min. Cd moved up through the shoot organs with velocities of a few centimeters per hour at both stages, which was obviously slower than the bulk flow in the xylem. Finally, Cd arrived at the panicles 7 h after feeding and accumulated there constantly, although no Cd was observed in the leaf blades within the initial 36 h. The nodes exhibited the most intensive Cd accumulation in the shoot at both stages, and Cd transport from the basal nodes to crown root tips was observed at the vegetative stage. We conclude that the nodes are the central organ where xylem-to-phloem transfer takes place and play a pivotal role in the half-day travel of Cd from the soil to the grains at the grain-filling stage. PMID:20172965

  8. Simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging of ventilation distribution and gas uptake in the human lung using hyperpolarized xenon-129

    PubMed Central

    Mugler, John P.; Altes, Talissa A.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Dregely, Isabel M.; Mata, Jaime F.; Miller, G. Wilson; Ketel, Stephen; Ketel, Jeffrey; Hersman, F. William; Ruppert, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Despite a myriad of technical advances in medical imaging, as well as the growing need to address the global impact of pulmonary diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, on health and quality of life, it remains challenging to obtain in vivo regional depiction and quantification of the most basic physiological functions of the lung—gas delivery to the airspaces and gas uptake by the lung parenchyma and blood—in a manner suitable for routine application in humans. We report a method based on MRI of hyperpolarized xenon-129 that permits simultaneous observation of the 3D distributions of ventilation (gas delivery) and gas uptake, as well as quantification of regional gas uptake based on the associated ventilation. Subjects with lung disease showed variations in gas uptake that differed from those in ventilation in many regions, suggesting that gas uptake as measured by this technique reflects such features as underlying pathological alterations of lung tissue or of local blood flow. Furthermore, the ratio of the signal associated with gas uptake to that associated with ventilation was substantially altered in subjects with lung disease compared with healthy subjects. This MRI-based method provides a way to quantify relationships among gas delivery, exchange, and transport, and appears to have significant potential to provide more insight into lung disease. PMID:21098267

  9. Geometric calibration of Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System of ESA's Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulyakov, Stepan; Ivanov, Anton; Thomas, Nicolas; Roloff, Victoria; Pommerol, Antoine; Cremonese, Gabriele; Weigel, Thomas; Fleuret, Francois

    2018-01-01

    There are many geometric calibration methods for "standard" cameras. These methods, however, cannot be used for the calibration of telescopes with large focal lengths and complex off-axis optics. Moreover, specialized calibration methods for the telescopes are scarce in literature. We describe the calibration method that we developed for the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) telescope, on board of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO). Although our method is described in the context of CaSSIS, with camera-specific experiments, it is general and can be applied to other telescopes. We further encourage re-use of the proposed method by making our calibration code and data available on-line.

  10. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Wesson, Roger; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O ii ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O ii ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [Oiii] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  11. In situ Charge Density Imaging of Metamaterials made with Switchable Two dimensionalElectron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0028 In-situ Charge-Density Imaging of Metamaterials from Switchable 2D electron gas CHANG BEOM EOM UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN...Imaging of Metamaterials made with Switchable Two-dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-16-1...using pulsed laser deposition atomic with in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). We have also demonstrated that the inline

  12. Theranostic gas-generating nanoparticles for targeted ultrasound imaging and treatment of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangwook; Min, Hyun-Su; You, Dong Gil; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2016-02-10

    The development of safe and efficient diagnostic/therapeutic agents for treating cancer in clinics remains challenging due to the potential toxicity of conventional agents. Although the annual incidence of neuroblastoma is not that high, the disease mainly occurs in children, a population vulnerable to toxic contrast agents and therapeutics. We demonstrate here that cancer-targeting, gas-generating polymeric nanoparticles are useful as a theranostic tool for ultrasound (US) imaging and treating neuroblastoma. We encapsulated calcium carbonate using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) and created gas-generating polymer nanoparticles (GNPs). These nanoparticles release carbon dioxide bubbles under acidic conditions and enhance US signals. When GNPs are modified using rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) peptide, a targeting moiety to neuroblastoma, RVG-GNPs effectively accumulate at the tumor site and substantially enhance US signals in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Intravenous administration of RVG-GNPs also reduces tumor growth in the mouse model without the use of conventional therapeutic agents. This approach to developing theranostic agents with disease-targeting ability may provide useful strategy for the detection and treatment of cancers, allowing safe and efficient clinical applications with fewer side effects than may occur with conventional agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging the Elusive H-poor Gas in the High adf Planetary Nebula NGC 6778

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O II λ4649+50 Å optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O II ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O III] λ5007 Å collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright Hα recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOS at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O III] λ4363 line resembles that of the O II ORLs but differs from nebular [O III] λ5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O II emission and the differences with the [O III] and H I emission profiles are consistent with the presence of an H-poor gas whose origin may be linked to the binarity of the central star. However, determination of the spatial distribution of the ORLs and CELs in other PNe and a comparison of their dynamics are needed to further constrain the geometry and ejection mechanism of the metal-rich (H-poor) component and hence, understand the origin of the abundance discrepancy problem in PNe.

  14. Estimation of gas and tissue lung volumes by MRI: functional approach of lung imaging.

    PubMed

    Qanadli, S D; Orvoen-Frija, E; Lacombe, P; Di Paola, R; Bittoun, J; Frija, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of MRI for the determination of lung gas and tissue volumes. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent MRI of the thorax and pulmonary function tests [vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC)] in the supine position. MR examinations were performed at inspiration and expiration. Lung volumes were measured by a previously validated technique on phantoms. Both individual and total lung volumes and capacities were calculated. MRI total vital capacity (VC(MRI)) was compared with spirometric vital capacity (VC(SP)). Capacities were correlated to lung volumes. Tissue volume (V(T)) was estimated as the difference between the total lung volume at full inspiration and the TLC. No significant difference was seen between VC(MRI) and VC(SP). Individual capacities were well correlated (r = 0.9) to static volume at full inspiration. The V(T) was estimated to be 836+/-393 ml. This preliminary study demonstrates that MRI can accurately estimate lung gas and tissue volumes. The proposed approach appears well suited for functional imaging of the lung.

  15. VIVA (VLA Imaging of Virgo in Atomic gas): H I Stripping in Virgo Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Crowl, H.; Kenney, J. D. P.; Vollmer, B.

    2008-08-01

    We present results of a new Very Large Array survey of 53 Virgo galaxies (48 spirals and 5 dwarf/irregular systems). The goal is to study how the H I gas properties are affected by the cluster environment. The survey covers galaxies in a wide range of densities from the center of the cluster to more than 3 Mpc from M 87. The gas is imaged down to a column-density sensitivity of a few times 1019cm-2. We find examples of gas stripping at all stages. Within ˜0.5 Mpc from M 87, most galaxies are severely H I stripped. The H I disks are truncated to well within the optical disks. While the H I looks asymmetric, the outer stellar disks look undisturbed. The fact that only the gas and not the stars has been stripped suggests that those galaxies have been affected by the hot and dense cluster gas. Interestingly we also find a few truncated disks at large projected distances from the center. Although some of these may have been stripped while crossing the cluster core, a detailed population-synthesis study of the outer disk of one of these shows that star formation was terminated recently. The time since stripping is too short for the galaxy to have traveled from the core to its current location. So at least one galaxy has lost its gas from the outer disk by another mechanism than ram-pressure stripping in the dense cluster core. At intermediate- to low-density regions (>0.6 Mpc) we find H I tails with various lengths. We find seven galaxies with long one-sided H I tails pointing away from M 87. The galaxies are at 0.6-1 Mpc from M 87. Since these galaxies are only mildly H I deficient and the tails point away from M 87, these galaxies are probably falling into the cluster for the first time on highly radial orbits. For all but two of the galaxies the estimated ram pressure at their location in the cluster would be sufficient to pull out the H I in the very outer disks. One galaxy also looks optically disturbed and a simulation suggests that a combination of ram pressure

  16. A Comparison of Patients Absorption Doses with Bone Deformity Due to the EOS Imaging and Digital Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J.; Bouzarjomehri, Fathollah; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza; Sobhan, Mohammad R.; Gadimi, Mahdie; Omidvar, Fereshte

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study has aimed to measure the patient dose in entire spine radiography by EOS system in comparison with the digital radiography. Methods: EOS stereo-radiography was used for frontal and lateral view spine imaging in 41 patients in a prospective analytical study. A calibrated dose area product (DAP) meter was used for calibration of the DAP in EOS system. The accuracy and precision of the system was confirmed according to the acceptance testing. The same procedure was used for 18 patients referred for lumbar spine digital radiology (overall 36 images). Results: Although radiation fields in the EOS were almost twice of that in digital radiology, and the average peak tube voltage (kVp), current supply to the tube (mA), and the average size and age of the patients referred for EOS imaging were greater than digital radiology, however, the average DAP in EOS was 1/5 of that in digital radiology system. Also, the average dose in the EOS was about 1/20 of that in digital radiology. Conclusion: The patient dose in EOS imaging system was lower in comparison with digital radiology (1/20). PMID:28656161

  17. A Comparison of Patients Absorption Doses with Bone Deformity Due to the EOS Imaging and Digital Radiology.

    PubMed

    Abrisham, Seyed Mohammad J; Bouzarjomehri, Fathollah; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza; Sobhan, Mohammad R; Gadimi, Mahdie; Omidvar, Fereshte

    2017-05-01

    This study has aimed to measure the patient dose in entire spine radiography by EOS system in comparison with the digital radiography. EOS stereo-radiography was used for frontal and lateral view spine imaging in 41 patients in a prospective analytical study. A calibrated dose area product (DAP) meter was used for calibration of the DAP in EOS system. The accuracy and precision of the system was confirmed according to the acceptance testing. The same procedure was used for 18 patients referred for lumbar spine digital radiology (overall 36 images). Although radiation fields in the EOS were almost twice of that in digital radiology, and the average peak tube voltage (kV p ), current supply to the tube (mA), and the average size and age of the patients referred for EOS imaging were greater than digital radiology, however, the average DAP in EOS was 1/5 of that in digital radiology system. Also, the average dose in the EOS was about 1/20 of that in digital radiology. The patient dose in EOS imaging system was lower in comparison with digital radiology (1/20).

  18. An application of digital image processing techniques to the characterization of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y. L.; Xu, B. Y.; Cai, S. L.

    2006-12-01

    To control fuel injection, optimize combustion and reduce emissions for LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) engines, it is necessary and important to understand the characteristics of LPG sprays. The present work investigates the geometry of LPG sprays, including spray tip penetration, spray angle, projected spray area and spray volume, by using schlieren photography and digital image processing techniques. Two types of single nozzle injectors were studied, with the same nozzle diameter, but one with and one without a double-hole flow-split head. A code developed to analyse the results directly from the digitized images is shown to be more accurate and efficient than manual measurement and analysis. Test results show that a higher injection pressure produces a longer spray tip penetration, a larger projected spray area and spray volume, but a smaller spray cone angle. The injector with the double-hole split-head nozzle produces better atomization and shorter tip penetration at medium and late injection times, but longer tip penetration in the early stage.

  19. A wide field-of-view imaging DOAS instrument for continuous trace gas mapping from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, A.; Altube, P.; Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; Hartmann, J.; Meier, A. C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-04-01

    For the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping, the Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed, characterised and successfully operated from aircraft. From the observations with the AirMAP instrument nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved. A major benefit of the pushbroom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a frame-transfer detector. With a wide-angle entrance objective, a broad field-of-view across track of around 48° is achieved, leading to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m. From a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 single fibres, the number of viewing directions is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Exploitation of all the viewing directions yields observations at 30 m spatial resolution, making the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small scale variability. For accurate spatial mapping the position and aircraft attitude are taken into account using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken. In June 2011, AirMAP has been operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium sized coal-fired power plant in North-West Germany, AirMAP clearly detects the emission plume downwind from the exhaust stack, with NO2 vertical columns around 2 × 1016 molecules cm-2 in the plume center. The emission

  20. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB.

  1. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Smith, M. W. L.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh–Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB. PMID:27429763

  2. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Moran, James J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2016-03-29

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The method also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  3. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The process also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  4. Mapping the hot gas temperature in galaxy clusters using X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, R.; Arnaud, M.; Bartalucci, I.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourdin, H.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Ferrari, C.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J.-F.; Maurogordato, S.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Ruppin, F.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method to map the temperature distribution of the hot gas in galaxy clusters that uses resolved images of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect in combination with X-ray data. Application to images from the New IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) and XMM-Newton allows us to measure and determine the spatial distribution of the gas temperature in the merging cluster MACS J0717.5+3745, at z = 0.55. Despite the complexity of the target object, we find a good morphological agreement between the temperature maps derived from X-ray spectroscopy only - using XMM-Newton (TXMM) and Chandra (TCXO) - and the new gas-mass-weighted tSZ+X-ray imaging method (TSZX). We correlate the temperatures from tSZ+X-ray imaging and those from X-ray spectroscopy alone and find that TSZX is higher than TXMM and lower than TCXO by 10% in both cases. Our results are limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the cluster gas, contamination from kinetic SZ ( 10%), and the absolute calibration of the tSZ map (7%). Investigation using a larger sample of clusters would help minimise these effects.

  5. Regional Ventilation Changes in the Lung: Treatment Response Mapping by Using Hyperpolarized Gas MR Imaging as a Quantitative Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Horn, Felix C; Marshall, Helen; Collier, Guilhem J; Kay, Richard; Siddiqui, Salman; Brightling, Christopher E; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To assess the magnitude of regional response to respiratory therapeutic agents in the lungs by using treatment response mapping (TRM) with hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. TRM was used to quantify regional physiologic response in adults with asthma who underwent a bronchodilator challenge. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the national research ethics committee and was performed with informed consent. Imaging was performed in 20 adult patients with asthma by using hyperpolarized helium 3 ( 3 He) ventilation MR imaging. Two sets of baseline images were acquired before inhalation of a bronchodilating agent (salbutamol 400 μg), and one set was acquired after. All images were registered for voxelwise comparison. Regional treatment response, ΔR(r), was calculated as the difference in regional gas distribution (R[r] = ratio of inhaled gas to total volume of a voxel when normalized for lung inflation volume) before and after intervention. A voxelwise activation threshold from the variability of the baseline images was applied to ΔR(r) maps. The summed global treatment response map (ΔR net ) was then used as a global lung index for comparison with metrics of bronchodilator response measured by using spirometry and the global imaging metric percentage ventilated volume (%VV). Results ΔR net showed significant correlation (P < .01) with changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = 0.70), forced vital capacity (r = 0.84), and %VV (r = 0.56). A significant (P < .01) positive treatment effect was detected with all metrics; however, ΔR net showed a lower intersubject coefficient of variation (64%) than all of the other tests (coefficient of variation, ≥99%). Conclusion TRM provides regional quantitative information on changes in inhaled gas ventilation in response to therapy. This method could be used as a sensitive regional outcome metric for novel respiratory interventions. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is

  6. Performance Evaluation and Quality Validation System for Optical Gas Imaging Cameras that Visualize Fugitive Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA team, consisting of the Office of Research and Development and Region 6 (Dallas) and Region 8 (Denver), deployed passive-diffusive sorbent tubes as part of a method evaluation study around one oil and natural gas production pad in both the Barnett Shale Basin in Texas ...

  7. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line.

  8. Investigation of an alternating current plasma as an element selective atomic emission detector for high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and as a source for atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ombaba, Jackson M.

    This thesis deals with the construction and evaluation of an alternating current plasma (ACP) as an element-selective detector for high resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and as an excitation source for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The plasma, constrained in a quartz discharge tube at atmospheric pressure, is generated between two copper electrodes and utilizes helium as the plasma supporting gas. The alternating current plasma power source consists of a step-up transformer with a secondary output voltage of 14,000 V at a current of 23 mA. The device exhibits a stable signal because the plasma is self-seeding and reignites itself every half cycle. A tesla coil is not required to commence generation of the plasma if the ac voltage applied is greater than the breakdown voltage of the plasma-supporting gas. The chromatographic applications studied included the following: (1) the separation and selective detection of the organotin species, tributyltin chloride (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TEBT), in environmental matrices including mussels (Mvutilus edullus) and sediment from Boston Harbor, industrial waste water and industrial sludge, and (2) the detection of methylcyclopentadienyl manganesetricarbonyl (MMT) and similar compounds used as gasoline additives. An ultrasonic nebulizer (common room humidifier) was utilized as a sample introduction device for aqueous solutions when the ACP was employed as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry and as an excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry. Plasma diagnostic parameters studied include spatial electron number density across the discharge tube, electronic, excitation and ionization temperatures. Interference studies both in absorption and emission modes were also considered. Figures of merits of selected elements both in absorption and emission modes are reported. The evaluation of a computer-aided optimization program, Drylab GC, using

  9. IMAGING THE ELUSIVE H-POOR GAS IN THE HIGH adf PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 6778

    SciTech Connect

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Jones, David

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O ii λ 4649+50 Å optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O ii ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O iii] λ 5007 Å collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright H α recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOSmore » at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O iii] λ 4363 line resembles that of the O ii ORLs but differs from nebular [O iii] λ 5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O ii emission and the differences with the [O iii] and H i emission profiles are consistent with the presence of an H-poor gas whose origin may be linked to the binarity of the central star. However, determination of the spatial distribution of the ORLs and CELs in other PNe and a comparison of their dynamics are needed to further constrain the geometry and ejection mechanism of the metal-rich (H-poor) component and hence, understand the origin of the abundance discrepancy problem in PNe.« less

  10. Gas density field imaging in shock dominated flows using planar laser scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Joshua D.; Mettu, Balachandra R.; Subbareddy, Pramod K.; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran

    2018-07-01

    Planar laser scattering (PLS) imaging of ice particulates present in a supersonic stream is demonstrated to measure 2D gas density fields of shock dominated flows in low enthalpy test facilities. The technique involves mapping the PLS signal to gas density using a calibration curve that accounts for the seed particulate size distribution change across the shock wave. The PLS technique is demonstrated in a shock boundary layer interaction generated by a sharp fin placed on a cylindrical surface in Mach 2.5 flow. The shock structure generated in this configuration has complicating effects from the finite height of the fin as well as the 3D relief offered by the cylindrical surface, which result in steep spatial gradients as well as a wide range of density jumps across different locations of the shock structure. Instantaneous and mean PLS fields delineated the inviscid, separation, and reattachment shock structures at various downstream locations. The inviscid shock assumed increasingly larger curvature with downstream distance; concomitantly, the separation shock wrapped around the cylinder and the separation shock foot missed the cylinder surface entirely. The density fields obtained from the PLS technique were evaluated using RANS simulations of the same flowfield. Comparisons between the computed and measured density fields showed excellent agreement over the entire measurable region that encompassed the flow processed by inviscid, separation, and reattachment shocks away from viscous regions. The PLS approach demonstrated in this work is also shown to be largely independent of the seed particulates, which lends the extension of this approach to a wide range of test facilities.

  11. Wide-area remote-sensing system of pollution and gas dispersal by near-infrared absorption based on low-loss optical fiber network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inaba, H.

    1986-01-01

    An all optical remote sensing system utilizing long distance, ultralow loss optical fiber networks is studied and discussed for near infrared absorption measurements of combustible and/or explosive gases such as CH4 and C3H8 in our environment, including experimental results achieved in a diameter more than 20 km. The use of a near infrared wavelength range is emphasized.

  12. Separating light absorption layer from channel in ZnO vertical nanorod arrays based photodetectors for high-performance image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang; Wu, Congjun; Xu, Zhihao; Wang, Fei; Wang, Min

    2018-05-01

    Photoconductor arrays with both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios are of great importance for the application of image sensors. Herein, a ZnO vertical nanorod array based photoconductor with a light absorption layer separated from the device channel has been designed, in which the photo-generated carriers along the axial ZnO nanorods drive to the external electrodes through nanorod-nanorod junctions in the dense layer at the bottom. This design allows us to enhance the photocurrent with unchanged dark current by increasing the ratio between the ZnO nanorod length and the thickness of the dense layer to achieve both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios. As a result, the as-fabricated devices possess a high responsivity of 1.3 × 105 A/W, a high ON/OFF ratio of 790, a high detectivity of 1.3 × 1013 Jones, and a low detectable light intensity of 1 μW/cm2. More importantly, the developed approach enables the integration of ZnO vertical nanorod array based photodetectors as image sensors with uniform device-to-device performance.

  13. Intercomparison of SO2 camera systems for imaging volcanic gas plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Campion, Robin; Mori, Toshiya; Smekens, Jean-Francois; Stebel, Kerstin; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Burton, Mike; Platt, Ulrich; Prata, Fred

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems are increasingly being used to image volcanic gas plumes. The ability to derive SO2 emission rates directly from the acquired imagery at high time resolution allows volcanic process studies that incorporate other high time-resolution datasets. Though the general principles behind the SO2 camera have remained the same for a number of years, recent advances in CCD technology and an improved understanding of the physics behind the measurements have driven a continuous evolution of the camera systems. Here we present an intercomparison of seven different SO2 cameras. In the first part of the experiment, the various technical designs are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of individual design options are considered. Though the ideal design was found to be dependent on the specific application, a number of general recommendations are made. Next, a time series of images recorded by all instruments at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) is compared. All instruments were easily able to capture SO2 clouds emitted from the summit vents. Quantitative comparison of the SO2 load in an individual cloud yielded an intra-instrument precision of about 12%. From the imagery, emission rates were then derived according to each group's standard retrieval process. A daily average SO2 emission rate of 61 ± 10 t/d was calculated. Due to differences in spatial integration methods and plume velocity determination, the time-dependent progression of SO2 emissions varied significantly among the individual systems. However, integration over distinct degassing events yielded comparable SO2 masses. Based on the intercomparison data, we find an approximate 1-sigma precision of 20% for the emission rates derived from the various SO2 cameras. Though it may still be improved in the future, this is currently within the typical accuracy of the measurement and is considered sufficient for most applications.

  14. Intercomparison of SO2 camera systems for imaging volcanic gas plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Campion, Robin; Mori, Toshiya; Smekens, Jean-François; Stebel, Kerstin; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Burton, Mike; Platt, Ulrich; Prata, Fred

    2015-07-01

    SO2 camera systems are increasingly being used to image volcanic gas plumes. The ability to derive SO2 emission rates directly from the acquired imagery at high time resolution allows volcanic process studies that incorporate other high time-resolution datasets. Though the general principles behind the SO2 camera have remained the same for a number of years, recent advances in CCD technology and an improved understanding of the physics behind the measurements have driven a continuous evolution of the camera systems. Here we present an intercomparison of seven different SO2 cameras. In the first part of the experiment, the various technical designs are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of individual design options are considered. Though the ideal design was found to be dependent on the specific application, a number of general recommendations are made. Next, a time series of images recorded by all instruments at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) is compared. All instruments were easily able to capture SO2 clouds emitted from the summit vents. Quantitative comparison of the SO2 load in an individual cloud yielded an intra-instrument precision of about 12%. From the imagery, emission rates were then derived according to each group's standard retrieval process. A daily average SO2 emission rate of 61 ± 10 t/d was calculated. Due to differences in spatial integration methods and plume velocity determination, the time-dependent progression of SO2 emissions varied significantly among the individual systems. However, integration over distinct degassing events yielded comparable SO2 masses. Based on the intercomparison data, we find an approximate 1-sigma precision of 20% for the emission rates derived from the various SO2 cameras. Though it may still be improved in the future, this is currently within the typical accuracy of the measurement and is considered sufficient for most applications.

  15. Thomson Thick X-Ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar, PG 0946+301.

    PubMed

    Mathur; Green; Arav; Brotherton; Crenshaw; deKool; Elvis; Goodrich; Hamann; Hines; Kashyap; Korista; Peterson; Shields; Shlosman; van Breugel W; Voit

    2000-04-20

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PG 0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (NH greater, similar1024 cm-2) toward PG 0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to 1, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible.

  16. Blob-hole correlation model for edge turbulence and comparisons with NSTX gas puff imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myra, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Russell, D. A.

    2018-07-01

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) observations made in NSTX (Zweben et al 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 102509) have revealed two-point spatial correlations of edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. A common feature is the occurrence of dipole-like patterns with significant regions of negative correlation. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these dipole patterns may be due to blob-hole pairs. Statistical methods are applied to determine the two-point spatial correlation that results from a model of blob-hole pair formation. It is shown that the model produces dipole correlation patterns that are qualitatively similar to the GPI data in several respects. Effects of the reference location (confined surfaces or SOL), a superimposed random background, hole velocity and lifetime, and background sheared flows are explored and discussed with respect to experimental observations. Additional analysis of the experimental GPI dataset is performed to further test this blob-hole correlation model. A time delay two-point spatial correlation study did not reveal inward propagation of the negative correlation structures that were postulated to correspond to holes in the data nor did it suggest that the negative correlation structures are due to neutral shadowing. However, tracking of the highest and lowest values (extrema) of the normalized GPI fluctuations shows strong evidence for mean inward propagation of minima and outward propagation of maxima, in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations. Other properties of the experimentally observed extrema are discussed.

  17. Inverse-Ray Imaging of Gas Hydrates Along a MCS/OBS Profile at the Continental Slope Offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. K.; Chen, C.; Yang, B.; Lee, C.

    2006-12-01

    Prevalence of gas hydrates offshore SW Taiwan has been proposed due to lots of bottom-simulated reflectors (BSR) appeared on the seismic data. In this paper, we analyze a MCS/OBS profile with intensive BSR signals at the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. Firstly, MCS data with 160 channels collected by R/V Maurice-Ewing in September 1995 is re-processed through vertical velocity analysis, horizon velocity analysis, and prestack depth migration. Then, OBS data collected by the first Micro-OBS survey from NTOU team in August 2005 is analyzed through travel-time inversion of reflected and refracted arrivals for which the initial model is constructed from the MCS result. Finally, a novel technique of inverse reflected rays by considering both MCS and OBS data is applied for layer-stripping imaging of sedimentary layers. Velocity models imaged from three methods are confirmed the prevalence of BSR at 100-400 m depth below the sea floor along the whole profile. Relatively smooth sedimentary layers are observed below the lower slope of the continent whereas several mud diapers are imaged below the upper slope of the continent. Above the mud diapers, we find gas hydrates with high velocity of about 1.9-2.1 km/s and thickness of about 100 m immediately above the strong BSR. Similarly, near the mud diapers, free gas with low velocity of about 1.4-1.7 km/s and thickness of about 200 m is imaged. Migration of free gas through diapirism may result in lots of gas hydrates accumulated below the upper slope of the continent offshore SW Taiwan.

  18. Vegetation species composition and canopy architecture information expressed in leaf water absorption measured in the 1000 nm and 2200 spectral region by an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.

    1995-01-01

    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring, and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local to regional and even synoptic scales. Classical approaches rely on vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate biophysical parameters such as leaf area index or intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR). Another approach is to apply a variety of classification schemes to map vegetation and thus extrapolate fine-scale information about specific sites to larger areas of similar composition. Imaging spectrometry provides additional information that is not obtainable through broad-band sensors and that may provide improved inputs both to direct biophysical estimates as well as classification schemes. Some of this capability has been demonstrated through improved discrimination of vegetation, estimates of canopy biochemistry, and liquid water estimates from vegetation. We investigate further the potential of leaf water absorption estimated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as a means for discriminating vegetation types and deriving canopy architectural information. We expand our analysis to incorporate liquid water estimates from two spectral regions, the 1000-nm region and the 2200-nm region. The study was conducted in the vicinity of Jasper Ridge, California, which is located on the San Francisco peninsula to the west of the Stanford University campus. AVIRIS data were acquired over Jasper Ridge, CA, on June 2, 1992, at 19:31 UTC. Spectra from three sites in this image were analyzed. These data are from an area of healthy grass, oak woodland, and redwood forest, respectively. For these analyses, the AVIRIS-measured upwelling radiance spectra for the entire Jasper

  19. An Image-based Micro-continuum Pore-scale Model for Gas Transport in Organic-rich Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Gas production from unconventional source rocks, such as ultra-tight shales, has increased significantly over the past decade. However, due to the extremely small pores ( 1-100 nm) and the strong material heterogeneity, gas flow in shale is still not well understood and poses challenges for predictive field-scale simulations. In recent years, digital rock analysis has been applied to understand shale gas transport at the pore-scale. An issue with rock images (e.g. FIB-SEM, nano-/micro-CT images) is the so-called "cutoff length", i.e., pores and heterogeneities below the resolution cannot be resolved, which leads to two length scales (resolved features and unresolved sub-resolution features) that are challenging for flow simulations. Here we develop a micro-continuum model, modified from the classic Darcy-Brinkman-Stokes framework, that can naturally couple the resolved pores and the unresolved nano-porous regions. In the resolved pores, gas flow is modeled with Stokes equation. In the unresolved regions where the pore sizes are below the image resolution, we develop an apparent permeability model considering non-Darcy flow at the nanoscale including slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, adsorption/desorption, surface diffusion, and real gas effect. The end result is a micro-continuum pore-scale model that can simulate gas transport in 3D reconstructed shale images. The model has been implemented in the open-source simulation platform OpenFOAM. In this paper, we present case studies to demonstrate the applicability of the model, where we use 3D segmented FIB-SEM and nano-CT shale images that include four material constituents: organic matter, clay, granular mineral, and pore. In addition to the pore structure and the distribution of the material constituents, we populate the model with experimental measurements (e.g. size distribution of the sub-resolution pores from nitrogen adsorption) and parameters from the literature and identify the relative importance of different

  20. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern based on image texture spectrum descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xi-Guo; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Zhang, Wen-Yin

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic image information of typical gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in vertical upward pipe is captured by a highspeed dynamic camera. The texture spectrum descriptor is used to describe the texture characteristics of the processed images whose content is represented in the form of texture spectrum histogram, and four time-varying characteristic parameter indexes which represent image texture structure of different flow patterns are extracted. The study results show that the amplitude fluctuation of texture characteristic parameter indexes of bubble flow is lowest and shows very random complex dynamic behavior; the amplitude fluctuation of slug flow is higher and shows intermittent motion behavior between gas slug and liquid slug, and the amplitude fluctuation of churn flow is the highest and shows better periodicity; the amplitude fluctuation of bubble-slug flow is from low to high and oscillating frequence is higher than that of slug flow, and includes the features of both slug flow and bubble flow; the slug-churn flow loses the periodicity of slug flow and churn flow, and the amplitude fluctuation is high. The results indicate that the image texture characteristic parameter indexes of different flow pattern can reflect the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which provides a new approach to understand the temporal and spatial evolution of flow pattern dynamics.

  1. In Vivo MR Imaging of Pulmonary Perfusion and Gas Exchange in Rats via Continuous Extracorporeal Infusion of Hyperpolarized 129Xe

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Möller, Harald E.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Nouls, John C.; Freeman, Matthew S.; Qi, Yi; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits high resolution, regional visualization of pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, its reasonably high solubility (>10%) and large chemical shift range (>200 ppm) in tissues allow HP 129Xe to serve as a regional probe of pulmonary perfusion and gas transport, when introduced directly into the vasculature. In earlier work, vascular delivery was accomplished in rats by first dissolving HP 129Xe in a biologically compatible carrier solution, injecting the solution into the vasculature, and then detecting HP 129Xe as it emerged into the alveolar airspaces. Although easily implemented, this approach was constrained by the tolerable injection volume and the duration of the HP 129Xe signal. Methods and Principal Findings Here, we overcome the volume and temporal constraints imposed by injection, by using hydrophobic, microporous, gas-exchange membranes to directly and continuously infuse 129Xe into the arterial blood of live rats with an extracorporeal (EC) circuit. The resulting gas-phase 129Xe signal is sufficient to generate diffusive gas exchange- and pulmonary perfusion-dependent, 3D MR images with a nominal resolution of 2×2×2 mm3. We also show that the 129Xe signal dynamics during EC infusion are well described by an analytical model that incorporates both mass transport into the blood and longitudinal relaxation. Conclusions Extracorporeal infusion of HP 129Xe enables rapid, 3D MR imaging of rat lungs and, when combined with ventilation imaging, will permit spatially resolved studies of the ventilation-perfusion ratio in small animals. Moreover, EC infusion should allow 129Xe to be delivered elsewhere in the body and make possible functional and molecular imaging approaches that are currently not feasible using inhaled HP 129Xe. PMID:22363613

  2. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  3. Analysis of the absorption spectra of gas emission of patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yurii V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgenii L.

    2013-02-01

    It is important to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer in the early stages of the disease. The method of laser opto-acoustic gas analysis, in this case, can act as a promising tool for diagnostics. The material for this study were the gas emission samples collected from patients and healthy volunteers - samples of exhaled air, swabs from teeth and cheeks. A set of material was formed three groups: healthy volunteers, patients with COPD, lung cancer patients. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of laser opto-acoustic gas analyzers: with intracavity location detector (ILPA-1), with extracavity location detector (LGA-2). Presentation of the results in an easy to visual form was performed using the method of elastic maps, based on the principal component analysis. The results of analysis show potentialities of usage of laser optoacoustic spectroscopy application to assess the status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  4. High precision gas hydrate imaging of small-scale and high-resolution marine sparker multichannel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, D.; Cai, F.

    2017-12-01

    Small-scale and high-resolution marine sparker multi-channel seismic surveys using large energy sparkers are characterized by a high dominant frequency of the seismic source, wide bandwidth, and a high resolution. The technology with a high-resolution and high-detection precision was designed to improve the imaging quality of shallow sedimentary. In the study, a 20KJ sparker and 24-channel streamer cable with a 6.25m group interval were used as a seismic source and receiver system, respectively. Key factors for seismic imaging of gas hydrate are enhancement of S/N ratio, amplitude compensation and detailed velocity analysis. However, the data in this study has some characteristics below: 1. Small maximum offsets are adverse to velocity analysis and multiple attenuation. 2. Lack of low frequency information, that is, information less than 100Hz are invisible. 3. Low S/N ratio since less coverage times (only 12 times). These characteristics make it difficult to reach the targets of seismic imaging. In the study, the target processing methods are used to improve the seismic imaging quality of gas hydrate. First, some technologies of noise suppression are combined used in pre-stack seismic data to suppression of seismic noise and improve the S/N ratio. These technologies including a spectrum sharing noise elimination method, median filtering and exogenous interference suppression method. Second, the combined method of three technologies including SRME, τ-p deconvolution and high precision Radon transformation is used to remove multiples. Third, accurate velocity field are used in amplitude energy compensation to highlight the Bottom Simulating Reflector (short for BSR, the indicator of gas hydrates) and gas migration pathways (such as gas chimneys, hot spots et al.). Fourth, fine velocity analysis technology are used to improve accuracy of velocity analysis. Fifth, pre-stack deconvolution processing technology is used to compensate for low frequency energy and

  5. A Combined Micro-CT Imaging/Microfluidic Approach for Understating Methane Recovery in Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaghimi, P.; Armstrong, R. T.; Gerami, A.; Lamei Ramandi, H.; Ebrahimi Warkiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coal seam methane is a form of natural gas stored in coal beds and is one of the most important unconventional resources of energy. The flow and transport in coal beds occur in a well-developed system of natural fractures that are also known as cleats. We use micro-Computed Tomography (CT) imaging at both dry and wet conditions to resolve the cleats below the resolution of the image. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for calibration of micro-CT data. Using soft lithography technique, the cleat system is duplicated on a silicon mould. We fabricate a microfluidic chip using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to study both imbibition and drainage in generated coal structures for understating gas and water transport in coal seam reservoirs. First, we use simple patterns observed on coal images to analyse the effects of wettability, cleat size and distribution on flow behaviour. Then, we study transport in a coal by injecting both distilled water and decane with a rate of 1 microliter/ min into the fabricated cleat structure (Figure 1), initially saturated with air. We repeat the experiment for different contact angles by plasma treating the microfluidic chip, and results show significant effects of wettability on the displacement efficiency. The breakthrough time in the imbibition setup is significantly longer than in the drainage. Using rapid video capturing, and high resolution microscopy, we measure the saturation of displacing fluid with respect to time. By measuring gas and liquid recovery in the outlet at different saturation, we predict relative permeability of coal. This work has important applications for optimising gas recovery and our results can serve as a benchmark in the verification of multiphase numerical models used in coal seam gas industry.

  6. Use of radiation sources with mercury isotopes for real-time highly sensitive and selective benzene determination in air and natural gas by differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Gita; Sholupov, Sergey; Ganeev, Alexander; Pogarev, Sergey; Ryzhov, Vladimir; Skudra, Atis

    2015-08-05

    A new analytical portable system is proposed for the direct determination of benzene vapor in the ambient air and natural gas, using differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect and innovative radiation sources: capillary mercury lamps with different isotopic compositions ((196)Hg, (198)Hg, (202)Hg, (204)Hg, and natural isotopic mixture). Resonance emission of mercury at a wavelength of 254 nm is used as probing radiation. The differential cross section of benzene absorption in dependence on wavelength is determined by scanning of magnetic field. It is found that the sensitivity of benzene detection is enhanced three times using lamp with the mercury isotope (204)Hg in comparison with lamp, filled with the natural isotopic mixture. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when benzene content is measured at the Occupational Exposure Limit (3.2 mg/m(3) for benzene) level, the interference from SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and toluene can be neglected if concentration of these gases does not exceed corresponding Occupational Exposure Limits. To exclude the mercury effect, filters that absorb mercury and let benzene pass in the gas duct are proposed. Basing on the results of our study, a portable spectrometer is designed with a multipath cell of 960 cm total path length and detection limit 0.5 mg/m(3) at 1 s averaging and 0.1 mg/m(3) at 30 s averaging. The applications of the designed spectrometer to measuring the benzene concentration in the atmospheric air from a moving vehicle and in natural gas are exemplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Blob-hole correlation model for edge turbulence and comparisons with NSTX gas puff imaging data

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Russell, D. A.

    We report that gas puff imaging (GPI) observations made in NSTX [Zweben S J, et al., 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 102509] have revealed two-point spatial correlations of edge and scrape-off layer turbulence in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. A common feature is the occurrence of dipole-like patterns with significant regions of negative correlation. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these dipole patterns may be due to blob-hole pairs. Statistical methods are applied to determine the two-point spatial correlation that results from a model of blob-hole pair formation. It is shown that the model produces dipole correlationmore » patterns that are qualitatively similar to the GPI data in several respects. Effects of the reference location (confined surfaces or scrape-off layer), a superimposed random background, hole velocity and lifetime, and background sheared flows are explored and discussed with respect to experimental observations. Additional analysis of the experimental GPI dataset is performed to further test this blob-hole correlation model. A time delay two-point spatial correlation study did not reveal inward propagation of the negative correlation structures that were postulated to correspond to holes in the data nor did it suggest that the negative correlation structures are due to neutral shadowing. However, tracking of the highest and lowest values (extrema) of the normalized GPI fluctuations shows strong evidence for mean inward propagation of minima and outward propagation of maxima, in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, other properties of the experimentally observed extrema are discussed.« less

  8. Blob-hole correlation model for edge turbulence and comparisons with NSTX gas puff imaging data

    DOE PAGES

    Myra, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Russell, D. A.

    2018-05-15

    We report that gas puff imaging (GPI) observations made in NSTX [Zweben S J, et al., 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 102509] have revealed two-point spatial correlations of edge and scrape-off layer turbulence in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. A common feature is the occurrence of dipole-like patterns with significant regions of negative correlation. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these dipole patterns may be due to blob-hole pairs. Statistical methods are applied to determine the two-point spatial correlation that results from a model of blob-hole pair formation. It is shown that the model produces dipole correlationmore » patterns that are qualitatively similar to the GPI data in several respects. Effects of the reference location (confined surfaces or scrape-off layer), a superimposed random background, hole velocity and lifetime, and background sheared flows are explored and discussed with respect to experimental observations. Additional analysis of the experimental GPI dataset is performed to further test this blob-hole correlation model. A time delay two-point spatial correlation study did not reveal inward propagation of the negative correlation structures that were postulated to correspond to holes in the data nor did it suggest that the negative correlation structures are due to neutral shadowing. However, tracking of the highest and lowest values (extrema) of the normalized GPI fluctuations shows strong evidence for mean inward propagation of minima and outward propagation of maxima, in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, other properties of the experimentally observed extrema are discussed.« less

  9. Effect of the Temperature-Emissivity Contrast on the Chemical Signal for Gas Plume Detection Using Thermal Image Data

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stephen; Chilton, Larry; Tardiff, Mark; Metoyer, Candace

    2008-01-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temperature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume's physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on the background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures have inhibiting or amplifying effects on the chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the adaptive matched filter using two chemicals and three distinct background emissivities. PMID:27873881

  10. Three-axis acoustic device for levitation of droplets in an open gas stream and its application to examine sulfur dioxide absorption by water droplets.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Terrance L; Budwig, Ralph S

    2007-01-01

    Two acoustic devices to stabilize a droplet in an open gas stream (single-axis and three-axis levitators) have been designed and tested. The gas stream was provided by a jet apparatus with a 64 mm exit diameter and a uniform velocity profile. The acoustic source used was a Langevin vibrator with a concave reflector. The single-axis levitator relied primarily on the radial force from the acoustic field and was shown to be limited because of significant droplet wandering. The three-axis levitator relied on a combination of the axial and radial forces. The three-axis levitator was applied to examine droplet deformation and circulation and to investigate the uptake of SO(2) from the gas stream to the droplet. Droplets ranging in diameters from 2 to 5 mm were levitated in gas streams with velocities up to 9 ms. Droplet wandering was on the order of a half droplet diameter for a 3 mm diameter droplet. Droplet circulation ranged from the predicted Hadamard-Rybczynski pattern to a rotating droplet pattern. Droplet pH over a central volume of the droplet was measured by planar laser induced fluorescence. The results for the decay of droplet pH versus time are in general agreement with published theory and experiments.

  11. Three-axis acoustic device for levitation of droplets in an open gas stream and its application to examine sulfur dioxide absorption by water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Terrance L.; Budwig, Ralph S.

    2007-01-01

    Two acoustic devices to stabilize a droplet in an open gas stream (single-axis and three-axis levitators) have been designed and tested. The gas stream was provided by a jet apparatus with a 64mm exit diameter and a uniform velocity profile. The acoustic source used was a Langevin vibrator with a concave reflector. The single-axis levitator relied primarily on the radial force from the acoustic field and was shown to be limited because of significant droplet wandering. The three-axis levitator relied on a combination of the axial and radial forces. The three-axis levitator was applied to examine droplet deformation and circulation and to investigate the uptake of SO2 from the gas stream to the droplet. Droplets ranging in diameters from 2to5mm were levitated in gas streams with velocities up to 9m /s. Droplet wandering was on the order of a half droplet diameter for a 3mm diameter droplet. Droplet circulation ranged from the predicted Hadamard-Rybczynski pattern to a rotating droplet pattern. Droplet pH over a central volume of the droplet was measured by planar laser induced fluorescence. The results for the decay of droplet pH versus time are in general agreement with published theory and experiments.

  12. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) for the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.; Cremonese, G.; Ziethe, R.; Gerber, M.; Brändli, M.; Bruno, G.; Erismann, M.; Gambicorti, L.; Gerber, T.; Ghose, K.; Gruber, M.; Gubler, P.; Mischler, H.; Jost, J.; Piazza, D.; Pommerol, A.; Rieder, M.; Roloff, V.; Servonet, A.; Trottmann, W.; Uthaicharoenpong, T.; Zimmermann, C.; Vernani, D.; Johnson, M.; Pelò, E.; Weigel, T.; Viertl, J.; De Roux, N.; Lochmatter, P.; Sutter, G.; Casciello, A.; Hausner, T.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Da Deppo, V.; Orleanski, P.; Nowosielski, W.; Zawistowski, T.; Szalai, S.; Sodor, B.; Tulyakov, S.; Troznai, G.; Banaskiewicz, M.; Bridges, J.C.; Byrne, S.; Debei, S.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Hansen, C.J.; Ivanov, A.; Keszthelyil, L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Kuzmin, R.; Mangold, N.; Marinangeli, L.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Massironi, M.; McEwen, A.S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Tornabene, L.L.; Wajer, P.; Wray, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is the main imaging system onboard the European Space Agency’s ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) which was launched on 14 March 2016. CaSSIS is intended to acquire moderately high resolution (4.6 m/pixel) targeted images of Mars at a rate of 10–20 images per day from a roughly circular orbit 400 km above the surface. Each image can be acquired in up to four colours and stereo capability is foreseen by the use of a novel rotation mechanism. A typical product from one image acquisition will be a 9.5 km×∼45 km">9.5 km×∼45 km9.5 km×∼45 km swath in full colour and stereo in one over-flight of the target thereby reducing atmospheric influences inherent in stereo and colour products from previous high resolution imagers. This paper describes the instrument including several novel technical solutions required to achieve the scientific requirements.

  13. Layered surface structure of gas-atomized high Nb-containing TiAl powder and its impact on laser energy absorption for selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Lin, S. F.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, D. W.; Zhou, P.; Han, P. L.; Li, Y. L.; Yan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Ti45Al8Nb alloy (in at.%) is designed to be an important high-temperature material. However, its fabrication through laser-based additive manufacturing is difficult to achieve. We present here that a good understanding of the surface structure of raw material (i.e. Ti45Al8Nb powder) is important for optimizing its process by selective laser melting (SLM). Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to determine the surface structure of Ti45Al8Nb powder. An envelope structure (∼54.0 nm in thickness) was revealed for the powder, consisting of TiO2 + Nb2O5 (as the outer surface layer)/Al2O3 + Nb2O5 (as the intermediate layer)/Al2O3 (as the inner surface layer)/Ti45Al8Nb (as the matrix). During SLM, this layered surface structure interacted with the incident laser beam and improved the laser absorptivity of Ti45Al8Nb powder by ∼32.21%. SLM experiments demonstrate that the relative density of the as-printed parts can be realized to a high degree (∼98.70%), which confirms good laser energy absorption. Such layered surface structure with appropriate phase constitution is essential for promoting SLM of the Ti45Al8Nb alloy.

  14. Liver imaging at 3.0 T: diffusion-induced black-blood echo-planar imaging with large anatomic volumetric coverage as an alternative for specific absorption rate-intensive echo-train spin-echo sequences: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Indra C; Hussain, Shahid M; Krestin, Gabriel P; Wielopolski, Piotr A

    2008-07-01

    Institutional Review Board approval and signed informed consent were obtained by all participants for an ongoing sequence optimization project at 3.0 T. The purpose of this study was to evaluate breath-hold diffusion-induced black-blood echo-planar imaging (BBEPI) as a potential alternative for specific absorption rate (SAR)-intensive spin-echo sequences, in particular, the fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences, at 3.0 T. Fourteen healthy volunteers (seven men, seven women; mean age +/- standard deviation, 32.7 years +/- 6.8) were imaged for this purpose. Liver coverage (20 cm, z-axis) was always performed in one 25-second breath hold. Imaging parameters were varied interactively with regard to echo time, diffusion b value, and voxel size. Images were evaluated and compared with fat-suppressed T2-weighted FSE images for image quality, liver delineation, geometric distortions, fat suppression, suppression of the blood signal, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An optimized short- (25 msec) and long-echo (80 msec) BBEPI provided full anatomic, single breath-hold liver coverage (100 and 50 sections, respectively), with resulting voxel sizes of 3.3 x 2.7 x 2.0 mm and 3.3 x 2.7 x 4.0 mm, respectively. Repetition time was 6300 msec, matrix size was 160 x 192, and an acceleration factor of 2.00 was used. b Values of more than 20 sec/mm(2) showed better suppression of the blood signal but b values of 10 sec/mm(2) provided improved volume coverage and signal consistency. Compared with fat-suppressed T2-weighted FSE, the optimized BBEPI sequence provided (a) comparable image quality and liver delineation, (b) acceptable geometric distortions, (c) improved suppression of fat and blood signals, and (d) high CNR and SNR. BBEPI is feasible for fast, low-SAR, thin-section morphologic imaging of the entire liver in a single breath hold at 3.0 T. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  15. Quantum-state resolved reactive scattering at the gas-liquid interface: F+squalane (C30H62) dynamics via high-resolution infrared absorption of nascent HF(v,J).

    PubMed

    Zolot, Alexander M; Dagdigian, Paul J; Nesbitt, David J

    2008-11-21

    Exothermic chemical reaction dynamics at the gas-liquid interface have been investigated by colliding a supersonic beam of F atoms [E(com)=0.7(3) kcalmol] with a continuously refreshed liquid hydrocarbon (squalane) surface under high vacuum conditions. Absolute HF(v,J) product densities are determined by infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, with velocity distributions along the probe axis derived from high resolution Dopplerimetry. Nascent HF(vgas phase without rotationally equilibrating with the surface. Nascent HF also recoils from the liquid surface with excess translational energy, resulting in Doppler broadened linewidths that increase systematically with internal HF excitation. The data are consistent with microscopic branching in HF-surface dynamics following the reactive event, with (i) a direct reactive scattering fraction of newly formed product molecules leaving the surface promptly and (ii) a trapping desorption fraction that accommodates rotationally (though still not vibrationally) with the bulk liquid. Comparison with analogous gas phase F+hydrocarbon processes reveals that the liquid acts as a partial "heat sink" for vibrational energy flow on the time scale of the chemical reaction event.

  16. Quantum-state resolved reactive scattering at the gas-liquid interface: F +squalane (C30H62) dynamics via high-resolution infrared absorption of nascent HF(v,J)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolot, Alexander M.; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2008-11-01

    Exothermic chemical reaction dynamics at the gas-liquid interface have been investigated by colliding a supersonic beam of F atoms [Ecom=0.7(3)kcal/mol] with a continuously refreshed liquid hydrocarbon (squalane) surface under high vacuum conditions. Absolute HF(v,J) product densities are determined by infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, with velocity distributions along the probe axis derived from high resolution Dopplerimetry. Nascent HF(v ⩽3) products are formed in a highly nonequilibrium (inverted) vibrational distribution [⟨Evib⟩=13.2(2)kcal/mol], reflecting insufficient time for complete thermal accommodation with the surface prior to desorption. Colder, but still non-Boltzmann, rotational state populations [⟨Erot⟩=1.0(1)kcal/mol] indicate that some fraction of molecules directly scatter into the gas phase without rotationally equilibrating with the surface. Nascent HF also recoils from the liquid surface with excess translational energy, resulting in Doppler broadened linewidths that increase systematically with internal HF excitation. The data are consistent with microscopic branching in HF-surface dynamics following the reactive event, with (i) a direct reactive scattering fraction of newly formed product molecules leaving the surface promptly and (ii) a trapping desorption fraction that accommodates rotationally (though still not vibrationally) with the bulk liquid. Comparison with analogous gas phase F +hydrocarbon processes reveals that the liquid acts as a partial "heat sink" for vibrational energy flow on the time scale of the chemical reaction event.

  17. Imaging Cold Gas to 1 kpc scales in high-redshift galaxies with the ngVLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Caitlin; Narayanan, Desika; Dave, Romeel; Hung, Chao-Ling; Champagne, Jaclyn; Carilli, Chris Luke; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric J.; Popping, Gergo; Riechers, Dominik; Somerville, Rachel S.; Walter, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will revolutionize our understanding of the distant Universe via the detection of cold molecular gas in the first galaxies. Its impact on studies of galaxy characterization via detailed gas dynamics will provide crucial insight on dominant physical drivers for star-formation in high redshift galaxies, including the exchange of gas from scales of the circumgalactic medium down to resolved clouds on mass scales of ~10^5 M_sun. In this study, we employ a series of high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamic zoom simulations from the MUFASA simulation suite and a CASA simulator to generate mock ngVLA observations. Based on a direct comparison between the inferred results from our mock observations and the cosmological simulations, we investigate the capabilities of ngVLA to constrain the mode of star formation, dynamical mass, and molecular gas kinematics in individual high-redshift galaxies using cold gas tracers like CO(1-0) and CO(2-1). Using the Despotic radiative transfer code that encompasses simultaneous thermal and statistical equilibrium in calculating the molecular and atomic level populations, we generate parallel mock observations of high-J transitions of CO and C+ from ALMA for comparison. The factor of 100 times improvement in mapping speed for the ngVLA beyond the Jansky VLA and the proposed ALMA Band 1 will make these detailed, high-resolution imaging and kinematic studies routine at z=2 and beyond.

  18. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  19. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  20. Influence of Stellar Multiplicity On Planet Formation. III. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Kepler Stars With Gas Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Horch, Elliott P.; Xie, Ji-Wei

    2015-06-01

    As hundreds of gas giant planets have been discovered, we study how these planets form and evolve in different stellar environments, specifically in multiple stellar systems. In such systems, stellar companions may have a profound influence on gas giant planet formation and evolution via several dynamical effects such as truncation and perturbation. We select 84 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with gas giant planet candidates. We obtain high-angular resolution images using telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems. Together with the AO data, we use archival radial velocity data and dynamical analysis to constrain the presence of stellar companions. We detect 59 stellar companions around 40 KOIs for which we develop methods of testing their physical association. These methods are based on color information and galactic stellar population statistics. We find evidence of suppressive planet formation within 20 AU by comparing stellar multiplicity. The stellar multiplicity rate (MR) for planet host stars is {0}-0+5% within 20 AU. In comparison, the stellar MR is 18% ± 2% for the control sample, i.e., field stars in the solar neighborhood. The stellar MR for planet host stars is 34% ± 8% for separations between 20 and 200 AU, which is higher than the control sample at 12% ± 2%. Beyond 200 AU, stellar MRs are comparable between planet host stars and the control sample. We discuss the implications of the results on gas giant planet formation and evolution.

  1. Magneto-thermoelectric effects in the two-dimensional electron gas of a HgTe quantum well due to THz laser heating by cyclotron resonance absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; McCombe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    HgTe quantum wells (QWs) have shown a number of interesting phenomena over the past 20 years, most recently the first two-dimensional topological insulating state. We have studied thermoelectric photovoltages of 2D electrons in a 6.1 nm wide HgTe quantum well induced by cyclotron resonance absorption (B = 2 - 5 T) of a focused THz laser beam. We have estimated thermo-power coefficients by detailed analysis of the beam profile at the sample surface and the photovoltage signals developed across various contacts of a large Hall bar structure at a bath temperature of 1.6 K. We obtain reasonable values of the magneto-thermopower coefficients. Work at UB was supported by NSF DMR 1008138 and the Office of the Provost, and at the University of Wuerzburg by DARPA MESO Contract N6601-11-1-4105, by DFG Grant HA5893/4-1 within SPP 1666 and the Leibnitz Program, and the EU ERC-AG Program (Project 3-TOP.

  2. Microwave-induced resistance oscillations on a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas: Exact waveform, absorption/reflection and temperature damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, S. A.; Potemski, M.; Sachrajda, A.; Hilke, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2005-06-01

    In this work we address experimentally a number of unresolved issues related to microwave induced resistance oscillations (MIROs) leading to the zero-resistance states observed recently on 2D electron gases in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. We stress the importance of the electrodynamic effects detected in both reflection and absorption experiments, although they are not revealed in transport experiments on very high mobility samples. We also study the exact waveform of MIROs and their damping due to temperature. A simple equation is given, which can be considered as phenomenological, which describes precisely the experimental MIROs waveform. The waveform depends only on a single parameter—the width of the Landau levels, which is related to the quantum lifetime. A very good correlation was found between the temperature dependencies of the quantum lifetime from MIROs and the transport scattering time from the electron mobility with a ratio τtr/τq≃20 . It is found that the prefactor in the equation for MIROs decays as 1/T2 with the temperature which can be explained within the distribution function model suggested by Dmitriev . The results are compared with measurements of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations down to 30mK on the same sample.

  3. Seeing Below the Drop: Direct Nano-to-microscale Imaging of Complex Interfaces involving Solid, Liquid, and Gas Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Landin, Trevan; Walker, Marlon L.; Scott, John Henry J.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2012-11-01

    Nanostructured surfaces with special wetting properties have the potential to transform number of industries, including power generation, water desalination, gas and oil production, and microelectronics thermal management. Predicting the wetting properties of these surfaces requires detailed knowledge of the geometry and the composition of the contact volume linking the droplet to the underlying substrate. Surprisingly, a general nano-to-microscale method for direct imaging of such interfaces has previously not been developed. Here we introduce a three dimensional imaging method which resolves this one-hundred-year-old metrology gap in wetting research. Specifically, we demonstrate direct nano-to-microscale imaging of complex fluidic interfaces using cryofixation in combination with cryo-FIB/SEM. We show that application of this method yields previously unattainable quantitative information about the interfacial geometry of water condensed on silicon nanowire forests with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface termination in the presence or absence of an intermediate water repelling oil. We also discuss imaging artifacts and the advantages of secondary and backscatter electron imaging, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and three dimensional FIB/SEM tomography.

  4. Oxidation State Specific Generation of Arsines from Methylated Arsenicals Based on L- Cysteine Treatment in Buffered Media for Speciation Analysis by Hydride Generation - Automated Cryotrapping - Gas Chromatography-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with the Multiatomizer

    PubMed Central

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Hernández-Zavala, Araceli; Svoboda, Milan; Langrová, Lenka; Adair, Blakely M.; Drobná, Zuzana; Thomas, David J.; Stýblo, Miroslav; Dědina, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    An automated system for hydride generation - cryotrapping- gas chromatography - atomic absorption spectrometry with the multiatomizer is described. Arsines are preconcentrated and separated in a Chromosorb filled U-tube. An automated cryotrapping unit, employing nitrogen gas formed upon heating in the detection phase for the displacement of the cooling liquid nitrogen, has been developed. The conditions for separation of arsines in a Chromosorb filled U-tube have been optimized. A complete separation of signals from arsine, methylarsine, dimethylarsine, and trimethylarsine has been achieved within a 60 s reading window. The limits of detection for methylated arsenicals tested were 4 ng l−1. Selective hydride generation is applied for the oxidation state specific speciation analysis of inorganic and methylated arsenicals. The arsines are generated either exclusively from trivalent or from both tri- and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals depending on the presence of L-cysteine as a prereductant and/or reaction modifier. A TRIS buffer reaction medium is proposed to overcome narrow optimum concentration range observed for the L-cysteine modified reaction in HCl medium. The system provides uniform peak area sensitivity for all As species. Consequently, the calibration with a single form of As is possible. This method permits a high-throughput speciation analysis of metabolites of inorganic arsenic in relatively complex biological matrices such as cell culture systems without sample pretreatment, thus preserving the distribution of tri- and pentavalent species. PMID:18521190

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 16: Four-dimensional x-ray computed tomography and hyperpolarized 3 He magnetic resonance imaging of gas distribution in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, L; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Yaremko, B; Rodrigues, G; Etemad-Rezai, R; Guerrero, T; Parraga, G

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic imaging methods such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and static imaging methods such as noble gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) deliver direct and regional measurements of lung function even in lung cancer patients in whom global lung function measurements are dominated by tumour burden. The purpose of this study was to directly compare quantitative measurements of gas distribution from static hyperpolarized 3 He MRI and dynamic 4DCT in a small group of lung cancer patients. MRI and 4DCT were performed in 11 subjects prior to radiation therapy. MRI was performed at 3.0T in breath-hold after inhalation 1L of hyperpolarized 3 He gas. Gas distribution in 3 He MRI was quantified using a semi-automated segmentation algorithm to generate percent-ventilated volume (PVV), reflecting the volume of gas in the lung normalized to the thoracic cavity volume. 4DCT pulmonary function maps were generated using deformable image registration of six expiratory phase images. The correspondence between identical tissue elements at inspiratory and expiratory phases was used to estimate regional gas distribution and PVV was quantified from these images. After accounting for differences in lung volumes between 3 He MRI (1.9±0.5L ipsilateral, 2.3±0.7 contralateral) and 4DCT (1.2±0.3L ipsilateral, 1.3±0.4L contralateral) during image acquisition, there was no statistically significant difference in PVV between 3 He MRI (72±11% ipsilateral, 79±12% contralateral) and 4DCT (74±3% ipsilateral, 75±4% contralateral). Our results indicate quantitative agreement in the regional distribution of inhaled gas in both static and dynamic imaging methods. PVV may be considered as a regional surrogate measurement of lung function or ventilation. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Robotic Arm Camera Image of the South Side of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (Door TA4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is shown with one set of oven doors open and dirt from a sample delivery. After the 'seventh shake' of TEGA, a portion of the dirt sample entered the oven via a screen for analysis. This image was taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or 18th Martian day of the mission.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. High-resolution discrete absorption spectrum of α-methallyl free radical in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat; Telatar, Ziya; Arı, Fikret; Tunçyürek, Lale; Karaaslan, İpek; Yaman, Ali

    2006-09-01

    The α-methallyl free radical is formed in the flash photolysis of 3-methylbut-1-ene, and cis-pent-2-ene in the vapor phase, and then subsequent reactions have been investigated by kinetic spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography. The photolysis flash was of short duration and it was possible to follow the kinetics of the radicals' decay, which occurred predominantly by bimolecular recombination. The measured rate constant for the α-methallyl recombination was (3.5 ± 0.3) × 10 10 mol -1 l s -1 at 295 ± 2 K. The absolute extinction coefficients of the α-methallyl radical are calculated from the optical densities of the absorption bands. Detailed analysis of related absorption bands and lifetime measurements in the original α-methallyl high-resolution discrete absorption spectrum image were also carried out by image processing techniques.

  8. Outskirts of Distant Galaxies in Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    QSO absorption spectroscopy provides a sensitive probe of both the neutral medium and diffuse ionized gas in the distant Universe. It extends 21 cm maps of gaseous structures around low-redshift galaxies both to lower gas column densities and to higher redshifts. Combining galaxy surveys with absorption-line observations of gas around galaxies enables comprehensive studies of baryon cycles in galaxy outskirts over cosmic time. This chapter presents a review of the empirical understanding of the cosmic neutral gas reservoir from studies of damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs). It describes the constraints on the star formation relation and chemical enrichment history in the outskirts of distant galaxies from DLA studies. A brief discussion of available constraints on the ionized circumgalactic gas from studies of lower column density Lyα absorbers and associated ionic absorption transitions is presented at the end.

  9. Natural gas hydrate in sediments imaged by cryogenic SEM: Insights from lab experiments on synthetic hydrates as interpretive guides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    In the investigation of natural gas hydrates, distinguishing in situ grain textures and microstructures from artifacts produced during retrieval, storage, and examination can be quite challenging. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the physical states of gas hydrates produced in our lab as well as of those in drill core of hydrate-bearing sediment from marine and Arctic permafrost environments. Here, we compare grain and pore structures observed in samples from the Cascadia margin (courtesy IODP Expedition 311), McKenzie River Delta (Mallik Well 5L-38), and Gulf of Mexico (RSV Marion Dufresne 2002), with those present in hydrocarbon hydrates grown in our laboratory and subjected to controlled P-T conditions. The following trends are apparent for the natural gas hydrates imaged to-date: (1) Samples typically contain massive domains of polycrystalline gas hydrate that in turn contain isolated gas-filled pores that are sometimes lined with euhedral hydrate crystals. Pores are typically 5 50 microns in diameter and occupy roughly 10-30 percent of the domain. Grain sizes, where visible, are commonly 20 to 50 microns. (2) Hydrate grain boundaries, particularly near the exposed sample surface, are often replaced by a nanoporous material. Based on its location and behavior, this material is presumed to be gas-charged porous ice produced by hydrate decomposition along grain surfaces. In some samples, grains are instead bounded by a framework of dense, tabular material embedded within the sample, best revealed upon sublimation of the hydrate. Their composition is yet unknown but may be salt or carbonate-bearing minerals. (3) Where hydrate grows into clayey sediments, the clays typically arrange with platelets subparallel around the pods or veins of hydrate. (4) Domains of nano-to-micro- porous water ice are also seen in all recovered natural samples, presumed to be hydrate decomposition product produced during drill-core retrieval and handling

  10. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  11. Physiological response of rats to delivery of helium and xenon: implications for hyperpolarized noble gas imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, M. P.; Sigaloff, K. C.; Kubatina, L. V.; Donahue, M. A.; Venkatesh, A. K.; Albert, M. S.; ALbert, M. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The physiological effects of various hyperpolarized helium and xenon MRI-compatible breathing protocols were investigated in 17 Sprague-Dawley rats, by continuous monitoring of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, EKG, temperature and endotracheal pressure. The protocols included alternating breaths of pure noble gas and oxygen, continuous breaths of pure noble gas, breath-holds of pure noble gas for varying durations, and helium breath-holds preceded by two helium rinses. Alternate-breath protocols up to 128 breaths caused a decrease in oxygen saturation level of less than 5% for either helium or xenon, whereas 16 continuous-breaths caused a 31.5% +/- 2.3% decrease in oxygen saturation for helium and a 30.7% +/- 1. 3% decrease for xenon. Breath-hold protocols up to 25 s did not cause the oxygen saturation to fall below 90% for either of the noble gases. Oxygen saturation values below 90% are considered pathological. At 30 s of breath-hold, the blood oxygen saturation dropped precipitously to 82% +/- 0.6% for helium, and to 76.5% +/- 7. 4% for xenon. Breath-holds longer than 10 s preceded by pre-rinses caused oxygen saturation to drop below 90%. These findings demonstrate the need for standardized noble gas inhalation procedures that have been carefully tested, and for continuous physiological monitoring to ensure the safety of the subject. We find short breath-hold and alternate-breath protocols to be safe procedures for use in hyperpolarized noble gas MRI experiments. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. What Drives the Outflows in Broad Absorption Line QSOs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We have made progress in the areas related to the propulsion and confinement of gas responsible for broad absorption troughts in QSOs: Radiative Acceleration in BALQSOs; The "Ghost" of Lyman (alpha); and Magnetic Confinement of Absorbing Gas.

  13. Flexible Measurement of Bioluminescent Reporters Using an Automated Longitudinal Luciferase Imaging Gas- and Temperature-optimized Recorder (ALLIGATOR).

    PubMed

    Crosby, Priya; Hoyle, Nathaniel P; O'Neill, John S

    2017-12-13

    Luciferase-based reporters of cellular gene expression are in widespread use for both longitudinal and end-point assays of biological activity. In circadian rhythms research, for example, clock gene fusions with firefly luciferase give rise to robust rhythms in cellular bioluminescence that persist over many days. Technical limitations associated with photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or conventional microscopy-based methods for bioluminescence quantification have typically demanded that cells and tissues be maintained under quite non-physiological conditions during recording, with a trade-off between sensitivity and throughput. Here, we report a refinement of prior methods that allows long-term bioluminescence imaging with high sensitivity and throughput which supports a broad range of culture conditions, including variable gas and humidity control, and that accepts many different tissue culture plates and dishes. This automated longitudinal luciferase imaging gas- and temperature-optimized recorder (ALLIGATOR) also allows the observation of spatial variations in luciferase expression across a cell monolayer or tissue, which cannot readily be observed by traditional methods. We highlight how the ALLIGATOR provides vastly increased flexibility for the detection of luciferase activity when compared with existing methods.

  14. Developing an Effective Model for Shale Gas Flow in Nano-scale Pore Clusters based on FIB-SEM Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W. B.; Lin, M.; Yi, Z. X.; Li, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Nano-scale pores existed in the form of clusters are the controlling void space in shale gas reservoir. Gas transport in nanopores which has a significant influence on shale gas' recoverability displays multiple transport regimes, including viscous, slippage flow and Knudsen diffusion. In addition, it is also influenced by pore space characteristics. For convenience and efficiency consideration, it is necessary to develop an upscaling model from nano pore to pore cluster scale. Existing models are more like framework functions that provide a format, because the parameters that represent pore space characteristics are underdetermined and may have multiple possibilities. Therefore, it is urgent to make them clear and obtained a model that is closer to reality. FIB-SEM imaging technology is able to acquire three dimensional images with nanometer resolution that nano pores can be visible. Based on the images of two shale samples, we used a high-precision pore network extraction algorithm to generate equivalent pore networks and simulate multiple regime (non-Darcy) flow in it. Several structural parameters can be obtained through pore network modelling. It is found that although the throat-radius distributions are very close, throat flux-radius distributions of different samples can be divided into two categories. The variation of tortuosity with pressure and the overall trend of throat-flux distribution changes with pressure are disclosed. A deeper understanding of shale gas flow in nano-scale pore clusters is obtained. After all, an upscaling model that connects absolute permeability, apparent permeability and other characteristic parameters is proposed, and the best parameter scheme considering throat number-radius distribution and flowing porosity for this model is selected out of three schemes based on pore scale results, and it can avoid multiple-solution problem and is useful in reservoir modelling and experiment result analysis, etc. This work is supported by

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AO imaging of KOIs with gas giant planets (Wang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Fischer, D. A.; Horch, E. P.; Xie, J.-W.

    2017-09-01

    From the NASA Exoplanet Archive (http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu), we select Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) that satisfy the following criteria: (1) disposition of either Candidate or Confirmed, (2) stellar effective temperature (Teff) lower than 6500 K, (3) stellar surface gravity (log g) higher than 4.0, (4) Kepler magnitude (KP) brighter than 14th mag, (5) with at least one gas giant planet (3.8 R{earth}=gas giant planets. Stellar and orbital parameters for these KOIs are given in Table 1. The median distance of these KOIs is 580 pc. There are 27 multi-planet systems among 84 KOIs. (2 data files).

  16. HST Observations Reveal the Curious Geometry of Circumgalactic Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2016-06-01

    We have discovered that warm gas flows along galaxy major and minor axes detected out to 200 kpc. Our results are derived from a sample of HST-imaged isolated galaxies with nearby background quasars used to probe their 105K CGM detected in HST/COS UV spectra (traced by OVI absorption). We constrain the geometry of the gas to reside between 20-40 degrees of the projected major axis and within 60 degrees of the projected minor axis, with little-to-no gas found in between. Furthermore, strong absorption systems tend to be found along the minor axes of star-forming galaxies. All of our results are consistent with the current view of the CGM originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows.

  17. HST Observations Reveal the Curious Geometry of Circumgalactic Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2017-03-01

    We have discovered that warm gas flows along galaxy major and minor axes detected out to 200 kpc. Our results are derived from a sample of HST-imaged isolated galaxies with nearby background quasars used to probe their 105K CGM detected in HST/COS UV spectra (traced by Ovi absorption). We constrain the geometry of the gas to reside between 20-40 degrees of the projected major axis and within 60 degrees of the projected minor axis, with little-to-no gas found in between. Furthermore, strong absorption systems tend to be found along the minor axes of star-forming galaxies. All of our results are consistent with the current view of the CGM originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows.

  18. Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Gas-Exchange Imaging of Lung Microstructure: First Case Studies in Subjects with Obstructive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dregely, Isabel; Mugler, John P.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Altes, Talissa A.; Mata, Jaime F.; Miller, G. Wilson; Ketel, Jeffrey; Ketel, Steve; Distelbrink, Jan; Hersman, F.W.; Ruppert, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop and test a method to non-invasively assess the functional lung microstructure. Materials and Methods The Multiple exchange time Xenon polarization Transfer Contrast technique (MXTC) encodes xenon gas-exchange contrast at multiple delay times permitting two lung-function parameters to be derived: 1) MXTC-F, the long exchange-time depolarization value, which is proportional to the tissue to alveolar-volume ratio and 2) MXTC-S, the square root of the xenon exchange-time constant, which characterizes thickness and composition of alveolar septa. Three healthy volunteers, one asthmatic and two COPD (GOLD stage I and II) subjects were imaged with MXTC MRI. In a subset of subjects, hyperpolarized xenon-129 ADC MRI and CT imaging were also performed. Results The MXTC-S parameter was found to be elevated in subjects with lung disease (p-value = 0.018). In the MXTC-F parameter map it was feasible to identify regional loss of functional tissue in a COPD patient. Further, the MXTC-F map showed excellent regional correlation with CT and ADC (ρ ≥ 0.90) in one COPD subject. Conclusion The functional tissue-density parameter MXTC-F showed regional agreement with other imaging techniques. The newly developed parameter MXTC-S, which characterizes the functional thickness of alveolar septa, has potential as a novel biomarker for regional parenchymal inflammation or thickening. PMID:21509861

  19. Broadening microwave absorption via a multi-domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengwang; Che, Renchao; Wei, Yong; Liu, Yupu; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Dahyan, Daifallah Al.; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2017-04-01

    Materials with a high saturation magnetization have gained increasing attention in the field of microwave absorption; therefore, the magnetization value depends on the magnetic configuration inside them. However, the broad-band absorption in the range of microwave frequency (2-18 GHz) is a great challenge. Herein, the three-dimensional (3D) Fe/C hollow microspheres are constructed by iron nanocrystals permeating inside carbon matrix with a saturation magnetization of 340 emu/g, which is 1.55 times as that of bulk Fe, unexpectedly. Electron tomography, electron holography, and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy imaging provide the powerful testimony about Fe/C interpenetration and multi-domain state constructed by vortex and stripe domains. Benefiting from the unique chemical and magnetic microstructures, the microwave minimum absorption is as strong as -55 dB and the bandwidth (<-10 dB) spans 12.5 GHz ranging from 5.5 to 18 GHz. Morphology and distribution of magnetic nano-domains can be facilely regulated by a controllable reduction sintering under H2/Ar gas and an optimized temperature over 450-850 °C. The findings might shed new light on the synthesis strategies of the materials with the broad-band frequency and understanding the association between multi-domain coupling and microwave absorption performance.

  20. Electrical impedance imaging in two-phase, gas-liquid flows: 1. Initial investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J. T.; Ovacik, L.; Jones, O. C.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of interfacial area density in two-phase, gas-liquid flows is one of the major elements impeding significant development of predictive tools based on the two-fluid model. Currently, these models require coupling of liquid and vapor at interfaces using constitutive equations which do not exist in any but the most rudimentary form. Work described herein represents the first step towards the development of Electrical Impedance Computed Tomography (EICT) for nonintrusive determination of interfacial structure and evolution in such flows.

  1. Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M.; Vink, J.; de Gasperin, F.; Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; van Dijk, P. C. G.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Krankowski, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulder, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pekal, R.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Smirnov, O.; Soida, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vocks, C.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Zucca, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of 44Ti, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims: Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods: We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17″ (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results: We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 ± 0.48 M⊙ for an assumed gas temperatureof T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114″± 6″ and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta

  2. Monitoring of hemodynamic changes induced in the healthy breast through inspired gas stimuli with MR-guided diffuse optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, C. M.; Rakow-Penner, R.; Jiang, S.; Pogue, B. W.; Glover, G. H.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: MR-guided diffuse optical imaging is a unique tool that can measure tissue hemodynamics in the breast during modulated breathing. This technique may have utility in determining the therapeutic potential of pretreatment tissue oxygenation or in investigating vascular function. Future gas modulation studies in the breast should use a combination of oxygen and carbogen as the functional stimulus. Additionally, control measures of subject physiology during air breathing are critical for robust measurements. PMID:20443485

  3. MO-G-18C-03: Evaluation of Deformable Image Registration for Lung Motion Estimation Using Hyperpolarized Gas Tagging MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Q; Zhang, Y; Liu, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperpolarized gas (HP) tagging MRI is a novel imaging technique for direct measurement of lung motion during breathing. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) in lung motion estimation using HP tagging MRI as references. Methods: Three healthy subjects were imaged using the HP MR tagging, as well as a high-resolution 3D proton MR sequence (TrueFISP) at the end-of-inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE). Ground truth of lung motion and corresponding displacement vector field (tDVF) was derived from HP tagging MRI by manually tracking the displacement of tagging grids between EOI and EOE.more » Seven different DIR methods were applied to the high-resolution TrueFISP MR images (EOI and EOE) to generate the DIR-based DVFs (dDVF). The DIR methods include Velocity (VEL), MIM, Mirada, multi-grid B-spline from Elastix (MGB) and 3 other algorithms from DIRART toolbox (Double Force Demons (DFD), Improved Lucas-Kanade (ILK), and Iterative Optical Flow (IOF)). All registrations were performed by independent experts. Target registration error (TRE) was calculated as tDVF – dDVF. Analysis was performed for the entire lungs, and separately for the upper and lower lungs. Results: Significant differences between tDVF and dDVF were observed. Besides the DFD and IOF algorithms, all other dDVFs showed similarity in deformation magnitude distribution but away from the ground truth. The average TRE for entire lung ranged 2.5−23.7mm (mean=8.8mm), depending on the DIR method and subject's breathing amplitude. Larger TRE (13.3–23.7mm) was found in subject with larger breathing amplitude of 45.6mm. TRE was greater in lower lung (2.5−33.9 mm, mean=12.4mm) than that in upper lung (2.5−11.9 mm, mean=5.8mm). Conclusion: Significant differences were observed in lung motion estimation between the HP gas tagging MRI method and the DIR methods, especially when lung motion is large. Large variation among different

  4. Two and three-dimensional segmentation of hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary gas distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydarian, Mohammadreza; Kirby, Miranda; Wheatley, Andrew; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2012-03-01

    A semi-automated method for generating hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) measurements of individual slice (2D) or whole lung (3D) gas distribution was developed. 3He MRI functional images were segmented using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical K-means clustering of the 3He MRI signal and in addition a seeded region-growing algorithm was employed for segmentation of the 1H MRI thoracic cavity volume. 3He MRI pulmonary function measurements were generated following two-dimensional landmark-based non-rigid registration of the 3He and 1H pulmonary images. We applied this method to MRI of healthy subjects and subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The results of hierarchical K-means 2D and 3D segmentation were compared to an expert observer's manual segmentation results using linear regression, Pearson correlations and the Dice similarity coefficient. 2D hierarchical K-means segmentation of ventilation volume (VV) and ventilation defect volume (VDV) was strongly and significantly correlated with manual measurements (VV: r=0.98, p<.0001 VDV: r=0.97, p<.0001) and mean Dice coefficients were greater than 92% for all subjects. 3D hierarchical K-means segmentation of VV and VDV was also strongly and significantly correlated with manual measurements (VV: r=0.98, p<.0001 VDV: r=0.64, p<.0001) and the mean Dice coefficients were greater than 91% for all subjects. Both 2D and 3D semi-automated segmentation of 3He MRI gas distribution provides a way to generate novel pulmonary function measurements.

  5. Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo P. IV. Distance measurement from LBT optical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H I and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with both active star formation and an underlying older population, as well as an extremely low oxygen abundance. Here, we measure the distance to Leo P by applying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distance method to photometry of the resolved stellar population from new Large Binocular Telescope V and I band imaging. We measure a distance modulus of 26.19{sub −0.50}{sup +0.17} magmore » corresponding to a distance of 1.72{sub −0.40}{sup +0.14} Mpc. Although our photometry reaches 3 mag below the TRGB, the sparseness of the red giant branch yields higher uncertainties on the lower limit of the distance. Leo P is outside the Local Group with a distance and velocity consistent with the local Hubble flow. While located in a very low-density environment, Leo P lies within ∼0.5 Mpc of a loose association of dwarf galaxies which include NGC 3109, Antlia, Sextans A, and Sextans B, and 1.1 Mpc away from its next nearest neighbor, Leo A. Leo P is one of the lowest metallicity star-forming galaxies known in the nearby universe, comparable in metallicity to I Zw 18 and DDO 68, but with stellar characteristics similar to dwarf spheriodals (dSphs) in the Local Volume such as Carina, Sextans, and Leo II. Given its physical properties and isolation, Leo P may provide an evolutionary link between gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and dSphs that have fallen into a Local Group environment and been stripped of their gas.« less

  6. Nonintrusive laser-induced imaging for speciation and patternation in high-pressure gas turbine combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Zaller, Michelle M.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    1999-10-01

    The next generation of ga turbine combustors for aerospace applications will be required to meet increasingly stringent constraints on fuel efficiency, noise abatement, and emissions. The power plants being designed to meet these constraints will operate at extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, thereby generating unique challenges to the previously employed diagnostic methodologies. Current efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center GRC utilize optically accessible, high-pressure flametubes and sector combustor rigs to probe, via advanced nonintrusive laser techniques, the complex flowfields encountered in advanced combustor designs. The fuel-air mixing process is of particular concern for lowering NOx emissions generated in lean, premixed engine concepts. Using planar laser-induced fluorescence we have obtained real- time, detailed imaging of the fuel spray distribution for a number of fuel injectors over a wide range of operational conditions that closely match those expected in the proposed propulsion systems. Using a novel combination of planar imaging of fuel fluorescence and computational analysis that allows an examination of the flowfield from any perspective, we have produced spatially and temporally resolved fuel-air distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions never before possible, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and combustion phenomena.

  7. Saturn Methane Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-05

    NASA's Cassini narrow angle camera took this image of Saturn on Feb. 16, 2004, from a distance of 66.1 million kilometers (41.1 million miles) in a special filter which reveals clouds and haze high in the atmosphere. The image scale is 397 kilometers (247 miles) per pixel. The MT2 spectral filter samples a near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum where methane gas absorbs light at a wavelength of 727 nanometers. In the image, methane gas is uniformly mixed with hydrogen, the main gas in Saturn's atmosphere. Dark locales are places of strong methane absorption, relatively free of high clouds; the bright areas are places with high, thick clouds which shield the methane below. Image details reveal a high, thick equatorial cloud and a relatively deep or thin haze encircling the pole, as well as several distinct latitude bands with different cloud height attributes. It also shows a high atmospheric disturbance, just south of the equator, which has persisted throughout the 1990s in images returned by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Four of Saturn's moons are visible (clockwise from above right): Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across); Mimas (396 kilometers, or 245 miles across); Tethys (1,060 kilometers, or 659 miles across); and Rhea (1,528 kilometers, or 949 miles across). The imaging team enhanced the brightness of Mimas and Enceladus by a factor of three. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05381

  8. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  9. Gas Discharge Visualization: An Imaging and Modeling Tool for Medical Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Kostyuk, Nataliya; Cole, Phyadragren; Meghanathan, Natarajan; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Cohly, Hari H. P.

    2011-01-01

    The need for automated identification of a disease makes the issue of medical biometrics very current in our society. Not all biometric tools available provide real-time feedback. We introduce gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique as one of the biometric tools that have the potential to identify deviations from the normal functional state at early stages and in real time. GDV is a nonintrusive technique to capture the physiological and psychoemotional status of a person and the functional status of different organs and organ systems through the electrophotonic emissions of fingertips placed on the surface of an impulse analyzer. This paper first introduces biometrics and its different types and then specifically focuses on medical biometrics and the potential applications of GDV in medical biometrics. We also present our previous experience with GDV in the research regarding autism and the potential use of GDV in combination with computer science for the potential development of biological pattern/biomarker for different kinds of health abnormalities including cancer and mental diseases. PMID:21747817