Science.gov

Sample records for absorption heat transfer

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer of Ammonia Gas Absorption into Falling Liquid Film on a Horizontal Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Norihiro; Yabuuchi, Hironori; Goto, Masao; Koyama, Shigeru

    Heat and mass transfer coefficients during ammonia gas absorption into a falling liquid film formed by distilled water on a horizontal tube were obtained experimentally. The test absorber consists of 200 mm i.d., 600 mm long stainless steel shell, a 1 7.3 mm o.d., 14.9 mm i.d. stainless steel test tube with 600 mm working length mounted along the axis of shell, and a 12.7 mm o.d. pipe manifold of supplying the absorbent. In this paper, it was clear that heat and mass transfer coefficient could be enhanced by increasing the flow rate of absorbent and temperature difference between inlet absorbent and ammonia gas, also heat driven by the temperature difference have an effect on heat transfer of the fa1ling liquid film and mass transfer of vapor side. And the new correlation of heat transfer in dimensionless form was proposed by the temperature difference which was considered heat driven of vapor and liquid film side using a interface temperature of vapor and liquid phase. The new correlations of mass transfer on a interface of vapor and liquid phase in dimensionless form were proposed by using effect factors could be suppose from absorption phenomena.

  2. Numerical modeling of heat transfer during hydrogen absorption in thin double-layered annular ZrCo beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yehui; Zeng, Xiangguo; Kou, Huaqin; Ding, Jun; Wang, Fang

    2018-06-01

    In this work a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen absorption model was proposed to study the heat transfer behavior in thin double-layered annular ZrCo beds. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the effects of conversion layer thickness, thermal conductivity, cooling medium and its flow velocity on the efficiency of heat transfer. Results reveal that decreasing the layer thickness and improving the thermal conductivity enhance the ability of heat transfer. Compared with nitrogen and helium, water appears to be a better medium for cooling. In order to achieve the best efficiency of heat transfer, the flow velocity needs to be maximized.

  3. Experimental investigation of the heat and mass transfer in a tube bundle absorber of an absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbricht, Michael; Luke, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    The design of the absorber of absorption chillers is still subject to great uncertainty since the coupled processes of heat and mass transfer as well as the influence of systemic interactions on the absorption process are not fully understood. Unfortunately, only a few investigations on the transport phenomena in the absorber during operation in an absorption chiller are reported in the literature. Therefore, experimental investigations on the heat and mass transfer during falling film absorption of steam in aqueous LiBr-solution are carried out in an absorber installed in an absorption chiller in this work. An improvement of heat and mass transfer due to the increase in convective effects are observed as the Ref number increases. Furthermore, an improvement of the heat transfer in the absorber with increasing coolant temperature can be identified in the systemic context. This is explained by a corresponding reduction in the average viscosity of the solution in the absorber. A comparison with experimental data from literature obtained from so-called absorber-generator test rigs shows a good consistency. Thus, it has been shown that the findings obtained on these simplified experimental setups can be transferred to the absorber in an absorption chiller. However, a comparison with correlations from the literature reveals a strong deviation between experimental and calculated results. Hence, further research activities on the development of better correlations are required in future.

  4. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  6. Effect of thermal radiation and suction on convective heat transfer of nanofluid along a wedge in the presence of heat generation/absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Kasmani, Ruhaila Md; Bhuvaneswari, M.; Sivasankaran, S.

    2015-10-22

    An analysis is presented to find the effects of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption on convection heat transfer of nanofluid past a wedge in the presence of wall suction. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The resulting system is solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge–Kutta method with shooting technique. Numerical computations are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters to predict the effects of wedge angle, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and suction. It is found that the temperature increases significantly when the value of themore » heat generation/absorption parameter increases. But the opposite observation is found for the effect of thermal radiation.« less

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  8. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  9. Mixed convection and heat generation/absorption aspects in MHD flow of tangent-hyperbolic nanoliquid with Newtonian heat/mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, Sajid; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    This article concentrates on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid in the presence of buoyancy forces. Flow analysis caused due to stretching surface. Characteristics of heat transfer are examined under the influence of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Newtonian conditions for heat and mass transfer are employed. Nanofluid model includes Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing nonlinear partial differential systems of the problem are transformed into a systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations through appropriate variables. Impact of embedded parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration fields are presented graphically. Numerical computations are made to obtain the values of skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is concluded that velocity field enhances in the frame of mixed convection parameter while reverse situation is observed due to power law index. Effect of Brownian motion parameter on the temperature and heat transfer rate is quite reverse. Moreover impact of solutal conjugate parameter on the concentration and local Sherwood number is quite similar.

  10. Effects of heat transfer and energy absorption in the ablation of biological tissues by pulsetrain-burst (>100 MHz) ultrafast laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Paul; Bol, Kieran; Lilge, Lothar; Marjoribanks, Robin

    2006-09-01

    Energy absorption and heat transfer are important factors for regulating the effects of ablation of biological tissues. Heat transfer to surrounding material may be desirable when ablating hard tissue, such as teeth or bone, since melting can produce helpful material modifications. However, when ablating soft tissue it is important to minimize heat transfer to avoid damage to healthy tissue - for example, in eye refractive surgery (e.g., Lasik), nanosecond pulses produce gross absorption and heating in tissue, leading to shockwaves, which kill and thin the non-replicating epithelial cells on the inside of the cornea; ultrafast pulses are recognized to reduce this effect. Using a laser system that delivers 1ps pulses in 10μs pulsetrains at 133MHz we have studied a range of heat- and energy-transfer effects on hard and soft tissue. We describe the ablation of tooth dentin and enamel under various conditions to determine the ablation rate and chemical changes that occur. Furthermore, we characterize the impact of pulsetrain-burst treatment of collagen-based tissue to determine more efficient methods of energy transfer to soft tissues. By studying the optical science of laser tissue interaction we hope to be able to make qualitative improvements to medical treatments using lasers.

  11. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  12. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  13. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  14. Heat transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved heat transfer device particularly suited for use as an evaporator plate in a diffusion cloud chamber. The device is characterized by a pair of mutually spaced heat transfer plates, each being of a planar configuration, having a pair of opposed surfaces defining therebetween a heat pipe chamber. Within the heat pipe chamber, in contiguous relation with the pair of opposed surfaces, there is disposed a pair of heat pipe wicks supported in a mutually spaced relationship by a foraminous spacer of a planar configuration. A wick including a foraminous layer is contiguously related to the external surfaces of the heat transfer plates for uniformly wetting these surfaces.

  15. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, K. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Carrico, C. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Day, D. E.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Huffman, J. A.; Onasch, T. B.; Trimborn, A.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2009-11-01

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used were Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients revealed a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: (1) shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; (2) the lower case contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity (RH) to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser-heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  16. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, K. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Carrico, C. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Day, D. E.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Huffman, J. A.; Onasch, T. B.; Trimborn, A.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2009-07-01

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used are Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients reveal a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: 1. Shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; 2. The contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser-heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  17. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.; Marsala, Joseph

    1994-11-29

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  19. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  20. Turbine heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Objectives and approaches to research in turbine heat transfer are discussed. Generally, improvements in the method of determining the hot gas flow through the turbine passage is one area of concern, as is the cooling air flow inside the airfoil, and the methods of predicting the heat transfer rates on the hot gas side and on the coolant side of the airfoil. More specific areas of research are: (1) local hot gas recovery temperatures along the airfoil surfaces; (2) local airfoil wall temperature; (3) local hot gas side heat transfer coefficients on the airfoil surfaces; (4) local coolant side heat transfer coefficients inside the airfoils; (5) local hot gas flow velocities and secondary flows at real engine conditions; and (6) local delta strain range of the airfoil walls.

  1. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  2. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  3. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  4. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  5. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  6. Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, John Winston

    The paper gives some personal observations on various aspects of enhanced condensation heat transfer. The topics discussed are external condensation (horizontal low-finned tubes and wire-wrapped tubes), internal condensation (microfin tubes and microchannels) and Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures.

  7. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  8. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  9. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-07-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  10. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  11. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  12. Heat transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkbrenner, R. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A heat transfer device is characterized by an hermetically sealed tubular housing including a tubular shell terminating in spaced end plates, and a tubular mesh wick concentrically arranged and operatively supported within said housing. The invention provides an improved wicking restraint formed as an elongated and radially expanded tubular helix concentrically related to the wick and adapted to be axially foreshortened and radially expanded into engagement with the wick in response to an axially applied compressive load. The wick is continuously supported in a contiguous relationship with the internal surfaces of the shell.

  13. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Treesearch

    Hal E. Anderson

    1969-01-01

    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  14. Effect of radiation on free convection heat and mass transfer flow through porous medium in a vertical channel with heat absorption/generation and chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavanya, B.

    2017-07-01

    The present paper analyses a solution for the transient free flow on a viscous and incompressible fluid between two vertical walls as a result of heta and mass transfer. The perturbation technique ahs been used to find the solutions for the velocity and temperature fields by solving the governing partial differential equations. The temperature of the one plate is assumed to be fluctuating. The effcets of the various parametrs entering into the problem, on the velocity and the temprature are depivted graphically. The impact of various parameters (Da, Rv, Pr, R and S) on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically. The expressions for skin friction at both walls are also obtained.

  15. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  16. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  17. Numerical methods in heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This third volume in the series in Numerical Methods in Engineering presents expanded versions of selected papers given at the Conference on Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems held in Venice in July 1981. In this reference work, contributors offer the current state of knowledge on the numerical solution of convective heat transfer problems and conduction heat transfer problems.

  18. Liquid for absorption of solar heat

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kadotani, K.

    A liquid for the absorption of solar heat, useful as an heat-absorbing medium in water heaters and heat collectors comprises: a dispersing medium selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, mixture of propylene glycol with water, mixture of propylene glycol with water and glycerin, and mixture of glycerin with water, a dispersant selected from the group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, caramel, and mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone with caramel, and a powdered activated carbon as a black coloring material.

  19. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  20. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2015-07-01

    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body.

  1. Sphere Drag and Heat Transfer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhipeng; He, Boshu; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2015-07-20

    Modelling fluid flows past a body is a general problem in science and engineering. Historical sphere drag and heat transfer data are critically examined. The appropriate drag coefficient is proposed to replace the inertia type definition proposed by Newton. It is found that the appropriate drag coefficient is a desirable dimensionless parameter to describe fluid flow physical behavior so that fluid flow problems can be solved in the simple and intuitive manner. The appropriate drag coefficient is presented graphically, and appears more general and reasonable to reflect the fluid flow physical behavior than the traditional century old drag coefficient diagram. Here we present drag and heat transfer experimental results which indicate that there exists a relationship in nature between the sphere drag and heat transfer. The role played by the heat flux has similar nature as the drag. The appropriate drag coefficient can be related to the Nusselt number. This finding opens new possibilities in predicting heat transfer characteristics by drag data. As heat transfer for flow over a body is inherently complex, the proposed simple means may provide an insight into the mechanism of heat transfer for flow past a body.

  2. Heat transfer direction dependence of heat transfer coefficients in annuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsloo, Francois P. A.; Dirker, Jaco; Meyer, Josua P.

    2018-04-01

    In this experimental study the heat transfer phenomena in concentric annuli in tube-in-tube heat exchangers at different annular Reynolds numbers, annular diameter ratios, and inlet fluid temperatures using water were considered. Turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 15,000 to 45,000, based on the average bulk fluid temperature was tested at annular diameter ratios of 0.327, 0.386, 0.409 and 0.483 with hydraulic diameters of 17.00, 22.98, 20.20 and 26.18 mm respectively. Both heated and cooled annuli were investigated by conducting tests at a range of inlet temperatures between 10 °C to 30 °C for heating cases, and 30 °C to 50 °C for cooling cases. Of special interest was the direct measurement of local wall temperatures on the heat transfer surface, which is often difficult to obtain and evasive in data-sets. Continuous verification and re-evaluation of temperatures measurements were performed via in-situ calibration. It is shown that inlet fluid temperature and the heat transfer direction play significant roles on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient. A new adjusted Colburn j-factor definition is presented to describe the heating and cooling cases and is used to correlate the 894 test cases considered in this study.

  3. Introductory heat-transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widener, Edward L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to introduce some concepts of thermodynamics in existing heat-treating experiments using available items. The specific objectives are to define the thermal properties of materials and to visualize expansivity, conductivity, heat capacity, and the melting point of common metals. The experimental procedures are described.

  4. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  5. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm

    1954-01-01

    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  6. Enhanced heat transfer using nanofluids

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Stephen U. S.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method of and apparatus for enhancing heat transfer in fluids such as deionized water. ethylene glycol, or oil by dispersing nanocrystalline particles of substances such as copper, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like in the fluids. Nanocrystalline particles are produced and dispersed in the fluid by heating the substance to be dispersed in a vacuum while passing a thin film of the fluid near the heated substance. The fluid is cooled to control its vapor pressure.

  7. Heat transfer in damaged material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruis, J.

    2013-10-01

    Fully coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of civil engineering problems is studied. The mechanical analysis is based on damage mechanics which is useful for modeling of behaviour of quasi-brittle materials, especially in tension. The damage is assumed to be isotropic. The heat transfer is assumed in the form of heat conduction governed by the Fourier law and heat radiation governed by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Fully coupled thermo-mechanical problem is formulated.

  8. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  9. Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Sacha, Gregory

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters, that is, the contact parameter K(cs) and the separation distance l(v), using the sublimation rate profiles measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). In this study, each size of vial was filled with pure water followed by a freeze-drying cycle using a LyoStar II dryer (FTS Systems) with step-changes of the chamber pressure set-point at to 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mTorr. K(cs) was independently determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the sublimation rates measured at the pressure set-point of 25 mTorr. After obtaining K(cs), the l(v) value for each vial size was determined by nonlinear parameter estimation using the pooled sublimation rate profiles obtained at 25 to 400 mTorr. The vial heat transfer coefficient K(v), as a function of the chamber pressure, was readily calculated, using the obtained K(cs) and l(v) values. It is interesting to note the significant difference in K(v) of two similar types of 10 mL Schott tubing vials, primary due to the geometry of the vial-bottom, as demonstrated by the images of the contact areas of the vial-bottom. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  11. Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    None

    BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFL’s design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

  12. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  13. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  14. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  15. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  16. Heat Transfer in a Thermoacoustic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is defined as the excitation of acoustic modes in chambers with heat sources due to the coupling between acoustic perturbations and unsteady heat addition. The major objective of this paper is to achieve accurate theoretical results in a thermoacoustic heat transfer process. We carry out a detailed heat transfer analysis…

  17. An analytic formula for heating due to ozone absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, R. S.; Will, D. I.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to devise a simple expression or formula to describe radiative heating in the atmosphere by ozone absorption. Such absorption occurs in the Hartley, Huggins, and Chappuis bands and is only slightly temperature and pressure dependent.

  18. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  19. Heat transfer correlations for multilayer insulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprakas, C. K.; Badari Narayana, K.; Dutta, Pradip

    2000-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets are extensively used in spacecrafts as lightweight thermal protection systems. Heat transfer analysis of MLI is sometimes too complex to use in practical design applications. Hence, for practical engineering design purposes, it is necessary to have simpler procedures to evaluate the heat transfer rate through MLI. In this paper, four different empirical models for heat transfer are evaluated by fitting against experimentally observed heat flux through MLI blankets of various configurations, and the results are discussed.

  20. Tunable heat transfer with smart nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Michele; Comitani, Federico; Vailati, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Strongly thermophilic nanofluids are able to transfer either small or large quantities of heat when subjected to a stable temperature difference. We investigate the bistability diagram of the heat transferred by this class of nanofluids. We show that bistability can be exploited to obtain a controlled switching between a conductive and a convective regime of heat transfer, so as to achieve a controlled modulation of the heat flux.

  1. Aerosol scattering and absorption modulation transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadot, Dan; Kopeika, Norman S.

    1993-08-01

    Recent experimental measurements of overall atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) indicate significant difference between the turbulence and overall atmospheric MTFs, except often at midday when turbulence is strong. We suggest here a physical explanation for those results which essentially relates to what we call a practical instrumentation-based atmospheric aerosol MTF which is a modification of the classical aerosol MTF theory. It is shown that system field-of-view and dynamic range affect strongly aerosol and overall atmospheric MTFs. It is often necessary to choose between MTF and SNR depending upon dynamic range requirements. Also, a new approach regarding aerosol absorption is presented. It is shown that aerosol-absorbed irradiance is spatial frequency dependent and enhances the degradation in image quality arising from received scattered light. This is most relevant for thermal imaging. An analytically corrected model for the aerosol MTF is presented which is relevant for imaging. An important conclusion is that the aerosol MTF is often the dominant part in the actual overall atmospheric MTF all across the optical spectral region.

  2. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given

  3. Rapid freeze-drying cycle optimization using computer programs developed based on heat and mass transfer models and facilitated by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS).

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model formulation. After obtaining the optimal sets of T(f) and P(c), each cycle was assigned with a cycle rank number in terms of the length of drying time. Further optimization was achieved by dividing the drying time into a series of ramping steps for T(f), in a cascading manner (termed the cascading T(f) cycle), to further shorten the cycle time. For the purpose of demonstrating the validity of the optimized T(f) and P(c), four cycles with different predicted lengths of drying time, along with the cascading T(f) cycle, were chosen for experimental cycle runs. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to continuously measure the sublimation rate. As predicted, maximum product temperatures were controlled slightly below the target temperature of -25 degrees C, and the cascading T(f)-ramping cycle is the most efficient cycle design. In addition, the experimental cycle rank order closely matches with that determined by modeling.

  4. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  5. Double diffusive conjugate heat transfer: Part III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Azeem

    2018-05-01

    The placement of a small solid wall towards cold surface of square porous cavity affects the heat transfer behavior of porous region due to restriction of fluid motion in the region occupied by solid wall. An investigation of heat transfer is carried out to understand the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior in porous cavity by solving the governing partial differential equations. Galerkin's approach is used to convert the partial differential equations into algebraic form of equations by applying finite element method. The heat transfer increases for solid towards right surface as compared to the case of solid at center of cavity.

  6. Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in an Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Radiation is an important means of heat transfer inside an electric arc furnace (EAF). To gain insight into the complex processes of heat transfer inside the EAF vessel, not only radiation from the surfaces but also emission and absorption of the gas phase and the dust cloud need to be considered. Furthermore, the radiative heat exchange depends on the geometrical configuration which is continuously changing throughout the process. The present paper introduces a system model of the EAF which takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the surfaces and the participating medium. This is attained by the development of a simplified geometrical model, the use of a weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model, and a simplified consideration of dust radiation. The simulation results were compared with the data of real EAF plants available in literature.

  7. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  8. Flow and heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Ahmed, Sayed Ahmed E.; Mesalhy, Osama M.; Abdelatief, Mohamed A.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of heat exchangers can be improved to perform a certain heat-transfer duty by heat transfer enhancement techniques. Enhancement techniques can be divided into two categories: passive and active. Active methods require external power, such as electric or acoustic field, mechanical devices, or surface vibration, whereas passive methods do not require external power but make use of a special surface geometry or fluid additive which cause heat transfer enhancement. The majority of commercially interesting enhancement techniques are passive ones. This paper presents a review of published works on the characteristics of heat transfer and flow in finned tube heat exchangers of the existing patterns. The review considers plain, louvered, slit, wavy, annular, longitudinal, and serrated fins. This review can be indicated by the status of the research in this area which is important. The comparison of finned tubes heat exchangers shows that those with slit, plain, and wavy finned tubes have the highest values of area goodness factor while the heat exchanger with annular fin shows the lowest. A better heat transfer coefficient ha is found for a heat exchanger with louvered finned and thus should be regarded as the most efficient one, at fixed pumping power per heat transfer area. This study points out that although numerous studies have been conducted on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer in round, elliptical, and flat tubes, studies on some types of streamlined-tubes shapes are limited, especially on wing-shaped tubes (Sayed Ahmed et al. in Heat Mass Transf 50: 1091-1102, 2014; in Heat Mass Transf 51: 1001-1016, 2015). It is recommended that further detailed studies via numerical simulations and/or experimental investigations should be carried out, in the future, to put further insight to these fin designs.

  9. Nonlinear Absorption and Heating of Dense Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    plasma focus both illuminated by a high intensity CO2 laser. Results indicate the previously noted increases in absorption due to the inclusion of the nonlinear saturation mechanism. The previously obtained increases in absorption with increasing density scale height and decreasing temperatures are also recovered. The

  10. High-Absorptance Radiative Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cafferty, T.

    1983-01-01

    Absorptance of black-painted open-cell aluminum honeycomb improved by cutting honeycomb at angle or bias rather than straight across. This ensures honeycomb cavities escapes. At each reflection radiation attenuated by absorption. Applications include space-background simulators, space radiators, solar absorbers, and passive coolers for terrestrial use.

  11. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  12. Periodic Heat Transfer at Small Pressure Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfriem, H.

    1943-01-01

    The effect of cyclic gas pressure variations on the periodic heat transfer at a flat wall is theoretically analyzed and the differential equation describing the process and its solution for relatively. Small pressure fluctuations developed, thus explaining the periodic heat cycle between gas and wall surface. The processes for pure harmonic pressure and temperature oscillations, respectively, in the gas space are described by means of a constant heat transfer coefficient and the equally constant phase angle between the appearance of the maximum values of the pressure and heat flow most conveniently expressed mathematically in the form of a complex heat transfer coefficient. Any cyclic pressure oscillations, can be reduced by Fourier analysis to harmonic oscillations, which result in specific, mutual relationships of heat-transfer coefficients and phase angles for the different harmonics.

  13. Forced convective heat transfer in curved diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, J.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity characteristics of the flows in two curved diffusers of rectangular cross section with C and S-shaped centerlines are presented and related to measurements of wall heat transfer coefficients along the heated flat walls of the ducts. The velocity results were obtained by laser-Doppler anemometry in a water tunnel and the heat transfer results by liquid crystal thermography in a wind tunnel. The thermographic technique allowed the rapid and inexpensive measurement of wall heat transfer coefficients along flat walls of arbitrary boundary shapes with an accuracy of about 5 percent. The results show that an increase in secondary flow velocities near the heated wall causes an increase in the local wall heat transfer coefficient, and quantify the variation for maximum secondary-flow velocities in a range from 1.5 to 17 percent of the bulk flow velocity.

  14. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  15. Heat Transfer in the Bayer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    Heat transfer equipment represents a significant portion of Bayer process plant capital and operating costs. Heater operation and maintenance activities can also create potential hazard exposure. Very early flowsheets tended to rely on direct heat transfer, i.e. steam injection heating and flash cooling, and this still persists to some extent today. There has however been an ever increasing utilization of indirect heat exchange over the past 100 years. This has been driven by higher energy efficiency targets and enabled by improvements in heat transfer equipment. In more recent decades there has been a partial shift towards slurry heating and cooling instead of liquor heating and cooling. This paper presents an historical perspective, explores some heater selection scenarios, and looks at future challenges and opportunities.

  16. Heat Transfer in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, Pakeeza

    Heat transfer though open-cell metal foam is experimentally studied for heat exchanger and heat shield applications at high temperatures (˜750°C). Nickel foam sheets with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per linear inch (PPI), have been used to make the heat exchangers and heat shields by using thermal spray coating to deposit an Inconel skin on a foam core. Heat transfer measurements were performed on a test rig capable of generating hot gas up to 1000°C. The heat exchangers were tested by exposing their outer surface to combustion gases at a temperature of 550°C and 750°C while being cooled by air flowing through them at room temperature at velocities up to 5 m/s. The temperature rise of the air, the surface temperature of the heat exchangers and the air temperature inside the heat exchanger were measured. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated for different velocities. The heat transfer performance of the 40PPI sample brazed with the foil is found to be the most efficient. Pressure drop measurements were also performed for 10 and 40PPI metal foam. Thermographic measurements were done on 40PPI foam heat exchangers using a high temperature infrared camera. A high power electric heater was used to produce hot air at 300°C that passed over the foam heat exchanger while the cooling air was blown through it. Heat shields were made by depositing porous skins on metal foam and it was observed that a small amount of coolant leaking through the pores notably reduces the heat transfer from the hot gases. An analytical model was developed based assuming local thermal non-equilibrium that accounts for the temperature difference between solid and fluid phase. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the predicted values of the model.

  17. Heat transfer and planetary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, D. C.

    1985-06-01

    The object of this account is to show how much one can interprete and predict about the present state of material forming planet size objects, despite the fact we do not and could never have the kind of exact or prior knowledge of initial conditions and in situ material behaviour that would make a formal mathematical analysis of the dynamical problems of planetary evolution an efficient or meaningful exercise The interest and usefulness of results obtained within these limitations stem from the highly non linear nature of planetary scale heat transfer problems when posed in any physically plausible form. The non linearity arising from a strongly temperature dependent rheology assumed for in situ planetary material is particularly valuable in deriving results insensitive to such uncertainties. Qualitatively, the thermal evolution of a planet is quite unlike that given by heat conduction calculation below a very superficial layer, and much unnecessary argument and confusion results from a persistent failure to recognise that fact. At depths that are no greater on average than a few tens of kilometres in the case of Earth, the temperature distribution is determined by a convective flow regime inaccessble to the laboratory experimenter and to the numerical methods regularly employed to study convective movement. A central and guiding quantitative result is the creation in homogeneous planet size objects having surface temperatures less than about half the absolute melting temperature of their material, of internal states with horizontally a veraged viscosity values ˜1021 poise. This happens in times short compared with the present Solar System age. The significance of this result for an understanding of such processes and features as isostasy, continental drift, a minimum in seismic S wave velocity in Earth's upper mantle, a uniformity of mantle viscosity values, the survival of liquid planetary cores and the differentiation of terrestrial planet material is examined

  18. Heat Transfer of Nanofluid in a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger.

    PubMed

    Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar; Zarei, Malihe; Dehghani, Mehdi; Kaskari Mahalle, Sahar Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the enhancement of heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of a nanofluid containing nanoparticles (γ-AL2O3) with a particle size of 20 nm and volume fraction of 0.1%-0.3% (V/V). Effects of temperature and concentration of nanoparticles on Nusselt number changes and heat transfer coefficient in a double pipe heat exchanger with counter turbulent flow are investigated. Comparison of experimental results with valid theoretical data based on semiempirical equations shows an acceptable agreement. Experimental results show a considerable increase in heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number up to 19%-24%, respectively. Also, it has been observed that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the operating temperature and concentration of nanoparticles.

  19. Improved heat transfer modeling of the eye for electromagnetic wave exposures.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa

    2007-05-01

    This study proposed an improved heat transfer model of the eye for exposure to electromagnetic (EM) waves. Particular attention was paid to the difference from the simplified heat transfer model commonly used in this field. From our computational results, the temperature elevation in the eye calculated with the simplified heat transfer model was largely influenced by the EM absorption outside the eyeball, but not when we used our improved model.

  20. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1982-01-01

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  1. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes several independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  2. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes a plurality of independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  3. Passive heat transfer means for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Burelbach, James P.

    1984-01-01

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. Means such as shrouding normally isolated the secondary condensing section from effective heat transfer with the heat sink, but a sensor responds to overheat conditions of the reactor to open the shrouding, which thereby increases the cooling capacity of the heat pipe. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  4. Super-Planckian far-field radiative heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Hurtado, V.; Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.; Feist, J.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Cuevas, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    We present here a theoretical analysis that demonstrates that the far-field radiative heat transfer between objects with dimensions smaller than the thermal wavelength can overcome the Planckian limit by orders of magnitude. To guide the search for super-Planckian far-field radiative heat transfer, we make use of the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics and derive a relation between the far-field radiative heat transfer and the directional absorption efficiency of the objects involved. Guided by this relation, and making use of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we show that the far-field radiative heat transfer between highly anisotropic objects can largely overcome the black-body limit when some of their dimensions are smaller than the thermal wavelength. In particular, we illustrate this phenomenon in the case of suspended pads made of polar dielectrics like SiN or SiO2. These structures are widely used to measure the thermal transport through nanowires and low-dimensional systems and can be employed to test our predictions. Our work illustrates the dramatic failure of the classical theory to predict the far-field radiative heat transfer between micro- and nanodevices.

  5. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Sarkisian, Paul H.; Reimann, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  6. Internally Heated Screw Pyrolysis Reactor (IHSPR) heat transfer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, S. H.; Gan, H. L.; Alias, A.; Gan, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    1.5 billion end-of-life tyres (ELT) were discarded globally each year and pyrolysis is considered the best solution to convert the ELT into valuable high energy-density products. Among all pyrolysis technologies, screw reactor is favourable. However, conventional screw reactor risks plugging issue due to its lacklustre heat transfer performance. An internally heated screw pyrolysis reactor (IHSPR) was developed by local renewable energy industry, which serves as the research subject for heat transfer performance study of this particular paper. Zero-load heating test (ZLHT) was first carried out to obtain the operational parameters of the reactor, followed by the one dimensional steady-state heat transfer analysis carried out using SolidWorks Flow Simulation 2016. Experiments with feed rate manipulations and pyrolysis products analyses were conducted last to conclude the study.

  7. Heat transfer behaviours of nanofluids in a uniformly heated tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maı̈ga, Sidi El Bécaye; Nguyen, Cong Tam; Galanis, Nicolas; Roy, Gilles

    2004-03-01

    In the present work, we consider the problem of the forced convection flow of water- γAl 2O 3 and ethylene glycol- γAl 2O 3 nanofluids inside a uniformly heated tube that is submitted to a constant and uniform heat flux at the wall. In general, it is observed that the inclusion of nanoparticles has increased considerably the heat transfer at the tube wall for both the laminar and turbulent regimes. Such improvement of heat transfer becomes more pronounced with the increase of the particle concentration. On the other hand, the presence of particles has produced adverse effects on the wall friction that also increases with the particle volume concentration. Results have also shown that the ethylene glycol- γAl 2O 3 mixture gives a far better heat transfer enhancement than the water- γAl 2O 3 mixture.

  8. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  9. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  10. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets,more » and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat

  11. Conjugate Heat Transfer Study in Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Niranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Peetala, Ravi Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Coupled and decoupled conjugate heat transfer (CHT) studies are carried out to imitate experimental studies for heat transfer measurement in hypersonic flow regime. The finite volume based solvers are used for analyzing the heat interaction between fluid and solid domains. Temperature and surface heat flux signals are predicted by both coupled and decoupled CHT analysis techniques for hypersonic Mach numbers. These two methodologies are also used to study the effect of different wall materials on surface parameters. Effectiveness of these CHT solvers has been verified for the inverse problem of wall heat flux recovery using various techniques reported in the literature. Both coupled and decoupled CHT techniques are seen to be equally useful for prediction of local temperature and heat flux signals prior to the experiments in hypersonic flows.

  12. Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer is widely taught in secondary Earth science and physics. Researchers have identified many misconceptions related to heat and temperature. These misconceptions primarily stem from hunches developed in everyday life (though the confusions in terminology often worsen them). Interactive computer simulations that visualize thermal energy,…

  13. Heat transfer measurements for Stirling machine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, Alan A.; Kafka, B. C.; Finkbeiner, D. L.; Cantelmi, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to measure the effects of inflow-produced heat turbulence on heat transfer in Stirling machine cylinders. A secondary purpose was to provide new experimental information on heat transfer in gas springs without inflow. The apparatus for the experiment consisted of a varying-volume piston-cylinder space connected to a fixed volume space by an orifice. The orifice size could be varied to adjust the level of inflow-produced turbulence, or the orifice plate could be removed completely so as to merge the two spaces into a single gas spring space. Speed, cycle mean pressure, overall volume ratio, and varying volume space clearance ratio could also be adjusted. Volume, pressure in both spaces, and local heat flux at two locations were measured. The pressure and volume measurements were used to calculate area averaged heat flux, heat transfer hysteresis loss, and other heat transfer-related effects. Experiments in the one space arrangement extended the range of previous gas spring tests to lower volume ratio and higher nondimensional speed. The tests corroborated previous results and showed that analytic models for heat transfer and loss based on volume ratio approaching 1 were valid for volume ratios ranging from 1 to 2, a range covering most gas springs in Stirling machines. Data from experiments in the two space arrangement were first analyzed based on lumping the two spaces together and examining total loss and averaged heat transfer as a function of overall nondimensional parameter. Heat transfer and loss were found to be significantly increased by inflow-produced turbulence. These increases could be modeled by appropriate adjustment of empirical coefficients in an existing semi-analytic model. An attempt was made to use an inverse, parameter optimization procedure to find the heat transfer in each of the two spaces. This procedure was successful in retrieving this information from simulated pressure-volume data with artificially

  14. On the Heat Transfer through a Solid Slab Heated Uniformly and Continuously on One of Its Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, E.; Lara-Bernal, A.; Calderon, A.; Delgado-Vasallo, O.

    2011-01-01

    Some peculiarities of the heat transfer through a sample that is heated by the superficial absorption of light energy under continuous uniform illumination are discussed. We explain, using a different approach to that presented in a recent article published in this journal (Salazar "et al" 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 1053-9), that the front surface of…

  15. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  16. Heat transfer about a vertical permeable membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviany, M.

    1988-05-01

    The natural convection heat transfer about both sides of vertical walls without any seepage has been studied and the effects of the wall thickness and thermal conductivity on the local and average heat transfer rates have been determined. Viskanta and Lankford have concluded that in predicting the heat transfer rate through the wall, for low-thermal-conductivity walls the a priori unknown wall surface temperatures can be walls the a priori unknown wall surface temperatures can be estimated as the arithmetic average of the reservoir temperatures without loss of accuracy (for most practical situations). Sparrow and Prakash treated the surface temperature asmore » variable but used the local temperature along with the available isothermal boundary-layer analysis for determination of the local heat transfer rate and found this to be reasonable at relatively low Grashof numbers. In this study the heat trasnfer rate between two reservoirs of different temperature connected in part through a permeable membrane is analyzed. Rather than solving the complete problem numerically for the three domains (fluid-wall-fluid), the available results on the effects of suction and blowing on the natural convection boundary layer are used in an analysis of the membranes with low thermal conductivity and small seepage velocities, which are characteristic of membranes considered. This will lead to rather simple expressions for the determination of the heat transfer rate.« less

  17. Interfacial charge transfer absorption: Application to metal molecule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutz, Carol; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Sutin, Norman

    2006-05-01

    Optically induced charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and a metal electrode was predicted by Hush to lead to new electronic absorption features, but has been only rarely observed experimentally. Interfacial charge transfer absorption (IFCTA) provides information concerning the barriers to charge transfer between molecules and the metal/semiconductor and the magnitude of the electronic coupling and could thus provide a powerful tool for understanding interfacial charge-transfer kinetics. Here, we utilize a previously published model [C. Creutz, B.S. Brunschwig, N. Sutin, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 10251] to predict IFCTA spectra of metal-molecule assemblies and compare the literature observations to these predictions. We conclude that, in general, the electronic coupling between molecular adsorbates and the metal levels is so small that IFCTA is not detectable. However, few experiments designed to detect IFCTA have been done. We suggest approaches to optimizing the conditions for observing the process.

  18. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  19. Lunar ash flow with heat transfer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The most important heat-transfer process in the ash flow under consideration is heat convection. Besides the four important nondimensional parameters of isothermal ash flow (Pai et al., 1972), we have three additional important nondimensional parameters: the ratio of the specific heat of the gas, the ratio of the specific heat of the solid particles to that of gas, and the Prandtl number. We reexamine the one dimensional steady ash flow discussed by Pai et al. (1972) by including the effects of heat transfer. Numerical results for the pressure, temperature, density of the gas, velocities of gas and solid particles, and volume fraction of solid particles as function of altitude for various values of the Jeffreys number, initial velocity ratio, and two different gas species (steam and hydrogen) are presented.

  20. Heat transfer in suspensions of rigid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Luca; Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi; Abouali, Omid

    2016-11-01

    We study the heat transfer in laminar Couette flow of suspensions of rigid neutrally buoyant particles by means of numerical simulations. An Immersed Boundary Method is coupled with a VOF approach to simulate the heat transfer in the fluid and solid phase, enabling us to fully resolve the heat diffusion. First, we consider spherical particles and show that the proposed algorithm is able to reproduce the correlations between heat flux across the channel, the particle volume fraction and the heat diffusivity obtained in laboratory experiments and recently proposed in the literature, results valid in the limit of vanishing inertia. We then investigate the role of inertia on the heat transfer and show an increase of the suspension diffusivity at finite particle Reynolds numbers. Finally, we vary the relativity diffusivity of the fluid and solid phase and investigate its effect on the effective heat flux across the channel. The data are analyzed by considering the ensemble averaged energy equation and decomposing the heat flux in 4 different contributions, related to diffusion in the solid and fluid phase, and the correlations between wall-normal velocity and temperature fluctuations. Results for non-spherical particles will be examined before the meeting. Supported by the European Research Council Grant No. ERC-2013- CoG-616186, TRITOS. The authors acknowledge computer time provided by SNIC (Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  1. HOST turbine heat transfer program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Simoneau, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the HOST Turbine Heat Transfer subproject were to obtain a better understanding of the physics of the aerothermodynamic phenomena and to assess and improve the analytical methods used to predict the flow and heat transfer in high temperature gas turbines. At the time the HOST project was initiated, an across-the-board improvement in turbine design technology was needed. A building-block approach was utilized and the research ranged from the study of fundamental phenomena and modeling to experiments in simulated real engine environments. Experimental research accounted for approximately 75 percent of the funding with the remainder going to analytical efforts. A healthy government/industry/university partnership, with industry providing almost half of the research, was created to advance the turbine heat transfer design technology base.

  2. Heat transfer mechanisms in pulsating heat-pipes with nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Miguel; Kelly, Brian; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Kim, Yoon Jo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of silver nanofluid on a pulsating heat-pipe (PHP) thermal performance was experimentally investigated to figure out how nanofluid works with PHP. A closed loop PHP was built with 3 mm diameter tubes. Thermocouples and pressure transducers were installed for fluid and surface temperature and pressure measurements. The operating temperature of the PHP varied from 30-100 °C, with power rates of 61 W and 119 W. The fill ratio of 30%, 50%, and 70% were tested. The results showed that the evaporator heat transfer performance was degraded by the addition of nanoparticles due to increased viscosity at high power rate, while the positive effects of high thermal conductivity and enhanced nucleate boiling worked better at low power rate. In the condenser section, owing to the relatively high liquid content, nanofluid more effectively improved the heat transfer performance. However, since the PHP performance was dominantly affected by evaporator heat transfer performance, the overall benefit of enhanced condenser section performance was greatly limited. It was also observed that the poor heat transfer performance with nanofluid at the evaporator section led to lower operating pressure of PHP.

  3. Self supporting heat transfer element

    DOEpatents

    Story, Grosvenor Cook; Baldonado, Ray Orico

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  4. Splice connector with internal heat transfer jacket

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.; Mayer, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    A heat transfer jacket is placed over the terminal portions of the conductors of a pair of high voltage cables which are connected in a splice connection wherein a housing surrounds the connected conductor portions, the heat transfer jacket extending longitudinally between the confronting ends of a pair of adaptor sleeves placed upon the insulation of the cables to engage and locate the adaptor sleeves relative to one another, and laterally between the conductors and the housing to provide a path of relatively high thermal conductivity between the connected conductor portions and the housing.

  5. Heat transfer characteristics of an emergent strand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.; Witte, L. C.; Hedgcoxe, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the heat transfer characteristics of a hot strand emerging into a surrounding coolant. A stable strand of constant efflux velocity is analyzed, with a constant (average) heat transfer coefficient on the sides and leading surface of the strand. After developing a suitable governing equation to provide an adequate description of the physical system, the dimensionless governing equation is solved with Laplace transform methods. The solution yields the temperature within the strand as a function of axial distance and time. Generalized results for a wide range of parameters are presented, and the relationship of the results and experimental observations is discussed.

  6. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2013-11-01

    In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).

  7. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  8. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    such as Ede, Hislop and Morris [1956], Krall and Sparrow [1966] and Zemanick and Dougall I [1970]. Reviews of the heat transfer literature for...separated flow; he employed a one- dimensional model of the flow near a wall. Recently, Chieng and Launder [ 1980 ], in calculations of the turbulent heat...computer program developed originally by Gosman and Pun [1974]. In the present study, the version of Habib and Whitelaw [ 1980 ], which treats double coaxial

  9. Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Novomestský, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.novomestsky@fstroj.uniza.sk; Smatanová, Helena, E-mail: helena.smatanova@fstroj.uniza.sk; Kapjor, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.kapjor@fstroj.uniza.sk

    This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable.

  10. Enhancing the absorption and energy transfer process via quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Xiao-Lan; Song, Wei; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ming; Yu, Long-Bao; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2018-07-01

    The quantum network model is widely used to describe the dynamics of excitation energy transfer in photosynthesis complexes. Different from the previous schemes, we explore a specific network model, which includes both light-harvesting and energy transfer process. Here, we define a rescaled measure to manifest the energy transfer efficiency from external driving to the sink, and the external driving fields are used to simulate the energy absorption process. To study the role of initial state in the light-harvesting and energy transfer process, we assume the initial state of the donors to be two-qubit and three-qubit entangled states, respectively. In the two-qubit initial state case, we find that the initial entanglement between the donors can help to improve the absorption and energy transfer process for both the near-resonant and large-detuning cases. For the case of three-qubit initial state, we can see that the transfer efficiency will reach a larger value faster in the tripartite entanglement case compared to the bipartite entanglement case.

  11. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  12. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferredmore » across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.« less

  13. Research of waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liansheng; E, Zhijun; Wang, Kun; Wang, Ziyue; Li, Guohao; Qu, Bin

    2018-02-01

    The waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water has been analyzed. After the operation of heat pump, the influences on power generation and heat generation of unit were taken into account. In the light of the characteristics of heat pump in different operation stages, the energy efficiency of heat pump was evaluated comprehensively on both sides of benefits belonging to electricity and benefits belonging to heat, which adopted the method of contrast test. Thus, the reference of energy efficiency for same type projects was provided.

  14. Heat transfer studies. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, R.; Chen, Y.; Izzeldin, A.

    The experiments on determination of the wavelength corresponding to the equality of the refractive indices and how this varies with temperature have been completed. This was accomplished using the calibration setup of a 2-inch-long test cell filled with 2 mm diameter soda-lime glass beads. Some good images result, but these are not very clear. Therefore, a 1-inch long test cell has now been built. The modified test cell is shown. A 30-gauge type K thermocouple is placed at the center inside the test cell. A model 450 AET Omega thermocouple thermometer is used to indicate the temperature from the thermocouple.more » A polyurethane foam insulator covered the test cell circular wall to approximate an adiabatic condition. The organic chemical liquid and glass beads are heated up by the mica band heater. A variable transformer is used to the control power to the heater and, thus, the temperature in the cell. The temperature is slowly increased from ambient to try to maintain a generally homogeneous temperature inside the cell. If the indices of refraction of the glass beads and the organic liquid are the same, the image of glass beads then can be found. Chlorobenzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Cl) with a refractive index of about 1.52 at 25{degrees}C (boiling point of 131.6{degrees}C), has been used as the organic chemical liquid. A 5 W argon-ion laser has been used as the light source to visualize the image generated by the Christiansen effect. Two optical grade prisms are used to separate the three wavelengths (green, teal, and blue) of the beam. 80 {mu}m and 200 {mu}m apertures are used to select a single wavelength portion of the beam (either 488 nm blue or 514.5 nm green).« less

  15. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  16. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  17. Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    One of the pitfalls of engineering education is to lose the physical insight of the problem while tackling the mathematical part. Forced convection heat transfer (the Graetz-Nusselt problem) certainly falls into this category. The equation of energy together with the equation of motion leads to a partial differential equation subject to various…

  18. Harwell high pressure heat transfer loop

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, A.W.; Keeys, R.K.F.

    1967-12-15

    A detailed description is presented of the Harwell (Chemical Engineering and Process Technology Division) high pressure, steam-water heat transfer loop; this description is aimed at supplementing the information given in reports on individual experiments. The operating instructions for the loop are given in an appendix. (auth)

  19. Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics: a Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A compilation is presented for the dissemination of information on technological developments which have potential utility outside the aerospace and nuclear communities. Studies include theories and mechanical considerations in the transfer of heat and the thermodynamic properties of matter and the causes and effects of certain interactions.

  20. Computational Aspects of Heat Transfer in Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Techniques for the computation of heat transfer and associated phenomena in complex structures are examined with an emphasis on reentry flight vehicle structures. Analysis methods, computer programs, thermal analysis of large space structures and high speed vehicles, and the impact of computer systems are addressed.

  1. Heat Transfer in a Paper Cup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The double-wall paper cup is an everyday object that can be used in the laboratory to study heat transfer. The experiment described here has been done by physics students aged 12-13 years; it can also be used in a different context to prompt debate about environmental issues.

  2. Heat transfer variations of bicycle helmets.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, P A; Buyan, M; Huber, R; Bogerd, C P; Sznitman, J; Graf, S F; Rösgen, T

    2006-09-01

    Bicycle helmets exhibit complex structures so as to combine impact protection with ventilation. A quantitative experimental measure of the state of the art and variations therein is a first step towards establishing principles of bicycle helmet ventilation. A thermal headform mounted in a climate-regulated wind tunnel was used to study the ventilation efficiency of 24 bicycle helmets at two wind speeds. Flow visualization in a water tunnel with a second headform demonstrated the flow patterns involved. The influence of design details such as channel length and vent placement was studied, as well as the impact of hair. Differences in heat transfer among the helmets of up to 30% (scalp) and 10% (face) were observed, with the nude headform showing the highest values. On occasion, a negative role of some vents for forced convection was demonstrated. A weak correlation was found between the projected vent cross-section and heat transfer variations when changing the head tilt angle. A simple analytical model is introduced that facilitates the understanding of forced convection phenomena. A weak correlation between exposed scalp area and heat transfer was deduced. Adding a wig reduces the heat transfer by approximately a factor of 8 in the scalp region and up to one-third for the rest of the head for a selection of the best ventilated helmets. The results suggest that there is significant optimization potential within the basic helmet structure represented in modern bicycle helmets.

  3. Evaporative Heat Transfer Mechanisms within a Heat Melt Compactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Gotti, Daniel J.; Rymut, Joseph Edward; Nguyen, Brian K; Owens, Jay C.; Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John W.; Hong, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the status of microgravity analysis and testing for the development of a Heat Melt Compactor (HMC). Since fluids behave completely differently in microgravity, the evaporation process for the HMC is expected to be different than in 1-g. A thermal model is developed to support the design and operation of the HMC. Also, low-gravity aircraft flight data is described to assess the point at which water may be squeezed out of the HMC during microgravity operation. For optimum heat transfer operation of the HMC, the compaction process should stop prior to any water exiting the HMC, but nevertheless seek to compact as much as possible to cause high heat transfer and therefore shorter evaporation times.

  4. Heat transfer in a real engine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.

    1985-10-01

    The hot section facility at the Lewis Research Center was used to demonstrate the capability of instruments to make required measurements of boundary conditions of the flow field and heat transfer processes in the hostile environment of the turbine. The results of thermal scaling tests show that low temperature and pressure rig tests give optimistic estimates of the thermal performance of a cooling design for high pressure and temperature application. The results of measuring heat transfer coefficients on turbine vane airfoils through dynamic data analysis show good comparison with measurements from steady state heat flux gauges. In addition, the data trends are predicted by the STAN5 boundary layer code. However, the magnitude of the experimental data was not predicted by the analysis, particularly in laminar and transitional regions near the leading edge. The infrared photography system was shown capable of providing detailed surface thermal gradients and secondary flow features on a turbine vane and endwell.

  5. Double diffusive conjugate heat transfer: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.

    2018-05-01

    Conjugate heat transfer in porous medium is an important study involved in many practical applications. The current study is aimed to investigate the double diffusive flow in a square porous cavity subjected to left vertical surface heating and right vertical surface cooling respectively along with left and right surfaces maintained at high and low concentration. The three governing equations are converted into algebraic form of equations by applying finite element method and solved in iterative manner. The study is focused to investigate the effect of presence of solid inside the cavity with respect to varying buoyancy ratio. It is found that the local heat and mass transfer rate decreases along the height of cavity.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.

    2013-01-01

    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  7. Numerical study of heat transfer characteristics in BOG heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Miller, Franklin; Ni, Zhonghua; Zhi, Xiaoqin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a numerical study of turbulent flow and the heat transfer process in a boil-off liquefied natural gas (BOG) heat exchanger was performed. Finite volume computational fluid dynamics and the k - ω based shear stress transport model were applied to simulate thermal flow of BOG and ethylene glycol in a full-sized 3D tubular heat exchanger. The simulation model has been validated and compared with the engineering specification data from its supplier. In order to investigate thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger, velocity, temperature, heat flux and thermal response were studied under different mass flowrates in the shell-side. The shell-side flow pattern is mostly determined by viscous forces, which lead to a small velocity and low temperature buffer area in the bottom-right corner of the heat exchanger. Changing the shell-side mass flowrate could result in different distributions of the shell-side flow. However, the distribution in the BOG will remain in a relatively stable pattern. Heat flux increases along with the shell-side mass flowrate, but the increase is not linear. The ratio of increased heat flux to the mass flow interval is superior at lower mass flow conditions, and the threshold mass flow for stable working conditions is defined as greater than 0.41 kg/s.

  8. Heat transfer in GTA welding arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huft, Nathan J.

    Heat transfer characteristics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) arcs with arc currents of 50 to 125 A and arc lengths of 3 to 11 mm were measured experimentally through wet calorimetry. The data collected were used to calculate how much heat reported to the cathode and anode and how much was lost from the arc column. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macro was written to further analyze the data and account for Joule heating within the electrodes and radiation and convection losses from the arc, providing a detailed account of how heat was generated and dissipated within the system. These values were then used to calculate arc efficiencies, arc column voltages, and anode and cathode fall voltages. Trends were noted for variances in the arc column voltage, power dissipated from the arc column, and the total power dissipated by the system with changing arc length. Trends for variances in the anode and cathode fall voltages, total power dissipated, Joule heating within the torches and electrodes with changing arc current were also noted. In addition, the power distribution between the anode and cathode for each combination of arc length and arc current was examined. Keywords: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW, anode fall, cathode fall, heat transfer, wet calorimetry

  9. Heat transfer modelling of pulsed laser-tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzova, J.; Jelinek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Due to their attributes, the application of medical lasers is on the rise in numerous medical fields. From a biomedical point of view, the most interesting applications are the thermal interactions and the photoablative interactions, which effectively remove tissue without excessive heat damage to the remaining tissue. The objective of this work is to create a theoretical model for heat transfer in the tissue following its interaction with the laser beam to predict heat transfer during medical laser surgery procedures. The dimensions of the ablated crater (shape and ablation depth) were determined by computed tomography imaging. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used for temperature modelling. The parameters of tissue and blood, such as density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, were calculated from the chemical ratio. The parameters of laser-tissue interaction, such as absorption and reflection coefficients, were experimentally determined. The parameters of the laser beam were power density, repetition frequency, pulse length and spot dimensions. Heat spreading after laser interaction with tissue was captured using a Fluke thermal camera. The model was verified for adipose tissue, skeletal muscle tissue and heart muscle tissue.

  10. Heat transfer coefficient as parameter describing ability of insulating liquid to heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolny, Zbigniew; Gościński, Przemysław; Bródka, Bolesław

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the measurements of heat transfer coefficient of insulating liquids used in transformers. The coefficient describes an ability of the liquid to heat transport. On the basis of the coefficient, effectiveness of cooling system of electric power devices can be estimated. Following liquids were used for the measurements: mineral oil, synthetic ester and natural ester. It was assumed that surface heat load is about 2500 W·m-2, which is equal the load of transformer windings. A height of heat element was 1.6 m, because it makes possible steady distribution of temperature on its surface. The measurements of heat transfer coefficient was made as a function of various position of heat element (vertical, horizontal). In frame of horizontal position of heat element, three suppositions were analysed: top, bottom, and side.

  11. Transient Heat Transfer in TCAP Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.L.

    1999-03-09

    The Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) is used to separate isotopes of hydrogen. TCAP involves passing a stream of mixed hydrogen isotopes through palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) while cycling the temperature of the Pd/k. Kieselguhr is a silica mineral also called diatomite. To aid in the design of a full scale facility, the Thermal Fluids Laboratory was used by the Chemical and Hydrogen Technology Section to compare the heat transfer properties of three different configurations of stainless steel coils containing kieselguhr and helium. Testing of coils containing Pd/k and hydrogen isotopes would have been more prototypical but would havemore » been too expensive. Three stainless steel coils filled with kieselguhr were tested; one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing, one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing with foam copper embedded in the kieselguhr and one made from 1.25 inch diameter tubing. It was known prior to testing that increasing the tubing diameter from 1.25 inch to 2.0 inch would slow the rate of temperature change. The primary purpose of the testing was to measure to what extent the presence of copper foam in a 2.0" tubing coil would compensate for the effect of larger diameter. Each coil was connected to a pressure gage and the coil was evacuated and backfilled with helium gas. Helium was used instead of a mixture of hydrogen isotopes for reasons of safety. Each coil was quickly immersed in a stirred bath of ethylene glycol at a temperature of approximately 100 degrees Celsius. The coil pressure increased, reflecting the increase in average temperature of its contents. The pressure transient was recored as a function of time after immersion. Because of the actual process will use Pd/k instead of kieselguhr, additional tests were run to determine the differences in thermal properties between the two materials. The method was to position a thermocouple at the center of a hollow sphere and pack the sphere with Pd/k. The sphere was sealed

  12. Transient Heat Transfer in TCAP Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.L.

    1999-03-09

    The Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) is used to separate isotopes of hydrogen. TCAP involves passing a stream of mixed hydrogen isotopes through palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) while cycling the temperature of the Pd/k. Kieselguhr is a silica mineral also called diatomite. To aid in the design of a full scale facility, the Thermal Fluids Laboratory was used by the Chemical and Hydrogen Technology Section to compare the heat transfer properties of three different configurations of stainless steel coils containing kieselguhr and helium. Testing of coils containing Pd/k and hydrogen isotopes would have been more prototypical but would havemore » been too expensive. Three stainless steel coils filled with kieselguhr were tested; one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing, one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing with foam copper embedded in the kieselguhr and one made from 1.25 inch diameter tubing. It was known prior to testing that increasing the tubing diameter from 1.25 inch to 2.0 inch would slow the rate of temperature change. The primary purpose of the testing was to measure to what extent the presence of copper foam in a 2.0 tubing coil would compensate for the effect of larger diameter. Each coil was connected to a pressure gage and the coil was evacuated and backfilled with helium gas. Helium was used instead of a mixture of hydrogen isotopes for reasons of safety. Each coil was quickly immersed in a stirred bath of ethylene glycol at a temperature of approximately 100 degrees Celsius. The coil pressure increased, reflecting the increase in average temperature of its contents. The pressure transient was recored as a function of time after immersion. Because of the actual process will use Pd/k instead of kieselguhr, additional tests were run to determine the differences in thermal properties between the two materials. The method was to position a thermocouple at the center of a hollow sphere and pack the sphere with Pd/k. The sphere was sealed

  13. Heat Transfer in Health and Healing.

    PubMed

    Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-10-01

    Our bodies depend on an exquisitely sensitive and refined temperature control system to maintain a state of health and homeostasis. The exceptionally broad range of physical activities that humans engage in and the diverse array of environmental conditions we face require remarkable strategies and mechanisms for regulating internal and external heat transfer processes. On the occasions for which the body suffers trauma, therapeutic temperature modulation is often the approach of choice for reversing injury and inflammation and launching a cascade of healing. The focus of human thermoregulation is maintenance of the body core temperature within a tight range of values, even as internal rates of energy generation may vary over an order of magnitude, environmental convection, and radiation heat loads may undergo large changes in the absence of any significant personal control, surface insulation may be added or removed, all occurring while the body's internal thermostat follows a diurnal circadian cycle that may be altered by illness and anesthetic agents. An advanced level of understanding of the complex physiological function and control of the human body may be combined with skill in heat transfer analysis and design to develop life-saving and injury-healing medical devices. This paper will describe some of the challenges and conquests the author has experienced related to the practice of heat transfer for maintenance of health and enhancement of healing processes.

  14. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case. PMID:21711755

  15. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Fakhreddine Segni; Bennacer, Rachid

    2011-12-01

    Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case.

  16. Reversible and irreversible heat transfer by radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Río, Fernando; de la Selva, Sara María Teresa

    2015-05-01

    The theme of heat transfer by radiation is absent from most textbooks on thermodynamics, and its treatment in the applied literature presents some basic discrepancies concerning the validity of the Clausius relation between the quantity of heat exchanged, δ Q, and the accompanying entropy change, dS. We review the reversible and irreversible heat transfers by radiation to clarify the validity of the Clausius relation, and we show that in both cases, the Clausius relation is obeyed, as it should be. We also deal with radiation diluted by the presence of matter, introducing a dilution coefficient, ϕ, and an irreversibility factor, χ (φ ). This treatment requires the use of the correct relation between energy and heat fluxes, the spectral fluxes of energy and entropy, and Planck’s equation for the entropy of monochromatic radiation. For the irreversible case of diluted radiation, we recover the ratio between the fluxes of heat and entropy that agree with Clausius’ inequality, including an irreversibility factor, (4/3)χ (φ ). An improved modification for the explicit function χ (φ ) is given. As an illustration, the fluxes of energy and entropy from the Sun to the Earth are obtained. We also calculate the fluxes re-emitted by the Earth, taking into account the greenhouse effect. We find the value of 1.258 W{{m}-2}{{K}-1} for the re-emitted entropy flux after the radiation has been thermalized, which is much larger than the incident flux, in agreement with other authors.

  17. Organic absorption gas-fired residential heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. P.

    The development program of a system utilizing a new absorption pair, R133a (CF3CH2Cl) as the refigerant, and ETFE (ethyletra-hydrofurfury lether) as the absorber fluid, is described. A diagram of the basic configuration is shown. The cooling mode and the heating mode are discussed. Six units of an early hardware design were constructed and tested. Two of these units were placed in home heating service during the 1980-81 season. A market evaluation of the business potential of the absorption system was made, identifying location and size of the likely market for such a system. A performance simulation analysis was performed for seven cities in the US. From these, general characteristics of the areas having the greatest performance benefits were established.

  18. RF absorption and ion heating in helicon sources.

    PubMed

    Kline, J L; Scime, E E; Boivin, R F; Keesee, A M; Sun, X; Mikhailenko, V S

    2002-05-13

    Experimental data are presented that are consistent with the hypothesis that anomalous rf absorption in helicon sources is due to electron scattering arising from parametrically driven ion-acoustic waves downstream from the antenna. Also presented are ion temperature measurements demonstrating anisotropic heating (T( perpendicular)>T(parallel)) at the edge of the discharge. The most likely explanation is ion-Landau damping of electrostatic slow waves at a local lower-hybrid-frequency resonance.

  19. BOILING HEAT TRANSFER IN ZERO GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zara, E.A.

    1964-01-01

    The preliminary results of a research program to determine the effects of zero and near zero gravity on boiling heat transfer are presented. Zero gravity conditions were obtained on the ASD KC-135 zero gravity test aircraft, capable of providing 30-seconds of zero gravity. Results of the program to date indicate that nucleate (bubble) boiling heat transfer rates are not greatly affected by the absence of gravity forces. However, radical pressure increases were observed that will dictate special design considerations to space vehicle systems utilizing pool boiling processes, such as cryogenic or other fluid storage vessels where thermal input to themore » fluid is used for vessel pressurization. (auth)« less

  20. Double diffusive conjugate heat transfer: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is undertaken to investigate the effect of solid wall being placed at left of square cavity filled with porous medium. The presence of a solid wall in the porous medium turns the situation into a conjugate heat transfer problem. The boundary conditions are such that the left vertical surface is maintained at highest temperature and concentration whereas right vertical surface at lowest temperature and concentration in the medium. The top and bottom surfaces are adiabatic. The additional conduction equation along with the regular momentum and energy equations of porous medium are solved in an iterative manner with the help of finite element method. It is seen that the heat and mass transfer rate is lesser due to smaller thermal and concentration gradients.

  1. Slip effect on stagnation point flow past a stretching surface with the presence of heat generation/absorption and Newtonian heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Muhammad Khairul Anuar; Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Sarif, Norhafizah Md; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Ishak, Anuar

    2017-08-01

    Present study solved numerically the velocity slip effect on stagnation point flow past a stretching surface with the presence of heat generation/absorption and Newtonian heating. The governing equations which in the form of partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method in MAPLE. The numerical solution is obtained for the surface temperature, heat transfer coefficient, reduced skin friction coefficient as well as the temperature and velocity profiles. The flow features and the heat transfer characteristic for the pertinent parameter such as Prandtl number, stretching parameter, heat generation/absorption parameter, velocity slip parameter and conjugate parameter are analyzed and discussed.

  2. Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane aspect ratio of 3. The crosssectional geometry was defined by the equation of a superellipse. The cross-sectional area was the same at the inlet and exit but varied up to 15 percent higher through the transition. The duct was preheated to a uniform temperature (nominally 64 C) before allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. As the surface cooled, the resulting isothermal contours on the duct surface were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the surface temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. Using this surface temperature-time data together with the temperature of the air flowing through the model and the initial temperature of the model wall, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by employing the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction model. Test results are reported for inlet diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.4x106 to 2.4x106 and two grid-generated freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  3. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-11-09

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of five inorganic salts including about 29.1-33.5 mol % LiNO.sub.3, 0-3.9 mol % NaNO.sub.3, 2.4-8.2 mol % KNO.sub.3, 18.6-19.9 mol % NaNO.sub.2, and 40-45.6 mol % KNO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures below 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  4. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  5. Enhanced condensation heat transfer with wettability patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2015-11-01

    Condensation of water vapor on metal surfaces is useful for many engineering applications. A facile and scalable method is proposed for removing condensate from a vertical plate during dropwise condensation (DWC) in the presence of non-condensable gases (NCG). We use wettability-patterned superhydrophilic tracks (filmwise condensing domains) on a mirror-finish (hydrophilic) aluminum surface that promotes DWC. Tapered, horizontal ``collection'' tracks are laid to create a Laplace pressure driven flow, which collects condensate from the mirror-finish domains and sends it to vertical ``drainage tracks'' for gravity-induced shedding. An optimal design is achieved by changing the fractional area of superhydrophilic tracks with respect to the overall plate surface, and augmenting capillary-driven condensate-drainage by adjusting the track spatial layout. The design facilitates pump-less condensate drainage and enhances DWC heat transfer on the mirror-finish regions. The study highlights the relative influences of the promoting and retarding effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation zones on the overall heat transfer improvement on the substrate. The study demonstrated ~ 34% heat transfer improvement on Aluminum surface for the optimized design.

  6. HOST turbine heat transfer subproject overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental part of the turbine heat transfer subproject consists of six large experiments, which are highlighted in this overview, and three of somewhat more modest scope. One of the initial efforts was the stator airfoil heat transfer program. The non-film cooled and the showerhead film cooled data have already been reported. The gill region film cooling effort is currently underway. The investigation of secondary flows in a 90 deg curved duct, was completed. The first phase examined flows with a relatively thin inlet boundary layer and low free stream turbulence. The second phase studied a thicker inlet boundary layer and higher free stream turbulence. A comparison of analytical and experimental cross flow velocity vectors is shown for the 60 deg plane. Two experiments were also conducted in the high pressure facility. One examined full coverage film cooled vanes, and the other, advanced instrumentation. The other three large experimental efforts were conducted in a rotation reference frame. An experiment to obtain gas path airfoil heat transfer coefficients in the large, low speed turbine was completed. Single-stage data with both high and low-inlet turbulence were taken. The second phase examined a one and one-half stage turbine and focused on the second vane row. Under phase 3 aerodynamic quantities such as interrow time-averaged and rms values of velocity, flow angle, inlet turbulence, and surface pressure distribution were measured.

  7. Supercritical oxygen heat transfer. [regenerative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. G.; Rousar, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Heat transfer to supercritical oxygen was experimentally measured in electrical heated tubes. Experimental data were obtained for pressures ranging from 17 to 34.5 MPa (2460 to 5000 psia), and heat fluxes from 2 to 90 million w/sq cm (1.2 to 55 Btu/(sq in. sec)). Bulk temperatures ranged from 96 to 217 K (173 to 391 R). Experimental data obtained by other investigators were added to this to increase the range of pressure down to 2 MPa (290 psia) and increase the range of bulk temperature up to 566 K (1019 R). From this compilation of experimental data a correlating equation was developed which predicts over 95% of the experimental data within + or - 30%.

  8. 7 CFR 2902.54 - Heat transfer fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heat transfer fluids. 2902.54 Section 2902.54... Items § 2902.54 Heat transfer fluids. (a) Definition. Products with high thermal capacities used to facilitate the transfer of heat from one location to another, including coolants or refrigerants for use in...

  9. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  10. Film-Cooling Heat-Transfer Measurements Using Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1997-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) The Transient Liquid-Crystal Heat-Transfer Technique; (2) 2-D Film-Cooling Heat-Transfer on an AlliedSignal Vane; and (3) Effects of Tab Vortex Generators on Surface Heat Transfer. Downstream of a Jet in Crossflow.

  11. Absorptivity Measurements and Heat Source Modeling to Simulate Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Florian; Eisenbarth, Daniel; Wegener, Konrad

    The laser cladding process gains importance, as it does not only allow the application of surface coatings, but also additive manufacturing of three-dimensional parts. In both cases, process simulation can contribute to process optimization. Heat source modeling is one of the main issues for an accurate model and simulation of the laser cladding process. While the laser beam intensity distribution is readily known, the other two main effects on the process' heat input are non-trivial. Namely the measurement of the absorptivity of the applied materials as well as the powder attenuation. Therefore, calorimetry measurements were carried out. The measurement method and the measurement results for laser cladding of Stellite 6 on structural steel S 235 and for the processing of Inconel 625 are presented both using a CO2 laser as well as a high power diode laser (HPDL). Additionally, a heat source model is deduced.

  12. Low heat transfer oxidizer heat exchanger design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.; Peckham, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The RL10-IIB engine, a derivative of the RLIO, is capable of multi-mode thrust operation. This engine operates at two low thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), which is approximately 1 to 2 percent of full thrust, and pumped idle (PI), which is 10 percent of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient engine thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank pre-pressurization and maneuver thrust for log-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-IIB engine at THI and PI thrust levels can be accomplished by providing gaseous oxygen at the propellant injector. Using gaseous hydrogen from the thrust chamber jacket as an energy source, a heat exchanger can be used to vaporize liquid oxygen without creating flow instability. This report summarizes the design and analysis of a United Aircraft Products (UAP) low-rate heat transfer heat exchanger concept for the RL10-IIB rocket engine. The design represents a second iteration of the RL10-IIB heat exchanger investigation program. The design and analysis of the first heat exchanger effort is presented in more detail in NASA CR-174857. Testing of the previous design is detailed in NASA CR-179487.

  13. Optical absorption and radiative heat transport in olivine at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankland, T. J.; Nitsan, U.; Duba, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the optical absorption spectra (300-8000 nm) of olivine as a function of temperature (300-1700 K) under conditions of controlled and known oxygen fugacity within the stability field of the samples. The absorption spectra are used to calculate the temperature-dependent radiative transfer coefficient of olivine and to numerically study the accuracy of the method. The present absorption measurements in olivine under oxidizing conditions known to be within the olivine stability field indicate that the effective radiative conductivity K(R) is lower than that obtained in previous studies under different experimental conditions. The lower value of K(R) makes it more likely that some of the earth's internal heat is removed by convection and less likely that thermal models involving conduction and radiation alone will satisfactorily explain thermal conditions in the earth's mantle.

  14. Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, H.

    1943-01-01

    The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.

  15. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  16. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  17. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  18. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  19. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  20. Laminar heat transfer in annular sector ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, H.M.

    1987-02-01

    The continuing interest in compact heat exchangeers has created the need for friction factor and Nusselt number data for different passage shapes. It has long been recognized that circular tube results are generally not applicable to noncircular passages even when the hydraulic diameter is used as the characteristic dimension. Hence, design data should be generated for each passage individually, and a good source of such information is Shah and London. One duct geometry for which complete design information does not appear to be available in the open literature is that of annular sector ducts. Such configuration is encountered in multipassagemore » internally finned tubes and many other compact het exchanger applications. The fluid flow problem for this configuration has been solved by Sparrow et al., and more recently by Niida. However, to the beest of the author's knowledge, the heat transfer results are not available yet. The purpose of this note is to summarize the analysis and results of fluid flow and heat transfer in annular sector ducts.« less

  1. Heat transfer unit and method for prefabricated vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, David A.; Kesterson, Matthew R; Hardy, Bruce J.

    Vessel assemblies, heat transfer units for prefabricated vessels, and methods for heat transfer prefabricated vessel are provided. A heat transfer unit includes a central rod, and a plurality of peripheral rods surrounding the central rod and connected to the central rod. The plurality of peripheral rods are movable between a first collapsed position and a second bowed position, wherein in the second bowed position a midpoint of each of the plurality of peripheral rods is spaced from the central rod relative to in the first position. The heat transfer unit further includes a heat transfer element connected to one ofmore » the plurality of peripheral rods.« less

  2. Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinich, P. F.; Graham, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Flow and heat transfer in a curved channel of aspect ratio 6 and inner- to outer-wall radius ratio 0.96 were studied. Secondary currents and large longitudinal vortices were found. The heat-transfer rates of the outer and inner walls were independently controlled to maintain a constant wall temperature. Heating the inner wall increased the pressure drop along the channel length, whereas heating the outer wall had little effect. Outer-wall heat transfer was as much as 40 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation, and inner-wall heat transfer was 22 percent greater than the straight-channel correlation.

  3. Electromagnetic enhancement of turbulent heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Kenjeres, Sasa

    2008-12-01

    We performed large eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent natural convection of an electrically conductive fluid (water with 7% Na2SO4 electrolyte solution) in a moderate (4:4:1) aspect ratio enclosure heated from below and cooled from above and subjected to external nonuniformly distributed electromagnetic fields. Different configurations with permanent magnets (located under the lower thermally active wall, B_{0}=1T ) and different strengths of imposed dc electric currents ( I=0-10A ) were compared to the case of pure thermal convection in the turbulent regime, Ra=10;{7} , Pr=7 . It is demonstrated that the electromagnetic forcing of the boundary layers caused significant reorganization of flow and turbulence structures producing significant enhancement of the wall-heat transfer (up to 188% for a configuration with 35 magnets and an applied dc current of 10A ).

  4. Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2002-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.

  5. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO 2 may perhaps have beenmore » the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  6. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO 2 may perhaps have beenmore » the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  7. On heat transfer in squish gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurk, J. H.

    1986-06-01

    Attention is given to the heat transfer characteristics of a squish gap in an internal combustion engine cylinder, when the piston is nearing top dead center (TDC) on the compression stroke. If the lateral extent of the gap is much larger than its height, the inviscid flow is similar to the stagnation point flow. Surface temperature and pressure histories during compression and expansion are studied. Surface temperature has a maximum near TDC, then drops and rises again during expansion; higher values are actually achieved during expansion than during compression.

  8. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  9. Heat Transfer and Cooling in Gas Turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    The friction factor results of the present study are in agreement with Ref. 9, but the heat transfer data for oblong pin fins are not. This is...AG ARD Conference P ioecd igs 353, 62nd Meceting, October ! 98,3 DTW- I" c LrU a : ol-.• ,’ 󈧏• ![ Hazard Studies for Solid Propeliant Rocket Motors...Internal Flows 71 AGARI) Advisory Report 181 (in English and French). Results of WG 14 (June/August 1983) I’rodueibility and Cost Studies of Aviation

  10. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llado-Gambin, Adriana

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.

  11. Computational study of heat transfer in gas fluidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Q. F.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Yu, A. B.

    2013-06-01

    Heat transfer in gas fluidization is investigated at a particle scale by means of a combined discrete element method and computational fluid dynamicsapproach. To develop understanding of heat transfer at various conditions, the effects of a few important material properties such as particle size, the Hamaker constant and particle thermal conductivity are examined through controlled numerical experiments. It is found that the convective heat transfer is dominant, and radiative heat transfer becomes important when the temperature is high. Conductive heat transfer also plays a role depending on the flow regimes and material properties. The heat transfer between a fluidized bed and an immersed surface is enhanced by the increase of particle thermal conductivity while it is little affected by Young's modulus. The findings should be useful for better understanding and predicting the heat transfer in gas fluidization.

  12. Nanoscale heat transfer and phase transformation surrounding intensely heated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Kiran

    Over the last decade there has been significant ongoing research to use nanoparticles for hyperthermia-based destruction of cancer cells. In this regard, the investigation of highly non-equilibrium thermal systems created by ultrafast laser excitation is a particularly challenging and important aspect of nanoscale heat transfer. It has been observed experimentally that noble metal nanoparticles, illuminated by radiation at the plasmon resonance wavelength, can act as localized heat sources at nanometer-length scales. Achieving biological response by delivering heat via nanoscale heat sources has also been demonstrated. However, an understanding of the thermal transport at these scales and associated phase transformations is lacking. A striking observation made in several laser-heating experiments is that embedded metal nanoparticles heated to extreme temperatures may even melt without an associated boiling of the surrounding fluid. This unusual phase stability is not well understood and designing experiments to understand the physics of this phenomenon is a challenging task. In this thesis, we will resort to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which offer a powerful tool to investigate this phenomenon, without assumptions underlying continuum-level model formulations. We present the results from a series of steady state and transient non-equilibrium MD simulations performed on an intensely heated nanoparticle immersed in a model liquid. For small nanoparticles (1-10 nm in diameter) we observe a stable liquid phase near the nanoparticle surface, which can be at a temperature well above the boiling point. Furthermore, we report the existence of a critical nanoparticle size (4 nm in diameter) below which we do not observe formation of vapor even when local fluid temperatures exceed the critical temperature. Instead, we report the existence of a stable fluid region with a density much larger than that of the vapor phase. We explain this stability in terms of the

  13. Estimating nanoparticle optical absorption with magnetic resonance temperature imaging and bioheat transfer simulation.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Christopher J; Fuentes, David; Elliott, Andrew M; Schwartz, Jon; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason

    2014-02-01

    Optically activated nanoparticle-mediated heating for thermal therapy applications is an area of intense research. The ability to characterise the spatio-temporal heating potential of these particles for use in modelling under various exposure conditions can aid in the exploration of new approaches for therapy as well as more quantitative prospective approaches to treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate an inverse solution to the heat equation using magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) feedback, for providing optical characterisation of two types of nanoparticles (gold-silica nanoshells and gold nanorods). The optical absorption of homogeneous nanoparticle-agar mixtures was measured during exposure to an 808 nm laser using real-time MRTI. A coupled finite element solution of heat transfer was registered with the data and used to solve the inverse problem. The L2 norm of the difference between the temperature increase in the model and MRTI was minimised using a pattern search algorithm by varying the absorption coefficient of the mixture. Absorption fractions were within 10% of literature values for similar nanoparticles. Comparison of temporal and spatial profiles demonstrated good qualitative agreement between the model and the MRTI. The weighted root mean square error was <1.5 σMRTI and the average Dice similarity coefficient for ΔT = 5 °C isotherms was >0.9 over the measured time interval. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using an indirect method for making minimally invasive estimates of nanoparticle absorption that might be expanded to analyse a variety of geometries and particles of interest.

  14. Active chimney effect using heated porous layers: optimum heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehiris, Abdelhak; Ameziani, Djamel-Edine; Rahli, Omar; Bouhadef, Khadija; Bennacer, Rachid

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to treat numerically the problem of the steady mixed convection that occurs in a vertical cylinder, opened at both ends and filled with a succession of three fluid saturated porous elements, namely a partially porous duct. The flow conditions fit with the classical Darcy-Brinkman model allowing analysing the flow structure on the overall domain. The induced heat transfer, in terms of local and average Nusselt numbers, is discussed for various controlling parameters as the porous medium permeability, Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. The efficiency of the considered system is improved by the injection/suction on the porous matrices frontier. The undertaken numerical exploration particularly highlighted two possible types of flows, with and without fluid recirculation, which principally depend on the mixed convection regime. Thus, it is especially shown that recirculation zones appear in some domain areas under specific conditions, obvious by a negative central velocity and a prevalence of the natural convection effects, i.e., turnoff flow swirls. These latter are more accentuated in the areas close to the porous obstacles and for weak permeability. Furthermore, when fluid injection or suction is considered, the heat transfer increases under suction and reduces under injection. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  15. Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer On Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2017-11-01

    Transition from film to drop wise condensation can improve the efficiency of thermal management applications and result in considerable savings in investments and operating costs by millions of dollars every year. The current methods available are either hydrophobic coating or nanostructured surfaces. The former has little adhesion to the structure which tends to detach easily under working conditions, the fabrication techniques of the latter are neither cost-effective nor scalable, and both are made with low thermal conductivity materials that would negate the heat transfer enhancement by drop wise condensation. Therefore, the existing technologies have limitations in enhancing vapor-to-liquid condensation. This work focuses on development of surfaces with wettability contrast to boost drop wise condensation, which its overall heat transfer efficiency is 2-3 times film wise condensation, while maintaining high conduction rate through the surface at low manufacturing costs. The variation in interfacial energy is achieved through crafting hydrophobic patterns to the surface of the metal via scalable fabrication techniques. The results of experimental and surface optimization studies are also presented.

  16. Heat Transfer in High Temperature Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Miller, Steve D.; Cunnington, George R.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature multilayer insulations have been investigated as an effective component of thermal-protection systems for atmospheric re-entry of reusable launch vehicles. Heat transfer in multilayer insulations consisting of thin, gold-coated, ceramic reflective foils and Saffil(TradeMark) fibrous insulation spacers was studied both numerically and experimentally. A finite volume numerical thermal model using combined conduction (gaseous and solid) and radiation in porous media was developed. A two-flux model with anisotropic scattering was used for radiation heat transfer in the fibrous insulation spacers between the reflective foils. The thermal model was validated by comparison with effective thermal conductivity measurements in an apparatus based on ASTM standard C201. Measurements were performed at environmental pressures in the range from 1x10(exp -4) to 760 torr over the temperature range from 300 to 1300 K. Four multilayer samples with nominal densities of 48 kg/cu m were tested. The first sample was 13.3 mm thick and had four evenly spaced reflective foils. The other three samples were 26.6 mm thick and utilized either one, two, or four reflective foils, located near the hot boundary with nominal foil spacing of 1.7 mm. The validated thermal model was then used to study relevant design parameters, such as reflective foil spacing and location in the stack-up and coating of one or both sides of foils.

  17. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 μm hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance. PMID:23506445

  18. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  19. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Rubenstein, Francis M.; Whitman, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

  20. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  1. Numerical study of radiative heat transfer and effects of thermal boundary conditions on CLC fuel reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Mansour, R.; Li, H.; Habib, M. A.; Hossain, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Global warming has become a worldwide concern due to its severe impacts and consequences on the climate system and ecosystem. As a promising technology proving good carbon capture ability with low-efficiency penalty, Chemical Looping Combustion technology has risen much interest. However, the radiative heat transfer was hardly studied, nor its effects were clearly declared. The present work provides a mathematical model for radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion systems and conducts a numerical research on the effects of boundary conditions, solid particles reflectivity, particles size, and the operating temperature. The results indicate that radiative heat transfer has very limited impacts on the flow pattern. Meanwhile, the temperature variations in the static bed region (where solid particles are dense) brought by radiation are also insignificant. However, the effects of radiation on temperature profiles within free bed region (where solid particles are very sparse) are obvious, especially when convective-radiative (mixed) boundary condition is applied on fuel reactor walls. Smaller oxygen carrier particle size results in larger absorption & scattering coefficients. The consideration of radiative heat transfer within fuel reactor increases the temperature gradient within free bed region. On the other hand, the conversion performance of fuel is nearly not affected by radiation heat transfer within fuel reactor. However, the consideration of radiative heat transfer enhances the heat transfer between the gas phase and solid phase, especially when the operating temperature is low.

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and effectiveness in corrugated plate heat exchangers having different chevron angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Bayram; İpek, Osman

    2017-02-01

    In this study, heat transfer rate and effectiveness of corrugated plate heat exchangers having different chevron angles were investigated experimentally. Chevron angles of plate heat exchangers are β = 30° and β = 60°. For this purpose, experimentally heating system used plate heat exchanger was designed and constructed. Thermodynamic analysis of corrugated plate heat exchangers having different chevron angles were carried out. The heat transfer rate and effectiveness values are calculated. The experimental results are shown that heat transfer rate and effectiveness values for β = 60° is higher than that of the other. Obtained experimental results were graphically presented.

  3. Heat and mass transfer in flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Heat- and mass-transfer processes in turbulent diffusion flames are discussed, considering turbulent mixing and the structure of single-phase flames, drop processes in spray flames, and nonluminous and luminous flame radiation. Interactions between turbulence and other phenomena are emphasized, concentrating on past work of the author and his associates. The conserved-scalar formalism, along with the laminar-flamelet approximation, is shown to provide reasonable estimates of the structure of gas flames, with modest levels of empiricism. Extending this approach to spray flames has highlighted the importance of drop/turbulence interactions; e.g., turbulent dispersion of drops, modification of turbulence by drops, etc. Stochastic methods being developed to treat these phenomena are yielding encouraging results.

  4. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  5. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph G [Oakland, CA; Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA

    2011-04-12

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid comprising a mixture of LiNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.3, KNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.2 and KNO.sub.2 salts where the Li, Na and K cations are present in amounts of about 20-33.5 mol % Li, about 18.6-40 mol % Na, and about 40-50.3 mol % K and where the nitrate and nitrite anions are present in amounts of about 36-50 mol % NO.sub.3, and about 50-62.5 mol % NO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures between 70.degree. C. and 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  6. Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.

  7. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  8. Heat transfer analysis of cylindrical anaerobic reactors with different sizes: a heat transfer model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiawei; Zhou, Xingqiu; Wu, Jiangdong; Gao, Wen; Qian, Xu

    2017-10-01

    The temperature is the essential factor that influences the efficiency of anaerobic reactors. During the operation of the anaerobic reactor, the fluctuations of ambient temperature can cause a change in the internal temperature of the reactor. Therefore, insulation and heating measures are often used to maintain anaerobic reactor's internal temperature. In this paper, a simplified heat transfer model was developed to study heat transfer between cylindrical anaerobic reactors and their surroundings. Three cylindrical reactors of different sizes were studied, and the internal relations between ambient temperature, thickness of insulation, and temperature fluctuations of the reactors were obtained at different reactor sizes. The model was calibrated by a sensitivity analysis, and the calibrated model was well able to predict reactor temperature. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was used to assess the predictive power of heat transfer models. The Nash coefficients of the three reactors were 0.76, 0.60, and 0.45, respectively. The model can provide reference for the thermal insulation design of cylindrical anaerobic reactors.

  9. FILM-30: A Heat Transfer Properties Code for Water Coolant

    SciTech Connect

    MARSHALL, THERON D.

    2001-02-01

    A FORTRAN computer code has been written to calculate the heat transfer properties at the wetted perimeter of a coolant channel when provided the bulk water conditions. This computer code is titled FILM-30 and the code calculates its heat transfer properties by using the following correlations: (1) Sieder-Tate: forced convection, (2) Bergles-Rohsenow: onset to nucleate boiling, (3) Bergles-Rohsenow: partially developed nucleate boiling, (4) Araki: fully developed nucleate boiling, (5) Tong-75: critical heat flux (CHF), and (6) Marshall-98: transition boiling. FILM-30 produces output files that provide the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the wetted perimeter as a function ofmore » temperature. To validate FILM-30, the calculated heat transfer properties were used in finite element analyses to predict internal temperatures for a water-cooled copper mockup under one-sided heating from a rastered electron beam. These predicted temperatures were compared with the measured temperatures from the author's 1994 and 1998 heat transfer experiments. There was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimentally measured temperatures, which confirmed the accuracy of FILM-30 within the experimental range of the tests. FILM-30 can accurately predict the CHF and transition boiling regimes, which is an important advantage over current heat transfer codes. Consequently, FILM-30 is ideal for predicting heat transfer properties for applications that feature high heat fluxes produced by one-sided heating.« less

  10. Microscale Convective Heat Transfer for Thermal Management of Compact Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    pages 641–645, 1997. [9] S.V. Garimella and C.B. Sobhan. Transport in microchannels -a critical review. Annual Review of Heat Transfer , 13, 2003. [10] A... heat transfer for thermal management of compact systems Sb. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-08-l-0057 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd...improve the performance of many components. The e ects of digitized heat transfer using electrowetting on a dielectric were investigated in this paper

  11. Personalized recommendation based on heat bidirectional transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo

    2016-02-01

    Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests based on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm based on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach based on heat bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches based on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.

  12. CarbAl Heat Transfer Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), CarbAl heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting CarbAl-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.

  13. Analysis of the heat transfer in double and triple concentric tube heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădulescu, S.; Negoiţă, L. I.; Onuţu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The tubular heat exchangers (shell and tube heat exchangers and concentric tube heat exchangers) represent an important category of equipment in the petroleum refineries and are used for heating, pre-heating, cooling, condensation and evaporation purposes. The paper presents results of analysis of the heat transfer to cool a petroleum product in two types of concentric tube heat exchangers: double and triple concentric tube heat exchangers. The cooling agent is water. The triple concentric tube heat exchanger is a modified constructive version of double concentric tube heat exchanger by adding an intermediate tube. This intermediate tube improves the heat transfer by increasing the heat area per unit length. The analysis of the heat transfer is made using experimental data obtained during the tests in a double and triple concentric tube heat exchanger. The flow rates of fluids, inlet and outlet temperatures of water and petroleum product are used in determining the performance of both heat exchangers. Principally, for both apparatus are calculated the overall heat transfer coefficients and the heat exchange surfaces. The presented results shows that triple concentric tube heat exchangers provide better heat transfer efficiencies compared to the double concentric tube heat exchangers.

  14. Variability of absorption heat pump efficiency for domestic water heating and space heating based on time-weighted bin analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2017-11-02

    Natural gas-driven absorption heat pumps are under renewed scrutiny as a viable technology for space conditioning and water heating for residential and commercial applications because of natural gas production trends, pricing, and the speculation that it might be a “bridge fuel” in the global transition towards energy sustainability. Since any level of natural gas combustion contributes to atmospheric carbon dioxide accumulation, the merits of natural gas consuming absorption technology are re-examined in this paper from the point of view of expected efficiency throughout the United States using a time-weighted bin temperature analysis. Such analyses are necessary because equipment standards formore » rated performance is restricted to one set ambient condition, whereas in actual practice, the absorption heat pump (AHP) must perform over a considerably wider range of external conditions, where its efficiency may be vastly different from that at the rated condition. Quantification of variation in efficiency and system performance are imperative to address how to provide the desired utility with the least environmental impact. In this paper, we examine limiting features in absorption heat pumps and relate it to systemic performances in sixteen cities across all eight climate zones in the U.S, each containing fifteen bin temperatures. The results indicate that the true expectation of performance of an AHP is significantly less than what might be optimized for the rated condition. Statistical measures of the variation in water heating COPs show that for most cities, the COP at the rated conditions is outside the 95% Confidence Interval. Moreover, it is concluded that deployment of absorption heat pump water heaters (AHPWH) may be restricted geographically by outdoor temperature constraints.« less

  15. Variability of absorption heat pump efficiency for domestic water heating and space heating based on time-weighted bin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    Natural gas-driven absorption heat pumps are under renewed scrutiny as a viable technology for space conditioning and water heating for residential and commercial applications because of natural gas production trends, pricing, and the speculation that it might be a “bridge fuel” in the global transition towards energy sustainability. Since any level of natural gas combustion contributes to atmospheric carbon dioxide accumulation, the merits of natural gas consuming absorption technology are re-examined in this paper from the point of view of expected efficiency throughout the United States using a time-weighted bin temperature analysis. Such analyses are necessary because equipment standards formore » rated performance is restricted to one set ambient condition, whereas in actual practice, the absorption heat pump (AHP) must perform over a considerably wider range of external conditions, where its efficiency may be vastly different from that at the rated condition. Quantification of variation in efficiency and system performance are imperative to address how to provide the desired utility with the least environmental impact. In this paper, we examine limiting features in absorption heat pumps and relate it to systemic performances in sixteen cities across all eight climate zones in the U.S, each containing fifteen bin temperatures. The results indicate that the true expectation of performance of an AHP is significantly less than what might be optimized for the rated condition. Statistical measures of the variation in water heating COPs show that for most cities, the COP at the rated conditions is outside the 95% Confidence Interval. Moreover, it is concluded that deployment of absorption heat pump water heaters (AHPWH) may be restricted geographically by outdoor temperature constraints.« less

  16. Heat Transfer Modelling of Glass Media within TPV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Forbes, Ian; Penlington, Roger; Pearsall, Nicola

    2004-11-01

    Understanding and optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions is important to achieve high system efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophtovoltaics (TPV). This work reviews heat transfer models and uses the Discrete Ordinates method. Firstly one-dimensional heat transfer in fused silica (quartz glass) shields was examined for the common arrangement, radiator-air-glass-air-PV cell. It has been concluded that an alternative arrangement radiator-glass-air-PV cell with increased thickness of fused silica should have advantages in terms of improved transmission of convertible radiation and enhanced suppression of non-convertible radiation.

  17. Measurement of airfoil heat transfer coefficients on a turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dring, R. P.; Blair, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The primary basis for heat transfer analysis of turbine airfoils is experimental data obtained in linear cascades. A detailed set of heat transfer coefficients was obtained along the midspan of a stator and a rotor in a rotating turbine stage. The data are to be compared to standard analyses of blade boundary layer heat transfer. A detailed set of heat transfer coefficients was obtained along the midspan of a stator located in the wake of a full upstream turbine stage. Two levels of inlet turbulence (1 and 10 percent) were used. The analytical capability will be examined to improve prediction of the experimental data.

  18. Liquid-Infused Smooth Surface for Improved Condensation Heat Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotaka; Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Moriya, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Ryohei; Sasaki, Kaichi; Togasawa, Ryo; Yamazaki, Taku; Manabe, Kengo; Shiratori, Seimei

    2017-09-12

    Control of vapor condensation properties is a promising approach to manage a crucial part of energy infrastructure conditions. Heat transfer by vapor condensation on superhydrophobic coatings has garnered attention, because dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with rough structures leads to favorable heat-transfer performance. However, pinned condensed water droplets within the rough structure and a high thermodynamic energy barrier for nucleation of superhydrophobic surfaces limit their heat-transfer increase. Recently, slippery liquid-infused surfaces (SLIPS) have been investigated, because of their high water sliding ability and surface smoothness originating from the liquid layer. However, even on SLIPS, condensed water droplets are eventually pinned to degrade their heat-transfer properties after extended use, because the rough base layer is exposed as infused liquid is lost. Herein, we report a liquid-infused smooth surface named "SPLASH" (surface with π electron interaction liquid adsorption, smoothness, and hydrophobicity) to overcome the problems derived from the rough structures in previous approaches to obtain stable, high heat-transfer performance. The SPLASH displayed a maximum condensation heat-transfer coefficient that was 175% higher than that of an uncoated substrate. The SPLASH also showed higher heat-transfer performance and more stable dropwise condensation than superhydrophobic surfaces and SLIPS from the viewpoints of condensed water droplet mobility and the thermodynamic energy barrier for nucleation. The effects of liquid-infused surface roughness and liquid viscosity on condensation heat transfer were investigated to compare heat-transfer performance. This research will aid industrial applications using vapor condensation.

  19. Heat transfer enhancement by application of nano-powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavian, M. T. Hamed; Heris, S. Zeinali; Etemad, S. Gh.; Esfahany, M. Nasr

    2010-09-01

    In this investigation, laminar flow heat transfer enhancement in circular tube utilizing different nanofluids including Al2O3 (20 nm), CuO (50 nm), and Cu (25 nm) nanoparticles in water was studied. Constant wall temperature was used as thermal boundary condition. The results indicate enhancement of heat transfer with increasing nanoparticle concentrations, but an optimum concentration for each nanofluid suspension can be found. Based on the experimental results, metallic nanoparticles show better enhancement of heat transfer coefficient in comparison with oxide particles. The promotions of heat transfer due to utilizing nanoparticles are higher than the theoretical correlation prediction.

  20. Evaluation of generalized heat transfer coefficients in pilot AFBC units

    SciTech Connect

    Grewal, N.S.

    Experimental data for heat transfer rates as obtained in a 0.209m/sup 2/ AFBC unit at the GFETC is examined in the light of the existing four correlations for heat transfer coefficient between an immersed staggered array of horizontal tubes and a gas-solid fluidized bed. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient from the correlations proposed by Grewal and Bansal are found to be in good agreement with the experimental values of heat transfer coefficient when the contribution due to radiation is also included.

  1. Nonlinear Transient Problems Using Structure Compatible Heat Transfer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Gene

    2000-01-01

    The report documents the recent effort to enhance a transient linear heat transfer code so as to solve nonlinear problems. The linear heat transfer code was originally developed by Dr. Kim Bey of NASA Largely and called the Structure-Compatible Heat Transfer (SCHT) code. The report includes four parts. The first part outlines the formulation of the heat transfer problem of concern. The second and the third parts give detailed procedures to construct the nonlinear finite element equations and the required Jacobian matrices for the nonlinear iterative method, Newton-Raphson method. The final part summarizes the results of the numerical experiments on the newly enhanced SCHT code.

  2. Solution of Radiation and Convection Heat-Transfer Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Computer program P5399B developed to accommodate variety of fin-type heat conduction applications involving radiative or convective boundary conditions with additionally imposed local heat flux. Program also accommodates significant variety of one-dimensional heat-transfer problems not corresponding specifically to fin-type applications. Program easily accommodates all but few specialized one-dimensional heat-transfer analyses as well as many twodimensional analyses.

  3. Methods for calculating conjugate problems of heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, E. K.; Dreitser, G. A.; Kostiuk, V. V.; Berlin, I. I.

    Methods are examined for calculating various conjugate problems of heat transfer in channels and closed vessels in cases of single-phase and two-phase flow in steady and unsteady conditions. The single-phase-flow studies involve the investigation of gaseous and liquid heat-carriers in pipes, annular and plane channels, and pipe bundles in cases of cooling and heating. General relationships are presented for heat transfer in cases of film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as for boiling crises. Attention is given to methods for analyzing the filling and cooling of conduits and tanks by cryogenic liquids; and ways to intensify heat transfer in these conditions are examined.

  4. Heat transfer in freeboard region of fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Biyikli, S.; Tuzla, K.; Chen, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    This research involved the study of heat transfer and fluid mechanic characteristics around a horizontal tube in the freeboard region of fluidized beds. Heat transfer coefficients were experimetnally measured for different bed temperatures, particle sizes, gas flow rates, and tube elevations in the freeboard region of air fluidized beds at atmospheric pressure. Local heat transfer coefficients were found to vary significantly with angular position around the tube. Average heat transfer coefficients were found to decrease with increasing freeboard tube elevation and approach the values for gas convection plus radiation for any given gas velocity. For a fixed tube elevation, heatmore » transfer coefficients generally increased with increasing gas velocity and with high particle entrainment they can approach the magnitudes found for immersed tubes. Heat transfer coefficients were also found to increase with increasing bed temperature. It was concluded that this increase is partly due to increase of radiative heat transfer and partly due to change of thermal properties of the fluidizing gas and particles. To investigate the fluid mechanic behavior of gas and particles around a freeboard tube, transient particle tube contacts were measured with a special capacitance probe in room temperature experiments. The results indicated that the tube surface experiences alternating dense and lean phase contacts. Quantitative information for local characteristics was obtained from the capacitance signals and used to develop a phenomenological model for prediction of the heat transfer coefficients around freeboard tubes. The packet renewal theory was modified to account for the dense phase heat transfer and a new model was suggested for the lean phase heat transfer. Finally, an empirical freeboard heat transfer correlation was developed from functional analysis of the freeboard heat transfer data using nondimensional groups representing gas velocity and tube elevation.« less

  5. Numerical study for heat generation/absorption in flow of nanofluid by a rotating disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Arsalan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar

    2018-03-01

    Here MHD three-dimensional flow of viscous nanoliquid by a rotating disk with heat generation/absorption and slip effects is addressed. Thermophoresis and random motion features are also incorporated. Velocity, temperature and concentration slip conditions are imposed at boundary. Applied magnetic field is utilized. Low magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer approximations have been employed in the problem formulation. Suitable transformations lead to strong nonlinear ordinary differential system. The obtained nonlinear system is solved numerically through NDSolve technique. Graphs have been sketched in order to analyze that how the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are affected by various pertinent variables. Moreover the numerical values for rates of heat and mass transfer have been tabulated and discussed.

  6. Study of a high performance evaporative heat transfer surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hamasaki, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaporative surface is described for heat pipes and other two-phase heat transfer applications that consists of a hybrid composition of V-grooves and capillary wicking. Characteristics of the surface include both a high heat transfer coefficient and high heat flux capability relative to conventional open-faced screw thread surfaces. With a groove density of 12.6 cm/1 and ammonia working fluid, heat transfer coefficients in the range of 1 to 2 W/sq cm have been measured along with maximum heat flux densities in excess of 20 W/sq cm. A peak heat transfer coefficient in excess of 2.3 W/sq cm was measured with a 37.8 cm/1 hybrid surface.

  7. Unprecedented 2015/2016 Indo-Pacific Heat Transfer Speeds Up Tropical Pacific Heat Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Michael; Alonso Balmaseda, Magdalena; Haimberger, Leopold

    2018-04-01

    El Niño events are characterized by anomalously warm tropical Pacific surface waters and concurrent ocean heat discharge, a precursor of subsequent cold La Niña conditions. Here we show that El Niño 2015/2016 departed from this norm: despite extreme peak surface temperatures, tropical Pacific (30°N-30°S) upper ocean heat content increased by 9.6 ± 1.7 ZJ (1 ZJ = 1021 J), in stark contrast to the previous strong El Niño in 1997/1998 (-11.5 ± 2.9 ZJ). Unprecedented reduction of Indonesian Throughflow volume and heat transport played a key role in the anomalous 2015/2016 event. We argue that this anomaly is linked with the previously documented intensified warming and associated rising sea levels in the Indian Ocean during the last decade. Additionally, increased absorption of solar radiation acted to dampen Pacific ocean heat content discharge. These results explain the weak and short-lived La Niña conditions in 2016/2017 and indicate the need for realistic representation of Indo-Pacific energy transfers for skillful seasonal-to-decadal predictions.

  8. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  9. Thermocapillary flow contribution to dropwise condensation heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, Akshay; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    With recent developments of durable hydrophobic materials potentially enabling industrial applications of dropwise condensation, accurate modeling of heat transfer during this phase change process is becoming increasingly important. Classical steady state models of dropwise condensation are based on the integration of heat transfer through individual droplets over the entire drop size distribution. These models consider only the conduction heat transfer inside the droplets. However, simple scaling arguments suggest that thermocapillary flows might exist in such droplets. In this work, we used Finite Element heat transfer model to quantify the effect of Marangoni flow on dropwise condensation heat transfer of liquids with a wide range of surface tensions ranging from water to pentane. We confirmed that the Marangoni flow is present for a wide range of droplet sizes, but only has quantifiable effects on heat transfer in drops larger than 10 µm. By integrating the single drop heat transfer simulation results with drop size distribution for the cases considered, we demonstrated that Marangoni flow contributes a 10-30% increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient over conduction only model.

  10. Improving Heat Transfer Performance of Printed Circuit Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzel, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will explore the ability of printed circuit boards laminated with a Carbon Core Laminate to transfer heat vs. standard printed circuit boards that use only thick layers of copper. The paper will compare the differences in heat transfer performance of printed circuit boards with and without CCL.

  11. Two dimensional finite element heat transfer models for softwood

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; John F. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    The anisotropy of wood creates a complex problem for solving heat and mass transfer problems that require analyses be based on fundamental material properties of the wood structure. Most heat transfer models use average thermal properties across either the radial or tangential directions and have not differentiated the effects of cellular alignment, earlywood/latewood...

  12. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, G.D.

    1984-02-21

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet. 6 figs.

  13. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Grover D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  14. Heat transfer in a tank with a cryogenic fluid under conditions of external heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notkin, V. L.

    Heat transfer in the gas layer of a horizontal cylindrical tank with a fluctuating level of boiling liquid nitrogen is investigated experimentally. Criterial equations for heat transfer in the gas cavity of the tank are obtained. A procedure is proposed for calculating heat fluxes, temperature fields, and cryogenic fluid evaporation during the filling and draining of the tank.

  15. Quantitative Global Heat Transfer in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, Steven P.; Liu, Tianshu; Rubal, Justin; Ward, Chris; Dussling, Joseph; Rice, Cody; Foley, Ryan; Cai, Zeimin; Wang, Bo; hide

    2012-01-01

    This project developed quantitative methods for obtaining heat transfer from temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue, which is a Ludwieg tube with a downstream valve, moderately-short flow duration and low levels of heat transfer. Previous difficulties with inferring heat transfer from TSP in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel were traced to (1) the large transient heat transfer that occurs during the unusually long tunnel startup and shutdown, (2) the non-uniform thickness of the insulating coating, (3) inconsistencies and imperfections in the painting process and (4) the low levels of heat transfer observed on slender models at typical stagnation temperatures near 430K. Repeated measurements were conducted on 7 degree-half-angle sharp circular cones at zero angle of attack in order to evaluate the techniques, isolate the problems and identify solutions. An attempt at developing a two-color TSP method is also summarized.

  16. Dynamic Modulation of Radiative Heat Transfer beyond the Blackbody Limit.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Miura, Atsushi; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Hideo

    2017-07-12

    Dynamic control of electromagnetic heat transfer without changing mechanical configuration opens possibilities in intelligent thermal management in nanoscale systems. We confirmed by experiment that the radiative heat transfer is dynamically modulated beyond the blackbody limit. The near-field electromagnetic heat exchange mediated by phonon-polariton is controlled by the metal-insulator transition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide. The functionalized heat flux is transferred over an area of 1.6 cm 2 across a 370 nm gap, which is maintained by the microfabricated spacers and applied pressure. The uniformity of the gap is validated by optical interferometry, and the measured heat transfer is well modeled as the sum of the radiative and the parasitic conductive components. The presented methodology to form a nanometric gap with functional heat flux paves the way to the smart thermal management in various scenes ranging from highly integrated systems to macroscopic apparatus.

  17. Heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiangbo; Zhang, Guoan; Qiu, Yuxuan; Wen, Chunquan; Fu, Tairan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to further explore heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in an inhalational thermal injury model. Twelve adult male Beagle dogs were divided into four groups to inhale heated air for 10min: the control group, group I (100.5°C), group II (161.5°C), and group III (218°C). The relative humidity and temperature of the inhaled heated air were measured in the heating tube and trachea, as were blood temperatures and flow velocities in both common jugular veins. Formulas were used to calculate the total heat quantity reduction of the heated air, heat dissipation by the blood, and airway tissue heat absorption. The blood temperatures of both the common jugular veins increased by 0.29°C±0.07°C to 2.96°C±0.24°C and the mean blood flow volume after injury induction was about 1.30-1.74 times greater than before injury induction. The proportions of heat dissipated by the blood and airway tissue heat absorption were 68.92%±14.88% and 31.13%±14.87%, respectively. The heat dissipating ability of the blood circulation was demonstrated and improved upon along with tissue heat absorption owing to increased regional blood flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting spacecraft multilayer insulation performance from heat transfer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpson, L. D.; Hagemeyer, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) ideally consists of a series of radiation shields with low-conductivity spacers. When MLI blankets were installed on cryogenic tanks or spacecraft, a large discrepancy between the calorimeter measurements and the performance of the installed blankets was discovered. It was found that discontinuities such as exposed edges coupled with high lateral heat transfer created 'heat leaks' which overshadowed the basic heat transfer of the insulation. Approaches leading to improved performance predictions of MLI units are discussed.

  19. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  20. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  1. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  2. Droplet Evaporator For High-Capacity Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed heat-exchange scheme boosts heat transfer per unit area. Key component is generator that fires uniform size droplets of subcooled liquid at hot plate. On impact, droplets spread out and evaporate almost instantly, removing heat from plate. In practice, many generator nozzles arrayed over evaporator plate.

  3. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater: Beta Prototype Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick; Ally, Moonis; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2016-10-14

    The Beta version of the Commercial Absorption Heat Pump (CAHP) water heater was evaluated in the environmental chambers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Ambient air conditions ranged from 17 to 75 oF and inlet water temperatures ranged from 100 to 120oF in order to capture trends in performance. The unit was operated under full fire (100%) and partial fire (55%). The unit was found to perform at 90% of the project goal at the design conditions of 47oF ambient and 100oF water temperatures. The trends across the full range of environmental conditions were as expected for ambient air temperatures abovemore » 32oF. Below this temperature and for the full fire condition, frost accumulated on the evaporator coil. In future work a defrost strategy will be enabled, the unit will be thoroughly cleaned of an oil contamination and the rectifier will be reconfigured in order to meet the design goals and have a field test unit ready in early 2017.« less

  4. Significant consequences of heat generation/absorption and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in second grade fluid due to rotating disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    2018-03-01

    Flow of second grade fluid by a rotating disk with heat and mass transfer is discussed. Additional effects of heat generation/absorption are also analyzed. Flow is also subjected to homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. The convergence of computed solution is assured through appropriate choices of initial guesses and auxiliary parameters. Investigation is made for the effects of involved parameters on velocities (radial, axial, tangential), temperature and concentration. Skin friction and Nusselt number are also analyzed. Graphical results depict that an increase in viscoelastic parameter enhances the axial, radial and tangential velocities. Opposite behavior of temperature is observed for larger values of viscoelastic and heat generation/absorption parameters. Concentration profile is increasing function of Schmidt number, viscoelastic parameter and heterogeneous reaction parameter. Magnitude of skin friction and Nusselt number are enhanced for larger viscoelastic parameter.

  5. Effect of narrow band nonuniformity on unsteady heat up of water vapor under radiation-conduction combined heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Tatsuyuki; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Morimune, Atsushi

    Effect of narrow band nonuniformity on unsteady heat up process of water vapor under radiation-conduction combined heat transfer is examined by comparing the result of numerical simulations with and without incorporation of narrow band nonuniformity. The authors propose a rational and comprehensive computational approach for incorporating the narrow band nonuniformity into numerical simulations of radiative heat transfer when the considered field is nonisothermal. Results of examination exhibited that the contribution of radiative heat transfer to the heat up rate of water vapor may be almost twice overestimated, if the narrow band nonuniformity effect is neglected. Separate analyses of radiative energymore » attributed to wall emission and gas emission clarified that the absorption of wall emission is overestimated and, on the contrary, the absorption of radiation energy emitted by water vapor itself is underestimated if the narrow band nonuniformity is neglected. The reason why such over- or under-estimation is induced is understood by examining the influence of line overlap parameter on the transmittance averaged within a narrow band. Smaller value of line overlap parameter {gamma}/d means more violent narrow band nonuniformity. The broken lines show the narrow band transmittance for flat incident power spectrum, and the solid lines show that for the radiative emission from the absorbing gas itself. It is also clarified that the disregard of the narrow band nonuniformity give rise to serious error in the estimation of absorption rate of wall and gas emission even in the case where the disregard of narrow band nonuniformity bring little change to the temperature distribution. The results illustrated in this paper suggest that the narrow band nonuniformity should not be neglected.« less

  6. Heat transfer and flow characteristics on a gas turbine shroud.

    PubMed

    Obata, M; Kumada, M; Ijichi, N

    2001-05-01

    The work described in this paper is an experimental investigation of the heat transfer from the main flow to a turbine shroud surface, which may be applicable to ceramic gas turbines. Three kinds of turbine shrouds are considered with a flat surface, a taper surface and a spiral groove surface opposite to the blades in an axial flow turbine of actual turbo-charger. Heat transfer measurements were performed for the experimental conditions of a uniform heat flux or a uniform wall temperature. The effects of the inlet flow angle, rotational speed, and tip clearance on the heat transfer coefficient were clarified under on- and off-design flow conditions. The mean heat transfer coefficient was correlated to the blade Reynolds number and tip clearance, and compared with an experimental correlation and measurements of a flat surface. A comparison was also made for the measurement of static pressure distributions.

  7. Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David

    2013-03-01

    Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.

  8. Boiling and quenching heat transfer advancement by nanoscale surface modification.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Ziegler, Kirk J; Chung, J N

    2017-07-21

    All power production, refrigeration, and advanced electronic systems depend on efficient heat transfer mechanisms for achieving high power density and best system efficiency. Breakthrough advancement in boiling and quenching phase-change heat transfer processes by nanoscale surface texturing can lead to higher energy transfer efficiencies, substantial energy savings, and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports breakthrough advancements on both fronts of boiling and quenching. The critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling and the Leidenfrost point temperature (LPT) in quenching are the bottlenecks to the heat transfer advancements. As compared to a conventional aluminum surface, the current research reports a substantial enhancement of the CHF by 112% and an increase of the LPT by 40 K using an aluminum surface with anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous texture finish. These heat transfer enhancements imply that the power density would increase by more than 100% and the quenching efficiency would be raised by 33%. A theory that links the nucleation potential of the surface to heat transfer rates has been developed and it successfully explains the current finding by revealing that the heat transfer modification and enhancement are mainly attributed to the superhydrophilic surface property and excessive nanoscale nucleation sites created by the nanoporous surface.

  9. Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.

  10. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.

  11. Heat Transfer of Confined Impinging Air-water Mist Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shyy Woei; Su, Lo May

    This paper describes the detailed heat transfer distributions of an atomized air-water mist jet impinging orthogonally onto a confined target plate with various water-to-air mass-flow ratios. A transient technique was used to measure the full field heat transfer coefficients of the impinging surface. Results showed that the high momentum mist-jet interacting with the water-film and wall-jet flows created a variety of heat transfer contours on the impinging surface. The trade-off between the competing influences of the different heat transfer mechanisms involving in an impinging mist jet made the nonlinear variation tendency of overall heat transfer against the increase of water-to-air mass-flow ratio and extended the effective cooling region. With separation distances of 10, 8, 6 and 4 jet-diameters, the spatially averaged heat transfer values on the target plate could respectively reach about 2.01, 1.83, 2.43 and 2.12 times of the equivalent air-jet values, which confirmed the applicability of impinging mist-jet for heat transfer enhancement. The optimal choices of water-to-air mass-flow ratio for the atomized mist jet required the considerations of interactive and combined effects of separation distance, air-jet Reynolds number and the water-to-air mass-flow ratio into the atomized nozzle.

  12. Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Scrubber of Flue Gas Heat Recovery Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vigants, Edgars; Kozuhars, Grigorijs

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the heat and mass transfer process research in a flue gas heat recovery device, where complicated cooling, evaporation and condensation processes are taking place simultaneously. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is used during the process of analysis. In order to prepare a detailed process analysis based on heat and mass process descriptive equations, as well as the correlation for wet gas parameter calculation, software in the Microsoft Office Excel environment is being developed.

  13. Forced Convective Heat Transfer of Aqueous Al₂O₃ Nanofluid Through Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger.

    PubMed

    Haque, A K M Mahmudul; Kim, Sedong; Kim, Junhyo; Noh, Jungpil; Huh, Sunchul; Choi, Byeongkeun; Chung, Hanshik; Jeong, Hyomin

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the forced convective heat transfer of a nanofluid consisting of distilled water and different weight concentrations (1 wt% and 2 wt%) of Al2O3 nanoparticles flowing in a vertical shell and tube heat exchanger under counter flow and laminar flow regime with certain constant heat flaxes (at 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C). The Al2O3 nanoparticles of about 50 nm diameter are used in the present study. Stability of aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids, TEM, thermal conductivity, temperature differences, heat transfer rate, T-Q diagrams, LMTD and convective heat transfer coefficient are investigated experimentally. Experimental results emphasize the substantial enhancement of heat transfer due to the Al2O3 nanoparticles presence in the nanofluid. Heat transfer rate for distilled water and aqueous nanofluids are calculated after getting an efficient setup which shows 19.25% and 35.82% enhancement of heat transfer rate of 1 wt% and 2 wt% aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids as compared to that of distilled water. Finally, the analysis shows that though there are 27.33% and 59.08% enhancement of 1 wt% Al2O3 and 2 wt% Al2O3 respectively as compared to that of distilled water at 30 °C, convective heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing heat flux of heated fluid in this experimental setup.

  14. Simulation Approach for Microscale Noncontinuum Gas-Phase Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    In microscale thermal actuators, gas-phase heat transfer from the heated beams to the adjacent unheated substrate is often the main energy-loss mechanism. Since the beam-substrate gap is comparable to the molecular mean free path, noncontinuum gas effects are important. A simulation approach is presented in which gas-phase heat transfer is described by Fourier's law in the bulk gas and by a wall boundary condition that equates the normal heat flux to the product of the gas-solid temperature difference and a heat transfer coefficient. The dimensionless parameters in this heat transfer coefficient are determined by comparison to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) results for heat transfer from beams of rectangular cross section to the substrate at free-molecular to near-continuum gas pressures. This simulation approach produces reasonably accurate gas-phase heat-transfer results for wide ranges of beam geometries and gas pressures. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. A one-dimensional heat transfer model for parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, J A; Wijnant, Y H; de Boer, A

    2014-03-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) laminar oscillating flow heat transfer model is derived and applied to parallel-plate thermoacoustic heat exchangers. The model can be used to estimate the heat transfer from the solid wall to the acoustic medium, which is required for the heat input/output of thermoacoustic systems. The model is implementable in existing (quasi-)1D thermoacoustic codes, such as DeltaEC. Examples of generated results show good agreement with literature results. The model allows for arbitrary wave phasing; however, it is shown that the wave phasing does not significantly influence the heat transfer.

  16. Enhancing Convective Heat Transfer over a Surrogate Photovoltaic Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouladi, Fama

    This research is particularly focused on studying heat transfer enhancement of a photovoltaic (PV) panel by putting an obstacle at the panel's windward edge. The heat transfer enhancement is performed by disturbing the airflow over the surface and increasing the heat and momentum transfer. Different objects such as triangular, square, rectangular, and discrete rectangular ribs and partial grids were applied at the leading edge of a surrogate PV panel and flow and the heat transfer of the panel are investigated experimentally. This approach was selected to expand understanding of effect of these different objects on the flow and turbulence structures over a flat surface by analyzing the flow comprehensively. It is observed that, a transverse object at the plate's leading edge would cause some flow blockage in the streamwise direction, but at the same time creates some velocity in the normal and cross stream directions. In addition to that, the obstacle generates some turbulence over the surface which persists for a long downstream distance. Also, among all studied objects, discrete rectangular ribs demonstrate the highest heat transfer rate enhancement (maximum Nu/Nu0 of 1.5). However, ribs with larger gap ratios are observed to be more effective at enhancing the heat transfer augmentation at closer distances to the rib, while at larger downstream distances from the rib, discrete ribs with smaller gap ratios are more effective. Furthermore, this work attempted to recognize the most influential flow parameters on the heat transfer enhancement of the surface. It is seen that the flow structure over a surface downstream of an object (flow separation-reattachment behaviour) has a significant effect on the heat transfer enhancement trend. Also, turbulence intensities are the most dominant parameters in enhancing the heat transfer rate from the surface; however, flow velocity (mostly normal velocity) is also an important factor.

  17. Ultrahigh Flux Thin Film Boiling Heat Transfer Through Nanoporous Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyang; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-09

    Phase change heat transfer is fundamentally important for thermal energy conversion and management, such as in electronics with power density over 1 kW/cm 2 . The critical heat flux (CHF) of phase change heat transfer, either evaporation or boiling, is limited by vapor flux from the liquid-vapor interface, known as the upper limit of heat flux. This limit could in theory be greater than 1 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, but its experimental realization has remained elusive. Here, we utilized nanoporous membranes to realize a new "thin film boiling" regime that resulted in an unprecedentedly high CHF of over 1.2 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, which is within a factor of 4 of the theoretical limit, and can be increased to a higher value if mechanical strength of the membranes can be improved (demonstrated with 1.85 kW/cm 2 CHF in this work). The liquid supply is achieved through a simple nanoporous membrane that supports the liquid film where its thickness automatically decreases as heat flux increases. The thin film configuration reduces the conductive thermal resistance, leads to high frequency bubble departure, and provides separate liquid-vapor pathways, therefore significantly enhances the heat transfer. Our work provides a new nanostructuring approach to achieve ultrahigh heat flux in phase change heat transfer and will benefit both theoretical understanding and application in thermal management of high power devices of boiling heat transfer.

  18. A concentrated solar cavity absorber with direct heat transfer through recirculating metallic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sarker, M. R. I., E-mail: islamrabiul@yahoo.com; Saha, Manabendra, E-mail: manabendra.saha@adelaide.edu.au, E-mail: manab04me@gmail.com; Beg, R. A.

    A recirculating flow solar particle cavity absorber (receiver) is modeled to investigate the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of a novel developing concept. It features a continuous recirculating flow of non-reacting metallic particles (black silicon carbide) with air which are used as a thermal enhancement medium. The aim of the present study is to numerically investigate the thermal behavior and flow characteristics of the proposed concept. The proposed solar particle receiver is modeled using two phase discrete particle model (DPM), RNG k-flow model and discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model. Numerical analysis is carried out considering a solar receiver withmore » only air and the mixture of non-reacting particles and air as a heat transfer as well as heat carrying medium. The parametric investigation is conducted considering the incident solar flux on the receiver aperture and changing air flow rate and recirculation rate inside the receiver. A stand-alone feature of the recirculating flow solar particle receiver concept is that the particles are directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation monotonously through recirculating flow inside the receiver and results in efficient irradiation absorption and convective heat transfer to air that help to achieve high temperature air and consequently increase in thermal efficiency. This paper presents, results from the developed concept and highlights its flow behavior and potential to enhance the heat transfer from metallic particles to air by maximizing heat carrying capacity of the heat transfer medium. The imposed milestones for the present system will be helpful to understand the radiation absorption mechanism of the particles in a recirculating flow based receiver, the thermal transport between the particles, the air and the cavity, and the fluid dynamics of the air and particle in the cavity.« less

  19. A review on boiling heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest of late in nanofluid boiling and its use in heat transfer enhancement. This article covers recent advances in the last decade by researchers in both pool boiling and convective boiling applications, with nanofluids as the working fluid. The available data in the literature is reviewed in terms of enhancements, and degradations in the nucleate boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux. Conflicting data have been presented in the literature on the effect that nanofluids have on the boiling heat-transfer coefficient; however, almost all researchers have noted an enhancement in the critical heat flux during nanofluid boiling. Several researchers have observed nanoparticle deposition at the heater surface, which they have related back to the critical heat flux enhancement. PMID:21711794

  20. Heat and Mass Transfer in a Falling Film Evaporator with Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbricht, M.; Addy, J.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    Horizontal tube bundles are often used as falling film evaporators in absorption chillers, especially for systems working at low pressure as H2O/LiBr. Experimental investigations are carried out in a falling film evaporator consisting of a horizontal tube bundle with eighty horizontal tubes installed in an absorption chiller because of a lack of consistent data for heat and mass transfer in the literature. The heat and mass transfer mechanisms and the flow pattern in the falling film are analysed and compared with correlations from literature. The deviations of the experimental data from those of the correlations are within a tolerance of 30%. These deviations may be explained by a change of the flow pattern at a lower Reynolds number than compared to the literature.

  1. Visualization of natural convection heat transfer on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer phenomena on spheres were investigated by adopting mass transfer experiments based on analogy concept. The diameters of spheres were varied from 0.01 m to 0.12 m, which correspond to the Rayleigh numbers of 1.69×108-2.91×1011. The measured mass transfer coefficients agreed well with the existing correlations. The copper electroplating patterns on the spheres visualized the local heat transfer depending on angular distance. The streak plating patterns were observed on the upper part of the sphere, resulting from the wavy flow patterns caused by the instability.

  2. Enhanced heat transfer with full circumferential ribs in helical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. W.; Su, L. M.; Yang, T. L.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of heat transfers in the smooth-walled and rib-roughened helical pipes with reference to the design of enhanced cooling passages in the cylinder head and liner of a marine propulsive diesel engine. The manner in which the repeated ribs modify the forced heat convection in the helical pipe is considered for the case where the flow is turbulent upon entering the coil but laminar in further downstream. A selection of experimental results illustrates the individual and interactive effects of Dean vortices and rib-flows on heat transfer along the inner and outer helixes of coils. The experimental-based observations reveal that the centrifugal force modifies the heat transfer in a manner to generate circumferential heat transfer variation with better cooling performance on the outer edge relative to its inner counterpart even with the agitated flow field caused by the repeated ribs. Heat transfer augmentation factor in the range of 1.3 - 3 times of the smooth-walled level is achieved using the present ribbing geometry. A set of empirical correlations based on the experimental data has been developed to permit the evaluation of heat transfers along the inner and outer helixes of the smooth-walled and rib-roughened helical pipes.

  3. Percolation induced heat transfer in deep unsaturated zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, N.; LeCain, G.D.

    2003-01-01

    Subsurface temperature data from a borehole located in a desert wash were measured and used to delineate the conductive and advective heat transfer regimes, and to estimate the percolation quantity associated with the 1997-1998 El Ni??no precipitation. In an arid environment, conductive heat transfer dominates the variation of shallow subsurface temperature most of the time, except during sporadic precipitation periods. The subsurface time-varying temperature due to conductive heat transfer is highly correlated with the surface atmospheric temperature variation, whereas temperature variation due to advective heat transfer is strongly correlated with precipitation events. The advective heat transfer associated with precipitation and infiltration is the focus of this paper. Disruptions of the subsurface conductive temperature regime, associated with the 1997-1998 El Ni??no precipitation, were detected and used to quantify the percolation quantity. Modeling synthesis using a one-dimensional coupled heat and unsaturated flow model indicated that a percolation per unit area of 0.7 to 1.3 m height of water in two weeks during February 1998 was responsible for the observed temperature deviations down to a depth of 35.2 m. The reported study demonstrated quantitatively, for the first time, that the near surface temperature variation due to advective heat transfer can be significant at a depth greater than 10 m in unsaturated soils and can be used to infer the percolation amount in thick unsaturated soils.

  4. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in metal foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangapatnam, Priyatham; Kurian, Renju; Venkateshan, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports a numerical study of forced convection heat transfer in high porosity aluminum foams. Numerical modeling is done considering both local thermal equilibrium and non local thermal equilibrium conditions in ANSYS-Fluent. The results of the numerical model were validated with experimental results, where air was forced through aluminum foams in a vertical duct at different heat fluxes and velocities. It is observed that while the LTE model highly under predicts the heat transfer in these foams, LTNE model predicts the Nusselt number accurately. The novelty of this study is that once hydrodynamic experiments are conducted the permeability and porosity values obtained experimentally can be used to numerically simulate heat transfer in metal foams. The simulation of heat transfer in foams is further extended to find the effect of foam thickness on heat transfer in metal foams. The numerical results indicate that though larger foam thicknesses resulted in higher heat transfer coefficient, this effect weakens with thickness and is negligible in thick foams.

  5. Heat Transfer of Airfoils and Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Otto

    1943-01-01

    The few available test data on the heat dissipation of wholly or partly heated airfoil models are compared with the corresponding data for the flat plate as obtained by an extension of Prandtl's momentum theory, with differentiation between laminar and turbulent boundary layer and transitional region between both, the extent and appearance of which depend upon certain critical factors. The satisfactory agreement obtained justifies far-reaching conclusions in respect to other profile forms and arrangements of heated surface areas. The temperature relationship of the material quantities in its effect on the heat dissipation is discussed as far as is possible at tk.e present state of research, and it is shown that the profile drag of heated wing surfaces can increase or decrease with the temperature increase depending upon the momentarily existent structure of the boundary layer.

  6. Heat and Mass Transfer in an L Shaped Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman Ahmed, N. J.; Azeem; Yunus Khan, T. M.

    2017-08-01

    This article is an extension to the heat transfer in L-shaped porous medium by including the mass diffusion. The heat and mass transfer in the porous domain is represented by three coupled partial differential equations representing the fluid movement, energy transport and mass transport. The equations are converted into algebraic form of equations by the application of finite element method that can be conveniently solved by matrix method. An iterative approach is adopted to solve the coupled equations by setting suitable convergence criterion. The results are discussed in terms of heat transfer characteristics influenced by physical parameters such as buoyancy ratio, Lewis number, Rayleigh number etc. It is found that these physical parameters have significant effect on heat and mass transfer behavior of L-shaped porous medium.

  7. 7 CFR 3201.54 - Heat transfer fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for use in HVAC applications, internal combustion engines, personal cooling devices, thermal energy... Designated Items § 3201.54 Heat transfer fluids. (a) Definition. Products with high thermal capacities used...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.54 - Heat transfer fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for use in HVAC applications, internal combustion engines, personal cooling devices, thermal energy... Designated Items § 3201.54 Heat transfer fluids. (a) Definition. Products with high thermal capacities used...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.54 - Heat transfer fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for use in HVAC applications, internal combustion engines, personal cooling devices, thermal energy... Designated Items § 3201.54 Heat transfer fluids. (a) Definition. Products with high thermal capacities used...

  10. Scalable graphene coatings for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Preston, Daniel J; Mafra, Daniela L; Miljkovic, Nenad; Kong, Jing; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-05-13

    Water vapor condensation is commonly observed in nature and routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat with dropwise condensation on nonwetting surfaces exhibiting heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation on wetting surfaces. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings that either have challenges with chemical stability or are so thick that any potential heat transfer improvement is negated due to the added thermal resistance of the coating. In this work, we show the effectiveness of ultrathin scalable chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene coatings to promote dropwise condensation while offering robust chemical stability and maintaining low thermal resistance. Heat transfer enhancements of 4× were demonstrated compared to filmwise condensation, and the robustness of these CVD coatings was superior to typical hydrophobic monolayer coatings. Our results indicate that graphene is a promising surface coating to promote dropwise condensation of water in industrial conditions with the potential for scalable application via CVD.

  11. Prediction of Unshsrouded Rotor Blade Tip Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, A. A.; Steinthorsson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer on the tip of a turbine rotor blade and on the blade surface in the vicinity of the tip, was successfully predicted. The computations were performed with a multiblock computer code which solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an efficient multigrid method. The case considered for the present calculations was the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel side turbine. The predictions of the blade tip heat transfer agreed reasonably well with the experimental measurements using the present level of grid refinement. On the tip surface, regions with high rate of heat transfer was found to exist close to the pressure side and suction side edges. Enhancement of the heat transfer was also observed on the blade surface near the tip. Further comparison of the predictions was performed with results obtained from correlations based on fully developed channel flow.

  12. Volume-energy parameters for heat transfer to supercritical fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumakawa, A.; Niino, M.; Hendricks, R. C.; Giarratano, P. J.; Arp, V. D.

    1986-01-01

    Reduced Nusselt numbers of supercritical fluids from different sources were grouped by several volume-energy parameters. A modified bulk expansion parameter was introduced based on a comparative analysis of data scatter. Heat transfer experiments on liquefied methane were conducted under near-critical conditions in order to confirm the usefulness of the parameters. It was experimentally revealed that heat transfer characteristics of near-critical methane are similar to those of hydrogen. It was shown that the modified bulk expansion parameter and the Gibbs-energy parameter grouped the heat transfer data of hydrogen, oxygen and methane including the present data on near-critical methane. It was also indicated that the effects of surface roughness on heat transfer were very important in grouping the data of high Reynolds numbers.

  13. Heat transfer across the interface between nanoscale solids and gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun; Fan, Wen; Cao, Jinbo; Ryu, Sang-Gil; Ji, Jie; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Wu, Junqiao

    2011-12-27

    When solid materials and devices scale down in size, heat transfer from the active region to the gas environment becomes increasingly significant. We show that the heat transfer coefficient across the solid-gas interface behaves very differently when the size of the solid is reduced to the nanoscale, such as that of a single nanowire. Unlike for macroscopic solids, the coefficient is strongly pressure dependent above ∼10 Torr, and at lower pressures it is much higher than predictions of the kinetic gas theory. The heat transfer coefficient was measured between a single, free-standing VO(2) nanowire and surrounding air using laser thermography, where the temperature distribution along the VO(2) nanowire was determined by imaging its domain structure of metal-insulator phase transition. The one-dimensional domain structure along the nanowire results from the balance between heat generation by the focused laser and heat dissipation to the substrate as well as to the surrounding gas, and thus serves as a nanoscale power-meter and thermometer. We quantified the heat loss rate across the nanowire-air interface, and found that it dominates over all other heat dissipation channels for small-diameter nanowires near ambient pressure. As the heat transfer across the solid-gas interface is nearly independent of the chemical identity of the solid, the results reveal a general scaling relationship for gaseous heat dissipation from nanostructures of all solid materials, which is applicable to nanoscale electronic and thermal devices exposed to gaseous environments.

  14. Heat Transfer to Longitudinal Laminar Flow Between Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Ephraim M.; Loeffler, Albert L. Jr.; Hubbard, H. A.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to the fully developed heat transfer characteristics for longitudinal laminar flow between cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The analysis is carried out for the condition of uniform heat transfer per unit length. Solutions are obtained for the temperature distribution, and from these, Nusselt numbers are derived for a wide range of spacing-to-diameter ratios. It is found that as the spacing ratio increases, so also does the wall-to-bulk temperature difference for a fixed heat transfer per unit length. Corresponding to a uniform surface temperature around the circumference of a cylinder, the circumferential variation of the local heat flux is computed. For spacing ratios of 1.5 - 2.0 and greater, uniform peripheral wall temperature and uniform peripheral heat flux are simultaneously achieved. A simplified analysis which neglects circumferential variations is also carried out, and the results are compared with those from the more exact formulation.

  15. Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer Spirally Fluted Tubing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    of the tube and the convective transport, due to the secondary flow produced by the spiral flutes. It is well known that the Nusselt number of fully...data for the convective heat transfer behaviour. The computed Nusselt numbers for air show a 120% increase over the smooth tube values while the...The Prediction of Convective Heat Transfer in Spirally Fluted Tubes FIGURES 1. Shell side NU-REY correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Tube

  16. Heat transfer augmentation of a car radiator using nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Adnan M.; Bakar, R. A.; Kadirgama, K.; Sharma, K. V.

    2014-05-01

    The car radiator heat transfer enhancement by using TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water as a base fluid was studied experimentally. The test rig is setup as a car radiator with tubes and container. The range of Reynolds number and volume fraction are (250-1,750) and (1.0-2.5 %) respectively. Results showed that the heat transfer increases with increasing of nanofluid volume fraction. The experimental data is agreed with other investigator.

  17. Code for Multiblock CFD and Heat-Transfer Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, John C.; Heidmann, James D.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center General Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Convective Heat Transfer Code, Glenn-HT, has been used extensively to predict heat transfer and fluid flow for a variety of steady gas turbine engine problems. Recently, the Glenn-HT code has been completely rewritten in Fortran 90/95, a more object-oriented language that allows programmers to create code that is more modular and makes more efficient use of data structures. The new implementation takes full advantage of the capabilities of the Fortran 90/95 programming language. As a result, the Glenn-HT code now provides dynamic memory allocation, modular design, and unsteady flow capability. This allows for the heat-transfer analysis of a full turbine stage. The code has been demonstrated for an unsteady inflow condition, and gridding efforts have been initiated for a full turbine stage unsteady calculation. This analysis will be the first to simultaneously include the effects of rotation, blade interaction, film cooling, and tip clearance with recessed tip on turbine heat transfer and cooling performance. Future plans call for the application of the new Glenn-HT code to a range of gas turbine engine problems of current interest to the heat-transfer community. The new unsteady flow capability will allow researchers to predict the effect of unsteady flow phenomena upon the convective heat transfer of turbine blades and vanes. Work will also continue on the development of conjugate heat-transfer capability in the code, where simultaneous solution of convective and conductive heat-transfer domains is accomplished. Finally, advanced turbulence and fluid flow models and automatic gridding techniques are being developed that will be applied to the Glenn-HT code and solution process.

  18. MSG test report-steady-state heat transfer. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, R.B.

    This report documents the results of the Steady-State Heat Transfer Tests conducted on the AI Modular Steam Generator (MSG), at the Sodium Component Test Installation (SCTI) of the Liquid Metal Engineering Center. Heat transfer and pressure drop performance data are given along with current predictions of performance. Departure from nucleate boiling characteristics is given. A dispersed flow film boiling model, employing thermal nonequilibrium, was used to analyze data in the film boiling region.

  19. The Influence of Heat Transfer on the Drag of Airfoils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    OF STANDARDS-1963-A LL b AFWAL-TR-81- 3030 THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT TRANSFER ON THE DRAG OF AIRFOILS DR. JOHN D. LEE The Aeronautical and Astronautical...if necReary mid identify by block number) Airfoils , Subsonic, Transonic, Supercritical, Laminar Flow, Transition, Drag Reduction, Heat Transfer...determine the effects of surface temperature on the drag of airfoils . Models of an aft- loaded profile and of a NACA 65A413 were tested with separate models

  20. Jet-impingement heat transfer in gas turbine systems.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Goldstein, R J

    2001-05-01

    A review of jet-impingement heat transfer in gas turbine systems is presented. Characteristics of the different flow regions for submerged jets--free jet, stagnation flow, and wall jet--are reviewed. Heat transfer characteristics of both single and multiple jets are discussed with consideration of the effects of important parameters relevant to gas turbine systems including curvature of surfaces, crossflow, angle of impact, and rotation.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Fluid Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok

    2004-01-01

    Fluid network modeling with conjugate heat transfer has many applications in Aerospace engineering. In modeling unsteady flow with heat transfer, it is important to know the variation of wall temperature in time and space to calculate heat transfer between solid to fluid. Since wall temperature is a function of flow, a coupled analysis of temperature of solid and fluid is necessary. In cryogenic applications, modeling of conjugate heat transfer is of great importance to correctly predict boil-off rate in propellant tanks and chill down of transfer lines. In TFAWS 2003, the present author delivered a paper to describe a general-purpose computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program). GFSSP calculates flow distribution in complex flow circuit for compressible/incompressible, with or without heat transfer or phase change in all real fluids or mixtures. The flow circuit constitutes of fluid nodes and branches. The mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes where as momentum conservation equations are solved at the branches. The proposed paper describes the extension of GFSSP to model conjugate heat transfer. The network also includes solid nodes and conductors in addition to fluid nodes and branches. The energy conservation equations for solid nodes solves to determine the temperatures of the solid nodes simultaneously with all conservation equations governing fluid flow. The numerical scheme accounts for conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer. The paper will also describe the applications of the code to predict chill down of cryogenic transfer line and boil-off rate of cryogenic propellant storage tank.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of HyperVapotron heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weihua; Deng, Haifei; Huang, Shenghong; Chu, Delin; Yang, Bin; Mei, Luoqin; Pan, Baoguo

    2014-12-01

    The divertor first wall and neutral beam injection (NBI) components of tokamak devices require high heat flux removal up to 20-30 MW m-2 for future fusion reactors. The water cooled HyperVapotron (HV) structure, which relies on internal grooves or fins and boiling heat transfer to maximize the heat transfer capability, is the most promising candidate. The HV devices, that are able to transfer large amounts of heat (1-20 MW m-2) efficiently, have therefore been developed specifically for this application. Until recently, there have been few attempts to observe the detailed bubble characteristics and vortex evolvement of coolant flowing inside their various parts and understand of the internal two-phase complex heat transfer mechanism behind the vapotron effect. This research builds the experimental facilities of HyperVapotron Loop-I (HVL-I) and Pressure Water HyperVapotron Loop-II (PWHL-II) to implement the subcooled boiling principle experiment in terms of typical flow parameters, geometrical parameters of test section and surface heat flux, which are similar to those of the ITER-like first wall and NBI components (EAST and MAST). The multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena on the surface of grooves and triangular fins when the subcooled water flowed through were observed and measured with the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and high-speed photography (HSP) techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was selected to reveal vortex formation, the flow structure that promotes the vapotron effect during subcooled boiling. The coolant flow data for contributing to the understanding of the vapotron phenomenon and the assessment of how the design and operational conditions that might affect the thermal performance of the devices were collected and analysed. The subcooled flow boiling model and methods of HV heat transfer adopted in the considered computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code were evaluated by comparing the calculated wall temperatures with the

  3. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  4. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heatmore » transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.« less

  5. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  6. Heat-transfer measurements of the 1983 Kilauea lava flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1983-10-07

    Convective heat flow measurements of a basaltic lava flow were made during the 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. Eight field measurements of induced natural convection were made, giving heat flux values that ranged from 1.78 to 8.09 kilowatts per square meter at lava temperatures of 1088 and 1128 degrees Celsius, respectively. These field measurements of convective heat flux at subliquidus temperatures agree with previous laboratory measurements in furnace-melted samples of molten lava, and are useful for predicting heat transfer in magma bodies and for estimating heat extraction rates for magma energy.

  7. Heat transfer measurements of the 1983 kilauea lava flow.

    PubMed

    Hardee, H C

    1983-10-07

    Convective heat flow measurements of a basaltic lava flow were made during the 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. Eight field measurements of induced natural convection were made, giving heat flux values that ranged from 1.78 to 8.09 kilowatts per square meter at lava temperatures of 1088 and 1128 degrees Celsius, respectively. These field measurements of convective heat flux at subliquidus temperatures agree with previous laboratory measurements in furnace-melted samples of molten lava, and are useful for predicting heat transfer in magma bodies and for estimating heat extraction rates for magma energy.

  8. Simulation of heating by optical absorption in nanoparticle dispersions (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbricht, Benjamin C.

    2017-02-01

    With the proliferation of highly confined, nanophotonic waveguides and laser sources with increasing intensity, the effects of laser heating will begin to greatly impact the materials used in optical applications. In order to better understand the mechanism of laser heating, its timescales, and the dispersion of heat into the material, simulations of nanoparticles in various media are presented. A generic model to describe a variety of nanoparticle shapes and sizes is desirable to describe complex phenomenon. These particles are dispersed into various solids, liquids, or gases depending on the application. To simulate nanoparticles and their interaction with their host material, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used. Heat transfer following an absorption event is also described by a parabolic partial differential equation, and transient solutions are generated in response to continuous, pulsed, or modulated laser radiation. The simplest physical system described by FEM is that of a broadly-absorbing round-shaped nanoparticle dispersed in viscous host fluid or solid. Many experimental and theoretical studies conveniently describe a very similar system: a carbon "black" nanoparticle suspended in water. This material is well-known to exhibit nonlinear behavior when a laser pulse carrying 0.7 J/cm2 is incident on the material. For this process the FEM simulations agree with experimental results to show that a pulse of this fluence is capable of heating the solvent elements adjacent to the nanoparticle to their boiling point. This creates nonlinear scattering which is empirically observed as a nonlinear decrease in the transmitted power at this input fluence.

  9. Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

  10. Enhancement of Boiling Heat Transfer in Di-Electric Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    working fluid of R-I13. Maddox and Mudawar [Ref. 8] studied the effect of subcooling and surface aug- mentation on values of Critical Heat Flux (CHF). They...Enhanced Surfaces to Dielectric Fluids," A SME Journal of Heat Transfer, v.104, pp.292-299, May 1982. 8. Maddox D.E., and Mudawar ,I., "Single and Two

  11. Instabilities encountered during heat transfer to a supercritical fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation was made of the unstable behavior of a heat-transfer loop operating at a supercritical pressure. Natural convection operation of the loop, with observations on acoustic and slow oscillatory behavior, was emphasized during testing. The basic cause of both types of behavior appeared to originate in the heated boundary layer.

  12. Investigation of Heat Transfer in Straight and Curved Rectangular Ducts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    theoretical explanation of the heat transfer effects required that all non-linear terms be re- tained in the flow equations. R. Kahawita and R...112, February 1370. 2’. Kahawita , R. and Meroney, R., "The Inffluence of Heating on the Stability of Laminar Boundary Layers Along Con- cave Curved

  13. Heat-transfer characteristics of the R113 annular two-phase closed thermosyphon - Heat transfer in the condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Saburo; Tsuchida, Akira; Takuma, Masao

    1988-08-01

    Visual observation of flow patterns in the condenser and heat transfer measurements were conducted for heat transfer rate ranges of 18-800 W using a vertical annular device with various quantities of R113 as a working fluid. As a result of visual observations, it was shown that ripples (interfacial waves) were generated on the condensate film surface when the condensate film Reynolds number exceeded approximately 20, and the condensation heat transfer was prompted. A simple theoretical analysis was presented in which the effects of interfacial waves and vapor drag were both considered. This analysis agreed very well with experimental results when the working fluid quantity was small enough so that the two-phase mixture generated by boiling the working fluid did not reach the condenser. The effects of interfacial waves and vapor drag on condensation heat transfer were also investigated theoretically.

  14. Unsteady heat transfer performance of heat pipe with axially swallow-tailed microgrooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. P.

    2017-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed for predicting the transient heat transfer and fluid flow of heat pipe with axially swallow-tailed microgrooves. The effects of liquid convective heat transfer in the microgrooves, liquid-vapor interfacial phase-change heat transfer and liquid-vapor interfacial shear stress are accounted for in the present model. The coupled non-linear control equations are solved numerically. Mass flow rate at the interface is obtained from the application of kinetic theory. Time variation of wall temperature is studied from the initial startup to steady state. The numerical results are verified by experiments. Time constants for startup and shutdown operation are defined to determine how fast a heat pipe responds to an applied input heat flux, which slightly decreases with increasing heat load.

  15. Boiling Heat-Transfer Processes and Their Application in the Cooling of High Heat Flux Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    1991, pp. 395-397. 385. Galloway, J. E. and Mudawar , 1. "Critical Heat Flux Enhancement by Means of Liquid Subcooling and Centrifugal Force Induced...Flow Boiling Heat Transfer for a Spirally Fluted Tube." Heat Tran~ler Engineering, Vol. 13, No.1, 1992, pp. 42-52. 390. Willingham, T. C. and Mudawar

  16. A Conceptual Change Model for Teaching Heat Energy, Heat Transfer and Insulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the existing knowledge that pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) have regarding heat energy, heat transfer and insulation. The PSETs' knowledge of heat energy was initially assessed by using an activity: determining which container would be best to keep hot water warm for the longest period of time. Results showed that PSETs…

  17. Mixed convection heat transfer: an experimental study on Cu/heat transfer oil nanofluids inside annular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasian Arani, Ali Akbar; Aberoumand, Hossein; Jafarimoghaddam, Amin; Aberoumand, Sadegh

    2017-09-01

    The heat transfer and flow characteristics of Cu-heat transfer oil nanofluid during mixed convection through horizontal annular tubes under uniform heat flux as boundary condition are investigated experimentally. Data were acquired at low Reynolds number ranged from about 26 to 252. The applied nanofluid prepared by Electrical Explosion of Wire technique with no nanoparticles agglomeration during nanofluid preparation process and experiments. Pure heat transfer oil and nanofluids with nanoparticles weight concentrations of 0.12, 0.36 and 0.72% were used as the working fluids. Based on these results, Effects of nanoparticles concentration, heat flux and free convection on the thermal field development are studied under buoyancy assisted flow condition for Grashof number, Richardson number between 2820 and 12,686, and 0.1-10, respectively. Results show that Nusselt number increases with an increase of nanoparticles weight concentrations from 0 to 0.72% under certain Richardson numbers.

  18. The contact heat transfer between the heating plate and granular materials in rotary heat exchanger under overloaded condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Luanfang; Qi, Chonggang; Ling, Xiang; Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the contact heat transfer between the granular materials and heating plates inside plate rotary heat exchanger (PRHE) was investigated. The heat transfer coefficient is dominated by the contact heat transfer coefficient at hot wall surface of the heating plates and the heat penetration inside the solid bed. A plot scale PRHE with a diameter of Do = 273 mm and a length of L = 1000 mm has been established. Quartz sand with dp = 2 mm was employed as the experimental material. The operational parameters were in the range of ω = 1 - 8 rpm, and F = 15, 20, 25, 30%, and the effect of these parameters on the time-average contact heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. The time-average contact heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of rotary speed, but decreases with the increase of the filling degree. The measured data of time-average heat transfer coefficients were compared with theoretical calculations from Schlünder's model, a good agreement between the measurements and the model could be achieved, especially at a lower rotary speed and filling degree level. The maximum deviation between the calculated data and the experimental data is approximate 10%.

  19. Conjugate heat transfer of a finned tube. Part B: Heat transfer augmentation and avoidance of heat transfer reversal by longitudinal vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiebig, M.; Chen, Y.; Grosse-Gorgemann, A.

    1995-08-01

    Numerical investigations of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a finned tube with punched longitudinal vortex generators (LVG`s) are carried out for Reynolds number of 250 and 300. Air with a Prandtl number of 0.7 is used as the fluid. The flow is both thermally and hydrodynamically developing. The LVG is a delta winglet pair (DWP) punched out of the fin and is located directly behind the tube, symmetrically separated by one tube diameter. The DWP generates longitudinal vortices in the wake of the tube, defers flow separation on the tube, deflects the main stream into the tube wake, andmore » strong reduces the ``dead water zone.`` Heat transfer reversal is avoided by the DWP. Comparison of the span-averaged Nusselt numbers for the fin with and without DWP shows significant local heat transfer enhancement of several hundred percent in the tube wake. For Re = 300 and Fi = 200 the global heat transfer augmentation by a DWP, which amounts to only 2.5% of the fin area, is 31%.« less

  20. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers with Vortex Generators: Experimental and Numerical Results

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh; Huff, George Albert

    2002-08-01

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation is under way to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to large-scale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. The research is focused on whether air-side heat transfer can be improved through the use of finsurface vortex generators (winglets,) while maintaining low heat exchanger pressure drop. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique has been employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements have also been acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus. In addition, numericalmore » modeling techniques have been developed to allow prediction of local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds-number flows with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results presented in this paper reveal quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. The winglets were triangular (delta) with a 1:2 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (average enhancement ratio 35%) associated with the deployment of the winglets with oval tubes. Pressure drop measurements have also been obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that includes four tube rows in a staggered array. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results have been obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500.« less

  1. Pulse mitigation and heat transfer enhancement techniques. Volume 3: Liquid sodium heat transfer facility and transient response of sodium heat pipe to pulse forward and reverse heat load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, L. C.; Hahn, O. J.; Nguyen, H. X.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the description of a liquid sodium heat transfer facility (sodium loop) constructed to support the study of transient response of heat pipes. The facility, consisting of the loop itself, a safety system, and a data acquisition system, can be safely operated over a wide range of temperature and sodium flow rate. The transient response of a heat pipe to pulse heat load at the condenser section was experimentally investigated. A 0.457 m screen wick, sodium heat pipe with an outer diameter of 0.127 m was tested under different heat loading conditions. A major finding was that the heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time of reversal was approximately 15 to 25 seconds. The startup of the heat pipe from frozen state was also studied. It was found that during the startup process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all of the working fluid in the heat pipe was molten.

  2. Intensification of heat transfer across falling liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruyer-Quil, Christian; Cellier, Nicolas; Stutz, Benoit; Caney, Nadia; Bandelier, Philippe; Locie Team; Legi Team

    2017-11-01

    The wavy motion of a liquid film is well known to intensify heat or mass transfers. Yet, if film thinning and wave merging are generally invoked, the physical mechanisms which enable this intensification are still unclear. We propose a systematic investigation of the impact of wavy motions on the heat transfer across 2D falling films on hot plates as a function of the inlet frequency and flow parameters. Computations over extended domains and for sufficient durations to achieve statistically established flows have been made possible by low-dimensional modeling and the development of a fast temporal solver based on graph optimizations. Heat transfer has been modeled using the weighted residual technique as a set of two evolution equations for the free-surface temperature and the wall heat flux. This new model solves the shortcomings of previous attempts, namely their inability to capture the onset of thermal boundary layers in large-amplitude waves and their limitation to low Prandtl numbers. Our study reveals that heat transfer is enhanced at the crests of the waves and that heat transfer intensification is maximum at the maximum of density of wave crests, which does not correspond to the natural wavy regime (no inlet forcing). Supports from Institut Universitaire de France and Région Auvergne-Rhones-Alpes are warmly acknowledged.

  3. Turbulent heat transfer prediction method for application to scramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, S. Z.

    1974-01-01

    An integral method for predicting boundary layer development in turbulent flow regions on two-dimensional or axisymmetric bodies was developed. The method has the capability of approximating nonequilibrium velocity profiles as well as the local surface friction in the presence of a pressure gradient. An approach was developed for the problem of predicting the heat transfer in a turbulent boundary layer in the presence of a high pressure gradient. The solution was derived with particular emphasis on its applicability to supersonic combustion; thus, the effects of real gas flows were included. The resulting integrodifferential boundary layer method permits the estimation of cooling reguirements for scramjet engines. Theoretical heat transfer results are compared with experimental combustor and noncombustor heat transfer data. The heat transfer method was used in the development of engine design concepts which will produce an engine with reduced cooling requirements. The Langley scramjet engine module was designed by utilizing these design concepts and this engine design is discussed along with its corresponding cooling requirements. The heat transfer method was also used to develop a combustor cooling correlation for a combustor whose local properties are computed one dimensionally by assuming a linear area variation and a given heat release schedule.

  4. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Bergles, A.E.; Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.

    1979-05-01

    Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation ofmore » passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report.« less

  5. Polymeric film application for phase change heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Hans-Jörg; Dreiser, Christian

    2018-06-01

    The paper gives a concise review on polymer film heat exchangers (PFHX) with a focus on polyether ether ketone (PEEK) foil as heat transfer element, mechanically supported by a grid structure. In order to promote PFHX applications, heat transfer performance and wetting behavior are studied in detail. Surface modifications to improve wetting are discussed and correlations are presented for critical Reynolds numbers to sustain a stable liquid film. Scaling phenomena related to surface properties and easily adaptable cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures are further content. The contribution of the foil thickness and material selection on thermal performance is quantified and a correlation for enhanced aqueous film heat transfer for the grid supported PFHX is given. The basic research results and the design criteria enable early stage material selection and conceptual apparatus design.

  6. Heat transfer from cylinders in subsonic slip flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabushana, K. A.; Stainback, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The heat transfer in heated wires was measured using a constant temperature anemometer over a Mach number range from 0.05 to 0.4 and pressures from 0.5 to 8.0 atmospheres. The total temperature ranged from 80 to 120 F and the wire diameters were 0.00015, 0.00032, and 0.00050 inch. The heat transfer data is presented in the form of a corrected Nusselt number. Based on suggested criteria, much of the data was obtained in the slip flow regime. Therefore, the data is compared with data having comparable flow conditions. The possible application of the heat transfer data to hot wire anemometry is discussed. To this end, the sensitivity of the wires to velocity, density, and total temperature is computed and compared using two different types of correlations.

  7. Heat and Mass Transfer Model in Freeze-Dried Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfat, Sayahdin; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    There are big problems in agriculture sector every year. One of the major problems is abundance of agricultural product during the peak of harvest season that is not matched by an increase in demand of agricultural product by consumers, this causes a wasted agricultural products. Alternative way was food preservation by freeze dried method. This method was already using heat transfer through conduction and convection to reduce water quality in the food. The main objective of this research was to design a model heat and mass transfer in freeze-dried medium. We had two steps in this research, the first step was design of medium as the heat injection site and the second was simulate heat and mass transfer of the product. During simulation process, we use physical property of some agriculture product. The result will show how temperature and moisture distribution every second. The method of research use finite element method (FEM) and will be illustrated in three dimensional.

  8. Polymeric film application for phase change heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Hans-Jörg; Dreiser, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives a concise review on polymer film heat exchangers (PFHX) with a focus on polyether ether ketone (PEEK) foil as heat transfer element, mechanically supported by a grid structure. In order to promote PFHX applications, heat transfer performance and wetting behavior are studied in detail. Surface modifications to improve wetting are discussed and correlations are presented for critical Reynolds numbers to sustain a stable liquid film. Scaling phenomena related to surface properties and easily adaptable cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures are further content. The contribution of the foil thickness and material selection on thermal performance is quantified and a correlation for enhanced aqueous film heat transfer for the grid supported PFHX is given. The basic research results and the design criteria enable early stage material selection and conceptual apparatus design.

  9. Unsteady Sisko magneto-nanofluid flow with heat absorption and temperature dependent thermal conductivity: A 3D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood; Ahmad, Latif; Gulzar, M. Mudassar

    2018-03-01

    The impact of temperature dependent thermal conductivity and convective surface conditions on unsteady 3D Sisko nanofluid flow over a stretching surface is studied in the presence of heat generation/absorption and magnetic field. The numerical solution of nonlinear coupled equations has been carried out to explore the properties of different physical profiles of the fluid flow with varying of parameters. Specifically, the application of generalized Biot numbers and heat generation/absorption parameter in the sketching of temperature and concentration profiles are explored. The effect of all three parameters is noticed in the increasing order for shear thinning (0 < n < 1) and for shear thickening (n > 1) fluids. Moreover, the influence of Biot number γ1 on heat and mass transfer rates, are found in the enhancement and diminishing conducts respectively, in both cases of shear thinning as well as shear thickening fluids and a reverse trend is observed with the variation of Biot number γ2 . Additionally, the present results are validated through skin friction, heat and mass transfer rate values with the comparable values in the existing previous values.

  10. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  11. Advanced two-phase heat transfer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1992-01-01

    Future large spacecraft, such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms, will require a significantly more capable thermal control system than is possible with current 'passive' technology. Temperatures must be controlled much more tightly over a larger surface area. Numerous heat load sources will often be located inside the body of the spacecraft without a good view to space. Power levels and flux densities may be higher than can be accommodated with traditional technology. Integration and ground testing will almost certainly be much more difficult with such larger, more complex spacecraft. For these and similar reasons, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing a new, more capable thermal control technology called capillary pumped loops (CPL's). CPL's represent an evolutionary improvement over heat pipes; they can transport much greater quantities of heat over much longer distances and can serve numerous heat load sources. In addition, CPL's can be fabricated into large cold plates that can be held to tight thermal gradients. Development of this technology began in the early 1980's and is now reaching maturity. CPL's have recently been baselined for the EOS-AM platform (1997 launch) and the COMET spacecraft (1992 launch). This presentation describes this new technology and its applications. Most of the viewgraphs are self descriptive. For those that are less clear additional comments are provided.

  12. Particle shape effect on heat transfer performance in an oscillating heat pipe.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yulong; Wilson, Corey; Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Ma, Hongbin

    2011-04-05

    The effect of alumina nanoparticles on the heat transfer performance of an oscillating heat pipe (OHP) was investigated experimentally. A binary mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and deionized water (50/50 by volume) was used as the base fluid for the OHP. Four types of nanoparticles with shapes of platelet, blade, cylinder, and brick were studied, respectively. Experimental results show that the alumina nanoparticles added in the OHP significantly affect the heat transfer performance and it depends on the particle shape and volume fraction. When the OHP was charged with EG and cylinder-like alumina nanoparticles, the OHP can achieve the best heat transfer performance among four types of particles investigated herein. In addition, even though previous research found that these alumina nanofluids were not beneficial in laminar or turbulent flow mode, they can enhance the heat transfer performance of an OHP.

  13. Particle shape effect on heat transfer performance in an oscillating heat pipe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alumina nanoparticles on the heat transfer performance of an oscillating heat pipe (OHP) was investigated experimentally. A binary mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and deionized water (50/50 by volume) was used as the base fluid for the OHP. Four types of nanoparticles with shapes of platelet, blade, cylinder, and brick were studied, respectively. Experimental results show that the alumina nanoparticles added in the OHP significantly affect the heat transfer performance and it depends on the particle shape and volume fraction. When the OHP was charged with EG and cylinder-like alumina nanoparticles, the OHP can achieve the best heat transfer performance among four types of particles investigated herein. In addition, even though previous research found that these alumina nanofluids were not beneficial in laminar or turbulent flow mode, they can enhance the heat transfer performance of an OHP. PMID:21711830

  14. Gas adsorption/absorption heat switch, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    The service life and/or reliability of far-infrared sensors on surveillance satellites is presently limited by the cryocooler. The life and/or reliability, however, can be extended by using redundant cryocoolers. To reduce parasitic heat leak, each stage of the inactive redundant cryocooler must be thermally isolated from the optical system, while each stage of the active cryocooler must be thermally connected to the system. The thermal break or the thermal contact can be controlled by heat switches. Among different physical mechanisms for heat switching, mechanically activated heat switches tend to have low reliability and, furthermore, require a large contact force. Magnetoresistive heat switches are, except at very low temperatures, of very low efficiency. Heat switches operated by the heat pipe principle usually require a long response time. A sealed gas gap heat switch operated by an adsorption pump has no mechanical motion and should provide the reliability and long lifetime required in long-term space missions. Another potential application of a heat switch is the thermal isolation of the optical plane during decontamination.

  15. Microwave absorption in powders of small conducting particles for heating applications.

    PubMed

    Porch, Adrian; Slocombe, Daniel; Edwards, Peter P

    2013-02-28

    In microwave chemistry there is a common misconception that small, highly conducting particles heat profusely when placed in a large microwave electric field. However, this is not the case; with the simple physical explanation that the electric field (which drives the heating) within a highly conducting particle is highly screened. Instead, it is the magnetic absorption associated with induction that accounts for the large experimental heating rates observed for small metal particles. We present simple principles for the effective heating of particles in microwave fields from calculations of electric and magnetic dipole absorptions for a range of practical values of particle size and conductivity. For highly conducting particles, magnetic absorption dominates electric absorption over a wide range of particle radii, with an optimum absorption set by the ratio of mean particle radius a to the skin depth δ (specifically, by the condition a = 2.41δ). This means that for particles of any conductivity, optimized magnetic absorption (and hence microwave heating by magnetic induction) can be achieved by simple selection of the mean particle size. For weakly conducting samples, electric dipole absorption dominates, and is maximized when the conductivity is approximately σ ≈ 3ωε(0) ≈ 0.4 S m(-1), independent of particle radius. Therefore, although electric dipole heating can be as effective as magnetic dipole heating for a powder sample of the same volume, it is harder to obtain optimized conditions at a fixed frequency of microwave field. The absorption of sub-micron particles is ineffective in both magnetic and electric fields. However, if the particles are magnetic, with a lossy part to their complex permeability, then magnetic dipole losses are dramatically enhanced compared to their values for non-magnetic particles. An interesting application of this is the use of very small magnetic particles for the selective microwave heating of biological samples.

  16. Heat transfer evaluation in a plasma core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Smith, T. M.; Stoenescu, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical evaluations of heat transfer in a fissioning uranium plasma core reactor cavity, operating with seeded hydrogen propellant, was performed. A two-dimensional analysis is based on an assumed flow pattern and cavity wall heat exchange rate. Various iterative schemes were required by the nature of the radiative field and by the solid seed vaporization. Approximate formulations of the radiative heat flux are generally used, due to the complexity of the solution of a rigorously formulated problem. The present work analyzes the sensitivity of the results with respect to approximations of the radiative field, geometry, seed vaporization coefficients and flow pattern. The results present temperature, heat flux, density and optical depth distributions in the reactor cavity, acceptable simplifying assumptions, and iterative schemes. The present calculations, performed in cartesian and spherical coordinates, are applicable to any most general heat transfer problem.

  17. Heat Transfer Analysis of Thermal Protection Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhijin; Hou, Tianjiao

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to develop an analytical approach to study the heat transfer problem of thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic vehicles. Laplace transform and integral method are used to describe the temperature distribution through the TPS subject to aerodynamic heating during flight. Time-dependent incident heat flux is also taken into account. Two different cases with heat flux and radiation boundary conditions are studied and discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by finite element analyses and show a good agreement. Although temperature profiles of such problems can be readily accessed via numerical simulations, analytical solutions give a greater insight into the physical essence of the heat transfer problem. Furthermore, with the analytical approach, rapid thermal analyses and even thermal optimization can be achieved during the preliminary TPS design.

  18. Correlation of heat transfer coefficient in quenching process using ABAQUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davare, Sandeep Kedarnath; Balachandran, G.; Singh, R. K. P.

    2018-04-01

    During the heat treatment by quenching in a liquid medium the convective heat transfer coefficient plays a crucial role in the extraction of heat. The heat extraction ultimately influences the cooling rate and hence the hardness and mechanical properties. A Finite Element analysis of quenching a simple flat copper sample with different orientation of sample and with different quenchant temperatures were carried out to check and verify the results obtained from the experiments. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) was calculated from temperature history in a simple flat copper disc sample experimentally. This HTC data was further used as input to simulation software and the cooling curves were back calculated. The results obtained from software and using experimentation shows nearly consistent values.

  19. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  20. Electrohydrodynamic convective heat transfer in a square duct.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Walter; Testi, Daniele

    2009-04-01

    Laminar to weakly turbulent forced convection in a square duct heated from the bottom is strengthened by ion injection from an array of high-voltage points opposite the heated strip. Both positive and negative ion injection are activated within the working liquid HFE-7100 (C(4)F(9)OCH(3)), with transiting electrical currents on the order of 0.1 mA. Local temperatures on the heated wall are measured by liquid crystal thermography. The tests are conducted in a Reynolds number range from 510 to 12,100. In any case, heat transfer is dramatically augmented, almost independently from the flow rate. The pressure drop increase caused by the electrohydrodynamically induced flow is also measured. A profitable implementation of the technique in the design of heat sinks and heat exchangers is foreseen; possible benefits are pumping power reduction, size reduction, and heat exchange capability augmentation.

  1. Heat transfer performance of Al2O3/water nanofluids in a mini channel heat sink.

    PubMed

    Dominic, A; Sarangan, J; Suresh, S; Sai, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The high density heat removal in electronic packaging is a challenging task of modern days. Finding compact, energy efficient and cost effective methods of heat removal is being the interest of researchers. In the present work, mini channel with forced convective heat transfer in simultaneously developing regime is investigated as the heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional to hydraulic diameter. Mini channel heat sink is made from the aluminium plate of 30 mm square with 8 mm thickness. It has 15 mini channel of 0.9 mm width, 1.3 mm height and 0.9 mm of pitch. DI water and water based 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of Al2O3/water nanofluids are used as coolant. The flow rates of the coolants are maintained in such a way that it is simultaneously developing. Reynolds number is varied from 400 to 1600 and heat input is varied from 40 W to 70 W. The results showed that heat transfer coefficient is more than the heat transfer coefficient of fully developed flow. Also the heat transfer is more for nanofluids compared to DI water.

  2. Suppression of the sonic heat transfer limit in high-temperature heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobran, Flavio

    1989-08-01

    The design of high-performance heat pipes requires optimization of heat transfer surfaces and liquid and vapor flow channels to suppress the heat transfer operating limits. In the paper an analytical model of the vapor flow in high-temperature heat pipes is presented, showing that the axial heat transport capacity limited by the sonic heat transfer limit depends on the working fluid, vapor flow area, manner of liquid evaporation into the vapor core of the evaporator, and lengths of the evaporator and adiabatic regions. Limited comparisons of the model predictions with data of the sonic heat transfer limits are shown to be very reasonable, giving credibility to the proposed analytical approach to determine the effect of various parameters on the axial heat transport capacity. Large axial heat transfer rates can be achieved with large vapor flow cross-sectional areas, small lengths of evaporator and adiabatic regions or a vapor flow area increase in these regions, and liquid evaporation in the evaporator normal to the main flow.

  3. Thermal Regulation of Heat Transfer Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    determine the contrasts of thermophysical properties of composites and thin films , and various approaches to regulate heat transport processes. In the...nanofluids, 2) thermal regulation of optical properties in thin film , and 3) thermal regulation of phase transition for efficient steam generation...stress generated during the crystals growth forces CNTs to contact with each other and form a conductive percolation network. Hence the composite

  4. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edgemore » test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass

  5. Thermoregulation and the determinants of heat transfer in Colias butterflies.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Moffat, Robert J

    1982-04-01

    As a means of exploring behavioral and morphological adaptations for thermoregulation in Colias butterflies, convective heat transfer coefficients of real and model butterflies were measured in a wind tunnel as a function of wind speed and body orientation (yaw angle). Results are reported in terms of a dimensionless heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number, Nu) and a dimensionless wind speed (Reynolds number, Re), for a wind speed range typical of that experienced by basking Colias in the field. The resultant Nusselt-Reynolds (Nu-Re) plots thus indicate the rates of heat transfer by forced convection as a function of wind speed for particular model geometries.For Reynolds numbers throughout the measured range, Nusselt numbers for C. eurytheme butterflies are consistently lower than those for long cylinders, and are independent of yaw angle. There is significant variation among individual butterflies in heat transfer coefficients throughout the Re range. Model butterflies without artificial fur have Nu-Re relations similar to those for cylinders. Heat transfer in these models depends upon yaw angle, with higher heat transfer at intermediate yaw angles (30-60°); these yaw effects increase with increasing Reynolds number. Models with artificial fur, like real Colias, have Nusselt numbers which are consistently lower than those for models without fur at given Reynolds numbers throughout the Re range. Unlike real Colias, however, the models with fur do show yaw angle effects similar to those for models without fur.The independence of heat loss from yaw angle for real Colias is consistent with field observations indicating no behavioral orientation to wind direction. The presence of fur on the models reduces heat loss but does not affect yaw dependence. The large individual variation in heat transfer coefficients among butterflies is probably due to differences in fur characteristics rather than to differences in wing morphology.Finally, a physical model of a

  6. Experiments of Transient Condensation Heat Transfer on the Heat Flux Senor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuwen; Liu, Qiusheng; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The influence of transient heat transfer in different condensation condition was investigated experimentally in the present paper. Getting condensation heat and mass transfer regularity and characteristics in space can provide theoretical basis for thermodynamic device such as heat pipes, loop heat pipes and capillary pumped loops as well as other fluid management engineering designing. In order to study the condensation process in space, an experimental study has been carried out on the ground for space experiment. The results show that transit heat transfer coefficient of film condensation is related to the condensation film width, the flow condition near the two phase interface and the pressure of the vapor and non-condensable gas in chamber. On the ground, the condensation heat flux on vertical surface is higher than it on horizontal surface. The transit heat flux of film condensation is affected by the temperature of superheated vapor, the temperature of condensation surface and non-condensable gas pressure. Condensation heat flux with vapor forced convection is many times more than it with natural convection. All of heat flux for both vapor forced convection and natural convection condensation in limited chamber declines dramatically over time. The present experiment is preliminary work for our future space experiments of the condensation and heat transfer process onboard the Chinese Spacecraft "TZ-1" to be launched in 2016.

  7. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  8. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Giel, Paul W.; Ames, Forrest E.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have shown that moderate turbulence levels can nearly double turbine blade stagnation region heat transfer. Data have also shown that heat transfer is strongly affected by the scale of turbulence as well as its level. In addition to the stagnation region, turbulence is often seen to increase pressure surface heat transfer. This is especially evident at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Vane and rotor stagnation region, and vane pressure surface heat transfer augmentation is often seen in a pre-transition environment. Accurate predictions of transition and relaminarization are critical to accurately predicting blade surface heat transfer. An approach is described which incorporates the effects of both turbulence level and scale into a CFD analysis. The model is derived from experimental data for cylindrical and elliptical leadng edges. Results using this model are compared to experimental data for both vane and rotor geometries. The comparisons are made to illustrate that using a model which includes the effects of turbulence length scale improves agreement with data, and to illustrate where improvements in the modeling are needed.

  9. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxidemore » (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .« less

  10. Heat transfer degradation during condensation of non-azeotropic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzolin, M.; Berto, A.; Bortolin, S.; Del, D., Col

    2017-11-01

    International organizations call for a reduction of the HFCs production and utilizations in the next years. Binary or ternary blends of hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) are emerging as possible substitutes for high Global Warming Potential (GWP) fluids currently employed in some refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. In some cases, these mixtures are non-azeotropic and thus, during phase-change at constant pressure, they present a temperature glide that, for some blends, can be higher than 10 K. Such temperature variation during phase change could lead to a better matching between the refrigerant and the water temperature profiles in a condenser, thus reducing the exergy losses associated with the heat transfer process. Nevertheless, the additional mass transfer resistance which occurs during the phase change of zeotropic mixtures leads to a heat transfer degradation. Therefore, the design of a condenser working with a zeotropic mixture poses the problem of how to extend the correlations developed for pure fluids to the case of condensation of mixtures. Experimental data taken are very helpful in the assessment of design procedures. In the present paper, heat transfer coefficients have been measured during condensation of zeotropic mixtures of HFC and HFO fluids. Tests have been carried out in the test rig available at the Two Phase Heat Transfer Lab of University of Padova. During the condensation tests, the heat is subtracted from the mixture by using cold water and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from the measurement of the heat flux on the water side, the direct measurements of the wall temperature and saturation temperature. Tests have been performed at 40°C mean saturation temperature. The present experimental database is used to assess predictive correlations for condensation of mixtures, providing valuable information on the applicability of available models.

  11. Heat transfer from nanoparticles: A corresponding state analysis

    PubMed Central

    Merabia, Samy; Shenogin, Sergei; Joly, Laurent; Keblinski, Pawel; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution, we study situations in which nanoparticles in a fluid are strongly heated, generating high heat fluxes. This situation is relevant to experiments in which a fluid is locally heated by using selective absorption of radiation by solid particles. We first study this situation for different types of molecular interactions, using models for gold particles suspended in octane and in water. As already reported in experiments, very high heat fluxes and temperature elevations (leading eventually to particle destruction) can be observed in such situations. We show that a very simple modeling based on Lennard–Jones (LJ) interactions captures the essential features of such experiments and that the results for various liquids can be mapped onto the LJ case, provided a physically justified (corresponding state) choice of parameters is made. Physically, the possibility of sustaining very high heat fluxes is related to the strong curvature of the interface that inhibits the formation of an insulating vapor film. PMID:19571000

  12. Heat transfer from nanoparticles: a corresponding state analysis.

    PubMed

    Merabia, Samy; Shenogin, Sergei; Joly, Laurent; Keblinski, Pawel; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2009-09-08

    In this contribution, we study situations in which nanoparticles in a fluid are strongly heated, generating high heat fluxes. This situation is relevant to experiments in which a fluid is locally heated by using selective absorption of radiation by solid particles. We first study this situation for different types of molecular interactions, using models for gold particles suspended in octane and in water. As already reported in experiments, very high heat fluxes and temperature elevations (leading eventually to particle destruction) can be observed in such situations. We show that a very simple modeling based on Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions captures the essential features of such experiments and that the results for various liquids can be mapped onto the LJ case, provided a physically justified (corresponding state) choice of parameters is made. Physically, the possibility of sustaining very high heat fluxes is related to the strong curvature of the interface that inhibits the formation of an insulating vapor film.

  13. Convective heat transfer in a porous enclosure saturated by nanofluid with different heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthtamilselvan, M.; Sureshkumar, S.

    2018-03-01

    The present study is proposed to investigate the effects of various lengths and different locations of the heater on the left sidewall in a square lid-driven porous cavity filled with nanofluid. A higher temperature is maintained on the left wall where three different lengths and three different locations of the heat source are considered for the analysis. The right wall is kept at a lower temperature while the top and bottom walls, and the remaining portions of the heated wall are adiabatic. The governing equations are solved by finite volume method. The results show that among the different lengths of the heat source, an enhancement in the heat transfer rate is observed only for the length LH = 1/3 of the heat source. In the case of location of the heat source, the overall heat transfer rate is increased when the heat source is located at the top of the hot wall. For Ri = 1 and 0.01, a better heat transfer rate is obtained when the heat source is placed at the top of the hot wall whereas for Ri = 100, it occurs when the heating portion is at the middle of the hot wall. As the solid volume fraction increases, the viscosity of the fluid is increased, which causes a reduction in the flow intensity. An addition of nanoparticles in the base fluid enhances the overall heat transfer rate significantly for all Da considered. The permeability of the porous medium plays a major role in convection of nanofluid than porosity. A high heat transfer rate (57.26%) is attained for Da = 10-1 and χ = 0.06.

  14. Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation Analysis of an Intermediate Heat Exchanger in ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongwei; Huai, Xiulan

    2018-04-01

    The intermediate heat exchanger for enhancement heat transfer is the important equipment in the usage of nuclear energy. In the present work, heat transfer and entropy generation of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADS) are investigated experimentally. The variation of entropy generation number with performance parameters of the IHX is analyzed, and effects of inlet conditions of the IHX on entropy generation number and heat transfer are discussed. Compared with the results at two working conditions of the constant mass flow rates of liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and helium gas, the total pumping power all tends to reduce with the decreasing entropy generation number, but the variations of the effectiveness, number of transfer units and thermal capacity rate ratio are inconsistent, and need to analyze respectively. With the increasing inlet mass flow rate or LBE inlet temperature, the entropy generation number increases and the heat transfer is enhanced, while the opposite trend occurs with the increasing helium gas inlet temperature. The further study is necessary for obtaining the optimized operation parameters of the IHX to minimize entropy generation and enhance heat transfer.

  15. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of pulsating heat pipe with refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyu; Jia, Li

    2016-10-01

    The effects of different refrigerants on heat transfer performance of pulsating heat pipe (PHP) are investigated experimentally. The working temperature of pulsating heat pipe is kept in the range of 20°C-50°C. The startup time of the pulsating heat pipe with refrigerants can be shorter than 4 min, when heating power is in the range of 10W?100W. The startup time decreases with heating power. Thermal resistances of PHP with filling ratio 20.55% were obviously larger than those with other filling ratios. Thermal resistance of the PHP with R134a is much smaller than that with R404A and R600a. It indicates that the heat transfer ability of R134a is better. In addition, a correlation to predict thermal resistance of PHP with refrigerants was suggested.

  16. Implant Fixture Heat Transfer During Abutment Preparation.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Khalil; Alkeraidis, Abdullah; Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Altahawi, Hamdi; Lynch, Edward

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of water flow rate on the heat transmission in implants during abutment preparation using a diamond bur in a high-speed dental turbine. Titanium-alloy abutments (n = 32) were connected to a titanium-alloy implant embedded in an acrylic resin within a water bath at a controlled temperature of 37°C. The specimens were equally distributed into 2 groups (16 each) according to the water flow rate used during the preparation phase. Group 1 had a water flow rate of 24 mL/min, and group 2 had a water flow rate of 40 mL/min. Each abutment was prepared in the axial plane for 1 minute and in the occlusal plane for 1 minute with a coarse tapered diamond bur using a high-speed dental handpiece. Thermocouples embedded at the cervix of the implant surface were used to record the temperature of heat transmission from the abutment preparation. Heat generation was measured at 3 distinct times (immediately and 30 seconds and 60 seconds after the end of preparation). Statistical analyses were carried out using 2-way analysis of variance and the Student t test. Water flow rates (24 mL vs 40 mL) and time interval had no statistically significant effect on the implant's temperature change during the abutment preparation stage (P = .431 and P = .064, respectively). Increasing the water flow rate from 24 to 40 mL/min had no influence on the temperature of the implant fixture recorded during preparation of the abutment.

  17. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high speed flow fields.

  18. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high-speed flowfields.

  19. Radiant Heat Transfer in Reusable Surface Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Chmitt, R. J.; Christensen, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    During radiant testing of mullite panels, temperatures in the insulation and support structure exceeded those predicted on the basis of guarded hot plate thermal conductivity tests. Similar results were obtained during arc tunnel tests of mullite specimens. The differences between effective conductivity and guarded hot plate values suggested that radiant transfer through the mullite was occurring. To study the radiant transport, measurements were made of the infrared transmission through various insulating materials and fibers of interest to the shuttle program, using black body sources over the range of 780 to 2000 K. Experimental data were analyzed and scattering coefficients were derived for a variety of materials, fiber diameters, and source temperature.

  20. Mass and heat transfer in crushed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, J.F.; Ott, L.L.; Swecker, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Studies of heat and mass transfer in packed beds, which disagree substantially in their findings, have nearly all been done with beds of regular particles of uniform size, whereas oil-shale retorting involves particles of diverse irregular shapes and sizes. The authors, in 349 runs, measured mass-transfer rates front naphthalene particles buried in packed beds by passing through air at room temperature. An exact catalog between convection of heat and mass makes it possible to infer heat-transfer coefficients from measured mass-transfer coefficients and fluid properties. Some beds consisted of spheres, naphthalene and inert, of the same, contrasting or distributed sizes. Inmore » some runs, naphthalene spheres were buried in beds of crushed shale, some in narrow screen ranges and others with a wide size range. In others, naphthalene lozenges of different shapes were buried in beds of crushed shale in various bed axis orientations. This technique permits calculation of the mass-transfer coefficient for each active particle in the bed rather than, as in most past studies, for the bed as a whole. The data are analyzed by the traditional correlation of Colburn j{sub D} vs. Reynolds number and by multiple regression of the mass-transfer coefficient on air rate, sizes of active and inert particles, void fraction, and temperature. Principal findings are: local Reynolds number should be based on the active-particle size, not the average for the whole bed; differences between shallow and deep beds are not appreciable; mass transfer is 26% faster for spheres and lozenges buried in shale than in all-sphere beds; orientation of lozenges in shale beds has little or no effect on mass-transfer rate; and for mass or heat transfer in shale beds, log(j{center_dot}{epsilon}) = {minus}0.0747 - 0.6344 log N{sub Re} + 0. 0592 log {sup 2} N{sub Re}.« less

  1. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  2. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  3. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  4. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  5. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  6. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  7. Sensitivity Equation Derivation for Transient Heat Transfer Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Gene; Chien, Ta-Cheng; Sheen, Jeenson

    2004-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on the derivation of sensitivity equations for transient heat transfer problems modeled by different discretization processes. Two examples will be used in this study to facilitate the discussion. The first example is a coupled, transient heat transfer problem that simulates the press molding process in fabrication of composite laminates. These state equations are discretized into standard h-version finite elements and solved by a multiple step, predictor-corrector scheme. The sensitivity analysis results based upon the direct and adjoint variable approaches will be presented. The second example is a nonlinear transient heat transfer problem solved by a p-version time-discontinuous Galerkin's Method. The resulting matrix equation of the state equation is simply in the form of Ax = b, representing a single step, time marching scheme. A direct differentiation approach will be used to compute the thermal sensitivities of a sample 2D problem.

  8. Experimental Study of Endwall Heat Transfer in a Linear Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sundén, Bengt; Chernoray, Valery; Abrahamsson, Hans

    2012-11-01

    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past outlet guide vanes (OGVs) in a linear cascade have been investigated by using a liquid crystal thermography (LCT) method. Due to the special design of an OGV profile, the focus of this study is emphasized on the heat transfer patterns around the leading part of a vane. The Reynolds number is kept constant at 260,000. Two attack angles of the vane are considered. For α = 0°, the vane obstructs the incident flow like a bluff body and a remarkable flow separation phenomenon was noticed. For α = 30°, the vane is more "streamlined" with respect to the incoming flow and no obvious flow separation was observed. In general, the endwall heat transfer for α = 0° is higher than that for α = 30°.

  9. Reflective Coating on Fibrous Insulation for Reduced Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Derek D.; Prasad, B. Durga; Glass, David E.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer through fibrous insulation used in thermal protection systems (TPS) is significant at high temperatures (1200 C). Decreasing the radiative heat transfer through the fibrous insulation can thus have a major impact on the insulating ability of the TPS. Reflective coatings applied directly to the individual fibers in fibrous insulation should decrease the radiative heat transfer leading to an insulation with decreased effective thermal conductivity. Coatings with high infrared reflectance have been developed using sol-gel techniques. Using this technique, uniform coatings can be applied to fibrous insulation without an appreciable increase in insulation weight or density. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry have been performed to evaluate coating performance.

  10. Fem Formulation of Heat Transfer in Cylindrical Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem; Khaleed, H. M. T.; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer in porous medium can be derived from the fundamental laws of flow in porous region ass given by Henry Darcy. The fluid flow and energy transport inside the porous medium can be described with the help of momentum and energy equations. The heat transfer in cylindrical porous medium differs from its counterpart in radial and axial coordinates. The present work is focused to discuss the finite element formulation of heat transfer in cylindrical porous medium. The basic partial differential equations are derived using Darcy law which is the converted into a set of algebraic equations with the help of finite element method. The resulting equations are solved by matrix method for two solution variables involved in the coupled equations.

  11. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim

    2011-12-15

    The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  13. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Radiative Heat Transfer in Laser Induced Air Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Y. S.; Wang, T. S.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer is one of the most important phenomena in the laser induced plasmas. This study is intended to develop accurate and efficient methods for predicting laser radiation absorption and plasma radiative heat transfer, and investigate the plasma radiation effects in laser propelled vehicles. To model laser radiation absorption, a ray tracing method along with the Beer's law is adopted. To solve the radiative transfer equation in the air plasmas, the discrete transfer method (DTM) is selected and explained. The air plasma radiative properties are predicted by the LORAN code. To validate the present nonequilibrium radiation model, several benchmark problems are examined and the present results are found to match the available solutions. To investigate the effects of plasma radiation in laser propelled vehicles, the present radiation code is coupled into a plasma aerodynamics code and a selected problem is considered. Comparisons of results at different cases show that plasma radiation plays a role of cooling plasma and it lowers the plasma temperature by about 10%. This change in temperature also results in a reduction of the coupling coefficient by about 10-20%. The present study indicates that plasma radiation modeling is very important for accurate modeling of aerodynamics in a laser propelled vehicle.

  15. Condensation heat transfer and flow friction in silicon microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huiying; Wu, Xinyu; Qu, Jian; Yu, Mengmeng

    2008-11-01

    An experimental investigation was performed on heat transfer and flow friction characteristics during steam condensation flow in silicon microchannels. Three sets of trapezoidal silicon microchannels, with hydraulic diameters of 77.5 µm, 93.0 µm and 128.5 µm respectively, were tested under different flow and cooling conditions. It was found that both the condensation heat transfer Nusselt number (Nu) and the condensation two-phase frictional multiplier (phi2Lo) were dependent on the steam Reynolds number (Rev), condensation number (Co) and dimensionless hydraulic diameter (Dh/L). With the increase in the steam Reynolds number, condensation number and dimensionless hydraulic diameter, the condensation Nusselt number increased. However, different variations were observed for the condensation two-phase frictional multiplier. With the increase in the steam Reynolds number and dimensionless hydraulic diameter, the condensation two-phase frictional multiplier decreased, while with the increase in the condensation number, the condensation two-phase frictional multiplier increased. Based on the experimental results, dimensionless correlations for condensation heat transfer and flow friction in silicon microchannels were proposed for the first time. These correlations can be used to determine the condensation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in silicon microchannels if the steam mass flow rate, cooling rate and geometric parameters are fixed. It was also found that the condensation heat transfer and flow friction have relations to the injection flow (a transition flow pattern from the annular flow to the slug/bubbly flow), and with injection flow moving toward the outlet, both the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the condensation two-phase frictional multiplier increased.

  16. Heat-transfer tests of aqueous ethylene glycol solutions in an electrically heated tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardo, Everett; Eian, Carroll S

    1945-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the cooling characteristics of liquid-cooled engines, tests were conducted with an electrically heated single-tube heat exchanger to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of an-e-2 ethylene glycol and other ethylene glycol-water mixtures. Similar tests were conducted with water and commercial butanol (n-butyl alcohol) for check purposes. The results of tests conducted at an approximately constant liquid-flow rate of 0.67 pound per second (Reynolds number, 14,500 to 112,500) indicate that at an average liquid temperature 200 degrees f, the heat-transfer coefficients obtained using water, nominal (by volume) 30 percent-70 percent and 70 percent-30 percent glycol-water mixtures are approximately 3.8, 2.8, and 1.4 times higher, respectively, than the heat-transfer coefficients obtained using an-e-2 ethylene glycol.

  17. Heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics in swirling flows (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'ev, A. I.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Popov, I. A.

    2017-02-01

    Research results of Russian and foreign scientists of heat and mass transfer in whirling flows, swirling effect, superficial vortex generators, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics at micro- and nanoscales, burning at swirl of the flow, and technologies and apparatuses with the use of whirling currents for industry and power generation were presented and discussed at the "Heat and Mass Transfer in Whirling Currents" 5th International Conference. The choice of rational forms of the equipment flow parts when using whirling and swirling flows to increase efficiency of the heat-power equipment and of flow regimes and burning on the basis of deep study of the flow and heat transfer local parameters was set as the main research prospect. In this regard, there is noticeable progress in research methods of whirling and swirling flows. The number of computational treatments of swirling flows' local parameters has been increased. Development and advancement of the up to date computing models and national productivity software are very important for this process. All experimental works are carried out with up to date research methods of the local thermoshydraulic parameters, which enable one to reveal physical mechanisms of processes: PIV and LIV visualization techniques, high-speed and infrared photography, high speed registration of parameters of high-speed processes, etc. There is a problem of improvement of researchers' professional skills in the field of fluid mechanics to set adequately mathematics and physics problems of aerohydrodynamics for whirling and swirling flows and numerical and pilot investigations. It has been pointed out that issues of improvement of the cooling system and thermal protection effectiveness of heat-power and heat-transfer equipment units are still actual. It can be solved successfully using whirling and swirling flows as simple low power consumption exposing on the flow method and heat transfer augmentation.

  18. Heat Transfer in High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-porosity, high-temperature fibrous insulations was investigated experimentally and numerically. The effective thermal conductivity of fibrous insulation samples was measured over the temperature range of 300-1300 K and environmental pressure range of 1.33 x 10(exp -5)-101.32 kPa. The fibrous insulation samples tested had nominal densities of 24, 48, and 72 kilograms per cubic meter and thicknesses of 13.3, 26.6 and 39.9 millimeters. Seven samples were tested such that the applied heat flux vector was aligned with local gravity vector to eliminate natural convection as a mode of heat transfer. Two samples were tested with reverse orientation to investigate natural convection effects. It was determined that for the fibrous insulation densities and thicknesses investigated no heat transfer takes place through natural convection. A finite volume numerical model was developed to solve the governing combined radiation and conduction heat transfer equations. Various methods of modeling the gas/solid conduction interaction in fibrous insulations were investigated. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the modified two-flux approximation assuming anisotropic scattering and gray medium. A genetic-algorithm based parameter estimation technique was utilized with this model to determine the relevant radiative properties of the fibrous insulation over the temperature range of 300-1300 K. The parameter estimation was performed by least square minimization of the difference between measured and predicted values of effective thermal conductivity at a density of 24 kilograms per cubic meters and at nominal pressures of 1.33 x 10(exp -4) and 99.98 kPa. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements at other densities and pressures. The numerical model was also validated by comparison with a transient thermal test simulating reentry aerodynamic heating

  19. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  20. Roughness induced transition and heat transfer augmentation in hypersonic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassel, A. T.; Shih, W. C. L.; Courtney, J. F.

    Boundary layer transition and surface heating distributions on graphite, fine weave carbon-carbon, and metallic nosetip materials were derived from surface temperature responses measured in nitrogen environments during both free-flight and track-guided testing in hypersonic environments. Innovative test procedures were developed, and heat transfer results were validated against established theory through experiments using a super-smooth tungsten model. Quantitative definitions of mean transition front locations were established by deriving heat flux distributions from measured temperatures, and comparisons made with existing nosetip transition correlations. Qualitative transition locations were inferred directly from temperature distributions to investigate preferred orientations on fine weave nosetips. Levels of roughness augmented heat transfer were generally shown to be below values predicted by state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Ionospheric absorption, typical ionization, conductivity, and possible synoptic heating parameters in the upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.K.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-04-01

    Relations for the average energetic particle heating and the typical Hall and Pedersen conductances, as functions of the ground-based Hf radio absorption, are determined. Collis and coworkers used the geosynchronous GEOS 2 particle data to relate or ''calibrate'' the auroral absorption on the same magnetic field lines with five levels of D region ionization. These ionospheric models are related to a Chapman layer that extends these models into the E region. The average energetic particle heating is calculated for each of these models using recent expressions for the effective recombination coefficient. The corresponding height-integrated heating rates are determined and relatedmore » to the absorption with a quadratic expression. The average Hall and Pedersen conductivities are calculated for each of the nominal absorption ionospheric models. The corresponding height-integrated conductances for nighttime conditions are determined and related to the absorption. Expressions for these conductances during disturbed sunlit conditions are also determined. These relations can be used in conjunction with simultaneous ground-based riometric and magnetic observations to determines the average Hall and Pedersen currents and the Joule heating. The typical daily rate of temperature increase in the mesosphere for storm conditions is several 10 K for both the energetic particle and the Joule heating. The increasing importance of these parameters of the upper and middle atmospheres is discussed. It is proposed that northern hemisphere ionospheric, current, and heating synoptic models and parameters be investigated for use on a regular basis. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989« less

  2. Low heat transfer, high strength window materials

    DOEpatents

    Berlad, Abraham L.; Salzano, Francis J.; Batey, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-pane window with improved insulating qualities; comprising a plurality of transparent or translucent panes held in an essentially parallel, spaced-apart relationship by a frame. Between at least one pair of panes is a convection defeating means comprising an array of parallel slats or cells so designed as to prevent convection currents from developing in the space between the two panes. The convection defeating structures may have reflective surfaces so as to improve the collection and transmittance of the incident radiant energy. These same means may be used to control (increase or decrease) the transmittance of solar energy as well as to decouple the radiative transfer between the interior surfaces of the transparent panes.

  3. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-06-01

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  4. Computation of Radiation Heat Transfer in Aeroengine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patankar, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the highlights of the research completed for the NASA are summarized. This research has been completed in the form of two Ph.D. theses by Chai (1994) and Parthasarathy (1996). Readers are referred to these theses for a complete details of the work and lists of references. In the following sections, first objectives of this research are introduced, then the finite-volume method for radiation heat transfer is described, and finally computations of radiative heat transfer in non-gray participating media is presented.

  5. Predicted Turbine Heat Transfer for a Range of Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Lucci, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons are shown between predictions and experimental data for blade and endwall heat transfer. The comparisons of computational domain parisons are given for both vane and rotor geometries over an extensive range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. Comparisons are made with experimental data from a variety of sources. A number of turbulence models are available for predicting blade surface heat transfer, as well as aerodynamic performance. The results of an investigation to determine the turbulence model which gives the best agreement with experimental data over a wide range of test conditions are presented.

  6. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  7. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weaponmore » resp onse in fire environments.« less

  8. Unsteady conjugate heat transfer analysis for impinging jet cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, F.; Flaszyński, P.; Szwaba, R.; Telega, J.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the numerical investigations of the heat transfer on a flat plate cooled by a single impinging jet. The thermal conductivity of the plate was modified from a high thermal case (steel -λ= 35 W/m/K) to a low one (steel alloy Inconel -λ= 9.8 W/m/K). The numerical simulations results are compared with the experimental data from the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk (Poland). The numerical simulations are carried out by means of Ansys/Fluent and k-ω SST turbulence model and the temperature evolution on the target plate is investigated by conjugated heat transfer computations.

  9. Stagnation-point heat transfer correlation for ionized gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Based on previous laminar boundary-layer solutions for argon, xenon, nitrogen, and air, it is shown that the effect of gas ionization on stagnation-point heat transfer can be correlated with the variation of the frozen Prandtl number across the boundary layer. A formula is obtained for stagnation-point heat transfer in a noble gas and is shown to be valid from the low-temperature range to the region of strong ionization. It is concluded that the considered effect can be well correlated by the 0.7 power of the Prandtl-number ratio across the boundary layer.

  10. Ozone mass transfer behaviors on physical and chemical absorption for hollow fiber membrane contactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Kuiling; Wang, Jun; Hou, Deyin; Liu, Huijuan

    2017-09-01

    To understand the mass transfer behaviors in hollow fiber membrane contactors, ozone fluxes affected by various conditions and membranes were investigated. For physical absorption, mass transfer rate increased with liquid velocity and the ozone concentration in the gas. Gas flow rate was little affected when the velocity was larger than the critical value, which was 6.1 × 10 -3 m/s in this study. For chemical absorption, the flux was determined by the reaction rate between ozone and the absorbent. Therefore, concentration, species, and pH affected the mass transfer process markedly. For different absorbents, the order of mass transfer rate was the same as the reaction rate constant, which was phenol, sodium nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and oxalate. Five hydrophobic membranes with various properties were employed and the mass transfer behavior can be described by the Graetz-Lévèque equation for the physical absorption process. The results showed the process was controlled by liquid film and the gas phase conditions, and membrane properties did not affect the ozone flux. For the chemical absorption, gas film, membrane and liquid film affected the mass transfer together, and none of them were negligible.

  11. Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Cylinder Rotating in Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seban, R. A.; Johnson, H. A.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder rotating about its axis have been made with oil as the surrounding fluid to provide an addition to the heat-transfer results for this system heretofore available only for air. The results embrace a Prandtl number range from about 130 to 660, with Reynolds numbers up to 3 x 10(exp 4), and show an increasing dependence of free-convection heat transfer on rotation as the Prandtl number is increased by reducing the oil temperature. Some correlation of this effect, which agrees with the prior results for air, has been achieved. At higher rotative speeds the flow becomes turbulent, the free- convection effect vanishes, and the results with oil can be correlated generally with those for air and with mass-transfer results for even higher Prandtl numbers. For this system, however, the analogy calculations which have successfully related the heat transfer to the friction for pipe flows at high Prandtl numbers fail.

  12. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Thanh Nhon

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  13. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  14. Heat Transfer Principles in Thermal Calculation of Structures in Fire

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Usmani, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Structural fire engineering (SFE) is a relatively new interdisciplinary subject, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of heat transfer, fire dynamics and structural analysis. It is predominantly the community of structural engineers who currently carry out most of the structural fire engineering research and design work. The structural engineering curriculum in universities and colleges do not usually include courses in heat transfer and fire dynamics. In some institutions of higher education, there are graduate courses for fire resistant design which focus on the design approaches in codes. As a result, structural engineers who are responsible for structural fire safety and are competent to do their jobs by following the rules specified in prescriptive codes may find it difficult to move toward performance-based fire safety design which requires a deep understanding of both fire and heat. Fire safety engineers, on the other hand, are usually focused on fire development and smoke control, and may not be familiar with the heat transfer principles used in structural fire analysis, or structural failure analysis. This paper discusses the fundamental heat transfer principles in thermal calculation of structures in fire, which might serve as an educational guide for students, engineers and researchers. Insights on problems which are commonly ignored in performance based fire safety design are also presented. PMID:26783379

  15. Theory of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of oil radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariamov, N B

    1942-01-01

    In the present report the coefficients of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance are theoretically obtained for the case of laminar flow of a heated viscous liquid in a narrow rectangular channel. The results obtained are applied to the computation of oil radiators, which to a first approximation may be considered as made up of a system of such channels. In conclusion, a comparison is given of the theoretical with the experimental results obtained from tests on airplane oil radiators.

  16. Characterization of heat transfer in nutrient materials, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, J. E.; Bannerot, R. B.; Chen, C. K.; Witte, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal model is analyzed that takes into account phase changes in the nutrient material. The behavior of fluids in low gravity environments is discussed along with low gravity heat transfer. Thermal contact resistance in the Skylab food heater is analyzed. The original model is modified to include: equivalent conductance due to radiation, radial equivalent conductance, wall equivalent conductance, and equivalent heat capacity. A constant wall-temperature model is presented.

  17. Advancement of Double Effect Absorption Cycle by Input of Low Temperature Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hiroshi; Edera, Masaru; Nakamura, Makoto; Oka, Masahiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Energy conservation is becoming important for global environmental protection. New simple techniques of more efficient1y using the waste heat of gas co-generation systems for refrigerationare required. In first report, a new method of using the low temperature waste heat for refrigeration was proposed, and the basic characteristics of the promising methods of recovering waste heat were c1arified. In this report, the more detailed simulation model of the series flow type double effect absorption refrigerator with auxiliary heat exchanger was constructed and the static characteristics were investigated. Then experiments on this advanced absorption refrigerator were carried out, and the results of the calculation and experiments were compared and discussed. Moreover, the betterment of the simulation model of this advanced absorption refrigerator was carried out.

  18. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  19. Three-dimensional nonsteady heat-transfer analysis of an indirect heating furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Umeda, Y.; Nakamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an accurate design method for industrial furnaces from the viewpoint of heat transfer. The authors carried out a three-dimensional nonsteady heat-transfer analysis for a practical-size heat- treatment furnace equipped with radiant heaters. The authors applied three software package programs, STREAM, MORSE, and TRUMP, for the analysis of the combined heat-transfer problems of radiation, conduction, and convection. The authors also carried out experiments of the heating of a charge consisting of packed bolts. The authors found that the air swirled inside the furnace. As for the temperature in each part in the furnace, analytical results were generallymore » in close agreement with the experimental ones. This suggests that our analytical method is useful for a fundamental heat- transfer-based design of a practical-size industrial furnace with an actual charge such as packed bolts. As for the temperature distribution inside the bolt charge (work), the analytical results were also in close agreement with the experimental ones. Consequently, it was found that the heat transfer in the bolt charge could be described with an effective thermal conductivity.« less

  20. Heat transfer between a heated plate and an impinging transient diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcoumanis, C.; Chang, J.-C.

    1993-12-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to determine the heat-transfer distribution in the vicinity of a transient diesel spray impinging on a heated flat plate. The spray prior to impingement was characterised in terms of simultaneous droplet sizes and velocities by phase-Doppler anemometry while during its impingement on the plate, which was heated at temperatures between 150 205°C, the instantaneous surface temperature and associated rates of wall heat transfer were monitored by fast response thermocouples. The parameters examined in this work included the distance between the nozzle and the wall surface, the radial distance from the impingement point, the injection frequency, the injected volume and the pre-impingement wall temperature. The results showed that the wall heat transfer rates are dependent on the spray characteristics prior to impingement; the higher the “velocity of arrival” of the droplet is, the higher the heat transfer. A correlation was thus developed for the instantaneous and spatially-resolved spray/wall heat transfer based on experimentally-determined Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers over a wide range of test conditions.

  1. Numerical prediction of turbulent oscillating flow and associated heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, W. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Ibele, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial point for further development of engines is the optimization of its heat exchangers which operate under oscillatory flow conditions. It has been found that the most important thermodynamic uncertainties in the Stirling engine designs for space power are in the heat transfer between gas and metal in all engine components and in the pressure drop across the heat exchanger components. So far, performance codes cannot predict the power output of a Stirling engine reasonably enough if used for a wide variety of engines. Thus, there is a strong need for better performance codes. However, a performance code is not concerned with the details of the flow. This information must be provided externally. While analytical relationships exist for laminar oscillating flow, there has been hardly any information about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow, which could be introduced into the performance codes. In 1986, a survey by Seume and Simon revealed that most Stirling engine heat exchangers operate in the transitional and turbulent regime. Consequently, research has since focused on the unresolved issue of transitional and turbulent oscillating flow and heat transfer. Since 1988, the University of Minnesota oscillating flow facility has obtained experimental data about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow. However, since the experiments in this field are extremely difficult, lengthy, and expensive, it is advantageous to numerically simulate the flow and heat transfer accurately from first principles. Work done at the University of Minnesota on the development of such a numerical simulation is summarized.

  2. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A

    2014-11-15

    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  3. Improvement of heat transfer by means of ultrasound: Application to a double-tube heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Legay, M; Simony, B; Boldo, P; Gondrexon, N; Le Person, S; Bontemps, A

    2012-11-01

    A new kind of ultrasonically-assisted heat exchanger has been designed, built and studied. It can be seen as a vibrating heat exchanger. A comprehensive description of the overall experimental set-up is provided, i.e. of the test rig and the acquisition system. Data acquisition and processing are explained step-by-step with a detailed example of graph obtained and how, from these experimental data, energy balance is calculated on the heat exchanger. It is demonstrated that ultrasound can be used efficiently as a heat transfer enhancement technique, even in such complex systems as heat exchangers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Heat Transfers inside Counterflow Plate Heat Exchanger Augmented by an Auxiliary Fluid Flow

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, A.-R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost. PMID:24719572

  5. Analysis of heat transfers inside counterflow plate heat exchanger augmented by an auxiliary fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Khaled, A-R A

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost.

  6. On Heat Transfer through a Solid Slab Heated Uniformly and Periodically: Determination of Thermal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Bermejo-Arenas, J. A.; Marin, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, some heat transfer characteristics through a sample that is uniformly heated on one of its surfaces by a power density modulated by a periodical square wave are discussed. The solution of this problem has two contributions, comprising a transient term and an oscillatory term, superposed to it. The analytical solution is compared to…

  7. Heat transfer in composite materials disintegrating under high-rate one-sided heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, K. B.

    1993-12-01

    A mathematical model of heat transfer in heat-protective materials is suggested with the proviso of a squarelaw temperature depence of the material density in the zone of thermal destruction of its binder. The influence of certain factors on the experimental temperature field and thermal conductivity of a glass-reinforced epoxy plastic material is shown.

  8. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Chris

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in coldermore » climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.« less

  9. Heat transfer of ascending cryomagma on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Marsh, Bruce D.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a relatively young surface (60-90 Myr on average), which may be due in part to cryovolcanic processes. Current models for both effusive and explosive cryovolcanism on Europa may be expanded and enhanced by linking the potential for cryovolcanism at the surface to subsurface cryomagmatism. The success of cryomagma transport through Europa's crust depends critically on the rate of ascent relative to the rate of solidification. The final transport distance of cryomagma is thus governed by initial melt volume, ascent rate, overall ascent distance, transport mechanism (i.e., diapirism, diking, or ascent in cylindrical conduits), and melt temperature and composition. The last two factors are especially critical in determining the budget of expendable energy before complete solidification. Here we use these factors as constraints to explore conditions under which cryomagma may arrive at Europa's surface to facilitate cryovolcanism. We find that 1-5 km radius warm ice diapirs ascending from the base of a 10 km thick stagnant lid can reach the shallow subsurface in a partially molten state. Cryomagma transport may be further facilitated if diapirs travel along pre-heated ascent paths. Under certain conditions, cryolava transported from 10 km depths in tabular dikes or pipe-like conduits may reach the surface at temperatures exceeding 250 K. Ascent rates for these geometries may be high enough that isothermal transport is approached. Cryomagmas containing significant amounts of low eutectic impurities can also be delivered to Europa's surface by propagating dikes or pipe-like conduits.

  10. Influence of Spacer Systems on Heat Transfer in Evacuated Glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swimm, K.; Weinläder, H.; Ebert, H.-P.

    2009-06-01

    One attractive possibility to essentially improve the insulation properties of glazing is to evacuate the space between the glass panes. This eliminates heat transport due to convection between the glass panes and suppresses the thermal conductivity of the remaining low pressure filling gas atmosphere. The glass panes can be prevented from collapsing by using a matrix of spacers. These spacers, however, increase heat transfer between the glass panes. To quantify this effect, heat transfer through samples of evacuated glazing was experimentally determined. The samples were prepared with different kinds of spacer materials and spacer distances. The measurements were performed with a guarded hot-plate apparatus under steady-state conditions and at room temperature. The measuring chamber of the guarded hot plate was evacuated to < 10-2 Pa. An external pressure load of 0.1 MPa was applied on the samples to ensure realistic system conditions. Radiative heat transfer was significantly reduced by preparing the samples with a low- ɛ coating on one of the glass panes. In a first step, measurements without any spacers allowed quantification of the amount of radiative heat transfer. With these data, the measurements with spacers could be corrected to separate the effect of the spacers on thermal heat transfer. The influence of the thermal conductivity of the spacer material, as well as the distance between the spacers and the spacer geometry, was experimentally investigated and showed good agreement with simulation results. For mechanically stable matrices with cylindrical spacers, experimental thermal conductance values ≤0.44W·m-2 ·K-1 were found. This shows that U g -values of about 0.5W · m-2 · K-1 are achievable in evacuated glazing, if highly efficient low-emissivity coatings are used.

  11. Gravitationally Driven Wicking for Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer.

    PubMed

    Preston, Daniel J; Wilke, Kyle L; Lu, Zhengmao; Cruz, Samuel S; Zhao, Yajing; Becerra, Laura L; Wang, Evelyn N

    2018-04-17

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat or separating fluids. Filmwise condensation is prevalent in typical industrial-scale systems, where the condensed fluid forms a thin liquid film due to the high surface energy associated with many industrial materials. Conversely, dropwise condensation, where the condensate forms discrete liquid droplets which grow, coalesce, and shed, results in an improvement in heat transfer performance of an order of magnitude compared to filmwise condensation. However, current state-of-the-art dropwise technology relies on functional hydrophobic coatings, for example, long chain fatty acids or polymers, which are often not robust and therefore undesirable in industrial conditions. In addition, low surface tension fluid condensates, such as hydrocarbons, pose a unique challenge because common hydrophobic condenser coatings used to shed water (with a surface tension of 73 mN/m) often do not repel fluids with lower surface tensions (<25 mN/m). We demonstrate a method to enhance condensation heat transfer using gravitationally driven flow through a porous metal wick, which takes advantage of the condensate's affinity to wet the surface and also eliminates the need for condensate-phobic coatings. The condensate-filled wick has a lower thermal resistance than the fluid film observed during filmwise condensation, resulting in an improved heat transfer coefficient of up to an order of magnitude and comparable to that observed during dropwise condensation. The improved heat transfer realized by this design presents the opportunity for significant energy savings in natural gas processing, thermal management, heating and cooling, and power generation.

  12. Experimental heat transfer distribution on the SNAP 10A reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hopenfeld, J.; Toews, R.E.

    1965-01-29

    Heating distributions have been obtained for the SNAP 10A reactor by means of a thermal paint technique in the Rhodes and Bloxsom 60 in. hypersonic wind tunnel. Data and correlations are presented only for those reactor components where the ratio of the local heat transfer to that on the stagnation point of the calibration sphere was found to be independent of tunnel conditions. It is shown that these heating distributions can be applied directly to reentry conditions provided the thermally painted and the bare reactor surfaces are both catalytic to atom recombination.

  13. Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1996-01-01

    Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

  14. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  15. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul; Hasz, Wayne Charles; Johnson, Robert Alan; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  16. Computational Model of Heat Transfer on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torian, John G.; Rischar, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    SCRAM Lite (SCRAM signifies Station Compact Radiator Analysis Model) is a computer program for analyzing convective and radiative heat-transfer and heat-rejection performance of coolant loops and radiators, respectively, in the active thermal-control systems of the International Space Station (ISS). SCRAM Lite is a derivative of prior versions of SCRAM but is more robust. SCRAM Lite computes thermal operating characteristics of active heat-transport and heat-rejection subsystems for the major ISS configurations from Flight 5A through completion of assembly. The program performs integrated analysis of both internal and external coolant loops of the various ISS modules and of an external active thermal control system, which includes radiators and the coolant loops that transfer heat to the radiators. The SCRAM Lite run time is of the order of one minute per day of mission time. The overall objective of the SCRAM Lite simulation is to process input profiles of equipment-rack, crew-metabolic, and other heat loads to determine flow rates, coolant supply temperatures, and available radiator heat-rejection capabilities. Analyses are performed for timelines of activities, orbital parameters, and attitudes for mission times ranging from a few hours to several months.

  17. Intensification of heat and mass transfer by ultrasound: application to heat exchangers and membrane separation processes.

    PubMed

    Gondrexon, N; Cheze, L; Jin, Y; Legay, M; Tissot, Q; Hengl, N; Baup, S; Boldo, P; Pignon, F; Talansier, E

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the interest of ultrasound technology as an efficient technique for both heat and mass transfer intensification. It is demonstrated that the use of ultrasound results in an increase of heat exchanger performances and in a possible fouling monitoring in heat exchangers. Mass transfer intensification was observed in the case of cross-flow ultrafiltration. It is shown that the enhancement of the membrane separation process strongly depends on the physico-chemical properties of the filtered suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation.

    PubMed

    Jager, Marieke F; Ott, Christian; Kaplan, Christopher J; Kraus, Peter M; Neumark, Daniel M; Leone, Stephen R

    2018-01-01

    We present an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption apparatus tailored to attosecond and femtosecond measurements on bulk solid-state thin-film samples, specifically when the sample dynamics are sensitive to heating effects. The setup combines methodology for stabilizing sub-femtosecond time-resolution measurements over 48 h and techniques for mitigating heat buildup in temperature-dependent samples. Single-point beam stabilization in pump and probe arms and periodic time-zero reference measurements are described for accurate timing and stabilization. A hollow-shaft motor configuration for rapid sample rotation, raster scanning capability, and additional diagnostics are described for heat mitigation. Heat transfer simulations performed using a finite element analysis allow comparison of sample rotation and traditional raster scanning techniques for 100 Hz pulsed laser measurements on vanadium dioxide, a material that undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition at a modest temperature of 340 K. Experimental results are presented confirming that the vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) sample cannot cool below its phase transition temperature between laser pulses without rapid rotation, in agreement with the simulations. The findings indicate the stringent conditions required to perform rigorous broadband XUV time-resolved absorption measurements on bulk solid-state samples, particularly those with temperature sensitivity, and elucidate a clear methodology to perform them.

  19. Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Marieke F.; Ott, Christian; Kaplan, Christopher J.; Kraus, Peter M.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2018-01-01

    We present an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption apparatus tailored to attosecond and femtosecond measurements on bulk solid-state thin-film samples, specifically when the sample dynamics are sensitive to heating effects. The setup combines methodology for stabilizing sub-femtosecond time-resolution measurements over 48 h and techniques for mitigating heat buildup in temperature-dependent samples. Single-point beam stabilization in pump and probe arms and periodic time-zero reference measurements are described for accurate timing and stabilization. A hollow-shaft motor configuration for rapid sample rotation, raster scanning capability, and additional diagnostics are described for heat mitigation. Heat transfer simulations performed using a finite element analysis allow comparison of sample rotation and traditional raster scanning techniques for 100 Hz pulsed laser measurements on vanadium dioxide, a material that undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition at a modest temperature of 340 K. Experimental results are presented confirming that the vanadium dioxide (VO2) sample cannot cool below its phase transition temperature between laser pulses without rapid rotation, in agreement with the simulations. The findings indicate the stringent conditions required to perform rigorous broadband XUV time-resolved absorption measurements on bulk solid-state samples, particularly those with temperature sensitivity, and elucidate a clear methodology to perform them.

  20. Physical aspects of heat generation/absorption in the second grade fluid flow due to Riga plate: Application of Cattaneo-Christov approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, Aisha; Mir, N. A.; Farooq, M.; Javed, M.; Ahmad, S.; Malik, M. Y.; Alshomrani, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    The present article concentrates on thermal stratification in the flow of second grade fluid past a Riga plate with linear stretching towards a stagnation region. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed with heat generation/absorption. Riga plate is known as electromagnetic actuator which comprises of permanent magnets and alternating electrodes placed on a plane surface. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is implemented to analyze the features of heat transfer. This new heat flux model is the generalization of classical Fourier's law with the contribution of thermal relaxation time. For the first time heat generation/absorption effect is computed with non-Fourier's law of heat conduction (i.e., Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model). Transformations are used to obtain the governing non-linear ordinary differential equations. Approximate convergent solutions are developed for the non-dimensionalized governing problems. Physical features of velocity and temperature distributions are graphically analyzed corresponding to various parameters in 2D and 3D. It is noted that velocity field enhances with an increment of modified Hartman number while it reduces with increasing variable thickness parameter. Increment in modified heat generation parameter results in reduction of temperature field.

  1. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  2. Heat transfer, friction, and rheological characteristics of antimisting kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthys, E.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the skin friction and heat transfer behavior of antimisting kerosene (AMK) in pipe flows. The additive used was FM-9. Based on the results of the experiments, which identify high viscosity and viscoelasticity for AMK, it is recommended that AMK be degraded. Sufficient degradation produces behavior similar to that of jet A.

  3. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  4. Recovery Temperature, Transition, and Heat Transfer Measurements at Mach 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinich, Paul F.

    1961-01-01

    Schlieren, recovery temperature, and heat-transfer measurements were made on a hollow cylinder and a cone with axes alined parallel to the stream. Both the cone and cylinder were equipped with various bluntnesses, and the tests covered a Reynolds number range up to 20 x 10(exp 6) at a free-stream Mach number of 4.95 and wall to free-stream temperature ratios from 1.8 to 5.2 (adiabatic). A substantial transition delay due to bluntness was found for both the cylinder and the cone. For the present tests (Mach 4.95), transition was delayed by a factor of 3 on the cylinder and about 2 on the cone, these delays being somewhat larger than those observed in earlier tests at Mach 3.1. Heat-transfer tests on the cylinder showed only slight effects of wall temperature level on transition location; this is to be contrasted to the large transition delays observed on conical-type bodies at low surface temperatures at Mach 3.1. The schlieren and the peak-recovery-temperature methods of detecting transition were compared with the heat-transfer results. The comparison showed that the first two methods identified a transition point which occurred just beyond the end of the laminar run as seen in the heat-transfer data.

  5. Prediction of Relaminarization Effects on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Giel, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    An approach to predicting turbine blade heat transfer when turbulent flow relaminarizes due to strong favorable pressure gradients is described. Relaminarization is more likely to occur on the pressure side of a rotor blade. While stators also have strong favorable pressure gradients, the pressure surface is less likely to become turbulent at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Accounting for the effects of relaminarization for blade heat transfer can substantially reduce the predicted rotor surface heat transfer. This in turn can lead to reduced rotor cooling requirements. Two-dimensional midspan Navier-Stokes analyses were done for each of eighteen test cases using eleven different turbulence models. Results showed that including relaminarization effects generally improved the agreement with experimental data. The results of this work indicate that relatively small changes in rotor shape can be utilized to extend the likelihood of relaminarization to high Reynolds numbers. Predictions showing how rotor blade heat transfer at a high Reynolds number can be reduced through relaminarization are given.

  6. Mach number effect on jet impingement heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Brevet, P; Dorignac, E; Vullierme, J J

    2001-05-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer from a single round free jet, impinging normally on a flat plate is described. Flow at the exit plane of the jet is fully developed and the total temperature of the jet is equal to the ambient temperature. Infrared measurements lead to the characterization of the local and averaged heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt numbers over the impingement plate. The adiabatic wall temperature is introduced as the reference temperature for heat transfer coefficient calculation. Various nozzle diameters from 3 mm to 15 mm are used to make the injection Mach number M vary whereas the Reynolds number Re is kept constant. Thus the Mach number influence on jet impingement heat transfer can be directly evaluated. Experiments have been carried out for 4 nozzle diameters, for 3 different nozzle-to-target distances, with Reynolds number ranging from 7200 to 71,500 and Mach number from 0.02 to 0.69. A correlation is obtained from the data for the average Nusselt number.

  7. Hypervelocity Heat-Transfer Measurements in an Expansion Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Perkins, John N.

    1996-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the NASA HYPULSE Expansion Tube, in both CO2 and air test gases, in order to obtain data for comparison with computational results and to assess the capability for performing hypervelocity heat-transfer studies in this facility. Heat-transfer measurements were made in both test gases on 70 deg sphere-cone models and on hemisphere models of various radii. HYPULSE freestream flow conditions in these test gases were found to be repeatable to within 3-10%, and aerothermodynamic test times of 150 microsec in CO2 and 125 microsec in air were identified. Heat-transfer measurement uncertainty was estimated to be 10-15%. Comparisons were made with computational results from the non-equilibrium Navier-Stokes solver NEQ2D. Measured and computed heat-transfer rates agreed to within 10% on the hemispheres and on the sphere-cone forebodies, and to within 10% in CO2 and 25% in air on the afterbodies and stings of the sphere-cone models.

  8. A Rotating Plug Model of Friction Stir Welding Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghulapadu J. K.; Peddieson, J.; Buchanan, G. R.; Nunes, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    A simplified rotating plug model is employed to study the heat transfer phenomena associated with the fiction stir welding process. An approximate analytical solution is obtained based on this idealized model and used both to demonstrate the qualitative influence of process parameters on predictions and to estimate temperatures produced in typical fiction stir welding situations.

  9. Heat Transfer In High-Temperature Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Miller, Stephen D.; Cunnington, George R.

    2006-01-01

    The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-temperature multilayer insulations for typical reentry of reusable launch vehicles from low Earth orbit was investigated experimentally and numerically. The high-temperature multilayer insulation investigated consisted of gold-coated reflective foils separated by alumina fibrous insulation spacers. The steady-state heat transfer through four multilayer insulation configurations was investigated experimentally over the temperature range of 300-1300 K and environmental pressure range of 1.33 10(exp -5)-101.32 kPa. It was shown that including the reflective foils reduced the effective thermal conductivity compared to fibrous insulation sample at 1.5 times the density of the multilayer sample. A finite volume numerical model was developed to solve the governing combined radiation/conduction heat transfer equations. The radiation heat transfer in the fibrous insulation spacers was modeled using the modified two-flux approximation assuming anisotropic scattering and gray medium. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state experimental data. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and measured effective thermal conductivity of the samples was 9.5%.

  10. Teaching with Spreadsheets: An Example from Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Provides an activity which measures the heat transfer through an insulated cylindrical tank, allowing the student to gain a better knowledge of both the physics involved and the working of spreadsheets. Provides both a spreadsheet solution and a maximum-minimum method of solution for the problem. (MVL)

  11. Heat Transfer Measurements for a Film Cooled Turbine Vane Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsatte, Philip E.; Heidmann, James D.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained on a large scale film cooled turbine vane cascade. The objective was to investigate heat transfer on a commercial high pressure first stage turbine vane at near engine Mach and Reynolds number conditions. Additionally blowing ratios and coolant density were also matched. Numerical computations were made with the Glenn-HT code of the same geometry and compared with the experimental results. A transient thermochromic liquid crystal technique was used to obtain steady state heat transfer data on the mid-span geometry of an instrumented vane with 12 rows of circular and shaped film cooling holes. A mixture of SF6 and Argon gases was used for film coolant to match the coolant-to-gas density ratio of a real engine. The exit Mach number and Reynolds number were 0.725 and 2.7 million respectively. Trends from the experimental heat transfer data matched well with the computational prediction, particularly for the film cooled case.

  12. Studies on convective heat transfer through helical coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, S. S.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2013-12-01

    An experimental investigation on steady state convection heat transfer from vertical helical coiled tubes in water was performed for laminar flow regime. Three coils with curvature ratios as 0.0757, 0.064, 0.055 and range of Prandtl number from 3.81 to 4.8, Reynolds number from 3,166 to 9,658 were considered in this work. The heat transfer data were generated from 30 experiments conducted at constant water bath temperature (60 °C) for different cold water flow rates in helical coils. For the first time, an innovative approach of correlating Nusselt number with ‘M’ number is proposed which is not available in the literature and the developed correlations are found to be in good agreement with the work of earlier researchers. Thus, dimensionless number ‘M’ was found to be significant to characterize the hydrodynamics of fluid flow and heat transfer correlations in helical coils. Several other correlations based on experimental data are developed. To cover wide range of industrial applications, suitable generalized correlations based on extended parameters beyond the range of present experimental work are also developed. All these correlations are developed by using least-squares power law fit and multiple-regression analysis of MATLAB software. Correlations so developed were compared with published correlations and were found to be in good agreement. Comparison of heat transfer coefficients, friction factor and Nusselt number for different geometrical conditions is presented in this paper.

  13. Heat Transfer Performance of Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet Aqueous Nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    Agromayor, Roberto; Cabaleiro, David; Pardinas, Angel A.; Vallejo, Javier P.; Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Lugo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The low thermal conductivity of fluids used in many industrial applications is one of the primary limitations in the development of more efficient heat transfer systems. A promising solution to this problem is the suspension of nanoparticles with high thermal conductivities in a base fluid. These suspensions, known as nanofluids, have great potential for enhancing heat transfer. The heat transfer enhancement of sulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanoplatelet water-based nanofluids is addressed in this work. A new experimental setup was designed for this purpose. Convection coefficients, pressure drops, and thermophysical properties of various nanofluids at different concentrations were measured for several operational conditions and the results are compared with those of pure water. Enhancements in thermal conductivity and in convection heat transfer coefficient reach 12% (1 wt %) and 32% (0.5 wt %), respectively. New correlations capable of predicting the Nusselt number and the friction factor of this kind of nanofluid as a function of other dimensionless quantities are developed. In addition, thermal performance factors are obtained from the experimental convection coefficient and pressure drop data in order to assess the convenience of replacing the base fluid with designed nanofluids. PMID:28773578

  14. Heat pipe temperature control utilizing a soluble gas absorption reservior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A new gas-controlled heat pipe design is described which uses a liquid matrix reservior, or sponge, to replace the standard gas reservior. Reservior volume may be reduced by a factor of five to ten for certain gas-liquid combinations, while retaining the same level of temperature control. Experiments with ammonia, butane, and carbon dioxide control gases with methanol working fluid are discussed.

  15. A novel investigation of heat transfer characteristics in rifled tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegan, C. Dhayananth; Azhagesan, N.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental investigation of heat transfer of water flowing in a rifled tube was explored at different pressures and at various operating conditions in a rifled tube heat exchanger. The specifications for the inner and outer diameters of the inner tube are 25.8 and 50.6 mm, respectively. The working fluids used in shell side and tube side are cold and hot water. The rifled tube was made of the stainless steel with 4 ribs, 50.6 mm outer diameter, 0.775 mm rib height, 58o helix angle and the length 1500 mm. The effect of pressure, wall heat flux and friction factor were discussed. The results confirm that even at low pressures the rifled tubes has an obvious enhancement in heat transfer compared with smooth tube. Results depicts that the Nusselt number increases with Reynolds number and the friction factor decreases with increase in Reynolds number and the heat transfer rate is higher for the rifled tube when compared to smooth tube, because of strong swirl flow due to centrifugal action. It also confirms that, the friction factor obtained from the rifled tube is significantly higher than that of smooth tube.

  16. Fluid mechanics and heat transfer spirally fluted tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yampolsky, J. S.; Libby, P. A.; Launder, B. E.; Larue, J. C.

    1984-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an understanding of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer mechanisms that result in the demonstrated performance of the spiral fluted tubing under development at GA Technologies Inc. Particularly emphasized are the processes that result in the augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient without an increase in friction coefficient in the single-phase flow. Quantitative delineation of these processes would allow for their application to the optimal solution of heat transfer problems in general was well as to tubular heat exchanges using spiral fluted tubes. The experimental phase of the program consisted of the following: (1) Flow visualization studies using high-speed photography of dye injected into water flowing in a cast acrylic spiral fluted tube. (2) Time-resolved axial velocity measurements as a function of radius at the exit plane of a spiral fluted tube with water flowing through the tube. (3) Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the axial and radial velocity components and temperature with heated air flowing through the tube cooled by a water jacket.

  17. Impact of different thickness of the smooth heated surface on flow boiling heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strąk, Kinga; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the performance of three smooth heated surfaces with different thicknesses. Analysis was carried out on an experimental setup for flow boiling heat transfer. The most important element of the setup was the test section with a rectangular minichannel, 1.7 mm deep, 16 mm wide and 180 mm long, oriented vertically. The heated element for the FC-72 Fluorinert flowing in the minichannel was designated as a Haynes-230 alloy plate (0.10 mm and 0.45 mm thick) or a Hastelloy X alloy plate (0.65 mm thick). Infrared thermography was used to measure the temperature of the outer plate surface. The local values of the heat transfer coefficient for stationary state conditions were calculated using a simple one-dimensional method. The experimental results were presented as the relationship between the heat transfer coefficients in the subcooled boiling region and the distance along the minichannel length and boiling curves. The highest local heat transfer coefficients were recorded for the surface of 0.10 mm thick heated plate at the outlet and 0.45 mm thick plate at the minichannel inlet. All boiling curves were typical in shape.

  18. Experimental investigate of heat transfer for graphene/water nanofluid in micro heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Elhafez, S. E.; Abo-Zahhad, E. M.; El-Shazly, A. H.; El-Kady, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, the heat transfer characteristics of graphene nano platelets (GNPs)/water nanofluid were studied in a micro heat exchanger (MHE). The micro heat exchanger performance was also examined. The test setup was worked out in the laminar regime with Reynold numbers varying between 100 and 400GNPs/water nanofluid was prepared three different concentrations (0.025 wt. %, 0.05 wt. % and 0.1 wt. %) using ultrasonic wave. The influence of mass flow rate, inlet temperatures and weight fraction on the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and logarithmic mean temperature (LMTD) were examined. The results showed considerable enhancement on the overall heat transfer coefficient of graphene/water nanofluid and the MHE effectiveness. A maximum enhancement on overall heat transfer coefficient was reached to 150% at Re=100 by 0.1wt% nanofluid. The effectiveness of micro heat exchanger was enhanced by increase weight fraction of graphene nanoparticle. Moreover, the experimental results showed that 0.1 wt. % GNPs/water nanofluid, flowing through MHE, has had high pressure drop, and pumping power, when it has been compared with 0.5 wt. % and 0.025 wt.%.

  19. The effect of heating direction on flow boiling heat transfer of R134a in micro-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingchen; Jia, Li; Dang, Chao; Peng, Qi

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents effects of heating directions on heat transfer performance of R134a flow boiling in micro- channel heat sink. The heat sink has 30 parallel rectangular channels with cross-sectional dimensions of 500μm width 500μm depth and 30mm length. The experimental operation condition ranges of the heat flux and the mass flux were 13.48 to 82.25 W/cm2 and 373.3 to 1244.4 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality ranged from 0.07 to 0.93. The heat transfer coefficients of top heating and bottom heating both were up to 25 kW/m2 K. Two dominate transfer mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convection boiling were observed according to boiling curves. The experimental results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of bottom heating was 13.9% higher than top heating in low heat flux, while in high heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient of bottom heating was 9.9%.higher than the top heating, because bubbles were harder to divorce the heating wall. And a modified correlation was provided to predict heat transfer of top heating.

  20. Exact solution of conductive heat transfer in cylindrical composite laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayhani, M. H.; Shariati, M.; Nourozi, M.; Karimi Demneh, M.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an exact solution for steady-state conduction heat transfer in cylindrical composite laminates. This laminate is cylindrical shape and in each lamina, fibers have been wound around the cylinder. In this article heat transfer in composite laminates is being investigated, by using separation of variables method and an analytical relation for temperature distribution in these laminates has been obtained under specific boundary conditions. Also Fourier coefficients in each layer obtain by solving set of equations that related to thermal boundary layer conditions at inside and outside of the cylinder also thermal continuity and heat flux continuity between each layer is considered. In this research LU factorization method has been used to solve the set of equations.

  1. Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

  2. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  3. Heat transfer performance of a pulsating heat pipe charged with acetone-based mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenqing; Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) are used as high efficiency heat exchangers, and the selection of working fluids in PHPs has a great impact on the heat transfer performance. This study investigates the thermal resistance characteristics of the PHP charged with acetone-based binary mixtures, where deionized water, methanol and ethanol were added to and mixed with acetone, respectively. The volume mixing ratios were 2:1, 4:1 and 7:1, and the heating power ranged from 10 to 100 W with filling ratios of 45, 55, 62 and 70%. At a low filling ratio (45%), the zeotropic characteristics of the binary mixtures have an influence on the heat transfer performance of the PHP. Adding water, which has a substantially different boiling point compared with that of acetone, can significantly improve the anti-dry-out ability inside the PHP. At a medium filling ratio (55%), the heat transfer performance of the PHP is affected by both phase transition characteristics and physical properties of working fluids. At high heating power, the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-water mixture is between that with pure acetone and pure water, whereas the thermal resistance of the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures at mixing ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 is less than that with the corresponding pure fluids. At high filling ratios (62 and 70%), the heat transfer performance of the PHP is mainly determined by the properties of working fluids that affects the flow resistance. Thus, the PHP with acetone-methanol and acetone-ethanol mixtures that have a lower flow resistance shows better heat transfer performance than that with acetone-water mixture.

  4. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John

    2013-07-22

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when usedmore » with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.« less

  5. Heating of foods in space-vehicle environments. [by conductive heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, R. B.; Cox, J. E.; Chen, C. K.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    In extended space missions, foods will be heated to enhance the psychological as well as the physiological well-being of the crew. In the low-gravity space environment natural convection is essentially absent so that the heat transfer within the food is by conduction alone. To prevent boiling in reduced pressure environments the maximum temperature of the heating system is severely limited. The Skylab food-heating system utilizes a tray with receptables for the food containers. The walls of the receptacles are lined with thermally controlled, electrical-resistance, blanket-type heating elements. A finite difference model is employed to perform parametric studies on the food-heating system. The effects on heating time of the (1) thermophysical properties of the food, (2) heater power level, (3) initial food temperatures, (4) container geometry, and (5) heater control temperature are presented graphically. The optimal heater power level and container geometry are determined.

  6. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  7. Energy transfer simulation for radiantly heated and cooled enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.S.; Zhang, P.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to compute heat transfer within a radiantly heated or cooled room, which then calculates the mass-averaged room air temperature and the wall surface temperature distributions. The radiation formulation used in the model accommodates arbitrary placement of walls and objects within the room. The convection model utilizes Nusselt number correlations published in the open literature. The complete energy transfer model is validated by comparing calculated room temperatures to temperatures measured in a radiantly heated room. This three-dimensional model may be applied to a building to assist the heating/cooling system design engineermore » in sizing a radiant heating/cooling system. By coupling this model with a thermal comfort model, the comfort levels throughout the room can be easily and efficiently mapped for a given radiant heater/cooler location. In addition, obstacles such as airplanes, trucks, furniture, and partitions can be easily incorporated to determine their effect on the radiant heating system performance.« less

  8. Pseudo-transient heat transfer in vertical Bridgman crystal growth of semi-transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinschi, F.; Nicoara, I.; Santailler, J. L.; Duffar, T.

    1998-11-01

    The temperature distribution and the solid-liquid interface shape during semi-transparent crystal growth have been studied by modelling a vertical Bridgman technique, using a pseudo-transient approximation in an ideal configuration. The heat transfer equation and the boundary conditions have been solved by the finite-element method. It has been pointed out that the optical absorption coefficients of the liquid and solid phases have a major effect on the thermal field, especially on the shape and location of the crystallization interface.

  9. An experimental and numerical study of endwall heat transfer in a turbine blade cascade including tangential heat conduction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratto, Luca; Satta, Francesca; Tanda, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer in the endwall region of a large scale turbine cascade. The steady-state liquid crystal technique has been used to obtain the map of the heat transfer coefficient for a constant heat flux boundary condition. In the presence of two- and three-dimensional flows with significant spatial variations of the heat transfer coefficient, tangential heat conduction could lead to error in the heat transfer coefficient determination, since local heat fluxes at the wall-to-fluid interface tend to differ from point to point and surface temperatures to be smoothed out, thus making the uniform-heat-flux boundary condition difficult to be perfectly achieved. For this reason, numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer in the cascade including the effect of tangential heat conduction inside the endwall have been performed. The major objective of numerical simulations was to investigate the influence of wall heat conduction on the convective heat transfer coefficient determined during a nominal iso-flux heat transfer experiment and to interpret possible differences between numerical and experimental heat transfer results. Results were presented and discussed in terms of local Nusselt number and a convenient wall heat flux function for two values of the Reynolds number (270,000 and 960,000).

  10. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or cooling...

  11. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or cooling...

  12. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or cooling...

  13. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or cooling...

  14. Forced-convection Heat-transfer Characteristics of Molten Sodium Hydroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grele, Milton D; Gedeon, Louis

    1953-01-01

    The forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of sodium hydroxide were experimentally investigated. The heat-transfer data for heating fall slightly above the McAdams correlation line, and the heat-transfer data for cooling are fairly well represented by the McAdams correlation line.

  15. Light absorption and excitation energy transfer calculations in primitive photosynthetic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Yu; Kayanuma, Megumi; Shoji, Mitsuo; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Kenji; Umemura, Masayuki

    2015-06-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, light energy is converted into chemical energy through the light absorption and excitation energy transfer (EET) processes. These processes start in light-harvesting complexes, which contain special photosynthetic pigments. The exploration of unique mechanisms in light-harvesting complexes is directly related to studies, such as artificial photosynthesis or biosignatures in astrobiology. We examined, through ab initio calculations, the light absorption and EET processes using cluster models of light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria (LH2). We evaluated absorption spectra and energy transfer rates using the LH2 monomer and dimer models to reproduce experimental results. After the calibration tests, a LH2 aggregation model, composed of 7 or 19 LH2s aligned in triangle lattice, was examined. We found that the light absorption is red shifted and the energy transfer becomes faster as the system size increases. We also found that EET is accelerated by exchanging the central pigments to lower energy excited pigments. As an astrobiological application, we calculated light absorptions efficiencies of the LH2 in different photoenvironments.

  16. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  17. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Finned Heat Sinks with Micro-structured Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventola, L.; Chiavazzo, E.; Calignano, F.; Manfredi, D.; Asinari, P.

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the benefits of micro-structured roughness on heat transfer performance of heat sinks, cooled by forced air. Heat sinks in aluminum alloy by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) manufacturing technique were fabricated; values of the average surface roughness Ra from 1 to 25 microns (standard milling leads to roughness around 1 micron) under turbulent regimes (Reynolds number based on heating edge from 3000 to 17000) have been explored. An enhancement of 50% in thermal performances with regards to standard manufacturing was observed. This may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by DMLS.

  18. Influence of absorption by environmental water vapor on radiation transfer in wildland fires

    Treesearch

    D. Frankman; B. W. Webb; B. W. Butler

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation of radiation transfer from wildland flames to fuel by environmental water vapor is investigated. Emission is tracked from points on an idealized flame to locations along the fuel bed while accounting for absorption by environmental water vapor in the intervening medium. The Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases approach was employed for treating the...

  19. Nanofluid flow and heat transfer in boundary layers: the influence of the concentration diffusion layer on heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Joseph T. C.; Barbosa Decastilho, Cintia Juliana; Fuller, Mark E.; Sane, Aakash

    2017-11-01

    The present work uses a perturbation procedure to deduce the small nanoparticle volume concentration conservation equations for momentum, heat and concentration diffusion. Thermal physical variables are obtained from conventional means (mixture and field theories) for alumina-water and gold-water nanofluids. In the case of gold-water nano fluid molecular dynamics results are used to estimate such properties, including transport coefficients. The very thin diffusion layer at large Schmidt numbers is found to have a great impact on the velocity and temperature profiles owing to their dependency on transport properties. This has a profound effect on the conduction surface heat transfer rate enhancement and skin friction suppression for the case of nano fluid concentration withdrawal at the wall, while the diffusional surface heat transfer rate is negligible due to large Schmidt numbers. Possible experimental directed at this interesting phenomenon is suggested.

  20. Various methods to improve heat transfer in exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Zitek; Vaclav, Valenta

    2015-05-01

    The University of West Bohemia in Pilsen (Department of Power System Engineering) is working on the selection of effective heat exchangers. Conventional shell and tube heat exchangers use simple segmental baffles. It can be replaced by helical baffles, which increase the heat transfer efficiency and reduce pressure losses. Their usage is demonstrated in the primary circuit of IV. generation MSR (Molten Salt Reactors). For high-temperature reactors we consider the use of compact desk heat exchangers, which are small, which allows the integral configuration of reactor. We design them from graphite composites, which allow up to 1000°C and are usable as exchangers: salt-salt or salt-acid (e.g. for the hydrogen production). In the paper there are shown thermo-physical properties of salts, material properties and principles of calculations.

  1. A heat transfer model for a hot helium airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapert, R. M.

    1987-06-01

    Basic heat transfer empirical and analytic equations are applied to a double envelope airship concept which uses heated Helium in the inner envelope to augment and control gross lift. The convective and conductive terms lead to a linear system of five equations for the concept airship, with the nonlinear radiation terms included by an iterative solution process. The graphed results from FORTRAN program solutions are presented for the variables of interest. These indicate that a simple use of airship engine exhaust heat gives more than a 30 percent increase in gross airship lift. Possibly more than 100 percent increase can be achieved if a 'stream injection' heating system, with associated design problems, is used.

  2. Local Heat Transfer for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers using Oval Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of forced convection heat transfer in a narrow rectangular duct fitted with either a circular tube or an elliptical tube in crossflow. The duct was designed to simulate a single passage in a fin-tube heat exchanger. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique in which a heated airflow is suddenly introduced to the test section. High-resolution local fin-surface temperature distributions were obtained at several times after initiation of the transient using an imaging infrared camera. Corresponding local fin-surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were then calculated from a locally appliedmore » one-dimensional semi-infinite inverse heat conduction model. Heat transfer results were obtained over an airflow rate ranging from 1.56 x 10-3 to 15.6 x 10-3 kg/s. These flow rates correspond to a duct-height Reynolds number range of 630 – 6300 with a duct height of 1.106 cm and a duct width-toheight ratio, W/H, of 11.25. The test cylinder was sized such that the diameter-to-duct height ratio, D/H is 5. The elliptical tube had an aspect ratio of 3:1 and a/H equal to 4.33. Results presented in this paper reveal visual and quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer distributions in the vicinity of circular and oval tubes and their relationship to the complex horseshoe vortex system that forms in the flow stagnation region. Fin surface stagnation-region Nusselt numbers are shown to be proportional to the square-root of Reynolds number.« less

  3. The Radiative Heat Transfer Properties of Molten Salts and Their Relevance to the Design of Advanced Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaleff, Ethan Solomon

    Molten salts, such as the fluoride salt eutectic LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) or the transition metal fluoride salt KF-ZrF4, have been proposed as coolants for numerous advanced reactor concepts. These reactors are designed to operate at high temperatures where radiative heat transfer may play a significant role. If this is the case, the radiative heat transfer properties of the salt coolants are required to be known for heat transfer calculations to be performed accurately. Chapter 1 describes the existing literature and experimental efforts pertaining to radiative heat transfer in molten salts. The physics governing photon absorption by halide salts is discussed first, followed by a more specific description of experimental results pertaining to salts of interest. The phonon absorption edge in LiF-based salts such as FLiNaK is estimated and the technique described for potential use in other salts. A description is given of various spectral measurement techniques which might plausibly be employed in the present effort, as well as an argument for the use of integral techniques. Chapter 2 discusses the mathematical treatments required to approximate and solve for the radiative flux in participating materials. The differential approximation and the exact solutions to the radiative flux are examined, and methods are given to solve radiative and energy equations simultaneously. A coupled solution is used to examine radiative heat transfer to molten salt coolants. A map is generated of pipe diameters, wall temperatures, and average absorption coefficients where radiative heat transfer will increase expected heat transfer by more than 10% compared to convective methods alone. Chapter 3 presents the design and analysis of the Integral Radiative Absorption Chamber (IRAC). The IRAC employs an integral technique for the measurement of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, negating some of the challenges associated with the methods discussed in Chapter 1 at the loss of spectral

  4. The effects of titanium dioxide coatings on light-derived heating and transdermal heat transfer in bovine skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartle, S. J.; Thomson, D. U.; Gehring, R.; van der Merwe, D.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of titanium dioxide coatings of bovine hides on light absorption and transdermal transfer of light-derived heat were investigated. Four hair-on rug hides from Holstein cattle were purchased. Twelve samples about 20 cm on a side were cut from each hide; nine from the black-colored areas, and three from the white areas. Samples were randomized and assigned to four coating treatments: (1) white hide with no coating (White), (2) black hide with no coating (Black), (3) black hide with 50% coating (Mid), and (4) black hide with 100% coating (High). Coatings were applied to the black hide samples using a hand sprayer. Lux measurements were taken using a modified lux meter at three light intensities generated with a broad spectrum, cold halogen light source. Reflectance over a wavelength range of 380 to 900 nm was measured using a spectroradiometer. The transdermal transfer of heat derived from absorbed light was measured by applying a broad spectrum, cold halogen light source to the stratum corneum (coated) side of the sample and recording the temperature of the dermis-side using a thermal camera for 10 min at 30-s intervals. At the high light level, the White, Black, Mid, and High coating treatments had different ( P < 0.001) lux values of 64,945, 1741, 15,978, and 40,730 lx, respectively. In the visible wavelength range (400 to 750 nm), Black hides reflected 10 to 15% of the light energy, hides with the Mid coating treatment reflected 35 to 40%, and hides with the High coating treatment reflected 70 to 80% of the light energy. The natural White hide samples reflected 60 to 80% of the light energy. The average maximum temperatures at the dermis-side of the hides due to transferred heat were 34.5, 70.1, 55.0, and 31.7, for the White, Black, Mid, and High treatments, respectively. Reflective coatings containing titanium dioxide on cattle hides were effective in reducing light energy absorption and reduced light-derived heat transfer from the skin surface to

  5. Chemical reaction and heat generation/absorption aspects in MHD nonlinear convective flow of third grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, Sajid; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    Nonlinear thermal radiation and chemical reaction in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of third grade nanofluid over a stretching sheet with variable thickness are addressed. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear convection are considered. The sheet moves with nonlinear velocity. Sheet is convectively heated. In addition zero mass flux condition for nanoparticle concentration is imposed. Results for velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction and local Nusselt number are presented and examined. It is found that velocity and boundary layer thickness are increasing for Reynolds number. Temperature is a increasing function of the heat generation/absorption parameter while it causes a decrease in the heat transfer rate. Moreover effect of Brownian motion and chemical reaction on the concentration are quite reverse.

  6. Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory for three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic nanofluid with the effect of heat generation/absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present research article focuses on three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic(second grade) nanofluid in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory. Flow caused is due to stretching sheet. Characteristics of heat transfer are interpreted by considering the heat generation/absorption. Nanofluid theory comprises of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory is introduced in the energy and concentration expressions. Such diffusions are developed as a part of formulating the thermal and solutal relaxation times framework. Suitable variables are implemented for the conversion of partial differential systems into a sets of ordinary differential equations. The transformed expressions have been explored through homotopic algorithm. Behavior of sundry variables on the velocities, temperature and concentration are scrutinized graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficients are also calculated and examined. Here thermal field enhances for heat generation parameter while reverse situation is noticed for heat absorption parameter.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer During Quenching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madireddi, Sowjanya; Krishnan, Krishnan Nambudiripad; Reddy, Ammana Satyanarayana

    2018-04-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the immersion quenching process of metals. The time of quench plays an important role if the process involves a defined step quenching schedule to obtain the desired characteristics. Lumped heat capacity analysis used for this purpose requires the value of heat transfer coefficient, whose evaluation requires large experimental data. Experimentation on a sample work piece may not represent the actual component which may vary in dimension. A Fluid-Structure interaction technique with a coupled interface between the solid (metal) and liquid (quenchant) is used for the simulations. Initial times of quenching shows boiling heat transfer phenomenon with high values of heat transfer coefficients (5000-2.5 × 105 W/m2K). Shape of the work piece with equal dimension shows less influence on the cooling rate Non-uniformity in hardness at the sharp corners can be reduced by rounding off the edges. For a square piece of 20 mm thickness, with 3 mm fillet radius, this difference is reduced by 73 %. The model can be used for any metal-quenchant combination to obtain time-temperature data without the necessity of experimentation.

  8. Turbine blade unsteady aerodynamic loading and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, David Alan

    Stator indexing to minimize the unsteady aerodynamic loading of closely spaced airfoil rows in turbomachinery is a new technique for the passive control of flow-induced vibrations. This technique, along with the effects of steady blade loading, were studied by means of experiments performed in a two-stage low-speed research turbine. With the second vane row fixed, the inlet vane row was indexed to six positions over one vane-pitch cycle for a range of stage loadings. The aerodynamic forcing function to the first-stage rotor was measured in the rotating reference frame, with the resulting rotor blade unsteady aerodynamic response quantified by rotor blades instrumented with dynamic pressure transducers. Reductions in the unsteady lift magnitude were achieved at all turbine operating conditions, with attenuation ranging from 37% to 74% of the maximum unsteady lift. Additionally, in complementary experiments, the effects of stator indexing and steady blade loading on the unsteady heat transfer of the first- and second-stage rotors was studied for the design and highest blade loading conditions using platinum-film heat gages. The attenuation of unsteady heat transfer coefficient was blade-loading dependent and location dependent along the chord and span, ranging 10% to 90% of maximum. Due to the high degree of location dependence of attenuation, stator indexing is therefore best suited to minimize unsteady heat transfer in local hot spots of the blade rather than the blade as a whole.

  9. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Ueba, H.

    2010-11-01

    We study the heat transfer between graphene and amorphous SiO2. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and between the surfaces in the non-contact region. We consider the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies, and the heat transfer by the gas in the non-contact region. We find that the dominant contribution to the heat transfer results from the area of real contact, and the calculated value of the heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the value deduced from experimental data.

  11. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Bicanic, Kristopher; Tan, Hairen; Ouellette, Olivier; Sutherland, Brandon R; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Jo, Jea Woong; Liu, Mengxia; Sun, Bin; Liu, Min; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-04-12

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required for complete absorption of solar light. Here we show a new strategy to enhance light absorption in CQD solar cells by nanostructuring the CQD film itself at the back interface. We use two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to study quantitatively the light absorption enhancement in nanostructured back interfaces in CQD solar cells. We implement this experimentally by demonstrating a nanoimprint-transfer-patterning (NTP) process for the fabrication of nanostructured CQD solids with highly ordered patterns. We show that this approach enables a boost in the power conversion efficiency in CQD solar cells primarily due to an increase in short-circuit current density as a result of enhanced absorption through light-trapping.

  12. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of nanofluids in a plate heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Y H; Kim, D; Li, C G; Lee, J K; Hong, D S; Lee, J G; Lee, S H; Cho, Y H; Kim, S H

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the ZnO and Al2O3 nanofluids in a plate heat exchanger were studied. The experimental conditions were 100-500 Reynolds number and the respective volumetric flow rates. The working temperature of the heat exchanger was within 20-40 degrees C. The measured thermophysical properties, such as thermal conductivity and kinematic viscosity, were applied to the calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the plate heat exchanger employing the ZnO and Al2O3 nanofluids made through a two-step method. According to the Reynolds number, the overall heat transfer coefficient for 6 vol% Al2O3 increased to 30% because at the given viscosity and density of the nanofluids, they did not have the same flow rates. At a given volumetric flow rate, however, the performance did not improve. After the nanofluids were placed in the plate heat exchanger, the experimental results pertaining to nanofluid efficiency seemed inauspicious.

  13. Boiling heat transfer during flow of distilled water in an asymmetrically heated rectangular minichannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strąk, Kinga; Piasecka, Magdalena

    This paper discusses test results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel 1.7 mm in depth, 16 mm in width and 180 mm in length. The essential part of the experimental stand was a vertically oriented rectangular minichannel, which was heated asymmetrically with a plate made of Haynes-230 alloy. Distilled water was used as the cooling fluid. Changes in the temperature on the outer side of the heated plate in the central, axially symmetric part of the channel were measured using infrared thermography. Simultaneously, the other side of the heated plate in contact with the fluid was observed through a glass pane to identify the two-phase flow patterns. The one-dimensional model used for the heat transfer analysis took into account the heat flow direction, which was perpendicular to the direction of the fluid flow in the minichannel. The study involved determining local values of the heat transfer coefficient and generating boiling curves. The data for water were compared with the findings reported for the FC-72 fluid.

  14. Assessment of different radiative transfer equation solvers for combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yujia; Zhang, Xiaobing; Howell, John R.

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates the performance of the DOM, FVM, P1, SP3 and P3 methods for 2D combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer for an absorbing, emitting medium. The Monte Carlo method is used to solve the RTE coupled with the energy equation, and its results are used as benchmark solutions. Effects of the Rayleigh number, Planck number and optical thickness are considered, all covering several orders of magnitude. Temperature distributions, heat transfer rate and computational performance in terms of accuracy and computing time are presented and analyzed.

  15. Gas turbine blade film cooling and blade tip heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Shuye

    The detailed heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness distributions as well as the detailed coolant jet temperature profiles on the suction side of a gas turbine blade were measured using a transient liquid crystal image method and a traversing cold wire and thermocouple probe, respectively. The blade has only one row of film holes near the gill hole portion on the suction side of the blade. The hole geometries studied include standard cylindrical holes and holes with diffuser shaped exit portion (i.e. fanshaped holes and laidback fanshaped holes). Tests were performed on a five-blade linear cascade in a low-speed wind tunnel. The mainstream Reynolds number based on cascade exit velocity was 5.3 x 105. The upstream unsteady wakes were simulated using a spoke-wheel type wake generator. The wake Strouhal number was kept at 0 and 0.1. The coolant blowing ratio was varied from 0.4 to 1.2. Results show that both expanded holes have significantly improved thermal protection over the surface downstream of the ejection location, particularly at high blowing ratios. However, the expanded hole injections induce earlier boundary layer transition to turbulence and enhance heat transfer coefficients at the latter part of the blade suction surface. In general, the unsteady wake tends to reduce film cooling effectiveness. Measurements of detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions on a turbine blade tip were performed in the same wind tunnel facility as above. The central blade had a variable tip gap clearance. Measurements were made at three different tip gap clearances of about 1.1%, 2.1%, and 3% of the blade span. Static pressure distributions were measured in the blade mid-span and on the shroud surface. Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions were measured on the blade tip surface. Results show that reduced tip clearance leads to reduced heat transfer coefficient over the blade tip surface. Results also show that reduced tip clearance tends to

  16. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-tube Heat Exchangers with Winglets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of forced convection heat transfer in a narrow rectangular duct fitted with a circular tube and/or a delta-winglet pair. The duct was designed to simulate a single passage in a fin-tube heat exchanger. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique in which a heated airflow is suddenly introduced to the test section. High-resolution local fin-surface temperature distributions were obtained at several times after initiation of the transient using an imaging infrared camera. Corresponding local fin-surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were then calculated from a locally applied one-dimensional semi-infinite inversemore » heat conduction model. Heat transfer results were obtained over an airflow rate ranging from 1.51 x 10-3 to 14.0 x 10-3 kg/s. These flow rates correspond to a duct-height Reynolds number range of 670 – 6300 with a duct height of 1.106 cm and a duct width-toheight ratio, W/H, of 11.25. The test cylinder was sized such that the diameter-to-duct height ratio, D/H is 5. Results presented in this paper reveal visual and quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer distributions in the vicinity of a circular tube, a delta-winglet pair, and a combination of a circular tube and a delta-winglet pair. Comparisons of local and average heat transfer distributions for the circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Overall mean finsurface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement associated with the deployment of the winglets with the circular cylinder. At the lowest Reynolds numbers (which correspond to the laminar operating conditions of existing geothermal air-cooled condensers), the enhancement level is nearly a factor of two. At higher Reynolds numbers, the enhancement level is close to 50%.« less

  17. Mass and heat transfer in crushed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, J.F.; Straub, J.S.; Ott, L.L.

    1984-04-01

    Heat and mass transfer between gases and oil-shale particles are both important for all proposed retorting processes. Past studies of transfer in packed beds, which have disagreed substantially in their results, have nearly all been done with beds of regular particles of uniform size, whereas oil-shale retorting involves particles of diverse shapes and widely ranging sizes. To resolve these questions, we have made 349 runs in which we measured mass-transfer rates from naphthalene particles of diverse shapes buried in packed beds through which air was passed at room temperature. This technique permits calculation of the mass-transfer coefficient for each activemore » particle in the bed rather than, as in most past studies, for the bed as a whole. The data were analyzed in two ways: (1) by the traditional correlation of Colburn j/sub D/ vs Reynolds number and (2) by multiple regression of the mass-transfer coefficient on air rate, traditional correlation of Colburn j/sub D/ vs Reynolds number and (3) by multiple regression of the mass-transfer coefficient on air rate, sizes of active and inert particles, void fraction, and temperature. Principal findings are: (1) local Reynolds number should be based on active particle size rather than average size for the bed; (2) no appreciable differences were seen between shallow beds and deep ones; (3) mass transfer was 26% faster for spheres and lozenges buried in shale than for all-sphere beds; (4) orientation of lozenges in shale beds has little effect on mass-transfer rate; (5) a useful summarizing equation for either mass or heat transfer in shale beds is log j.epsilon = -.0747 - .6344 log Re + .0592 log/sup 2/Re where j = either j/sub D/ or j/sub H/, the Chilton-Colburn j-factors for mass and heat transfer, Re = the Reynolds number defined for packed beds, and epsilon = the void fraction in the bed. 12 references, 15 figures.« less

  18. The effect of expatriate knowledge transfer on subsidiaries’ performance: a moderating role of absorptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsawan, I. W. E.; Sanjaya, I. B.; Putra, I. K. M.; Sukarta, I. W.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between motivation and knowledge transfer to the subsidiaries performance and test the role of absorptive capacity as a moderating variable. The research uses quantitative design through questionnaires distribution with 5 Likert scales. The population frame is five-star hotel in Bali province, Indonesia which amounted to 63 units, the sample of research using proportional random sampling is 54 units and determined the distribution of questionnaires to 162 subsidiaries as the unit of analysis. The research model was built using the structural equation model and analyzed with smart pls- 3 software. The findings of the study revealed that subsidiaries motivation a significant effect on knowledge transfer, knowledge transfer a significant effect on subsidiaries performance, motivation a significant effect on subsidiaries performance and absorptive capacity moderated the relationship between knowledge transfer and subsidiaries performance. These findings suggest that subsidiaries and process of knowledge transfer through absorptive capacity play an important role, and that they have some impact on the subsidiaries performance.

  19. Material Selection for Microchannel Heatsink: Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uday Kumar, A.; Javed, Arshad; Dubey, Satish K.

    2018-04-01

    Heat dissipation during the operation of electronic devices causes rise in temperature, which demands an effective thermal management for their performance, life and reliability. Single phase liquid cooling in microchannels is an effective and proven technology for electronics cooling. However, due to the ongoing trends of miniaturization and developments in the microelectronics technology, the future needs of heat flux dissipation rate are expected to rise to 1 kW/cm2. Air cooled systems are unable to meet this demand. Hence, liquid cooled heatsinks are preferred. This paper presents conjugate heat transfer simulation of single phase flow in microchannels with application to electronic cooling. The numerical model is simulated for different materials: copper, aluminium and silicon as solid and water as liquid coolant. The performances of microchannel heatsink are analysed for mass flow rate range of 20-40 ml/min. The investigation has been carried out on same size of electronic chip and heat flux in order to have comparative study of different materials. This paper is divided into two sections: fabrication techniques and numerical simulation for different materials. In the first part, a brief discussion of fabrication techniques of microchannel heatsink have been presented. The second section presents conjugate heat transfer simulation and parametric investigation for different material microchannel heatsink. The presented study and findings are useful for selection of materials for microchannel heatsink.

  20. A Numerical Method for Incompressible Flow with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sa, Jong-Youb; Kwak, Dochan

    1997-01-01

    A numerical method for the convective heat transfer problem is developed for low speed flow at mild temperatures. A simplified energy equation is added to the incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation by using Boussinesq approximation to account for the buoyancy force. A pseudocompressibility method is used to solve the resulting set of equations for steady-state solutions in conjunction with an approximate factorization scheme. A Neumann-type pressure boundary condition is devised to account for the interaction between pressure and temperature terms, especially near a heated or cooled solid boundary. It is shown that the present method is capable of predicting the temperature field in an incompressible flow.

  1. Properties and heat transfer coefficients of four molten-salt high temperature heat transfer fluid candidates for concentrating solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. L.; Liu, W. R.; Xu, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Heat transfer fluid is one critical component for transferring and storing heat energy in concentrating solar power systems. Molten-salt mixtures can be used as high temperature heat transfer fluids because of their thermophysical properties. This paper studied the thermophysical properties of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic salt and three eutectic chloride salts NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2 with different compositions in the range of 450-600°C and 250-800°C, respectively. Properties including specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, density and viscosity were determined based on imperial correlations and compared at different operating temperatures. The heat transfer coefficients of using different eutectic salts as heat transfer fluids were also calculated and compared in their operating temperature range. It is concluded that all the four eutectic salts can satisfy the requirements of a high-temperature heat transfer fluid.

  2. Heat and mass transfer in vertical porous medium due to partial heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman Ahmed N., J.; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Ahamad, N. Ameer; Kamangar, Sarfaraz

    2018-05-01

    The investigation of heat and mass transfer adjacent to vertical plate subjected to partial heating of plate in multiple segments is carried out. A section of the plate is heated with isothermal temperature Th and the far away condition is maintained at ambient temperature T∞.. The vertical plate is maintained at constant concentration Ch as opposed to lowest concentration at far away condition. Finite element method is used and governing equations are converted into simple form of equations using Galerkin approach. The results are discussed in terms of contour plots. Study is carried out with respect to various physical parameters. The heat and mass transfer rate found to increase with increase in Rayleigh number.

  3. HEAP: Heat Energy Analysis Program, a computer model simulating solar receivers. [solving the heat transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.

  4. Thermophysical and heat transfer properties of phase change material candidate for waste heat transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizawa, Akihide; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Atsushi; Kamano, Hiroomi; Jozuka, Tetsuji; Senda, Takeshi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2008-05-01

    A waste heat transportation system trans-heat (TH) system is quite attractive that uses the latent heat of a phase change material (PCM). The purpose of this paper is to study the thermophysical properties of various sugars and sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) as PCMs for a practical TH system and the heat transfer property between PCM selected and heat transfer oil, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a heat storage tube. As a result, erythritol, with a large latent heat of 344 kJ/kg at melting point of 117°C, high decomposition point of 160°C and excellent chemical stability under repeated phase change cycles was found to be the best PCM among them for the practical TH system. In the heat release experiments between liquid erythritol and flowing cold oil, we observed foaming phenomena of encapsulated oil, in which oil droplet was coated by solidification of PCM.

  5. Experimental investigation of heat transfer coefficient of mini-channel PCHE (printed circuit heat exchanger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dohoon; Jin, Lingxue; Jung, WooSeok; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2018-06-01

    Heat transfer coefficient of a mini-channel printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) with counter-flow configuration is investigated. The PCHE used in the experiments is two layered (10 channels per layer) and has the hydraulic diameter of 1.83 mm. Experiments are conducted under various cryogenic heat transfer conditions: single-phase, boiling and condensation heat transfer. Heat transfer coefficients of each experiments are presented and compared with established correlations. In the case of the single-phase experiment, empiricial correlation of modified Dittus-Boelter correlation was proposed, which predicts the experimental results with 5% error at Reynolds number range from 8500 to 17,000. In the case of the boiling experiment, film boiling phenomenon occurred dominantly due to large temperature difference between the hot side and the cold side fluids. Empirical correlation is proposed which predicts experimental results with 20% error at Reynolds number range from 2100 to 2500. In the case of the condensation experiment, empirical correlation of modified Akers correlation was proposed, which predicts experimental results with 10% error at Reynolds number range from 3100 to 6200.

  6. Heat transfer and flow friction correlations for perforated plate matrix heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna Raju, L.; Kumar, S. Sunil; Chowdhury, K.; Nandi, T. K.

    2017-02-01

    Perforated plate matrix heat exchangers (MHE) are constructed of high conductivity perforated plates stacked alternately with low conductivity spacers. They are being increasingly used in many cryogenic applications including Claude cycle or Reversed Brayton cycle cryo-refrigerators and liquefiers. Design of high NTU (number of (heat) transfer unit) cryogenic MHEs requires accurate heat transfer coefficient and flow friction factor. Thermo-hydraulic behaviour of perforated plates strongly depends on the geometrical parameters. Existing correlations, however, are mostly expressed as functions of Reynolds number only. This causes, for a given configuration, significant variations in coefficients from one correlation to the other. In this paper we present heat transfer and flow friction correlations as functions of all geometrical and other controlling variables. A FluentTM based numerical model has been developed for heat transfer and pressure drop studies over a stack of alternately arranged perforated plates and spacers. The model is validated with the data from literature. Generalized correlations are obtained through regression analysis over a large number of computed data.

  7. Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2003-01-01

    Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

  8. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  9. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the

  10. Enhanced heat transfer characteristics of viscous liquid flows in a chevron plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Muley, A.; Manglik, R.M.; Metwally, H.M.

    1999-11-01

    Thermal processing and manufacturing in the chemical, foods, pharmaceutical, hygiene products, and biochemical industries invariably involve heating and cooling of highly viscous fluid media. These fluids tend to flow in the low Reynolds number regime, inherently have relatively low heat transfer coefficients, and are often temperature sensitive and prone to thermal degradation in the presence of large temperature differences. In recent times, plate heat exchangers (PHEs) have found increasing usage in such applications, primarily due to their features that promote enhanced heat transfer, and provide for the flexibility in altering their unit thermal size with ease, close approach temperature operation,more » and mitigation of thermal degradation of the process fluid. Here, steady-state heat transfer and pressure drop data for single-phase viscous fluid flows (2 {le} Re {le} 400) in a single-pass U-type counterflow plate heat exchanger (PHE) with chevron plates are presented. With vegetable oil as test fluid (130 {lt} Pr {lt} 290), three different plate arrangements are employed: two symmetric ({beta} = 30 deg/30 deg and 60 deg/60 deg) and one mixed ({beta} = 30 deg/60 deg). The effects of chevron angle {beta}, corrugation aspect ratio {gamma}, and flow conditions (Re, Pr, {mu}/{mu}{sub w}) on Nu and f characteristics of the PHE are delineated. The results show a rather complex influence of plate surface corrugations on the enhanced thermal-hydraulic behavior. Relative to the performance of equivalent flat-plate packs, chevron plates sustain up to 2.9 times higher heat transfer rates on a fixed geometry and constant pumping power basis, and require up to 48% less surface area for the fixed heat load and pressure drop constraint.« less

  11. Heat transfer in a micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet with Newtonian heating.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the steady flow of Micropolar fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer in the presence of Newtonian heating. The relevant partial differential equations have been reduced to ordinary differential equations. The reduced ordinary differential equation system has been numerically solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. Influence of different involved parameters on dimensionless velocity, microrotation and temperature is examined. An excellent agreement is found between the present and previous limiting results.

  12. Heat Transfer in Conical Corner and Short Superelliptical Transition Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local surface heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique on the surface of two circular-to-rectangular transition ducts. One has a transition cross section defined by conical corners (Duct 1) and the other by an elliptical equation with changing coefficients (Duct 2). Duct 1 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 0.75 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 1.5. Duct 2 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.0 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 2.9. Test results are reported for various inlet-diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.45 106 to 2.39 106 and two freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  13. Heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kays, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper contains a summarization of five years work on an investigation on heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer. Experimental results are presented for friction coefficient and Stanton number over a wide range of blowing and suction for the case of constant free-stream velocity, holding certain blowing parameters constant. The problem of the accelerated turbulent boundary layer with transpiration is considered, experimental data are presented and discussed, and theoretical models for solution of the momentum equation under these conditions are presented. Data on turbulent Prandtl number are presented so that solutions to the energy equation may be obtained. Some examples of boundary layer heat transfer and friction coefficient predictions are presented using one of the models discussed, employing a finite difference solution method.

  14. The role of heat transfer in strip casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Paretosh

    The last few years have witnessed rapid developments in the area of strip casting of steel. It involves smaller capital and operating cost, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and an opportunity to create newer products due to a faster solidification rate that leads to a different solidification structure. Thus, ample reasons for interest in the technology exist. At the same time, it needs to be determined if the properties of a strip cast product can match those of a conventional product and if it is possible to produce steel strip at high production rates. The first objective of this work was to characterize the quality, structure, and properties of strip cast material of different chemistries and cast at different machines, to identify the critical operating conditions that would result in the best properties. Determination of the possible range of properties was also aimed, given that the structure of the material is different from the traditional material. The second objective was to investigate ways to increase the rate of heat transfer in strip casting, as that will also enhance the productivity of a strip caster. It was also envisaged to see what effect a high rate of heat transfer will have on the properties of the strip cast material. Results from the strip cast material characterization that was carried out to achieve the first objective indicated that an effective control of heat transfer is very important to get the best properties. Samples that showed best properties had a uniform solidification structure consisting of columnar grains running from the edge of a strip to the centerline, indicating a good control of heat transfer, and their dendrite spacings pointed towards a relatively faster rate of cooling between the rolls. These findings indicated that heat transfer is a core issue in strip casting. The mechanism of increase in the rate of heat transfer in strip casting due to the presence of liquid oxide films at the metal-mold interface was examined

  15. A review of turbine blade tip heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Bunker, R S

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the publicly available knowledge base concerning turbine blade tip heat transfer, from the early fundamental research which laid the foundations of our knowledge, to current experimental and numerical studies utilizing engine-scaled blade cascades and turbine rigs. Focus is placed on high-pressure, high-temperature axial-turbine blade tips, which are prevalent in the majority of today's aircraft engines and power generating turbines. The state of our current understanding of turbine blade tip heat transfer is in the transitional phase between fundamentals supported by engine-based experience, and the ability to a priori correctly predict and efficiently design blade tips for engine service.

  16. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  17. Incorporation of Condensation Heat Transfer in a Flow Network Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Miranda; Majumdar, Alok; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the condensation of water vapor in a short tube. A numerical model of condensation heat transfer was incorporated in a flow network code. The flow network code that we have used in this paper is Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a finite volume based flow network code. Four different condensation models were presented in the paper. Soliman's correlation has been found to be the most stable in low flow rates which is of particular interest in this application. Another highlight of this investigation is conjugate or coupled heat transfer between solid or fluid. This work was done in support of NASA's International Space Station program.

  18. Survey and evaluation of multilayer insulation heat transfer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doenecke, Jochen

    About 40 papers treating multilayer insulations were studied and compared. Most of these papers present heat transfer measurements in addition to thermal analysis. Here the equations are given which are required for an evaluation of the measurements and in particular for comparisons. Equations are presented which are required to predict the influences of the packing density, temperatures, fraction of perforation area and interstitial pressure. The equation giving gas conductivity versus pressure is modified according to measurements. In space the interstitial pressure is usually below 0.01 Pa and the heat transfer can be expressed as the sum of a conductive and radiative term. The equation finally proposed for spacecraft permits to consider the influence of temperature, number of layers, blanket size and perforation area.

  19. Infrared Low Temperature Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Spuckler, C. M.; Lucci, B. L.; Camperchioli, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer distributions obtained using an infrared camera technique are described. Infrared thermography was used because noncontact surface temperature measurements were desired. Surface temperatures were 80 C or less. Tests were conducted in a three vane linear cascade, with inlet pressures between 0.14 and 1.02 atm., and exit Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.9, for turbulence intensities of approximately 1 and 10%. Measurements were taken on the vane suction side, and on the pressure side leading edge region. The designs for both the vane and test facility are discussed. The approach used to account for conduction within the vane is described. Midspan heat transfer distributions are given for the range of test conditions.

  20. Fem Formulation for Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Salman Ahmed, N. J.; Anjum Badruddin, Irfan

    2017-08-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium can be modelled using three partial differential equations namely, momentum equation, energy equation and mass diffusion. These three equations are coupled to each other by some common terms that turn the whole phenomenon into a complex problem with inter-dependable variables. The current article describes the finite element formulation of heat and mass transfer in porous medium with respect to Cartesian coordinates. The problem under study is formulated into algebraic form of equations by using Galerkin's method with the help of two-node linear triangular element having three nodes. The domain is meshed with smaller sized elements near the wall region and bigger size away from walls.

  1. Incompressible Navier-Stokes Computations with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Rogers, Stuart; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The existing pseudocompressibility method for the system of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is extended to heat transfer problems by including the energy equation. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. Both forced and natural convection problems are examined. Numerical results from turbulent reattaching flow behind a backward-facing step will be compared against experimental measurements for the forced convection case. The validity of Boussinesq approximation to simplify the buoyancy force term will be investigated. The natural convective flow structure generated by heat transfer in a vertical rectangular cavity will be studied. The numerical results will be compared by experimental measurements by Morrison and Tran.

  2. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  3. Charge-transfer optical absorption mechanism of DNA:Ag-nanocluster complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuinhos, R.; Lúcio, A. D.; Chacham, H.; Alexandre, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of DNA:Ag-nanoclusters complexes have been successfully applied experimentally in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind their optical activity remain unresolved. In this work, we present a time-dependent density functional study of optical absorption in DNA:Ag4. In all 23 different complexes investigated, we obtain new absorption peaks in the visible region that are not found in either the isolated Ag4 or isolated DNA base pairs. Absorption from red to green are predominantly of charge-transfer character, from the Ag4 to the DNA fragment, while absorption in the blue-violet range are mostly associated to electronic transitions of a mixed character, involving either DNA-Ag4 hybrid orbitals or intracluster orbitals. We also investigate the role of exchange-correlation functionals in the calculated optical spectra. Significant differences are observed between the calculations using the PBE functional (without exact exchange) and the CAM-B3LYP functional (which partly includes exact exchange). Specifically, we observe a tendency of charge-transfer excitations to involve purines bases, and the PBE spectra error is more pronounced in the complexes where the Ag cluster is bound to the purines. Finally, our results also highlight the importance of adding both the complementary base pair and the sugar-phosphate backbone in order to properly characterize the absorption spectrum of DNA:Ag complexes.

  4. Charge-transfer optical absorption mechanism of DNA:Ag-nanocluster complexes.

    PubMed

    Longuinhos, R; Lúcio, A D; Chacham, H; Alexandre, S S

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of DNA:Ag-nanoclusters complexes have been successfully applied experimentally in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind their optical activity remain unresolved. In this work, we present a time-dependent density functional study of optical absorption in DNA:Ag_{4}. In all 23 different complexes investigated, we obtain new absorption peaks in the visible region that are not found in either the isolated Ag_{4} or isolated DNA base pairs. Absorption from red to green are predominantly of charge-transfer character, from the Ag_{4} to the DNA fragment, while absorption in the blue-violet range are mostly associated to electronic transitions of a mixed character, involving either DNA-Ag_{4} hybrid orbitals or intracluster orbitals. We also investigate the role of exchange-correlation functionals in the calculated optical spectra. Significant differences are observed between the calculations using the PBE functional (without exact exchange) and the CAM-B3LYP functional (which partly includes exact exchange). Specifically, we observe a tendency of charge-transfer excitations to involve purines bases, and the PBE spectra error is more pronounced in the complexes where the Ag cluster is bound to the purines. Finally, our results also highlight the importance of adding both the complementary base pair and the sugar-phosphate backbone in order to properly characterize the absorption spectrum of DNA:Ag complexes.

  5. Heat Transfer Analysis of Localized Heat-Treatment for Grade 91 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jacob D.

    Many of the projects utilizing Grade 91 steel are large in scale, therefore it is necessary to assemble on site. The assembly of the major pieces requires welding in the assembly; this drastically changes the superior mechanical properties of Grade 91 steel that it was specifically developed for. Therefore, because of the adverse effects of welding on the mechanical properties of Grade 91, it is necessary to do a localized post weld heat treatment. As with most metallic materials grade 91 steel requires a very specific heat treatment process. This process includes a specific temperature and duration at that temperature to achieve the heat treatment desired. Extensive research has been done to determine the proper temperatures and duration to provide the proper microstructure for the superior mechanical properties that are inherent to Grade 91 steel. The welded sections are typically large structures that require local heat treatments and cannot be placed in an oven. The locations of these structures vary from indoors in a controlled environment to outdoors with unpredictable environments. These environments can be controlled somewhat, however in large part the surrounding conditions are unchangeable. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to accurately apply the surrounding conditions and geometries to a theoretical model in order to provide the proper requirements for the local heat treatment procedure. Within this requirement is the requirement to define unknowns used in the heat transfer equations so that accurate models can be produced and accurate results predicted. This study investigates experimentally and numerically the heat transfer and temperature fields of Grade 91 piping in a local heat treatment. The objective of this thesis research is to determine all of the needed heat transfer coefficients. The appropriate heat transfer coefficients are determined through the inverse heat conduction method utilizing a ceramic heat blanket. This will be done

  6. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced

  7. Dust as a Working Fluid for Heat Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The project known as "Dust as a Working Fluid" demonstrates the feasibility of a dust-based system for transferring heat radiatively into space for those space applications requiring higher efficiency, lower mass, and the need to operate in extreme vacuum and thermal environments - including operating in low or zero gravity conditions in which the dust can be conveyed much more easily than on Earth.

  8. Quasi-stationary phase change heat transfer on a fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, Tadeusz; Stokowiec, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents heat transfer research basing on a long fin with a circular cross-section. Its basis is welded to the pipe where the hot liquid paraffin, having a temperature of 70°C at the inflow, is pumped. The analyzed element is a recurrent part of a refrigeration's condenser, which is immersed in a paraffin. The temperature of the inflowing liquid is higher than the temperature of the melting process for paraffin, which allows the paraffin to liquify. The temperature at the basis of the rib changes and it is assumed that the heat transfer is quasi-stationary. On this basis the estimation of the mean value of heat transfer coefficient was conducted. The unsteady thermal field of the investigated system was registered with an infrared camera V50 produced by a Polish company Vigo System. This device is equipped with a microbolometric detector with 384 × 288 elements and the single pixel size 25 × 25 μm. Their thermal resolution is lower than 70 mK at a temperature of 30 °C. The camera operates at 7,5 ÷ 14 μm long-wave infrared radiation range. For a typical lens 35 mm the special resolution is 0.7 mrad. The result of the calculations is mean heat transfer coefficient for the considered time series. It is equal to 50 W m -2 K-1 and 47 W m -2 K-1 on the left and right side of the fin, respectively. The distance between the experimental data and the curve approximating the temperature distribution was assessed with the standard deviation, Sd = 0.04 K.

  9. Heat Transfer Experiments on a Pulse Detonation Driven Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    steps that need to take place before such a hybrid is successfully developed. PDEs obtain their increased efficiency by means of detonation , a pressure...combustion in the Brayton cycle. A PDE utilizes detonations , which offer much higher pressures at the site of fuel ignition, generating less...HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS ON A PULSE DETONATION DRIVEN COMBUSTOR THESIS Nicholas C. Longo, Captain, USAF AFIT/GAE/ENY/11-M18

  10. Transient Heat Transfer Properties in a Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    strategies for future systems. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation Engines, PDE , Heat Transfer 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...GUI Graphical User Interface NPS Naval Postgraduate School PDC Pulse Detonation Combustion PDE Pulse Detonation Engine RPL Rocket...a tactical missile with a Pulse Detonation Engine ( PDE ) and provide greater range for the same amount of fuel as compared to other current

  11. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  12. Fundamental heat transfer research for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, D. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven experts from industry and the universities joined 24 NASA Lewis staff members in an exchange of ideas on trends in aeropropulsion research and technology, basic analyses, computational analyses, basic experiments, near-engine environment experiments, fundamental fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and hot technology as related to gas turbine engines. The workshop proceedings described include pre-workshop input from participants, presentations of current activity by the Lewis staff, reports of the four working groups, and a workshop summary.

  13. A conjugate heat transfer procedure for gas turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Croce, G

    2001-05-01

    A conjugate heat transfer procedure, allowing for the use of different solvers on the solid and fluid domain(s), is presented. Information exchange between solid and fluid solution is limited to boundary condition values, and this exchange is carried out at any pseudo-time step. Global convergence rate of the procedure is, thus, of the same order of magnitude of stand-alone computations.

  14. High heat transfer oxidizer heat exchanger design and analysis. [RL10-2B engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, Thomas D.; Kanic, Paul G.; Peckham, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The RL10-2B engine, a derivative of the RL10, is capable of multimode thrust operation. This engine operates at two low thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), which is approximately 1 to 2% of full thrust, and pumped idle (PI), which is 10% of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient engine thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank pre-pressurization and maneuver thrust for low-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-2B engine during the low thrust operating modes can be accomplished by using a heat exchanger to supply gaseous oxygen to the propellant injector. The oxidizer heat exchanger (OHE) vaporizes the liquid oxygen using hydrogen as the energy source. The design, concept verification testing and analysis for such a heat exchanger is discussed. The design presented uses a high efficiency compact core to vaporize the oxygen, and in the self-contained unit, attenuates any pressure and flow oscillations which result from unstable boiling in the core. This approach is referred to as the high heat transfer design. An alternative approach which prevents unstable boiling of the oxygen by limiting the heat transfer is referred to as the low heat transfer design and is reported in Pratt & Whitney report FR-19135-2.

  15. Fluid mechanics and heat transfer spirally fluted tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, J. C.; Libby, P. A.; Yampolsky, J. S.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of this program is to develop both a qualitative and a quantitative understanding of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer mechanisms that underlie the measured performance of the spirally fluted tubes under development at General Atomic. The reason for the interest in the spirally fluted tubes is that results to date have indicated three advantages to this tubing concept: The fabrication technique of rolling flutes on strip and subsequently spiralling and simultaneously welding the strip to form tubing results in low fabrication costs, approximately equal to those of commercially welded tubing. The heat transfer coefficient is increased without a concomitant increase of the friction coefficient on the inside of the tube. In single-phase axial flow of water, the helical flutes continuously induce rotation of the flow both within and without the tube as a result of the effect of curvature. An increase in condensation heat transfer on the outside of the tube is achieved. In a vertical orientation with fluid condensing on the outside of the helically fluted tube, the flutes provide a channel for draining the condensed fluid.

  16. Passively Enhancing Convection Heat Transfer Around Cylinder Using Shrouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaha, Mohamed A.; Kahwaji, Ghalib Y.

    2017-11-01

    Natural convection heat transfer around a horizontal cylinder has received considerable attention through decades since it has been used in several viable applications. However, investigations into passively enhancement of the free convective cooling using external walls and chimney effect are lacking. In this work, a numerical simulation to study natural convection from a horizontal cylinder configured with semicircular shrouds with an expended chimney is employed. The fluid flow and convective heat transfer around the cylinder are modeled. The bare cylinder is also simulated for comparison. The present study are aimed at improving our understanding of the parameters advancing the free convective cooling of the cylinder implemented with the shrouds configuration. For validation, the present results for the bare tube are compared with data reported in the literature. The numerical simulations indicate that applying the shrouds configuration with extended chimney to a tube promotes the convection heat transfer from the cylinder. Such a method is less expensive and simpler in design than other configurations (e.g. utilizing extended surfaces, fins), making the technology more practical for industrial productions, especially for cooling systems. Dubai Silicon Oasis Authority (DSOA) Grants.

  17. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  18. Heat Transfer Through Dipolar Coupling: Sympathetic cooling without contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktel, Mehmet; Renklioglu, Basak; Tanatar, Bilal

    We consider two parallel layers of dipolar ultracold gases at different temperatures and calculate the heat transfer through dipolar coupling. As the simplest model we consider a system in which both of the layers contain two-dimensional spin-polarized Fermi gases. The effective interactions describing the correlation effects and screening between the dipoles are obtained by the Euler-Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation in a single layer. We use the random-phase approximation (RPA) for the interactions across the layers. We find that heat transfer through dipolar coupling becomes efficient when the layer separation is comparable to dipolar interaction length scale. We characterize the heat transfer by calculating the time constant for temperature equilibration between the layers and find that for the typical experimental parameter regime of dipolar molecules this is on the order of milliseconds. We generalize the initial model to Boson-Boson and Fermion-Boson layers and suggest that contactless sympathetic cooling may be used for ultracold dipolar molecules. Supported by TUBITAK 1002-116F030.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann heat transfer model for permeable voxels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gerald G.; Wu, Bisheng; Ahmed, Shakil

    2017-12-01

    We develop a gray-scale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model to study fluid flow combined with heat transfer for flow through porous media where voxels may be partially solid (or void). Heat transfer in rocks may lead to deformation, which in turn can modulate the fluid flow and so has significant contribution to rock permeability. The LB temperature field is compared to a finite difference solution of the continuum partial differential equations for fluid flow in a channel. Excellent quantitative agreement is found for both Poiseuille channel flow and Brinkman flow. The LB model is then applied to sample porous media such as packed beds and also more realistic sandstone rock sample, and both the convective and diffusive regimes are recovered when varying the thermal diffusivity. It is found that while the rock permeability can be comparatively small (order milli-Darcy), the temperature field can show significant variation depending on the thermal convection of the fluid. This LB method has significant advantages over other numerical methods such as finite and boundary element methods in dealing with coupled fluid flow and heat transfer in rocks which have irregular and nonsmooth pore spaces.

  20. Advanced k-epsilon modeling of heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Okey; Ames, Forrest E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes two approaches to low Reynolds-number k-epsilon turbulence modeling which formulate the eddy viscosity on the wall-normal component of turbulence and a length scale. The wall-normal component of turbulence is computed via integration of the energy spectrum based on the local dissipation rate and is bounded by the isotropic condition. The models account for the anisotropy of the dissipation and the reduced mixing length due to the high strain rates present in the near-wall region. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate were computed from the k and epsilon transport equations of Durbin. The models were tested for a wide range of turbulent flows and proved to be superior to other k-epsilon models, especially for nonequilibrium anisotropic flows. For the prediction of airfoil heat transfer, the models included a set of empirical correlations for predicting laminar-turbulent transition and laminar heat transfer augmentation due to the presence of freestream turbulence. The predictions of surface heat transfer were generally satisfactory.

  1. Heat transfer in turbulent magneto-fluid-mechanic pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, M.P.

    1975-12-01

    The ability to predict heat transfer in Magneto-Fluid-Mechanic flow is of importance in light of the development of MHD generators and the proposed development of thermonuclear reactors. In both cases heat transfer from (or to) a conducting fluid in the presence of a magnetic field plays an important part in the overall economics of the system. A semi-empirical analytical method is given for obtaining heat transfer coefficients in turbulent liquid metal pipe flow in the presence of a magnetic field aligned to the flow. The analysis was based on the Lykoudis turbulent transport model with the influence of a longitudinalmore » magnetic field included. The results are shown to be in agreement with available experimental values. Experimental velocity profiles in mercury for pipe flow in a transverse magnetic field were made at a Reynolds number of 315,000; for Hartmann numbers of 0, 92, 184, 369, and 1198; and at orientations of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees from the magnetic field. These results provide a basis for the determination of the effect of a transverse magnetic field on turbulent diffusivities.« less

  2. Heat Transfer on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-block, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute heat transfer coefficient on the blade, hub and shroud for a rotating high-pressure turbine blade with 172 film-cooling holes in eight rows. Film cooling effectiveness is also computed on the adiabatic blade. Wilcox's k-omega model is used for modeling the turbulence. Of the eight rows of holes, three are staggered on the shower-head with compound-angled holes. With so many holes on the blade it was somewhat of a challenge to get a good quality grid on and around the blade and in the tip clearance region. The final multi-block grid consists of 4784 elementary blocks which were merged into 276 super blocks. The viscous grid has over 2.2 million cells. Each hole exit, in its true oval shape, has 80 cells within it so that coolant velocity, temperature, k and omega distributions can be specified at these hole exits. It is found that for the given parameters, heat transfer coefficient on the cooled, isothermal blade is highest in the leading edge region and in the tip region. Also, the effectiveness over the cooled, adiabatic blade is the lowest in these regions. Results for an uncooled blade are also shown, providing a direct comparison with those for the cooled blade. Also, the heat transfer coefficient is much higher on the shroud as compared to that on the hub for both the cooled and the uncooled cases.

  3. Heat transfer mechanisms in poplar wood undergoing torrefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Idris O.; Mahmud, Shohel; Dutta, Animesh; Tasnim, Syeda Humaira

    2016-03-01

    Torrefaction, a thermal treatment process of biomass, has been proved to improve biomass combustible properties. Torrefaction is defined as a thermochemical process in reduced oxygen condition and at temperature range from 200 to 300 °C for shorter residence time whereby energy yield is maximized, can be a bridging technology that can lead the conventional system (e.g. coal-fired plants) towards a sustainable energy system. In efforts to develop a commercial operable torrefaction reactor, the present study examines the minimum input condition at which biomass is torrefied and explores the heat transfer mechanisms during torrefaction in poplar wood samples. The heat transfer through the wood sample is numerically modeled and analyzed. Each poplar wood is torrefied at temperature of 250, 270, and 300 °C. The experimental study shows that the 270 °C-treatment can be deduced as the optimal input condition for torrefaction of poplar wood. A good understanding of heat transfer mechanisms can facilitate the upscaling and downscaling of torrefaction process equipment to fit the feedstock input criteria and can help to develop treatment input specifications that can maximize process efficiency.

  4. Review and assessment of the HOST turbine heat transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the HOST Turbine Heat Transfer subproject were to obtain a better understanding of the physics of the aerothermodynamic phenomena occurring in high-performance gas turbine engines and to assess and improve the analytical methods used to predict the fluid dynamics and heat transfer phenomena. At the time the HOST project was initiated, an across-the-board improvement in turbine design technology was needed. Therefore, a building-block approach was utilized, with research ranging from the study of fundamental phenomena and analytical modeling to experiments in simulated real-engine environments. Experimental research accounted for 75 percent of the project, and analytical efforts accounted for approximately 25 percent. Extensive experimental datasets were created depicting the three-dimensional flow field, high free-stream turbulence, boundary-layer transition, blade tip region heat transfer, film cooling effects in a simulated engine environment, rough-wall cooling enhancement in a rotating passage, and rotor-stator interaction effects. In addition, analytical modeling of these phenomena was initiated using boundary-layer assumptions as well as Navier-Stokes solutions.

  5. Local Mass and Heat Transfer on a Turbine Blade Tip

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, P.; Goldstein, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Locmore » al mass and heat transfer measurements on a simulated high-pressure turbine blade-tip surface are conducted in a linear cascade with a nonmoving tip endwall, using a naphthalene sublimation technique. The effects of tip clearance (0.86–6.90% of chord) are investigated at various exit Reynolds numbers (4–7 × 10 5 ) and turbulence intensities (0.2 and 12.0%). The mass transfer on the tip surface is significant along its pressure edge at the smallest tip clearance. At the two largest tip clearances, the separation bubble on the tip surface can cover the whole width of the tip on the second half of the tip surface. The average mass-transfer rate is highest at a tip clearance of 1.72% of chord. The average mass-transfer rate on the tip surface is four and six times as high as on the suction and the pressure surface, respectively. A high mainstream turbulence level of 12.0% reduces average mass-transfer rates on the tip surface, while the higher mainstream Reynolds number generates higher local and average mass-transfer rates on the tip surface.« less

  6. Glove thermal insulation: local heat transfer measures and relevance.

    PubMed

    Sari, Hayet; Gartner, Maurice; Hoeft, Alain; Candas, Victor

    2004-09-01

    When exposed to cold, the hands need to be protected against heat loss not only in order to reduce thermal discomfort, but also to keep their efficiency. Although gloves are usually the most common protection, their thermal insulation is generally unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the heat losses from a gloved hand with a special interest in local variations. Using a calorimetric hand placed in a cold box, several types of gloves were tested. The results indicated that depending on the glove and on the area covered the heat loss reduction may vary from almost 60% to 90%. When the least efficient pair of gloves was excluded, heat exchange coefficients varied from 1.8 to 4.8 W/m2 per degrees C for the palm and from 4.2 to 6.2 W/m2 per degrees C for the back of the hand. The three medium fingers seemed to be equally treated, with a heat exchange coefficient variation of 6.3-9.0 W/m2 per degrees C. The thumb and the little finger, which require better insulation, exhibited higher local heat transfer coefficients of 8.3-12.7 W/m2 per degrees C. Some practical aspects are evoked.

  7. Coupling radiative heat transfer in participating media with other heat transfer modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tencer, John; Howell, John R.

    The common methods for finding the local radiative flux divergence in participating media through solution of the radiative transfer equation are outlined. The pros and cons of each method are discussed in terms of their speed, ability to handle spectral properties and scattering phenomena, as well as their accuracy in different ranges of media transport properties. The suitability of each method for inclusion in the energy equation to efficiently solve multi-mode thermal transfer problems is discussed. Lastly, remaining topics needing research are outlined.

  8. Coupling radiative heat transfer in participating media with other heat transfer modes

    DOE PAGES

    Tencer, John; Howell, John R.

    2015-09-28

    The common methods for finding the local radiative flux divergence in participating media through solution of the radiative transfer equation are outlined. The pros and cons of each method are discussed in terms of their speed, ability to handle spectral properties and scattering phenomena, as well as their accuracy in different ranges of media transport properties. The suitability of each method for inclusion in the energy equation to efficiently solve multi-mode thermal transfer problems is discussed. Lastly, remaining topics needing research are outlined.

  9. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  10. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  11. Interfacial heat transfer in multiphase molten pools with gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao Y Leon, Rosa Marina

    1998-12-01

    In the very unlikely event of a severe reactor accident involving core meltdown and pressure vessel failure, it is vital to identify the circumstances that would allow the molten core material to cool down and resolidify, bringing core debris to a safe and stable state. In this type of accident, the molten material which escapes from the reactor pressure vessel will accumulate as a molten pool in the reactor cavity below. To achieve coolability of the corium in this configuration it has been proposed to flood the cavity with water from above forming a layered structure where upward heat loss from the molten pool to the water will cause the core material to quench and solidify. The effectiveness of this procedure depends largely on the rate of upward heat loss as well as on the formation and stability of an upper crust. In this situation the molten pool becomes a three phase mixture: the solid and liquid slurry formed by the molten pool cooled to a temperature below the temperature of liquidus, agitated by the gases formed in the concrete ablation process. The present work quantifies the partition of the heat losses upward and downward considering the influence of the solid fraction in the pool and the viscosity effects, and the rate of heat loss through a solid layer. To complete this task a intermediate scale experimental test section has been designed and built at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, in which simulant materials are used to model the process of heat and mass transfer which involves the molten pool, the solid layer atop and the coolant layer above. The design includes volumetric heating, gas injection from the bottom and solids within the pool. New experimental results showing the heat transfer behavior for pools with different viscosities and various solid fractions are presented. The current results indicate a power split which favors heat transfer upward to the coolant simulant above by a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio. In addition, the power split is

  12. Hot steam transfer through heat protective clothing layers.

    PubMed

    Rossi, René; Indelicato, Eric; Bolli, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the transfer of steam through different types of textile layers as a function of sample parameters such as thickness and permeability. In order to simulate the human body, a cylinder releasing defined amounts of moisture was also used. The influence of sweating on heat and mass transfer was assessed. The results show that in general impermeable materials offer better protection against hot steam than semi-permeable ones. The transfer of steam depended on the water vapour permeability of the samples, but also on their thermal insulation and their thickness. Increasing the thickness of the samples with a spacer gave a larger increase in protection with the impermeable samples compared to semi-permeable materials. Measurements with pre-wetted samples showed a reduction in steam protection in any case. On the other hand, the measurements with a sweating cylinder showed a beneficial effect of sweating.

  13. Heat transfer in the coolant channel of a heat-exchanger system based on fluctuation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Guilera, A.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Rubi, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    We present a model to study the heat transfer in the coolant channel of a heat-exchanger system. Such a model introduces thermal fluctuations as well as external noises due to different mechanisms of heat interchange. A unified treatment of both kinds of noise is carried out. The stationary mean value of the channel temperature is studied, obtaining effective transport coefficients which affect the stability of the system. The effects of the different noises are visualized in a correlation length obtained from the temperature correlation function. The model has practical implications in the field of nuclear-reactor noise theory.

  14. Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2010-11-16

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in an opening in the subsurface formation. An insulated conductor is located in the conduit. A material is in the conduit between a portion of the insulated conductor and a portion of the conduit. The material may be a salt. The material is a fluid at operating temperature of the heating system. Heat transfers from the insulated conductor to the fluid, from the fluid to the conduit, and from the conduit to the subsurface formation.

  15. User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.

  16. Heat Transfer in Adhesively Bonded Honeycomb Core Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2001-01-01

    The Swann and Pittman semi-empirical relationship has been used as a standard in aerospace industry to predict the effective thermal conductivity of honeycomb core panels. Recent measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of an adhesively bonded titanium honeycomb core panel using three different techniques, two steady-state and one transient radiant step heating method, at four laboratories varied significantly from each other and from the Swann and Pittman predictions. Average differences between the measurements and the predictions varied between 17 and 61% in the temperature range of 300 to 500 K. In order to determine the correct values of the effective thermal conductivity and determine which set of the measurements or predictions were most accurate, the combined radiation and conduction heat transfer in the honeycomb core panel was modeled using a finite volume numerical formulation. The transient radiant step heating measurements provided the best agreement with the numerical results. It was found that a modification of the Swann and Pittman semi-empirical relationship which incorporated the facesheets and adhesive layers in the thermal model provided satisfactory results. Finally, a parametric study was conducted to investigate the influence of adhesive thickness and thermal conductivity on the overall heat transfer through the panel.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C.; Koch, J. D.; Davidson, D. F.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2002-03-01

    Spectrally resolved UV absorption cross-sections between 190 and 320 nm were measured in shock-heated CO 2 between 880 and 3050 K and H 2O between 1230 and 2860 K. Absorption spectra were acquired with 10 μs time resolution using a unique kinetic spectrograph, thereby enabling comparisons with time-dependent chemical kinetic modeling of post-shock thermal decomposition and chemical reactions. Although room temperature CO 2 is transparent (σ<10 -22 cm2) at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, hot CO 2 has significant absorption (σ>10 -20 cm2) extending to wavelengths longer than 300 nm. The temperature dependence of CO 2 absorption strongly suggests sharply increased transition probabilities from excited vibrational levels.

  18. High enthalpy arc-heated plasma flow diagnostics by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xin; Chen, Lianzhong; Zeng, Hui; Ou, Dongbin; Dong, Yonghui

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports the laser absorption measurements of atomic oxygen in the FD04 arc-heater at China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA). An atomic oxygen absorption line at 777.19 nm is utilizied for detecting the population of electronically excited oxygen atom in an air plasma flow. A scanned-wavelength direct absorption mode is used in this study. The laser is scanned in wavelength across the absorption feature at a rate of 200 Hz. Under the assumption of thermal equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements are obtained on one line-of-sight in the arc-heater. The good agreement of the temperature inferred from the sonic throat method suggests the equilibrium assumption is valid. These results illustrate the feasibility of the diode laser sensors for flow parameters in high enthalpy arc-heated facilities.

  19. Length Scale and Gravity Effects on Microgravity Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Boiling is a complex phenomenon where hydrodynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and interfacial phenomena are tightly interwoven. An understanding of boiling and critical heat flux in microgravity environments is of importance to space based hardware and processes such as heat exchange, cryogenic fuel storage and transportation, electronic cooling, and material processing due to the large amounts of heat that can be removed with relatively little increase in temperature. Although research in this area has been performed in the past four decades, the mechanisms by which heat is removed from surfaces in microgravity are still unclear. In earth gravity, buoyancy is an important parameter that affects boiling heat transfer through the rate at which bubbles are removed from the surface. A simple model describing the bubble departure size based on a quasistatic force balance between buoyancy and surface tension is given by the Fritz [I] relation: Bo(exp 1/2) = 0.0208 theta where Bo is the ratio between buoyancy and surface tension forces. For small, rapidly growing bubbles, inertia associated with the induced liquid motion can also cause bubble departure. In microgravity, the magnitude of effects related to natural convection and buoyancy are small and physical mechanisms normally masked by natural convection in earth gravity such as Marangoni convection can substantially influence the boiling and vapor bubble dynamics. CHF (critical heat transfer) is also substantially affected by microgravity. In 1 g environments, Bo has been used as a correlating parameter for CHF. Zuber's CHF model for an infinite horizontal surface assumes that vapor columns formed by the merger of bubbles become unstable due to a Helmholtz instability blocking the supply of liquid to the surface. The jets are spaced lambda(sub D) apart, where lambda(sub D) = 2pi square root of 3[(sigma)/(g(rho(sub l) - rho(sub v)](exp 1/2) = 2pi square root of 3 L Bo(exp -1/2) = square root of 3 lambda(sub c

  20. Heat-transfer analysis of double-pipe heat exchangers for indirect-cycle SCW NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thind, Harwinder

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. SuperCritical Water (SCW) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are expected to have much higher operating parameters compared to current NPPs, i.e., pressure of about 25 MPa and outlet temperature up to 625 °C. This study presents the heat transfer analysis of an intermediate Heat exchanger (HX) design for indirect-cycle concepts of Pressure-Tube (PT) and Pressure-Vessel (PV) SCWRs. Thermodynamic configurations with an intermediate HX gives a possibility to have a single-reheat option for PT and PV SCWRs without introducing steam-reheat channels into a reactor. Similar to the current CANDU and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPPs, steam generators separate the primary loop from the secondary loop. In this way, the primary loop can be completely enclosed in a reactor containment building. This study analyzes the heat transfer from a SCW primary (reactor) loop to a SCW and Super-Heated Steam (SHS) secondary (turbine) loop using a double-pipe intermediate HX. The numerical model is developed with MATLAB and NIST REFPROP software. Water from the primary loop flows through the inner pipe, and water from the secondary loop flows through the annulus in the counter direction of the double-pipe HX. The analysis on the double-pipe HX shows temperature and profiles of thermophysical properties along the heated length of the HX. It was found that the pseudocritical region has a significant effect on the temperature profiles and heat-transfer area of the HX. An analysis shows the effect of variation in pressure, temperature, mass flow rate, and pipe size on the pseudocritical region and the heat-transfer area of the HX. The results from the numerical model can be used to optimize the heat-transfer area of the HX. The higher pressure difference on the hot side and higher temperature difference between the hot and cold sides reduces the pseudocritical-region length, thus