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Sample records for absorption gra method

  1. Detectors for the gamma-ray resonant absorption (GRA) method of explosives detection in cargo: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartsky, David; Goldberg, Mark B.; Engler, Gideon; Shor, Asher; Goldschmidt, Aharon; Feldman, Gennady; Bar, Doron; Orion, Itzhak; Wielopolski, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Resonant Absorption (GRA) is an automatic-decision radiographic screening technique that combines high radiation penetration with very good sensitivity and specificity to nitrogenous explosives. The method is particularly well-suited to inspection of large, massive objects (since the resonant γ-ray probe is at 9.17 MeV) such as aviation and marine containers, heavy vehicles and railroad cars. Two kinds of γ-ray detectors have been employed to date in GRA systems: 1) Resonant-response nitrogen-rich liquid scintillators and 2) BGO detectors. This paper analyses and compares the response of these detector-types to the resonant radiation, in terms of single-pixel figures of merit. The latter are sensitive not only to detector response, but also to accelerator-beam quality, via the properties of the nuclear reaction that produces the resonant-γ-rays. Generally, resonant detectors give rise to much higher nitrogen-contrast sensitivity in the radiographic image than their non-resonant detector counterparts and furthermore, do not require proton beams of high energy-resolution. By comparison, the non-resonant detectors have higher γ-detection efficiency, but their contrast sensitivity is very sensitive to the quality of the accelerator beam. Implications of these detector/accelerator characteristics for eventual GRA field systems are discussed.

  2. Construction of an evaluation and selection system of emergency treatment technology based on dynamic fuzzy GRA method for phenol spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Yu, Lean; Li, Lian

    2017-05-01

    There is often a great deal of complexity, fuzziness and uncertainties of the chemical contingency spills. In order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs, the technique evaluation system was developed based on dynamic fuzzy GRA method, and the feasibility of the proposed methods has been tested by using a emergency phenol spill accidence occurred in highway.

  3. Machinability assessment of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) during turning operation: Application potential of GRA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Akhtar; Maity, Kalipada

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores some of the vital machinability characteristics of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) grade 2. Experiments were conducted based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The selected material was machined on a heavy duty lathe (Model: HMT NH26) using uncoated carbide inserts in dry cutting environment. The selected inserts were designated by ISO as SNMG 120408 (Model: K313) and manufactured by Kennametal. These inserts were rigidly mounted on a right handed tool holder PSBNR 2020K12. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected as three input variables whereas tool wear (VBc) and surface roughness (Ra) were the major attentions. In order to confirm an appreciable machinability of the work part, an optimal parametric combination was attained with the help of grey relational analysis (GRA) approach. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to exhibit the accuracy and acceptability of the proposed methodology using multiple regression equations. The results indicated that, the suggested model is capable of predicting overall grey relational grade within acceptable range.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of single and multi-hybrid epitopes of GRA-1, GRA-4, GRA-6 and GRA-7 proteins to improve DNA vaccine design against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Shaddel, Minoo; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza

    2018-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii , is a causative agent of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and congenitally-infected individuals. Attempts to construct DNA vaccines against T. gondii using surface proteins are increasing. The dense granule antigens are highly expressed in the acute and chronic phases of T. gondii infection and considered as suitable DNA vaccine candidates to control toxoplasmosis. In the present study, bioinformatics tools and online software were used to predict, analyze and compare the structural, physical and chemical characters and immunogenicity of the GRA-1, GRA-4, GRA-6 and GRA-7 proteins. Sequence alignment results indicated that the GRA-1, GRA-4, GRA-6 and GRA-7 proteins had low similarity. The secondary structure prediction demonstrated that among the four proteins, GRA-1 and GRA-6 had similar secondary structure except for a little discrepancy. Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity analysis showed multiple hydrophilic regions and some classical high hydrophilic domains for each protein sequence. Immunogenic epitope prediction results demonstrated that the GRA-1 and GRA-4 epitopes were stable and GRA-4 showed the highest degree of antigenicity. Although the GRA-7 epitope had the highest score of immunogenicity, this epitope was instable and had the lowest degree of antigenicity and half-time in eukaryotic cell. Also, the results indicated that GRA4-GRA7 epitope and GRA6-GRA7 had the highest degree of antigenicity and immunogenicity among multi-hybrid epitopes, respectively. Totally, in the present study, single epitopes showed the highest degree of antigenicity compared with multi-hybrid epitopes. Given the results, it can be concluded that GRA-4 and GRA-7 can be powerful DNA vaccine candidates against T. gondii .

  5. Simultaneous optimization method for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Simms, Jean M; An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Ramesh, Varun; Ghandhi, Jaal B; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-05-10

    A simultaneous optimization method is proposed for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing. This method is particularly useful for thermometry measurements based on congested spectra, as commonly encountered in combustion applications of H2O absorption spectroscopy. A comparison test demonstrated that the simultaneous optimization method had greater accuracy, greater precision, and was more user-independent than the common step-wise postprocessing method previously used by the authors. The simultaneous optimization method was also used to process experimental data from an environmental chamber and a constant volume combustion chamber, producing results with errors on the order of only 1%.

  6. Protective effect of DNA-mediated immunization with liposome-encapsulated GRA4 against infection of Toxoplasma gondii *

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Lu, Shao-hong; Tong, Qun-bo; Lou, Di; Shi, Dong-yan; Jia, Bing-bing; Huang, Guo-ping; Wang, Jin-fu

    2009-01-01

    The dense granule protein 4 (GRA4) is a granular protein from Toxoplasma gondii, and is a candidate for vaccination against this parasite. In this study, the plasmid pcDNA3.1-GRA4 (pGRA4), encoding for the GRA4 antigen, was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 mmol/L egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 mmol/L dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and 4 mmol/L 1,2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP). C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times with liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 to determine whether DNA immunization could elicit a protective immune response to T. gondii. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of sera from immunized mice showed that liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 generated high levels of IgG antibodies to GRA4. Production of primary interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 in GRA4-stimulated splenocytes from vaccinated mice suggested a modulated Th1-type response. 72.7% of C57BL/6 mice immunized with liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 survived the challenge with 80 tissue cysts of ME49 strain, whereas C57BL/6 mice immunized with pGRA4 had only a survival rate of 54.5%. When immunized BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally challenged with 103 tachyzoites of the highly virulent RH strain, the survival time of mice immunized with liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 was markedly longer than that of other groups. Our observations show that liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 enhanced the protective effect against infection of T. gondii. PMID:19585669

  7. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  8. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  9. Detector absorptivity measuring method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheets, R. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the absorptivity of a radiation detector by making the detector an integral part of a cavity radiometer are described. By substituting the detector for the surface of the cavity upon which the radiation first impinges a comparison is made between the quantity of radiation incident upon the detector and the quantity reflected from the detector. The difference between the two is a measurement of the amount of radiation absorbed by the detector.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: Biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant soluble dense granule proteins GRA2 and GRA6

    SciTech Connect

    Bittame, Amina; Université Grenoble Alpes, 38042 Grenoble; Effantin, Grégory

    2015-03-27

    The most prominent structural feature of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in which the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii proliferates is a membranous nanotubular network (MNN), which interconnects the parasites and the PV membrane. The MNN function remains unclear. The GRA2 and GRA6 proteins secreted from the parasite dense granules into the PV have been implicated in the MNN biogenesis. Amphipathic alpha-helices (AAHs) predicted in GRA2 and an alpha-helical hydrophobic domain predicted in GRA6 have been proposed to be responsible for their membrane association, thereby potentially molding the MMN in its structure. Here we report an analysis of the recombinant proteins (expressedmore » in detergent-free conditions) by circular dichroism, which showed that full length GRA2 displays an alpha-helical secondary structure while recombinant GRA6 and GRA2 truncated of its AAHs are mainly random coiled. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that recombinant GRA6 and truncated GRA2 constitute a homogenous population of small particles (6–8 nm in diameter) while recombinant GRA2 corresponds to 2 populations of particles (∼8–15 nm and up to 40 nm in diameter, respectively). The unusual properties of GRA2 due to its AAHs are discussed. - Highlights: • Toxoplasma gondii: soluble GRA2 forms 2 populations of particles. • T. gondii: the dense granule protein GRA2 folds intrinsically as an alpha-helix. • T. gondii: monomeric soluble GRA6 forms particles of 6–8 nm in diameter. • T. gondii: monomeric soluble GRA6 is random coiled. • Unusual biophysical properties of the dense granule protein GRA2 from T. gondii.« less

  11. Toxoplasma gondii: biochemical and biophysical characterization of recombinant soluble dense granule proteins GRA2 and GRA6.

    PubMed

    Bittame, Amina; Effantin, Grégory; Pètre, Graciane; Ruffiot, Pauline; Travier, Laetitia; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Gagnon, Jean; Mercier, Corinne

    2015-03-27

    The most prominent structural feature of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in which the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii proliferates is a membranous nanotubular network (MNN), which interconnects the parasites and the PV membrane. The MNN function remains unclear. The GRA2 and GRA6 proteins secreted from the parasite dense granules into the PV have been implicated in the MNN biogenesis. Amphipathic alpha-helices (AAHs) predicted in GRA2 and an alpha-helical hydrophobic domain predicted in GRA6 have been proposed to be responsible for their membrane association, thereby potentially molding the MMN in its structure. Here we report an analysis of the recombinant proteins (expressed in detergent-free conditions) by circular dichroism, which showed that full length GRA2 displays an alpha-helical secondary structure while recombinant GRA6 and GRA2 truncated of its AAHs are mainly random coiled. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that recombinant GRA6 and truncated GRA2 constitute a homogenous population of small particles (6-8 nm in diameter) while recombinant GRA2 corresponds to 2 populations of particles (∼8-15 nm and up to 40 nm in diameter, respectively). The unusual properties of GRA2 due to its AAHs are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of recombinant granule antigens GRA1 and GRA7 for serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonotic disease worldwide. The precise detection of T. gondii infection in dogs has important public health significance. In this study, recombinant granule antigen proteins GRA1 and GRA7 were evaluated as potential diagnostic markers for T. gondii infection in dogs by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results GRA1 and GRA7 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant GRA1, GRA7- and Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA)-based ELISAs were developed and evaluated using the canine positive and negative serum samples for anti-T. gondii antibodies determined by modified agglutination test (MAT) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), showing a seroprevalence of 15.1% by TLA- and GRA1-ELISA, and 15.8% by GRA7-ELISA, and no significant difference was observed (P > 0.05). When compared with the two reference assays, MAT and IFAT, the GRA7-ELISA showed the highest co-positivity and co-negativity rates. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed a largest area under curve (AUC) of 0.973 (95% CI, 0.955 to 0.991), and a highest relative sensitivity (93.2%) and specificity (94.0%) for a cut-off value of 0.809 in GRA7-ELISA. Conclusions The results of the present study showed that GRA7-ELISA is highly sensitive and specific, and GRA7 is a potential serodiagnostic marker for the detection of T. gondii infection in dogs. PMID:25016474

  13. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  14. Fluids on differentiated asteroids: Evidence from phosphates in differentiated meteorites GRA 06128 and GRA 06129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Charles K.; Burger, Paul V.; Papike, James J.; Sharp, Zachary D.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- Paired meteorites Graves Nunatak 06128 and 06129 (GRA) represent an ancient cumulate lithology (4565.9 Ma ± 0.3) containing high abundances of sodic plagioclase. Textures and stable isotope compositions of GRA indicate that superimposed on the igneous lithology is a complex history of subsolidus reequilibration and low-temperature alteration that may have extended over a period of 150 Myr. In GRA, apatite is halogen-rich with Cl between 4.5 and 5.5 wt% and F between 0.3 and 0.9 wt%. The Cl/(Cl+F+OH) ratio of the apatite is between 0.65 and 0.82. The Cl and F are negatively correlated and are heterogeneously distributed in the apatite. Merrillite is low in halogens with substantial Na in the 6-fold coordinated Na-site (≈2.5%) and Mg in the smaller octahedral site. The merrillite has a negative Eu anomaly, whereas the apatite has a positive Eu anomaly. The chlorine isotope composition of the bulk GRA leachate is +1.2‰ relative to standard mean ocean chloride (SMOC). Ion microprobe chlorine isotope analyses of the apatite range between -0.5 and +1.2‰. Textural relationships between the merrillite and apatite, and the high-Cl content of the apatite, suggest that the merrillite is magmatic in origin, whereas the apatite is a product of the interaction between merrillite and a Cl-rich fluid. If the replacement of merrillite by apatite occurred at approximately 800 °C, the fluid composition is f(HCl)/f(H2O) = 0.0383 and a HCl molality of 2.13 and f(HCl)/f(HF) = 50-100. It is anticipated that the calculated f(HCl)/f(H2O) and a HCl molality are minimum values due to assumptions made on the OH component in apatite and basing the calculations on the apatite with the lowest XCl. The bulk δ37Cl of GRA is a >2σ outlier from chondritic meteorites and suggests that parent body processes resulted in fractionation of the Cl isotopes.

  15. High durability solar absorptive coating and methods for making same

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Aaron C.; Adams, David P.

    The present invention relates to solar absorptive coatings including a ceramic material. In particular, the coatings of the invention are laser-treated to further enhance the solar absorptivity of the material. Methods of making and using such materials are also described.

  16. Study report on a double isotope method of calcium absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the pros and cons of three methods to study gastrointestinal calcium absorption are briefly discussed. The methods are: (1) a balance study; (2) a single isotope method; and (3) a double isotope method. A procedure for the double isotope method is also included.

  17. Immunodiagnosis and molecular validation of Toxoplasma gondii-recombinant dense granular (GRA) 7 protein for the detection of toxoplasmosis in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Arab-Mazar, Zahra; Fallahi, Shirzad; Koochaki, Ameneh; Haghighi, Ali; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad

    2016-02-01

    Serological assays for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis mostly rely on the tachyzoite specific antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, which are difficult to produce by conventional methods. The aim of this study was to clone and express of GRA7 protein of T. gondii and evaluate its potential for immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cancer patients. As well as validate the results using a new molecular assay, LAMP technique. The GRA7 gene was successfully cloned, expressed and purified by affinity chromatography and the production was evaluated by SDS PAGE, dot blot and western blot analyses. The rGRA7 was used for developing an ELISA based on the rGRA7 using sera from patients with toxoplasmosis and healthy controls. Furthermore, 50 serum samples from leukemic children infected with toxoplasmosis and 50 seronegative controls were included to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rGRA7 based ELISA. Finally, the LAMP technique was used to assess the accuracy and validity of the results obtained by rGRA7 based ELISA. The consistency of the results of two tests was determined by using the Kappa coefficient of agreement. The rGRA7 showed higher and optimum immunoreactivity with 1:100 dilution of serum from Toxoplasma infected patients. The sensitivity and specificity of test were calculated as 92 and 94%, respectively. According to the Kappa coefficient of agreement, there was a significant conformance between the results obtained by ELISA based on the rGRA7 and the results of LAMP technique (≈96%, P<0.001). Findings of the present study showed that rGRA7 can be used as a potential immunogenic antigen for developing immunodiagnostic tools for immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in patients including patients with cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. A Combination of Extended Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy GRA for Government E-Tendering in Hybrid Fuzzy Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25057506

  19. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  20. ABSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    DOEpatents

    Tompkins, E.R.; Parker, G.W.

    1959-03-10

    An improved method is presented for the chromatographic separation of fission products wherein a substantial reduction in liquid volume is obtained. The process consists in contacting a solution containing fission products with a body of ion-exchange adsorbent to effect adsorption of fission product cations. The loaded exchange resin is then contacted with a small volume of a carboxylic acid eluant, thereby recovering the fission products. The fission product carrying eluate is acidified without increasing its volume to the volume of the original solution, and the acidified eluate is then used as a feed solution for a smaller body of ion-exchange resin effecting readsorption of the fission product cations.

  1. Petrography and Origin of the Unique Achondrite GRA 06128 and 06129: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R. V.; Kring, D. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jones, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    GRA 06128 & 06129 are paired achondrites [1], with unique mineral proportions (75% oligoclase), mineral compositions, and oxygen isotope ratios. They appear to represent alkalic igneous rock from a hitherto unsampled differentiated parent body, modified significantly by thermal and shock metamorphism. Samples and Methods: Bulk samples were examined at JSC during splitting for consortium analyses. Microscope and BSE images here are on thick section GRA06128,40. Chemical analyses of minerals were acquired at Johnson Space Center with the Cameca SX100, operated at 15 kV. Feldspar was analyzed with a defocused 5 micron beam @ 5 nA; other minerals were analyzed with a focused beam @ 20 nA. Moessbauer spectra were obtained at ARES, JSC [2]. Intrinsic radioactivity was measured in the low-level counting facility at ARES JSC [3]. An estimated abundance of Al-26 of approx. 70 dpm/kg is within the range determined for eucrites.

  2. GraDeR: Membrane Protein Complex Preparation for Single-Particle Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Florian; Gerle, Christoph; Fischer, Niels; Oshima, Atsunori; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Shimada, Satoru; Yokoyama, Ken; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Stark, Holger

    2015-09-01

    We developed a method, named GraDeR, which substantially improves the preparation of membrane protein complexes for structure determination by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). In GraDeR, glycerol gradient centrifugation is used for the mild removal of free detergent monomers and micelles from lauryl maltose-neopentyl glycol detergent stabilized membrane complexes, resulting in monodisperse and stable complexes to which standard processes for water-soluble complexes can be applied. We demonstrate the applicability of the method on three different membrane complexes, including the mammalian FoF1 ATP synthase. For this highly dynamic and fragile rotary motor, we show that GraDeR allows visualizing the asymmetry of the F1 domain, which matches the ground state structure of the isolated domain. Therefore, the present cryo-EM structure of FoF1 ATP synthase provides direct structural evidence for Boyer's binding change mechanism in the context of the intact enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enrichment process of biogas using simultaneous Absorption - Adsorption methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, Eny; Lukita, Maya; Gozan, Misri; Susanto, Bambang Heru; Nasution, Dedy Alharis; Rahman, Arif; Gunawan, Cindy

    2017-03-01

    Removal of CO2 in biogas is an essential methods to the purification and upgrading of biogas. Natural Clinoptilolite zeolites were evaluated as sorbents for purification of biogas that produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by anerobic-digestion method. The absorption and adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed two column adsorption unit by simultaneous absorption-adsorption method. The Ca(OH)2 solution with concentration of 0.062 M was used as absorption method. Sorbent for removal of CO2 in biogas have been prepared by modifying of Clinoptilolite zeolites with an acid (HCl, 2M) and alkaline (NaOH, 2M), calcined at 450°C and then coated using chitosan (0.5 w/v%) in order to increase their adsorption capacity. The removal of CO2 in biogas was achieved about ˜83% using 2.5 g of sorbent zeolite (2M)/chitosan dosage for each column, breakthrough time of 30 min, and flow rate of 100 mL/min. Clinoptilolite zeolites with modifications of an acid-alkaline and chitosan (zeolite (2M)/chitosan) are promising sorbents due to the amine groups from chitosan and high surface-volume ratio are one of important factors in a simultaneous absorption-adsorption method.

  4. RECTIFIED ABSORPTION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, C.D.; Hanson, D.N.

    1961-10-17

    A method is described for separating and recovering heavy hydrogen isotopes from gaseous mixtures by multiple stage cyclic absorption and rectification from an approximate solvent. In particular, it is useful for recovering such isoteoes from ammonia feedstock streams containing nitrogen solvent. Modifications of the process ranging from isobaric to isothermal are provided. Certain impurities are tolerated, giving advantages over conventional fractional distillation processes. (AEC)

  5. Laser absorption spectroscopy - Method for monitoring complex trace gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    A frequency stabilized CO2 laser was used for accurate determinations of the absorption coefficients of various gases in the wavelength region from 9 to 11 microns. The gases investigated were representative of the types of contaminants expected to build up in recycled atmospheres. These absorption coefficients were then used in determining the presence and amount of the gases in prepared mixtures. The effect of interferences on the minimum detectable concentration of the gases was measured. The accuracies of various methods of solution were also evaluated.

  6. Semiquantitative Dot Blot with the GRA8 antigen to differentiate the stages of toxoplasmosis infection.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juan Gabriel; Vilariño, María Julia

    2018-06-01

    In this work we present a novel methodology to differentiate the phases of toxoplasmosis infection: the "semiquantitative Dot Blot". It is a simple technique that does not require expensive equipment, does not involve a long technique development, and can be used in a low-complexity laboratory. In this study, two recombinant sequences of Toxoplasma gondii GRA8 antigen were used, and specific IgG antibodies were detected in selected patient samples. This method makes it possible to obtain a score for each serum and define whether the patient is in the acute or chronic phase of the infection. The sensitivity and specificity results varied depending on the antigenic sequence used. With GRA8A, 62.1% and 72.7% were obtained, while with GRA8B, 82.8% and 72.1% were obtained, respectively. Although the sensitivity and specificity values were not close to 100%, they were similar to those reported with the same antigens in ELISA. Therefore, this quantitative technique would be a good alternative to ELISA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  8. Applying GRA and QFD to Improve Library Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper applied Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to identify service improvement techniques for an academic library. First, reader needs and their importance, and satisfaction degrees were examined via questionnaires. Second, the service improvement techniques for satisfying the reader needs were developed by…

  9. Method for making a photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1987-05-05

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  10. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  11. Method and apparatus for enhancing laser absorption sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A simple optomechanical method and apparatus is described for substantially reducing the amplitude of unwanted multiple interference fringes which often limit the sensitivities of tunable laser absorption spectrometers. An exterior cavity is defined by partially transmissible surfaces such as a laser exit plate, a detector input, etc. That cavity is spoiled by placing an oscillating plate in the laser beam. For tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region, a Brewster-plate spoiler allows the harmonic detection of absorptances of less than 10 to the -5 in a single laser scan. Improved operation is achieved without subtraction techniques, without complex laser frequency modulation, and without distortion of the molecular lineshape signal. The technique is applicable to tunable lasers operating from UV to IR wavelengths and in spectrometers which employ either short or long pathlengths, including the use of retroreflectors or multipass cells.

  12. GRA12, a Toxoplasma dense granule protein associated with the intravacuolar membranous nanotubular network.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Adeline; Bittame, Amina; Bordat, Yann; Travier, Laetitia; Mercier, Corinne; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Lebrun, Maryse

    2009-02-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), an intracellular niche in which it secretes proteins from secretory organelles named dense granules and rhoptries. Here, we describe a new dense granule protein that should now be referred to as GRA12, and that displays no homology with other proteins. Immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy showed that GRA12 behaves similarly to both GRA2 and GRA6. It is secreted into the PV from the anterior pole of the parasite soon after the beginning of invasion, transits to the posterior invaginated pocket of the parasite where a membranous tubulovesicular network is first assembled, and finally resides throughout the vacuolar space, associated with the mature membranous nanotubular network. GRA12 fails to localise at the parasite posterior end in the absence of GRA2. Within the vacuolar space, like the other GRA proteins, GRA12 exists in both a soluble and a membrane-associated form. Using affinity chromatography experiments, we showed that in both the parasite and the PV soluble fractions, GRA12 is purified with the complex of GRA proteins associated with a tagged version of GRA2 and that this association is lost in the PV membranous fraction.

  13. Early Petrogenesis and Late Impact(?) Metamorphism on the GRA 06128/9 Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2009-01-01

    Initial studies of GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) suggested that these alkalic meteorites represent partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. A SM-147-Nd-143 isochron age of 4.545 +/- 0.087 Ga was found for GRA 8, but plagioclase (oligoclase) plus whole rock and leachate samples gave an apparent secondary age of approximately 3.5 Ga. The approximately 4.54 Ga age was interpreted to be the crystallization age of GRA 8; the approximately 3.5 Ga as an upper limit to a time of metamorphism. Here we extend Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr analyses to GRA 9.

  14. Analytical method for promoting process capability of shock absorption steel.

    PubMed

    Sung, Wen-Pei; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Chen, Kuen-Suan

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties and low cycle fatigue are two factors that must be considered in developing new type steel for shock absorption. Process capability and process control are significant factors in achieving the purpose of research and development programs. Often-used evaluation methods failed to measure process yield and process centering; so this paper uses Taguchi loss function as basis to establish an evaluation method and the steps for assessing the quality of mechanical properties and process control of an iron and steel manufacturer. The establishment of this method can serve the research and development and manufacturing industry and lay a foundation in enhancing its process control ability to select better manufacturing processes that are more reliable than decision making by using the other commonly used methods.

  15. Absorption-emission optrode and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1990-05-29

    A method and apparatus are described for monitoring the physical and chemical properties of a sample fluid by measuring an optical signal generated by a fluorescent substance and modulated by an absorber substance. The emission band of the fluorescent substance overlaps the absorption band of the absorber substance, and the degree of overlap is dependent on the physical and chemical properties of the sample fluid. The fluorescent substance and absorber substance are immobilized on a substrate so that an effective number of molecules thereof are sufficiently close for resonant energy transfer to occur, thereby providing highly efficient modulation of the fluorescent emissions of the fluorescent substance by the absorber substance. 4 figs.

  16. Femtosecond Chirp-Free Transient Absorption Method And Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2001-02-20

    A method and apparatus for femtosecond transient absorption comprising phase-sensitive detection, spectral scanning and simultaneous controlling of a translation stage to obtain TA spectra information having at least a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than that for single-shot methods, with direct, simultaneous compensation for chirp as the data is acquired. The present invention includes a amplified delay translation stage which generates a splittable frequency-doubled laser signal at a predetermined frequency f, a controllable means for synchronously modulating one of the laser signals at a repetition rate of f/2, applying the laser signals to a material to be sample, and acquiring data from the excited sample while simultaneously controlling the controllable means for synchronously modulating.

  17. History of Metal Veins in Acapulcoite-Lodranite Clan Meteorite GRA 95209

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Humayun, M.

    2006-01-01

    Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95209 has been hailed as the missing link of core formation processes in the acapulcoitelodranite parent asteroid because of the presence of a complex cm-scale metal vein network. Because the apparent liquid temperature of the metal vein (approximately 1500 C) is higher than inferred for the metamorphic grade of the meteorite, questions regarding the vein s original composition, temperature, and mechanism of emplacement have arisen. We have determined trace siderophile element compositions of metals in veins and surrounding matrix in an effort to clarify matters. We analyzed metals in GRA 95209 in a portion of thick metal vein and adjacent metal-rich (30-40 modal%), sulfide poor (less than 1%) matrix by EPMA and LA-ICP-MS for major and trace siderophile elements using methods described by [3]. We also examined metals from a metal-poor (approximately 15 modal%) and relatively sulfide-rich (2-5 modal%) region of the sample. Kamacite is the dominant metal phase in all portions of the sample. In comparison to matrix metal, vein metal contains more schreibersite and less tetrataenite, and is less commonly associated with Fe,Mn,Mg-bearing phosphates and graphite. Vein kamacite contains higher Co, P, and Cr and lower Cu and Ge. These minor variations aside, all metal types in GRA 95209 are fairly homogeneous in terms of their levels of enrichment of compatible siderophile elements (e.g. Pt, Ir, Os) relative to incompatible siderophile elements (e.g. As, Pd, Au), consistent with the loss of metal-sulfide partial melt that characterizes much of the clan. Whatever compositional differences between matrix and vein metal that may have originally existed, they have since largely co-equilibrated to similar restitic trace element compositions. We agree with [2] that metal veins, in their present state, do not represent a liquid composition. The original vein liquid was much more S-rich and emplaced at correspondingly lower liquid temperatures. Much of the Fe

  18. Development of a new free radical absorption capacity assay method for antioxidants: aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC).

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Nagai, Kanae; Fujii, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kazuo

    2013-10-23

    A new free radical absorption capacity assay method is proposed with use of an aroxyl radical (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)phenoxyl radical) and stopped-flow spectroscopy and is named the aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method. The free radical absorption capacity (ARAC value) of each tocopherol was determined through measurement of the radical-scavenging rate constant in ethanol. The ARAC value could also be evaluated through measurement of the half-life of the aroxyl radical during the scavenging reaction. For the estimation of the free radical absorption capacity, the aroxyl radical was more suitable than the DPPH radical, galvinoxyl, and p-nitrophenyl nitronyl nitroxide. The ARAC value in tocopherols showed the same tendency as the free radical absorption capacities reported previously, and the tendency was independent of an oxygen radical participating in the scavenging reaction and of a medium surrounding the tocopherol and oxygen radical. The ARAC value can be directly connected to the free radical-scavenging rate constant, and the ARAC method has the advantage of treating a stable and isolable radical (aroxyl radical) in a user-friendly organic solvent (ethanol). The ARAC method was also successfully applied to a palm oil extract. Accordingly, the ARAC method would be useful in free radical absorption capacity assay of antioxidative reagents and foods.

  19. HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR-restricted epitopes in GRA5 of toxoplasma gondii strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; Prasetyo, A. A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dense granular (GRA) proteins of Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) have been demonstrated as potential sources of T. gondii vaccine antigens. However, data of the GRA5 protein are limited. This study analyzed twenty-one complete GRA5 sequences of T. gondii GT1, RH, ME49, VEG, MAS, RUB, FOU, p89, VAND, and GAB2-2007-GAL-DOM2 strains to identify potential epitopes restricted by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC- II) molecules (human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR) in the protein. In all T. gondii strains, peptides positioned at amino acid (aa) 15-29, 16-30, 17-31, 18-32, 19-33, 83-97, 84-98, 86-100, 87-101, 89-103, and 90-104 were predicted to pose high affinity and binding with HLA-DRB1*0101, HLA-DRB1*0301 (DR17), HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4), HLA-DRB1*0701, HLA-DRB1*1101, HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2b), and/or HLA-DRB5*0101. Considering the epitope's affinity, ligation strength, and hydrophilicity, LRLLRRRRRRAIQEE sequence (aa 90-104) restricted by HLA-DRB1*0101, HlA- DRB1*0301 (DR17), and HLA-DRB1*0401 (DR4Dw4) was considered as the most potential MHC-II epitope in GRA5 of T. gondii. These results would be useful for studies concerning in developing T. gondii vaccine and diagnostic method.

  20. Low-Degree Partial Melting Experiments of CR and H Chondrite Compositions: Implications for Asteroidal Magmatism Recorded in GRA 06128 and GRA 06129 T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usui, T.; Jones, John H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of differentiated meteorites have revealed a diversity of differentiation processes on their parental asteroids; these differentiation mechanisms range from whole-scale melting to partial melting without the core formation [e.g., 1]. Recently discovered paired achondrites GRA 06128 and GRA 06129 (hereafter referred to as GRA) represent unique asteroidal magmatic processes. These meteorites are characterized by high abundances of sodic plagioclase and alkali-rich whole-rock compositions, implying that they could originate from a low-degree partial melt from a volatile-rich oxidized asteroid [e.g., 2, 3, 4]. These conditions are consistent with the high abundances of highly siderophile elements, suggesting that their parent asteroid did not segregate a metallic core [2]. In this study, we test the hypothesis that low-degree partial melts of chondritic precursors under oxidizing conditions can explain the whole-rock and mineral chemistry of GRA based on melting experiments of synthesized CR- and H-chondrite compositions.

  1. The aspartyl protease TgASP5 mediates the export of the Toxoplasma GRA16 and GRA24 effectors into host cells.

    PubMed

    Curt-Varesano, Aurélie; Braun, Laurence; Ranquet, Caroline; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Bougdour, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species are obligatory intracellular parasites that export proteins into the infected cells in order to interfere with host-signalling pathways, acquire nutrients or evade host defense mechanisms. With regard to export mechanism, a wealth of information in Plasmodium spp. is available, while the mechanisms operating in T. gondii remain uncertain. The recent discovery of exported proteins in T. gondii, mainly represented by dense granule resident proteins, might explain this discrepancy and offers a unique opportunity to study the export mechanism in T. gondii. Here, we report that GRA16 export is mediated by two protein elements present in its N-terminal region. Because the first element contains a putative Plasmodium export element linear motif (RRLAE), we hypothesized that GRA16 export depended on a maturation process involving protein cleavage. Using both N- and C-terminal epitope tags, we provide evidence for protein proteolysis occurring in the N-terminus of GRA16. We show that TgASP5, the T. gondii homolog of Plasmodium plasmepsin V, is essential for GRA16 export and is directly responsible for its maturation in a Plasmodium export element-dependent manner. Interestingly, TgASP5 is also involved in GRA24 export, although the GRA24 maturation mechanism is TgASP5-independent. Our data reveal different modus operandi for protein export, in which TgASP5 should play multiple functions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Liang

    2012-11-27

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  3. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  4. Three-dimensionally patterned energy absorptive material and method of fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric; Frank, James M.; Kuntz, Joshua

    A three-dimensionally patterned energy absorptive material and fabrication method having multiple layers of patterned filaments extrusion-formed from a curable pre-cursor material and stacked and cured in a three-dimensionally patterned architecture so that the energy absorptive material produced thereby has an engineered bulk property associated with the three-dimensionally patterned architecture.

  5. Petrography and Origin of the Unique Achondrite GRA 06128 & 06129: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.; Morris, R. V.; Kring, D. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jones, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    GRA 06128 and 06129 are paired achondrites with unique mineral proportions (75% oligoclase), mineral compositions, and oxygen isotope ratios. They appear to represent alkalic igneous rock from a hitherto unsampled differentiated parent body, modified significantly by thermal and shock metamorphism.

  6. GraPhoBox: Gravitropism and phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizer, K.

    2007-09-01

    The morphology of plants is directed by the directional growth of roots and shoots. Gravity and light direction are the two major environmental stimuli important for directional growth. The 'GraPhoBox' experiment, flown on the Dutch DELTA mission to the ISS in April 2004, tries to elucidate the different effects of gravitropism and phototropism on plants, and their combined effects on plant morphology. Wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.), phototropic-deficient mutants phot1 and gravitropic-deficient mutant pgm1 seeds were germinated in microgravity and in Earth gravity, in low light conditions and darkness. The angle of directional growth of roots and shoots was then assessed. Light is -even in the absense of gravity- the most important environmental cue for directional growth of shoots, while for roots gravity is by far the most important cue, and light is only a very minor factor due to their poor phototropic capacity. Compared to roots, shoots are deviated more than roots in microgravity and therefore less gravity-dependent. All results together suggests that environmental cues are differently percepted by roots and shoots which also adapt differently. Furthermore, environmental cues are probably transferred little or not to the opposite side of the plant.

  7. [Study of the Detecting System of CH4 and SO2 Based on Spectral Absorption Method and UV Fluorescence Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-tao; Wang, Zhi-fang; Liu, Ming-hua; Wei, Meng; Chen, Dong-ying; Wang, Xing-long

    2016-01-01

    According to the spectral absorption characteristics of polluting gases and fluorescence characteristics, a time-division multiplexing detection system is designed. Through this system we can detect Methane (CH4) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by using spectral absorption method and the SO2 can be detected by using UV fluorescence method. The system consists of four parts: a combination of a light source which could be switched, the common optical path, the air chamber and the signal processing section. The spectral absorption characteristics and fluorescence characteristics are measured first. Then the experiment of detecting CH4 and SO2 through spectral absorption method and the experiment of detecting SO2 through UV fluorescence method are conducted, respectively. Through measuring characteristics of spectral absorption and fluorescence, we get excitation wavelengths of SO2 and CH4 measured by spectral absorption method at the absorption peak are 280 nm and 1.64 μm, respectively, and the optimal excitation wavelength of SO2 measured by UV fluorescence method is 220 nm. we acquire the linear relation between the concentration of CH4 and relative intensity and the linear relation between the concentration of SO2 and output voltage after conducting the experiment of spectral absorption method, and the linearity are 98.7%, 99.2% respectively. Through the experiment of UV fluorescence method we acquire that the relation between the concentration of SO2 and the voltage is linear, and the linearity is 99.5%. Research shows that the system is able to be applied to detect the polluted gas by absorption spectrum method and UV fluorescence method. Combing these two measurement methods decreases the costing and the volume, and this system can also be used to measure the other gases. Such system has a certain value of application.

  8. Compact Graphical Representation of Phylogenetic Data and Metadata with GraPh1An

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-12

    pipelines . This allows for a higher degree of analysis reproducibility, but the software must correspondingly be available for local installation and callable...these operations are available in the GraPhlAn software repository). Reproducible integration with existing analysis tools and pipelines Graphical...from different analysis pipelines , generating the necessary input files for GraPhlAn. Export2graphlan directly supports MetaPhlAn2, LEfSe, and HUMAnN

  9. A method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of composite subfloor beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of composite subfloor beam structure was developed. The method is based upon the weighted sum of the energy-absorption capability of constituent elements of a subfloor beam. An empirical data base of energy absorption results from circular and square cross section tube specimens were used in the prediction capability. The procedure is applicable to a wide range of subfloor beam structure. The procedure was demonstrated on three subfloor beam concepts. Agreement between test and prediction was within seven percent for all three cases.

  10. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  11. Determination of urinary manganese by the direct chelation-extraction method and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, T; Tokunaga, R; Iwahana, T; Tati, M; Ikeda, M

    1978-01-01

    The direct chelation-extraction method, originally developed by Hessel (1968) for blood lead analysis, has been successfully applied to urinalysis for manganese. The analyses of 35 urine samples containing up to 100 microgram/1 of manganese from manganese-exposed workers showed that the data obtained by this method agree well with those by wet digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and also by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:629893

  12. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developments in Methods for Measuring the Intestinal Absorption of Nanoparticle-Bound Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Hao; Zhang, Caiyun; Zhao, Liling; Zhao, Ruixia; Zhu, Yongtao; Pan, Weisan

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, novel drug delivery systems comprising orally administered nanoparticles (NPs) have been paid increasing attention in recent years. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs has significant influence on drug efficacy and therapeutic dosage, and it is therefore imperative that the intestinal absorption of oral NPs be investigated. This review examines the various literature on the oral absorption of polymeric NPs, and provides an overview of the intestinal absorption models that have been developed for the study of oral nanoparticles. Three major categories of models including a total of eight measurement methods are described in detail (in vitro: dialysis bag, rat gut sac, Ussing chamber, cell culture model; in situ: intestinal perfusion, intestinal loops, intestinal vascular cannulation; in vivo: the blood/urine drug concentration method), and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are contrasted and elucidated. In general, in vitro and in situ methods are relatively convenient but lack accuracy, while the in vivo method is troublesome but can provide a true reflection of drug absorption in vivo. This review summarizes the development of intestinal absorption experiments in recent years and provides a reference for the systematic study of the intestinal absorption of nanoparticle-bound drugs. PMID:27455239

  14. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  15. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  16. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: Method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X.; Heald, C. L.; Sedlacek, A.; ...

    2016-10-13

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in modelling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regardingmore » the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new method that decreases the uncertainties associated with estimating BrC absorption. By applying this method to multi-wavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites, we estimate that BrC globally contributes 6-40% of the absorption at 440nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with BC/OA mass ratio. Based on the variability of BC properties and BC/OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.2 m 2/g for OA-MAC at 440nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE 388/440nm for BrC is generally ~4 world-wide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of Manaus, Brazil) reveal no significant relationship between BrC absorptivity and photochemical aging in typical urban influenced conditions. However, the absorption of BrC measured during the biomass burning season near Manaus is found to decrease with photochemical aging with a lifetime of ~1 day. This lifetime is comparable to

  17. [Absorption spectrum of Quasi-continuous laser modulation demodulation method].

    PubMed

    Shao, Xin; Liu, Fu-Gui; Du, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A software phase-locked amplifier demodulation method is proposed in order to demodulate the second harmonic (2f) signal of quasi-continuous laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) properly, based on the analysis of its signal characteristics. By judging the effectiveness of the measurement data, filter, phase-sensitive detection, digital filtering and other processing, the method can achieve the sensitive detection of quasi-continuous signal The method was verified by using carbon dioxide detection experiments. The WMS-2f signal obtained by the software phase-locked amplifier and the high-performance phase-locked amplifier (SR844) were compared simultaneously. The results show that the Allan variance of WMS-2f signal demodulated by the software phase-locked amplifier is one order of magnitude smaller than that demodulated by SR844, corresponding two order of magnitude lower of detection limit. And it is able to solve the unlocked problem caused by the small duty cycle of quasi-continuous modulation signal, with a small signal waveform distortion.

  18. Prediction of sound absorption in rigid porous media with the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Andrey Ricardo; Mareze, Paulo; Brandão, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sound absorption phenomena associated with the viscous shear stress within rigid porous media is investigated with a simple isothermal lattice Boltzmann BGK model. Simulations are conducted for different macroscopic material properties such as sample thickness and porosity and the results are compared with the exact analytical solution for materials with slit-like structure in terms of acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient. The numerical results agree very well with the exact solution, particularly for the sound absorption coefficient. The small deviations found in the low frequency limit for the real part of the acoustic impedance are attributed to the ratio between the thicknesses of the slit and the viscous boundary layer. The results suggest that the lattice Boltzmann method can be a very compelling numerical tool for simulating viscous sound absorption phenomena in the time domain, particularly due to its computational simplicity when compared to traditional continuum based techniques.

  19. A method for assessing carbohydrate energy absorption and its application to premature infants.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Sumners, J E; Stetina, J S; Heimler, R; Grausz, J P

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed for assessing indirectly the fecal excretion of carbohydrate-derived energy. Then, eight healthy premature infants (28 to 32 wk gestation, postnatal age 12 to 30 days) were randomly assigned to receive one of two formulas that differed only in the carbohydrate source: 100% lactose or 50% lactose: 50% glucose polymer (lactose + glucose polymer). Excreta collections were analyzed for total nitrogen, urea nitrogen, ammonia, fat, and total energy. Carbohydrate energy absorption was calculated. The formulas were well tolerated and stool frequency, energy intake, weight gain, and nitrogen balance were not different in the two formula groups. Also, there were no significant intergroup (lactose versus lactose + glucose polymer) differences in the coefficients (%) (x +/- SD) of fat absorption (90 +/- 6 versus 93 +/- 5) or carbohydrate energy absorption (96 +/- 1 versus 95 +/- 3). Thus, net carbohydrate-energy absorption appeared normal in these premature infants who showed no clinical formula intolerance.

  20. A note on NMHV form factors from the Graßmannian and the twistor string

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, David; Nandan, Dhritiman; Penante, Brenda

    In this note we investigate Graßmannian formulas for form factors of the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet in N = 4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory. We present an all-n contour for the G(3, n + 2) Graßmannian integral of NMHV form factors derived from on-shell diagrams and the BCFW recursion relation. In addition, we study other G(3, n + 2) formulas obtained from the connected prescription introduced recently. We find a recursive expression for all n and study its properties. For n ≥ 6, our formula has the same recursive structure as its amplitude counterpart, making its soft behaviour manifest.more » Finally, we explore the connection between the two Graßmannian formulations, using the global residue theorem, and find that it is much more intricate compared to scattering amplitudes.« less

  1. A note on NMHV form factors from the Graßmannian and the twistor string

    DOE PAGES

    Meidinger, David; Nandan, Dhritiman; Penante, Brenda; ...

    2017-09-06

    In this note we investigate Graßmannian formulas for form factors of the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet in N = 4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory. We present an all-n contour for the G(3, n + 2) Graßmannian integral of NMHV form factors derived from on-shell diagrams and the BCFW recursion relation. In addition, we study other G(3, n + 2) formulas obtained from the connected prescription introduced recently. We find a recursive expression for all n and study its properties. For n ≥ 6, our formula has the same recursive structure as its amplitude counterpart, making its soft behaviour manifest.more » Finally, we explore the connection between the two Graßmannian formulations, using the global residue theorem, and find that it is much more intricate compared to scattering amplitudes.« less

  2. A simple method to incorporate water vapor absorption in the 15 microns remote temperature sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallu, G.; Prabhakara, C.; Conhath, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The water vapor absorption in the 15 micron CO2 band, which can affect the remotely sensed temperatures near the surface, are estimated with the help of an empirical method. This method is based on the differential absorption properties of the water vapor in the 11-13 micron window region and does not require a detailed knowledge of the water vapor profile. With this approach Nimbus 4 IRIS radiance measurements are inverted to obtain temperature profiles. These calculated profiles agree with radiosonde data within about 2 C.

  3. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  4. Methods for analysis of selected metals in water by atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Downs, Sanford C.

    1966-01-01

    This manual describes atomic-absorption-spectroscopy methods for determining calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, strontium and zinc in atmospheric precipitation, fresh waters, and brines. The procedures are intended to be used by water quality laboratories of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Detailed procedures, calculations, and methods for the preparation of reagents are given for each element along with data on accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. Other topics discussed briefly are the principle of atomic absorption, instrumentation used, and special analytical techniques.

  5. A benchmarking method to measure dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals by fish.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruiyang; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Åkerman, Gun; McLachlan, Michael S; MacLeod, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract of fish is important from both a scientific and a regulatory point of view. However, reported fish absorption efficiencies for well-studied chemicals are highly variable. In the present study, the authors developed and exploited an internal chemical benchmarking method that has the potential to reduce uncertainty and variability and, thus, to improve the precision of measurements of fish absorption efficiency. The authors applied the benchmarking method to measure the gross absorption efficiency for 15 chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties and structures. They selected 2,2',5,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB53) and decabromodiphenyl ethane as absorbable and nonabsorbable benchmarks, respectively. Quantities of chemicals determined in fish were benchmarked to the fraction of PCB53 recovered in fish, and quantities of chemicals determined in feces were benchmarked to the fraction of decabromodiphenyl ethane recovered in feces. The performance of the benchmarking procedure was evaluated based on the recovery of the test chemicals and precision of absorption efficiency from repeated tests. Benchmarking did not improve the precision of the measurements; after benchmarking, however, the median recovery for 15 chemicals was 106%, and variability of recoveries was reduced compared with before benchmarking, suggesting that benchmarking could account for incomplete extraction of chemical in fish and incomplete collection of feces from different tests. © 2013 SETAC.

  6. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  7. The optimal mixture of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, P22, ROP1) for diagnosis of ovine toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Kur, Józef

    2014-12-15

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is the major parasitic disease affecting sheep. Infection not only results in significant reproductive losses in these animals, but has public health implications since consumption of infected meat can facilitate zoonotic transmission. Although several serological tests are currently used for diagnosis of ovine toxoplasmosis, production of reliable reagents is a constraint and therefore there is a need to develop new diagnostic tools. In this paper, we assess for the first time, the preliminary diagnostic utility of 19 T. gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA2ex2, GRA4, GRA5, GRA6, GRA9, SAG1, SAG4, BSR4, P22, ROP1, P36, MIC1ex2, MIC1ex34, MIC3, MAG1, BAG1, LDH1, and LDH2) in immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (IgG ELISAs). Following an initial evaluation, eight recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA9, SAG1, SAG4, P22, MIC1ex2, MIC3, ROP1) were chosen for subsequent testing and comparison against the native Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) in IgG ELISAs using 88 sera from naturally infected sheep and 20 sera from healthy animals. The reactivity of these antigens was variable with the best results for GRA1, P22, ROP1 and TLA. High sensitivity and specificity (100%) was noted for GRA1, ROP1 and TLA; P22 showed a slightly lower sensitivity (98.9%) but the same high specificity (100%). Four different combinations of these antigens (M1: GRA1+ROP1; M2: GRA1+P22; M3: P22+ROP1; M4: GRA1+P22+ROP1) were tested against the same pool of ovine sera; all IgG-positive serum samples were detected by all of the mixtures. However, the most effective for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep, based on the highest absorbance values, was the mixture M4 containing three proteins. High sensitivity and specificity (100%) was observed from tests containing either M4 or TLA antigens with a new pool of sera (93 seropositive and 35 seronegative). Thus, the present study shows that a cocktail of GRA1+P22+ROP1 recombinant proteins can be

  8. Determination of UV-visible-NIR absorption coefficient of graphite bulk using direct and indirect methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smausz, T.; Kondász, B.; Gera, T.; Ajtai, T.; Utry, N.; Pintér, M.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Budai, J.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.; Hopp, B.

    2017-10-01

    Absorption coefficient of graphite bulk pressed from 1 to 5 μm-sized crystalline grains was measured in UV-Vis-NIR range with three different methods: (i) determination of pulsed laser ablation rate as the function of laser fluence for different wavelengths (248, 337, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively); (ii) production of aerosol particles by UV laser ablation of the bulk graphite in inert atmosphere and determination of the mass-specific absorption coefficient with a four-wavelength (266, 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively) photoacoustic spectrometer, and (iii) spectroscopic ellipsometry in 250-1000 nm range. Taking into account the wide range of the absorption coefficients of different carbon structures, an overall relatively good agreement was observed for the three methods. The ellipsometric results fit well with the ablation rate measurement, and the data obtained with photoacoustic method are also similar in the UV and NIR region; however, the values were somewhat higher in visible and near-UV range. Taking into account the limitations of the methods, they can be promising candidates for the determination of absorption coefficient when the samples are strongly scattering and there is no possibility to perform transmissivity measurements.

  9. [Study of high temperature water vapor concentration measurement method based on absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu-ying; Liu, Jian-guo; He, Jun-feng; He, Ya-bai; Zhang, Guang-le; Xu, Zhen-yu; Gang, Qiang; Wang, Liao; Yao, Lu; Yuan, Song; Ruan, Jun; Dai, Yun-hai; Kan, Rui-feng

    2014-12-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been developed to realize the real-time and dynamic measurement of the combustion temperature, gas component concentration, velocity and other flow parameters, owing to its high sensitivity, fast time response, non-invasive character and robust nature. In order to obtain accurate water vapor concentration at high temperature, several absorption spectra of water vapor near 1.39 μm from 773 to 1273 K under ordinary pressure were recorded in a high temperature experiment setup using a narrow band diode laser. The absorbance of high temperature absorption spectra was calculated by combined multi-line nonlinear least squares fitting method. Two water vapor absorption lines near 7154.35 and 7157.73 cm(-1) were selected for measurement of water vapor at high temperature. A model method for high temperature water vapor concentration was first proposed. Water vapor concentration from the model method at high temperature is in accordance with theoretical reasoning, concentration measurement standard error is less than 0.2%, and the relative error is less than 6%. The feasibility of this measuring method is verified by experiment.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis reveals Toxoplasma gondii strain-specific differences in host cell response to dense granule protein GRA15.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Gao, Wen-Wei; Elsheikha, Hany M; He, Jun-Jun; Li, Fa-Cai; Yang, Wen-Bin; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-06-19

    Growth and replication of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii within host cell entail the production of several effector proteins, which the parasite exploits for counteracting the host's immune response. Despite considerable research to define the host signaling pathways manipulated by T. gondii and their effectors, there has been limited progress into understanding how individual members of the dense granule proteins (GRAs) modulate gene expression within host cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether T. gondii GRA15 protein plays any role in regulating host gene expression. Baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) were transfected with plasmids encoding GRA15 genes of either type I GT1 strain (GRA15 I ) or type II PRU strain (GRA15 II ). Gene expression patterns of transfected and nontransfected BHK-21 cells were investigated using RNA-sequencing analysis. GRA15 I and GRA15 II induced both known and novel transcriptional changes in the transfected BHK-21 cells compared with nontransfected cells. Pathway analysis revealed that GRA15 II was mainly involved in the regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), NF-κB, HTLV-I infection, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways. GRA15 I preferentially influenced the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in host cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that certain functions of GRA15 protein are strain dependent and that GRA15 modulates the expression of signaling pathways and genes with important roles in T. gondii pathophysiology. A greater understanding of host signaling pathways influenced by T. gondii effectors would allow the development of more efficient anti-T. gondii therapeutic schemes, capitalizing on disrupting parasite virulence factors to advance the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  11. Error Reduction Methods for Integrated-path Differential-absorption Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jeffrey R.; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    We report new modeling and error reduction methods for differential-absorption optical-depth (DAOD) measurements of atmospheric constituents using direct-detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidars. Errors from laser frequency noise are quantified in terms of the line center fluctuation and spectral line shape of the laser pulses, revealing relationships verified experimentally. A significant DAOD bias is removed by introducing a correction factor. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations can be reduced to tolerable levels by incorporating altimetry knowledge and "log after averaging", or by pointing the laser and receiver to a fixed surface spot during each wavelength cycle to shorten the time of "averaging before log".

  12. Method for measuring changes in light absorption of highly scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.; Mourant, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    The noninvasive measurement of variations in absorption that are due to changes in concentrations of biochemically relevant compounds in tissue is important in many clinical settings. One problem with such measurements is that the pathlength traveled by the collected light through the tissue depends on the scattering properties of the tissue. It is demonstrated, using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, that for an appropriate separation between light-delivery and light-collection fibers, the pathlength of the collected photons is insensitive to scattering parameters for the range of parameters typically found in tissue. This is important for developing rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate methods for measuring absorption changes in tissue.

  13. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the {sup 136}XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to themore » xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope {sup 136}XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.« less

  14. [Absorption and metabolism of Chuanxiong Rhizoma decoction with multi-component sequential metabolism method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Luo, Zhi-Qiang; Lv, Bei-Ran; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Dong, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The multiple components in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMS) will experience complex absorption and metabolism before entering the blood system. Previous studies often lay emphasis on the components in blood. However, the dynamic and sequential absorption and metabolism process following multi-component oral administration has not been studied. In this study, the in situ closed-loop method combined with LC-MS techniques were employed to study the sequential process of Chuanxiong Rhizoma decoction (RCD). A total of 14 major components were identified in RCD. Among them, ferulic acid, senkyunolide J, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide F, senkyunolide G, and butylidenephthalide were detected in all of the samples, indicating that the six components could be absorbed into blood in prototype. Butylphthalide, E-ligustilide, Z-ligustilide, cnidilide, senkyunolide A and senkyunolide Q were not detected in all the samples, suggesting that the six components may not be absorbed or metabolized before entering the hepatic portal vein. Senkyunolide H could be metabolized by the liver, while senkyunolide M could be metabolized by both liver and intestinal flora. This study clearly demonstrated the changes in the absorption and metabolism process following multi-component oral administration of RCD, so as to convert the static multi-component absorption process into a comprehensive dynamic and continuous absorption and metabolism process. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Application of blind source separation to gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND around Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzon, H.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    The bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillator is one of the sensors of the gamma ray and neutron detector (GRaND)1 on board the Dawn spacecraft, that has spent just over one year in orbit around the asteroid 4-Vesta. The BGO detector is excited by energetic gamma-rays produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or energetic solar particles interacting either with Vesta and/or the Dawn spacecraft. In detail, during periods of quiet solar activity, gamma ray spectra produced by the scintillator can be considered as consisting of three signals: i) a contribution of gamma-rays from Vesta produced by GCR interactions at the asteroid's surface, ii) a contribution from the spacecraft excited by neutrons coming from Vesta, and iii) a contribution of the spacecraft excited by local interaction with galactic cosmic rays. While the first two contributions should be positive functions of the solid angle of Vesta in the field of view during acquisition, the last one should have a negative dependence because Vesta partly shields the spacecraft from GCR. This theoretical mix can be written formally as: S=aΩSV+bΩSSCNV+c(4π-Ω)SSCGCR (1) where S is the series of recorded spectra, Ω is the solid angle, SV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from Vesta, SSCNV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by the neutron coming from Vesta and SSCGCR is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by GCR. A blind source separation method called independent component analysis enables separating additive subcomponents supposing the mutual statistical independence of the non-Gaussian source signals2. Applying this method to BGO spectra acquired during the first three months of the low-altitude measurement orbit (LAMO) reveals two main independent components. The first one is dominated by the positron electron annihilation peak and is positively correlated to the solid angle. The second is negatively correlated to the solid angle and displays peaks

  16. [Determination of the content of sulfur of coal by the infrared absorption method with high acccuracy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Lu, Hai; Li, Jia; Sun, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jun; Dai, Xin-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reported the differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry curves and the infrared (IR) absorption spectrometry under the temperature program analyzed by the combined simultaneous thermal analysis-IR spectrometer. The gas products of coal were identified by the IR spectrometry. This paper emphasized on the combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, a convenient and accurate method, which measures the content of sulfur in coal indirectly through the determination of the content of sulfur dioxide in the mixed gas products by IR absorption. It was demonstrated, when the instrument was calibrated by varied pure compounds containing sulfur and certified reference materials (CRMs) for coal, that there was a large deviation in the measured sulfur contents. It indicates that the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between CRMs and the analyte results in a systematic error. The time-IR absorption curve was utilized to analyze the composition of sulfur at low temperatures and high temperatures and then the sulfur content of coal sample was determined by using a CRM for coal with a close composition of sulfur. Therefore, the systematic error due to the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between the CRM and analyte was eliminated. On the other hand, in this combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, the mass of CRM and analyte were adjusted to assure the sulfur mass equal and then the CRM and the analyte were measured alternately. This single-point calibration method reduced the effect of the drift of the IR detector and improved the repeatability of results, compared with the conventional multi-point calibration method using the calibration curves of signal intensity vs sulfur mass. The sulfur content results and their standard deviations of an anthracite coal and a bituminous coal with a low sulfur content determined by this modified method were 0.345% (0.004%) and 0.372% (0.008%), respectively. The uncertainty (U

  17. A quantitative method for estimating dermal benzene absorption from benzene-containing hydrocarbon liquids.

    PubMed

    Petty, Stephen E; Nicas, Mark; Boiarski, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    This study examines a method for estimating the dermal absorption of benzene contained in hydrocarbon liquids that contact the skin. This method applies to crude oil, gasoline, organic solvents, penetrants, and oils. The flux of benzene through occluded skin as a function of the percent vol/vol benzene in the liquid is derived by fitting a curve to experimental data; the function is supralinear at benzene concentrations < or = 5% vol/vol. When a liquid other than pure benzene is on nonoccluded skin, benzene may preferentially evaporate from the liquid, which thereby decreases the benzene flux. We present a time-averaging method here for estimating the reduced dermal flux during evaporation. Example calculations are presented for benzene at 2% vol/vol in gasoline, and for benzene at 0.1% vol/vol in a less volatile liquid. We also discuss other factors affecting dermal absorption.

  18. Prediction of intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration by computational methods.

    PubMed

    Clark, D E

    2001-09-01

    This review surveys the computational methods that have been developed with the aim of identifying drug candidates likely to fail later on the road to market. The specifications for such computational methods are outlined, including factors such as speed, interpretability, robustness and accuracy. Then, computational filters aimed at predicting "drug-likeness" in a general sense are discussed before methods for the prediction of more specific properties--intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration--are reviewed. Directions for future research are discussed and, in concluding, the impact of these methods on the drug discovery process, both now and in the future, is briefly considered.

  19. [Everted intestinal sac method for quick finding absorption ingredients of Wuzhuyu decoction].

    PubMed

    Gong, Muxin; Wang, Yaxun; Song, Yafang; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei; Wang, Weihao; Zhu, Jingjing

    2010-06-01

    To establish a method for quick finding the absorption ingredients of Wuzhuyu decoction in order to select the index to control its quality. The absorption of three concentration of Wuzhuyu decotion was investigated with the in vitro-everted intestinal sac model. The intestinal bag fluid of jejunum and ileum were collected in different time and the eight ingredients, which were evodiamine (Ev), rutaecarpine (Ru), limonin (Li), ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rg1, -Re (Rb1, Rg1, Re), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucosyl(6''-->1'")-alpha-L-rhamnoside (Irs)and 6-gingerol (6-Gi), were detected by HPLC as the represent constituents in samples. Eight ingredients except Ru in samples could be detected, but Ev could not be detected in high concentration samples. The ratios between absorption ingredients were different from in Wuzhuyu decotion. The in vitro-everted intestinal sac canc absorb the ingredients of Wuzhuyu decotion selectivity. Compare with the ileum, the jejunum can provide the more absorption information and faster, the best test time is 60-90 min.

  20. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  1. Comparison of water absorption methods: testing the water absorption of recently quarried and weathered porous limestone on site and under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta; Agárdi, Tamás; Karolina Cebula, Ágnes; Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The water absorption of weathering sensitive stones is a critical parameter that influences durability. The current paper compares different methods of water absorption tests by using on site and laboratory tests. The aims of the tests were to assess the water absorption of un-weathered quarry stones and various weathering forms occurring on porous limestone monuments. For the tests a Miocene porous limestone was used that occurs in Central and Western Hungary and especially near and in Budapest. Besides the Hungarian occurrences the same or very similar porous limestones are found in Austria, Slovakia and in the Czech Republic. Several quarries were operating in these countries. Due to the high workability the stone have been intensively used as construction material from the Roman period onward. The most prominent monuments made of this stone were built in Vienna and in Budapest during the 18th -19th century and in the early 20th century. The high porosity and the micro-fabric of the stone make it prone to frost- and salt weathering. Three different limestone types were tested representing coarse-, medium- and fine grained lithologies. The test methods included Rilem tube (Karsten tube) tests and capillary water absorption tests. The latter methodology has been described in detail in EN 1925:2000. The test results of on-site tests of weathered porous limestone clearly show that the water absorption of dissolved limestone surfaces and crumbling or micro-cracked limestone is similar. The water absorption curves have similar inclinations marking high amount of absorbed water. To the contrary, the white weathering crusts covered stone blocks and black crusts have significantly lower water absorptions and many of these crusts are considered as very tight almost impermeable surfaces. Capillary water absorption tests in the laboratory allowed the determination of maximum water absorption of quarried porous limestone. Specimens were placed in 3 mm of water column and the

  2. Investigation of Molecule-Surface Interactions With Overtone Absorption Spectroscopy and Computational Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    method at a fraction of the computational cost . The overtone frequency serves as the bridge between the molecule-surface interaction model and...the computational cost of utilizing higher levels of theory such as MP2. The second task is the calculation of absorption frequencies as a function...the methyl C-H bonds, and n\\ and inn are the carbon and hydrogen atomic masses, respectively. The calculation of the fundamental and overtone

  3. FDTD method for laser absorption in metals for large scale problems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun; Ki, Hyungson

    2013-10-21

    The FDTD method has been successfully used for many electromagnetic problems, but its application to laser material processing has been limited because even a several-millimeter domain requires a prohibitively large number of grids. In this article, we present a novel FDTD method for simulating large-scale laser beam absorption problems, especially for metals, by enlarging laser wavelength while maintaining the material's reflection characteristics. For validation purposes, the proposed method has been tested with in-house FDTD codes to simulate p-, s-, and circularly polarized 1.06 μm irradiation on Fe and Sn targets, and the simulation results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  4. Exciton Absorption Spectra by Linear Response Methods:Application to Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Martin A.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Fauvell, Thomas J.

    The theoretical description of the timeevolution of excitons requires, as an initial step, the calculation of their spectra, which has been inaccessible to most users due to the high computational scaling of conventional algorithms and accuracy issues caused by common density functionals. Previously (J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 204105), we developed a simple method that resolves these issues. Our scheme is based on a two-step calculation in which a linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to generate orbitals perturbed by the excitonic state, and then a second linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to determine the spectrum of excitations relative to themore » excitonic state. Herein, we apply this theory to study near-infrared absorption spectra of excitons in oligomers of the ubiquitous conjugated polymers poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), and poly(benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PTB7). For P3HT and MEH-PPV oligomers, the calculated intense absorption bands converge at the longest wavelengths for 10 monomer units, and show strong consistency with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm that the exciton spectral features in MEH-PPV overlap with those of the bipolaron formation. In addition, our calculations identify the exciton absorption bands in transient absorption spectra measured by our group for oligomers (1, 2, and 3 units) of PTB7. For all of the cases studied, we report the dominant orbital excitations contributing to the optically active excited state-excited state transitions, and suggest a simple rule to identify absorption peaks at the longest wavelengths. We suggest our methodology could be considered for further evelopments in theoretical transient spectroscopy to include nonadiabatic effects, coherences, and to describe the formation of species such as charge-transfer states and polaron pairs.« less

  5. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  6. Novel atomic absorption spectrometric and rapid spectrophotometric methods for the quantitation of paracetamol in saliva: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Issa, M M; Nejem, R M; El-Abadla, N S; Al-Kholy, M; Saleh, Akila A

    2008-01-01

    A novel atomic absorption spectrometric method and two highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of paracetamol. These techniques based on the oxidation of paracetamol by iron (III) (method I); oxidation of p-aminophenol after the hydrolysis of paracetamol (method II). Iron (II) then reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form Prussian blue color with a maximum absorbance at 700 nm. The atomic absorption method was accomplished by extracting the excess iron (III) in method II and aspirates the aqueous layer into air-acetylene flame to measure the absorbance of iron (II) at 302.1 nm. The reactions have been spectrometrically evaluated to attain optimum experimental conditions. Linear responses were exhibited over the ranges 1.0-10, 0.2-2.0 and 0.1-1.0 mug/ml for method I, method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. A high sensitivity is recorded for the proposed methods I and II and atomic absorption spectrometric method value indicate: 0.05, 0.022 and 0.012 mug/ml, respectively. The limit of quantitation of paracetamol by method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method were 0.20 and 0.10 mug/ml. Method II and the atomic absorption spectrometric method were applied to demonstrate a pharmacokinetic study by means of salivary samples in normal volunteers who received 1.0 g paracetamol. Intra and inter-day precision did not exceed 6.9%.

  7. Novel Atomic Absorption Spectrometric and Rapid Spectrophotometric Methods for the Quantitation of Paracetamol in Saliva: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Issa, M. M.; Nejem, R. M.; El-Abadla, N. S.; Al-Kholy, M.; Saleh, Akila. A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel atomic absorption spectrometric method and two highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of paracetamol. These techniques based on the oxidation of paracetamol by iron (III) (method I); oxidation of p-aminophenol after the hydrolysis of paracetamol (method II). Iron (II) then reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form Prussian blue color with a maximum absorbance at 700 nm. The atomic absorption method was accomplished by extracting the excess iron (III) in method II and aspirates the aqueous layer into air-acetylene flame to measure the absorbance of iron (II) at 302.1 nm. The reactions have been spectrometrically evaluated to attain optimum experimental conditions. Linear responses were exhibited over the ranges 1.0-10, 0.2-2.0 and 0.1-1.0 μg/ml for method I, method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. A high sensitivity is recorded for the proposed methods I and II and atomic absorption spectrometric method value indicate: 0.05, 0.022 and 0.012 μg/ml, respectively. The limit of quantitation of paracetamol by method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method were 0.20 and 0.10 μg/ml. Method II and the atomic absorption spectrometric method were applied to demonstrate a pharmacokinetic study by means of salivary samples in normal volunteers who received 1.0 g paracetamol. Intra and inter-day precision did not exceed 6.9%. PMID:20046743

  8. A projective reconstruction method of underground or hidden structures using atmospheric muon absorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonechi, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Mori, N.; Viliani, L.

    2015-02-01

    Muon absorption radiography is an imaging technique based on the analysis of the attenuation of the cosmic-ray muon flux after traversing an object under examination. While this technique is now reaching maturity in the field of volcanology for the imaging of the innermost parts of the volcanic cones, its applicability to other fields of research has not yet been proved. In this paper we present a study concerning the application of the muon absorption radiography technique to the field of archaeology, and we propose a method for the search of underground cavities and structures hidden a few metres deep in the soil (patent [1]). An original geometric treatment of the reconstructed muon tracks, based on the comparison of the measured flux with a reference simulated flux, and the preliminary results of specific simulations are discussed in details.

  9. Absorption into fluorescence. A method to sense biologically relevant gas molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strianese, Maria; Varriale, Antonio; Staiano, Maria; Pellecchia, Claudio; D'Auria, Sabato

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative optical sensing methodology based on the use of biomolecules as molecular gating nano-systems. Here, as an example, we report on the detection ofanalytes related to climate change. In particular, we focused our attention on the detection ofnitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). Our methodology builds on the possibility of modulating the excitation intensity of a fluorescent probe used as a transducer and a sensor molecule whose absorption is strongly affected by the binding of an analyte of interest used as a filter. The two simple conditions that have to be fulfilled for the method to work are: (a) the absorption spectrum of the sensor placed inside the cuvette, and acting as the recognition element for the analyte of interest, should strongly change upon the binding of the analyte and (b) the fluorescence dye transducer should exhibit an excitation band which overlaps with one or more absorption bands of the sensor. The absorption band of the sensor affected by the binding of the specific analyte should overlap with the excitation band of the transducer. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection combined with the use of proteins as highly selective sensors makes this method a powerful basis for the development of a new generation of analytical assays. Proof-of-principle results showing that cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) for NO detection and myoglobin (Mb) for O2 detection can be successfully used by exploiting our new methodology are reported. The proposed technology can be easily expanded to the determination of different target analytes.

  10. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's "dark" hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  11. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Paplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Le Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's “dark” hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  12. Development and validation of spectrophotometric, atomic absorption and kinetic methods for determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abdellaziz, Lobna M; Hosny, Mervat M

    2011-01-01

    Three simple spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods are developed and validated for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (A) is a kinetic method based on the oxidation of moxifloxacin HCl by Fe(3+) ion in the presence of 1,10 o-phenanthroline (o-phen). Method (B) describes spectrophotometric procedures for determination of moxifloxacin HCl based on its ability to reduce Fe (III) to Fe (II), which was rapidly converted to the corresponding stable coloured complex after reacting with 2,2' bipyridyl (bipy). The formation of the tris-complex formed in both methods (A) and (B) were carefully studied and their absorbance were measured at 510 and 520 nm respectively. Method (C) is based on the formation of ion- pair associated between the drug and bismuth (III) tetraiodide in acidic medium to form orange-red ion-pair associates. This associate can be quantitatively determined by three different procedures. The formed precipitate is either filtered off, dissolved in acetone and quantified spectrophotometrically at 462 nm (Procedure 1), or decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the bismuth content is determined by direct atomic absorption spectrometric (Procedure 2). Also the residual unreacted metal complex in the filtrate is determined through its metal content using indirect atomic absorption spectrometric technique (procedure 3). All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, the three proposed methods permit the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in the range of (0.8-6, 0.8-4) for methods A and B, (16-96, 16-96 and 16-72) for procedures 1-3 in method C. The limits of detection and quantitation were calculated, the precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determine the drug in its pharmaceutical formulations

  13. Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric, Atomic Absorption and Kinetic Methods for Determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Abdellaziz, Lobna M.; Hosny, Mervat M.

    2011-01-01

    Three simple spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods are developed and validated for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (A) is a kinetic method based on the oxidation of moxifloxacin HCl by Fe3+ ion in the presence of 1,10 o-phenanthroline (o-phen). Method (B) describes spectrophotometric procedures for determination of moxifloxacin HCl based on its ability to reduce Fe (III) to Fe (II), which was rapidly converted to the corresponding stable coloured complex after reacting with 2,2′ bipyridyl (bipy). The formation of the tris-complex formed in both methods (A) and (B) were carefully studied and their absorbance were measured at 510 and 520 nm respectively. Method (C) is based on the formation of ion- pair associated between the drug and bismuth (III) tetraiodide in acidic medium to form orange—red ion-pair associates. This associate can be quantitatively determined by three different procedures. The formed precipitate is either filtered off, dissolved in acetone and quantified spectrophotometrically at 462 nm (Procedure 1), or decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the bismuth content is determined by direct atomic absorption spectrometric (Procedure 2). Also the residual unreacted metal complex in the filtrate is determined through its metal content using indirect atomic absorption spectrometric technique (procedure 3). All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, the three proposed methods permit the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in the range of (0.8–6, 0.8–4) for methods A and B, (16–96, 16–96 and 16–72) for procedures 1–3 in method C. The limits of detection and quantitation were calculated, the precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determine the drug in its pharmaceutical

  14. In Situ Density Measurement of Basaltic Melts at High Pressure by X-ray Absorption Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, R.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Urakawa, S.; Katayama, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Density of silicate melt at high pressure is one of the most important properties to understand magma migration in the planetary interior. However, because of experimental difficulties, the density of magma at high pressure is poorly known. Katayama et al. (1996) recently developed a new in situ density measurement method for metallic melts, based on the density dependency of X-ray absorption in the sample. In this study, we tried to measure the density of basaltic melt by this absorption method. When X-ray is transmitted to the sample, the intensity of the transmitted X-ray beam (I) is expressed as follows; I=I0exp(-μ ρ t), where I0 is the intensity of incident X-ray beam, μ is the mass absorption coefficient, ρ is the density of the sample, and t is the thickness of the sample. If t and μ are known, we can determine the density of the sample by measuring I and I0. This is the principle of the absorption method for density measurement. In this study, in order to determine t, we used a single crystalline diamond cylinder as a sample capsule, diamond is less compressive and less deformable so that even at high pressure t (thickness of the sample at the point x) is expressed as follows; t = 2*(R02-x2)1/2, R0 is the inner radius of cylinder at the ambient condition, and x is distance from a center of the capsule. And diamond also shows less absorption so that this make it possible to measure the density of silicate melt with smaller absorption coefficient than metallic melts. In order to know the μ of the sample, we measured both densities (ρ ) and absorptions (I/I0) for some glasses and crystals with same composition of the sample at the ambient condition, and calculated as fallows; μ =ln(I/I0)/ρ . Experiments were made at the beamline (BL22XU) of SPring-8. For generation of high pressure and high temperature, we used DIA-type cubic anvil apparatus (SMAP180) there. We used tungsten carbide anvils with the edge-length of 6 mm. The energy of monochromatic X

  15. Self-Referenced Method for Estimating Refractive Index and Absolute Absorption of Loose Semiconductor Powders

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Huafeng; Colabello, Diane M.; Sklute, Elizabeth C.; ...

    2017-04-23

    The absolute absorption coefficient, α(E), is a critical design parameter for devices using semiconductors for light harvesting associated with renewable energy production, both for classic technologies such as photovoltaics and for emerging technologies such as direct solar fuel production. While α(E) is well-known for many classic simple semiconductors used in photovoltaic applications, the absolute values of α(E) are typically unknown for the complex semiconductors being explored for solar fuel production due to the absence of single crystals or crystalline epitaxial films that are needed for conventional methods of determining α(E). In this work, a simple self-referenced method for estimating bothmore » the refractive indices, n(E), and absolute absorption coefficients, α(E), for loose powder samples using diffuse reflectance data is demonstrated. In this method, the sample refractive index can be deduced by refining n to maximize the agreement between the relative absorption spectrum calculated from bidirectional reflectance data (calculated through a Hapke transform which depends on n) and integrating sphere diffuse reflectance data (calculated through a Kubleka–Munk transform which does not depend on n). This new method can be quickly used to screen the suitability of emerging semiconductor systems for light-harvesting applications. The effectiveness of this approach is tested using the simple classic semiconductors Ge and Fe 2O 3 as well as the complex semiconductors La 2MoO 5 and La 4Mo 2O 11. The method is shown to work well for powders with a narrow size distribution (exemplified by Fe 2O 3) and to be ineffective for semiconductors with a broad size distribution (exemplified by Ge). As such, it provides a means for rapidly estimating the absolute optical properties of complex solids which are only available as loose powders.« less

  16. A chloroplast-derived Toxoplasma gondii GRA4 antigen used as an oral vaccine protects against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Del L Yácono, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Becher, Melina L; Sander, Valeria; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Martín, Valentina; Veramendi, Jon; Clemente, Marina

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, the causal agent of toxoplasmosis, can infect most mammals and birds. In human medicine, T. gondii can cause complications in pregnant women and immunodeficient individuals, while in veterinary medicine, T. gondii infection has economic importance due to abortion and neonatal loss in livestock. Thus, the development of an effective anti-Toxoplasma vaccine would be of great value. In this study, we analysed the expression of T. gondii GRA4 antigen by chloroplast transformation (chlGRA4) in tobacco plants and evaluated the humoral and cellular responses and the grade of protection after oral administration of chlGRA4 in a murine model. The Western blot analysis revealed a specific 34-kDa band mainly present in the insoluble fractions. The chlGRA4 accumulation levels were approximately 6 μg/g of fresh weight (equivalent to 0.2% of total protein). Oral immunization with chlGRA4 resulted in a decrease of 59% in the brain cyst load of mice compared to control mice. ChlGRA4 immunization elicited both a mucosal immune response characterized by the production of specific IgA, and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 secretion by mesenteric lymph node cells, and a systemic response in terms of GRA4-specific serum antibodies and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 by splenocytes. Our results indicate that oral administration of chlGRA4 promotes the elicitation of both mucosal and systemic balanced Th1/Th2 responses that control Toxoplasma infection, reducing parasite loads. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Immunization of C57BL/6 Mice with GRA2 Combined with MPL Conferred Partial Immune Protection against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed

    Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Homayoun, Robab; Azimi, Ebrahim; Mohabati, Reyhaneh; Berizi, Mahboobe; Sadaie, M. Reza; Golkar, Majid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported that immunization with GRA2 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii induces protective immunity in CBA/J (H2k) and BALB/c mice (H2d). We aimed to examine whether immunization of a distinct strain of rodent with recombinant dense granule antigens (GRA2) combined with monophosphorryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant elicits protective immune response against T. gondii. C57BL/6 (H2b haplotype) mice were immunized with GRA2, formulated in MPL adjuvant. Strong humoral response, predominantly of IgG1 subclass and cellular response, IFN-γ, was detected at three weeks post immunization. Mice immunized with GRA2 had significantly (p < 0.01) fewer brain cysts than those in the adjuvant group, upon challenge infection. Despite the production of a strong antibody response, IFN-γ production and brain cyst reduction were not significant when the immunized mice were infected four months after the immunization. We can conclude that GRA2 immunization partially protects against T. gondii infection in C57BL/6 mice, though the potency and longevity of this antigen as a standalone vaccine may vary in distinct genetic backgrounds. This observation further emphasizes the utility of GRA2 for incorporation into a multi-antigenic vaccine against T. gondii.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Michael O.; Hills, Andrea J.; Morrison, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  19. A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang

    2018-03-01

    Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.

  20. An atomic-absorption method for the determination of gold in large samples of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanSickle, Gordon H.; Lakin, Hubert William

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory method for the determination of gold in large (100-gram) samples has been developed for use in the study of the gold content of placer deposits and of trace amounts of gold in other geologic materials. In this method the sample is digested with bromine and ethyl ether, the gold is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone, and the determination is made by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The lower limit of detection is 0.005 part per million in the sample. The few data obtained so far by this method agree favorably with those obtained by assay and by other atomic-absorption methods. About 25 determinations can be made per man-day.

  1. Density Measurement for MORB Melts by X-ray Absorption Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamaki, T.; Urakawa, S.; Suzuki, A.; Ohtani, E.; Katayama, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Density of silicate melts at high pressure is one of the most important properties to understand magma migration in the planetary interior and the differentiation of the terrestrial planets. The density measurements of silicate melts have been carried out by several methods (shock compression experiments and sink-float method in static experiments, etc.). However, since these methods have difficulties in acquisition of data at a desired pressure and temperature, the density of the silicate melt have been measured under only a few conditions. Recently a new density measurement was developed by the X-ray absorption method. Advantage of this method is to measure density of liquids at a desired pressure and temperature. In the present study we measured the density of MORB melt by X-ray absorption method. Experiments were carried out at the BL22XU beamline at SPring-8. A DIA-type cubic anvil apparatus was used for generation of high pressure and temperature. We used tungsten carbide anvils with the top anvil sizes of 6 mm and 4 mm. The energy of monochromateized X-ray beam was 23 keV. The intensities of incident and transmitted X-ray were measured by ion chambers. The density of the melt was calculated on the basis of Beer-Lambert law. The starting material was a glass with the MORB composition. Experiments were made from 1 atm to 5 GPa, from 300 to 2000 K. We compared the density of MORB melt with the compression curve of the melt in previous works. The density measured by this study is lower than that expected from the compression curve determined at higher pressures by the sink-float method. Structural change of the MORB melt with increasing pressure might be attributed to this discrepancy.

  2. Density Measurement for MORB Melts by X-ray Absorption Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamaki, T.; Urakawa, S.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Katayama, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Density of silicate melts at high pressure is one of the most important properties to understand magma migration in the planetary interior and the differentiation of the terrestrial planets. The density measurements of silicate melts have been carried out by several methods (shock compression experiments and sink-float method in static experiments, etc.). However, since these methods have difficulties in acquisition of data at a desired pressure and temperature, the density of the silicate melt have been measured under only a few conditions. Recently a new density measurement was developed by the X-ray absorption method. Advantage of this method is to measure density of liquids at a desired pressure and temperature. In the present study we measured the density of MORB melt by X-ray absorption method. Experiments were carried out at the BL22XU beamline at SPring-8. A DIA-type cubic anvil apparatus was used for generation of high pressure and temperature. We used tungsten carbide anvils with the edge-length of 6 mm. The energy of monochromateized X-ray beam was 23 keV. The intensities of incident and transmitted X-ray were measured by ion chambers. The density of the melt was calculated on the basis of Beer-Lambert law. The starting material was a glass with the MORB composition. Experiments were made from 1 atm to 4 GPa, from 300 to 2200 K. We compared the density of MORB melt with the compression curve of the melt in previous works. The density measured by this study is lower than that expected from the compression curve determined at higher pressures by the sink-float method. Structural change of the MORB melt with increasing pressure might be attributed to this discrepancy.

  3. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    PubMed

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Method 200.12 - Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters by StabilizedTemperature Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total recoverable elements by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) in marine waters, including estuarine, ocean and brines with salinities of up to 35 ppt.

  5. An Approximately 4.35 Ga Ar-Ar Age for GRA 8 and the Complex Chronology of its Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) are partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. We reported a conventional Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron age of 4.559+/-0.096 Ga and a 146 Sm-142Nd model age of 4.549+/-0.036 for combined data for the two rocks. Plagioclase plus whole rock and leachate (approx.phosphate) samples gave a secondary Sm-147-Nd-143 age of 3.4+/-0.4 Ga. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.460+/-0.028 Ga was interpreted as dating metamorphism in GRA 9. We report Ar-39-Ar-40 ages in the range approx.4344-4366 Ma for GRA 8, establishing similar but different Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the two rocks, consistent with their different Sr-isotopic systematics, and discuss these ages in the context of the complex sequence of events that affected these samples.

  6. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  7. Dual-isotope method for determination of human zinc absorption: the use of a test meal of turkey meat

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, P.R.; Cluett, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    The percentage of /sup 65/Zn taken up (absorbed) from extrinsically labeled turkey meat was calculated from the amounts of /sup 65/Zn and a nonabsorbed /sup 51/Cr marker present in the body or in a single stool specimen after 1-2 d. /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ proved to be a suitable marker for unabsorbed /sup 65/Zn and so the early determination of /sup 65/Zn absorption was possible. With stool counting, /sup 65/Zn absorption data from first stool samples after 1-2 d were accurate as judged by correlation with the amount of /sup 65/Zn in the body 7-10 d later (retention); results from subsequentmore » stools gave lower absorption values due to the early excretion of some absorbed /sup 65/Zn. The dual-isotope method gave reproducible results when four successive tests of zinc absorption were carried out in a group of six subjects. The average (mean +/- SD) /sup 65/Zn absorption from turkey meals containing 31 mumol (2 mg) and 46 mumol (3 mg) of zinc was 39 +/- 8% and 29 +/- 6%, respectively, measured by stool counting; /sup 65/Zn absorption and retention correlated well in both studies. A series of different beverages was given in place of water with the turkey meal. Orange juice significantly reduced /sup 65/Zn absorption and milk also showed this tendency, but tea, whiskey, wine or beer had no significant effect on the absorption of /sup 65/Zn from the turkey meal. In groups of subjects the mean ratio of /sup 65/Zn absorption from extrinsically labeled turkey meat on two occasions (1.06) was not significantly different from that of the absorption of extrinsic to intrinsic /sup 65/Zn labels (1.16). The dual-isotope technique with either stool or body counting is suitable for the rapid determination of /sup 65/Zn absorption from extrinsically labeled turkey within 2 d.« less

  8. Investigations of Baikal Lake water absorption with ASP-15 device: measurement method and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanenko, Grigorii P.; Tarashchansky, Boris A.; Budnev, Nikolai M.; Mirgazov, Rashid R.

    2006-02-01

    Operation of the device ASP-15 is analyzed in the paper. The device is arranged in the south part of Lake Baikal, and it is capable of all-the-year-round measurements of hydro-optical characteristics at the depths down to 1300 m. The method for determining the absorption coefficient is based on measurement of the rate of decrease of the irradiance from an isotropic source with the distance between the source and the receiver. Possible reasons of appearance of anomalous dependences of the irradiance with the distance are revealed on the basis of numerical simulation, and the errors of the applied method are estimated. The experimental data obtained by means of the device ASP-15 last years are presented.

  9. Method and apparatus for determination of temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power

    DOEpatents

    Vagelatos, Nicholas; Steinman, Donald K.; John, Joseph; Young, Jack C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear method and apparatus determines the temperature of a medium by injecting fast neutrons into the medium and detecting returning slow neutrons in three first energy ranges by producing three respective detection signals. The detection signals are combined to produce three derived indicia each systematically related to the population of slow neutrons returning from the medium in a respective one of three second energy ranges, specifically exclusively epithermal neutrons, exclusively substantially all thermal neutrons and exclusively a portion of the thermal neutron spectrum. The derived indicia are compared with calibration indicia similarly systematically related to the population of slow neutrons in the same three second energy ranges returning from similarly irradiated calibration media for which the relationships temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power to such calibration indicia are known. The comparison indicates the temperature at which the calibration indicia correspond to the derived indicia and consequently the temperature of the medium. The neutron absorption cross section and moderating power of the medium can be identified at the same time.

  10. Enhancing maximum measurable sound reduction index using sound intensity method and strong receiving room absorption.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, V; Lindgren, M; Keränen, J

    2001-01-01

    The sound intensity method is usually recommended instead of the pressure method in the presence of strong flanking transmission. Especially when small and/or heavy specimens are tested, the flanking often causes problems in laboratories practicing only the pressure method. The purpose of this study was to determine experimentally the difference between the maximum sound reduction indices obtained by the intensity method, RI,max, and by the pressure method, Rmax. In addition, the influence of adding room absorption to the receiving room was studied. The experiments were carried out in an ordinary two-room test laboratory. The exact value of RI,max was estimated by applying a fitting equation to the measured data points. The fitting equation involved the dependence of the pressure-intensity indicator on measured acoustical parameters. In an empty receiving room, the difference between RI,max and Rmax was 4-15 dB, depending on frequency. When the average reverberation time was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6 s, the values of RI,max increased by 2-10 dB compared to the results in the empty room. Thus, it is possible to measure wall structures having 9-22 dB better sound reduction index using the intensity method than with the pressure method. This facilitates the measurements of small and/or heavy specimens in the presence of flanking. Moreover, when new laboratories are designed, the intensity method is an alternative to the pressure method which presupposes expensive isolation structures between the rooms.

  11. iGRaND: an invariant frame for RGBD sensor feature detection and descriptor extraction with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Andrew R.; Brink, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a new 3D RGBD image feature, referred to as iGRaND, for use in real-time systems that use these sensors for tracking, motion capture, or robotic vision applications. iGRaND features use a novel local reference frame derived from the image gradient and depth normal (hence iGRaND) that is invariant to scale and viewpoint for Lambertian surfaces. Using this reference frame, Euclidean invariant feature components are computed at keypoints which fuse local geometric shape information with surface appearance information. The performance of the feature for real-time odometry is analyzed and its computational complexity and accuracy is compared with leading alternative 3D features.

  12. An alternative nested-PCR assay for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii strains based on GRA7 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Eduarda S M; Oliveira, Claudio Bruno S; Andrade, Joelma Maria de A; Medeiros, Thatiany A; Neto, Valter F Andrade; Lanza, Daniel C F

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite able to infect virtually any nucleated cells of warm-blooded hosts. In some cases, T. gondii detection using already developed PCR primers can be inefficient in routine laboratory tests, especially to detect atypical strains. Here we report a new nested-PCR protocol able to detect virtually all T. gondii isolates. Analyzing 685 sequences available in GenBank, we determine that GRA7 is one of the most conserved genes of T. gondii genome. Based on an alignment of 85 GRA7 sequences new primer sets that anneal in the highly conserved regions of this gene were designed. The new GRA7 nested-PCR assay providing sensitivity and specificity equal to or greater than the gold standard PCR assays for T. gondii detection, that amplify the B1 sequence or the repetitive 529bp element. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of GRA for Sustainable Material Selection and Evaluation Using LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishna, Kandasamy; Vinodh, Sekar; Sakthi Sanghvi, Vijayaselvan; Deepika, Chinadurai

    2016-07-01

    Material selection is identified as a successful key parameter in establishing any product to be sustainable, considering its end of life (EoL) characteristics. An accurate understanding of expected service conditions and environmental considerations are crucial in the selection of material plays a vital role with overwhelming customer expectations and stringent laws. Therefore, this article presents an integrated approach for sustainable material selection using grey relational analysis (GRA) considering the EoL disposal strategies with respect to an automotive product. GRA, an impact evaluation model measures the degree of similarity between the comparability (choice of material) sequence and reference (EoL strategies) sequence based on the relational grade. The ranking result shows that the outranking relationships in the order, ABS-REC > PP-INC > AL-REM > PP-LND > ABS-LND > ABS-INC > PU-LND > AL-REC > AL-LND > PU-INC > AL-INC. The best sustainable material selected was ABS and recycling was selected as the best EoL strategy with the grey relational value of 2.43856. The best material selected by this approach, ABS was evaluated for its viability using life cycle assessment and the estimated impacts also proved the practicability of the selected material highlighting the focus on dehumidification step in the manufacturing of the case product using this developed multi-criteria approach.

  14. The GraS Sensor in Staphylococcus aureus Mediates Resistance to Host Defense Peptides Differing in Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Chaili, Siyang; Cheung, Ambrose L; Bayer, Arnold S; Xiong, Yan Q; Waring, Alan J; Memmi, Guido; Donegan, Niles; Yang, Soo-Jin; Yeaman, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the two-component regulatory system GraRS to sense and respond to host defense peptides (HDPs). However, the mechanistic impact of GraS or its extracellular sensing loop (EL) on HDP resistance is essentially unexplored. Strains with null mutations in the GraS holoprotein (ΔgraS) or its EL (ΔEL) were compared for mechanisms of resistance to HDPs of relevant immune sources: neutrophil α-defensin (human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]), cutaneous β-defensin (human β-defensin 2 [hBD-2]), or the platelet kinocidin congener RP-1. Actions studied by flow cytometry included energetics (ENR); membrane permeabilization (PRM); annexin V binding (ANX), and cell death protease activation (CDP). Assay conditions simulated bloodstream (pH 7.5) or phagolysosomal (pH 5.5) pH contexts. S. aureus strains were more susceptible to HDPs at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5, and each HDP exerted a distinct effect signature. The impacts of ΔgraS and ΔΕL on HDP resistance were peptide and pH dependent. Both mutants exhibited defects in ANX response to hNP-1 or hBD-2 at pH 7.5, but only hNP-1 did so at pH 5.5. Both mutants exhibited hyper-PRM, -ANX, and -CDP responses to RP-1 at both pHs and hypo-ENR at pH 5.5. The actions correlated with ΔgraS or ΔΕL hypersusceptibility to hNP-1 or RP-1 (but not hBD-2) at pH 7.5 and to all study HDPs at pH 5.5. An exogenous EL mimic protected mutant strains from hNP-1 and hBD-2 but not RP-1, indicating that GraS and its EL play nonredundant roles in S. aureus survival responses to specific HDPs. These findings suggest that GraS mediates specific resistance countermeasures to HDPs in immune contexts that are highly relevant to S. aureus pathogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Experimental study on emission of VOCs from tanker using hollow fiber membrane absorption method with different absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. Y.; Wang, B. F.; Nie, L. H.; Lu, J. X.; Hao, Y. J.; Xu, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    China’s oil dependence is getting higher and higher, 90% of oil import is transported by sea. Tankers will produce a lot of VOCs during loading and unloading, so the prevention of such pollution has become increasingly urgent. The hollow fiber membrane absorption method combined the characteristics of the absorption method for the treatment of high concentration and large flow of VOCs and the advantage of low energy consumption of membrane method. At present, the research on the recovery of oil and gas is relatively few. In this paper, the effect of membrane absorption on the recovery of oil and gas was investigated. The different absorbent affected the oil vapor recovery, the experimental results showed that the performance of absorbent of AbsFOV-97 was better than that of heat conductive oil.

  16. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  17. Design And Construction of an Impedance Tube for Measuring Sound Absorptivity and Transmissibility of Materials Using Transfer Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Haarish Kapaninaikappa

    Noise is defined as unwanted sound, when perceived in excess can cause many harmful effects such as annoyance, interference with speech, and hearing loss, hence there is a need to control noise in practical situations. Noise can be controlled actively and/or passively, here we discuss the passive noise control techniques. Passive noise control involves using energy dissipating or reflecting materials such as absorbers or barriers respectively. Damping and isolating materials are also used in eliminating structure-borne noise. These materials exhibit properties such as reflection, absorption and transmission loss when incidence is by a sound source. Thus, there is a need to characterize the acoustical properties of these materials for practical use. The theoretical background of the random incident sound absorption with reverberation room and normal incident sound absorption using impedance tube are well documented. The Transfer Matrix method for measuring transmission loss and absorption coefficient using impedance tube is very attractive since it is rather inexpensive and fast. In this research, a low-cost Impedance Tube is constructed using transfer function method to measure both absorption and transmissibility of materials. Equipment and measurement instruments available in the laboratory were used in the construction of the tube, adhering to cost-effectiveness. Care has been taken for precise construction of tube to ensure better measurement results. Further various samples varying from hard non-porous to soft porous materials were tested for absorption and sound transmission loss. Absorption values were also compared with reverberation room method with the available samples further ensuring the reliability of the newly constructed tube for future measurements.

  18. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  19. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Study of photoinduced absorption by the method of modified laser photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, L. A.; Maksimov, E. M.; Tuchkov, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    The application of the method of modified laser photothermal radiometry for studying the photoinduced absorption in thin films is considered. The sensitivity of the method is estimated. The mechanism of induced near-IR absorption in titanium dioxide films is proposed and the nature of surface defects responsible for this process is explained. It is shown that kinetic equations describing monomolecular recombination are consistent with the experimental dependences for the thermal activation energy of defects equal to 0.17±0.04 eV.

  20. Development of Singlet Oxygen Absorption Capacity (SOAC) Assay Method Using a Microplate Reader.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shingo; Iwasaki-Kino, Yuko; Aizawa, Koichi; Terao, Junji; Mukai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new assay method that can quantify the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of natural antioxidants and food extracts was developed. The SOAC values were measured in ethanol-chloroform-D2O (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v) solution at 35°C using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer equipped with a six-channel cell positioner and an electron-temperature control unit. In the present study, measurement of the SOAC values was performed for eight representative carotenoids and three vegetable extracts (tomato, carrot, and red paprika) using a versatile instrument, the microplate reader. A 24-well glass microplate was used for measurements because a plastic microplate, commonly used in the laboratory, dissolves in the ethanol-chloroform-D2O solution. The SOAC values of eight carotenoids and three vegetable extracts measured using a microplate reader were in good agreement with the corresponding values measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, suggesting that the microplate reader is an applicable instrument for the measurement of reliable SOAC values for general antioxidants and food extracts in solution.

  1. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  2. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-11

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  3. GraDit: graph-based data repair algorithm for multiple data edits rule violations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ode Zuhayeni Madjida, Wa; Gusti Bagus Baskara Nugraha, I.

    2018-03-01

    Constraint-based data cleaning captures data violation to a set of rule called data quality rules. The rules consist of integrity constraint and data edits. Structurally, they are similar, where the rule contain left hand side and right hand side. Previous research proposed a data repair algorithm for integrity constraint violation. The algorithm uses undirected hypergraph as rule violation representation. Nevertheless, this algorithm can not be applied for data edits because of different rule characteristics. This study proposed GraDit, a repair algorithm for data edits rule. First, we use bipartite-directed hypergraph as model representation of overall defined rules. These representation is used for getting interaction between violation rules and clean rules. On the other hand, we proposed undirected graph as violation representation. Our experimental study showed that algorithm with undirected graph as violation representation model gave better data quality than algorithm with undirected hypergraph as representation model.

  4. Photovoltaic device with increased light absorption and method for its manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Glatfelter, Troy; Vogeli, Craig; Call, Jon; Hammond, Ginger

    1993-07-20

    A photovoltaic cell having a light-directing optical element integrally formed in an encapsulant layer thereof. The optical element redirects light to increase the internal absorption of light incident on the photovoltaic device.

  5. Matrix elimination method for the determination of precious metals in ores using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salih, Bekir; Celikbiçak, Omür; Döker, Serhat; Doğan, Mehmet

    2007-03-28

    Poly(N-(hydroxymethyl)methacrylamide)-1-allyl-2-thiourea) hydrogels, poly(NHMMA-ATU), were synthesized by gamma radiation using (60)Co gamma source in the ternary mixture of NHMMA-ATU-H(2)O. These hydrogels were used for the specific gold, silver, platinum and palladium recovery, pre-concentration and matrix elimination from the solutions containing trace amounts of precious metal ions. Elimination of inorganic matrices such as different transition and heavy metal ions, and anions was performed by adjusting the solution pH to 0.5 that was the selective adsorption pH of the precious metal ions. Desorption of the precious metal ions was performed by using 0.8 M thiourea in 3M HCl as the most efficient desorbing agent with recovery values more than 95%. In the desorption medium, thiourea effect on the atomic signal was eliminated by selecting proper pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for all precious metal ions. Precision and the accuracy of the results were improved in the graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) measurements by applying the developed matrix elimination method performing the adsorption at pH 0.5. Pre-concentration factors of the studied precious metal ions were found to be at least 1000-fold. Detection limits of the precious metal ions were found to be less than 10 ng L(-1) of the all studied precious metal ions by using the proposed pre-concentration method. Determination of trace levels of the precious metals in the sea-water, anode slime, geological samples and photographic fixer solutions were performed using GFAAS clearly after applying the adsorption-desorption cycle onto the poly(NHMMA-UTU) hydrogels.

  6. An environmentally friendly method for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide foam with a super oil absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    He, Yongqiang; Liu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Ma, Junkui; Wang, Xingrui; Gong, Qiaojuan; Kong, Weina; Xing, Fubao; Liu, Yu; Gao, Jianping

    2013-09-15

    Three kinds of graphene oxide (GO) foams were fabricated using different freezing methods (unidirectional freezing drying (UDF), non-directional freezing drying, and air freezing drying), and the corresponding reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared by their thermal reduction of those GO foams. These RGO foams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The absorption process and the factors that influence the absorption capacity were investigated. The RGO foams are hydrophobic and showed extremely high absorbing abilities for organic liquids. The absorption capacity of the RGO foams made by UDF was higher than 100 g g(-1) for all the oils tested (gasoline, diesel oil, pump oil, lubricating oil and olive oil) and had the highest value of about 122 g g(-1) for olive oil. The oil absorption capacity of the GO foams was lower than that of the RGO foams, but for olive oil, the absorption capacity was still high than 70 g g(-1), which is higher than that of most oil absorbents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave resonant and zero-field absorption study of doped magnetite prepared by a co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Aphesteguy, Juan Carlos; Jacobo, Silvia E; Lezama, Luis; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Schegoleva, Nina N

    2014-06-19

    Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3-xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was observed in all cases under consideration indicating that the materials are magnetically uniform. The shortfall in the resonance fields from 3.27 kOe (for the frequency of 9.5 GHz) expected for spheres can be understood taking into account the dipolar forces, magnetoelasticity, or magnetocrystalline anisotropy. All samples show non-zero low field absorption. For Series A samples the grain size decreases with an increase of the Zn content. In this case zero field absorption does not correlate with the changes of the grain size. For Series B samples the grain size and zero field absorption behavior correlate with each other. The highest zero-field absorption corresponded to 0.2 zinc concentration in both A and B series. High zero-field absorption of Fe3O4 ferrite magnetic NPs can be interesting for biomedical applications.

  8. Estimation of the absorption coefficients of two-layered media by a simple method using spatially and time-resolved reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, M.; Sato, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2009-08-01

    Our newly developed method using spatially and time-resolved reflectances can easily estimate the absorption coefficients of each layer in a two-layered medium if the thickness of the upper layer and the reduced scattering coefficients of the two layers are known a priori. We experimentally validated this method using phantoms and examined its possibility of estimating the absorption coefficients of the tissues in human heads. In the case of a homogeneous plastic phantom (polyacetal block), the absorption coefficient estimated by our method agreed well with that obtained by a conventional method. Also, in the case of two-layered phantoms, our method successfully estimated the absorption coefficients of the two layers. Furthermore, the absorption coefficients of the extracerebral and cerebral tissue inside human foreheads were estimated under the assumption that the human heads were two-layered media. It was found that the absorption coefficients of the cerebral tissues were larger than those of the extracerebral tissues.

  9. Equivalent modulus method for finite element simulation of the sound absorption of anechoic coating backed with orthogonally rib-stiffened plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhongkun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Bilong

    2016-03-01

    The finite element method is often used to investigate the sound absorption of anechoic coating backed with orthogonally rib-stiffened plate. Since the anechoic coating contains cavities, the number of grid nodes of a periodic unit cell is usually large. An equivalent modulus method is proposed to reduce the large amount of nodes by calculating an equivalent homogeneous layer. Applications of this method in several models show that the method can well predict the sound absorption coefficient of such structure in a wide frequency range. Based on the simulation results, the sound absorption performance of such structure and the influences of different backings on the first absorption peak are also discussed.

  10. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, David A.; Keller, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be related to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.-1 has been demonstrated using this technique.

  11. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1982-06-08

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be rlated to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10/sup -5/ cm/sup -1/ has been demonstrated using this technique.

  12. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be related to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10[sup [minus]5] cm[sup [minus]1] has been demonstrated using this technique. 6 figs.

  13. Novel ratio difference at coabsorptive point spectrophotometric method for determination of components with wide variation in their absorptivities.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed S; Abo-Talib, Nisreen F; El-Ghobashy, Mohamed R

    2016-01-05

    Different methods have been introduced to enhance selectivity of UV-spectrophotometry thus enabling accurate determination of co-formulated components, however mixtures whose components exhibit wide variation in absorptivities has been an obstacle against application of UV-spectrophotometry. The developed ratio difference at coabsorptive point method (RDC) represents a simple effective solution for the mentioned problem, where the additive property of light absorbance enabled the consideration of the two components as multiples of the lower absorptivity component at certain wavelength (coabsorptive point), at which their total concentration multiples could be determined, whereas the other component was selectively determined by applying the ratio difference method in a single step. Mixture of perindopril arginine (PA) and amlodipine besylate (AM) figures that problem, where the low absorptivity of PA relative to AM hinders selective spectrophotometric determination of PA. The developed method successfully determined both components in the overlapped region of their spectra with accuracy 99.39±1.60 and 100.51±1.21, for PA and AM, respectively. The method was validated as per the USP guidelines and showed no significant difference upon statistical comparison with reported chromatographic method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA-Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.

    1999-01-01

    systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-1) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

  15. A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA: Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.; hide

    1999-01-01

    systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-I) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

  16. Research methods in weed science: herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants is a key component in the study of herbicide physiology, mode of action, selectivity, resistance mechanisms, and in the registration process. Radioactive herbicides have been in use for over half-a-century in the research and study of herbicide absorp...

  17. Uranium isotopes quantitatively determined by modified method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G. H.

    1967-01-01

    Hollow-cathode discharge tubes determine the quantities of uranium isotopes in a sample by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dissociation of the uranium atoms allows a large number of ground state atoms to be produced, absorbing the incident radiation that is different for the two major isotopes.

  18. NONINVASIVE DETERMINATION OF RESPIRATORY OZONE ABSORPTION: THE BOLUS-RESPONSE METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. James Ultman and colleagues used a fast-responding ozone measurement system, which they had developed with previous HEI support, to noninvasively measure the absorption of inhaled ozone in different regions of the respiratory tract of healthy adult men. While the subjec...

  19. Multi-Photon Absorption Spectra: A Comparison Between Transmittance Change and Fluorescence Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0134 multi-photon absorption spectra Cleber Mendonca INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 05/21/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos - Universidade de Sao Paulo Av

  20. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038

  2. Determination of efficiency of an aged HPGe detector for gaseous sources by self absorption correction and point source methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangapani, R.; Jose, M. T.; Srinivasan, T. K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2017-07-01

    Methods for the determination of efficiency of an aged high purity germanium (HPGe) detector for gaseous sources have been presented in the paper. X-ray radiography of the detector has been performed to get detector dimensions for computational purposes. The dead layer thickness of HPGe detector has been ascertained from experiments and Monte Carlo computations. Experimental work with standard point and liquid sources in several cylindrical geometries has been undertaken for obtaining energy dependant efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for computing efficiencies for point, liquid and gaseous sources. Self absorption correction factors have been obtained using mathematical equations for volume sources and MCNP simulations. Self-absorption correction and point source methods have been used to estimate the efficiency for gaseous sources. The efficiencies determined from the present work have been used to estimate activity of cover gas sample of a fast reactor.

  3. A Method for Eliminating Beam Steering Error for the Modulated Absorption-Emission Thermometry Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    broadened and merged. It is also suitable for environments where broadband emitters such as soot are present. Radiometric measurements in general can be...emitters such as soot are present. Radiometric measurements in general can be made with very high accuracy. The international temperature scale (ITS...by a fitting to a model. In the case of sooting flames, the emissivity is a result of the nearly black absorption and emission features of soot

  4. Laser-Based Remote Sensing of Explosives by a Differential Absorption and Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrapetyan, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    A multifunctional IR parametric laser system is developed and tested for remote detection and identification of atmospheric gases, including explosive and chemically aggressive substances. Calculations and experimental studies of remote determination of the spectroscopic parameters of the best known explosive substances TNT, RDX, and PETN are carried out. The feasibility of high sensitivity detection ( 1 ppm) of these substances with the aid of a multifunctional IR parametric light source by differential absorption and scattering is demonstrated.

  5. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  6. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yao; Sun, Xing-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins.

  7. Modeling nonlinear ultrasound propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption using a k-space pseudospectral method.

    PubMed

    Treeby, Bradley E; Jaros, Jiri; Rendell, Alistair P; Cox, B T

    2012-06-01

    The simulation of nonlinear ultrasound propagation through tissue realistic media has a wide range of practical applications. However, this is a computationally difficult problem due to the large size of the computational domain compared to the acoustic wavelength. Here, the k-space pseudospectral method is used to reduce the number of grid points required per wavelength for accurate simulations. The model is based on coupled first-order acoustic equations valid for nonlinear wave propagation in heterogeneous media with power law absorption. These are derived from the equations of fluid mechanics and include a pressure-density relation that incorporates the effects of nonlinearity, power law absorption, and medium heterogeneities. The additional terms accounting for convective nonlinearity and power law absorption are expressed as spatial gradients making them efficient to numerically encode. The governing equations are then discretized using a k-space pseudospectral technique in which the spatial gradients are computed using the Fourier-collocation method. This increases the accuracy of the gradient calculation and thus relaxes the requirement for dense computational grids compared to conventional finite difference methods. The accuracy and utility of the developed model is demonstrated via several numerical experiments, including the 3D simulation of the beam pattern from a clinical ultrasound probe.

  8. Determination of total arsenic in fish by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry: method validation, traceability and uncertainty evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, W. C.; Elishian, C.; Ketrin, R.

    2017-03-01

    Fish containing arsenic compound is one of the important indicators of arsenic contamination in water monitoring. The high level of arsenic in fish is due to absorption through food chain and accumulated in their habitat. Hydride generation (HG) coupled with atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) detection is one of the most popular techniques employed for arsenic determination in a variety of matrices including fish. This study aimed to develop a method for the determination of total arsenic in fish by HG-AAS. The method for sample preparation from American of Analytical Chemistry (AOAC) Method 999.10-2005 was adopted for acid digestion using microwave digestion system and AOAC Method 986.15 - 2005 for dry ashing. The method was developed and validated using Certified Reference Material DORM 3 Fish Protein for trace metals for ensuring the accuracy and the traceability of the results. The sources of uncertainty of the method were also evaluated. By using the method, it was found that the total arsenic concentration in the fish was 45.6 ± 1.22 mg.Kg-1 with a coverage factor of equal to 2 at 95% of confidence level. Evaluation of uncertainty was highly influenced by the calibration curve. This result was also traceable to International Standard System through analysis of Certified Reference Material DORM 3 with 97.5% of recovery. In summary, it showed that method of preparation and HG-AAS technique for total arsenic determination in fish were valid and reliable.

  9. Optimization to Develop Multiple Response Microstructure and Hardness of Ductile Iron Casting by using GRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabnure, Bahubali Bhupal; Shinde, Vasudev Dhondiram; Kolhapure, Rakesh Ramchandra

    2018-05-01

    Ductile irons are important engineering materials because of its high strength to weight ratio and castability. The ductile iron castings are used widely for automobile applications due to their wide spectrum of property range. Weight reduction is important in automobile to improve its fuel efficiency which can be achieved by thinning down the casting sections without altering its functionality. Generally, automobile castings are having varying section thickness. Varying thickness castings offers different cooling rates while solidification of the casting. The solidification cooling rate decides the final microstructure of the cast components. Cooling rate was found to affect directly the amount of pearlite and ultimately the as cast properties in varying thickness ductile iron castings. In view of this, the automobile impeller casting is selected for study in the present work as it consists of varying section thickness in which small sections are connected to central hub. The casting solidification simulations were performed and analyzed. The solidification cooling rates were analyzed further to correlate the experimental processing parameters. The samples from poured castings were analyzed for microstructure and hardness at different section thickness. Multiple response optimization of microstructure and hardness was carried out by combined Taguchi and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). Contribution of input variables on the output variables is attained using ANOVA.

  10. Establishing a Global Radiation Oncology Collaboration in Education (GRaCE): Objectives and priorities.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sandra; Eriksen, Jesper G; Trotter, Theresa; Verfaillie, Christine; Benstead, Kim; Giuliani, Meredith; Poortmans, Philip; Holt, Tanya; Brennan, Sean; Pötter, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Representatives from countries and regions world-wide who have implemented modern competency-based radiation- or clinical oncology curricula for training medical specialists, met to determine the feasibility and value of an ongoing international collaboration. In this forum, educational leaders from the ESTRO School, encompassing many European countries adopting the ESTRO Core Curriculum, and clinician educators from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand considered the training and educational arrangements within their jurisdictions, identifying similarities and challenges between programs. Common areas of educational interest and need were defined, which included development of new competency statements and assessment tools, and the application of the latter. The group concluded that such an international cooperation, which might expand to include others with similar goals, would provide a valuable vehicle to ensure training program currency, through sharing of resources and expertise, and enhance high quality radiation oncology education. Potential projects for the Global Radiation Oncology Collaboration in Education (GRaCE) were agreed upon, as was a strategy designed to maintain momentum. This paper describes the rationale for establishing this collaboration, presents a comparative view of training in the jurisdictions represented, and reports early goals and priorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yeast three-hybrid screen identifies TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a negative regulator of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite differentiation.

    PubMed

    Odell, Anahi V; Tran, Fanny; Foderaro, Jenna E; Poupart, Séverine; Pathak, Ravi; Westwood, Nicholas J; Ward, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii into its latent bradyzoite stage is a key event in the parasite's life cycle. Compound 2 is an imidazopyridine that was previously shown to inhibit the parasite lytic cycle, in part through inhibition of parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase. We show here that Compound 2 can also enhance parasite differentiation, and we use yeast three-hybrid analysis to identify TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a parasite protein that interacts directly or indirectly with the compound. Disruption of the TgBRADIN/GRA24 gene leads to enhanced differentiation of the parasite, and the TgBRADIN/GRA24 knockout parasites show decreased susceptibility to the differentiation-enhancing effects of Compound 2. This study represents the first use of yeast three-hybrid analysis to study small-molecule mechanism of action in any pathogenic microorganism, and it identifies a previously unrecognized inhibitor of differentiation in T. gondii. A better understanding of the proteins and mechanisms regulating T. gondii differentiation will enable new approaches to preventing the establishment of chronic infection in this important human pathogen.

  12. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with (1-/sup 14/C)glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused (3-/sup 3/H)glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation.more » That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery.« less

  13. An Approximately 4.35 Ga Ar-Ar Age for GRA 8 and the Complex Chronology of its Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) are partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. We reported a conventional SM-147Sm-ND_143 isochron age of 4.559 +/-.096 Ga and a SM-146-142Nd model age of 4.549 +/- 0.036 for combined data for the two rocks. Plagioclase plus whole rock and leachate (approximately phosphate) samples gave a secondary SM-147-ND-143 age of 3.4 +/-0.4 Ga. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.460+/-0.028 Ga was interpreted by as dating metamorphism in GRA 9. We report Ar-39-Ar-40 ages in the range approximately 4344-4366 Ma for GRA 8, establishing similar but different Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the two rocks, consistent with their different Sr-istopic systematics, and discuss these ages in the context of the complex sequence of events that affected these samples

  14. A method for monitoring the variability in nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1988-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  15. Methods for Retrievals of CO2 Mixing Ratios from JPL Laser Absorption Spectrometer Flights During a Summer 2011 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. This instrument employs CW laser transmitters and coherent detection receivers in the 2.05- micro m spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the evolving LAS signal processing and data analysis algorithms and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from 2011 flights in various U.S. locations include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest and high spatial resolution plume detection during a leg downwind of the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico.

  16. Using an Evaluability Assessment To Select Methods for Evaluating State Technology Development Programs: The Case of the Georgia Research Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youtie, Jan; Bozeman, Barry; Shapira, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Describes an evaluability assessment of the Georgia Research Alliance (GRA), a technology development program. Presents the steps involved in conducting an evaluability assessment, including development of an understanding of the program and its stakeholders. Analyzes and compares different methods by which the GRA could be evaluated. (SLD)

  17. Comparison of Adsorbed Mercury Screening Method With Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for Determination of Mercury in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Donald F.; Hovanitz, Edward S.; Street, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A field screening method for the determination of elemental mercury in environmental soil samples involves the thermal desorption of the mercury from the sample onto gold and then the thermal desorption from the gold to a gold-film mercury vapor analyzer. This field screening method contains a large number of conditions that could be optimized for the various types of soils encountered. In this study, the conditions were optimized for the determination of mercury in silty clay materials, and the results were comparable to the cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric method of determination. This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of employing the field screening method and provides the sequence of conditions that must be optimized to employ this method of determination on other soil types.

  18. Infrared absorption band in deformed qtz crystals analyzed by combining different microstructural methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, Holger; Thust, Anja; Behrens, Harald; Heilbronner, Renee; Kilian, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FÍs decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FÍs form, increasing the number of FÍs drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FÍs is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FÍs. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FÍs, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FÍs during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro vs. in vivo methods for assessment of dermal absorption of organic flame retardants: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest to study human dermal exposure to a large number of chemicals, whether in the indoor or outdoor environment. Such studies are essential to predict the systemic exposure to xenobiotic chemicals for risk assessment purposes and to comply with various regulatory guidelines. However, very little is currently known about human dermal exposure to persistent organic pollutants. While recent pharmacokinetic studies have highlighted the importance of dermal contact as a pathway of human exposure to brominated flame retardants, risk assessment studies had to apply assumed values for percutaneous penetration of various flame retardants (FRs) due to complete absence of specific experimental data on their human dermal bioavailability. Therefore, this article discusses the current state-of-knowledge on the significance of dermal contact as a pathway of human exposure to FRs. The available literature on in vivo and in vitro methods for assessment of dermal absorption of FRs in human and laboratory animals is critically reviewed. Finally, a novel approach for studying human dermal absorption of FRs using in vitro three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent models is presented and the challenges facing future dermal absorption studies on FRs are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Research on atmospheric CO2 remote sensing with open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and comparison methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxin; Guo, Jinjia; Sun, Jiayun; Li, Jie; Zhao, Chaofang; Liu, Zhishen

    2017-06-01

    An open-path atmospheric CO2 measurement system was built based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The CO2 absorption line near 2 μm was selected, measuring the atmospheric CO2 with direct absorption spectroscopy and carrying on the comparative experiment with multipoint measuring instruments of the open-path. The detection limit of the TDLAS system is 1.94×10-6. The calibration experiment of three AZ-7752 handheld CO2 measuring instruments was carried out with the Los Gatos Research gas analyzer. The consistency of the results was good, and the handheld instrument could be used in the TDLAS system after numerical calibration. With the contrast of three AZ-7752 and their averages, the correlation coefficients are 0.8828, 0.9004, 0.9079, and 0.9393 respectively, which shows that the open-path TDLAS has the best correlation with the average of three AZ-7752 and measures the concentration of atmospheric CO2 accurately. Multipoint measurement provides a convenient comparative method for open-path TDLAS.

  1. Apparatus and Methods for Photoacoustic Measurement of Light Absorption of Particulate and Gaseous Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William (Inventor); Yu, Zhenhong (Inventor); Kebabian, Paul L. (Inventor); Assif, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    In one embodiment, a photoacoustic effect measurement instrument for measuring a species (e.g., a species of PM) in a gas employs a pair of differential acoustic cells including a sample cell that receives sample gas including the species, and a reference cell that receives a filtered version of the sample gas from which the species has been substantially removed. An excitation light source provides an amplitude modulated beam to each of the acoustic cells. An array of multiple microphones is mounted to each of the differential acoustic cells, and measures an acoustic wave generated in the respective acoustic cell by absorption of light by sample gas therein to produce a respective signal. The microphones are isolated from sample gas internal to the acoustic cell by a film. A preamplifier determines a differential signal and a controller calculates concentration of the species based on the differential signal.

  2. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  3. Method for Direct Measurement of Cosmic Acceleration by 21-cm Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li

    2014-07-01

    So far there is only indirect evidence that the Universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The evidence for cosmic acceleration is based on the observation of different objects at different distances and requires invoking the Copernican cosmological principle and Einstein's equations of motion. We examine the direct observability using recession velocity drifts (Sandage-Loeb effect) of 21-cm hydrogen absorption systems in upcoming radio surveys. This measures the change in velocity of the same objects separated by a time interval and is a model-independent measure of acceleration. We forecast that for a CHIME-like survey with a decade time span, we can detect the acceleration of a ΛCDM universe with 5σ confidence. This acceleration test requires modest data analysis and storage changes from the normal processing and cannot be recovered retroactively.

  4. Water absorption and method improvement concerning electrical conductivity testing Acacia mangium (Fabaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniel Luiz; Smiderle, Oscar Jose; Paulino, Pollyana Priscila Schuertz; Souza, Aline das Graças

    2016-12-01

    Acacia is an important forest species of rapid growth whose seeds have tegument dormancy. In this work it was intended to characterize water absorption pattern after seed dormancy break, and to determine the amount of water, container size and the need of breaking the tegument dormancy, as to perform electrical conductivity test in small and large seeds of Acacia mangium (Fabaceae). The seeds were collected from 10, 8 and 6 years old trees established in poor yielding-capacity soils on savannah areas of Roraima, Brazil; seeds were classified in six lots concerning to seed size and tree age. Germination tests (50 seeds and four replications per lot) were carried out on germitest® paper maintained on gerbox at 25 °C. Imbibition was verified by seed weighing at different times (0, 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 120 hours). The electrical conductivity test consisted of three experiments, distinguished by the amount of water used and by the container size in which seeds were immersed. Seeds of A. mangium coming from 10 years old trees presented increased germination percent and germination speed than seeds of six-year old trees. Small seeds presented increased in electrical conductivity and water absorption until 120 hours when compared to large seeds. The immersion of seeds of A. mangium in 40 mL of distilled water into 180 mL plastic containers, after dormancy break, it is indicated for the determination of electrical conductivity test. The ratio of electrolytes by seed mass, after 24 hours of immersion in water, turns electrical conductivity test more accurate concerning A. mangium seeds.

  5. Determination of water pH using absorption-based optical sensors: evaluation of different calculation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Baohua; Ding, Zhongjun; Wang, Xiangxin

    2017-02-01

    Absorption-based optical sensors have been developed for the determination of water pH. In this paper, based on the preparation of a transparent sol-gel thin film with a phenol red (PR) indicator, several calculation methods, including simple linear regression analysis, quadratic regression analysis and dual-wavelength absorbance ratio analysis, were used to calculate water pH. Results of MSSRR show that dual-wavelength absorbance ratio analysis can improve the calculation accuracy of water pH in long-term measurement.

  6. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  7. Overview of the main methods used to combine proteins with nanosystems: absorption, bioconjugation, and encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Mariagrazia; Shamsuddin, Shaharum; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Devaux, Corinne; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent; Sadun, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of protein engineering allows the production of proteins having desired properties and large potential markets, but the clinical advances of therapeutical proteins are still limited by their fragility. Nanotechnology could provide optimal vectors able to protect from degradation therapeutical biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes or specific polypeptides. On the other hand, some proteins can be also used as active ligands to help nanoparticles loaded with chemotherapeutic or other drugs to reach particular sites in the body. The aim of this review is to provide an overall picture of the general aspects of the most successful approaches used to combine proteins with nanosystems. This combination is mainly achieved by absorption, bioconjugation and encapsulation. Interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules and caveats related to protein denaturation are also pointed out. A clear understanding of nanoparticle-protein interactions could make possible the design of precise and versatile hybrid nanosystems. This could further allow control of their pharmacokinetics as well as activity, and safety. PMID:20161986

  8. A method for the routine determination of aluminium in serum and water by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, I S; Ward, M K; Kerr, D N

    1982-10-27

    A simple but reliable method for the routine determination of aluminium in serum and water by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is described. No preparatory procedures are required for water samples, although serum is mixed with a wetting agent (Triton X-100) to allow complete combustion of the samples and to improve analytical precision. Precautions to prevent contamination during sample handling are discussed and instrumental parameters are defined. The method has a sensitivity of 35.5 pg and detection limits of 2.3 micrograms Al/l for serum and 1.3 micrograms Al/l for water. The method was used to determine the aluminium concentration in serum of 46 normal subjects. The mean aluminium content was 7.3 micrograms/l (range 2--15 micrograms/l.

  9. Quantitative methods for compensation of matrix effects and self-absorption in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy signals of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tomoko; Thornton, Blair

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews methods to compensate for matrix effects and self-absorption during quantitative analysis of compositions of solids measured using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and their applications to in-situ analysis. Methods to reduce matrix and self-absorption effects on calibration curves are first introduced. The conditions where calibration curves are applicable to quantification of compositions of solid samples and their limitations are discussed. While calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), which corrects matrix effects theoretically based on the Boltzmann distribution law and Saha equation, has been applied in a number of studies, requirements need to be satisfied for the calculation of chemical compositions to be valid. Also, peaks of all elements contained in the target need to be detected, which is a bottleneck for in-situ analysis of unknown materials. Multivariate analysis techniques are gaining momentum in LIBS analysis. Among the available techniques, principal component regression (PCR) analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis, which can extract related information to compositions from all spectral data, are widely established methods and have been applied to various fields including in-situ applications in air and for planetary explorations. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), where non-linear effects can be modelled, have also been investigated as a quantitative method and their applications are introduced. The ability to make quantitative estimates based on LIBS signals is seen as a key element for the technique to gain wider acceptance as an analytical method, especially in in-situ applications. In order to accelerate this process, it is recommended that the accuracy should be described using common figures of merit which express the overall normalised accuracy, such as the normalised root mean square errors (NRMSEs), when comparing the accuracy obtained from different setups and analytical methods.

  10. Determination of K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios for La2O3, Ce and Gd using two different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan; Kaçal, Mustafa Recep; Turhan, Mehmet Fatih; Akdemir, Fatma

    2015-02-01

    The K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios for La2O3, Ce and Gd samples have been determined using the gamma or X-ray attenuation and EDXRF methods. It is the first time that the K shell absorption jump factor and jump ratio have been discussed for present elements using two different methods. To detect K X-rays, a high resolution Si(Li) detector was used. The experimental results of K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were compared with the theoretically calculated ones.

  11. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  12. Studies of ARO-Relevant Fuels using Shock Tube/Laser Absorption Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-19

    elementary reaction rate constants. These experimental methods are the mainstay of this ARO research program at Stanford. The primary scientific... methods and able to pursue careers as leaders in science and engineering in the United States. Results Dissemination: Descriptions of the research have...constants. These experimental methods are the mainstay of this ARO research program at Stanford. The primary scientific problem that this research

  13. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Peter J; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  14. Host cell subversion by Toxoplasma GRA16, an exported dense granule protein that targets the host cell nucleus and alters gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Durandau, Eric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Kieffer, Sylvie; Curt-Varesano, Aurélie; Curt-Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bastien, Olivier; Coute, Yohann; Pelloux, Hervé; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2013-04-17

    After invading host cells, Toxoplasma gondii multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is maintained by parasite proteins secreted from organelles called dense granules. Most dense granule proteins remain within the PV, and few are known to access the host cell cytosol. We identify GRA16 as a dense granule protein that is exported through the PV membrane and reaches the host cell nucleus, where it positively modulates genes involved in cell-cycle progression and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. GRA16 binds two host enzymes, the deubiquitinase HAUSP and PP2A phosphatase, which exert several functions, including regulation of p53 and the cell cycle. GRA16 alters p53 levels in a HAUSP-dependent manner and induces nuclear translocation of the PP2A holoenzyme. Additionally, certain GRA16-deficient strains exhibit attenuated virulence, indicating the importance of these host alterations in pathogenesis. Therefore, GRA16 represents a potentially emerging subfamily of exported dense granule proteins that modulate host function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishment of an in silico phototoxicity prediction method by combining descriptors related to photo-absorption and photo-reaction.

    PubMed

    Haranosono, Yu; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki

    2014-08-01

    One of the mechanisms of phototoxicity is photo-reaction, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation following photo-absorption. We focused on ROS generation and photo-absorption as key-steps, because these key-steps are able to be described by photochemical properties, and these properties are dependent on chemical structure. Photo-reactivity of a compound is described by HOMO-LUMO Gap (HLG), generally. Herein, we showed that HLG can be used as a descriptor of the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the maximum-conjugated π electron number (PENMC), which we found as a descriptor of photo-absorption, could also predict in vitro phototoxicity. Each descriptor could predict in vitro phototoxicity with 70.0% concordance, but there was un-predicted area found (gray zone). Interestingly, some compounds in each gray zone were not common, indicating that the combination of two descriptors could improve prediction potential. We reset the cut-off lines to define positive zone, negative zone and gray zone for each descriptor. Thereby we overlapped HLG and PENMC in a graph, and divided the total area to nine zones with cut-off lines of each descriptor. The rules to prediction were decided to achieve the best concordance, and the concordances were improved up to 82.8% for self-validation, 81.6% for cross-validation. We found common properties among false positive or negative compounds, photo-reactive structure and photo-allergenic, respectively. In addition, our method could be adapted to compounds rich in structural diversity using only chemical structure without any statistical analysis and complicated calculation.

  16. The Gas-Absorption/Chemical-Reaction Method for Measuring Air-Water Interfacial Area in Natural Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Ying; Brusseau, Mark L.; El Ouni, Asma; Araujo, Juliana B.; Su, Xiaosi

    2017-11-01

    The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method used in chemical engineering to quantify gas-liquid interfacial area in reactor systems is adapted for the first time to measure the effective air-water interfacial area of natural porous media. Experiments were conducted with the GACR method, and two standard methods (X-ray microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests) for comparison, using model glass beads and a natural sand. The results of a series of experiments conducted under identical conditions demonstrated that the GACR method exhibited excellent repeatability for measurement of interfacial area (Aia). Coefficients of variation for Aia were 3.5% for the glass beads and 11% for the sand. Extrapolated maximum interfacial areas (Am) obtained with the GACR method were statistically identical to independent measures of the specific solid surface areas of the media. For example, the Am for the glass beads is 29 (±1) cm-1, compared to 32 (±3), 30 (±2), and 31 (±2) cm-1 determined from geometric calculation, N2/BET measurement, and microtomographic measurement, respectively. This indicates that the method produced accurate measures of interfacial area. Interfacial areas determined with the GACR method were similar to those obtained with the standard methods. For example, Aias of 47 and 44 cm-1 were measured with the GACR and XMT methods, respectively, for the sand at a water saturation of 0.57. The results of the study indicate that the GACR method is a viable alternative for measuring air-water interfacial areas. The method is relatively quick, inexpensive, and requires no specialized instrumentation compared to the standard methods.

  17. Effects of different soil remediation methods on inhibition of lead absorption and growth and quality of Dianthus superbus L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Siyue; Li, Jianheng

    2017-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution in soil poses a serious threat to the growth of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of various soil remediation methods on the performance of Herba Dianthi (Dianthus superbus L.) grown on Pb-contaminated soil. The results show that inoculation of Herba Dianthi with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) led to a significant reduction in Pb uptake (P< 0.05), and increased root development and root-to-shoot ratio compared to untreated control plants, along with the highest content of active components. When planting with Trifolium repens, the reduction effect of Pb absorption was insignificant. Herba Dianthi showed improved growth and active ingredients, and the lowest Pb content, with AMF inoculation. The addition of EDTA decreased the growth of Herba Dianthi, but promoted the absorption of Pb. The inhibition of tumor cells was highest in E2. In conclusion, inoculation with AMF can ensure that plant lead content meets testing standards, helping to improve the quality of medicinal herbs.

  18. A Ground Truthing Method for AVIRIS Overflights Using Canopy Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Serrano, Lydia; Roberts, Dar A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1996-01-01

    Remote sensing for ecological field studies requires ground truthing for accurate interpretation of remote imagery. However, traditional vegetation sampling methods are time consuming and hard to relate to the scale of an AVIRIS scene. The large errors associated with manual field sampling, the contrasting formats of remote and ground data, and problems with coregistration of field sites with AVIRIS pixels can lead to difficulties in interpreting AVIRIS data. As part of a larger study of fire risk in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California, we explored a ground-based optical method of sampling vegetation using spectrometers mounted both above and below vegetation canopies. The goal was to use optical methods to provide a rapid, consistent, and objective means of "ground truthing" that could be related both to AVIRIS imagery and to conventional ground sampling (e.g., plot harvests and pigment assays).

  19. Optical absorption spectra and g factor of MgO: Mn2+explored by ab initio and semi empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreici Eftimie, E.-L.; Avram, C. N.; Brik, M. G.; Avram, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculations of the optical absorption spectra, ligand field parameters and g factor for the Mn2+ (3d5) ions doped in MgO host crystal. The proposed technique combines two methods: the ab initio multireference (MR) and the semi empirical ligand field (LF) in the framework of the exchange charge model (ECM) respectively. Both methods of calculations are applied to the [MnO6]10-cluster embedded in an extended point charge field of host matrix ligands based on Gellé-Lepetit procedure. The first step of such investigations was the full optimization of the cubic structure of perfect MgO crystal, followed by the structural optimization of the doped of MgO:Mn2+ system, using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The ab initio MR wave functions approaches, such as complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), N-electron valence second order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and spectroscopy oriented configuration interaction (SORCI), are used for the calculations. The scalar relativistic effects have also been taken into account through the second order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH2) procedure. Ab initio ligand field theory (AILFT) allows to extract all LF parameters and spin-orbit coupling constant from such calculations. In addition, the ECM of ligand field theory (LFT) has been used for modelling theoptical absorption spectra. The perturbation theory (PT) was employed for the g factor calculation in the semi empirical LFT. The results of each of the aforementioned types of calculations are discussed and the comparisons between the results obtained and the experimental results show a reasonable agreement, which justifies this new methodology based on the simultaneous use of both methods. This study establishes fundamental principles for the further modelling of larger embedded cluster models of doped metal oxides.

  20. Method for making an aluminum or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A panel is described for selectively absorbing solar energy comprising an aluminum substrate. A zinc layer was covered by a layer of nickel and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a nickel layer. A layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate was included. A method for making these panels is disclosed.

  1. Human innate immunity to Toxoplasma gondii is mediated by host caspase-1 and ASC and parasite GRA15.

    PubMed

    Gov, Lanny; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Ueno, Norikiyo; Lodoen, Melissa B

    2013-07-09

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) functions as a key regulator of inflammation and innate immunity. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii actively infects human blood monocytes and induces the production of IL-1β; however, the host and parasite factors that mediate IL-1β production during T. gondii infection are poorly understood. We report that T. gondii induces IL-1β transcript, processing/cleavage, and release from infected primary human monocytes and THP-1 cells. Treating monocytes with the caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK reduced IL-1β release, suggesting a role for the inflammasome in T. gondii-induced IL-1β production. This was confirmed by performing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of caspase-1 and of the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC. IL-1β induction required active parasite invasion of monocytes, since heat-killed or mycalolide B-treated parasites did not induce IL-1β. Among the type I, II, and III strains of T. gondii, the type II strain induced substantially more IL-1β mRNA and protein release than did the type I and III strains. Since IL-1β transcript is known to be induced downstream of NF-κB signaling, we investigated a role for the GRA15 protein, which induces sustained NF-κB signaling in a parasite strain-specific manner. By infecting human monocytes with a GRA15-knockout type II strain and a type I strain stably expressing type II GRA15, we determined that GRA15 is responsible for IL-1β induction during T. gondii infection of human monocytes. This research defines a pathway driving human innate immunity by describing a role for the classical inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC and the parasite GRA15 protein in T. gondii-induced IL-1β production. Monocytes are immune cells that protect against infection by increasing inflammation and antimicrobial activities in the body. Upon infection with the parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, human monocytes release interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a "master regulator" of inflammation, which

  2. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  3. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  4. Bioaccessibility of PBDEs present in indoor dust: A novel dialysis membrane method with a Tenax TA® absorption sink.

    PubMed

    Kademoglou, Katerina; Williams, Adrian C; Collins, Chris D

    2018-04-15

    Human uptake of flame retardants (FRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via indoor dust ingestion is commonly considered as 100% bioaccessible, leading to potential risk overestimation. Here, we present a novel in vitro colon-extended physiologically-based extraction test (CE-PBET) with Tenax TA® as an absorptive "sink" capable to enhance PBDE gut bioaccessibility. A cellulose-based dialysis membrane (MW cut-off 3.5kDa) with high pH and temperature tolerance was used to encapsulate Tenax TA®, facilitating efficient physical separation between the absorbent and the dust, while minimizing re-absorption of the ingested PBDEs to the dust particles. As a proof of concept, PBDE-spiked indoor dust samples (n=3) were tested under four different conditions; without any Tenax TA® addition (control) and with three different Tenax TA® loadings (i.e. 0.25, 0.5 or 0.75g). Our results show that in order to maintain a constant sorptive gradient for the low MW PBDEs, 0.5g of Tenax TA® are required in CE-PBET. Tenax TA® inclusion (0.5g) resulted in 40% gut bioaccessibility for BDE153 and BDE183, whereas greater bioaccessibility values were seen for less hydrophobic PBDEs such as BDE28 and BDE47 (~60%). When tested using SRM 2585 (n=3), our new Tenax TA® method did not present any statistically significant effect (p>0.05) between non-spiked and PBDE-spiked SRM 2585 treatments. Our study describes an efficient method where due to the sophisticated design, Tenax TA® recovery and subsequent bioaccessibility determination can be simply and reliably achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An optical method to determine the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption and desorption in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremaud, R.; Slaman, M.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrogenography, an optical high-throughput combinatorial technique to find hydrogen storage materials, has so far been applied only to materials undergoing a metal-to-semiconductor transition during hydrogenation. We show here that this technique works equally well for metallic hydrides. Additionally, we find that the thermodynamic data obtained optically on thin Pd-H films agree very well with Pd-H bulk data. This confirms that hydrogenography is a valuable general method to determine the relevant parameters for hydrogen storage in metal hydrides.

  6. Voigt deconvolution method and its applications to pure oxygen absorption spectrum at 1270 nm band.

    PubMed

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A; Aljghami, Issam F; Mahzia, Yahia M

    2016-03-15

    Experimental spectral lines of pure oxygen at 1270 nm band were analyzed by Voigt deconvolution method. The method gave a total Voigt profile, which arises from two overlapping bands. Deconvolution of total Voigt profile leads to two Voigt profiles, the first as a result of O2 dimol at 1264 nm band envelope, and the second from O2 monomer at 1268 nm band envelope. In addition, Voigt profile itself is the convolution of Lorentzian and Gaussian distributions. Competition between thermal and collisional effects was clearly observed through competition between Gaussian and Lorentzian width for each band envelope. Voigt full width at half-maximum height (Voigt FWHM) for each line, and the width ratio between Lorentzian and Gaussian width (ΓLΓG(-1)) have been investigated. The following applied pressures were at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 bar, while the temperatures were at 298 K, 323 K, 348 K, and 373 K range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

    2005-01-01

    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  8. A method to determine the acoustic reflection and absorption coefficients of porous media by using modal dispersion in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media.

  9. Novel shortcut estimation method for regeneration energy of amine solvents in an absorption-based carbon capture process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huiyong; Hwang, Sung June; Lee, Kwang Soon

    2015-02-03

    Among various CO2 capture processes, the aqueous amine-based absorption process is considered the most promising for near-term deployment. However, the performance evaluation of newly developed solvents still requires complex and time-consuming procedures, such as pilot plant tests or the development of a rigorous simulator. Absence of accurate and simple calculation methods for the energy performance at an early stage of process development has lengthened and increased expense of the development of economically feasible CO2 capture processes. In this paper, a novel but simple method to reliably calculate the regeneration energy in a standard amine-based carbon capture process is proposed. Careful examination of stripper behaviors and exploitation of energy balance equations around the stripper allowed for calculation of the regeneration energy using only vapor-liquid equilibrium and caloric data. Reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by comparing to rigorous simulations for two well-known solvents, monoethanolamine (MEA) and piperazine (PZ). The proposed method can predict the regeneration energy at various operating conditions with greater simplicity, greater speed, and higher accuracy than those proposed in previous studies. This enables faster and more precise screening of various solvents and faster optimization of process variables and can eventually accelerate the development of economically deployable CO2 capture processes.

  10. Backscattering and absorption coefficients for electrons: Solutions of invariant embedding transport equations using a method of convergence

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.

    2014-05-21

    The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types ofmore » approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams.« less

  11. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  12. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes

    DOEpatents

    Kanak, Brant E.; Stephenson, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is a method for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.

  13. Improvable method for Halon 1301 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang; Lu, Song; Guan, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Halon 1301 has attached much interest because of its pervasive use as an effective fire suppressant agent in aircraft related fires, and the study of fire suppressant agent concentration measurement is especially of interest. In this work, a Halon 1301 concentration measurement method based on the Beer-Lambert law is developed. IR light is transmitted through mixed gas, and the light intensity with and without the agent present is measured. The intensity ratio is a function of the volume percentage of Halon 1301, and the voltage output of the detector is proportional to light intensity. As such, the relationship between the volume percentage and voltage ratio can be established. The concentration measurement system shows a relative error of the system less than ±2.50%, and a full scale error within 1.20%. This work also discusses the effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the calibration. The experimental results of voltage ratio versus Halon 1301 volume percentage relationship show that the voltage ratio drops significantly as temperature rises from 25 to 100 °C, and it decreases as RH rises from 0% to 100%.

  14. Aerosol source apportionment based on multi-wavelength photoacoustic light absorption measurements: a simulation method for system's optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Károly; Ajtai, Tibor; Kiss-Albert, Gergely; Utry, Noémi; Pintér, Máté; Szabó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol source apportionment is currently one of the outstanding challenges for environmental monitoring. In most cases atmospheric aerosol is a heterogeneous mixture as it typically originates from various sources. Consequently, each aerosol type has distinct chemical and physical properties. Contrary to chemical properties, optical absorption and size distribution of airborne particles can be measured in real time with high time resolution i.e. their measurement facilitates real time source apportionment (Favez et al (2009), Ajtai et al (2011), Favez et al (2010)). The wavelength dependency of the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) is usually characterised by the Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE). So far, the selection of light sources (lasers) into a photoacoustic aerosol measuring system was based on rule of thumb type estimations only. Recently, we proposed a simulation method that can be used to estimate the accuracy of aerosol source apportionment in case of a dual wavelength photoacoustic system (Simon et al., (2017)). This simulation is based on the assumption that the atmospheric aerosol load is dominated by two distinct sources and each of them is strongly light absorbing with specific AAE values. This is a typical scenario e.g. for urban measurements under wintry conditions when dominating aerosol sources are fossil fuel and wood burning with characteristic AAE 1 and 2, respectively. The wavelength pair of 405 and 1064 nm was found to be optimal for source apportionment in this case. In the presented study we investigated the situation when there are aerosol components with only slightly different AAE values and searched for a photoacoustic system which is optimal for distinguishing these components. Ajtai, T.; Filep, Á.; Utry, N.; Schnaiter, M.; Linke, C.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G. and Leisner T. (2011) Journal of Aerosol Science 42, 859-866. Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Sciare, J.; Sarda-Estève, R. and Martinon, L. (2009) Atmospheric Environment 43

  15. Evaluation about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients through various methods and the correlation between these parameters and tablet disintegration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baixue; Wei, Chen; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Li, Sanming

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate parameters about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients in forms of powders or dosage through various methods systematically and explore its correlation with tablet disintegration. The water penetration and swelling of powders with different proportions of excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), croscarmellose sodium (CCMC-Na) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) were determined by Washburn capillary rise. Both contact angle of water on the excipient compacts and surface swelling volume were measured by sessile drop technique. Moreover, the test about water absorption and swelling of compacts was fulfilled by a modified method. Eventually, the disintegration of tablets with or without loratadine was performed according to the method described in USP. These parameters were successfully identified by the methods above, which proved that excipient wettability or swelling properties varied with the structure of excipients. For example, MgSt could improve the water uptake, while impeded tablet swelling. Furthermore, in the present study it is verified that tablet disintegration was closely related to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate. The higher wetting rate of water on tablet or initial water absorption rate, the faster swelling it be, resulting in the shorter tablet disintegration time. The methods utilized in the present study were feasible and effective. The disintegration of tablets did relate to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate.

  16. Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ammonium reineckate ion-pair complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, Gamal H.; Amin, Alaa S.

    2004-03-01

    Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric, conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of norfloxacin (NRF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and enrofloxacin (ENF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at λmax 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone in the range 5.0-65, 4.0-48, 5.0-56 and 6.0-72 μg ml -1 of NRF, CPF, OFL and ENF, respectively. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. The results obtained showed good recoveries of 99.15±1.15, 99.30±1.40, 99.60±1.50, and 99.00±1.25% with relative standard deviations of 0.81, 1.06, 0.97, and 0.69% for NRF, CPF, OFL, and ENF, respectively. Applications of the proposed methods to representative pharmaceutical formulations are successfully presented.

  17. Time-Resolved O3 Chemical Chain Reaction Kinetics Via High-Resolution IR Laser Absorption Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcke, Axel; Blackmon, Brad; Chapman, William B.; Kim, In Koo; Nesbitt, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Excimer laser photolysis in combination with time-resolved IR laser absorption detection of OH radicals has been used to study O3/OH(v = 0)/HO2 chain reaction kinetics at 298 K, (i.e.,(k(sub 1) is OH + 03 yields H02 + 02 and (k(sub 2) is H02 + 03 yields OH + 202). From time-resolved detection of OH radicals with high-resolution near IR laser absorption methods, the chain induction kinetics have been measured at up to an order of magnitude higher ozone concentrations ([03] less than or equal to 10(exp 17) molecules/cu cm) than accessible in previous studies. This greater dynamic range permits the full evolution of the chain induction, propagation, and termination process to be temporally isolated and measured in real time. An exact solution for time-dependent OH evolution under pseudo- first-order chain reaction conditions is presented, which correctly predicts new kinetic signatures not included in previous OH + 03 kinetic analyses. Specifically, the solutions predict an initial exponential loss (chain "induction") of the OH radical to a steady-state level ([OH](sub ss)), with this fast initial decay determined by the sum of both chain rate constants, k(sub ind) = k(sub 1) + k(sub 2). By monitoring the chain induction feature, this sum of the rate constants is determined to be k(sub ind) = 8.4(8) x 10(exp -14) cu cm/molecule/s for room temperature reagents. This is significantly higher than the values currently recommended for use in atmospheric models, but in excellent agreement with previous results from Ravishankara et al.

  18. A novel method of carbon dioxide clumped isotope analysis with tunable infra-red laser direct absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, Ivan; Kluge, Tobias; Janssen, Christof

    2016-04-01

    Precise clumped isotopes analysis of carbon dioxide opens up new horizons of atmospheric and biogeochemical research. Recent advances in laser and spectroscopic techniques provides us necessary instrumentation to access extremely low sub-permill variations of multiply-substituted isotopologues. We present an advanced analysis method of carbon dioxide clumped isotopes using direct absorption spectroscopy. Our assessments predict the ultimate precision of the new method on the sub-permill level comparable to state of the art mass spectrometry. Among the most auspicious intrinsic properties of this method we highlight genuine Δ16O13C18O and Δ16O13C18O measurements without isobaric interference, measurement cycle duration of several minutes versus hours for mass spectrometric analysis, reduced sample size of ˜ 10 μmol and high flexibility, allowing us to perform in-situ measurements. The pilot version of the instrument is being developed in an international collaboration framework between Heidelberg University, Germany and Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France. It employs two continuous interband quantum cascade lasers tuned at 4.439 μm and 4.329 μm to measure doubly ( 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O) and singly ( 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, 16O12C17O, 16O12C18O) substituted isotopologues, respectively. Two identical Herriot cells are filled with dry pure CO2 sample and reference gas at working pressure of 1 - 10 mbar. Cells provide optical path lengths of ˜ 17 m for the laser tuned at doubly substituted isotopologues lines and use a single pass for the laser tuned at the stronger lines of singly substituted isotopologues. Light outside of the gas cells is coupled into optical fiber to avoid absorption by ambient air CO2. Simulations predict sub-permill precision at working pressure of 1 mbar and room temperature stabilised at the ±10 mK level. Our prime target is to apply the proposed method for continuous in-situ analysis of CO2. We are foreseeing potential

  19. Apparatus and method for quantitative measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity between two samples using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1984-05-08

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity of weakly absorbing solutions using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect have been developed. Two sample cells are placed in each arm of an interferometer and are traversed by colinear probe and heating laser beams. The interrogation probe beams are recombined forming a fringe pattern, the intensity of which can be related to changes in optical path length of these laser beams through the cells. This in turn can be related to small differences in optical absorptivity which results in different amounts of sample heating when the heating laser beams are turned on, by the fact that the index of refraction of a liquid is temperature dependent. A critical feature of this invention is the stabilization of the optical path of the probe beams against drift. Background (solvent) absorption can then be suppressed by a factor of approximately 400. Solute absorptivities of about 10[sup [minus]5] cm[sup [minus]1] can then be determined in the presence of background absorptions in excess of 10[sup [minus]3] cm[sup [minus]1]. In addition, the smallest absorption measured with the instant apparatus and method is about 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] cm[sup [minus]1]. 6 figs.

  20. Apparatus and method for quantitative measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity between two samples using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, David A.; Keller, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity of weakly absorbing solutions using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect has been developed. Two sample cells are placed in each arm of an interferometer and are traversed by colinear probe and heating laser beams. The interrogation probe beams are recombined forming a fringe pattern, the intensity of which can be related to changes in optical pathlength of these laser beams through the cells. This in turn can be related to small differences in optical absorptivity which results in different amounts of sample heating when the heating laser beams are turned on, by the fact that the index of refraction of a liquid is temperature dependent. A critical feature of this invention is the stabilization of the optical path of the probe beams against drift. Background (solvent) absorption can then be suppressed by a factor of approximately 400. Solute absorptivities of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.-1 can then be determined in the presence of background absorptions in excess of 10.sup.-3 cm.sup.-1. In addition, the smallest absorption measured with the instant apparatus and method is about 5.times. 10.sup.-6 cm.sup.-1.

  1. Apparatus and method for quantitative measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity between two samples using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1982-06-08

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of small differences in optical absorptivity of weakly absorbing solutions using differential interferometry and the thermooptic effect has been developed. Two sample cells are placed in each arm of an interferometer and are traversed by colinear probe and heating laser beams. The interrogation probe beams are recombined forming a fringe pattern, the intensity of which can be related to changes in optical pathlength of these laser beams through the cells. This in turn can be related to small differences in optical absorptivity which results in different amounts of sample heating when the heating laser beams are turned on, by the fact that the index of refraction of a liquid is temperature dependent. A critical feature of this invention is the stabilization of the optical path of the probe beams against drift. Background (solvent) absorption can then be suppressed by a factor of approximately 400. Solute absorptivities of about 10/sup -5/ cm/sup -1/ can then be determined in the presence of background absorptions in excess of 10/sup -3/ cm/sup -1/. In addition, the smallest absorption measured with the instant apparatus and method is about 5 x 10/sup -6/ cm/sup -1/.

  2. Understanding Volatile Occurrence on Vesta Using Bistatic Radar and GRaND Observations by the Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Kofman, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    The first orbital bistatic radar experiment was conducted by Dawn at Asteroid Vesta, where Dawn's HGA was used to transmit X-band radio waves and Earth's Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antennas were used to receive. Due to the opportunistic nature of the experiment, the HGA remained in a fixed orientation toward the Earth such that surface radar reflections occurred at grazing incidence angles of 89° just before and after Dawn's occultation behind Vesta. Among the 16 observed echo sites, we find that σ0ranges from -12 dB to -20 dB and has corresponding RMS slopes ranging from 1°- 8°. To assess potential volatile presence, we compare the distribution of RMS slopes to subsurface hydrogen concentrations observed by Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) to 1 m depth. While Vesta's surface is thought to have been largely depleted of volatiles during its differentiation, observations by Dawn'sGRaND and VIR instruments suggest the potential introduction of hydrated material through meteoritic impacts. We identify seven sites of potential volatile occurrence—where low roughness (<5°) is observed to be coupled with high content of hydrated materials (0.025 - 0.04 wt%). Such sites support the possibility of volatile presence, as the regolith should otherwise be particularly rough in the absence of smoothening processes such as the melting, run-off and recrystallization of water ice after an impact. The sites correspond to occultation entry orbit numbers 635, 644 and 719—which overlap Divalia Fossae, Marcia crater ejecta and Octavia crater, respectively—and exit orbit numbers 377, 406, 407 and 720—overlapping northern cratered trough terrain, dark material near Aruntia crater and the cratered highlands. Toward comparing volatile occurrence on other small bodies, Dawn'sBSR experiment at Asteroid Ceres raises new questions. How does the range of decimeter-scale RMS slopes compare with Vesta's surface? How well does the distribution of RMS slopes

  3. Development of simplified procedure for computing the absorption of sound by the atmosphere and applicability to aircraft noise certification : proposed SAE method

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-30

    This report presents the results of the study to extend the useful attenuation range of the Approximate Method outlined in the American National Standard, Method for Calculation of the Absorption of Sound by the Atmosphere (ANSI S1.26-1995), an...

  4. Structure and electronic absorption spectra of nematogenic alkoxycinnamic acids - a comparative study based on semiempirical and DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Pogula Lakshmi; Ojha, Durga Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Structure of nematogenic p-n-Alkoxy cinnamic acids (nOCAC) with various alkyl chain carbon atoms (n = 2, 4, 6, 8) has been optimized using density functional B3LYP with 6-31+G (d) basis set using crystallographic geometry as input. Using the optimized geometry, electronic structure of the molecules has been evaluated using the semiempirical methods and DFT calculations. Molecular charge distribution and phase stability of these systems have been analyzed based on Mulliken and Löwdin population analysis. The electronic absorption spectra of nOCAC molecules have been simulated by employing DFT method, semiempirical CNDO/S and INDO/S parameterizations. Two types of calculations have been performed for model systems containing single and double molecules of nOCAC. UV-Visible spectra have been calculated for all single molecules. The UV stability of the molecules has been discussed in light of the electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The dimer complexes of higher homologues (n = 6, 8) have also been reported to enable the comparison between single and double molecules.

  5. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by using a microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric method after closed-vessel microwave digestion: method validation.

    PubMed

    Chekri, Rachida; Noël, Laurent; Vastel, Christelle; Millour, Sandrine; Kadar, Ali; Guérin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a validation process in compliance with the NFIEN ISO/IEC 17025 standard for the determination of the macrominerals calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by microsampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry after closed-vessel microwave digestion. The French Standards Commission (Agence Francaise de Normalisation) standards NF V03-110, NF EN V03-115, and XP T-90-210 were used to evaluate this method. The method was validated in the context of an analysis of the 1322 food samples of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Several performance criteria (linearity, LOQ, specificity, trueness, precision under repeatability conditions, and intermediate precision reproducibility) were evaluated. Furthermore, the method was monitored by several internal quality controls. The LOQ values obtained (25, 5, 8.3, and 8.3 mg/kg for Ca, Mg, Na, and K, respectively) were in compliance with the needs of the TDS. The method provided accurate results as demonstrated by a repeatability CV (CVr) of < 7% and a reproducibility CV (CVR) of < 12% for all the elements. Therefore, the results indicated that this method could be used in the laboratory for the routine determination of these four elements in foodstuffs with acceptable analytical performance.

  7. Optimization of Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) Nano-Powder Mixed micro-EDM of CoCrMo with Multiple Responses Using Gray Relational Analysis (GRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejid Elsiti, Nagwa; Noordin, M. Y.; Idris, Ani; Saed Majeed, Faraj

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents an optimization of process parameters of Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process with (γ-Fe2O3) nano-powder mixed dielectric using multi-response optimization Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method instead of single response optimization. These parameters were optimized based on 2-Level factorial design combined with Grey Relational Analysis. The machining parameters such as peak current, gap voltage, and pulse on time were chosen for experimentation. The performance characteristics chosen for this study are material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), Taper and Overcut. Experiments were conducted using electrolyte copper as the tool and CoCrMo as the workpiece. Experimental results have been improved through this approach.

  8. New method to determine the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of organic nonlinear crystals in the ultra-wideband THz region.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Seigo; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-08-02

    A method for simultaneously measuring the refractive index and absorption coefficient of nonlinear optical crystals in the ultra-wideband terahertz (THz) region is described. This method is based on the analysis of a collinear difference frequency generation (DFG) process using a tunable, dual-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator. The refractive index and the absorption coefficient in the organic nonlinear crystal DAST were experimentally determined in the frequency range 2.5-26.2 THz by measuring the THz-wave output using DFG. The resultant refractive index in the x-direction was approximately 2.3, while the absorption spectrum was in good agreement with FT-IR measurements. The output of the DAST-DFG THz-wave source was optimized to the phase-matching condition using the measured refractive index spectrum in THz region, which resulted in an improvement in the output power of up to a factor of nine.

  9. Saccharose solid matrix embedded proteins: a new method for sample preparation for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ascone, I; Sabatucci, A; Bubacco, L; Di Muro, P; Salvato, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, solid samples of hemoglobin and hemocyanin have been prepared by embedding the proteins into a saccharose-based matrix. These materials have been developed specifically for specimens for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The preservation of protein conformation and active site organization was tested, making comparisons between the solid and the corresponding liquid samples, using resonance Raman, infra red, fluorescence and XAS. The XAS spectra of irradiated solid and liquid samples were then compared, and the preservation of biological activity of the proteins during both preparation procedure and X-ray irradiation was assessed. In all cases, the measurements clearly demonstrate that protein solid samples are both structurally and functionally quite well preserved, much better than those in the liquid state. The saccharose matrix provides an excellent protection against X-ray damages, allowing for longer exposure to the X-ray beam. Moreover, the demonstrated long-term stability of samples permits their preparation and storage in optimal conditions, allowing for the repetition of data collection with the same sample in several experimental sessions. The very high protein concentration that can be reached results in a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, particularly useful for high molecular weight proteins with a low metal-to-protein ratio. On the bases of the above-mentioned results, we propose the new method as a standard procedure for the preparation of biological samples to be used for XAS spectroscopy.

  10. Pyrene absorption can be a convenient method for probing critical micellar concentration (cmc) and indexing micellar polarity.

    PubMed

    Basu Ray, Gargi; Chakraborty, Indranil; Moulik, Satya P

    2006-02-01

    The critical micellar concentration (cmc) of both ionic and non-ionic surfactants can be conveniently determined from the measurements of UV absorption of pyrene in surfactant solution. The results on a number of surfactants have agreed with that realized from pyrene fluorescence measurements as well as that obtained following conductometric, tensiometric and calorimetric methods. The absorbance vs [surfactant] profiles for all the major UV spectral peaks of pyrene have been found to be sigmoidal in nature which were analyzed according to Sigmoidal-Boltzmann equation (SBE) to evaluate the cmcs of the studied surfactants. The difference between the initial and the final asymptotes (a(i) and a(f), respectively) of the sigmoidal profile, Delta a = (a(f)-a(i)) and the slope of the sigmoid, S(sig) have been observed to depend on the type of the surfactant. The Delta a has shown a linear correlation with the ratio of the fluorescence intensities of the first and the third vibronic peaks, I1/I3 of pyrene which is considered as a measure of the environmental polarity (herein micellar interior) of the probe (pyrene). Thus, Delta a values have the prospect for use as another index for the estimation of polarity of micellar interior.

  11. A Combination of Chemometrics and Quantum Mechanics Methods Applied to Analysis of Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectrum of Ortho-Nitroaniline

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jing; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Kemei; Li, Menglong; Chu, Genbai; Pu, Xuemei; Xu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the advanced chemometrics method with quantum mechanics calculation was for the first time applied to explore a facile yet efficient analysis strategy to thoroughly resolve femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of ortho-nitroaniline (ONA), served as a model compound of important nitroaromatics and explosives. The result revealed that the ONA molecule is primarily excited to S3 excited state from the ground state and then ultrafast relaxes to S2 state. The internal conversion from S2 to S1 occurs within 0.9 ps. One intermediate state S* was identified in the intersystem crossing (ISC) process, which is different from the specific upper triplet receiver state proposed in some other nitroaromatics systems. The S1 state decays to the S* one within 6.4 ps and then intersystem crossing to the lowest triplet state within 19.6 ps. T1 was estimated to have a lifetime up to 2 ns. The relatively long S* state and very long-lived T1 one should play a vital role as precursors to various nitroaromatic and explosive photoproducts. PMID:26781083

  12. Frequency-domain method for measuring spectral properties in multiple-scattering media: methemoglobin absorption spectrum in a tissuelike phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishkin, Joshua B.; So, Peter T. C.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    1995-03-01

    We have measured the optical absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of a multiple-scattering medium (i.e., a biological tissue-simulating phantom comprising a lipid colloid) containing methemoglobin by using frequency-domain techniques. The methemoglobin absorption spectrum determined in the multiple-scattering medium is in excellent agreement with a corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum obtained from a steady-state spectrophotometer measurement of the optical density of a minimally scattering medium. The determination of the corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum takes into account the scattering from impurities in the methemoglobin solution containing no lipid colloid. Frequency-domain techniques allow for the separation of the absorbing from the scattering properties of multiple-scattering media, and these techniques thus provide an absolute

  13. Brewster-plate spoiler - A novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A simple method is described for substantially reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit the sensitivities of tunable-laser high-resolution absorption spectrometers. A lead-salt diode laser operating in the 7-micron region is used with a single Brewster-plate spoiler to reduce the fringe amplitude by a factor of 30 and also to allow the detection of absorptances 0.001 percent in a single laser scan without subtraction techniques, without complex frequency modulation, and without distortion of the molecular line-shape signals. Application to multipass-cell spectrometers is described.

  14. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2012-05-30

    Fluorine was determined via the rotational molecular absorption line of aluminum mono fluoride (AlF) generated in C(2)H(2)/N(2)O flame at 227.4613 nm using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HR-CS-FAAS). The effects of AlF wavelength, burner height, fuel rate (C(2)H(2)/N(2)O) and amount of Al on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity were investigated and optimized. The Al-F absorption band at 227.4613 nm was found to be the most suitable analytical line with respect to sensitivity and spectral interferences. Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing spiked samples and waste water certified reference material. The results were in good agreement with the certified and spiked amounts as well as the precision of several days during this study was satisfactory (RSD<10%). The limit of detection and characteristic concentration of the method were 5.5 mg L(-1) and 72.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorptive behavior of doped W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Gordani, Gholam Reza, E-mail: gordani@gmail.com; Mohseni, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ali

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • High frequency properties of substituted W-type Sr-hexaferrite. • Saturation magnetization of samples is decreased with increasing of dopants content. • The ferrite sample covers about 6 GHz of bandwidth in K{sub u} band. • The optimum substituted samples can be used as a potential magnetic loss material. • Sample contain x = 0.4 of dopants have shown greater than 90% of reflection loss. - Abstract: Substituted W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles of SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x/2}Ni{sub x/2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction results confirmed that W-type ferrite was identified as the main phase inmore » whole samples in the range of x = 0–0.4. According to magnetic hysteresis loops, with increasing of substituted cations, saturation of magnetization increased and coercivity decreased due to crystalline site occupation of Zn with Ni and Co cations. The microwave reflection loss analysis results in the K{sub u} band (12–18 GHz) show that the highest value of reflection loss of samples was −29.11 dB at frequency of 14.57 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 6 GHz by choosing reflection loss value of −10 dB as a reference. The results indicate that, the sample with appropriate amount of substituted cations hold great promise for microwave device applications.« less

  16. Step-scan differential Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (DFTIR-PAS): a spectral deconvolution method for weak absorber detection in the presence of strongly overlapping background absorptions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixian; Mandelis, Andreas; Huan, Huiting; Michaelian, Kirk H

    2017-04-01

    The determination of small absorption coefficients of trace gases in the atmosphere constitutes a challenge for analytical air contaminant measurements, especially in the presence of strongly absorbing backgrounds. A step-scan differential Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (DFTIR-PAS) method was developed to suppress the coherent external noise and spurious photoacoustic (PA) signals caused by strongly absorbing backgrounds. The infrared absorption spectra of acetylene (C2H2) and local air were used to verify the performance of the step-scan DFTIR-PAS method. A linear amplitude response to C2H2 concentrations from 100 to 5000 ppmv was observed, leading to a theoretical detection limit of 5 ppmv. The differential mode was capable of eliminating the coherent noise and dominant background gas signals, thereby revealing the presence of the otherwise hidden C2H2 weak absorption. Thus, the step-scan DFTIR-PAS modality was demonstrated to be an effective approach for monitoring weakly absorbing gases with absorption bands overlapped by strongly absorbing background species.

  17. Efficiency of the intermolecular interaction of salicylic acid neutral form and monoanion with Cd2 + ion studied by methods of absorption and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2018-02-01

    The methods of absorption and fluorescence were used to study the efficiency of the interaction between salicylic acid derivatives SAD (neutral SA form and SA monoanion) and Cd2 + ions (in CdBr2 salt) within the range pH = 1.5 ÷ 8. The efficiency was determined from the change in both the absorption band contour and the fluorescence intensity of various SAD forms. It has been established that depending on the SAD form, the addition of CdBr2 to a starting solution leads to the formation of additional absorption for both the shorter wave lengths in the absorption spectrum of the neutral form (at pH < 3) and the longer wave lengths in the absorption spectrum for the HSal- monoanion (at pH > 4). In the fluorescence spectra, the intensity was observed to increase for the neutral SAD form (at pH < 3) and to decrease for the HSal- monoanion (at pH > 4) after addition of CdBr2. The spectral changes were interpreted in the framework of common notions about the effect of three physicochemical factors that determine the interaction between the SAD and the Cd2 + ion and affect the parameters of absorption and fluorescence spectra. These factors are: (1) the decrease in pH after addition of CdBr2 to the SAD solution, (2) the decrease in the efficiency of the H-bonding of SAD molecules to the water ones, and (3) the existence of electrostatic ion-ion interaction between the HSal- monoanion and the Cd2 + ion. The bimolecular fluorescence quenching constants Kq of HSal- monoanion fluorescence quenching by the Cd2 + ion appeared to be substantially less than those of the quenching which would follow either the dynamic (diffusion) or the concentration (static) mechanisms.

  18. Application of Internal Standard Method for Several 3d-Transition Metallic Elements in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using a Multi-wavelength High-resolution Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Toya, Yusuke; Itagaki, Toshiko; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a simultaneous internal standard method in flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), in order to better the analytical precision of 3d-transition metals contained in steel materials. For this purpose, a new spectrometer system for FAAS, comprising a bright xenon lamp as the primary radiation source and a high-resolution Echelle monochromator, was employed to measure several absorption lines at a wavelength width of ca. 0.3 nm at the same time, which enables the absorbances of an analytical line and also an internal standard line to be estimated. In considering several criteria for selecting an internal standard element and the absorption line, it could be suggested that platinum-group elements: ruthenium, rhodium, or palladium, were suitable for an internal standard element to determine the 3d-transition metal elements, such as titanium, iron, and nickel, by measuring an appropriate pair of these absorption lines simultaneously. Several variances of the absorption signal, such as a variation in aspirated amounts of sample solution and a short-period drift of the primary light source, would be corrected and thus reduced, when the absorbance ratio of the analytical line to the internal standard line was measured. In Ti-Pd, Ni-Rh, and Fe-Ru systems chosen as typical test samples, the repeatability of the signal respnses was investigated with/without the internal standard method, resulting in better precision when the internal standard method was applied in the FAAS with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame rather than an air-acetylene flame.

  19. Determination of Copper by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: A Student Exercise in Instrumental Methods of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a student exercise which requires the optimizing of the charring and atomization temperatures by producing a plot of absorbance versus temperature for each temperature parameter. Notes that although the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy technique has widespread industrial use, there are no published, structured experiments…

  20. The Diversity of Anomalous HEDs: Isotopic Constraints on the Connection of EET 92023, GRA 98098, and Dhofar 700 With Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanborn, M. E.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility for multiple parent bodies, instead of a common parent body of Vesta, for eucrites has been suggested based on the variable oxygen isotopic composition observed in some eucrites.. Recently, we added an extra dimension to the discussion based on the (epsilon)54Cr composition of the same eucrites with known (delta)17O to compare with the normal eucrites. The combined (delta)17O and (epsilon)54Cr isotope systematics for Pasamonte, PCA 91007, A-881394, and Ibitira indicate their likely origin from multiple different parent bodies than the normal eucrites. Often the qualifier anomalous is used to identify HEDs with (delta)17O values that deviate significantly (>3(sigma)) from the mean HED (delta)17O. However, variations in eucrites and diogenites also include unique geochemical characteristics such as bulk composition, trace element abundances, or volatile concentrations, in addition to (delta)17O. Here, we investigate three such geochemically anomalous HEDs: Elephant Moraine (EET) 92023, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 98098, and Dhofar 700. In addition, to verify the homogeneity of (epsilon)54Cr observed for normal HEDs thus far, a set of seven eucrites and diogenites considered normal samples were also investigated.

  1. A VVWBO-BVO-based GM (1,1) and its parameter optimization by GRA-IGSA integration algorithm for annual power load forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongguang

    2018-01-01

    Annual power load forecasting is not only the premise of formulating reasonable macro power planning, but also an important guarantee for the safety and economic operation of power system. In view of the characteristics of annual power load forecasting, the grey model of GM (1,1) are widely applied. Introducing buffer operator into GM (1,1) to pre-process the historical annual power load data is an approach to improve the forecasting accuracy. To solve the problem of nonadjustable action intensity of traditional weakening buffer operator, variable-weight weakening buffer operator (VWWBO) and background value optimization (BVO) are used to dynamically pre-process the historical annual power load data and a VWWBO-BVO-based GM (1,1) is proposed. To find the optimal value of variable-weight buffer coefficient and background value weight generating coefficient of the proposed model, grey relational analysis (GRA) and improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA) are integrated and a GRA-IGSA integration algorithm is constructed aiming to maximize the grey relativity between simulating value sequence and actual value sequence. By the adjustable action intensity of buffer operator, the proposed model optimized by GRA-IGSA integration algorithm can obtain a better forecasting accuracy which is demonstrated by the case studies and can provide an optimized solution for annual power load forecasting. PMID:29768450

  2. New method in muon-hadron absorption on Thx DUO2 nano material structure at 561 MHz quantum gyro-magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiyanto, M.; Ermawaty, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present an experimental of muan-hadron tunneling chain investigation with new methods of Thx DUO2 nano structure based on Josephson’s tunneling and Abrikosov-Balseiro-Russel (ABR) formulation with quantum quadrupole interacting with a strongly localized high gyro-magnetic optical field as encountered in high-resolution near-field optical microscopy for 1.2 nano meter lambda-function. The strong gradients of these localized gyro-magnetic fields suggest that higher-order multipolar interactions will affect the standard magnetic quadrupole transition rates in 1.8 x 103 currie/mm fuel energy in nuclear moderator pool and selection rules with quatum dot. For muan-hadron absorption in Josephson’s tunnelling quantum quadrupole in the strong confinement limit we calculated the inter band of gyro-magnetic quadrupole absorption rate and the associated selection rules. Founded that the magnetic quadrupole absorption rate is comparable with the absorption rate calculated in the gyro-magneticdipole approximation of ThxDUO2 nano material structure. This implies that near-field optical techniques can extend the range of spectroscopic measurements for 545 MHz at quantum gyro-magnetic field until 561 MHz deployment quantum field at B around 455-485 tesla beyond the standard dipole approximation. However, we also show that spatial resolution could be improved by the selective excitation of ABR formulation in quantum quadrupole transitions.

  3. Spectroscopic method for Earth-satellite-Earth laser long-path absorption measurements using Retroreflector In Space (RIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Minato, Atsushi; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The Retroreflector in Space (RIS) is a single element cube-corner retroreflector with a diameter of 0.5 m designed for earth-satellite-earth laser long-path absorption experiments. The RIS is to be loaded on the Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) satellite which is scheduled for launch in Feb. 1996. The orbit for ADEOS is a sun synchronous subrecurrent polar-orbit with an inclination of 98.6 deg. It has a period of 101 minutes and an altitude of approximately 800 km. The local time at descending node is 10:15-10:45, and the recurrent period is 41 days. The velocity relative to the ground is approximately 7 km/s. In the RIS experiment, a laser beam transmitted from a ground station is reflected by RIS and received at the ground station. The absorption of the intervening atmosphere is measured in the round-trip optical path.

  4. Study of gamma ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for ferrites by geometric progression fitting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, S. D.; Awasarmol, V. V.; Shaikh, S. F.; Ghule, B. G.; Ekar, S. U.; Mane, R. S.; Pawar, P. P.

    2018-04-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factors (EABF and EBF) were calculated for ferrites such as cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4), nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) and magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) using five parametric geometric progression (G-P fitting) formula in the energy range 0.015-15.00 MeV up to the penetration depth 40 mean free path (mfp). The obtained data of absorption and exposure buildup factors have been studied as a function of incident photon energy and penetration depth. The obtained EABF and EBF data are useful for radiation dosimetry and radiation therapy.

  5. Probing the SEB Sensitive Depth of a Power MOSFET Using a Two-Photon Absorption Laser Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Liu, Sandra; Titus, Jeffrey L.; McMorrow, Dale; Casey, Megan C.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Warner, Jeffrey; Phan, Anthony M.; Topper, Alyson D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two-photon absorption test results on an engineering single-event burnout- (SEB-) sensitive power MOSFET to verify that the energy deposition/charge ionization in the highly-doped substrate does not contribute to SEB. It is shown that for a vertical power MOSFET, the SEB sensitive volume is the lightly doped epitaxial layer; the most sensitive region is under the polysllicon gate.

  6. Comparison of the gravimetric, phenol red, and 14C-PEG-3350 methods to determine water absorption in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model.

    PubMed

    Sutton, S C; Rinaldi, M T; Vukovinsky, K E

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the gravimetric method provided an accurate measure of water flux correction and to compare the gravimetric method with methods that employ nonabsorbed markers (eg, phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350). Phenol red,14C-PEG-3350, and 4-[2-[[2-(6-amino-3-pyridinyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]ethoxy]-, methyl ester, (R)-benzene acetic acid (Compound I) were co-perfused in situ through the jejunum of 9 anesthetized rats (single-pass intestinal perfusion [SPIP]). Water absorption was determined from the phenol red,14C-PEG-3350, and gravimetric methods. The absorption rate constant (ka) for Compound I was calculated. Both phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350 were appreciably absorbed, underestimating the extent of water flux in the SPIP model. The average +/- SD water flux microg/h/cm) for the 3 methods were 68.9 +/- 28.2 (gravimetric), 26.8 +/- 49.2 (phenol red), and 34.9 +/- 21.9 (14C-PEG-3350). The (average +/- SD) ka for Compound I (uncorrected for water flux) was 0.024 +/- 0.005 min(-1). For the corrected, gravimetric method, the average +/- SD was 0.031 +/- 0.001 min(-1). The gravimetric method for correcting water flux was as accurate as the 2 "nonabsorbed" marker methods.

  7. Effects of sampling methods on the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter in sediment pore waters as revealed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meilian; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hur, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Despite literature evidence suggesting the importance of sampling methods on the properties of sediment pore waters, their effects on the dissolved organic matter (PW-DOM) have been unexplored to date. Here, we compared the effects of two commonly used sampling methods (i.e., centrifuge and Rhizon sampler) on the characteristics of PW-DOM for the first time. The bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, and excitation-emission matrixes coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) of the PW-DOM samples were compared for the two sampling methods with the sediments from minimal to severely contaminated sites. The centrifuged samples were found to have higher average values of DOC, UV absorption, and protein-like EEM-PARAFAC components. The samples collected with the Rhizon sampler, however, exhibited generally more humified characteristics than the centrifuged ones, implying a preferential collection of PW-DOM with respect to the sampling methods. Furthermore, the differences between the two sampling methods seem more pronounced in relatively more polluted sites. Our observations were possibly explained by either the filtration effect resulting from the smaller pore size of the Rhizon sampler or the desorption of DOM molecules loosely bound to minerals during centrifugation, or both. Our study suggests that consistent use of one sampling method is crucial for PW-DOM studies and also that caution should be taken in the comparison of data collected with different sampling methods.

  8. Micro-sampling method based on high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for calcium determination in blood and mitochondrial suspensions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Mª Jesús; Sevilla, Mª Teresa; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Procopio, Jesús R

    2017-08-01

    A micro-sampling and straightforward method based on high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) was developed to determine extracellular and intracellular Ca in samples of interest in clinical and biomedical analysis. Solid sampling platforms were used to introduce the micro-samples into the graphite furnace atomizer. The secondary absorption line for Ca, located at 239.856nm, was selected to carry out the measurements. Experimental parameters such as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures and the amount of sample introduced for the measurements were optimized. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards and the approach to measure at the wings of the absorption lines was employed for the expansion of the linear response range. The limit of detection was of 0.02mgL -1 Ca (0.39ng Ca) and the upper limit of linear range was increased up to 8.0mgL -1 Ca (160ng Ca). The proposed method was used to determine Ca in mitochondrial suspensions and whole blood samples with successful results. Adequate recoveries (within 91-107%) were obtained in the tests performed for validation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A preliminary study for the development and optimization by experimental design of an in vitro method for prediction of drug buccal absorption.

    PubMed

    Mura, Paola; Orlandini, Serena; Cirri, Marzia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Mennini, Natascia; Casella, Giada; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2018-06-15

    The work was aimed at developing an in vitro method able to provide rapid and reliable evaluation of drug absorption through buccal mucosa. Absorption simulator apparatus endowed with an artificial membrane was purposely developed by experimental design. The apparent permeation coefficient (P app ) through excised porcine buccal mucosa of naproxen, selected as model drug, was the target value to obtain with the artificial membrane. The multivariate approach enabled systematic evaluation of the effect on the response (P app ) of simultaneous variations of the variables (kind of lipid components for support impregnation and relative amounts). A screening phase followed by a response-surface study allowed optimization of the lipid-mixture composition to obtain the desired P app value, and definition of a design space where all mixture components combinations fulfilled the desired target at a fixed probability level. The method offers a useful tool for a quick screening in the early stages of drug discovery and/or in preformulation studies, improving efficiency and chance of success in the development of buccal delivery systems. Further studies with other model drugs are planned to confirm the buccal absorption predictive capacity of the developed membrane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Near-infrared diode laser based spectroscopic detection of ammonia: a comparative study of photoacoustic and direct optical absorption methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozoki, Zoltan; Mohacsi, Arpad; Szabo, Gabor; Bor, Zsolt; Erdelyi, Miklos; Chen, Weidong; Tittel, Frank K.

    2002-01-01

    A photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) and a direct optical absorption spectroscopic (OAS) gas sensor, both using continuous-wave room-temperature diode lasers operating at 1531.8 nm, were compared on the basis of ammonia detection. Excellent linear correlation between the detector signals of the two systems was found. Although the physical properties and the mode of operation of both sensors were significantly different, their performances were found to be remarkably similar, with a sub-ppm level minimum detectable concentration of ammonia and a fast response time in the range of a few minutes.

  11. Study of CO2 cyclic absorption stability of CaO-based sorbents derived from lime mud purified by sucrose method.

    PubMed

    Ma, AiHua; Jia, QingMing; Su, HongYing; Zhi, YunFei; Tian, Na; Wu, Jing; Shan, ShaoYun

    2016-02-01

    Using lime mud (LM) purified by sucrose method, derived from paper-making industry, as calcium precursor, and using mineral rejects-bauxite-tailings (BTs) from aluminum production as dopant, the CaO-based sorbents for high-temperature CO2 capture were prepared. Effects of BTs content, precalcining time, and temperature on CO2 cyclic absorption stability were illustrated. The cyclic carbonation behavior was investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Phase composition and morphologies were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results reflected that the as-synthesized CaO-based sorbent doped with 10 wt% BTs showed a superior CO2 cyclic absorption-desorption conversion during multiple cycles, with conversion being >38 % after 50 cycles. Occurrence of Ca12Al14O33 phase during precalcination was probably responsible for the excellent CO2 cyclic stability.

  12. Simple method for determination of selenium in biological materials by flameless atomic-absorption spectrometry using a carbon-tube atomizer.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, M

    1978-03-01

    A method for determination of selenium in biological materials by flameless atomic-absorption spectrometry using a carbon-tube atomizer is described. The sample is burned by an oxygen-flask combustion procedure, the resulting solution is treated with a cation-exchange resin to eliminate interfering cations, the selenium is extracted with dithizone in carbon tetrachloride and the resulting selenium dithizonate is combined with nickel nitrate in the carbon tube to enhance the sensitivity for selenium and avoid volatilization losses. The method measures selenium concentrations as low as 0.01 mug/g with a relative standard deviation of 8%.

  13. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  14. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  15. Development and Validation of a Sensitive Method for Trace Nickel Determination by Slotted Quartz Tube Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry After Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yolcu, Şükran Melda; Fırat, Merve; Chormey, Dotse Selali; Büyükpınar, Çağdaş; Turak, Fatma; Bakırdere, Sezgin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was systematically optimized for the preconcentration of nickel after forming a complex with diphenylcarbazone. The measurement output of the flame atomic absorption spectrometer was further enhanced by fitting a custom-cut slotted quartz tube to the flame burner head. The extraction method increased the amount of nickel reaching the flame and the slotted quartz tube increased the residence time of nickel atoms in the flame to record higher absorbance. Two methods combined to give about 90 fold enhancement in sensitivity over the conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimized method was applicable over a wide linear concentration range, and it gave a detection limit of 2.1 µg L -1 . Low relative standard deviations at the lowest concentration in the linear calibration plot indicated high precision for both extraction process and instrumental measurements. A coal fly ash standard reference material (SRM 1633c) was used to determine the accuracy of the method, and experimented results were compatible with the certified value. Spiked recovery tests were also used to validate the applicability of the method.

  16. Chemical Ni-C Bonding in Ni-Carbon Nanotube Composite by a Microwave Welding Method and Its Induced High-Frequency Radar Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    PubMed

    Sha, Linna; Gao, Peng; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Yujin

    2017-11-22

    In this work, a microwave welding method has been used for the construction of chemical Ni-C bonding at the interface between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal Ni to provide a different surface electron distribution, which determined the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption properties based on a surface plasmon resonance mechanism. Through a serial of detailed examinations, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectrum, the as-expected chemical Ni-C bonding between CNTs and metal Ni has been confirmed. And the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and surface zeta potential measurements uncovered the great evolution of structure and electronic density compared with CNTs, metal Ni, and Ni-CNT composite without Ni-C bonding. Correspondingly, except the EM absorption due to CNTs and metal Ni in the composite, another wide and strong EM absorption band ranging from 10 to 18 GHz was found, which was induced by the Ni-C bonded interface. With a thinner thickness and more exposed Ni-C interfaces, the Ni-CNT composite displayed less reflection loss.

  17. Extremely asymmetric diffraction as a method of determining magneto-optical constants for X-rays near absorption edges

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, M. A., E-mail: Mandreeva1@yandex.ru; Repchenko, Yu. L., E-mail: kent160@mail.ru; Smekhova, A. G.

    2015-06-15

    The spectral dependence of the Bragg peak position under conditions of extremely asymmetric diffraction has been analyzed in the kinematical and dynamical approximations of the diffraction theory. Simulations have been performed for the L{sub 3} absorption edge of yttrium in a single-crystal YFe{sub 2} film; they have shown that the magneto-optical constants (or, equivalently, the dispersion corrections to the atomic scattering factor) for hard X-rays can be determined from this dependence. Comparison with the experimental data obtained for a Nb(4 nm)/YFe{sub 2}(40 nm〈110〉)/Fe(1.5 nm)/Nb(50 nm)/sapphire sample at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has been made.

  18. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chromium in water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry is a sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of chromium in natural water samples. The detection limit for this analytical method is 0.4 microg/L with a working linear limit of 25.0 microg/L. The precision at the detection limit ranges from 20 to 57 percent relative standard deviation (RSD) with an improvement to 4.6 percent RSD for concentrations more than 3 microg/L. Accuracy of this method was determined for a variety of reference standards that was representative of the analytical range. The results were within the established standard deviations. Samples were spiked with known concentrations of chromium with recoveries ranging from 84 to 122 percent. In addition, a comparison of data between graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and direct-current plasma atomic emission spectrometry resulted in suitable agreement between the two methods, with an average deviation of +/- 2.0 microg/L throughout the analytical range.

  20. Evaluation of an in vitro faecal degradation method for early assessment of the impact of colonic degradation on colonic absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Tannergren, Christer; Borde, Anders; Boreström, Cecilia; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-06-16

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro method to investigate bacterial-mediated luminal degradation of drugs in colon in humans. This would be a valuable tool for the assessment of drug candidates during early drug development, especially for compounds intended to be developed as oral extended release formulations. Freshly prepared faecal homogenate from healthy human volunteers (n=3-18), dog (n=6) and rat (colon and caecal content, n=3) was homogenised with 3.8 parts (w/w) physiological saline under anaerobical conditions. Four model compounds (almokalant, budesonide, ximelagatran and metoprolol) were then incubated (n=3-18) separately in the human faecal homogenate for up to 120min at 37°C. In addition, ximelagatran was also incubated in the faecal or colonic content from dog and rat. The mean (±SD) in vitro half-life for almokalant, budesonide and ximelagatran was 39±1, 68±21 and 26±12min, respectively, in the human faecal homogenate. Metoprolol was found to be stable in the in vitro model. The in vitro degradation data was then compared to literature data on fraction absorbed after direct colon administration in humans. The percentage of drug remaining after 60min of in vitro incubation correlated (R(2)=0.90) with the fraction absorbed from colon in humans. The mean in vitro half-life of ximelagatran was similar in human faeces (26±12min) and rat colon content (34±31min), but significantly (p<0.05) longer in rat caecum content (50±11min) and dog faeces (126±17min). The in vitro method is in vivo relevant both qualitatively as all the model drugs that undergoes colonic degradation in vivo was rapidly degraded in the faecal homogenates as well as quantitatively since a correlation was established between percentage degraded in vitro at 60min and fraction absorbed in the colon for the model drugs, which have no other absorption limiting properties. Also, the method is easy to use from a technical point of view, which suggests

  1. Vaccine potential of antigen cocktails composed of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii TgPI-1, ROP2 and GRA4 proteins against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Picchio, Mariano S; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Arcon, Nadia; Soto, Ariadna S; Perrone Sibilia, Matías; Aldirico, María de Los Angeles; Urrutia, Mariela; Moretta, Rosalía; Fenoy, Ignacio M; Goldman, Alejandra; Martin, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    The development of an effective and safe vaccine to prevent Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important aim due to the great clinical and economic impact of this parasitosis. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with the serine protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) confers partial protection to C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice. In order to improve the level of protection, in this work, we combined this novel antigen with ROP2 and/or GRA4 recombinant proteins (rTgPI-1+rROP2, rTgPI-1+rGRA4, rTgPI-1+rROP2+rGRA4) to explore the best combination against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H/HeN mice. All tested vaccine formulations, administered following a homologous prime-boost protocol that combines intradermal and intranasal routes, conferred partial protection as measured by the reduction of brain cyst burden following oral challenge with tissue cysts of Me49 T. gondii strain. The highest level of protection was achieved by the mixture of rTgPI-1 and rROP2 proteins with an average parasite burden reduction of 50% compared to the unvaccinated control group. The vaccine-induced protective effect was related to the elicitation of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses that included antigen-specific spleen cell proliferation, the release of Th1/Th2 cytokines, and the generation of antigen-specific antibodies in serum. Additionally, mucosal immune responses were also induced, characterized by secretion of antigen-specific IgA antibodies in intestinal lavages and specific mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that rTgPI-1+rROP2 antigens seem a promising mixture to be combined with other immunogenic proteins in a multiantigenic vaccine formulation against toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury Speciation by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Sequential Chemical Extractions: A Comparison of Speciation Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Bloom, N.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the chemical speciation of mercury in contaminated mining and industrial environments is essential for predicting its solubility, transport behavior, and potential bioavailability as well as for designing effective remediation strategies. In this study, two techniques for determining Hg speciation-X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and sequential chemical extractions (SCE)-are independently applied to a set of samples with Hg concentrations ranging from 132 to 7539 mg/kg to determine if the two techniques provide comparable Hg speciation results. Generally, the proportions of insoluble HgS (cinnabar, metacinnabar) and HgSe identified by XAFS correlate well with the proportion of Hg removed in the aqua regia extraction demonstrated to remove HgS and HgSe. Statistically significant (> 10%) differences are observed however in samples containing more soluble Hg-containing phases (HgCl2, HgO, Hg3S2O 4). Such differences may be related to matrix, particle size, or crystallinity effects, which could affect the apparent solubility of Hg phases present. In more highly concentrated samples, microscopy techniques can help characterize the Hg-bearing species in complex multiphase natural samples.

  3. Response surface method for modeling the removal of carbon dioxide from a simulated gas using water absorption enhanced with a liquid-film-forming device.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diem-Mai Kim; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Dang, Thanh-Loc Thi; Kanno, Ariyo; Higuchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results from using a physical absorption process to absorb gaseous CO 2 mixed with N 2 using water by producing tiny bubbles via a liquid-film-forming device (LFFD) that improves the solubility of CO 2 in water. The influence of various parameters-pressure, initial CO 2 concentration, gas-to-liquid ratios, and temperature-on the CO 2 removal efficiency and its absorption rate in water were investigated and estimated thoroughly by statistical polynomial models obtained by the utilization of the response surface method (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD). Based on the analysis, a high efficiency of CO 2 capture can be reached in conditions such as low pressure, high CO 2 concentration at the inlet, low gas/liquid ratio, and low temperature. For instance, the highest removal efficiency in the RSM-CCD experimental matrix of nearly 80% occurred for run number 20, which was conducted at 0.30MPa, CO 2 concentration of 35%, gas/liquid ratio of 0.71, and temperature of 15°C. Furthermore, the coefficients of determination, R 2 , were 0.996 for the removal rate and 0.982 for the absorption rate, implying that the predicted values computed by the constructed models correlate strongly and fit well with the experimental values. The results obtained provide essential information for implementing this method properly and effectively and contribute a promising approach to the problem of CO 2 capture in air pollution treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A differential optical absorption spectroscopy method for retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers measurements of the direct solar beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yanfeng; Duan, Minzheng; Tian, Wenshou; Min, Qilong

    2015-08-01

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)-like algorithm is developed to retrieve the column-averaged dryair mole fraction of carbon dioxide from ground-based hyper-spectral measurements of the direct solar beam. Different to the spectral fitting method, which minimizes the difference between the observed and simulated spectra, the ratios of multiple channel-pairs—one weak and one strong absorption channel—are used to retrieve from measurements of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Based on sensitivity tests, a super channel-pair is carefully selected to reduce the effects of solar lines, water vapor, air temperature, pressure, instrument noise, and frequency shift on retrieval errors. The new algorithm reduces computational cost and the retrievals are less sensitive to temperature and H2O uncertainty than the spectral fitting method. Multi-day Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements under clear-sky conditions at two sites (Tsukuba and Bremen) are used to derive xxxx for the algorithm evaluation and validation. The DOAS-like results agree very well with those of the TCCON algorithm after correction of an airmass-dependent bias.

  5. Predicting CO2 Solubility in Imidazole Ionic Liquids for Use in Absorption Refrigeration Systems by Using the Group Contribution Equation of State Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Dong; Wu, Jun; Hou, Yong; Su, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Traditional absorption refrigeration such as H2O-LiBr- and NH3-H2O-based refrigeration has limited applications because of several issues, including crystallization, corrosion, and large volume. CO2-ionic liquids (ILs) as new absorption working pairs were investigated in this study. The objective was to use the group contribution equation of state (GC-EOS) method to predict the solubilities of binary systems containing high-pressure CO2-imidazole bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) ILs and to investigate the applicability and accuracy of the GC-EOS model. The results showed that at pressures up to 11.0 MPa and temperatures of 273 K to 400 K, the CO2 solubility in the ILs increased with increasing system pressure but decreased with increasing temperature, and its variation rate was lower at higher pressures or temperatures. Also, CO2 solubility increased in the order of [emim][Tf2N] < [bmim][Tf2N] < [hmim][Tf2N] < [omim][Tf2N], indicating that longer alkyl chains of identical IL families resulted in higher CO_{2 } solubility. The model prediction of CO2 solubility in the four different ILs showed reasonable consistency with the corresponding experimental results from the literature; the largest deviation was 5.7 % for CO2-[emim][Tf2N]. Therefore, it can be concluded that the GC-EOS model is a promising theoretical solution that can be used to search for suitable CO2-IL working pairs for absorption refrigeration systems.

  6. 51Cr-EDTA absorption blood test: an easy method for assessing small intestinal permeability in dogs.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The 51Cr-EDTA test is a valuable clinical tool for screening intestinal diseases in dogs. The test is performed by calculating the percentage of recovery from urine of a PO-ingested dose of 51Cr-EDTA after 6 or 24 hours. Careful urine collection is a practical limitation of this test in dogs, and our goal was to develop a simpler test that measures 51Cr-EDTA in blood. A 51Cr-EDTA absorption test was simultaneously performed on urine and serum 43 times in healthy Beagle Dogs. Timed blood samples were withdrawn, and urine was collected during a 6-hour period. Percentages of the ingested dose were then calculated in urine and serum. The mean +/- standard deviation (range) percentage in urine after 6 hours was 14.07 +/- 8.72% (3.81-34.18%), whereas results in serum from samples taken at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours were 0.49 +/- 0.45% (0.02-2.13%), 0.75 +/- 0.52% (0.03-1.89%), 0.82 +/- 0.57% (0.13-2.21%), 0.70 +/- 0.53% (0.12-1.99%), and 0.47 +/- 0.44% (0.11-1.79%), respectively. The results for blood specimens showed good concordance with those for urine, especially for the samples taken at 4 hours (r = 0.89). Moreover, the correlation between urine and blood was better when the sum of the percentages of the recovered analyte from various blood samples was compared with urine. The correlation coefficient when summing 4 blood samples was excellent (r = 0.97) and remained excellent when summing only 2 blood samples taken at 3 and 5 hours (r = 0.95) or at 3 and 4 hours (r = 0.94). We conclude that a serum 51Cr-EDTA test determined by summing successive blood samples provides an easier means of estimating small intestinal permeability in dogs and gives results comparable to those of the 6-hour urine test.

  7. Ideology of a multiparametric system for estimating the insulation system of electric machines on the basis of absorption testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakov, M. A.; Chernov, V. A.; Maksimkin, V. L.; Bozhin, Yu. M.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with modern methods of monitoring the state and predicting the life of electric machines. In 50% of the cases of failure in the performance of electric machines is associated with insulation damage. As promising, nondestructive methods of control, methods based on the investigation of the processes of polarization occurring in insulating materials are proposed. To improve the accuracy of determining the state of insulation, a multiparametric approach is considered, which is a basis for the development of an expert system for estimating the state of health.

  8. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  9. EPA Method 3031 (SW-846): Acid Digestion of Oils for Metals Analysis by Atomic Absorption or ICP Spectrometry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  10. Octahedron Fe3O4 particles supported on 3D MWCNT/graphene foam: In-situ method and application as a comprehensive microwave absorption material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Luolin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Ye; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Tong

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we used in-situ method to directly prepare a novel structure consisting of well-distributed octahedron Fe3O4 particles, porous graphene foam (GF) and fibrous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT): started with an intense stir to anchor Fe3+ on the surfaces of graphene oxide and oxided MWCNT, followed by solvothermal reaction to synthesize 3D lightweight Fe3O4/MWCNT/GF hybrids with high performance microwave absorption (MA). The maximum Reflection Loss (RL) value of -35.30 dB and 9.01 GHz bandwidth with RL below -10 dB detected with the thickness of 3.0 mm are achieved by Fe3O4/MWCNT/GF with an ultralow bulk density of 5.0 mg cm-3, of which the Specific Microwave Absorption Performance is much higher than most available MA materials reported. Impedance matching, high loss characteristic, interfacial polarization and polarization relaxation significantly improve MA properties, which serves as a guide for fabricating comprehensive MA materials enjoying numerous advantages of high RL value, broad bandwidth, low density and thin thickness.

  11. Preparation of High Mechanical Performance Nano-Fe3O4/Wood Fiber Binderless Composite Boards for Electromagnetic Absorption via a Facile and Green Method

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Baokang; Chen, Yipeng; Wang, Hanwei; Chen, Bo; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2018-01-01

    Fe3O4/wood fiber composites are prepared with a green mechanical method using only distilled water as a solvent without any chemical agents, and then a binderless composite board with high mechanical properties is obtained via a hot-press for electromagnetic (EM) absorption. The fibers are connected by hydrogen bonds after being mechanically pretreated, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are attached to the fiber surface through physical adsorption. The composite board is bonded by an adhesive, which is provided by the reaction of fiber composition under high temperature and pressure. The Nano-Fe3O4/Fiber (NFF) binderless composite board shows remarkable microwave absorption properties and high mechanical strength. The optional reflection loss (RL) of the as-prepared binderless composite board is −31.90 dB. The bending strength of the NFF binderless composite board is 36.36 MPa with the addition of 6% nano-Fe3O4, the modulus of elasticity (MOE) is 6842.16 MPa, and the internal bond (IB) strength is 0.81 MPa. These results demonstrate that magnetic nanoparticles are deposited in binderless composite board by hot pressing, which is the easiest way to produce high mechanical strength and EM absorbers. PMID:29361726

  12. Estimation of rhG-CSF absorption kinetics after subcutaneous administration using a modified Wagner-Nelson method with a nonlinear elimination model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Aso, H; Higashida, M; Kinoshita, H; Ohdo, S; Yukawa, E; Higuchi, S

    2001-05-01

    The clearance of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is known to decrease with dose increase, and to be saturable. The average clearance after intravenous administration will be lower than that after subcutaneous administration. Therefore, the apparent absolute bioavailability with subcutaneous administration calculated from the AUC ratio is expected to be an underestimate. The absorption pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration was examined using the results of the bioequivalency study between two rhG-CSF formulations with a dose of 2 microg/kg. The analysis was performed using a modified Wagner-Nelson method with the nonlinear elimination model. The apparent absolute bioavailability for subcutaneous administration was 56.9 and 67.5% for each formulation, and the ratio between them was approximately 120%. The true absolute bioavailability was, however, estimated to be 89.8 and 96.9%, respectively, and the ratio was approximately 108%. The absorption pattern was applied to other doses, and the predicted clearance values for subcutaneous and intravenous administrations were then similar to the values for several doses reported in the literature. The underestimation of bioavailability was around 30%, and the amplification of difference was 2.5 times, from 8 to 20%, because of the nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The neutrophil increases for each formulation were identical, despite the different bioavailabilities. The reason for this is probably that the amount eliminated through the saturable process, which might indicate the amount consumed by the G-CSF receptor, was identical for each formulation.

  13. Method development for the determination of fluorine in water samples via the molecular absorption of strontium monofluoride formed in an electrothermal atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    The presence of fluorine (F) was detected via the rotational molecular absorption line of diatomic strontium-monofluoride (SrF) generated in the gas phase at 651.187 nm using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Upon the addition of excess strontium (Sr) as the nitrate, the fluorine in the sample was converted to SrF in the gas phase of a graphite furnace. The effects on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity of variables such as the SrF wavelength, graphite furnace program, amount of Sr, coating of the graphite tube and platform with Zr and Ir and the use of a modifier were investigated and optimized. It was determined that there was no need to use a modifier or to cover the platform/tubes with Zr or Ir. Fluorine concentrations in various water samples (certified waste water, tap water, drinking water and mineral water) were determined using 20 μg of Sr as the molecule-forming reagent and applying a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 800 °C and a molecule-forming temperature of 2200 °C with a heating rate of 2000 °C s- 1. Good linearity was maintained up to 0.1 μg of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing certified reference wastewater. The results were in good agreement with certified values, and the precision was satisfactory (RSD < 10%). The limit of detection and the characteristic mass for the method were 0.36 ng and 0.55 ng, respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several drinking water and mineral water samples taken from the market were determined. The results were in good agreement with the values supplied by the producers. No significant differences were found between the results from the linear calibration and standard addition techniques. The method was determined to be simple, fast, accurate and sensitive.

  14. A Green Analytical Method Using Ultrasound in Sample Preparation for the Flow Injection Determination of Iron, Manganese, and Zinc in Soluble Solid Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yebra, M. Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5–30 mg) at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2–4.6%) and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h–1 were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee) and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets). The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4–25.61 μg g−1 for iron, 5.74–18.30 μg g−1 for manganese, and 33.27–57.90 μg g−1 for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75–9.90 μg g−1 for iron, 0.47–5.05 μg g−1 for manganese, and 1.55–15.12 μg g−1 for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired t-test, indicating the absence of systematic errors. PMID:22567553

  15. A green analytical method using ultrasound in sample preparation for the flow injection determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yebra, M Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5-30 mg) at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2-4.6%) and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h(-1) were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee) and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets). The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4-25.61 μg g(-1) for iron, 5.74-18.30 μg g(-1) for manganese, and 33.27-57.90 μg g(-1) for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75-9.90 μg g(-1) for iron, 0.47-5.05 μg g(-1) for manganese, and 1.55-15.12 μg g(-1) for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired t-test, indicating the absence of systematic errors.

  16. A rapid method for determining tin and molybdenum in geological samples by flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsch, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The proposed method uses a lithium metaborate fusion, dissolution of the fusion bead in 15% v v hydrochloric acid, extraction into a 4% solution of trioctylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone, and aspiration into a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The limits of detection for tin and molybdenum are 1.0 and 0.5 ppm, respectively. Approximately 50 samples can be analysed per day. ?? 1985.

  17. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the restricted active space method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meiyuan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-01-28

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)6](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

  18. LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY METHODS FOR SUBSURFACE MONITORING OF CO2 IN WATER AND AIR PHASES AT SEQUESTRATION SITES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Romanak, K.; Yang, C.

    2009-12-01

    We report the development of two methods for subsurface monitoring of CO2 in both air and water phases at sequestration sites. The first method is based on line-of-sight (LOS) tunable laser spectroscopy. Funded by DOE, we demonstrated the Phase Insensitive Two Tone Frquency Modulation spectroscopy (PITTFM). FM reduces low frequency noise in the beam path due to scintillations; while the PI design gives the ease of installation. We demonstrated measurement over 1 mile distance with an accuracy of 3ppm of CO2 in normal air. Built-in switches shoot the laser beam into multi-directions, thus forming a cellular monitoring network covering 10 km^2. The system cost is under $100K, and COTS telecom components guarantee the reliability in the field over decades. Software will log the data and translate the 2D CO2 profile. When coupled with other parameters, it will be able to locate the point and rate of leakages. Field tests at SECARB sequestration site are proposed. The system also monitors other green house gases (GHG), e.g. CH4, which is also needed where EOR is pursued along with CO2 sequestration. Figures 1 through 2 give the results of this method. The second method is based on the latest technology advances in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The current state of the art technology to measure Total/Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TIC/DIC) in water is menometer. Menometer is both time consuming and costly, and could not be used underground, i.e. high pressure and temperature. We propose to use high brightness QC lasers to extend the current Mid-IR optical path from 30 microns to over 500microns, thus providing the possibility to measure CO2 dissoveled (Aqueous phase) with an accuracy of 0.2mg/Liter. Preliminary results will be presented.

  19. An improved method for the determination of trace levels of arsenic and antimony in geological materials by automated hydride generation-atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    An improved, automated method for the determination of arsenic and antimony in geological materials is described. After digestion of the material in sulfuric, nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids, a hydrochloric acid solution of the sample is automatically mixed with reducing agents, acidified with additional hydrochloric acid, and treated with a sodium tetrahydroborate solution to form arsine and stibine. The hydrides are decomposed in a heated quartz tube in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance peak height for arsenic or antimony is measured. Interferences that exist are minimized to the point where most geological materials including coals, soils, coal ashes, rocks and sediments can be analyzed directly without use of standard additions. The relative standard deviation of the digestion and the instrumental procedure is less than 2% at the 50 ??g l-1 As or Sb level. The reagent-blank detection limit is 0.2 ??g l-1 As or Sb. ?? 1982.

  20. Development of a High-Resolution Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Method with Application to the Determination of Absolute Concentration of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Air.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abneesh; Hodges, Joseph T

    2018-06-05

    Isotope dilution-cold-vapor-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-CV-ICPMS) has become the primary standard for measurement of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) mass concentration. However, quantitative mass spectrometry is challenging for several reasons including (1) the need for isotopic spiking with a standard reference material, (2) the requirement for bias-free passive sampling protocols, (3) the need for stable mass spectrometry interface design, and (4) the time and cost involved for gas sampling, sample processing, and instrument calibration. Here, we introduce a high-resolution laser absorption spectroscopy method that eliminates the need for sample-specific calibration standards or detailed analysis of sample treatment losses. This technique involves a tunable, single-frequency laser absorption spectrometer that measures isotopically resolved spectra of elemental mercury (Hg) spectra of 6 1 S 0 ← 6 3 P 1 intercombination transition near λ = 253.7 nm. Measured spectra are accurately modeled from first-principles using the Beer-Lambert law and Voigt line profiles combined with literature values for line positions, line shape parameters, and the spontaneous emission Einstein coefficient to obtain GEM mass concentration values. We present application of this method for the measurement of the equilibrium concentration of mercury vapor near room temperature. Three closed systems are considered: two-phase mixtures of liquid Hg and its vapor and binary two-phase mixtures of Hg-air and Hg-N 2 near atmospheric pressure. Within the experimental relative standard uncertainty, 0.9-1.5% congruent values of the equilibrium Hg vapor concentration are obtained for the Hg-only, Hg-air, Hg-N 2 systems, in confirmation with thermodynamic predictions. We also discuss detection limits and the potential of the present technique to serve as an absolute primary standard for measurements of gas-phase mercury concentration and isotopic composition.

  1. A nonlinear merging method of analog and photon signals for CO2 detection in lower altitudes using differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhong; Zhang, Teng; Han, Ge; Li, Dongcang; Ma, Xin; Gong, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The current acquisition system of a lidar detects return signals in two modes (i.e., analog and photon counting); resulting in the lower (below 1500 m) and upper (higher than 1100 m) atmospheric parameters need analog and photon counting signal to retrieve, respectively. Hence, a lidar cannot obtain a continuous column of the concentrations of atmospheric components. For carbon cycle studies, the range-resolved concentration of atmospheric CO2 in the lower troposphere (below 1500 m) is one of the most significant parameters that should be determined. This study proposes a novel gluing method that merges the CO2 signal detected by ground-based DIAL in the lower troposphere. Through simulation experiments, the best uniform approximation polynomial theorem is utilized to determine the transformation coefficient to correlate signals from the different modes perfectly. The experimental results (both simulation experiments and actual measurement of signals) show that the proposed method is suitable and feasible for merging data in the region below 1500 m. Hence, the photon-counting signals whose SNRs are higher than those of the analog signals can be used to retrieve atmospheric parameters at an increased near range, facilitating atmospheric soundings using ground-based lidar in various fields.

  2. In vitro dissolution method fitted to in vivo absorption profile of rivaroxaban immediate-release tablets applying in silico data.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Nathalie R; Dos Santos, Natália O; Campanharo, Sarah C; Simon, Elisa S; Volpato, Nadia M; Steppe, Martin

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate an in vitro dissolution method based on in silico-in vivo data to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo relationship could be established for rivaroxaban in immediate-release tablets. Oral drugs with high permeability but poorly soluble in aqueous media, such as the anticoagulant rivaroxaban, have a major potential to reach a high level of in vitro-in vivo relationship. Currently, there is no study on scientific literature approaching the development of RIV dissolution profile based on its in vivo performance. Drug plasma concentration values were modeled using computer simulation with adjustment of pharmacokinetic properties. Those values were converted into drug fractions absorbed by the Wagner-Nelson deconvolution approach. Gradual and continuous dissolution of RIV tablets was obtained with a 30 rpm basket on 50 mM sodium acetate +0.2% SDS, pH 6.5 medium. Dissolution was conducted for up to 180 min. The fraction absorbed was plotted against the drug fraction dissolved, and a linear point-to-point regression (R 2  = 0.9961) obtained. The in vitro dissolution method designed promoted a more convenient dissolution profile of RIV tablets, whereas it suggests a better relationship with in vivo performance.

  3. Method validation for control determination of mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Cadore, Solange; Queiroz, Helena Müller

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of total mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) has been validated following international foodstuff protocols in order to fulfill the Brazilian National Residue Control Plan. The experimental parameters have been previously studied and optimized according to specific legislation on validation and inorganic contaminants in foodstuff. Linearity, sensitivity, specificity, detection and quantification limits, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), robustness as well as accuracy of the method have been evaluated. Linearity of response was satisfactory for the two range concentrations available on the TDA AAS equipment, between approximately 25.0 and 200.0 μg kg(-1) (square regression) and 250.0 and 2000.0 μg kg(-1) (linear regression) of mercury. The residues for both ranges were homoscedastic and independent, with normal distribution. Correlation coefficients obtained for these ranges were higher than 0.995. Limits of quantification (LOQ) and of detection of the method (LDM), based on signal standard deviation (SD) for a low-in-mercury sample, were 3.0 and 1.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. Repeatability of the method was better than 4%. Within-laboratory reproducibility achieved a relative SD better than 6%. Robustness of the current method was evaluated and pointed sample mass as a significant factor. Accuracy (assessed as the analyte recovery) was calculated on basis of the repeatability, and ranged from 89% to 99%. The obtained results showed the suitability of the present method for direct mercury measurement in fresh fish and shrimp samples and the importance of monitoring the analysis conditions for food control purposes. Additionally, the competence of this method was recognized by accreditation under the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  4. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  5. New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-07-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us simultaneously to measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the online water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δ D robustness. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water, resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δ D and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed in a copper tube, attached to the line, and after system stabilisation it is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements, a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain &delta D; and δ18O isotopic compositions of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5 ‰ for δ D and 0.4 ‰ for δ18O for water measurements for an extended range (-210 to 0 ‰ for δ D and -27 to 0 ‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to the isotope ratio mass

  6. A study of folate absorption and metabolism in man utilizing carbon-14—labeled polyglutamates synthesized by the solid phase method

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, C. E.; Baugh, C. M.; Krumdieck, Carlos

    1969-01-01

    The absorption and metabolism of synthetic polyglutamates of folic acid have been compared with free pteroylglutamic acid in four subjects having chronic lymphatic leukemia and one with Hodgkin's granuloma. Pteroylpolyglutamates containing either three or seven glutamate residues were prepared by the solid-phase method permitting placement of carbon-14 labels in either the pteridine ring or in a selected glutamate unit of the gamma peptide chain. Complete dissociation was observed between biological folate activity and radioactivity of plasma after ingestion of pteroyltriglutamate labeled in the middle glutamate. This indicates cleavage to the monoglutamate form at the time of absorption from the intestine or very soon thereafter. A large portion of radioactivity liberated from the middle glutamate is recoverable as carbon dioxide in the exhaled air. Fecal losses of folate tended to be greater with increasing length of the poly-γ-glutamyl chain. Higher blood levels and greater urinary losses of folate tended to occur after ingestion of mono- and triglutamates than with the heptaglutamate. Calculations based on radioactivity determinations in feces plus urinary folate losses, judged by either radioactivity or microbiological assays, indicated net retention of 37-67% of the dose irrespective of chain length ingested and major avenue of loss. During the peak of absorption the folate circulating in plasma was active for both Streptococcus fecalis and Lactobacillus casei and carried specific radioactivity which was virtually identical with that of the administered dose. This suggests that neither methylation, conjugation, nor displacement of nonradioactive folate occurred to any significant extent during the 1st 2 hr. The specific radioactivity of 24-hr urine specimens as measured with L. casei corresponded closely with that of the administered dose. Evidence exists that methylation of the radioactive folate may occur, but significant displacement of nonradioactive

  7. Development of a simple method for the determination of lead in lipstick using alkaline solubilization and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Aline Rodrigues; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2013-02-15

    A simple method was developed for determining the total lead content in lipstick samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after treatment with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Multivariate optimization was used to establish the optimal conditions of sample preparation. The graphite furnace heating program was optimized through pyrolysis and atomization curves. An aliquot containing approximately 50mg of the sample was mixed with TMAH and heated in a water bath at 60°C for 60 min. Using Nb as the permanent modifier and Pd as the chemical modifier, the optimal temperatures were 900°C and 1800°C for pyrolysis and atomization, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the working range was from 1.73 to 50.0 μg L(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 0.20 and 0.34 μg g(-1), respectively. The precision was evaluated under conditions of repeatability and intermediate precision and showed standard deviations of 2.37%-4.61% and 4.93%-9.75%, respectively. The % recovery ranged from 96.2% to 109%, and no significant differences were found between the results obtained using the proposed method and the microwave decomposition method for real samples. Lead was detected in 21 tested lipstick samples; the lead content in these samples ranged from 0.27 to 4.54 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a modified in vitro skin absorption method to study the epidermal/dermal disposition of a contact allergen in human skin.

    PubMed

    Pendlington, Ruth U; Minter, Helen J; Stupart, Leanne; MacKay, Cameron; Roper, Clive S; Sanders, David J; Pease, Camilla K

    2008-01-01

    In vitro skin absorption methods exist in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline form (No. 428) and are used to estimate the degree of systemic penetration of chemicals through skin. More detailed kinetics of permeation through skin compartments are not described well by existing methods. This study was designed to assess the practical feasibility of generating compartmental (stratum corneum/epidermal/dermal) disposition and kinetic data of topically applied chemicals. For chemically induced effects initiated in the skin (e.g., skin allergy), the delivery of tissue concentrations of chemical will impact the incidence and severity of biological effect. Explicit data on the kinetics of chemical disposition in skin have not traditionally been needed for skin allergy risk assessment: current in vivo assays embody delivery implicitly. Under the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive, in vivo assays (such as the local lymph node assay for skin sensitization) will not be permitted to assess cosmetic ingredients. New in vitro and in silico alternative approaches and ways of predicting risk of adverse effects in humans need to be developed, and new methods such as that described here provide a way of estimating delivered concentrations and the effect of formulation changes on that delivery. As we continue to deconstruct the contributing factors of skin allergy in humans, it will be useful to have methods available that can measure skin tissue compartment exposure levels delivered from different exposure use scenarios. Here we provide such a method. The method could also be used to generate useful data for developing in silico kinetic models of compartmental skin delivery and for refining data for skin delivery in relation to the evaluation of systemic toxicity.

  9. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-01

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D0) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing.

  10. X-ray absorption near edge structure/electron energy loss near edge structure calculation using the supercell orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Wai-Yim; Rulis, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Over the last eight years, a large number of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and/or electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) spectroscopic calculations for complex oxides and nitrides have been performed using the supercell-OLCAO (orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals) method, obtaining results in very good agreement with experiments. The method takes into account the core-hole effect and includes the dipole matrix elements calculated from ab initio wavefunctions. In this paper, we describe the method in considerable detail, emphasizing the special advantages of this method for large complex systems. Selected results are reviewed and several hitherto unpublished results are also presented. These include the Y K edge of Y ions segregated to the core of a Σ31 grain boundary in alumina, O K edges of water molecules, C K edges in different types of single walled carbon nanotubes, and the Co K edge in the cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) molecule. On the basis of these results, it is argued that the interpretation of specific features of the calculated XANES/ELNES edges is not simple for complex material systems because of the delocalized nature of the conduction band states. The long-standing notion of the 'fingerprinting' technique for spectral interpretation of experimental data is not tenable. A better approach is to fully characterize the structure under study, using either crystalline data or accurate ab initio modeling. Comparison between calculated XANES/ELNES spectra and available measurements enables us to ascertain the validity of the modeled structure. For complex crystals or structures, it is necessary to use the weighted sum of the spectra from structurally nonequivalent sites for comparison with the measured data. Future application of the supercell-OLCAO method to complex biomolecular systems is also discussed.

  11. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-05

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Accuracy of a method based on atomic absorption spectrometry to determine inorganic arsenic in food: Outcome of the collaborative trial IMEP-41.

    PubMed

    Fiamegkos, I; Cordeiro, F; Robouch, P; Vélez, D; Devesa, V; Raber, G; Sloth, J J; Rasmussen, R R; Llorente-Mirandes, T; Lopez-Sanchez, J F; Rubio, R; Cubadda, F; D'Amato, M; Feldmann, J; Raab, A; Emteborg, H; de la Calle, M B

    2016-12-15

    A collaborative trial was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the quantification of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in food. The method is based on (i) solubilisation of the protein matrix with concentrated hydrochloric acid to denature proteins and allow the release of all arsenic species into solution, and (ii) subsequent extraction of the inorganic arsenic present in the acid medium using chloroform followed by back-extraction to acidic medium. The final detection and quantification is done by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). The seven test items used in this exercise were reference materials covering a broad range of matrices: mussels, cabbage, seaweed (hijiki), fish protein, rice, wheat, mushrooms, with concentrations ranging from 0.074 to 7.55mgkg(-1). The relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 4.1 to 10.3%, while the relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 6.1 to 22.8%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential of far-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy as a highly sensitive qualitative and quantitative analysis method for polymer films, part I: classification of commercial food wrap films.

    PubMed

    Sato, Harumi; Higashi, Noboru; Ikehata, Akifumi; Koide, Noriko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a totally new technique for the utilization of far-ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy in polymer thin film analysis. Far-UV spectra in the 120-300 nm region have been measured in situ for six kinds of commercial polymer wrap films by use of a novel type of far-UV spectrometer that does not need vacuum evaporation. These films can be straightforwardly classified into three groups, polyethylene (PE) films, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films, and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) films, by using the raw spectra. The differences in the wavelength of the absorption band due to the sigma-sigma* transition of the C-C bond have been used for the classification of the six kinds of films. Using this method, it was easy to distinguish the three kinds of PE films and to separate the two kinds of PVDC films. Compared with other spectroscopic methods, the advantages of this technique include nondestructive analysis, easy spectral measurement, high sensitivity, and simple spectral analysis. The present study has demonstrated that far-UV spectroscopy is a very promising technique for polymer film analysis.

  14. A preconcentration method for indirect determination of acrylamide from chips, crackers and cereal-based baby foods using flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Orhan, Ulaş

    2016-12-01

    Acrylamide is a toxic species for human health, and is a Maillard reaction product which forms spontaneously in heat treatment process of foods. Therefore, a simple, fast and cost-effective method was developed for the indirect determination of acrylamide in processed foods particularly consumed by children. The method is based on ion-pairing of acrylamide with fluorescein (F 2- ) in presence of Ni(II) ions at pH 9.0, and then extraction of the formed ternary complex into micellar phase of poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7.5) before analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) has been used for the preconcentration of acrylamide in the samples prior to its FAAS detection. The matrix matched calibration curve is linear in range of 0.3-150µgkg -1 under optimal reagent conditions (1.75mL of 0.1molL -1 ammonia buffer at pH 9.0, 2.2mgL -1 Ni(II), 4.0×10 -4 molL -1 F 2- , 0.4% (w/v) NH 4 Cl and 0.7% (v/v) PONPE 7.5) with sensitivity enhancement of 160-fold. The proposed method has been validated by assessment of the following parameters; the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) (0.08µgkg -1 and 0.28µgkg -1 , respectively) with a relative standard deviation (RSD%) lower than 6.3%, and extractive recovery higher than 95% for acrylamide spiked at levels of 5 and 25µgkg -1 . The method was successfully applied to the indirect determination of acrylamide in the processed foods and two CRMs with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of HPTLC-UV absorption densitometry method for the analysis of alprazolam and sertraline in combination and its application in the evaluation of marketed preparations.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, K; Venisetty, R K; Yellu, N R; Keshetty, S; Pai, M G

    2007-09-01

    A new simple, sensitive, and reproducible high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for the estimation of alprazolam and sertraline in combination is developed using silica gel plates with fluorescent indicators. The system is equipped with an automated sample applicator, and the detection was performed at 254 nm by using UV absorption densitometry. The mobile phase consists of carbon tetrachloride, methanol, acetone, and ammonia in the ratio 12:3:5:0.1. The retention factor values for alprazolam and sertraline are found to be 0.52 and 0.70, respectively. The limit of detection of alprazolam and sertraline in the mixture of given proportion is observed to be 0.05 microg/mL and 2.5 microg/mL and the limit of quantitation is 0.2 microg/mL and 10 microg/mL, respectively. The method has shown good linearity in the range of 0.2 microg/mL to 0.65 pg/mL for alprazolam (R2 > 0.9953) and 10 pg/mL to 32.5 microg/mL for sertraline (R2 > 0.9942). The intra- and inter-assay (n=5) variations in the linear range are less than 4% for alprazolam and 6% for sertraline. Three pharmaceutical products containing this combination are analyzed to test the applicability of the new method. The percentage of alprazolam and sertraline in the tablets studied range from 97.7% to 102.82% and 96.5% to 99.9%, respectively.

  16. Effects of Manufacturing Methods on Dissolution and Absorption of Ketoconazole in the Presence of Organic Acid as a pH Modifier.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Masashi; Hinatsu, Yuta; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Nakatani, Manabu; Wada, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akira

    2017-05-01

    Poorly water-soluble compounds have a potential risk of low and variable bioavailability caused by incomplete dissolution. Incorporation of organic acids as pH modifiers is effective method for solubility enhancement of basic compounds and requires no special technique and equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of manufacturing method on the extent of drug solubility enhancement. We successfully prepared the granules and tablets containing ketoconazole (KZ), which is weakly basic, as a model compound and citric acid as a pH modifier using conventional wet and dry granulations. KZ solubility under non-sink condition was enhanced with supersaturation using both wet and dry granulations. High-shear granulation was the most effective method in terms of KZ dissolution enhancement, because both an intimate contact and strong bonding between KZ and incorporated acid were achieved. KZ dissolved amount from the granules prepared by high-shear granulation was about eight times higher than that from the granules without the acid. The granulation involved to suppress a diffusion of acid dissolved, leading to the effectively maintained supersaturation state. The bioavailability of KZ after oral administration to rats was improved by applying high-shear granulation with citric acid independent of gastrointestinal pH. The granules prepared by high-shear granulation showed the bioavailability about 1.7-fold higher than that of the physical mixture in rats with and without neutralization of stomach. As a result, both the dissolution and absorption rates of KZ after oral administration were enhanced using conventional manufacturing technology.

  17. Quantification of zinc-porphyrin in dry-cured ham products by spectroscopic methods Comparison of absorption, fluorescence and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristoffer; Adamsen, Christina E; Laursen, Jens; Olsen, Karsten; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-03-01

    Zinc-protoporphyrin (Zn-pp), which has been identified as the major pigment in certain dry-cured meat products, was extracted with acetone/water (75%) and isolated from the following meat products: Parma ham, Iberian ham and dry-cured ham with added nitrite. The quantification of Zn-pp by electron absorption, fluorescence and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was compared (concentration range used [Zn-pp]=0.8-9.7μM). All three hams were found to contain Zn-pp, and the results show no significant difference among the content of Zn-pp quantified by fluorescence, absorbance and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for Parma ham and Iberian ham. All three methods can be used for quantification of Zn-pp in acetone/water extracts of different ham types if the content is higher than 1.0ppm. For dry-cured ham with added nitrite, XRF was not applicable due to the low content of Zn-pp (<0.1ppm). In addition, XRF spectroscopy provides further information regarding other trace elements and can therefore be advantageous in this aspect. This study also focused on XRF determination of Fe in the extracts and as no detectable Fe was found in the three types of ham extracts investigated (limit of detection; Fe⩽1.8ppm), it allows the conclusion that iron containing pigments, e.g., heme, do not contribute to the noticeable red colour observed in some of the extracts.

  18. 1D Magnetic Materials of Fe3O4 and Fe with High Performance of Microwave Absorption Fabricated by Electrospinning Method

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rui; Li, Wei; Pan, Weiwei; Zhu, Minggang; Zhou, Dong; Li, Fa-shen

    2014-01-01

    Fe3O4 and Fe nanowires are successfully fabricated by electrospinning method and reduction process. Wiry microstructures were achieved with the phase transformation from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 and Fe by partial and full reduction, while still preserving the wire morphology. The diameters of the Fe3O4 and Fe nanowires are approximately 50–60 nm and 30–40 nm, respectively. The investigation of microwave absorption reveals that the Fe3O4 nanowires exhibit excellent microwave absorbing properties. For paraffin-based composite containing 50% weight concentration of Fe3O4 nanowires, the minimum reflection loss reaches −17.2 dB at 6.2 GHz with the matching thickness of 5.5 mm. Furthermore, the calculation shows that the modulus of the ratio between the complex permittivity and permeability |ε/μ| is far away from unity at the minimum reflection loss point, which is quite different from the traditional opinions. PMID:25510415

  19. Study of the versatility of a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of cadmium in the environmental field.

    PubMed

    Rucandio, M Isabel; Petit-Domínguez, M Dolores

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a representative example of trace elements that are insidious and widespread health hazards. In contemporary environmental analysis, there is a clear trend toward its determination over a wide range of concentrations in complex matrixes. This paper describes a versatile method for the determination of Cd at various levels (0.1-500 microg/g) in several sample types, such as soils, sediments, coals, ashes, sewage sludges, animal tissues, and plants, by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The effect of the individual presence of about 50 elements, with an interference/analyte concentration ratio of up to 10(5), was tested; recoveries of Cd ranged from 93 to 106%. The influence of different media, such as HNO3, HCI, HF, H2SO4, HClO4, acetic acid, hydroxylammonium chloride, and ammonium acetate, in several concentrations, was also tested. From these studies it can be concluded that the analytical procedure is scarcely matrix dependent, and the results obtained for a wide diversity of reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values.

  20. Fabrication of a Nano-ZnO/Polyethylene/Wood-Fiber Composite with Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Photocatalytic Activity via a Facile Hot-Press Method

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Baokang; Chen, Yipeng; Shen, Xiaoping; Chen, Bo; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde

    2017-01-01

    A polyethylene/wood-fiber composite loaded with nano-ZnO was prepared by a facile hot-press method and was used for the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds as well as for microwave absorption. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 29 nm and polyethylene (PE) powders were dispersed on the wood fibers’ surface through a viscous cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) solution. The reflection loss (RL) value of the resulting composite was −21 dB, with a thickness of 3.5 mm in the frequency of 17.17 GHz. The PE/ZnO/wood-fiber (PZW) composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity (84% methyl orange degradation within 300 min) under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanoparticels (NPs) increased the storage modulus of the PZW composite, and the damping factor was transferred to the higher temperature region. The PZW composite exhibited the maximum flexural strength of 58 MPa and a modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 9625 MPa. Meanwhile, it also displayed dimensional stability (thickness swelling value of 9%). PMID:29099777

  1. Tris-amidoximate uranyl complexes via η2 binding mode coordinated in aqueous solution shown by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjuan; Qie, Meiying; Su, Jing; Zhang, Shuo; Zhou, Jing; Li, Jiong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Shitong; Wang, Shuao; Li, Jingye; Wu, Guozhong; Wang, Jian Qiang

    2018-03-01

    The present study sheds some light on the long-standing debate concerning the coordination properties between uranyl ions and the amidoxime ligand, which is a key ingredient for achieving efficient extraction of uranium. Using X-ray absorption fine structure combined with theoretical simulation methods, the binding mode and bonding nature of a uranyl-amidoxime complex in aqueous solution were determined for the first time. The results show that in a highly concentrated amidoxime solution the preferred binding mode between UO 2 2+ and the amidoxime ligand is η 2 coordination with tris-amidoximate species. In such a uranyl-amidoximate complex with η 2 binding motif, strong covalent interaction and orbital hybridization between U 5f/6d and (N, O) 2p should be responsible for the excellent binding ability of the amidoximate ligand to uranyl. The study was performed directly in aqueous solution to avoid the possible binding mode differences caused by crystallization of a single-crystal sample. This work also is an example of the simultaneous study of local structure and electronic structure in solution systems using combined diagnostic tools.

  2. A new method for the preparation of a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene hybrid material and its applications in electromagnetic wave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tsung-Yung; Lu, Kai-Tai; Peng, Cheng-Hsiung

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: A microwave-assisted solvothermal process was used to prepare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles/graphene hybrids, which could be applied as an electromagnetic (EM) radiation absorbent. The absorber, composed of 20 wt% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene–epoxy, exhibited a dual-frequency reflection characteristic covering the C and Ku bands with maximum reflection losses of less than −20 dB at thicknesses of 4 and 5 mm. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene composites were prepared by a microwave-assisted solvothermal route. • Uniform loading of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on graphene was obtained. • The products as-synthesized show great promise as a microwave absorption material. •more » Synergistic effects of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and graphene caused improved absorption efficiency. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene product possessed a dual-frequency reflection characteristic. - Abstract: A rapid, simple, and inexpensive process combining a microwave-assisted technique and a solvothermal method has been developed using graphene sheets and FeCl{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O as the reactant to prepare graphene/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle hybrids, which can be applied as an electromagnetic radiation absorbent. The experimental factors (i.e., composition ratio, microwave power, and irradiation time) on the products’ characteristics were examined. Under optimal conditions, the morphological analysis revealed that the graphene sheet was homogeneously covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼50 nm). The electromagnetic parameters of the composites made from 20 wt% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene–epoxy were measured by a vector network analyzer. It was found that the 4- and 5 mm-thick composites could attain a reflection loss below −20 dB in the dual-ranges of 4–8 and 12–18 GHz.« less

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of low-level silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damrau, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Increased awareness of the quality of water in the United States has led to the development of a method for determining low levels (0.2-5.0 microg/L) of silver in water samples. Use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry provides a sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining low-level silver in samples of low ionic-strength water, precipitation water, and natural water. The minimum detection limit determined for low-level silver is 0.2 microg/L. Precision data were collected on natural-water samples and SRWS (Standard Reference Water Samples). The overall percent relative standard deviation for natural-water samples with silver concentrations more than 0.2 microg/L was less than 40 percent throughout the analytical range. For the SRWS with concentrations more than 0.2 microg/L, the overall percent relative standard deviation was less than 25 percent throughout the analytical range. The accuracy of the results was determined by spiking 6 natural-water samples with different known concentrations of the silver standard. The recoveries ranged from 61 to 119 percent at the 0.5-microg/L spike level. At the 1.25-microg/L spike level, the recoveries ranged from 92 to 106 percent. For the high spike level at 3.0 microg/L, the recoveries ranged from 65 to 113 percent. The measured concentrations of silver obtained from known samples were within the Branch of Quality Assurance accepted limits of 1 1/2 standard deviations on the basis of the SRWS program for Inter-Laboratory studies.

  4. A new supramolecular based liquid solid microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of trace bismuth in human blood serum and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kahe, Hadi; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    A simple and reliable supramolecule-aggregated liquid solid microextraction method is described for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of bismuth in water as well as human blood serum and hair samples. Catanionic microstructures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants, dissolved in deionized water/propanol, are used as a green solvent to extract bismuth (III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by dispersive microextraction methodology. The extracted solid phase is easily removed and dissolved in 50 μL propanol for subsequent measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). The procedure benefits the merits of supramolecule aggregates' properties and dispersive microextraction technique using water as the main component of disperser solvent, leading to direct interaction with analyte. Phase separation behavior of extraction solvent and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of bismuth ion such as salt concentration, pH, centrifugation time, amount of chelating agent, SDS:CTAB mole ratio, and solvent amounts were thoroughly optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.3-6 μg L -1 Bi (III) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.16 μg L -1 (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of determination were obtained to be 5.1 and 6.2 % for 1 and 3 μg L -1 of Bi (III), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied as a sensitive and accurate technique for determination of bismuth ion in human blood serum, hair samples, and a certified reference material.

  5. Method development for the control determination of mercury in seafood by solid-sampling thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS).

    PubMed

    Torres, D P; Martins-Teixeira, M B; Silva, E F; Queiroz, H M

    2012-01-01

    A very simple and rapid method for the determination of total mercury in fish samples using the Direct Mercury Analyser DMA-80 was developed. In this system, a previously weighted portion of fresh fish is combusted and the released mercury is selectively trapped in a gold amalgamator. Upon heating, mercury is desorbed from the amalgamator, an atomic absorption measurement is performed and the mercury concentration is calculated. Some experimental parameters have been studied and optimised. In this study the sample mass was about 100.0 mg. The relative standard deviation was lower than 8.0% for all measurements of solid samples. Two calibration curves against aqueous standard solutions were prepared through the low linear range from 2.5 to 20.0 ng of Hg, and the high linear range from 25.0 to 200.0 ng of Hg, for which a correlation coefficient better than 0.997 was achieved, as well as a normal distribution of the residuals. Mercury reference solutions were prepared in 5.0% v/v nitric acid medium. Lyophilised fish tissues were also analysed; however, the additional procedure had no advantage over the direct analysis of the fresh fish, and additionally increased the total analytical process time. A fish tissue reference material, IAEA-407, was analysed and the mercury concentration was in agreement with the certified value, according to the t-test at a 95% confidence level. The limit of quantification (LOQ), based on a mercury-free sample, was 3.0 µg kg(-1). This LOQ is in accordance with performance criteria required by the Commission Regulation No. 333/2007. Simplicity and high efficiency, without the need for any sample preparation procedure, are some of the qualities of the proposed method.

  6. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Measurement of optical absorption in polycrystalline CVD diamond plates by the phase photothermal method at a wavelength of 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk'yanov, A. Yu; Ral'chenko, Viktor G.; Khomich, A. V.; Serdtsev, E. V.; Volkov, P. V.; Savel'ev, A. V.; Konov, Vitalii I.

    2008-12-01

    A highly-efficient phase photothermal method is developed for quantitative measurements of the small optical absorption coefficient in thin plates made of highly transparent materials in which bulk losses significantly exceed surface losses. The bulk absorption coefficient at 10.6 μm is estimated in polycrystalline diamond plates grown from the vapour phase (a CVD diamond). The results are compared with those for natural and synthetic diamond single crystals and with the concentrations of nitrogen and hydrogen impurities. The absorption coefficient of the best samples of the CVD diamond did not exceed 0.06 cm-1, which, taking into account the high thermal conductivity of the CVD diamond (1800-2200 W mK-1 at room temperature), makes this material attractive for fabricating output windows of high-power CO2 lasers, especially for manufacturing large-size optics.

  7. Simple hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane extraction method for pre-concentration of Cd(II) in environmental samples and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carletto, Jeferson Schneider; Luciano, Raquel Medeiros; Bedendo, Gizelle Cristina; Carasek, Eduardo

    2009-04-06

    A hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane (HFRLM) extraction method to determine cadmium (II) in water samples using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was developed. Ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was used to complex cadmium (II) in an acid medium to obtain a neutral hydrophobic complex (ML(2)). The organic solvent introduced to the sample extracts this complex from the aqueous solution and carries it over the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane, that had their walls previously filled with the same organic solvent. The organic solvent is solubilized inside the PDMS membrane, leading to a homogeneous phase. The complex strips the lumen of the membrane where, at higher pH, the complex Cd-DDTP is broken down and cadmium (II) is released into the stripping phase. EDTA was used to complex the cadmium (II), helping to trap the analyte in the stripping phase. A multivariate procedure was used to optimize the studied variables. The optimized variables were: sample (donor phase) pH 3.25, DDTP concentration 0.05% (m/v), stripping (acceptor phase) pH 8.75, EDTA concentration 1.5x10(-2) mol L(-1), extraction temperature 40 degrees C, extraction time 40 min, a solvent mixture N-butyl acetate and hexane (60/40%, v/v) with a volume of 100 microL, and addition of ammonium sulfate to saturate the sample. The sample volume used was 20 mL and the stripping volume was 165 microL. The analyte enrichment factor was 120, limit of detection (LOD) 1.3 microg L(-1), relative standard deviation (RSD) 5.5% and the working linear range 2-30 microg L(-1).

  8. Comparison of two methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare(R) II system.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Gaskill, Cynthia; Erb, Hollis N; Ebel, Joseph G; Hillebrandt, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The current study compared the LeadCare(R) II test kit system with graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for blood lead (Pb) analysis in 56 cattle accidentally exposed to Pb in the field. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by LeadCare II within 4 hr of collection and after 72 hr of refrigeration. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and samples that were coagulated (n = 12) were homogenized before analysis. There was strong rank correlation (R(2) = 0.96) between atomic absorption and LeadCare II (within 4 hr of collection), and a conversion formula was determined for values within the observed range (3-91 mcg/dl, although few had values >40 mcg/dl). Median and mean blood pb concentrations for atomic absorption were 7.7 and 15.9 mcg/dl, respectively; for LeadCare II, medians were 5.2 mcg/dl at 4 hr and 4.9 mcg/dl at 72 hr, and means were 12.4 and 11.7, respectively. LeadCare II results at 4 hr strongly correlated with 72 hr results (R(2) = 0.96), but results at 72 hr were lower (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between coagulated and uncoagulated samples run by atomic absorption. Although there have been several articles that compared LeadCare with other analytical techniques, all were for the original system, not LeadCare II. The present study indicated that LeadCare II results correlated well with atomic absorption over a wide range of blood Pb concentrations and that refrigerating samples for up to 72 hr before LeadCare II analysis was acceptable for clinical purposes.

  9. Validation of an analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals in soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was the validation of a new analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil after microwave assisted digestion in aqua regia. Determinations were performed on the ContrAA 300 (Analytik Jena) air-acetylene flame spectrometer equipped with xenon short-arc lamp as a continuum radiation source for all elements, double monochromator consisting of a prism pre-monocromator and an echelle grating monochromator, and charge coupled device as detector. For validation a method-performance study was conducted involving the establishment of the analytical performance of the new method (limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy). Moreover, the Bland and Altman statistical method was used in analyzing the agreement between the proposed assay and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry as standardized method for the multielemental determination in soil. Results The limits of detection in soil sample (3σ criterion) in the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry method were (mg/kg): 0.18 (Ag), 0.14 (Cd), 0.36 (Co), 0.25 (Cr), 0.09 (Cu), 1.0 (Ni), 1.4 (Pb) and 0.18 (Zn), close to those in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry: 0.12 (Ag), 0.05 (Cd), 0.15 (Co), 1.4 (Cr), 0.15 (Cu), 2.5 (Ni), 2.5 (Pb) and 0.04 (Zn). Accuracy was checked by analyzing 4 certified reference materials and a good agreement for 95% confidence interval was found in both methods, with recoveries in the range of 94–106% in atomic absorption and 97–103% in optical emission. Repeatability found by analyzing real soil samples was in the range 1.6–5.2% in atomic absorption, similar with that of 1.9–6.1% in optical emission spectrometry. The Bland and Altman method showed no statistical significant difference

  10. Validation of an analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Ponta, Michaela; Hategan, Raluca

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper was the validation of a new analytical method based on the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the fast-sequential determination of several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil after microwave assisted digestion in aqua regia. Determinations were performed on the ContrAA 300 (Analytik Jena) air-acetylene flame spectrometer equipped with xenon short-arc lamp as a continuum radiation source for all elements, double monochromator consisting of a prism pre-monocromator and an echelle grating monochromator, and charge coupled device as detector. For validation a method-performance study was conducted involving the establishment of the analytical performance of the new method (limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy). Moreover, the Bland and Altman statistical method was used in analyzing the agreement between the proposed assay and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry as standardized method for the multielemental determination in soil. The limits of detection in soil sample (3σ criterion) in the high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry method were (mg/kg): 0.18 (Ag), 0.14 (Cd), 0.36 (Co), 0.25 (Cr), 0.09 (Cu), 1.0 (Ni), 1.4 (Pb) and 0.18 (Zn), close to those in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry: 0.12 (Ag), 0.05 (Cd), 0.15 (Co), 1.4 (Cr), 0.15 (Cu), 2.5 (Ni), 2.5 (Pb) and 0.04 (Zn). Accuracy was checked by analyzing 4 certified reference materials and a good agreement for 95% confidence interval was found in both methods, with recoveries in the range of 94-106% in atomic absorption and 97-103% in optical emission. Repeatability found by analyzing real soil samples was in the range 1.6-5.2% in atomic absorption, similar with that of 1.9-6.1% in optical emission spectrometry. The Bland and Altman method showed no statistical significant difference between the two spectrometric

  11. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  12. Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods: a polar/imaging nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Remer, Lorraine A.; Correia, Alexandre L.; Tabacniks, Manfredo; Lima, Adriana R.

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of aerosol scattering and absorption properties is essential to accurate radiative transfer calculations in the atmosphere. Applications of this work include remote sensing of aerosols, corrections for aerosol distortions in satellite imagery of the surface, global climate models, and atmospheric beam propagation. Here we demonstrate successful instrument development at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics at UMBC that better characterizes aerosol scattering phase matrix using an imaging polar nephelometer (LACO-I-Neph) and enables measurement of spectral aerosol absorption from 200 nm to 2500 nm. The LACO-I-Neph measures the scattering phase function from 1.5° to 178.5° scattering angle with sufficient sensitivity to match theoretical expectations of Rayleigh scattering of various gases. Previous measurements either lack a sufficiently wide range of measured scattering angles or their sensitivity is too low and therefore the required sample amount is prohibitively high for in situ measurements. The LACO-I-Neph also returns expected characterization of the linear polarization signal of Rayleigh scattering. Previous work demonstrated the ability of measuring spectral absorption of aerosol particles using a reflectance technique characterization of aerosol samples collected on Nuclepore filters. This first generation methodology yielded absorption measurements from 350 nm to 2500 nm. Here we demonstrate the possibility of extending this wavelength range into the deep UV, to 200 nm. This extended UV region holds much promise in identifying and characterizing aerosol types and species. The second generation, deep UV, procedure requires careful choice of filter substrates. Here the choice of substrates is explored and preliminary results are provided.

  13. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  14. Extrinsic labeling method may not accurately measure Fe absorption from cooked pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): comparison of extrinsic and intrinsic labeling of beans.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Rutzke, Michael A; Welch, Ross M; Glahn, Raymond P

    2008-08-27

    Isotopic labeling of food has been widely used for the measurement of Fe absorption in determining requirements and evaluating the factors involved in Fe bioavailability. An extrinsic labeling technique will not accurately predict the total Fe absorption from foods unless complete isotopic exchange takes place between an extrinsically added isotope label and the intrinsic Fe of the food. We examined isotopic exchange in the case of both white beans and colored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with an in vitro digestion model. There are significant differences in (58)Fe/(56)Fe ratios between the sample digest supernatant and the pellet of extrinsically labeled pinto bean. The white bean digest shows significantly better equilibration of the extrinsic (58)Fe with the intrinsic (56)Fe. In contrast to the extrinsically labeled samples, both white and red beans labeled intrinsically with (58)Fe demonstrated consistent ratios of (58)Fe/(56)Fe in the bean meal, digest, supernatant, and pellet. It is possible that the polyphenolics in the bean seed coat may bind Fe and thus interfere with extrinsic labeling of the bean meals. These observations raise questions on the accuracy of studies that used extrinsic tags to measure Fe absorption from beans. Intrinsic labeling appears necessary to accurately measure Fe bioavailability from beans.

  15. Theoretical Investigation of Absorptive Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    sections are plotted (log-log scale, MKS units throughout) vs. wavelength over the range from 0 . 1 to 100 microns, for a specified radius, length, and...long compared to wavelength (although one should note that no difficulties arise in the example shown, provided kL I’ 3. 5 ). It was thus decided to use...of the fiber, in that n is chosen as AoceslonFor n = Nearest integer to (ki + 1). 1NTIS GRA&I (1) jDTIC TAB 0 Unnnounced By __ 2 -vo-.-. ---. 1-- MS

  16. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  17. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  18. Optimization of Process Parameters of Pulsed Electro Deposition Technique for Nanocrystalline Nickel Coating Using Gray Relational Analysis (GRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, C.; Sundara Moorthy, N.; Venkatesan, R.; Aswinprasad, V.

    The moving parts of any mechanism and machine parts are always subjected to a significant wear due to the development of friction. It is an utmost important aspect to address the wear problems in present environment. But the complexity goes on increasing to replace the worn out parts if they are very precise. Technology advancement in surface engineering ensures the minimum surface wear with the introduction of polycrystalline nano nickel coating. The enhanced tribological property of the nano nickel coating was achieved by the development of grain size and hardness of the surface. In this study, it has been decided to focus on the optimized parameters of the pulsed electro deposition to develop such a coating. Taguchi’s method coupled gray relational analysis was employed by considering the pulse frequency, average current density and duty cycle as the chief process parameters. The grain size and hardness were considered as responses. Totally, nine experiments were conducted as per L9 design of experiment. Additionally, response graph method has been applied to determine the most significant parameter to influence both the responses. In order to improve the degree of validation, confirmation test and predicted gray grade were carried out with the optimized parameters. It has been observed that there was significant improvement in gray grade for the optimal parameters.

  19. Comparison of serum copper determination by colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods in seven different laboratories. The S.F.B.C. (Société Française de Biologie Clinique) Trace Element Group.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J; Chappuis, P; Zawislak, R; Houot, O; Jaudon, M C; Bienvenu, F; Bureau, F

    1993-02-01

    An interlaboratory collaborative trial was conducted on the determination of serum copper using two different methods, based on colorimetry (test combination Copper, Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The general performance of the colorimetric method was below that of FAAS, except for sensitivity and linear range, as assessed by detection limit (0.44 versus 1.32 mumol/L) and upper limit of linearity (150 versus 50 mumol/L). The range of the between-run CVs and the recovery of standard additions were, respectively, 2.3-11.9% and 92-127% for the colorimetric method and 1.1-6.0% and 93-101% for the FAAS method. Interferences were minimal with both methods. The two techniques correlated satisfactorily (the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.945-0.970 among laboratories) but the colorimetric assay exhibited slightly higher results than the FAAS method. Each method was transferable among laboratories.

  20. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  1. Determination of the Mass Absorption Coefficient in Two-Layer Ti/V and V/Ti Thin Film Systems by the X-Ray Fluorescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernyaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Gafarova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new XRF procedure for the determination of the mass absorption coefficient in thin film Ti/V and V/Ti two-layer systems has been proposed. The procedure uses easy-to-make thin-film layers of sputtered titanium and vanadium on a polymer film substrate. Correction coefficients have been calculated that take into account attenuation of primary radiation of the X-ray tube, as well as attenuation of the spectral line of the bottom layer element in the top layer.

  2. A New Method of Absorption-Phase Nanotomography for 3D Observation of Mineral-Organic-Water Textiles and its Application to Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Matsuno, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Nakano, T.; Vaccaro, E.; Russel, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Pristine carbonaceous chondrites contain fine-grained matrix, which is composed largely of amorphous silicates, sub-micron silicate and sulfide crystals, and organic materials. They are regarded as primitive dust in the early Solar System that have suffered minimal alteration in their parent bodies. The matrix generally has different lithologies; some of them are unaltered but some are more or less aqueously altered. Their textures have been examined in 2D usually by FE-SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, nano-SIMS and micro-XRD. Observation of their complex fine textures, such as spatial relation between different lithologies in 3D, is important for understanding aggregation and alteration processes. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray tomography reveals 3D structures nondestructively with high spatial resolution of approximately greater than 100 nm. We have developed a new technique using absorption contrasts called "dual-energy tomography" (DET) to obtain 3D distribution of minerals at SPring-8, SR facility in Japan, and applied successfully to Itokawa particles. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using "scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy" (SIXM) at SPring-8, which can discriminate between void, water and organic materials. We applied this technique combined with FIB micro-sampling to carbonaceous chondrites to search for primitive liquid water. In this study, we combined the DET and SIXM to obtain three dimensional submicron-scale association between minerals, organic materials and water and applied this to pristine carbonaceous chondrites.

  3. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  4. Characterizing the Circumgalactic Medium of Nearby Galaxies with HST/COS and HST/STIS Absorption-line Spectroscopy. II. Methods and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael; Pratt, Cameron T.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Green, James C.; Penton, Steven V.; Savage, Blair D.

    2017-05-01

    We present basic data and modeling for a survey of the cool, photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of low-redshift galaxies using far-UV QSO absorption-line probes. This survey consists of “targeted” and “serendipitous” CGM subsamples, originally described in Stocke et al. (Paper I). The targeted subsample probes low-luminosity, late-type galaxies at z< 0.02 with small impact parameters (< ρ > =71 kpc), and the serendipitous subsample probes higher luminosity galaxies at z≲ 0.2 with larger impact parameters (< ρ > =222 kpc). Hubble Space Telescope and FUSE UV spectroscopy of the absorbers and basic data for the associated galaxies, derived from ground-based imaging and spectroscopy, are presented. We find broad agreement with the COS-Halos results, but our sample shows no evidence for changing ionization parameter or hydrogen density with distance from the CGM host galaxy, probably because the COS-Halos survey probes the CGM at smaller impact parameters. We find at least two passive galaxies with H I and metal-line absorption, confirming the intriguing COS-Halos result that galaxies sometimes have cool gas halos despite no on-going star formation. Using a new methodology for fitting H I absorption complexes, we confirm the CGM cool gas mass of Paper I, but this value is significantly smaller than that found by the COS-Halos survey. We trace much of this difference to the specific values of the low-z metagalactic ionization rate assumed. After accounting for this difference, a best-value for the CGM cool gas mass is found by combining the results of both surveys to obtain {log}(M/{M}⊙ )=10.5+/- 0.3, or ˜30% of the total baryon reservoir of an L≥slant {L}* , star-forming galaxy. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  6. Near-infrared absorption in symmetric squarylium and croconate dyes: a comparative study using symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction methods.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Ch; Yesudas, K; Krishna Chaitanya, G; Sitha, Sanyasi; Bhanuprakash, K; Rao, V Jayathirtha

    2005-09-29

    Symmetric croconate (CR) and squarylium dyes (SQ) are well-known near-infrared (NIR) dyes and, in general, are considered to be donor-acceptor-donor type molecules. It is established in the literature that CR dyes absorb in a longer wavelength region than the corresponding SQ dyes. This has been attributed to the CR ring being a better acceptor than the SQ ring. Thus increasing the donor capacity should lead to a bathochromic shift in both SQ and CR. On the other hand, some experiments reported in the literature have revealed that increasing the conjugation in the donor part of the SQ molecule leads first to red shift, which upon a further increase of the conjugation changes to a blue shift. Hence, to understand the role of the central ring and the substitutions in the absorption of these dyes, we carried out high-level symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) calculations of some substituted SQ and CR dyes and compare the absorption energy with the existing experimental data. We found that there is very good agreement. We also carried out SAC-CI calculations of some smaller model molecules, which contain the main oxyallyl substructure. We varied the geometry (angle) of the oxyallyl subgroup and the substitution in these model molecules to establish a correlation with the bathochromic shift. We found that the charge transfer is very small and does not play the key role in the red shift, but on the other hand, the perturbation of the HOMO-LUMO gap (HLG) from both the geometry and substitution seems to be responsible for this shift. We suggest as a design principle that increasing the donor capacity of the groups may not help in the red shift, but introducing groups which perturb the HLG and decrease it without changing the MO character should lead to a larger bathochromic shift.

  7. Working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization 15189 Standard: how to validate an in-house developed method an example of lead determination in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garcia Hejl, Carine; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Vest, Philippe; Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15189 standard are required to demonstrate the validity of their analytical methods. The different guidelines set by various accreditation organizations make it difficult to provide objective evidence that an in-house method is fit for the intended purpose. Besides, the required performance characteristics tests and acceptance criteria are not always detailed. The laboratory must choose the most suitable validation protocol and set the acceptance criteria. Therefore, we propose a validation protocol to evaluate the performance of an in-house method. As an example, we validated the process for the detection and quantification of lead in whole blood by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. The fundamental parameters tested were, selectivity, calibration model, precision, accuracy (and uncertainty of measurement), contamination, stability of the sample, reference interval, and analytical interference. We have developed a protocol that has been applied successfully to quantify lead in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In particular, our method is selective, linear, accurate, and precise, making it suitable for use in routine diagnostics.

  8. Glucose absorption in acute peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Podel, J; Hodelin-Wetzel, R; Saha, D C; Burns, G

    2000-04-01

    During acute peritoneal dialysis (APD), it is known that glucose found in the dialysate solution contributes to the provision of significant calories. It has been well documented in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) that glucose absorption occurs. In APD, however, it remains unclear how much glucose absorption actually does occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether it is appropriate to use the formula used to calculate glucose absorption in CAPD (Grodstein et al) among patients undergoing APD. Actual measurements of glucose absorption (Method I) were calculated in 9 patients undergoing APD treatment for >24 hours who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Glucose absorption using the Grodstein et al formula (Method II) was also determined and compared with the results of actual measurements. The data was then further analyzed based on the factors that influence glucose absorption, specifically dwell time and concentration. The mean total amount of glucose absorbed was 43% +/- 15%. However, when dwell time and concentration were further examined, significant differences were noted. Method I showed a cumulative increase over time. Method II showed that absorption was fixed. This suggests that with the variation in dwell time commonly seen in the acute care setting, the use of Method II may not be accurate. In each of the 2 methods, a significant difference in glucose absorption was noted when comparing the use of 1.5% and 4.25% dialysate concentrations. The established formula designed for CAPD should not be used for calculating glucose absorption in patients receiving APD because variation in dwell time and concentration should be taken into account. Because of the time constraints and staffing required to calculate each exchange individually, combined with the results of the study, we recommend the use of the percentage estimate of 40% to 50%.

  9. Neutron Absorption Measurements Constrain Eucrite-Diogenite Mixing in Vesta's Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Hendricks, J. S.; Lawrence, D. J.; Peplowski, P. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.; Beck, A.; LeCorre, L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Dawn Mission s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1] acquired mapping data during 5 months in a polar, low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) with approx.460-km mean radius around main-belt asteroid Vesta (264-km mean radius) [2]. Neutrons and gamma rays are produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of natural radioelements (K, Th, U), providing information about the elemental composition of Vesta s regolith to depths of a few decimeters beneath the surface. From the data acquired in LAMO, maps of vestan neutron and gamma ray signatures were determined with a spatial resolution of approx.300 km full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), comparable in scale to the Rheasilvia impact basin (approx.500 km diameter). The data from Vesta encounter are available from the NASA Planetary Data System. Based on an analysis of gamma-ray spectra, Vesta s global-average regolith composition was found to be consistent with the Howardite, Eucrite, and Diogenite (HED) meteorites, reinforcing the HED-Vesta connection [2-7]. Further, an analysis of epithermal neutrons revealed variations in the abundance of hydrogen on Vesta s surface, reaching values up to 400 micro-g/g [2]. The association of high concentrations of hydrogen with equatorial, low-albedo surface regions indicated exogenic delivery of hydrogen by the infall of carbonaceous chondrite (CC) materials. This finding was buttressed by the presence of minimally-altered CC clasts in howardites, with inferred bulk hydrogen abundances similar to that found by GRaND, and by studies using data from Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) and VIR instruments [8-10]. In addition, from an analysis of neutron absorption, spatial-variations in the abundance of elements other than hydrogen were detected [2].

  10. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  11. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  12. Artificial Lipid Membrane Permeability Method for Predicting Intestinal Drug Transport: Probing the Determining Step in the Oral Absorption of Sulfadiazine; Influence of the Formation of Binary and Ternary Complexes with Cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Delrivo, Alicia; Aloisio, Carolina; Longhi, Marcela R; Granero, Gladys

    2018-04-01

    We propose an in vitro permeability assay by using a modified lipid membrane to predict the in vivo intestinal passive permeability of drugs. Two conditions were tested, one with a gradient pH (pH 5.5 donor/pH 7.4 receptor) and the other with an iso-pH 7.4. The predictability of the method was established by correlating the obtained apparent intestinal permeability coefficients (P app ) and the oral dose fraction absorbed in humans (f a ) of 16 drugs with different absorption properties. The P app values correlated well with the absorption rates under the two conditions, and the method showed high predictability and good reproducibility. On the other hand, with this method, we successfully predicted the transport characteristics of oral sulfadiazine (SDZ). Also, the tradeoff between the increase in the solubility of SDZ by its complex formation with cyclodextrins and/or aminoacids and its oral permeability was assessed. Results suggest that SDZ is transported through the gastrointestinal epithelium by passive diffusion in a pH-dependent manner. These results support the classification of SDZ as a high/low borderline permeability compound and are in agreement with the Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). This conclusion is consistent with the in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of SDZ.

  13. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy as method of choice for non-invasive and automated detection of microbial growth in media fills.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, David; Roesti, David; Zuber, Ulrich; Sacher, Meik; Duncan, Derek; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-05-15

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was evaluated on its potential to detect bacterial growth of contaminated media fill vials. The target was a replacement/ automation of the traditional visual media fill inspection. TDLAS was used to determine non-invasively O 2 and/or CO 2 changes in headspaces of such vials being induced by metabolically active microorganisms. Four different vial formats, 34 microorganisms (inoculation volume<10 cells) and two different media (TSB/FTM) were tested. Applying parallel CO 2 and O 2 headspace measurements all format-organism combinations were detected within <11 days reliably with reproducible results. False negatives were exclusively observed for samples that were intentionally breached with syringes of 0.3mm in diameter. Overall it was shown that TDLAS functionality for a replacement of the visual media fill inspection is given and that investing in further validation and implementation studies is valuable. Nevertheless, some small but vincible challenges remain to have this technology in practical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  18. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  19. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  20. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  2. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  3. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  4. AERONET derived (BC) aerosol absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.

    2015-12-01

    AERONET is a ground-based sun-/sky-photometer network with good annual statistics at more than 400 sites worldwide. Inversion methods applied to these data define all relevant column aerosol optical properties and reveal even microphysical detail. The extracted data include estimates for aerosol size-distributions and for aerosol refractive indices at four different solar wavelengths. Hereby, the imaginary parts of the refractive indices define the aerosol column absorption. For regional and global averages and radiative impact assessment with off-line radiative transfer, these local data have been extended with distribution patterns offered by AeroCom modeling experiments. Annual and seasonal absorption distributions for total aerosol and estimates for component contributions (such as BC) are presented and associated direct forcing impacts are quantified.

  5. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  6. Nonlinear absorption properties of silicene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Han, Kezhen; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-06-01

    As the cousins of graphene, i.e. same group IVA element, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of silicene nanosheets were rarely studied. In this paper, we successfully exfoliated the two-dimensional silicene nanosheets from bulk silicon crystal using liquid phase exfoliation method. The NLA properties of silicene nanosheets were systemically investigated for the first time, as we have known. Silicene performed exciting saturable absorption and two photon absorption (2PA) behavior. The lower saturable intensity and larger 2PA coefficient at 532 nm excitation indicates that silicene has potential application in ultrafast lasers and optical limiting devices, especially in visible waveband.

  7. Nonlinear absorption properties of silicene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Han, Kezhen; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-06-01

    As the cousins of graphene, i.e. same group IVA element, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of silicene nanosheets were rarely studied. In this paper, we successfully exfoliated the two-dimensional silicene nanosheets from bulk silicon crystal using liquid phase exfoliation method. The NLA properties of silicene nanosheets were systemically investigated for the first time, as we have known. Silicene performed exciting saturable absorption and two photon absorption (2PA) behavior. The lower saturable intensity and larger 2PA coefficient at 532 nm excitation indicates that silicene has potential application in ultrafast lasers and optical limiting devices, especially in visible waveband.

  8. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  9. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  10. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  11. Variance of transionospheric VLF wave power absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Bortnik, J.; Friedrich, M.

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effects of D-region electron-density variance on wave power absorption, we calculate the power reduction of very low frequency (VLF) waves propagating through the ionosphere with a full wave method using the standard ionospheric model IRI and in situ observational data. We first verify the classic absorption curves of Helliwell's using our full wave code. Then we show that the IRI model gives overall smaller wave absorption compared with Helliwell's. Using D-region electron densities measured by rockets during the past 60 years, we demonstrate that the power absorption of VLF waves is subject to large variance, even though Helliwell's absorption curves are within ±1 standard deviation of absorption values calculated from data. Finally, we use a subset of the rocket data that are more representative of the D region of middle- and low-latitude VLF wave transmitters and show that the average quiet time wave absorption is smaller than that of Helliwell's by up to 100 dB at 20 kHz and 60 dB at 2 kHz, which would make the model-observation discrepancy shown by previous work even larger. This result suggests that additional processes may be needed to explain the discrepancy.

  12. Validation of an electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry method for quantification of total chromium and chromium(VI) in wild mushrooms and underlying soils.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Estela; Soares, M Elisa; Baptista, Paula; Castro, Marisa; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2007-08-22

    An ETAAS method was validated to quantify total Cr and Cr(VI) in mushrooms and the underlying soils. The method includes a sample pretreatment for total Cr dissolution using a wet acid digestion procedure and a selective alkaline extraction for Cr(VI). The limits of detection were, expressed in microg/L, 0.15 and 0.17 for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The linearity ranges under the optimized conditions were 0.15-25.0 and 0.17-20.0 microg/L for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The limits of quantification were, expressed in microg/g of dry weight, 0.0163 and 0.0085 for total and hexavalent chromium, respectively. The precision of the instrumental method for total Cr and Cr(VI) was lower than 1.6%, and for the analytical method, it was lower than 10%. The accuracy of the method for Cr(VI) quantification was evaluated by the standard additions method, with the recoveries being higher than 90% for all of the added concentrations. For total Cr, certified reference materials (lichen CRM 482 and soil sample NCS ZC73001) were used. An interference study was also carried out in a mushroom simulated matrix, and it was verified that the deviations of the expected values were lower than 4.0% for both total Cr and Cr(VI). The validated method was applied to the evaluation of total Cr and Cr(VI) in 34 wild mushrooms and 34 respective underlying soil samples collected in two different regions of Portugal (Beira Interior and TrAs-os-Montes), with different locations regarded as noncontaminated or contaminated areas. The species were identified by a mycologist and subdivided into 10 genera and 15 species: Amanita (rubescens, muscaria, and ponderosa), Boletus (regius), Lactarius (deliciosus, vellereus, and piperatus), Suillus (granulatus and luteus), Tricholoma (acerbum), Agaricus (sylvicola), Volvariella (gloiocephala), Lecopaxillus (giganteus), Macrolepiota (procera), and Psilocybe (fascicularis). The mean values found for total Cr were 1.14 and 1.11 microg/g of dry weight

  13. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-Hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: Application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxy-flavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from plasma. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less 16.48 % and accuracy is in 77.70–90.64 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.86%, accuracy in 85.08–114.70 % for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.23 %, accuracy is in 110.58–114.2 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.59 %, accuracy in 83.00–89.40% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μL of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  14. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from blood. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61-2500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31-2500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less than 16.5% and accuracy is in 77.7-90.6% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.9%, accuracy in 85.1-114.7% for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.2%, accuracy is in 110.6-114.2% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.6%, accuracy in 83.0-89.4% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μl of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  16. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  17. Detection of bacterial growth by gas absorption.

    PubMed

    Waters, J R

    1992-05-01

    When 24 different aerobic organisms were grown in a shaken culture, all were found to first absorb gas from the headspace. In a rudimentary medium, such as tryptic soy broth, 16 of the 24 organisms did not produce gas following the initial gas absorption. We have developed a simple, noninvasive method for detecting both gas absorption and production in multiple culture vials. The time to positivity was compared with that obtained by the BACTEC 460 blood culture system. For nearly all of these organisms, there was no difference. For some of those organisms that did not produce gas, e.g. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Moraxella osloensis, and Neisseria meningitidis, detection by gas absorption was a few hours faster. Gas absorption appears to be a promising technique for a new automated blood culture system because of its simplicity and because medium without special additives can be used to detect organisms that do not produce gas.

  18. Kinetic study of the scavenging reaction of the aroxyl radical by seven kinds of rice bran extracts in ethanol solution. Development of an aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazuo; Ouchi, Aya; Abe, Takumi; Murata, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-12-10

    Recently, a new assay method that can quantify the aroxyl radical (ArO•) absorption capacity (ARAC) of antioxidants (AOHs) was proposed. In the present work, the second-order rate constants (ks(Extract)) and ARAC values for the reaction of ArO• with seven kinds of rice bran extracts 1-7, which contain different concentrations of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols and -tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Tocs and -Toc-3s) and γ-oryzanol, were measured in ethanol at 25 °C using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The ks(Extract) value (1.26 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1)) of Nipponbare (extract 1) with the highest activity was 1.5 times larger than that (8.29 × 10(-3)) of Milyang-23 (extract 7) with the lowest activity. The concentrations (in mg/100 g) of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Tocs and -Toc-3s and γ-oryzanol found in the seven extracts 1-7 were determined using HPLC-MS/MS and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, respectively. From the results, it has been clarified that the ArO•-scavenging rates (ks(Extract)) (that is, the relative ARAC value) obtained for the seven extracts 1-7 may be approximately explained as the sum of the product {Σ ks(AOH-i) [AOH-i]/10(5)} of the rate constant (ks(AOH-i)) and the concentration ([AOH-i]/10(5)) of AOH-i (Tocs, Toc-3s, and γ-oryzanol) included in rice bran extracts. The contribution of γ-oryzanol to the ks(Extract) value was estimated to be between 3.0-4.7% for each extract. Taken together, these results suggest that the ARAC assay method is applicable to general food extracts.

  19. A comparison of the imaging characteristics of the new Kodak Hyper Speed G film with the current T-MAT G/RA film and the CR 9000 system.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Gutierrez, D; Bulling, S; Lepori, D; Verdun, F R

    2005-10-07

    Three standard radiation qualities (RQA 3, RQA 5 and RQA 9) and two screens, Kodak Lanex Regular and Insight Skeletal, were used to compare the imaging performance and dose requirements of the new Kodak Hyper Speed G and the current Kodak T-MAT G/RA medical x-ray films. The noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) of the four screen-film combinations were measured at three gross optical densities and compared with the characteristics for the Kodak CR 9000 system with GP (general purpose) and HR (high resolution) phosphor plates. The new Hyper Speed G film has double the intrinsic sensitivity of the T-MAT G/RA film and a higher contrast in the high optical density range for comparable exposure latitude. By providing both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution, the new film significantly improves the compromise between dose and image quality. As expected, the new film has a higher noise level and a lower signal-to-noise ratio than the standard film, although in the high frequency range this is compensated for by a better resolution, giving better DQE results--especially at high optical density. Both screen-film systems outperform the phosphor plates in terms of MTF and DQE for standard imaging conditions (Regular screen at RQA 5 and RQA 9 beam qualities). At low energy (RQA 3), the CR system has a comparable low-frequency DQE to screen-film systems when used with a fine screen at low and middle optical densities, and a superior low-frequency DQE at high optical density.

  20. Fabrication of Controllable Pore and Particle Size of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles via a Liquid-phase Synthesis Method and Its Absorption Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Iskandar, Ferry; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2011-12-01

    Monodisperse spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a liquid-phase synthesis method. The result showed particles with controllable pore size from several to tens nanometers with outer diameter of several tens nanometers. The ability in the control of pore size and outer diameter was altered by adjusting the precursor solution ratios. In addition, we have conducted the adsorption ability of the prepared particles. The result showed that large organic molecules were well-absorbed to the prepared silica porous particles, in which this result was not obtained when using commercial dense silica particle and/or hollow silica particle. With this result, the prepared mesoporous silica particles may be used efficiently in various applications, such as sensors, pharmaceuticals, environmentally sensitive pursuits, etc.

  1. Electronic absorption, vibrational spectra, nonlinear optical properties, NBO analysis and thermodynamic properties of N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, T; Muthu, S; Karabacak, M

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-100 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively, for N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The frontier orbital energy gap and dipole moment illustrates the high reactivity of the title molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of the molecule were also calculated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) anti-bonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-500 nm in ethanol and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were calculated by TD-DFT/B3LYP, CIS and TD-HF methods using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels are also constructed. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated at different temperatures and the results reveals the heat capacity (C), and entropy (S) increases with rise in temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of (196,198)Au production yields by (197)Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Abdollah

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of (197)Au(n,γ)(196,198)Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. (197)Au nano-solution, including 20nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E+13n/cm(2)/s for (196,198)Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF2 reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in (197)Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-shot measurement of nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Oak, Shrikant M

    2006-06-01

    A single-shot method for measurement of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction is described and analyzed. A spatial intensity variation of an elliptical Gaussian beam in conjugation with an array detector is the key element of this method. The advantages of this single-shot technique were demonstrated by measuring the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption in GaAs as well as the nonlinear refractive index of CS2 using a modified optical Kerr setup.

  4. Iron absorption from Southeast Asian diets. II. Role of various factors that might explain low absorption.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Rossander, L; Suwanik, R

    1977-04-01

    Previously reported levels of iron absorption from common Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices were too low to be consistent with the known prevalence of iron deficiency. In the present paper the cause of the low absorption was systematically sought. Variables investigated comprised methodological errors, factors in the diet such as certain foodstuffs, or contaminants inhibiting the absorption and characteristics of the subjects accompanied by malabsorption of dietary iron. The latter was excluded by comparing the absorption from both wheat rolls and a composit rice meal in Thai and Swedish women using the absorption of a small dose of ferrous ascorbate as a common basis of comparison. Two main factors were identified as causing the low absorption in the previous studies: the homogenization of the labeled meals before serving and the use of rice flour instead of rice. Iron absorption from nonhomogenized meals of identical composition as studied previously was many times higher (on an average 0.16 mg) and was consistent with the actual prevalence of iron deficiency in lower socioeconomic groups of Thais mainly consuming the simple meals studied. Recent modifications of the method to measure nonheme iron absorption from composite meals have thus not only made the determination simpler but also more accurate.

  5. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. The combination of activated natural zeolite-bentonite to reduce Fe and Cu in refined bleached palm oil (RBPO) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakwan; Raja, PM; Giyanto

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the crude palm oil (CPO) production country in the world. As many products are derivated from the CPO, the quality must be increased continuously. One of the things that influence the quality of palm oil is the Fe and Cu content. The objective of this research was to reduce Fe and Cu content in Refined Bleached Palm Oil (RBPO). In processing CPO or Refined Bleachead Palm Oil (RBPO) may be contaminated by Fe and Cu from metal tank and pipe in the factory. The zeolite and bentonite was activated by maceration method using hydrochloric acid (0,1 N). Four batch reactions consisting of refined palm oil (RPO), activated natural zeolite-bentonite (ANZB) was bleached by heating and stirring them at about 105°C and 1200 rpm for 30 minutes. The results showed that all combinations of ANZB can reduce the Fe content. Thereafter, the optimal combination of ANZB was obtained in K1, K2 and K4 with Cu content 0.02 ppm. In the future, it is needed to study on the reduction of the Fe and Cu content in palm oil with the other adsorbent.

  7. Effect of sand and method of mixing on molten salt properties for an open direct absorption solar receiver/storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaydi, Muna; Delclos, Thomas; AlMheiri, Saif; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    The concept of CSPonD Demo project is based on a single and open molten salt tank as a thermal solar receiver and storage unit. Therefore, the effect of external environment such as sand and air on the thermophysical properties of nitrate salt (60 wt. % sodium nitrate, 40 wt. % potassium nitrate) has been investigated in this work. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the melting, solidification temperatures while the thermal stability and mass loss measurements were carried on Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Measurements under nitrogen indicate that the adding 2% (w/w) sand has negative impact by increasing the solidification temperature, mass loss percentage and decreasing the stability limit. While the melting temperature was not affected by the sand and by the preparation method. On the other hand, measurement under air showed an increase of the stability limit and decrease of the mass loss percentage. Furthermore, the measurements for the mass loss under air did not reach a stable value, which required further investigation.

  8. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  9. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  10. Development of a Singlet Oxygen Absorption Capacity (SOAC) Assay Method. Measurements of the SOAC Values for Carotenoids and α-Tocopherol in an Aqueous Triton X-100 Micellar Solution.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazuo; Ouchi, Aya; Azuma, Nagao; Takahashi, Shingo; Aizawa, Koichi; Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Recently, a new assay method for the quantification of the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants (AOs) and food extracts in homogeneous organic solvents was proposed. In this study, second-order rate constants (k Q ) for the reaction of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) with eight different carotenoids (Cars) and α-tocopherol (α-Toc) were measured in an aqueous Triton X-100 (5.0 wt %) micellar solution (pH 7.4, 35 °C), which was used as a simple model of biomembranes. The k Q and relative SOAC values were measured using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The UV-vis absorption spectra of Cars and α-Toc were measured in both a micellar solution and chloroform, to investigate the effect of solvent on the k Q and SOAC values. Furthermore, decay rates (k d ) of 1 O 2 were measured in 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt % micellar solutions (pH 7.4), using time-resolved near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy, to determine the absolute k Q values of the AOs. The results obtained demonstrate that the k Q values of AOs in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions vary notably depending on (i) the polarity [dielectric constant (ε)] of the reaction field between AOs and 1 O 2 , (ii) the local concentration of AOs, and (iii) the mobility of AOs in solution. In addition, the k Q and relative SOAC values obtained for the Cars in a heterogeneous micellar solution differ remarkably from those in homogeneous organic solvents. Measurements of k Q and SOAC values in a micellar solution may be useful for evaluating the 1 O 2 quenching activity of AOs in biological systems.

  11. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  12. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  13. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  14. Microwave Absorption Properties of La0.8Ca0.2-xAgxMnO3 (x=0.05; x=0.15) Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, B.; Laksmi, W.; Sahara, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave absorption properties of La0.8Ca0.2-xAgxMnO3 (x= 0.05; 0.15) is reported in this paper. Lanthanum manganite materials was reported as a potential absorber material [1][2][3]. In this paper, the material was synthesized by sol-gel method, calcined at 550°C, and sintered at 900°C. The material was characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), and we found that the materials were single phased. Through SEM-EDS characterization it is found that the materials have compositional purity. The resistivity of the materials is obtained by four point probe method, and it is shown that Ag doped decreases the resistivity of the materials. Reflection loss of La0.8Ca0.15Ag0.05MnO3 reaches -4.470 dB and La0.8Ca0.05Ag0.15MnO3 reaches - 7.953 dB.

  15. Percutaneous absorption of selenium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, J.; Skelly, E.M.; Weber, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine selenium levels in the urine of Tinea patients before and after overnight application of a 2.5% selenium sulfide lotion. Selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Hydride generation and carbon rod atomization were studied. It was concluded from this study that selenium is absorbed through intact skin. Selenium is then excreted, at least partially, in urine, for at least a week following treatment. The data show that absorption and excretion of selenium vary on an individual basis. Selenium levels in urine following a single application of selenium sulfide lotion do notmore » indicate that toxic amounts of selenium are being absorbed. Repeated treatments with SeS/sub 2/ result in selenium concentrations in urine which are significantly higher than normal. Significant matrix effects are observed in the carbon rod atomization of urine samples for selenium determinations, even in the presence of a matrix modifier such as nickel. The method of standard additions is required to obtain accurate results in the direct determination of selenium in urine by carbon rod AAS.« less

  16. Extraction method based on emulsion breaking for the determination of Cu, Fe and Pb in Brazilian automotive gasoline samples by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Clarice C.; de Jesus, Alexandre; Kolling, Leandro; Ferrão, Marco F.; Samios, Dimitrios; Silva, Márcia M.

    2018-04-01

    This work reports a new method for extraction of Cu, Fe and Pb from Brazilian automotive gasoline and their determination by high-resolution continuous source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). The method was based on the formation of water-in-oil emulsion by mixing 2.0 mL of extraction solution constituted by 12% (w/v) Triton X-100 and 5% (v/v) HNO3 with 10 mL of sample. After heating at 90 °C for 10 min, two well-defined phases were formed. The bottom phase (approximately 3.5 mL), composed of acidified water and part of the ethanol originally present in the gasoline sample, containing the extracted analytes was analyzed. The surfactant and HNO3 concentrations and the heating temperature employed in the process were optimized by Doehlert design, using a Brazilian gasoline sample spiked with Cu, Fe and Pb (organometallic compounds). The efficiency of extraction was investigated and it ranged from 80 to 89%. The calibration was accomplished by using matrix matching method. For this, the standards were obtained performing the same extraction procedure used for the sample, using emulsions obtained with a gasoline sample free of analytes and the addition of inorganic standards. Limits of detection obtained were 3.0, 5.0 and 14.0 μg L-1 for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively. These limits were estimated for the original sample taking into account the preconcentration factor obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method was assured by recovery tests spiking the samples with organometallic standards and the obtained values ranged from 98 to 105%. Ten gasoline samples were analyzed and Fe was found in four samples (0.04-0.35 mg L-1) while Cu (0.28 mg L-1) and Pb (0.60 mg L-1) was found in just one sample.

  17. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  18. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  19. [The study of CO2 cavity enhanced absorption and highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Pei, Shi-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Fen-Ping; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jie; Fan, Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2005-12-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a new spectral technology that is based on the cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy. In the present paper, a DFB encapsulation narrow line width tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as the light source. At the center output, the TDL radiation wavelength was 1.573 microm, and an optical cavity, which consisted of two high reflectivity mirrors (near 1.573 microm, the mirror reflectivity was about 0.994%), was used as a sample cell. A wavemeter was used to record the accurate frequency of the laser radiation. In the experiment, the method of scanning the optical cavity to change the cavity mode was used, when the laser frequency was coincident with one of the cavity mode; the laser radiation was coupled into the optical cavity and the detector could receive the light signals that escaped the optical cavity. As a result, the absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide weak absorption at low pressure was obtained with an absorption intensity of 1.816 x 10(-23) cm(-1) x (molecule x cm(-2)(-1) in a sample cell with a length of only 33.5 cm. An absorption sensitivity of about 3.62 x 10(-7) cm(-1) has been achieved. The experiment result indicated that the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy has the advantage of high sensivity, simple experimental setup, and easy operation.

  20. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of arsenic and selenium in water and sediment by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sandra R.; Garbarino, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) is a sensitive, precise, and accurate technique that can be used to determine arsenic and selenium in samples of water and sediment. The GF-AAS method has been developed to replace the hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) methods because the method detection limits are similar, bias and variability are comparable, and interferences are minimal. Advantages of the GF-AAS method include shorter sample preparation time, increased sample throughput from simultaneous multielement analysis, reduced amount of chemical waste, reduced sample volume requirements, increased linear concentration range, and the use of a more accurate digestion procedure. The linear concentration range for arsenic and selenium is 1 to 50 micrograms per liter in solution; the current method detection limit for arsenic in solution is 0.9 microgram per liter; the method detection limit for selenium in solution is 1 microgram per liter. This report describes results that were obtained using stop-flow and low-flow conditions during atomization. The bias and variability of the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium by GF-AAS under both conditions are supported with results from standard reference materials--water and sediment, real water samples, and spike recovery measurements. Arsenic and selenium results for all Standard Reference Water Samples analyzed were within one standard deviation of the most probable values. Long-term spike recoveries at 6.25, 25.0, 37.5 micrograms per liter in reagent-, ground-, and surface-water samples for arsenic averaged 103 plus or minus 2 percent using low-flow conditions and 104 plus or minus 4 percent using stop-flow conditions. Corresponding recoveries for selenium were 98 plus or minus 13 percent using low-flow conditions and 87 plus or minus 24 percent using stop-flow conditions. Spike recoveries at 25 micrograms per liter in 120 water samples ranged from 97 to 99 percent

  1. Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R

    2012-06-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.

  2. Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

  3. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  4. Precise Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Karl-Hugo; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A precise method of determining absorption maxima where Gaussian functions occur is described. The method is based on a logarithmic transformation of the Gaussian equation and is suited for a mini-computer. (MR)

  5. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  6. Energy absorption of composite material and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

  7. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received ∼300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4–5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6 ± 4.8% (P < 0.0001) and phytosterol esters 30.6 ± 3.9% (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content. PMID:19246636

  8. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  9. Aerosol Absorption Measurements from LANDSAT and CIMEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Karnieli, A.; Remer, L.; Holben, B.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral remote observations of dust properties from space and from the ground create a powerful tool for determination of dust absorption of solar radiation with an unprecedented accuracy. Absorption is a key component in understanding dust impact on climate. We use Landsat space-borne measurements at 0.47 to 2.2 micrometer over Senegal with ground-based sunphotometers to find that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is two to four times smaller than in models. Though dust absorbs in the blue, almost no absorption was found for wavelengths greater than 0.6 micrometer. The new finding increases by 50% recent estimated solar radiative forcing by dust and decreases the estimated dust heating of the lower troposphere. Dust transported from Asia shows slightly higher absorption probably due to the presence of black carbon from populated regions. Large-scale application of this method to satellite data from the Earth Observing System can reduce significantly the uncertainty in the dust radiative effects.

  10. Controlling enhanced absorption in graphene metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qihui; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Genghui

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a controllable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MA) is designed with the circuit analog method. Taking advantage of the patterned graphene on SiO2/doped Si/polyimide substrates with a gold reflector, the controllable MA achieves perfect absorption at 0.75 THz. The chemical potential of graphene is regulated by controlling the voltage between graphene and doped Si layers. As the chemical potential varies from 0 eV to 0.5 eV, the MA is changed from reflection (<0.37) to absorption (>0.99). The distributions of surface current and electric field are illustrated to analyze the resonant characteristic of patterned graphene. According to the resonant characteristic, we introduce patterned graphene elements with different dimension in a unit cell, which effectively extends the effective absorption bandwidth (absorption > 0 . 9) from 0.67-0.93 THz to 0.52-0.95 THz. Moreover, replacing part of the graphene structure with gold, the switchable MA is turned into a frequency tunable MA. The absorption peak moves from 0.62 THz to 0.92 THz as the chemical potential increases from 0.1 eV to 0.5 eV. These designs overcome limitation of traditional absorbers and exhibit great potentials in many practical applications.

  11. A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.

    2017-10-01

    Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.

  12. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  13. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  14. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  15. Nonequilibrium quantum absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Fu-Lin

    2018-06-01

    We study a quantum absorption refrigerator, in which a target qubit is cooled by two machine qubits in a nonequilibrium steady-state. It is realized by a strong internal coupling in the two-qubit fridge and a vanishing tripartite interaction among the whole system. The coherence of a machine virtual qubit is investigated as quantumness of the fridge. A necessary condition for cooling shows that the quantum coherence is beneficial to the nonequilibrium fridge, while it is detrimental as far as the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) and the COP at maximum power are concerned. Here, the COP is defined only in terms of heat currents caused by the tripartite interaction, with the one maintaining the two-qubit nonequilibrium state being excluded. The later can be considered to have no direct involvement in extracting heat from the target, as it is not affected by the tripartite interaction.

  16. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  17. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  18. Optimization of absorption air-conditioning for solar energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    Improved performance of solar cooling systems using the lithium bromide water absorption cycle is investigated. Included are computer simulations of a solar-cooled house, analyses and measurements of heat transfer rates in absorption system components, and design and fabrication of various system components. A survey of solar collector convection suppression methods is presented.

  19. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  20. BASIC STUDIES IN PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS, *SKIN(ANATOMY), ABSORPTION, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, DIFFUSION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, HUMIDITY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, LIPIDS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, PENETRATION, PRIVATION, PROTEINS, RATS, TEMPERATURE, WATER

  1. Optical Absorption in Liquid Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Florian Gene

    An infrared absorption cell has been developed which is suitable for high temperature liquids which have absorptions in the range .1-10('3) cm('-1). The cell is constructed by clamping a gasket between two flat optical windows. This unique design allows the use of any optical windows chemically compatible with the liquid. The long -wavelength limit of the measurements is therefore limited only by the choice of the optical windows. The thickness of the cell can easily be set during assembly, and can be varied from 50 (mu)m to .5 cm. Measurements of the optical absorption edge were performed on the liquid alloy Se(,1-x)Tl(,x) for x = 0, .001, .002, .003, .005, .007, and .009, from the melting point up to 475(DEGREES)C. The absorption was found to be exponential in the photon energy over the experimental range from 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. The absorption increased linearly with concentration according to the empirical relation (alpha)(,T)(h(nu)) = (alpha)(,1) + (alpha)(,2)x, and the absorption (alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption in the absence of T1. (alpha)(,1) also agreed with the measured absorption in 100% Se at corresponding temperatures and energies. The excess absorption defined by (DELTA)(alpha) = (alpha)(,T)(h(nu))-(alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption associated with Tl and was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy E(,t) = 0.5 eV. The exponential edge is explained as absorption on atoms immersed in strong electric fields surrounding ions. The strong fields give rise to an absorption tail similar to the Franz-Keldysh effect. A simple calculation is performed which is based on the Dow-Redfield theory of absorption in an electric field with excitonic effects included. The excess absorption at low photon energies is proportional to the square of the concentration of ions, which are proposed to exist in the liquid according to the relation C(,i) (PROPORTIONAL) x(' 1/2)(.)e('-E)t('/kT), which is the origin of the thermal activation

  2. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  3. Laser-induced plasma characterization through self-absorption quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, JiaJia; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Xingyu; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2018-07-01

    A self-absorption quantification method is proposed to quantify the self-absorption degree of spectral lines, in which plasma characteristics including electron temperature, elemental concentration ratio, and absolute species number density can be deduced directly. Since there is no spectral intensity involved in the calculation, the analysis results are independent of the self-absorption effects and the additional spectral efficiency calibration is not required. In order to evaluate the practicality, the limitation for application and the precision of this method are also discussed. Experimental results of aluminum-lithium alloy prove that the proposed method is qualified to realize semi-quantitative measurements and fast plasma characteristics diagnostics.

  4. Neutron absorption detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-31

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging a receptor material that is not predominately water and lacks a photoluminescent material with an activator and generating Cherenkov effect light due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further including identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  5. Differential-optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two-cell spectrophone detects trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants by measuring absorption coefficients of gases with various laser sources. Device measures pressure difference between two tapered cells with differential manometer. Background signal is reduced by balanced window heating and balanced carrier gas absorption in two cells.

  6. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  7. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  8. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  9. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  10. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  11. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  12. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  13. Flameless atomic-absorption determination of gold in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Gold in geologic material is dissolved using a solution of hydrobromic acid and bromine, extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone, and determined using an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace atomizer. A comparison of results obtained by this flameless atomic-absorption method on U.S. Geological Survey reference rocks and geochemical samples with reported values and with results obtained by flame atomic-absorption shows that reasonable accuracy is achieved with improved precision. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method allows acquisition of data on the distribution of gold at or below its crustal abundance. ?? 1980.

  14. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  15. Remote laser evaporative molecular absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Cohen, Alexander; Madajian, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel method for probing bulk molecular and atomic composition of solid targets from a distant vantage. A laser is used to melt and vaporize a spot on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption occurs as the blackbody radiation passes through the ejected plume. Bulk molecular and atomic composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for Remote Laser-Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. The method is well-suited for exploration of cold solar system targets—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—such as from a spacecraft orbiting the target. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole or trench, and shallow subsurface composition profiling is possible. This paper describes system concepts for implementing the proposed method to probe the bulk molecular composition of an asteroid from an orbiting spacecraft, including laser array, photovoltaic power, heating and ablation, plume characteristics, absorption, spectrometry and data management.

  16. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  17. Multi-response optimization of T300/epoxy prepreg tape-wound cylinder by grey relational analysis coupled with the response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chao; Shi, Yaoyao; He, Xiaodong; Yu, Tao; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Hongji; Sun, Pengcheng; Zhang, Wenbin

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the multi-objective optimization of quality characteristics for a T300/epoxy prepreg tape-wound cylinder. The method integrates the Taguchi method, grey relational analysis (GRA) and response surface methodology, and is adopted to improve tensile strength and reduce residual stress. In the winding process, the main process parameters involving winding tension, pressure, temperature and speed are selected to evaluate the parametric influences on tensile strength and residual stress. Experiments are conducted using the Box-Behnken design. Based on principal component analysis, the grey relational grades are properly established to convert multi-responses into an individual objective problem. Then the response surface method is used to build a second-order model of grey relational grade and predict the optimum parameters. The predictive accuracy of the developed model is proved by two test experiments with a low prediction error of less than 7%. The following process parameters, namely winding tension 124.29 N, pressure 2000 N, temperature 40 °C and speed 10.65 rpm, have the highest grey relational grade and give better quality characteristics in terms of tensile strength and residual stress. The confirmation experiment shows that better results are obtained with GRA improved by the proposed method than with ordinary GRA. The proposed method is proved to be feasible and can be applied to optimize the multi-objective problem in the filament winding process.

  18. Training and business performance: the mediating role of absorptive capacities.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-García, Juan; Yáñez-Araque, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Training has been the focus of considerable conceptual and empirical attention but is considered a relevant factor for competitive edge in companies because it has a positive impact on business performance. This study is justified by the need for deeper analysis of the process involving the transfer of training into performance. This paper's originality lies in the implementation of the absorptive capacities approach as an appropriate conceptual framework for designing a model that reflects the connection between training and business performance through absorptive capacities. Based on the above conceptual framework and using the dual methodological implementation, a new method of analyzing the relationship between training and performance was obtained: efforts in training will not lead to performance without the mediation of absorptive. Training turns into performance if absorptive capacities are involved in this process. The suggested model becomes an appropriate framework for explaining the process of transformation of training into organizational performance, in which absorptive capacities play a key role. The findings obtained can go further owing to fs/QCA: of the different absorptive capacities, that of exploitation is a necessary condition to achieve better organizational performance. Therefore, training based on absorptive capacity will guide and facilitate the design of appropriate human resource strategies so that training results in improved performance. This conclusion is relevant for the development of a new facet of absorptive capacities by relating it to training and resulting in first-level implications for human resource management.

  19. Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisa, M. H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Hu, T. D.; Xie, Y. N.

    2005-12-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained.

  20. Broadband absorption with gradient metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hoyeong; Chalabi, Hamidreza; Alù, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    A metasurface with appropriately designed transverse spatial inhomogeneities can provide the desired phase redistribution in response to an incident wave with arbitrary incident angle. This property of gradient metasurfaces has been used to modify light propagation in unusual manners, to transform the impinging optical wavefront with large flexibility. In this work, we show how gradient metasurfaces can be tailored to offer high absorption in thin absorptive layers, and how to design realistic metasurfaces for this purpose using dielectric materials.

  1. Polyamidoamine dendrimers as novel potential absorption enhancers for improving the small intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yulian; Fujimori, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Naoko; Tsujimoto, Yuiko; Nishimi, Mariko; Dong, Zhengqi; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2011-01-05

    Effects of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs were examined by an in situ closed loop method in rats. 5(6)-Carboxyfluorescein (CF), fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) with various molecular weights, calcitonin and insulin were used as model drugs of poorly absorbable drugs. The absorption of CF, FD4 and calcitonin from the rat small intestine was significantly enhanced in the presence of PAMAM dendrimers. The absorption-enhancing effects of PAMAM dendrimers for improving the small intestinal absorption of CF were concentration and generation dependent and a maximal absorption-enhancing effect was observed in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) G2 PAMAM dendrimer. However, G2 PAMAM dendrimer had almost no absorption-enhancing effect on the small intestinal absorption of macromolecular drugs including FD10 and insulin. Overall, the absorption-enhancing effects of G2 PAMAM dendrimer in the small intestine decreased as the molecular weights of drug increased. However, G2 PAMAM dendrimer did not enhance the intestinal absorption of these drugs with different molecular weights in the large intestine. Furthermore, we evaluated the intestinal membrane damage with or without G2 PAMAM dendrimer. G2 PAMAM dendrimer (0.5% (w/v)) significantly increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the amounts of protein released from the intestinal membranes, but the activities and amounts of these toxic markers were less than those in the presence of 3% Triton X-100 used as a positive control. Moreover, G2 PAMAM dendrimer at concentrations of 0.05% (w/v) and 0.1% (w/v) did not increase the activities and amounts of these toxic markers. These findings suggested that PAMAM dendrimers at lower concentrations might be potential and safe absorption enhancers for improving absorption of poorly absorbable drugs from the small intestine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved determination of particulate absorption from combined filter pad and PSICAM measurements.

    PubMed

    Lefering, Ina; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Weeks, Rebecca; Connor, Derek; Utschig, Christian; Heymann, Kerstin; McKee, David

    2016-10-31

    Filter pad light absorption measurements are subject to two major sources of experimental uncertainty: the so-called pathlength amplification factor, β, and scattering offsets, o, for which previous null-correction approaches are limited by recent observations of non-zero absorption in the near infrared (NIR). A new filter pad absorption correction method is presented here which uses linear regression against point-source integrating cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) absorption data to simultaneously resolve both β and the scattering offset. The PSICAM has previously been shown to provide accurate absorption data, even in highly scattering waters. Comparisons of PSICAM and filter pad particulate absorption data reveal linear relationships that vary on a sample by sample basis. This regression approach provides significantly improved agreement with PSICAM data (3.2% RMS%E) than previously published filter pad absorption corrections. Results show that direct transmittance (T-method) filter pad absorption measurements perform effectively at the same level as more complex geometrical configurations based on integrating cavity measurements (IS-method and QFT-ICAM) because the linear regression correction compensates for the sensitivity to scattering errors in the T-method. This approach produces accurate filter pad particulate absorption data for wavelengths in the blue/UV and in the NIR where sensitivity issues with PSICAM measurements limit performance. The combination of the filter pad absorption and PSICAM is therefore recommended for generating full spectral, best quality particulate absorption data as it enables correction of multiple errors sources across both measurements.

  3. Optical absorption in disordered monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekuma, C. E.; Gunlycke, D.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the combined impact of sulfur vacancies and electronic interactions on the optical properties of monolayer MoS2. First, we present a generalized Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian that accounts for both randomly distributed sulfur vacancies and the presence of dielectric screening within the material. Second, we parametrize this energy-dependent Hamiltonian from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Green's function and screened Coulomb (GW) method. Third, we apply a first-principles-based many-body typical medium method to determine the single-particle electronic structure. Fourth, we solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation to obtain the charge susceptibility χ with its imaginary part being related to the absorbance A . Our results show that an increased vacancy concentration leads to decreased absorption both in the band continuum and from exciton states within the band gap. We also observe increased absorption below the band-gap threshold and present an expression, which describes Lifshitz tails, in excellent qualitative agreement with our numerical calculations. This latter increased absorption in the 1.0 -2.5 eV range makes defect engineering of potential interest for solar cell applications.

  4. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shiaguo [Champaign, IL; Lu, Yonggi [Urbana, IL; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  5. Absorption of Thermal Neutrons in Uranium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Creutz, E. C.; Wilson, R. R.; Wigner, E. P.

    1941-09-26

    A knowledge of the absorption processes for neutrons in uranium is important for planning a chain reaction experiment. The absorption of thermal neutrons in uranium and uranium oxide has been studied. Neutrons from the cyclotron were slowed down by passage through a graphite block. A uranium or uranium oxide sphere was placed at various positions in the block. The neutron intensity at different points in the sphere and in the graphite was measured by observing the activity induced in detectors or uranium oxide or manganese. It was found that both the fission activity in the uranium oxide and the activity induced in manganese was affected by non-thermal neutrons. An experimental correction for such effects was made by making measurements with the detectors surrounded by cadmium. After such corrections the results from three methods of procedure with the uranium oxide detectors and from the manganese detectors were consistent to within a few per cent.

  6. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. During air cool process aerosol absorption detection with photothermal interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Xu, Limei; Huang, Junling; Ma, Fei; Wang, Yicheng; Li, Zhengqiang

    2014-11-01

    This paper studies the basic principle of laser photothermal interferometry method of aerosol particles absorption coefficient. The photothermal interferometry method with higher accuracy and lower uncertainty can directly measure the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols and not be affected by scattered light. With Jones matrix expression, the math expression of a special polarization interferometer is described. This paper using folded Jamin interferometer, which overcomes the influence of vibration on measuring system. Interference come from light polarization beam with two orthogonal and then combine to one beam, finally aerosol absorption induced refractive index changes can be gotten with four beam of phase orthogonal light. These kinds of styles really improve the stability of system and resolution of the system. Four-channel detections interact with interference fringes, to reduce the light intensity `zero drift' effect on the system. In the laboratory, this device typical aerosol absorption index, it shows that the result completely agrees with actual value. After heated by laser, cool process of air also show the process of aerosol absorption. This kind of instrument will be used to monitor ambient aerosol absorption and suspended particulate matter chemical component. Keywords: Aerosol absorption coefficient; Photothermal interferometry; Suspended particulate matter.

  8. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  9. Energy absorption in composite materials for crashworthy structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Crash energy-absorption processes in composite materials have been studied as part of a research program aimed at the development of energy absorbing subfloor beams for crashworthy military helicopters. Based on extensive tests on glass/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, and Kevlar/epoxy composites, it is shown that the energy-absorption characteristics and crushing modes of composite beams are similar to those exhibited by tubular specimens of similar material and architecture. The crushing mechanisms have been determined and related to the mechanical properties of the constituent materials and specimen architecture. A simple and accurate method for predicting the energy-absorption capability of composite beams has been developed.

  10. Monitoring Telluric Absorption with CAMAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ashley D.; Blake, Cullen H.; Sliski, David H.

    2017-08-01

    Ground-based astronomical observations may be limited by telluric water vapor absorption, which is highly variable in time and significantly complicates both spectroscopy and photometry in the near-infrared (NIR). To achieve the sensitivity required to detect Earth-sized exoplanets in the NIR, simultaneous monitoring of precipitable water vapor (PWV) becomes necessary to mitigate the impact of variable telluric lines on radial velocity measurements and transit light curves. To address this issue, we present the Camera for the Automatic Monitoring of Atmospheric Lines (CAMAL), a stand-alone, inexpensive six-inch aperture telescope dedicated to measuring PWV at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins. CAMAL utilizes three narrowband NIR filters to trace the amount of atmospheric water vapor affecting simultaneous observations with the MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) and MINERVA-Red telescopes. Here, we present the current design of CAMAL, discuss our data analysis methods, and show results from 11 nights of PWV measurements taken with CAMAL. For seven nights of data we have independent PWV measurements extracted from high-resolution stellar spectra taken with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrometer (TRES) also located on Mount Hopkins. We use the TRES spectra to calibrate the CAMAL absolute PWV scale. Comparisons between CAMAL and TRES PWV estimates show excellent agreement, matching to within 1 mm over a 10 mm range in PWV. Analysis of CAMAL’s photometric precision propagates to PWV measurements precise to better than 0.5 mm in dry (PWV < 4 mm) conditions. We also find that CAMAL-derived PWVs are highly correlated with those from a GPS-based water vapor monitor located approximately 90 km away at Kitt Peak National Observatory, with a root mean square PWV difference of 0.8 mm.

  11. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. Themore » absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.« less

  12. Absorption of Orally Administered Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mamoru; Maeshima, Takuya; Kubota, Takumi; Kurihara, Hitoshi; Masuda, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been utilized as a supplement. However, the absorption of orally administrated HA remains controversial. The degradation and absorption of HA in the intestine were investigated in this study. HA excretion into the feces, degradation in the intestinal tract, absorption through the large intestine, and translocation to the blood and skin were examined. HA administered orally was not detected in rat feces. HA was degraded by cecal content, but not by artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice. Oligosaccharide HA passed through excised large intestine sacs. Furthermore, disaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and polysaccharides HA were distributed to the skin of rats following oral administration of high molecular weight HA (300 kDa). The results of the study suggest that orally administered HA is degraded to oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria, and oligosaccharide HA is absorbed in the large intestine and is subsequently distributed throughout the tissues, including the skin.

  13. Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broersma, S.; Walls, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the concentration, pressure, and temperature dependence of the spectral absorptance of a vibrational absorption band. A smooth thermodynamic dependence was found for wavelength intervals where the average absorptance is less than 0.65. Individual rotational lines, whose parameters are often well known, were used as bases in the calculation of medium resolution spectra. Two modes of calculation were combined: well-separated rotational lines plus interaction terms, or strongly overlapping lines that were represented by a compound line of similar shape plus corrections. The 1.9- and 6.3-micron bands of H2O and the 4.3-micron band of CO2 were examined in detail and compared with experiment.

  14. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  15. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. An Inexpensive Optical Absorption Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2006-09-01

    This optical absorption experiment can be put together in only a few minutes with materials found in most secondary or undergraduate stockrooms. The absorption material is the partly transparent flexible anti-static plastic material used to package solid-state devices. The detector is a hand-held photographic exposure meter of the type that was in common use before the advent of point-and-shoot cameras. A graph of the intensity of the transmitted light as a function of the number of sheets of the material is a decreasing exponential. The emphasis of the experiment is on the mathematical form.

  17. Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Skoryna, Stanley C.; Paul, T. M.; Edward, Deirdre Waldron

    1964-01-01

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting the calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out in vivo by injection of Sr89 and Ca45 in the presence of inert carrier into ligated intestinal segments in rats, and the amount of absorption was measured by standard monitoring techniques. The pattern of absorption of both ions is very similar but the rate of absorption is different. It was found that the polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate, obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), injected simultaneously with radiostrontium effectively reduces the absortion of Sr89 from all segments of the intestine by as much as 50-80% of the control values. No significant reduction in absorption of Ca45 was observed in equivalent concentrations. The reduction in blood levels of Sr89 and in bone uptake corresponded to the absorption pattern. The difference in the effect on strontium and calcium absorption may be due to differences in the binding capacity of sodium alginate from the two metal ions under the conditions present in vivo. PMID:14180534

  18. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  19. The GraVent DDT database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, Lorenz R.; Katzy, Peter; Hasslberger, Josef; Kink, Andreas; Sattelmayer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    An open-access online platform containing data from experiments on deflagration-to-detonation transition conducted at the Institute of Thermodynamics, Technical University of Munich, has been developed and is accessible at http://www.td.mw.tum.de/ddt. The database provides researchers working on explosion dynamics with data for theoretical analyses and for the validation of numerical simulations.

  20. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  1. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  2. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  3. Oxalate and Sucralose Absorption in Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Jiang, Juquan; Wood, Kyle D.; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Oxalate has been hypothesized to undergo absorption in the large and small intestine by both paracellular and transepithelial transport. Sucralose is a chlorinated sugar that is absorbed by paracellular mechanisms. This study's objective was to better understand intestinal oxalate transport by correlating oxalate and sucralose absorption in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Methods Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers were recruited to provide urine specimens on both a self-selected diet and following a meal containing 90 mg of 13C2-oxalate and 5 grams of sucralose, and a stool sample for determination of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization. The 24 hour urine collections were fractionated into the first 6 hours and the subsequent 18 hours. Sucralose and oxalate excretion were measured during these periods and used to estimate absorption. Results A total of 38 subjects were evaluated. The majority of both the 13C2-oxalate and sucralose absorption occurred within the 0-6 hour collection. The 13C2-oxalate and sucralose absorptions were significantly correlated at the 0-6 hour, the 6-24 hour, and the total 24 hour time periods (p<0.04). All five oxalate hyperabsorbers(> 15% absorption) also absorbed significantly more sucralose during the 0-6 hour and whole 24 hour time points (p<0.04). Oxalobacter formigenes colonization did not significantly alter oxalate absorption. Conclusion The results suggest that the majority of oxalate is absorbed in the proximal portion of the gastrointestinal tract and that paracelluar transport is involved. Augmented paracellular transport, as evidenced by increased sucralose absorption, may also influence oxalate absorption. PMID:21676449

  4. Aerosol Absorption and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kinne, Stefan; Boucher, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the shortwave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W m(sup -2) (33%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13W m(sup -2 (72%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19W m(sup -2) (36%) clear-sky and of 0.12W m(sup -2) (92%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05W m(sup -2) and a positive TOA forcing perturbation of 0

  5. The difficulty of measuring the absorption of scattered sunlight by H2O and CO2 in volcanic plumes: A comment on Pering et al. “A novel and inexpensive method for measuring volcanic plume water fluxes at high temporal resolution,” Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 146

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In their recent study, Pering et al. (2017) presented a novel method for measuring volcanic water vapor fluxes. Their method is based on imaging volcanic gas and aerosol plumes using a camera sensitive to the near-infrared (NIR) absorption of water vapor. The imaging data are empirically calibrated by comparison with in situ water measurements made within the plumes. Though the presented method may give reasonable results over short time scales, the authors fail to recognize the sensitivity of the technique to light scattering on aerosols within the plume. In fact, the signals measured by Pering et al. are not related to the absorption of NIR radiation by water vapor within the plume. Instead, the measured signals are most likely caused by a change in the effective light path of the detected radiation through the atmospheric background water vapor column. Therefore, their method is actually based on establishing an empirical relationship between in-plume scattering efficiency and plume water content. Since this relationship is sensitive to plume aerosol abundance and numerous environmental factors, the method will only yield accurate results if it is calibrated very frequently using other measurement techniques.

  6. Phonon-Assisted Optical Absorption in Silicon from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noffsinger, Jesse; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2012-04-01

    The phonon-assisted interband optical absorption spectrum of silicon is calculated at the quasiparticle level entirely from first principles. We make use of the Wannier interpolation formalism to determine the quasiparticle energies, as well as the optical transition and electron-phonon coupling matrix elements, on fine grids in the Brillouin zone. The calculated spectrum near the onset of indirect absorption is in very good agreement with experimental measurements for a range of temperatures. Moreover, our method can accurately determine the optical absorption spectrum of silicon in the visible range, an important process for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications that cannot be addressed with simple models. The computational formalism is quite general and can be used to understand the phonon-assisted absorption processes in general.

  7. Sound absorption of metallic sound absorbers fabricated via the selective laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Li-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Chun; Kam, Tai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The sound absorption capability of metallic sound absorbers fabricated using the additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) method is investigated via both the experimental and theoretical approaches. The metallic sound absorption structures composed of periodic cubic cells were made of laser-melted Ti6Al4 V powder. The acoustic impedance equations with different frequency-independent and frequency-dependent end corrections factors are employed to calculate the theoretical sound absorption coefficients of the metallic sound absorption structures. The calculated sound absorption coefficients are in close agreement with the experimental results for the frequencies ranging from 2 to 13 kHz.

  8. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  9. Models of filter-based particle light absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Khadeejeh M.

    Light absorption by aerosol is very important in the visible, near UN, and near I.R region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have a great influence on the flux of solar energy, and also impact health in a negative sense when they are breathed into lungs. Aerosol absorption measurements are usually performed by filter-based methods that are derived from the change in light transmission through a filter where particles have been deposited. These methods suffer from interference between light-absorbing and light-scattering aerosol components. The Aethalometer is the most commonly used filter-based instrument for aerosol light absorption measurement. This dissertation describes new understanding of aerosol light absorption obtained by the filter method. The theory uses a multiple scattering model for the combination of filter and particle optics. The theory is evaluated using Aethalometer data from laboratory and ambient measurements in comparison with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption. Two models were developed to calculate aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data, and were compared to the in-situ aerosol light absorption coefficients. The first is an approximate model and the second is a "full" model. In the approximate model two extreme cases of aerosol optics were used to develop a model-based calibration scheme for the 7-wavelength Aethalometer. These cases include those of very strong scattering aerosols (Ammonium sulfate sample) and very absorbing aerosols (kerosene soot sample). The exponential behavior of light absorption in the strong multiple scattering limit is shown to be the square root of the total absorption optical depth rather than linear with optical depth as is commonly assumed with Beer's law. 2-stream radiative transfer theory was used to develop the full model to calculate the aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data. This comprehensive model

  10. Measurements of the Absorption by Auditorium SEATING—A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.; COLEMAN, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of several problems with seat absorption is that only small numbers of seats can be tested in standard reverberation chambers. One method proposed for reverberation chamber measurements involves extrapolation when the absorption coefficient results are applied to actual auditoria. Model seat measurements in an effectively large model reverberation chamber have allowed the validity of this extrapolation to be checked. The alternative barrier method for reverberation chamber measurements was also tested and the two methods were compared. The effect on the absorption of row-row spacing as well as absorption by small numbers of seating rows was also investigated with model seats.

  11. Reducing microwave absorption with fast frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Juehang; Hubler, A

    2017-05-01

    We study the response of a two-level quantum system to a chirp signal, using both numerical and analytical methods. The numerical method is based on numerical solutions of the Schrödinger solution of the two-level system, while the analytical method is based on an approximate solution of the same equations. We find that when two-level systems are perturbed by a chirp signal, the peak population of the initially unpopulated state exhibits a high sensitivity to frequency modulation rate. We also find that the aforementioned sensitivity depends on the strength of the forcing, and weaker forcings result in a higher sensitivity, where the frequency modulation rate required to produce the same reduction in peak population would be lower. We discuss potential applications of this result in the field of microwave power transmission, as it shows applying fast frequency modulation to transmitted microwaves used for power transmission could decrease unintended absorption of microwaves by organic tissue.

  12. Absorption Coefficient of a Semiconductor Thin Film from Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, G.; Spindler, C.; Babbe, F.; Rachad, W.; Siebentritt, S.; Nuys, M.; Carius, R.; Li, S.; Platzer-Björkman, C.

    2018-06-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of semiconductors can be used to determine their absorption coefficient (α ) using Planck's generalized law. The standard method, suitable only for self-supported thick samples, like wafers, is extended to multilayer thin films by means of the transfer-matrix method to include the effect of the substrate and optional front layers. α values measured on various thin-film solar-cell absorbers by both PL and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) show good agreement. PL measurements are extremely sensitive to the semiconductor absorption and allow us to advantageously circumvent parasitic absorption from the substrate; thus, α can be accurately determined down to very low values, allowing us to investigate deep band tails with a higher dynamic range than in any other method, including spectrophotometry and PDS.

  13. Ultraviolet absorption experiment MA-059

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Anderson, J.; Kaufman, F.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The ultraviolet absorption experiment performed during the Apollo Soyuz mission involved sending a beam of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen resonance radiation, strong unabsorbable oxygen and nitrogen radiation, and visual radiation, all filling the same 3 deg-wide field of view from the Apollo to the Soyuz. The radiation struck a retroreflector array on the Soyuz and was returned to a spectrometer onboard the Apollo. The density of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen between the two spacecraft was measured by observing the amount of resonance radiation absorbed when the line joining Apollo and Soyuz was perpendicular to their velocity with respect to the ambient atmosphere. Information concerning oxygen densities was also obtained by observation of resonantly fluorescent light. The absorption experiments for atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were successfully performed at a range of 500 meters, and abundant resonance fluorescence data were obtained.

  14. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  15. Absorption of Levothyroxine When Coadministered with Various Calcium Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Zamfirescu, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium carbonate is a commonly used dietary supplement and has been shown to interfere with levothyroxine absorption. However, calcium citrate, which is also used for supplementation purposes, has not been studied previously and calcium acetate, which is used to treat hyperphosphatemia in renal failure, has been reported to show little or no interference with levothyroxine absorption in a retrospective pharmacoepidemiologic study. We aimed to compare the effect of these three calcium formulations on levothyroxine absorption. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in eight healthy, euthyroid adults. We performed single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in which we measured levothyroxine absorption when given alone or when coadministered with calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, or calcium acetate in doses containing 500 mg elemental calcium. Serum thyroxine was measured at intervals over a 6-hour period after ingestion of the study drugs. Results Coadministration of each of the three calcium preparations significantly reduced levothyroxine absorption by about 20%–25% compared with levothyroxine given alone. Conclusions Contrary to a prior report, our data suggest that calcium acetate interferes with levothyroxine absorption in a manner similar to that seen with calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Although the effect of calcium is modest compared with some other medications previously studied, hypothyroid patients should be cautioned to take their levothyroxine well-separated from all of these calcium formulations. PMID:21595516

  16. Determination of gold in geologic materials by solvent extraction and atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Claude; Mensik, J.D.; Riley, L.B.

    1967-01-01

    The two methods presented for the determination of traces of gold in geologic materials are the cyanide atomic-absorption method and the fire-assay atomic-absorption method. In the cyanide method gold is leached with a sodium-cyanide solution. The monovalent gold is then oxidized to the trivalent state and concentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone prior to estimation by atomic absorption. In the fire-assay atomic-absorption method, the gold-silver bead obtained from fire assay is dissolved in nitric and hydrochloric acids. Gold is then concentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone prior to determination by atomic absorption. By either method concentrations as low as 50 parts per billion of gold can be determined in a 15-gram sample.

  17. Molecular hydrogen absorption systems in Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashev, S. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.; Petitjean, P.; Noterdaeme, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present a systematic search for molecular hydrogen absorption systems at high redshift in quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-II Data Release 7 and SDSS-III Data Release 9. We have selected candidates using a modified profile fitting technique taking into account that the Lyα forest can effectively mimic H2 absorption systems at the resolution of SDSS data. To estimate the confidence level of the detections, we use two methods: a Monte Carlo sampling and an analysis of control samples. The analysis of control samples allows us to define regions of the spectral quality parameter space where H2 absorption systems can be confidently identified. We find that H2 absorption systems with column densities log NH2 > 19 can be detected in only less than 3 per cent of SDSS quasar spectra. We estimate the upper limit on the detection rate of saturated H2 absorption systems (NH2 > 19) in damped Lyα (DLA) systems to be about 7 per cent. We provide a sample of 23 confident H2 absorption system candidates that would be interesting to follow up with high-resolution spectrographs. There is a 1σ r - i colour excess and non-significant AV extinction excess in quasar spectra with an H2 candidate compared to standard DLA-bearing quasar spectra. The equivalent widths of C II, Si II and Al III (but not Fe II) absorptions associated with H2 candidate DLAs are larger compared to standard DLAs. This is probably related to a larger spread in velocity of the absorption lines in the H2-bearing sample.

  18. Recoilless Nuclear Resonance Absorption of Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mössbauer, Rudolf L.

    It is a high distinction to be permitted to address you on the subject of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption of gamma radiation. The methods used in this special branch of experimental physics have recently found acceptance in many areas of science. I take the liberty to confine myself essentially to the work which I was able to carry out in the years 1955-1958 at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg, and which finally led to establishment of the field of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption. Many investigators shared in the preparations of the basis for the research we are concerned with in this lecture. As early as the middle of the last century Stokes observed, in the case of fluorite, the phenomenon now known as fluorescence - namely, that solids, liquids, and gases under certain conditions partially absorb incident electromagnetic radiation which immediately is reradiated. A special case is the so-called resonance fluorescence, a phenomenon in which the re-emitted and the incident radiation both are of the same wavelength. The resonance fluorescence of the yellow D lines of sodium in sodium vapour is a particularly notable and exhaustively studied example. In this optical type of resonance fluorescence, light sources are used in which the atoms undergo transitions from excited states to their ground states (Fig. 1.1). The light quanta emitted in these transitions (A → B) are used to initiate the inverse process of resonance absorption in the atoms of an absorber which are identical with the radiating atoms. The atoms of the absorber undergo a transition here from the ground state (B) to the excited state (A), from which they again return to the ground state, after a certain time delay, by emission of fluorescent light.

  19. [Acoustic detection of absorption of millimeter-band electromagnetic waves in biological objects].

    PubMed

    Polnikov, I G; Putvinskiĭ, A V

    1988-01-01

    Principles of photoacoustic spectroscopy were applied to elaborate a new method for controlling millimeter electromagnetic waves absorption in biological objects. The method was used in investigations of frequency dependence of millimeter wave power absorption in vitro and in vivo in the commonly used experimental irradiation systems.

  20. Absorption characteristics of forest fire particulate matter

    Treesearch

    E.M. Patterson; Charles K. McMahon

    1984-01-01

    Abstract. Absorption properties of smokes from laboratory fires that represent prescription hums in the Southern states have been quantified to relate variations in measured absorption parameters to variation in fire conditions and to estimate emission factors for elemental carbon. Results showed significant differences in absorption of the smoke...

  1. Study of moisture absorption by an organoplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniskevich, A. N.; Yanson, Yu. O.

    1991-07-01

    A complex experimental study of the state of sorbed moisture in a unidirectionally reinforced organoplastic was conducted. The methods of TG, DSC, DTA, and NMR showed that moisture absorption in OP is reversible up to 8%, the sorbed moisture does not crystallize in the temperature range from -70 to 0 °C, it is finely dispersely distributed and is in the strongly and weakly bound state, and there is almost no free moisture. The results of the sorption experiments conducted on OP and its structural components: microplastic and EDT-10 binder, in a wide range of temperature-humidity conditions and the data from physical studies showed that moisture absorption in the materials basically takes place by diffusion and is satisfactorily described by a phenomenological model based on the Fick equation. A method of accelerated determination of the sorption characteristics of anisotropic composite materials was developed, using the introduced concept of the fictitious diffusion coefficient and the extrapolation method of determining the limiting moisture content. The features of migration of moisture on the interface in a multiphase system were investigated, and the possibility of successive calculation estimation of the sorption characteristics of an organoplastic at different structural levels was demonstrated: components—unidirectionally reinforced composite—model laminated article. The tested phenomenological model of the sorption process and the experimentally obtained values of the characteristics of the material were the basis for a method of calculation determination of the resource of moisture-proofing properties of a model multilayer article of CM in nonstationary external conditions.

  2. Abnormal Circulation Changes in the Winter Stratosphere, Detected Through Variations of D Region Ionospheric Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamorena, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to detect stratospheric warmings using ionospheric absorption records obtained by an Absorption Meter (method A3) is introduced. The activity of the stratospheric circulation and the D region ionospheric absorption as well as other atmospheric parameters during the winter anomaly experience an abnormal variation. A simultaneity was found in the beginning of abnormal variation in the mentioned parameters, using the absorption records for detecting the initiation of the stratospheric warming. Results of this scientific experience of forecasting in the El Arenosillo Range, are presented.

  3. Absorption Reconstruction Improves Biodistribution Assessment of Fluorescent Nanoprobes Using Hybrid Fluorescence-mediated Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gremse, Felix; Theek, Benjamin; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Lederle, Wiltrud; Pardo, Alessa; Barth, Stefan; Lammers, Twan; Naumann, Uwe; Kiessling, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) holds potential for accelerating diagnostic and theranostic drug development. However, for proper quantitative fluorescence reconstruction, knowledge on optical scattering and absorption, which are highly heterogeneous in different (mouse) tissues, is required. We here describe methods to assess these parameters using co-registered micro Computed Tomography (µCT) data and nonlinear whole-animal absorption reconstruction, and evaluate their importance for assessment of the biodistribution and target site accumulation of fluorophore-labeled drug delivery systems. Methods: Besides phantoms with varying degrees of absorption, mice bearing A431 tumors were imaged 15 min and 48 h after i.v. injection of a fluorophore-labeled polymeric drug carrier (pHPMA-Dy750) using µCT-FMT. The outer shape of mice and a scattering map were derived using automated segmentation of the µCT data. Furthermore, a 3D absorption map was reconstructed from the trans-illumination data. We determined the absorption of five interactively segmented regions (heart, liver, kidney, muscle, tumor). Since blood is the main near-infrared absorber in vivo, the absorption was also estimated from the relative blood volume (rBV), determined by contrast-enhanced µCT. We compared the reconstructed absorption with the rBV-based values and analyzed the effect of using the absorption map on the fluorescence reconstruction. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated that absorption reconstruction is possible and necessary for quantitative fluorescence reconstruction. In vivo, the reconstructed absorption showed high values in strongly blood-perfused organs such as the heart, liver and kidney. The absorption values correlated strongly with the rBV-based absorption values, confirming the accuracy of the absorption reconstruction. Usage of homogenous absorption instead of the reconstructed absorption map resulted in reduced values in the heart, liver and kidney, by

  4. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  5. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  6. Highly selective micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve (muSI-LOV) method for the determination of ultra-trace concentrations of nickel in saline matrices using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Jensen, Rikard; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-10-01

    A highly selective procedure is proposed for the determination of ultra-trace level concentrations of nickel in saline aqueous matrices exploiting a micro-sequential injection Lab-On-Valve (muSI-LOV) sample pretreatment protocol comprising bead injection separation/pre-concentration and detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Based on the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) reaction used for nickel analysis, the sample, as contained in a pH 9.0 buffer, is, after on-line merging with the chelating reagent, transported to a reaction coil attached to one of the external ports of the LOV to assure sufficient reaction time for the formation of Ni(DMG)(2) chelate. The non-ionic coordination compound is then collected in a renewable micro-column packed with a reversed-phase copolymeric sorbent [namely, poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone)] containing a balanced ratio of hydrophilic and lipophilic monomers. Following elution by a 50-muL methanol plug in an air-segmented modality, the nickel is finally quantified by ETAAS. Under the optimized conditions and for a sample volume of 1.8 mL, a retention efficiency of 70 % and an enrichment factor of 25 were obtained. The proposed methodology showed a high tolerance to the commonly encountered alkaline earth matrix elements in environmental waters, that is, calcium and magnesium, and was successfully applied for the determination of nickel in an NIST standard reference material (NIST 1640-Trace elements in natural water), household tap water of high hardness and local seawater. Satisfying recoveries were achieved for all spiked environmental water samples with maximum deviations of 6 %. The experimental results for the standard reference material were not statistically different to the certified value at a significance level of 0.05.

  7. NEUTRON ABSORPTION AND SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Axelrad, I.R.

    1960-06-21

    A neutron absorption and shielding device is described which is adapted for mounting in a radiation shielding wall surrounding a radioactive area through which instrumentation leads and the like may safely pass without permitting gamma or neutron radiation to pass to the exterior. The shielding device comprises a container having at least one nonrectilinear tube or passageway means extending therethrough, which is adapted to contain instrumentation leads or the like, a layer of a substance capable of absorbing gamma rays, and a solid resinous composition adapted to attenuate fast-moving neutrons and capture slow- moving or thermal neutrons.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  9. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303

  10. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-12-13

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility.

  11. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  12. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process. PMID:26120588

  13. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-05-20

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process.

  14. Absorption of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and dieldrin in largemouth bass from a 60-D slow-release pellet and detection using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method for blood plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Borgert, Christopher J.; Gross, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the uptake of two organochlorine pesticides from slow-release pellets by largemouth bass and the utility of a blood plasma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for exposure verification. We measured blood and tissue levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by a novel ELISA method, and present a critical comparison of the results.

  15. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  16. QED-driven laser absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Blackburn, T.; Ratan, N.; Sadler, J.; Ridgers, C.; Kasim, M.; Ceurvorst, L.; Holloway, J.; Baring, M.; Bell, A.; Glenzer, S.; Gregori, G.; Ilderton, A.; Marklund, M.; Tabak, M.; Wilks, S.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Absorption covers the physical processes which convert intense photon flux into energetic particles when a high-power laser (I >1018 W cm-2 where I is intensity at 1 μm wavelength) illuminates optically-thick matter. It underpins important applications of petawatt laser systems today, e.g., in isochoric heating of materials. Next-generation lasers such as ELI are anticipated to produce quantum electrodynamical (QED) bursts of γ-rays and anti-matter via the multiphoton Breit-Wheeler process which could enable scaled laboratory probes, e.g., of black hole winds. Here, applying strong-field QED to advances in plasma kinematic theory, we present a model elucidating absorption limited only by an avalanche of self-created electron-positron pairs at ultra-high-field. The model, confirmed by multidimensional QED-PIC simulations, works over six orders of magnitude in optical intensity and reveals this cascade is initiated at 1.8 x 1025 W cm-2 using a realistic linearly-polarized laser pulse. Here the laser couples its energy into highly-collimated electrons, ions, γ-rays, and positrons at 12%, 6%, 58% and 13% efficiency, respectively. We remark on attributes of the QED plasma state and possible applications.

  17. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  18. Absorption-enhancing effects of gemini surfactant on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic drugs including peptide and protein drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Alama, Tammam; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-29

    In general, the intestinal absorption of small hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules like peptides, after oral administration is very poor. Absorption enhancers are considered to be one of the most promising agents to enhance the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this research, we focused on a gemini surfactant, a new type of absorption enhancer. The intestinal absorption of drugs, with or without sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine (SLG-30), a gemini surfactant, was examined by an in situ closed-loop method in rats. The intestinal absorption of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) was significantly enhanced in the presence of SLG-30, such effect being reversible. Furthermore, the calcium levels in the plasma significantly decreased when calcitonin was co-administered with SLG-30, suggestive of the increased intestinal absorption of calcitonin. In addition, no significant increase in the of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or in protein release from the intestinal epithelium was observed in the presence of SLG-30, suggestive of the safety of this compound. These findings indicate that SLG-30 is an effective absorption-enhancer for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs, without causing serious damage to the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Visualizing the Solute Vaporization Interference in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Christopher R.; Blew, Michael J.; Goode, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, tens of thousands of chemists use analytical atomic spectroscopy in their work, often without knowledge of possible interferences. We present a unique approach to study these interferences by using modern response surface methods to visualize an interference in which aluminum depresses the calcium atomic absorption signal. Calcium…

  20. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The Present and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Walter

    1982-01-01

    The status of current techniques and methods of atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy (flame, hybrid, and furnace AA) is discussed, including limitations. Technological opportunities and how they may be used in AA are also discussed, focusing on automation, microprocessors, continuum AA, hybrid analyses, and others. (Author/JN)

  1. Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Baroncelli, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.

    1995-05-01

    Our institute has recently developed a differential optical absorption spectrometry system called the gas analyzer spectrometer correlating optical absorption differences (GASCOAD), which features as a detector a linear image sensor that uses an artificial light source for long-path tropospheric-pollution monitoring. The GASCOAD, its method of eliminating interference from background sky light, and subsequent spectral analysis are reported and discussed. The spectrometer was used from 7 to 22 February 1993 in Milan, a heavily polluted metropolitan area, to measure the concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, and HNO2 averaged over a 1.7-km horizontal light path. The findings are reported and briefly discussed.

  2. Nonlinear absorption enhancement of AuNPs based polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulina, Natalia A.; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Kniazev, Kirill I.; Kaliabin, Viacheslav O.; Denisyuk, Igor Yu.; Achor, Susan U.; Sitnikova, Vera E.

    2018-07-01

    Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) based polymer nanocomposites with high nonlinear absorption coefficient were synthesized by UV-photocuring. AuNPs were synthesized by laser ablation method in liquid monomer isodecyl acrylate (IDA). In this research, two colloids with 70 nm and 20 nm nanoparticles average sizes were studied. Size control was performed with SEM and STEM. Prepared nanomaterials exhibit strong third-order nonlinear optical responses under CW laser irradiation at 532 nm, which was estimated by using z-scan technique performed with open aperture. It was found experimentally that nonlinear absorption β is almost twice higher for nanocomposites with smaller AuNPs.

  3. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption of RGO/Cu nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xingyou; Zhang, Xian; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2017-09-01

    We use a facile pyrolysis method to prepare reduced graphene oxide and copper nanocomposite (RGO/Cu) based on it. The product shows an outstanding wave absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss is up to-50.7 dB at 3.8 GHz. The reflection loss of-10 dB (90% power absorption) corresponds to a bandwidth of 11.2 GHz (3.4-14.6 GHz range) for the layer thickness of 2-5 mm. Therefore, it is suggested that the RGO/Cu nanocomposite is also a new kind of lightweight and high-performance EM wave absorbing material.

  4. Fundamental absorption edge of NiO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. I.; Druzhinin, A. V.; Kim, G. A.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Yermakov, A. Ye.; Uimin, M. A.; Byzov, I. V.; Shchegoleva, N. N.; Vykhodets, V. B.; Kurennykh, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    NiO nanocrystals with the average size of 5, 10 and 25 nm were synthesized by gas-condensation method. The well-defined increase of the optical density D near the fundamental absorption edge of NiO nanocrystals in the range of 3.5-4.0 eV observed after the annealing in air is caused by the oxygen content growth. It is the direct experimental evidence of the fact that p-d charge transfer transitions form the fundamental absorption edge.

  5. Ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of hot carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Davidson, David F.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2004-12-01

    The temperature-dependent ultraviolet absorption cross-section for CO 2 has been measured in shock-heated gases between 1500 and 4500 K at 216.5, 244, 266, and 306 nm. Continuous-wave lasers provide the spectral brightness to enable precise time-resolved measurements with the microsecond time-response needed to monitor thermal decomposition of CO 2 at temperatures above 3000 K. The photophysics of the highly temperature dependent cross-section is discussed. The new data allows the extension of CO 2 absorption-based temperature sensing methods to higher temperatures, such as those found in behind detonation waves.

  6. Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armaly, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.

  7. Monitoring Telluric Water Absorption with CAMAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ashley; Blake, Cullen; Sliski, David

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based observations are severely limited by telluric water vapor absorption features, which are highly variable in time and significantly complicate both spectroscopy and photometry in the near-infrared (NIR). To achieve the stability required to study Earth-sized exoplanets, monitoring the precipitable water vapor (PWV) becomes necessary to mitigate the impact of telluric lines on radial velocity measurements and transit light curves. To address this issue, we present the Camera for the Automatic Monitoring of Atmospheric Lines (CAMAL), a stand-alone, inexpensive 6-inch aperture telescope dedicated to measuring PWV at the Whipple Observatory. CAMAL utilizes three NIR narrowband filters to trace the amount of atmospheric water vapor affecting simultaneous observations with the MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) and MINERVA-Red telescopes. We present the current design of CAMAL, discuss our calibration methods, and show PWV measurements taken with CAMAL compared to those of a nearby GPS water vapor monitor.

  8. Gas separation using ultrasound and light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-07-31

    An apparatus and method for separating a chosen gas from a mixture of gases having no moving parts and utilizing no chemical processing is described. The separation of particulates from fluid carriers thereof has been observed using ultrasound. In a similar manner, molecular species may be separated from carrier species. It is also known that light-induced drift may separate light-absorbing species from carrier species. Therefore, the combination of temporally pulsed absorption of light with ultrasonic concentration is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of separation by ultrasonic concentration alone. Additionally, breaking the spatial symmetry of a cylindrical acoustic concentrator decreases the spatial distribution of the concentrated particles, and increases the concentration efficiency.

  9. Food Iron Absorption Measured by an Extrinsic Tag

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. D.; Layrisse, M.; Martinez-Torres, C.; Walker, R.; Monsen, E.; Finch, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The paper describes the use of an extrinsic tag of inorganic radioiron to determine the total absorption of nonheme iron from a complete meal. The method was developed by measuring the iron absorbed from vegetable foods containing biosynthetically incorporated 55Fe (intrinsic tag) and from 59Fe added as a small dose of inorganic iron to the same meal (extrinsic tag). In studies with maize, black bean, and wheat, a consistent extrinsic: intrinsic radioiron absorption ratio averaging 1.10 was observed. Similar results were obtained with either ferrous or ferric iron as the extrinsic tag, and with doses of the latter ranging from 0.001 to 0.5 mg iron added to a test meal containing 2-4 mg of food iron. Adding the radioiron at different stages in preparation of the test meal also had little effect. Separate administration of the extrinsic tag was less satisfactory when small portions of a single food were employed, but with a complete meal, the separate dose was preferable. The extrinsic tag provided a valid measure of absorption despite marked differences in the iron status of the subject, and with wide changes in absorption imposed by adding desferrioxamine or ascorbic acid to the test meal. These findings indicate that there is a common pool of nonheme iron, the absorption of which is influenced by various blocking or enhancing substances present in the meal. PMID:5062612

  10. Light absorption of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-11-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC absorption. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light absorption of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light absorption of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (Absorption Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher absorption. Imaginary refractive index of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  11. New acoustical technology of sound absorption based on reverse horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong Yan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Song Hua; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Zi Ting

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel reverse horn’s sound-absorption mechanism and acoustic energy focusing mechanism for low-frequency broadband are presented. Due to the alternation of the reverse horn’s thickness, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure propagated in the structure changes, which results in growing energy focused in the edge and in the reverse horn’s tip when the characteristic length is equal to or less than a wavelength and the incident wave is compressed. There are two kinds of methods adopted to realize energy dissipation. On the one hand, sound-absorbing materials are added in incident direction in order to overcome the badness of the reverse horn’s absorption in high frequency and improve the overall high-frequency and low-frequency sound-absorption coefficients; on the other hand, adding mass and film in its tip could result in mechanical energy converting into heat energy due to the coupled vibration of mass and the film. Thus, the reverse horn with film in the tip could realize better sound absorption for low-frequency broadband. These excellent properties could have potential applications in the one-dimensional absorption wedge and for the control of acoustic wave.

  12. Sound absorption characteristics of aluminum foam with spherical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunjie; Wang, Xinfu; Wang, Xingfu; Ren, Yuelu; Han, Fusheng; Wen, Cuie

    2011-12-01

    Aluminum foams were fabricated by an infiltration process. The foams possess spherical cells with a fixed porosity of 65% and varied pore sizes which ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 mm. The spherical cells are interconnected by small pores or pore openings on the cell walls that cause the foams show a characteristic of open cell structures. The sound absorption coefficient of the aluminum foams was measured by a standing wave tube and calculated by a transfer function method. It is shown that the sound absorption coefficient increases with an increase in the number of pore openings in the unit area or with a decrease of the diameter of the pore openings in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mm. If backed with an air cavity, the resonant absorption peaks in the sound absorption coefficient versus frequency curves will be shifted toward lower frequencies as the cavity depth is increased. The samples with the same pore opening size but different pore size show almost the same absorption behavior, especially in the low frequency range. The present results are in good agreement with some theoretical predictions based on the acoustic impedance measurements of metal foams with circular apertures and cylindrical cavities and the principle of electroacoustic analogy.

  13. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  14. Nonlinear absorption of short intense laser pulse in multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kargarian, A.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehdian, H.

    In the present paper, the detailed investigation concerning the effect of inclusion of heavy negative ions into the finite background plasma on the laser absorption has been carried out by employing particle-in-cell simulation method. For this purpose, in this configuration, the laser energy absorption relying on the nonlinear phenomena such as phase-mixing, wave-breaking, and scattering has been studied in the Raman-Brillouin regime. It is shown that the inclusion of heavy negative ions suppresses the scattering while increases the phase-mixing time. Moreover, it is illustrated that this inclusion can increase the laser absorption in finite plasma environment, after saturation. The obtainedmore » results are expected to be relevant to the experiments on the mass spectrometry with laser desorption techniques as well as on the laser-plasma interaction with application to particles acceleration.« less

  15. Measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient with the nonequilibrium process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Jingxuan; Bai, Hailong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Shanlin; Zhang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of the conventional Jamin interferometer,the improved measuring method is proposed that using a polarization type reentrant Jamin interferometer measures atmospheric aerosol absorption coefficient under the photothermal effect.The paper studies the relationship between the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles and the refractive index change of the atmosphere.In Matlab environment, the variation curves of the output voltage of the interferometer with different concentration aerosol samples under stimulated laser irradiation were plotted.Besides, the paper also studies the relationship between aerosol concentration and the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium.When using the photothermal interferometry the results show that the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium is also increasing with the increasing concentration of aerosol particles,the absorption coefficient and time of aerosol in the process of nonequilibrium are exponentially changing.

  16. Modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters: Implications for underwater optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2018-05-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.

  17. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  18. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  19. Sound absorption with green materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  20. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  1. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  2. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  3. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  4. Omnidirectional light absorption of disordered nano-hole structure inspired from Papilio ulysses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Fang, Xiaotian; Huang, Yiqiao; Liu, Qinglei; Bai, Mingwen; Zhang, Di

    2014-07-15

    Butterflies routinely produce nanostructured surfaces with useful properties. Here, we report a disordered nano-hole structure with ridges inspired by Papilio ulysses that produce omnidirectional light absorption compared with the common ordered structure. The result shows that the omnidirectional light absorption is affected by polarization, the incident angle, and the wavelength. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the stable omnidirectional light absorption is achieved in the structure inspired from the Papilio ulysses over a wide incident angle range and with various wavelengths. This explains some of the mysteries of the structure of the Papilio ulysses butterfly. These conclusions can guide the design of omnidirectional absorption materials.

  5. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  6. Laser Ablation of Poly(methylmethacrylate) Doped with Aromatic Compounds: Laser Intensity Dependence of Absorption Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    1999-02-01

    We developed a novel method of obtaining an absorption coefficient which depends on the laser intensity, since a single-photon absorption coefficient of a polymer could not be applied to laser ablation. The relationship between the nonlinear absorption coefficient and the laser intensity was derived from experimental data of transmission and incident laser intensities. Using the nonlinear absorption coefficient of poly(methylmethacrylate) doped with benzil and pyrene, we succeeded in fitting the relationship of etch depth and laser intensity, obtained experimentally, and discussed the energy absorbed by the polymer at the threshold fluence.

  7. Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Philipp H.

    1981-10-01

    Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  8. Hydration shell parameters of aqueous alcohols: THz excess absorption and packing density.

    PubMed

    Matvejev, V; Zizi, M; Stiens, J

    2012-12-06

    Solvation in water requires minimizing the perturbations in its hydrogen bonded network. Hence solutes distort water molecular motions in a surrounding domain, forming a molecule-specific hydration shell. The properties of those hydration shells impact the structure and function of the solubilized molecules, both at the single molecule and at higher order levels. The size of the hydration shell and the picoseconds time-scale water dynamics retardation are revealed by terahertz (THz) absorption coefficient measurements. Room-temperature absorption coefficient at f = 0.28 [THz] is measured as a function of alcohol concentration in aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1,2-propanol, and 1-butanol solutions. Highly diluted alcohol measurements and enhanced overall measurement accuracy are achieved with a THz absorption measurement technique of nL-volume liquids in a capillary tube. In the absorption analysis, bulk and interfacial molecular domains of water and alcohol are considered. THz ideal and excess absorption coefficients are defined in accordance with thermodynamics mixing formulations. The parameter extraction method is developed based on a THz excess absorption model and hydrated solute molecule packing density representation. First, the hydration shell size is deduced from the hydrated solute packing densities at two specific THz excess absorption nonlinearity points: at infinite alcohol dilution (IAD) and at the THz excess absorption extremum (EAE). Consequently, interfacial water and alcohol molecular domain absorptions are deduced from the THz excess absorption model. The hydration shell sizes obtained at the THz excess absorption extremum are in excellent agreement with other reports. The hydration shells of methanol, ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol consist of 13.97, 22.94, 22.99, and 31.10 water molecules, respectively. The hydration shell water absorption is on average 0.774 ± 0.028 times the bulk water absorption. The hydration shell parameters might shed light on

  9. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Absorption of Levothyroxine: A Review.

    PubMed

    Skelin, Marko; Lucijanić, Tomo; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Rešić, Arnes; Bakula, Miro; Liberati-Čizmek, Ana-Marija; Gharib, Hossein; Rahelić, Dario

    2017-02-01

    Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption. Searches were not limited to specific publication types, study designs, dates, or languages. The reports were highly variable in the amount of information provided regarding study design and methods. Because of the heterogeneity of studies, no statistical analysis was performed. Many gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, atrophic gastritis, lactose intolerance, and Helicobacter pylori infection, may impede the absorption of levothyroxine. During treatment of these disorders, it is necessary to monitor serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 values to reduce the risk of developing iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. Soybeans and coffee have the greatest impact on the reduction of absorption, whereas vitamin C has the ability to increase it. Conversely, the effect of dietary fiber on the absorption of LT4 is not yet fully understood; further research is needed on this topic. A decrease in the absorption of LT4 is established and clinically significant when administered concomitantly with cholestyramine, colesevelam, lanthanum, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium acetate, iron sulfate, ciprofloxacin, aluminum hydroxide, sevelamer, or proton pump inhibitors. This effect should be taken into consideration when prescribing these drugs concomitantly with LT4. The effects of Giardia lamblia infection and the influence of orlistat, polystyrene sulfonate, raloxifene, and simethicone on absorption of LT4 have been poorly documented. For bariatric surgery, sucralfate and H 2

  10. Excited state electron and energy relays in supramolecular dinuclear complexes revealed by ultrafast optical and X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis schemes, experimental methods, NMR spectra, X-ray crystallographic information, emission spectra, cyclic voltammetry, electronic structure calculations, data analysis and numerical methods, and other additional figures. CCDC 1561879. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04055e

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Lars; Hadt, Ryan G.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Cunming

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of photoinduced electron and energy transfer in a family of tetrapyridophenazine-bridged heteroleptic homo- and heterodinuclear copper(i) bis(phenanthroline)/ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes were studied using ultrafast optical and multi-edge X-ray transient absorption spectroscopies. This work combines the synthesis of heterodinuclear Cu(i)–Ru(ii) analogs of the homodinuclear Cu(i)–Cu(i) targets with spectroscopic analysis and electronic structure calculations to first disentangle the dynamics at individual metal sites by taking advantage of the element and site specificity of X-ray absorption and theoretical methods. The excited state dynamical models developed for the heterodinuclear complexes are then applied to model the more challenging homodinuclear complexes. These results suggest that both intermetallic charge and energy transfer can be observed in an asymmetric dinuclear copper complex in which the ground state redox potentials of the copper sites are offset by only 310 meV. We also demonstrate the ability of several of these complexes to effectively and unidirectionally shuttle energy between different metal centers, a property that could be of great use in the design of broadly absorbing and multifunctional multimetallic photocatalysts. This work provides an important step toward developing both a fundamental conceptual picture and a practical experimental handle with which synthetic chemists, spectroscopists, and theoreticians may collaborate to engineer cheap and efficient photocatalytic materials capable of performing coulombically demanding chemical transformations. PMID:29629153

  11. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    PubMed

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  12. On pulsating cosmic /radio/ noise absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that some absorption events measured on riometers are actually due to backscatter of cosmic radio noise by E-region plasma waves (D'Angelo, 1976, 1978; D'Angelo and Mehta, 1980). Assuming that DC or nearly DC absorption is a viable process, it is shown that it may also be operative in producing pulsations in cosmic noise absorption on riometers, with periods ranging from a few seconds to several minutes.

  13. Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    not observed at low energy level , are developed at high power levels . No matter how low the absorption is. the effect is objectionable at high-energy... levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...Presence of impurities can complicate the exponential tail. particularly at low absorption levels . The impurities may enter 12 the lattice singly or

  14. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer HDF Data User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. Thomas; Meyer, Howard G.; Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) Instrument, methods used in the CAR Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data processing, the structure and format of the CAR HDF data files, and methods for accessing the data. Examples of CAR applications and their results are also presented. The CAR instrument is a multiwavelength scanning radiometer that measures the angular distributions of scattered radiation.

  15. NARROW LINE ABSORPTION IN CACO3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBONATES), (*CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, (*ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CALCITE), (*CALCITE, RADIATION EFFECTS), ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE, SINGLE CRYSTALS , NEUTRONS, X RAYS, GAMMA RAYS, IONS, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE.

  16. An analytical method to screen for six thyreostatic drug residues in the thyroid gland and muscle tissues of food producing animals by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorption detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asea, Philip E; MacNeil, James D; Boison, Joe O

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed and validated to screen for residues of the thyreostatic drugs, tapazole (TAP), mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI), thiouracil (TU), methylthiouracil (MTU), propylthiouracil (PrTU), and phenylthiouracil (PhTU) in bovine, equine, ovine, and porcine thyroid and muscle tissues at concentrations > or = 5 ng/g using 2-methoxy-mercaptobenzimidazole (MeMBI) and dimethylthiouracil (DMTU) as internal standards. In this method, the drugs were solvent extracted from thyroid and muscle tissue and cleaned up on an amino-propyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The unretained fraction containing TAP and MBI and the internal standard, MeMBI, was collected as Fraction 1. The retained fraction containing TU, MTU, PrTU, PhTU, and the internal standard, DMTU, was eluted with 3% acetic acid-isopropanol as Fraction 2. Fraction 1 was further cleaned up on an alumina B SPE cartridge and analyzed by gradient elution on a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with ultraviolet detection at wavelengths of 255 and 300 nm. Fraction 2 was taken to dryness, derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-furazan at pH 8, and analyzed by gradient elution on a C18 LC column with mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Any "presumptive positive" test results were submitted for further analysis by LC/MS/MS. The validated method was applied to the analysis of over 300 thyroid tissue samples.

  17. Towards higher stability of resonant absorption measurements in pulsed plasmas.

    PubMed

    Britun, Nikolay; Michiels, Matthieu; Snyders, Rony

    2015-12-01

    Possible ways to increase the reliability of time-resolved particle density measurements in pulsed gaseous discharges using resonant absorption spectroscopy are proposed. A special synchronization, called "dynamic source triggering," between a gated detector and two pulsed discharges, one representing the discharge of interest and another being used as a reference source, is developed. An internal digital delay generator in the intensified charge coupled device camera, used at the same time as a detector, is utilized for this purpose. According to the proposed scheme, the light pulses from the reference source follow the gates of detector, passing through the discharge of interest only when necessary. This allows for the utilization of short-pulse plasmas as reference sources, which is critical for time-resolved absorption analysis of strongly emitting pulsed discharges. In addition to dynamic source triggering, the reliability of absorption measurements can be further increased using simultaneous detection of spectra relevant for absorption method, which is also demonstrated in this work. The proposed methods are illustrated by the time-resolved measurements of the metal atom density in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge, using either a hollow cathode lamp or another HiPIMS discharge as a pulsed reference source.

  18. Gold reflective metallic gratings with high absorption efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Liang, Linmei; Yang, Junbo

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers are devices in which the incident radiation at the operating wavelengths can be efficiently absorbed and then transformed into ohmic heat or other forms of energy. Especially, EM absorbers based on metallic structures have distinct advantages in comparison with the traditional counterparts. Thus, they have different potential applications at different frequency ranges such as absorbing devices in solar energy harvesting systems. The reflective metallic grating is a kind of metallic EM absorbers and has the fascinating property of efficiently absorbing the incident light due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), consequently drawing more and more attention. In this paper, the absorption effect of a reflective metallic grating made of gold is studied by changing grating parameters such as the period, polarization direction of the incident light and so on. We use finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method to design the grating, and simulate the process and detect the absorption spectrum. In our design, the grating has rectangular shaped grooves and has the absorption efficiency 99% for the vertically incident transverse magnetic (TM) light at the wavelength of 818nm with the period of 800 nm, the width of 365 nm and the height of 34 nm. And then we find that the absorption spectrum is blue-shifted about 87 nm with decreasing period from 800 nm to700 nm and red-shifted about 14 nm with increasing the width of the block from 305 nm to 405 nm. The absorption becomes gradually weaker from 98% to almost zero with the polarization angle from 0° to 90°. Finally, we make a theoretical explanation to these phenomena in details. It is believed that the results may provide useful guidance for the design of EM wave absorbers with high absorption efficiency.

  19. An effective way to reduce water absorption to terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yaxiong; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Since many vibrations and rotational levels of biomolecules fall within the THz band, THz spectroscopy can be used to identify biological samples. In addition, most biomolecules need to maintain their biological activity in a liquid environment, but water as polar substance has strong absorption to the THz wave. Thus, it is difficult to detect the sample information in aqueous solution using THz wave. In order to prevent the information of biological samples were masked in the solution, many research methods were used to explore how to reduce the water absorption of terahertz. In this paper, we have developed a real-time chemical methodology through transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. The material of Zeonor 1020r is used as substrate and cover plate, and PDMS as channel interlayer. The transmission of the empty microfluidic chip is more than 80% in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz by THz-TDS system. Then, experiments were carried out using chips, which were filled with different volumes of 1, 2- propanediol, and it has been proved that the microfluidic chip could reduce the water absorption of terahertz. Finally, in order to further explore the reduction of terahertz to water absorption, we inject different concentrations of electrolyte to the chip. The results show that with the addition of different electrolytes, terahertz transmission line has evident changes. It can be taken into account that the electrolyte has different effects about the hydrogen bonds in the aqueous solution. Some of them can promote water molecules clusters, while others destroy them. Based on the basis of microfluidic chip, the discovery of this phenomenon can provide a way that reduces water absorption of terahertz. This work has laid a solid foundation for the subsequent study in reducing water absorption of terahertz.

  20. Microwave absorption properties of gold nanoparticle doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Ouattara, L.; Ingrosso, C.; Curri, M. L.; Krozer, V.; Boisen, A.; Jakobsen, M. H.; Johansen, T. K.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing microwave absorption properties of gold nanoparticle doped polymers. The method is based on on-wafer measurements at the frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 20 GHz. The on-wafer measurement method makes it possible to characterize electromagnetic (EM) property of small volume samples. The epoxy based SU8 polymer and SU8 doped with gold nanoparticles are chosen as the samples under test. Two types of microwave test devices are designed for exciting the samples through electrical coupling and magnetic coupling, respectively. Measurement results demonstrate that the nanocomposites absorb a certain amount of microwave energy due to gold nanoparticles. Higher nanoparticle concentration results in more significant absorption effect.