Science.gov

Sample records for absorption index cai

  1. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  2. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  3. CAI Terminal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    The bewildering number of available terminals which are offered to CAI users presents a rather formidable problem of which one to choose. This article surveys what appear to be evolving standards for terminals. The usefulness of these terminals for CAI purposes is discussed, together with the best known prototype exhibiting the particular feature.…

  4. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  5. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  6. Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, K. M.; Thrush, E.; Airola, M.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D. M.; Boggs, N. T.; Thomas, M. E.; Carter, C. C.

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of biological agents can make it difficult to identify the important factors impacting scattering characteristics among variables such as size, shape, internal structure and biochemical composition, particle aggregation, and sample additives. This difficulty is exacerbated by the environmentally interactive nature of biological organisms. In particular, bacterial spores equilibrate with environmental humidity by absorption/desorption of water which can affect both the complex refractive index and the size/shape distributions of particles - two factors upon which scattering characteristics depend critically. Therefore accurate analysis of experimental data for determination of refractive index must take account of particle water content. First, spectral transmission measurements to determine visible refractive index done on suspensions of bacterial spores must account for water (or other solvent) uptake. Second, realistic calculations of aerosol scattering cross sections should consider effects of atmospheric humidity on particle water content, size and shape. In this work we demonstrate a method for determining refractive index of bacterial spores bacillus atropheus (BG), bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAs) which accounts for these effects. Visible index is found from transmission measurements on aqueous and DMSO suspensions of particles, using an anomalous diffraction approximation. A simplified version of the anomalous diffraction theory is used to eliminate the need for knowledge of particle size. Results using this approach indicate the technique can be useful in determining the visible refractive index of particles when size and shape distributions are not well known but fall within the region of validity of anomalous dispersion theory.

  7. Skill Specific CAI Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Roberta Z.; Fechter, Sharon Ahern

    Advantages of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for grammar-oriented exercises are considered, and a learning module to help the student prepare for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam is described. The exercises are modeled on the TOEFL exam: the student is given a sentence, one part of which is incorrect and is asked to…

  8. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  9. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

  10. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Woodruff, Steven D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

  11. Zr Isotope Systematics of Allende CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, P.; Romaniello, S. J.; Brennecka, G. A.; Williams, C. D.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report high precision Zr isotopic measurements of CAIs from Allende CV3 meteorite. Our results indicate a uniform Zr isotopic composition in the CAI forming region, with enrichment in r-process isotope 96Zr.

  12. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  13. Spectral absorption index in hyperspectral image analysis for predicting moisture contents in pork longissimus dorsi muscles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin

    2016-04-15

    Spectral absorption index was proposed to extract the morphological features of the spectral curves in pork meat samples (longissimus dorsi) under the conditions including fresh, frozen-thawed, heated-dehydrated and brined-dehydrated. Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used for calibrating both the spectral reflectance and absorbance values. The absorption values were better than the reflectance values and the calibrated spectra by MSC were better than the raw and SG smoothing corrected spectra in building moisture content predictive models. The optimized partial least square regression (PLSR) model attained good results with the MSC calibrated spectral absorption values based on the spectral absorption index features (R(2)P=0.952, RMSEP=1.396) and the optimal wavelengths selected by regression coefficients (R(2)P=0.966, RMSEP=0.855), respectively. The models proved spectral absorption index was promising in spectral analysis to predict moisture content in pork samples using HSI techniques for the first time.

  14. Photoinduced absorption and refractive-index induction in phosphosilicate fibres by radiation at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rybaltovsky, A A; Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G; Lanin, Aleksei V; Semenov, S L; Dianov, Evgenii M; Gur'yanov, A N; Khopin, V F

    2007-04-30

    The photoinduced room-temperature-stable increase in the refractive index by {approx}5x10{sup -4} at a wavelength of 1.55 {mu}m was observed in phosphosilicate fibres without their preliminary loading with molecular hydrogen. It is shown that irradiation of preliminary hydrogen-loaded fibres by an ArF laser at 193 nm enhances the efficiency of refractive-index induction by an order of magnitude. The induced-absorption spectra of preforms with a phosphosilicate glass core and optical fibres fabricated from them are studied in a broad spectral range from 150 to 5000 nm. The intense induced-absorption band ({approx}800 cm{sup -1}) at 180 nm is found, which strongly affects the formation of the induced refractive index. The quantum-chemical model of a defect related to this band is proposed. (optical fibres)

  15. Specific absorption rate analysis of broadband mobile antenna with negative index metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial-inspired printed mobile wireless antenna that can support most mobile applications such as GSM, UMTS, Bluetooth and WLAN frequency bands. The antenna consists of a semi-circular patch, a 50Ω microstrip feed line and metamaterial ground plane. The antenna occupies a very small space of 37 × 47 × 0.508 mm3, making it suitable for mobile wireless application. The perceptible novelty shown in this proposed antenna is that reduction of specific absorption rate using the negative index metamaterial ground plane. The proposed antenna reduced 72.11 and 75.53 % of specific absorption rate at 1.8 and 2.4 GHz, respectively.

  16. Index of Refraction and Absorption Coefficient Spectra of Paratellurite in the Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unferdorben, Márta; Buzády, Andrea; Hebling, János; Kiss, Krisztián; Hajdara, Ivett; Kovács, László; Péter, Ágnes; Pálfalvi, László

    2016-07-01

    Index of refraction and absorption coefficient spectra of pure paratellurite (α-TeO2) crystal as a potential material for terahertz (THz) applications were determined in the 0.25-2 THz frequency range at room temperature by THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The investigation was performed with beam polarization both parallel (extraordinary polarization) and perpendicular (ordinary polarization) to the optical axis [001] of the crystal. Similarly to the visible spectral range, positive birefringence was observed in the THz range as well. It was shown that the values of the refractive index for extraordinary polarization are higher and show significantly larger dispersion than for the ordinary one. The absorption coefficient values are also larger for extraordinary polarization. The measured values were fitted by theoretical curves derived from the complex dielectric function containing independent terms of Lorentz oscillators due to phonon-polariton resonances. The results are compared with earlier publications, and the observed significant discrepancies are discussed.

  17. Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chun; Huang, Wenqian Ronny; Ahr, Frederike; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-11-16

    Optical rectification with tilted pulse fronts in lithium niobate crystals is one of the most promising methods to generate terahertz (THz) radiation. In order to achieve higher optical-to-THz energy efficiency, it is necessary to cryogenically cool the crystal not only to decrease the linear phonon absorption for the generated THz wave but also to lengthen the effective interaction length between infrared pump pulses and THz waves. However, the refractive index of lithium niobate crystal at lower temperature is not the same as that at room temperature, resulting in the necessity to re-optimize or even re-build the tilted pulse front setup. Here, we performed a temperature dependent measurement of refractive index and absorption coefficient on a 6.0 mol% MgO-doped congruent lithium niobate wafer by using a THz time-domain spectrometer (THz-TDS). When the crystal temperature was decreased from 300 K to 50 K, the refractive index of the crystal in the extraordinary polarization decreased from 5.05 to 4.88 at 0.4 THz, resulting in ~1° change for the tilt angle inside the lithium niobate crystal. The angle of incidence on the grating for the tilted pulse front setup at 1030 nm with demagnification factor of -0.5 needs to be changed by 3°. The absorption coefficient decreased by 60% at 0.4 THz. These results are crucial for designing an optimum tilted pulse front setup based on lithium niobate crystals.

  18. Aerosol ultraviolet absorption experiment (2002 to 2004), part 2: absorption optical thickness, refractive index, and single scattering albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Herman, Jay R.; Slusser, James R.; Scott, Gwendolyn R.; Labow, Gordon J.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Eck, Tom; Doubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent N.

    2005-04-01

    Compared to the visible spectral region, very little is known about aerosol absorption in the UV. Without such information it is impossible to quantify the causes of the observed discrepancy between modeled and measured UV irradiances and photolysis rates. We report results of a 17-month aerosol column absorption monitoring experiment conducted in Greenbelt, Maryland, where the imaginary part of effective refractive index k was inferred from the measurements of direct and diffuse atmospheric transmittances by a UV-multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer [UV-MFRSR, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) UV-B Monitoring and Research Network]. Colocated ancillary measurements of aerosol effective particle size distribution and refractive index in the visible wavelengths [by CIMEL sun-sky radiometers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)], column ozone, surface pressure, and albedo constrain the forward radiative transfer model input, so that a unique solution for k is obtained independently in each UV-MFRSR spectral channel. Inferred values of k are systematically larger in the UV than in the visible wavelengths. The inferred k values enable calculation of the single scattering albedo ω, which is compared with AERONET inversions in the visible wavelengths. On cloud-free days with high aerosol loadings [τext(440)>0.4], ω is systematically lower at 368 nm (<ω368>=0.94) than at 440 nm (<ω440>=0.96), however, the mean ω differences (0.02) are within expected uncertainties of ω retrievals (~0.03). The inferred ω is even lower at shorter UV wavelengths (<ω325>~<ω332>=0.92), which might suggest the presence of selectively UV absorbing aerosols. We also find that decreases with decrease in aerosol loading. This could be due to real changes in the average aerosol composition between summer and winter months at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) site.

  19. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  20. Implications of Windowing Techniques for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heines, Jesse M.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    This paper discusses the use of a technique called windowing in computer assisted instruction to allow independent control of functional areas in complex CAI displays and simultaneous display of output from a running computer program and coordinated instructional material. Two obstacles to widespread use of CAI in computer science courses are…

  1. CAI: Its Cost and Its Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Israel; Rosenbloom, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes and evaluates costs of hardware, software, training, and maintenance for computer assisted instruction (CAI) as they relate to total system cost. An example of an educational system provides an illustration of CAI cost analysis. Future developments, cost effectiveness, affordability, and applications in public and private environments…

  2. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, John E.

    After six years of research in computer assisted instruction (CAI) using PLATO III, a decision was made at the University of Illinois to develop a larger system as a national CAI resource. This document describes the design specifications and problems in the development of PLATO IV, a system which is capable of accomodating up to 4,000 terminals…

  3. Economic Evaluation of CAI in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    This is an introductory presentation of economic evaluation methods for assessing computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Six different costing techniques, including cost effectiveness, are reviewed. Cost effectiveness is then examined in terms of its usefulness for evaluating CAI. A simplified system for cost effectiveness evaluation is presented…

  4. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  5. Photosynthetic bark: Use of chlorophyll absorption continuum index to estimate Boswellia papyrifera bark chlorophyll content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans; Schlerf, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Quantification of chlorophyll content provides useful insight into the physiological performance of plants. Several leaf chlorophyll estimation techniques, using hyperspectral instruments, are available. However, to our knowledge, a non-destructive bark chlorophyll estimation technique is not available. We set out to assess Boswellia papyrifera tree bark chlorophyll content and to provide an appropriate bark chlorophyll estimation technique using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. In contrast to the leaves, the bark of B. papyrifera has several outer layers masking the inner photosynthetic bark layer. Thus, our interest includes understanding how much light energy is transmitted to the photosynthetic inner bark and to what extent the inner photosynthetic bark chlorophyll activity could be remotely sensed during both the wet and the dry season. In this study, chlorophyll estimation using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index (CACI) yielded a higher R2 (0.87) than others indices and methods, such as the use of single band, simple ratios, normalized differences, and conventional red edge position (REP) based estimation techniques. The chlorophyll absorption continuum index approach considers the increase or widening in area of the chlorophyll absorption region, attributed to high concentrations of chlorophyll causing spectral shifts in both the yellow and the red edge. During the wet season B. papyrifera trees contain more bark layers than during the dry season. Having less bark layers during the dry season (leaf off condition) is an advantage for the plants as then their inner photosynthetic bark is more exposed to light, enabling them to trap light energy. It is concluded that B. papyrifera bark chlorophyll content can be reliably estimated using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index analysis. Further research on the use of bark signatures is recommended, in order to discriminate the deciduous B. papyrifera from other species during the dry season.

  6. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  7. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  8. Zero absorption and a large negative refractive index in a left-handed four-level atomic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuncai; Liu, Zhengdong; Wu, Qixuan

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated three external fields interacting with the four-level atomic system described by the density-matrix approach. The atomic system exhibits left-handedness with zero absorption and large negative refractive index. Varying the parameters of the three external fields, the properties of zero absorption and large negative refractive index from the atomic system remain unvarying. Our scheme proposes an approach to obtain a negative refractive medium with zero absorption. The zero absorption property of the atomic system may be used to amplify the evanescent waves that have been lost in the imaging by traditional lenses, and a slab fabricated by the left-handed atomic system may be an ideal candidate for designing perfect lenses.

  9. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  10. Polarization-dependent optical absorption of MoS₂ for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanxue; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    As a noncentrosymmetric crystal with spin-polarized band structure, MoS2 nanomaterials have attracts increasing attention in many areas such as lithium ion batteries, flexible electronic devices, photoluminescence and valleytronics. The investigation of MoS2 is mainly focused on the electronics and spintronics instead of optics, which restrict its applications as key elements of photonics. In this work, we demonstrate the first observation of the polarization-dependent optical absorption of the MoS2 thin film, which is integrated onto an optical waveguide device. With this feature, a novel optical sensor combining MoS2 thin-film and a microfluidic structure has been constituted to achieve the sensitive monitoring of refractive index. Our work indicates the MoS2 thin film as a complementary material to graphene for the optical polarizer in the visible light range, and explores a new application direction of MoS2 nanomaterials for the construction of photonic circuits. PMID:25516116

  11. CAI in Music Theory: Paradigms: Potential: Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, W. Earle; Hultberg, Mary Lou

    Computer-assisted instructional programs have been developed at the State University College at Potsdam, New York, to teach basic concepts of music theory. The Computer-based Learning Experiences in Music Fundamentals (CLEF) project has spawned computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs which use an IBM 360/30 configuration with 2741 terminals…

  12. Individual Differences in Learner Controlled CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Wilson A.; And Others

    Two assumptions in support of learner-controlled computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are that (1) instruction administered under learner control will be less aversive than if administered under program control, and (2) the student is sufficiently aware of his learning state to make, in most instances, his own instructional decisions. Some 130…

  13. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Evaluation Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    The role of evaluation in the development of evolutionary procedures is briefly described and highlighted. Four aspects of evaluation technique which distinguish efficient from inefficient CAI programs are identified. Evaluation of products is also characterized. Findings of a continuing survey of students via questionnaire as to the value of…

  14. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  15. Man-Computer Communications and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A variety of direct and indirect instructional activities during the last ten years have employed computers. Within Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs, the following broad classes of instructional strategies have been generally accepted: tutorial, drill and practice, review, testing, remediation and diagnosis, problem solving, and…

  16. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.

    The history of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courseware is described with specific reference to the PLATO system. Among the goals of courseware authors are finding better ways to develop the cognitive skills of students, to shift some of the burden of routine classroom instruction away from the teacher so that more class time can be spent in…

  17. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  18. Analyzing the effect of absorption and refractive index on image formation in high numerical aperture transmission microscopy of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Ryan L.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    Transmission bright-field microscopy is the clinical mainstay for disease diagnosis where image contrast is provided by absorptive and refractive index differences between tissue and the surrounding media. Different microscopy techniques often assume one of the two contrast mechanisms is negligible as a means to better understand the tissue scattering processes. This particular work provides better understanding of the role of refractive index and absorption within Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy (OPTM) through the development of a generalized computational model based upon the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The model mimics OPTM by simulating axial scanning of the objective focal plane through the cell to produce projection images. These projection images, acquired from circumferential positions around the cell, are reconstructed into isometric three-dimensional images using the filtered backprojection normally employed in Computed Tomography (CT). The model provides a platform to analyze all aspects of bright-field microscopes, such as the degree of refractive index matching and the numerical aperture, which can be varied from air-immersion to high NA oil-immersion. In this preliminary work, the model is used to understand the effects of absorption and refraction on image formation using micro-shells and idealized nuclei. Analysis of absorption and refractive index separately provides the opportunity to better assess their role together as a complex refractive index for improved interpretation of bright-field scattering, essential for OPTM image reconstruction. This simulation, as well as ones in the future looking at other effects, will be used to optimize OPTM imaging parameters and triage efforts to further improve the overall system design.

  19. Phase-dependent high refractive index without absorption in a four-level inverted-Y atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Qiang Zeng; Fu-Ti Liu; Yu-Ping Wang; Zeng-Hui Gao

    2015-01-31

    We consider a closed four-level inverted-Y system in the presence and the absence of a microwave field. It is found that due to the quantum coherence between the two lower levels, either induced by the spontaneous decay or by the microwave field, the refraction – absorption properties of the system can be modulated by controlling the relative phase of the applied fields in both driven ways. In particular, by properly setting the values of the relative phase, the desirable high index of refraction without absorption can be achieved. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Chiral-index resolved length mapping of carbon nanotubes in solution using electric-field induced differential absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenshan; Hennrich, Frank; Flavel, Benjamin S.; Kappes, Manfred M.; Krupke, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    The length of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is an important metric for the integration of SWCNTs into devices and for the performance of SWCNT-based electronic or optoelectronic applications. In this work we propose a rather simple method based on electric-field induced differential absorption spectroscopy to measure the chiral-index-resolved average length of SWCNTs in dispersions. The method takes advantage of the electric-field induced length-dependent dipole moment of nanotubes and has been verified and calibrated by atomic force microscopy. This method not only provides a low cost, in situ approach for length measurements of SWCNTs in dispersion, but due to the sensitivity of the method to the SWCNT chiral index, the chiral index dependent average length of fractions obtained by chromatographic sorting can also be derived. Also, the determination of the chiral-index resolved length distribution seems to be possible using this method.

  1. Chiral-index resolved length mapping of carbon nanotubes in solution using electric-field induced differential absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenshan; Hennrich, Frank; Flavel, Benjamin S; Kappes, Manfred M; Krupke, Ralph

    2016-09-16

    The length of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is an important metric for the integration of SWCNTs into devices and for the performance of SWCNT-based electronic or optoelectronic applications. In this work we propose a rather simple method based on electric-field induced differential absorption spectroscopy to measure the chiral-index-resolved average length of SWCNTs in dispersions. The method takes advantage of the electric-field induced length-dependent dipole moment of nanotubes and has been verified and calibrated by atomic force microscopy. This method not only provides a low cost, in situ approach for length measurements of SWCNTs in dispersion, but due to the sensitivity of the method to the SWCNT chiral index, the chiral index dependent average length of fractions obtained by chromatographic sorting can also be derived. Also, the determination of the chiral-index resolved length distribution seems to be possible using this method.

  2. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match. PMID:26821030

  3. Kramers-Kronig analysis of molecular evanescent-wave absorption spectra obtained by multimode step-index optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, R A; Ruddy, V P; Hieftje, G M

    1996-07-20

    Spectral distortions that arise in evanescent-wave absorption spectra obtained with multimode step-index optical fibers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis is performed by the application of Kramers-Kronig relations to the real and the imaginary parts of the complex refractive index of an absorbing external medium. It is demonstrated that even when the extinction coefficient of the external medium is small, anomalous dispersion of that medium in the vicinity of an absorption band must be considered. Deviations from Beer's law, band distortions, and shifts in peak position are quantified theoretically as a function of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of the external medium; the effect of bandwidth for both Lorentzian and Gaussian bands is also evaluated. Numerical simulations are performed for two types of sensing sections in commonly used plastic-clad silica optical fibers. These sensors include an unclad fiber in contact with a lower-index absorbing liquid and a fiber with the original cladding modified with an absorbing species. The numerical results compare favorably with those found experimentally with these types of sensing sections.

  4. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match. PMID:26821030

  5. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match.

  6. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  7. Influence of refractive index and solar concentration on optical power absorption in slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    The optical power absorbed by a slab at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator is calculated. The calculations are plotted versus maximum angle of incidence of irradiation (which corresponds to solar concentration) with absorption coefficient as a parameter for several different indices of refraction that represent real materials.

  8. Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. II - Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A hemispherical radiometer has been used to obtain spectrally narrow-band measurements of the downward hemispheric diffuse and total (global) flux densities at varying solar zenith angles on 14 days over Tucson. Data are presented which illustrate the effects of temporally varying atmospheric conditions as well as clear stable conditions on the ratio of the diffuse to direct solar radiation at the earth's surface. The ground albedo and the effective imaginary term of the complex refractive index of atmospheric particulates are derived from the diffuse-direct ratio measurements on seven clear stable days at two wavelengths using the statistical procedure described by King and Herman (1979). Results indicate that the downwelling diffuse radiation field in the midvisible region in Tucson can be adequately described by Mie scattering theory if the ground albedo is 0.279 + or - 0.100 and the index of absorption is 0.0306 + or - 0.0082.

  9. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (<22.5 kg/m(2)) and high BMI (>27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces.

  10. Computer System Requirements for CAI/CMI Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Robert J.

    This paper oriented for new researchers entering the field of CAI research discusses the research experience in this area, outlines some of the important computer requirements of CAI research, and proposes a conservative computer development strategy to meet those requirements. The development of PLATO and TICCIT are described as examples of the…

  11. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; Perry, James

    This final report summarizes research findings and presents a model for generative computer assisted instruction (CAI) with respect to its usefulness in the classroom environment. Methods used to individualize instruction, and the evolution of a procedure used to select a concept for presentation to a student with the generative CAI system are…

  12. A CAI Study of Learning Geologic Time and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James P.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Twenty-two college students in science education were given an adjunctive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program by means of typewriter consoles and computer-controlled colored slide presentations of critical information. Students were pretested, told how to respond at the student console, taught by the Harvard CAI System, and posttested. The…

  13. A Pilot CAI Scheme for the Malaysian Secondary Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. Kanakaratnam; Rao, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-phase computer aided instruction (CAI) scheme for Malaysian Secondary Schools and Matriculation Centres attached to local universities is presented as an aid for improving instruction and for solving some problems presently faced by the Malaysian Secondary Education System. Some approaches for successful implementation of a CAI scheme are…

  14. Fifteen Years of Teaching Elementary Applied Statistics Using CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) course in applied statistics has been taught for 15 years in the Faculty of Education at the University of Manitoba. The CAI courseware was originally created to be the primary mode of instruction for the course, and it is very extensive in terms of content and style of presentation. The course includes 14…

  15. A CAI Approach to Teaching an Office Technology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the difference between computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and traditional lecture instruction in teaching an office technology course. The effects of CAI on student achievement and student attitudes is discussed, hypotheses tested and pretests and posttests are described, and further research needs are suggested.…

  16. The Effectiveness of CAI Designed for the Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Nancy S.

    Two pilot studies probed effectiveness of linguistically controlled, highly visual computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for English grammar instruction with hearing-impaired high school students (N=29 in the first study and N=71 in the second). Results from the first study suggested that state-of-the-art CAI designed specifically for use with this…

  17. Quantum-interference and the concentration of Er3+ ion effect on left-handedness with zero absorption and large negative refractive index in Er3+:YAG crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huifang; Ren, Haihong; Yan, Xiaona; Bai, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    The electromagnetically induced left-handedness with zero absorption and large negative refractive index was investigated in a solid Er3+:YAG crystal with a four-level system proposed for an atomic medium. It was found that the frequency region with simultaneous negative permittivity and negative permeability, the zero absorption intervals, and the maximum values of the negative refractive index can be adjusted by changing the signal field, the coherent field, as well as the concentration of Er3+ ion in crystal. It is shown that wider zero absorption intervals with a higher index of refraction can be easily obtained when the signal field is only off resonance. The slab fabricated by the left-handed solid medium Er3+:YAG crystal with zero absorption may be a practical candidate for designing perfect lenses.

  18. Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. I - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.; Herman, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    A statistical technique is developed for inferring the optimum values of the ground albedo and the effective imaginary term of the complex refractive index of atmospheric particulates. The procedure compares measurements of the ratio of the hemispheric diffuse to directly transmitted solar flux density at the earth's surface with radiative transfer computations of the same as suggested by Herman et al. (1975). A detailed study is presented which shows the extent to which the ratio of diffuse to direct solar radiation is sensitive to many of the radiative transfer parameters. Results indicate that the optical depth and size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles are the two parameters which uniquely specify the radiation field to the point where ground albedo and index of absorption can be inferred. Varying the real part of the complex refractive index of atmospheric particulates as well as their vertical distribution is found to have a negligible effect on the diffuse-direct ratio. The statistical procedure utilizes a semi-analytic gradient search method from least-squares theory and includes a detailed error analysis.

  19. New Titanium Isotope Data for Allende and Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, Ingo; Schönbächler, Maria; Krähenbühl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-01

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., 50Ti/47Ti, 48Ti/47Ti, and 46Ti/47Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in 50Ti/47Ti and 46Ti/47Ti and are slightly depleted in 48Ti/47Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional 50Ti excess of ~8ɛ relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in 50Ti by ~2ɛ relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of ~10ɛ. This additional 50Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in 62Ni and 96Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the measured data.

  20. CAI System of Obunsha Co., Ltd. Using CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todokoro, Shigeru; Mukai, Yoshihiro

    This paper introduces the present status of R & D on CAI teaching materials in Obunsha Co., Ltd. Characteristics of CAI using CD-ROM as well as Culture-in CAI Teaching Materials System for junior high school English are described. The system consists of CD-ROM driver XM-2000 and Pasopia 700 of Toshiba Corporation having both features of CD-ROM and FD. CD-ROM stores vast amount of voice data while FD does text and graphics data. It is a frame-oriented mode system enabling to raise learning effect.

  1. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  2. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for Teaching Students To Read English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard A.

    In a review of research on computer assisted instruction (CAI) related to reading, evidence collected provides tentative conclusions about CAI effectiveness. CAI was effective as an instructional medium in the surveyed studies. In a number of instances, CAI groups achieved higher scores than the control groups. Some studies indicated that CAI…

  3. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  4. Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in layered WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films induced by two-photon absorption.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ningning; Li, Yuanxin; Zhang, Saifeng; McEvoy, Niall; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Long; Duesberg, Georg S; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Both the nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction properties of WS2 and WSe2 semiconductor films have been characterized by using Z-scan technique with femtosecond pulses at the wavelength of 1040 nm. It is found that these films have two-photon absorption response with the nonlinear absorption coefficient of ∼103  cm GW-1, and a dispersion of nonlinear refractive index in the WS2 films that translated from positive in the monolayer to negative in bulk materials. PMID:27607941

  5. Simulations of the Aerosol Index and the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth and Comparisons with OMI Retrievals During ARCTAS-2008 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    We have computed the Aerosol Index (AI) at 354 nm, useful for observing the presence of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere, from aerosol simulations conducted with the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running online the GEOS-5 Atmospheric GCM. The model simulates five aerosol types: dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate aerosol and can be run in replay or data assimilation modes. In the assimilation mode, information's provided by the space-based MODIS and MISR sensors constrains the model aerosol state. Aerosol optical properties are then derived from the simulated mass concentration and the Al is determined at the OMI footprint using the radiative transfer code VLIDORT. In parallel, model derived Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) is compared with OMI retrievals. We have focused our study during ARCTAS (June - July 2008), a period with a good sampling of dust and biomass burning events. Our ultimate goal is to use OMI measurements as independent validation for our MODIS/MISR assimilation. Towards this goal we document the limitation of OMI aerosol absorption measurements on a global scale, in particular sensitivity to aerosol vertical profile and cloud contamination effects, deriving the appropriate averaging kernels. More specifically, model simulated (full) column integrated AAOD is compared with model derived Al, this way identifying those regions and conditions under which OMI cannot detect absorbing aerosols. Making use of ATrain cloud measurements from MODIS, C1oudSat and CALIPSO we also investigate the global impact on clouds on OMI derived Al, and the extent to which GEOS-5 clouds can offer a first order representation of these effects.

  6. Effects of particulate complex refractive index and particle size distribution variations on atmospheric extinction and absorption for visible through middle ir wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Jennings, S G; Pinnick, R G; Auvermann, H J

    1978-12-15

    A comprehensive sensitivity study has been made using Mie theory to determine the effect of realistic variations in values of real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction on volume extinction and absorption coefficients for a wide range of log normal particle size distributions (defined by geometric mean radius r(g) and geometric standard deviation sigma(g)). Wavelengths lambda from the visible (0.55 microm) through the middle ir (10.6 microm) were considered. Extinction is independent of the complex index to within 20% for the majority of realistic particle size distributions, providing lambda < 2 microm. However, changes in extinction by up to an order of magnitude are caused by realistic variations in refractive indexes for 2 microm index being more important in affecting extinction than the imaginary index. Similar changes are caused by variations in particle size distribution for values of refractive indexes typical of atmospheric constituents. For bimodal size distributions representative of desert aerosols, values of the complex refractive index that result in minimum and maximum extinction coefficients are given. Absorption is generally less dependent on size distribution than is extinction and is not, in general, linear with the imaginary index, especially for broad particle distributions.

  7. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  8. In vivo measurement of the absorption of strontium in the rumen and small intestine of sheep as an index of calcium absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Michelle L; Fraser, David R

    2014-09-14

    In the present study, a method was developed for determining the alimentary tract Ca absorption capacity of ruminant animals by measuring the absorption rate of Sr after the administration of an oral dose of strontium chloride acting as a tracer analogue of Ca. A close correlation between the absorption rates of the two tracers was observed upon simultaneous administration of an oral dose of stable Sr and radioactive calcium (r 0·98). The Ca absorption capacity of the rumen and small intestine was determined separately by either directing the solution into the rumen or by diverting it into the post-ruminal tract by vasopressin-induced closure of the ruminoreticular groove. The animals were treated with 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 administered via subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps. The effect of elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol concentrations on the Ca absorption capacity of the alimentary tract was then determined. An increased rate of Sr absorption was observed in both the rumen and small intestine of sheep after treatment, although it is unclear whether the rumen possesses the same vitamin D-dependent Ca absorption pathway as the small intestine.

  9. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  10. Survey of Health Sciences CAI Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Martin

    A project to develop an automated index of information about existing computerized instruction in the health sciences is reported and described. Methods of obtaining and indexing materials for the catalog are detailed. Entry and recovery techniques and selection of descriptors are described. Results to date show that the data base contains…

  11. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  12. Thermal Maturity Patterns (CAI and %Ro) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian Rocks of the Appalachian Basin: A Major Revision of USGS Map I-917-E Using New Subsurface Collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the CAI isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of our report are to present new CAI isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The CAI isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the CAI-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The CAI data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the CAI data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front.

  13. Spectral reflectance of conodonts: A step toward quantitative color alteration and thermal maturity indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, B.C.; Nestell, M.; Balsam, W.L.

    1996-07-01

    Changes in the color of conodonts have long been used to assess thermal maturity. Color is a subjective measure, and color changes in conodonts are related to a subjective scale, the conodont alteration index or CAI. In this paper, we propose a simple, nondestructive method for objectively determining CAI and relating CAI to thermal maturity, the spectral reflectance of conodonts (SRC). The diffuse reflectance of about 30 large conodont fragments arranged on a barium-sulfate slide was determined with a total reflectance spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-850 nm. By examining conodonts that ranged form a CAI of 1 to a CAI of 6 we found that the average slope of the reflectance curve from 550 to 800 nm is a good proxy for CAI. A second-order regression equation estimates CAI from this slope with high accuracy (correlation coefficient = 0.99). These estimates appear most accurate for a CAI of 1 to a CAI of 4, where the slopes change most rapidly, but give reasonable results up to a CAI of 6. Based on the results of our analysis of two samples with known thermal maturities form the Valles Caldera region of New Mexico, we propose a preliminary relationship among SRC slope, CAI, and in-situ alteration temperature.

  14. Magnesium, Silicon, and Oxygen Isotopic Consequences of CAI Evaporation and Inversion for Primordial Melt Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. D.; Shahar, A.

    2012-03-01

    We show how realistic activity-composition relationships in CMAS melts can be used to invert silicon- and magnesium-isotope ratios for evaporation histories of CAIs. Results suggest igneous CAIs were indeed condensates from a solar gas.

  15. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  16. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  17. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  18. Introductory CAI Dialogue in Differential Calculus for Freshman Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, C. S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A project on computer based dialogue for freshmen is described and evaluated. The dialogue utilizes a CAI language written in Fortran that allows a designer to easily write and edit questions at his own desk without the use of a terminal. (Author/DT)

  19. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers of Prospective Primary Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  20. CAISYS-8- A CAI Language Developed For A Minicomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Cheryl; And Others

    The University of Texas Medical Branch developed a minicomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system which employed a teacher oriented software package called CAISYS-8, consisting of a highly modularized teaching compiler and operating system. CAISYS-8 used instructional quanta which generalized the flow of information to and from the…

  1. A Comparison of Student Option Versus Program Controlled CAI Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Patrick H.; And Others

    A research study compared two methods for individualizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) training and evaluated the effect of providing a lesson narrative before training. A 2x2 factorial design was used with 96 Navy trainees in the Basic Electricity/Electronics School. The two pretraining conditions were: 1) a narrative overview read before…

  2. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  3. The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the CAI oxygen isotopic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.

    2009-12-01

    Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (CAIs) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The CAI oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in CAIs is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the CAI oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the CAI oxygen

  4. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  5. Harvard University Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) Laboratory. Technical Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.; Peterson, Theodore I.

    This report is a detailed description of the Harvard CAI Laboratory, including its history, organization, functions, staffing, programs and support. Discussed are materials relating to CAI in general, such as psychological research, modes of instruction, advantages and implementation of CAI. Reviewed also are specific projects of this facility. A…

  6. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  7. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  8. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  9. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  10. Naval Academy's CAI Project (Computer-Assisted Instruction Project). Final Project Report 1 July 1968 - 30 June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeford, W. H.; And Others

    Aimed at improving officer education through the use of modern technology, a two-pronged computer-assisted instruction (CAI) effort was initiated. CAI techniques and methods utilized in the dual projects (CAI-Teletype and CAI 1500) are discussed under three categories: computational, non-computational, and computer management of instruction.…

  11. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  12. Linking CAI abundance to polarimetric response in a population of ancient asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devogele, Maxime; Tanga, Paolo; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Bus, Schelte J.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Cellino, Alberto; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Carry, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetry constitutes one of the fundamental tools for characterizing the surface texture and composition of airless Solar System bodies. In 2006, polarimetric observations led to the discovery of a new type of asteroids, which displays a peculiar polarimetric response. These asteroids are collectively known as "Barbarians", from (234) Barbara the first discovered one.The most commonly accepted explanation for this perculiar polarization response seems to be the presence of a high percentage of fluffy-type Calcium Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs), whose optical properties could produce the observed polarization. Their reflectance spectra also exibit an absorption feature in the near-infrared around 2.1-2.2 microns, that is characteristic of this peculiar group.Based on these results, we organized a systematic polarimetric and near-infrared observational campaign of known Barbarians or candidate asteroids. These campaigns include members of the family of 1040 Klumpkea, 2085 Henan and 729 Watsonia, which are known to contain Barbarian and/or L-type asteroids also suspected to have such a polarimetric behaviour. We have made use of the ToPo polarimeter at the 1m telescope of the Centre pédagogique Planète et Univers (C2PU, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France). The spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared were obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF).By combining polarimetry and spectroscopy we find a correlation between the abundance of CAIs and the inversion angle of the phase-polarization curve of Barbarian asteroids. This is the first time that a direct link has been established between a specific polarimetric response and the surface composition of asteroids. In addition, we find a considerable variety of CAI abundance from one object to the other, consistent with a wide range of possible albedos. Since these asteroids constitute a reservoir of primitive Solar System material, understanding their origin can

  13. Absolute calibration of the colour index and O4 absorption derived from Multi AXis (MAX-)DOAS measurements and their application to a standardised cloud classification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Beirle, Steffen; Remmers, Julia; Shaiganfar, Reza; Wang, Yang

    2016-09-01

    A method is developed for the calibration of the colour index (CI) and the O4 absorption derived from differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The method is based on the comparison of measurements and radiative transfer simulations for well-defined atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries. Calibrated measurements of the CI and the O4 absorption are important for the detection and classification of clouds from MAX-DOAS observations. Such information is needed for the identification and correction of the cloud influence on Multi AXis (MAX-)DOAS profile inversion results, but might be also be of interest on their own, e.g. for meteorological applications. The calibration algorithm was successfully applied to measurements at two locations: Cabauw in the Netherlands and Wuxi in China. We used CI and O4 observations calibrated by the new method as input for our recently developed cloud classification scheme and also adapted the corresponding threshold values accordingly. For the observations at Cabauw, good agreement is found with the results of the original algorithm. Together with the calibration procedure of the CI and O4 absorption, the cloud classification scheme, which has been tuned to specific locations/conditions so far, can now be applied consistently to MAX-DOAS measurements at different locations. In addition to the new threshold values, further improvements were introduced to the cloud classification algorithm, namely a better description of the SZA (solar zenith angle) dependence of the threshold values and a new set of wavelengths for the determination of the CI. We also indicate specific areas for future research to further improve the cloud classification scheme.

  14. Simultaneous detection of the absorption spectrum and refractive index ratio with a spectrophotometer: monitoring contaminants in bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontturi, V.; Hyvärinen, S.; García, A.; Carmona, R.; Murzin, D. Yu; Mikkola, J.-P.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2011-05-01

    The optical properties of a biofuel resulting from the fungi-treated lignocellulosic biomass in an ethanol matrix were studied. The matrix simulates the case that the bioethanol is contaminated by sugars, water and colour pigments that reduce the quality of the biofuel and compromise the combustion process. It is suggested that by applying a spectrophotometer only, it is possible to obtain valid information, i.e. the spectral features of the contaminants as well as the refractive index ratio of bioethanol. This allows for simultaneous purity and density detection of biomass-derived liquids or liquid biofuels, in comparison to a reference representing an ideal bioethanol (pure ethyl alcohol, ethanol of 99.5% purity (v/v)).

  15. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  16. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  17. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  18. Knowledge-Based CAI: CINS for Individualized Curriculum Sequencing. Final Technical Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wescourt, Keith T.; And Others

    This report describes research on the Curriculum Information Network (CIN) paradigm for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in technical subjects. The CIN concept was first conceived and implemented in the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP). The primary objective of CIN-based CAI and the BIP project has been to develop procedures for providing each…

  19. The Computer as a Socializing Agent: Some Socioaffective Outcomes of CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert D.; And Others

    The socializing role of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was seen to be a positive one in this study. The students, predominantly Mexican-American, who experienced CAI, and other students, in a control group, who did not, liked the computer. They thought it gave the right answers and they respected it as having a vast array of information…

  20. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  1. The Graphics Terminal Display System; a Powerful General-Purpose CAI Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Frederick W., Brock, Lynn

    The Graphic Terminal Display System (GTDS) was created to support research and development in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The system uses an IBM 360/50 computer and interfaces with a large-screen graphics display terminal, a random-access slide projector, and a speech synthesizer. An authoring language, GRAIL, was developed for CAI, and…

  2. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  3. Curricular and Computer System Compatibility of CAI Programs for Multi-University Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    A brief introduction to developmental efforts in computer assisted instruction (CAI) at Pennsylvania State University is followed by a description of a program of mobile CAI facilities inaugurated in 1970 as part of the inservice continuing education program for teachers. The paper includes very brief descriptions of the graduate level courses…

  4. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  5. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  6. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  7. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  8. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  9. A Position Paper on CAI Research and Development. A Series Two Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John H.; Lorton, Paul, Jr.

    After a critical review of the papers on Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) of several prominent educators, recommendations are proffered for CAI systems improvements prior to new research. These include replacing the typed message with an inexpensive cathode ray tube, developing the student interface as an efficient and pleasant carrel which…

  10. Computer-Aided Technical Training Using Electronic Equipment On-Line with the CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Geoffrey; And Others

    This report describes an experimental course in the operation and troubleshooting of a communications transceiver, the AN/URC-32, in which the transceiver is used as part of an instructional station in a CAI system. The transceiver and the CAI system are hard-wired together to form a single training system. The system is presently operating in the…

  11. Nebular History of the Allende FoB CAI SJ101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    We compare petrologic and chemical characteristics of a unique FoB CAI SJ101 with the results of thermodynamic modeling of condensation of its precursors in a system of solar composition and speculate about nebular formation history of this CAI.

  12. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  13. Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

  14. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  15. Simultaneous Maximum-Likelihood Reconstruction of Absorption Coefficient, Refractive Index and Dark-Field Scattering Coefficient in X-Ray Talbot-Lau Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood reconstruction technique for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography is presented. This technique allows the iterative simultaneous reconstruction of discrete distributions of absorption coefficient, refractive index and a dark-field scattering coefficient. This technique avoids prior phase retrieval in the tomographic projection images and thus in principle allows reconstruction from tomographic data with less than three phase steps per projection. A numerical phantom is defined which is used to evaluate convergence of the technique with regard to photon statistics and with regard to the number of projection angles and phase steps used. It is shown that the use of a random phase sampling pattern allows the reconstruction even for the extreme case of only one single phase step per projection. The technique is successfully applied to measured tomographic data of a mouse. In future, this reconstruction technique might also be used to implement enhanced imaging models for X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. These enhancements might be suited to correct for example beam hardening and dispersion artifacts and improve overall image quality of X-ray Talbot-Lau tomography. PMID:27695126

  16. Interpreting the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index Observed with the OMI Satellite Instrument to Understand Absorption by Organic Aerosols: Implications for Atmospheric Oxidation and Direct Radiative Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Melanie S.; Martin, Randall V.; Donkelaar, Aaron van; Buchard, Virginie; Torres, Omar; Ridley, David A.; Spurr, Robert J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOSChem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The inclusion of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after including BrC in the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with absorbing Angstrom exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 30% over South America in September, up to 20% over southern Africa in July, and up to 15% over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years, thus

  17. Formation of refractory metal nuggets and their link to the history of CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwander, D.; Kööp, L.; Berg, T.; Schönhense, G.; Heck, P. R.; Davis, A. M.; Ott, U.

    2015-11-01

    Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) often contain numerous refractory metal nuggets (RMNs), consisting of elements like Os, Ir, Mo, Pt and Ru. The nuggets are usually thought to have formed by equilibrium condensation from a gas of solar composition, simultaneously with or prior to oxide and silicate minerals. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for their extremely variable compositions, small sizes and associations with CAI minerals remain puzzling. Expanding on previous work on chemically separated RMNs, we have studied a large number of RMNs within their host CAIs from three different meteorite types, i.e., the highly primitive chondrite Acfer 094 (C2-ungrouped), Allende (CV3ox) and Murchison (CM2). Our results show several inconsistencies between the observed features and a direct condensation origin, including a lack of correlated abundance variations in the refractory metals that are expected from variations in condensation temperature. Instead, we show that most RMN features are consistent with RMN formation by precipitation from a CAI liquid enriched in refractory metals. This scenario is additionally supported by the common occurrence of RMNs in CAIs with clear melt crystallization textures as well as the occurrence of synthetic RMNs with highly variable compositions in run products from Schwander et al. (2015). In some cases, the sizes of meteoritic RMNs correlate with the sizes of their host minerals in CAIs, which indicates common cooling rates.

  18. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  19. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  20. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  1. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  2. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  3. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  4. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  5. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  6. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  7. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an allende CAI

    PubMed

    Young; Russell

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta17O against delta18O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in 17O and 18O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive 16O-rich component of CAIs.

  8. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an Allende CAI.

    PubMed

    Young, E D; Russell, S S

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta (17)O against delta (18)O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in (17)O and (18)O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive (16)O-rich component of CAIs.

  9. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    PubMed

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  10. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  11. The Matriculation Science Curriculum of the USM in the Context of the PPI and CAI Modes of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chuah Chong; Seng, Chin Pin

    1985-01-01

    Discusses philosophy, aims and objectives, and structure of the Matriculation Science Curriculum of the University Sains Malaysia. Includes comments on instructional strategies, individualized learning, programmed instruction, systems approach to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) implementation, CAI authoring system, and various program…

  12. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  13. The Interplay between Different Forms of CAI and Students' Preferences of Learning Environment in the Secondary Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student…

  14. Revision of the Oriental leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae), with a new synonym and two new combinations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He is revised to include two species D. latifrons (Walker 1851, Ledra) n. comb. and D. conspicuus (Distant 1907, Petalocephala) n. comb. Destinoides fasciata Cai & He, 2000 is placed as a junior synonym of D. latifrons, syn. nov. These two species are redescribed and illustrated in detail and a key is given based on the males.

  15. [CAIS correction for blood matrix effect on determination of lead concentration and isotope ratio by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Wang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Hu-sheng; Dun, Zhe; Zhai, Lei; Wang, Jing-yu

    2007-02-01

    The research studied the influence of matrix effect on the determination of lead concentration and isotope ratio through simulating blood matrix, and its correction by common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) method. The experiment results showed that CAIS method was suitable for the multi-element-matrix. The relative errors between the determined and the true concentration values are 20% (without correction), 8% (by conventional internal reference correction) and 2% (by CAIS correction), respectively. Otherwise, the influence of matrix effect and its correction for isotope ratio determination are not that obvious. Similarity of the mass number and properties between internal reference and analyte elements seems not important for CAIS correction, since very close correction results were obtained by using Tl and Dy as internal reference elements. Besides, correction results are not affected by different matrix dilution. Reliability and practicality of CAIS were proved by bovine blood standard material determination.

  16. Real-Time Graphics for CAI: A Rudimentary Grammar and Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William

    This paper focuses on graphics and how they can be created, in real time, from information stored in a database, and the application of this technique to computer-assisted instruction (CAI). It is noted that this is a special case of the general trend towards endowing instructional systems with a degree of decision-making or design expertise, as…

  17. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  18. Toward a Market Success for CAI; An Overview of the TICCIT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetten, Kenneth J.

    A new computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for college teaching is being tested in two locations by the MITRE Corporation. The system, called TICCIT (Time-Share Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television), now interacts with more than 100 students, each moving at his own pace, for four semesters of community college math and…

  19. Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) in Teaching of Mathematics at Secondary Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhevakrishnan, R.; Devi, S.; Chinnaiyan, K.

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at effectiveness of computer assisted instructions (CAI) in teaching of mathematics at secondary level adopted experimental method and observing the difference between (CAI) and traditional method. A sample of sixty (60) students of IX class in VVB Matriculation Higher Secondary School at Elayampalayam, Namakkal district were selected for a sample and sample was divided into two group namely experiment and control group. The experimental group consisted 30 students who were taught 'Mensurationí by the computer assisted instructions and the control groups comprising 30 students were taught by the conventional method of teaching. Data analyzed using mean, S.D. and t-test. Findings of the study clearly point out that significant increase in the mean gain scores has been found in the post test scores of the experimental group. Significant differences have been found between the control group and experimental group on post test gain scores. The experiment group, which was taught by the CAI showed better, learning. The conclusion is evident that the CAI is an effective media of instruction for teaching Mathematics at secondary students.s

  20. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  1. The Development and Utilization of Mobile CAI for the Education of Nurses in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    In providing for inservice nursing educational opportunities, the obvious advantages of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) mobile system are its inherent interactive quality and the flexibility of scheduling made available to those who are already working in a field. The rationale for the development of the system is based on the past and…

  2. The Role of the CAI-1 Fatty Acid Tail in the Vibrio cholerae Quorum Sensing Response

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Lark J.; Ng, Wai-Leung; Marano, Paul; Brook, Karolina; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a mechanism of chemical communication among bacteria that enables collective behaviors. In V. cholerae, the etiological agent of the disease cholera, quorum sensing controls group behaviors including virulence factor production and biofilm formation. The major V. cholerae quorum-sensing system consists of the extracellular signal molecule called CAI-1 and its cognate membrane bound receptor called CqsS. Here, the ligand binding activity of CqsS is probed with structural analogs of the natural signal. Enabled by our discovery of a structurally simplified analog of CAI-1, we prepared and analyzed a focused library. The molecules were designed to probe the effects of conformational and structural changes along the length of the fatty acid tail of CAI-1. Our results, combined with pharmacophore modeling, suggest a molecular basis for signal molecule recognition and receptor fidelity with respect to the fatty acid tail portion of CAI-1. These efforts provide novel probes to enhance discovery of anti-virulence agents for the treatment of V. cholerae. PMID:23092313

  3. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  4. Examination and Application of Formative Evaluation for Author Utilization During the Preparation of a CAI Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Marjorie Ellen

    A study was devised to investigate the use of formative evaluation during the preparation of a course entitled "Education of Visually Handicapped Children" designed for presentation to students through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Various models for formative evaluation were examined, the Baker and Schutz cycle for instructional product…

  5. On the Design and Development of Pedagogy-First CAI Tools for CS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadaparty, K.; And Others

    This paper presents the implications of an ongoing project on the design and development of multimedia instructional material for teaching and learning computer science topics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Important pedagogical requirements that CAI software should satisfy include: (1) animation of the changes in tree topologies; (2)…

  6. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Program on the Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Carol

    The concept of Delphi technique was presented in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) module designed for educational administration classes or inservice training of administrators. Instructional Dialogue Facility (IDF) Author Language on a 2000F Hewlett-Packard time-sharing system was used to write the sequence. Instructional objectives,…

  7. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  8. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Engineering Dynamics. CAI-Systems Memo Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, John W.

    A 90-minute computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit course supplemented by a 1-hour lecture on the dynamic nature of three-dimensional rotations and Euler angles was given to 29 undergraduate engineering students. The area of Euler angles was selected because it is essential to problem-working in three-dimensional rotations of a rigid body, yet…

  10. Forensic Identification of Automobile Window Glass Manufacturers in Japan Based on the Refractive Index, X-ray Fluorescence, and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure.

    PubMed

    Funatsuki, Atsushi; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Kokubu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 3 automobile window glass manufacturers were identified based on refractive index, XRF, and XAFS analyses. The samples were classified into the corresponding groups using XRF, which should be the first step for identification. Samples having different manufacturing times showed differences in the refractive index. Based on XAFS, the amplitude of the EXAFS spectra and the intensities of Fourier transforms differed between manufacturers. In the scheme for manufacturer identification proposed in this study, performing XRF and refractive index studies is the first step. The concentrations of CeO2, MgO, Al2O3, and K2O allowed us to distinguish among manufacturers. Secondly, for samples containing cerium, we discriminated between manufacturer based on the amplitude of the EXAFS spectra and the intensities of Fourier transforms. As a result, the manufacturers of the 75 samples used in this study were multilaterally identified.

  11. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  12. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  13. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N double quantum wells operating at 1.55 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen

    2015-04-07

    In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)

  14. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), 3N from the oxidized CV chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and UR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical investigation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper is focused on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 8H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 7H2O and <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 6.5H2O.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aléon, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende <span class="hlt">Cai</span> by Nanosims</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are important to understand processes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18286040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18286040"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> to handle aerosol <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chomko, R M; Gordon, H R</p> <p>1998-08-20</p> <p>When strongly absorbing aerosols are present in the atmosphere, the usual two-step procedure of processing ocean color data-(1) atmospheric correction to provide the water-leaving reflectance (rho(w)), followed by (2) relating rho(w) to the water constituents-fails and simultaneous estimation of the ocean and aerosol optical properties is necessary. We explore the efficacy of using a simple model of the aerosol-a Junge power-law size distribution consisting of homogeneous spheres with arbitrary refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>-in a nonlinear optimization procedure for estimating the relevant oceanic and atmospheric parameters for case 1 waters. Using simulated test data generated from more realistic aerosol size distributions (sums of log-normally distributed components with different compositions), we show that the ocean's pigment concentration (C) can be retrieved with good accuracy in the presence of weakly or strongly absorbing aerosols. However, because of significant differences in the scattering phase functions for the test and power-law distributions, large error is possible in the estimate of the aerosol optical thickness. The positive result for C suggests that the detailed shape of the aerosol-scattering phase function is not relevant to the atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. The relevant parameters are the aerosol single-scattering albedo and the spectral variation of the aerosol optical depth. We argue that the assumption of aerosol sphericity should not restrict the validity of the algorithm and suggest an avenue for including colored aerosols, e.g., wind-blown dust, in the procedure. A significant advantage of the new approach is that realistic multicomponent aerosol models are not required for the retrieval of C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372"><span id="translatedtitle">OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5734Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5734Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on remote sensing of aerosols over land using TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, Guosheng; Wang, Xiufeng; Yin, Shuai; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Cloud and Aerosol Imager (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is one of the subunits of observation instrument Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) onboard the GOSAT, and is used to observe aerosol optical properties and clouds. TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> includes 4 bands (370~390 nm, 668~688 nm, 860~880 nm and 1560~1680 nm), bands 1 to 3 have a 0.5-km spatial resolution at the nadir and 1000-km observation swath. The spatial resolution and swath of band 4 are 1.5 km and 750 km, respectively. In this study, it was assumed that the surface reflectance at 670 nm can be obatined using an empirical relationship between the reflectances at 670 nm and at 1600 nm. For analyzing the empirical relationship, dark fields were selected from the GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> data, where AERONET sun photometer measurements were available within 30 minutes, the distance from the AERONET station was within 30 km, and the AOD at 550 nm was below 0.1. The surface reflectance was derived by atmospheric correction with the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model and AERONET AOD. A regression function between top-of-atmosphere reflectances at 1600 nm and surface reflectances at 670 nm was summarized. AODs were retrieved using a look-up table method and compared with AERONET AODs. The results show that more than 70% validating data are located within expected errors for MODIS (±0.05 ±0.15τ, τ is AOD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Primitive Meteorite Matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular <span class="hlt">CAI</span> assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K"><span id="translatedtitle">26Al-26Mg chronology and oxygen isotope distributions of multiple melting for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Chizu; Itoh, Shoichi; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Ito, Motoo; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Disequilibrium oxygen isotopic distributions of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) correspond to multiple melting events in the solar nebula. 26Al-26Mg systematics may be applicable for age differences among such melting events. We have carried out a coordinated study of detailed petrographic observations and in-situ oxygen and magnesium isotope measurements for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, EK1-04-2, from the Allende CV3 meteorite to determine the melting events and their ages. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists mainly of spinel, anorthite, olivine, and pyroxene, and has a core and mantle structure. Petrography of the core suggests that the crystallization sequence of the core minerals is from spinel, anorthite, olivine, and to pyroxene. The mantle has the same mineral assemblage as the core, and shows incomplete melting and solidification textures. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the minerals are distributed along the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line (δ18O = -44‰ to +9‰), which indicates to preserve a chemical disequilibrium status in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Spinel shows a 16O-rich signature (δ18O ∼ -43‰), while anorthite is 16O-poor (δ18O ∼ +8‰). Olivine and pyroxene in the core have the same oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O ∼ -15‰), which indicates their equilibrium. Olivine and pyroxene in the mantle have variable oxygen isotopic compositions and are slightly depleted in 16O (δ18O = -13‰ to -4‰) compared with the same minerals in the core. The 26Al-26Mg systematics is consistent with the disequilibrium status observed according to the petrography and oxygen isotopes. Spinel is plotted on a line of (26Al/27Al)0 = (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-5, anorthite is plotted on a line of (-1 ± 5) × 10-7, and olivine and pyroxene in the core are plotted on a line of (-1 ± 7) × 10-6. Plots of olivine and pyroxene in the mantle are scattered below the isochron of these minerals in the core. This study indicates that the EK1-04-2 Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> underwent multiple heating events after the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...763L..33G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...763L..33G"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable and Extreme Irradiation Conditions in the Early Solar System Inferred from the Initial Abundance of 10Be in Isheyevo <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A search for short-lived 10Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> had 10B/11B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio 9Be/11B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial (10Be/9Be)0 ratios vary between ~10-3 and ~10-2 for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411. The initial ratio of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, suggesting that the more likely origin of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 10Be is early solar system irradiation. The low (26Al/27Al)0 [<= 8.9 × 10-7] with which <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 1019 protons cm-2, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 1019 and 1020 protons cm-2. The variable and extreme value of the initial 10Be/9Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Metal particles in Vigarano 1623-8, a Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> [1], underwent virtually no sulfidation, as is typical of opaque assemblages from Ca, Al-rich inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrites [2]. In this study, we have identified two large metal grains (M1 and M2) with chemical and mineralogical features that may indicate cooling under different conditions and are, therefore, difficult to understand in the environment of a single <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> thermal evolution. M1 is an almost spherical, kamacite+taenite-bearing particle included in a fassaite grain of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> host; a 17.5 micrometer-long (0.5 micrometer steps) microprobe traverse along M1 shows that Ni and Ru contents in the taenite (31.5 and 1.1 wt%, respectively) are uniform, and differ from those in the adjacent kamacite (Ni=4.5, Ru=0.7 wt%). M2 is a 20 micrometer, irregularly-shaped taenite particle, embedded in a fine-grained (spinel-rich) portion of 1623-8. It has a homogeneous composition with 10.5 wt% Ni, 0.4% Co, 0.7% Re, 0.6% Pt and high concentrations of Ru (6.5 wt%), Os (4.3 wt%) and Ir (8.2 wt%), as previously recognized by [1]. The composition of M2 is such that it should have undergone exsolution at 800 = T >= 600 degrees C (according to experimental data by [3]) to form at least two (alpha+gamma-NiFe), or probably three (+epsilon-RuFe) different phases. Lack of exsolution features in this large grain is therefore indicative of equilibration at relatively high temperatures (T>600 degrees C) followed by rapid cooling. Other metal particles of similar bulk compositions in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Leoville chondrite (also a reduced CV3) show extensive exsolution features that have been interpreted as the result of low- temperature equilibration of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and their constituents after incorporation into their parent body [4, 5]. The relatively high equilibration temperature of M2 is, however, inconsistent with the existence of kamacite in M1. From the phase relations in the Fe-Ni binary, a grain like M1, with 25 wt% bulk Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1807767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1807767"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based <span class="hlt">CAI</span> workstation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwarz, D L; Wind, G G</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo</p> <p></p> <p>It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B"><span id="translatedtitle">An oxygen isotope study of Wark-Lovering rims on type A <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in primitive carbonaceous chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bodénan, Jean-David; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.; Wright, Ian P.; Franchi, Ian A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and the thin Wark-Lovering (WL) rims of minerals surrounding them offer a record of the nature of changing conditions during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. Considerable heterogeneity in the gas composition in the immediate vicinity of the proto-Sun had previously been inferred from oxygen isotopic variations in the WL rim of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende (Simon et al., 2011). However, high precision and high spatial resolution oxygen isotope measurements presented in this study show that WL rim and pristine core minerals of individual <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from meteorites that had experienced only low degrees of alteration or low grade metamorphism (one from Léoville (reduced CV3), two in QUE 99177 (CR3.0) and two in ALHA 77307 (CO3.0)) are uniformly 16O-rich. This indicates that the previously observed variations are the result of secondary processes, most likely on the asteroid parent body, and that there were no temporal or spatial variations in oxygen isotopic composition during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and WL rim formation. Such homogeneity across three groups of carbonaceous chondrites lends further support for a common origin for the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in all chondrites. 16O-poor oxygen reservoirs such as those associated with chondrule formation, were probably generated by UV photo-dissociation involving self-shielding mechanisms and must have occurred elsewhere in outer regions of the solar accretion disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633"><span id="translatedtitle">FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> or are a byproduct of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Time scales of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-5-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 1.0 node model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kathy L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> into these four areas are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) single-cylinder research engine was studied. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731333"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to accommodate a variety of learning styles in a biomechanics course.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Washington, N; Parnianpour, M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Multimedia technology offers a more interactive approach to instruction than the traditional classroom lectures. Through computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), a number of teaching styles can be used that take into account the different preferences of the students. The Biomechanics Tutorial program that the authors have written is a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that incorporates audio, video, simulations, and graphics to: review concepts of mechanics (kinematics and kinetics of interconnected rigid bodies), familiarize students with functional anatomy, and allow students to interactively evaluate the law of mechanics applied to physical performance of activities modeled by a set of biomechanical models of the joints. Principles of ergonomics are reinforced by enabling the student to perform numerous numerical experiments within the context of workplace or task redesign and see the real time consequences of these alterations. For example, the task of holding a load is simulated by allowing the student to change elbow and shoulder angles and the orientation and magnitude of the load. The consequences of these in terms of required muscle forces and joint reaction forces at the elbow and shoulder will be updated on the screen. The detailed rationale of developing this Biomechanics Tutorial which integrates a variety of learning styles will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852"><span id="translatedtitle">Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but also penetrates more deeply into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have been extensively metasomatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26783178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26783178"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of 2-azetidinone and 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives containing sulfonamide group at the side chain as potential cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> inhibitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuan, Xinrui; Lu, Peng; Xue, Xiaojian; Qin, Hui; Fan, Chen; Wang, Yubin; Zhang, Qi</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> inhibitor (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) targeting Niemann-Pick C1-like1 protein was developed for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and only ezetimibe was approved so far. For developing novel <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, we synthesized sixteen 2-azetidinone derivatives and thirteen 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives containing sulfonamide group at the side chain, and their inhibitory activity of cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was evaluated in Caco-2 cell line in vitro. Furthermore, top six compounds were measured by cytotoxicity and partition coefficient, and 2-azetidinone analogue 9e was selected for in vivo study. Finally, 9e considerably reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, FFA and triglyceride in the serum and increased the rate of HDL-C to total cholesterol, suggesting it could regulate the lipid metabolism and act as a potent <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=csr&pg=2&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=csr&pg=2&id=EJ1062828"><span id="translatedtitle">From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433"><span id="translatedtitle">Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, a traditional food made in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652"><span id="translatedtitle">A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ca- Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R"><span id="translatedtitle">Two years since SSAMS: Status of 14C AMS at <span class="hlt">CAIS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravi Prasad, G. V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.329...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.329...51S"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithium isotope compositions of chondrules, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and a dark inclusion from Allende and ordinary chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seitz, Hans-Michael; Zipfel, Jutta; Brey, Gerhard P.; Ott, Ulrich</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Bulk carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have distinct Li isotope compositions, indicating the existence of local reservoirs and distinct formation conditions in the early solar system. These differences may be also recorded in the components that compose chondrites. Here, Li concentrations and Li isotope compositions of 89 chondrules, 10 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and 1 dark inclusion (DI) from the Allende (CV3) meteorite and from 5 ordinary chondrites of low petrologic types Semarkona, Bishunpur, Saratov, Bjurböle and Bremervörde are presented. In general, chondrules have highly variable Li isotope compositions, ranging from δ7Li of - 8.5 to + 10‰, whereby the mean isotope composition of chondrules separated from a single chondrite is slightly lighter than its bulk. Remarkable, however, are the differences in Li concentrations between bulk chondrite and chondrules. Of the entire set studied here, 98% of the chondrules have significantly lower Li abundances (in the range of 0.2 to 0.75 μg/g) than their hosts (typically around 1.5 μg/g). Our results indicate that Li elemental and isotopic fractionation has not occurred extensively during chondrule formation. Low, but highly variable Li abundances as well as the relatively large range in Li isotopes point to small-scale heterogeneities in the chondrule-forming reservoir. With respect to Li, such a non-chondritic reservoir is unique to all chondrules. The compositional differences in Li isotopes between bulk carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites (Seitz et al., 2007) are likely to be the result of mixing chondrules, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and matrix in different proportions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.102..261W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.102..261W"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic compositions of a compound <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-chondrule object from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wakaki, S.; Itoh, S.; Tanaka, T.; Yurimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We report the petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic characteristics of a compound <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-chondrule object, WI-025, found in the Allende CV3 chondrite. The WI-025 is an irregularly shaped inclusion consisting of three texturally and chemically distinct portions: the interior portion, the igneous rim and the intermediate zone located between these two portions. The interior portion consists of anorthite, spinel, olivine and Al-bearing low-Ca pyroxene. The major element chemistry of the interior portion corresponds to that of Al-rich chondrules and is of intermediate character between fine-grained spinel-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and ferromagnesian chondrules. The interior portion has abundant 16O-rich spinel (Δ17O = -14.2 to -24.7) and displays a group II <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like REE composition. These observations indicate that the interior portion contains a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> component formed by fractional condensation. The major and trace element chemistry of the interior portion indicate that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> had subsequently assimilated chondrule materials through partial melting. The maximum heating temperature of the partial melting is estimated at approximately 1400 °C, similar to the maximum heating temperature of Type-B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the olivine and low-Ca pyroxene (Δ17O = -6.3) in the interior portion indicate that the partial melting and chondrule assimilation took place under a moderately 16O-poor nebular gas. The igneous rim is texturally and chemically similar to ferromagnesian chondrules and entirely surrounds the interior portion. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in the igneous rim are indistinguishable from those of the interior olivine and Al-bearing low-Ca pyroxenes. These observations indicate that a chondrule material, which was melted in the same nebular gas as the interior portion, was accreted to the interior portion. The intermediate zone represents a reaction zone accompanying the igneous rim formation. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...52R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...52R"><span id="translatedtitle">The texture of a fine-grained calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in three dimensions and implications for early solar system condensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Sara S.; Howard, Lauren</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A 16 mm fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the Allende CV3 meteorite was analysed using nano-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy on uncoated chips and a polished thin section. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is composed of spinel nodules surrounded by anorthite and Al-rich diopside rims. Minor secondary minerals including hedenbergite and nepheline are also present. The uncoated chips contain abundant wollastonite needles that are only rarely observed in the thin section. Nano-computed tomography shows that the structure of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a branching interconnected network of nodules, most of which are attached to each other in three dimensions. However some nodules are unattached to the rest of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The texture suggests that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formed by condensation from a gas, and condensation and aggregation of nodules occurred contemporaneously, implying a high density of newly-formed dust. One portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is compact and rich in melilite, with a composition and texture dissimilar to the bulk of the inclusion. We infer that this is a melilite-rich mantle of the same <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that has experienced melting on one side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I"><span id="translatedtitle">A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, that encloses at least 26 smaller <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+indexing&id=EJ565473','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+indexing&id=EJ565473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Edie M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>; (5) Content-Based <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> based on direct-injection gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic study of SJ101, a new forsterite-bearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> SJ101 consists of three major structural units: (1) light patches of sector-zoned, poikilitic Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx) with numerous inclusions of small spinel grains and aggregates and subordinate amounts of Mg-rich melilite (Mel) and anorthite (An) (Sp-Cpx lithology), (2) dark sinuous bands of Al-rich clinopyroxene with large (up to ˜300 × 60 μm) poikilitically enclosed euhedral forsterite (Fo) crystals (Fo-Cpx lithology), and (3) the external Cpx-Sp-An rim overlying the entire inclusion. The two major lithologies are always separated by a transition zone of clinopyroxene poikilitically enclosing both forsterite and spinel. The patches of the Sp-Cpx lithology exhibit significant textural and mineralogical variability that is size-dependent. Small patches typically consist of Cpx and spinel with minor remnants of melilite and/or its alteration products. Large patches contain Mel-An-rich cores with either equigranular-ophitic-subophitic or 'lacy' textures reminiscent of those in Types B or C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, respectively. All silicates poikilitically enclose numerous spinel grains of identical habit. Both melilite and anorthite gradually disappear toward the boundary with the Fo-Cpx lithology. Neither the evaporation mantle of Al-rich melilite typical of other FoBs nor the Wark-Lovering rim is present. Secondary minerals include grossular, monticellite, magnetite, and a few grains of wollastonite, andradite, and nepheline. Being a rather typical FoB mineralogically and chemically, texturally SJ101 differs from other FoBs in displaying the nearly complete segregation of forsterite from spinel which occur only in the Fo-Cpx and Sp-Cpx lithologies, respectively. The complex, convoluted internal structure of SJ101 suggests that the coarse-grained Sp-An-Mel-Cpx cores and Fo-Cpx lithology represent the precursor materials of FoBs, proto-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Fo-rich accretionary rims. While the inferred chemistry and mineralogy of the Fo-rich rims</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka E49: A compact type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> containing a partially molten spinel-melilite-diopside xenolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Eframovka E49 is a triangular 2-mm segment from a Compact Type A (CTA) inclusion with large portions of intact core and rim sequence. It is probably a fragment from an originally round approximately equal to 4-mm Ca-Al rich Inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The core consists of two lithologically different assemblages: (1) The major portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains melilite sprinkled with rare spinel, perovskite, and the new Ca-Ti silicate. It is covered by a six-layer rim consisting of (from the interior outward): two layers of Zr- and Y-rich perovskite, spinel, Al-diopside, diopside, and forsteritic olivine. (2) A 650-micron wide complex xenolith contains coarse spinel, melilite, perovskite, and metal in its interior, surrounded by a broad shell of Al-diopside, diopside, and minor fassaite and anorthite, and in the rim fassaite yields Al-diopside yields diopside. Coarse spinels abundantly display resorbtion outlines and some of the grains have been broken down to several amoeboid fragments floating in the eutectic assemblage. All these textures are evidence of local melting of the xenolith followed by fast cooling. No such features are observed in the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Since melting is confined to the xenolith, the melt event must have predated its capture into the core of E49. Ion microprobe trace-element studies reveal distinct differences between Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in perovskites in the xenolith and the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Perovskites in the xenolith display REE patterns with prominent Yb and small Ce excesses and large Eu depletions. Perovskites in the xenolith show higher abundances of Nb, Zr, and V. Magnesium in xenolith and the host is almost unfractionated. Excesses of Mg-26 are found both in the xenolith and the host with data points plotting along a line with a slope of 4 x 105. This is in accord with the petrographic interpretation and indicates that the melting of the xenolith and its capture in E49 took place early.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation"><span id="translatedtitle">Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes"><span id="translatedtitle">Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9840748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9840748"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of neutralized chemical agent identification sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) for skin injury with an overview of the vesicant potential of agent degradation products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olajos, E J; Olson, C T; Salem, H; Singer, A W; Hayes, T L; Menton, R G; Miller, T L; Rosso, T; MacIver, B</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Vesication and skin irritation studies were conducted in hairless guinea-pigs to determine the vesicant and skin irritation potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>). The <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> are training items that contain chemical warfare-related material--sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN) or lewisite (L)--and were declared obsolete in 1971. Animals were dosed topically with 'test article'--neat HD, 10% agent/chloroform solutions or product solutions (waste-streams) from neutralized <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>--and evaluated for skin-damaging effects (gross and microscopic). Product solutions from the chemical neutralization of neat sulfur mustard resulted in microvesicle formation. All agent-dosed (HD or agent/chloroform solutions) sites manifested microblisters as well as other histopathological lesions of the skin. Waste-streams from the neutralization of agent (agent/chloroform or agent/charcoal) were devoid of vesicant activity. Cutaneous effects (erythema and edema) were consistent with the skin-injurious activity associated with the neutralizing reagent 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH). Chemical neutralization of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> was effective in eliminating/reducing the vesicant property of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> containing agent in chloroform or agent on charcoal but was inefficient in reducing the vesicant potential of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> containing neat sulfur mustard.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..353J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..353J"><span id="translatedtitle">26Al- 26Mg and 207Pb- 206Pb systematics of Allende <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Canonical solar initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio reinstated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin, Qing-zhu; Moynier, Frederic; Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Palme, Herbert</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The precise knowledge of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio [( 26Al/ 27Al) 0] is crucial if we are to use the very first solid objects formed in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) as the "time zero" age-anchor and guide future work with other short-lived radio-chronometers in the early Solar System, as well as determining the inventory of heat budgets from radioactivities for early planetary differentiation. New high-precision multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) measurements of 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and Mg-isotopic compositions of nine whole-rock <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (six mineralogically characterized fragments and three micro-drilled inclusions) from the CV carbonaceous chondrite, Allende yield a well-defined 26Al- 26Mg fossil isochron with an ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10 - 5 . Internal mineral isochrons obtained for three of these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ( A44A, AJEF, and A43) are consistent with the whole-rock <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isochron. The mineral isochron of AJEF with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (4.96 ± 0.25) × 10 - 5 , anchored to our precisely determined absolute 207Pb- 206Pb age of 4567.60 ± 0.36 Ma for the same mineral separates, reinstate the "canonical" ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of 5 × 10 - 5 for the early Solar System. The uncertainty in ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 corresponds to a maximum time span of ± 20 Ka (thousand years), suggesting that the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation events were culminated within this time span. Although all Allende <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied experienced multistage formation history, including melting and evaporation in the solar nebula and post-crystallization alteration likely on the asteroidal parent body, the 26Al- 26Mg and U-Pb-isotopic systematics of the mineral separates and bulk <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> behaved largely as closed-system since their formation. Our data do not support the "supra-canonical" 26Al/ 27Al ratio of individual minerals or their mixtures in CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, suggesting that the supra-canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio in the CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> may have resulted from post</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Joan Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). This case study investigated the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 μm long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary <span class="hlt">CAI</span> mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (Δ17O ~ -24‰); Δ17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the CV chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the oxidized Allende-like CV3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4833730','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4833730"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> ANALYZER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.</p> <p>1961-11-14</p> <p>A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %R) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Harper, John A.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079"><span id="translatedtitle">In dialyzed squid axons oxidative stress inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by impairing the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>2+-regulatory site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DiPolo, Reinaldo; Beaugé, Luis</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, a major mechanism by which cells extrude calcium, is involved in several physiological and physiopathological interactions. In this work we have used the dialyzed squid giant axon to study the effects of two oxidants, SIN-1-buffered peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), on the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the absence and presence of MgATP upregulation. The results show that oxidative stress induced by peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide inhibits the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by impairing the intracellular Ca(2+) (<span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+))-regulatory sites, leaving unharmed the intracellular Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-transporting sites. This effect is efficiently counteracted by the presence of MgATP and by intracellular alkalinization, conditions that also protect H(i)(+) and (H(i)(+) + Na(i)(+)) inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+)-regulatory sites. In addition, 1 mM intracellular EGTA reduces oxidant inhibition. However, once the effects of oxidants are installed they cannot be reversed by either MgATP or EGTA. These results have significant implications regarding the role of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in response to pathological conditions leading to tissue ischemia-reperfusion and anoxia/reoxygenation; they concur with a marked reduction in ATP concentration, an increase in oxidant production, and a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that seems to be the main factor responsible for cell damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...64a2009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...64a2009N"><span id="translatedtitle">Compression-after-impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) performance of epoxycarbon fibre-reinforced nanocomposites using nanosilica and rubber particle enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikfar, B.; Njuguna, J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>One of the problems in the design of automotive structures and body parts made by fibre reinforced composites is that these materials are susceptible to a small energy impact caused by for instance, accidental tool drop during maintenance or stone strike while in operation. This often lead to a barely visible impact damage which causes reduction in compressive strength of the composite part. To increase the impact tolerance of the composites, toughening agents like silica nanoparticles and rubber particles can be utilized to toughen the resin. To understand the effect of the particles enhancement, the impact tolerance was evaluated utilizing Compression After Impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) test after the impact induced by gas- gun impacting equipment. The results from <span class="hlt">CAI</span> test after 20 J impact (high energy stone strike) shows about 30% improvement in residual compressive strength for the nanosilica enhanced composite compared to unmodified CFRP. Also C-scan results after 7 J impact shows about 50% smaller delamination area for the nano-enhanced composite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Experimental <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Network (1973-1975) of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. Final Report. No. ED-75-1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rubin, Martin L.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>An evaluation was made of the biomedical Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Network Experiment, established by the National Library of Medicine in 1973 to test the feasibility of sharing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> learning materials through a national computer network. The evaluation was designed to assist decision makers in planning a future mechanism for distributing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4177982','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4177982"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">INDEXING</span> MECHANISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kock, L.J.</p> <p>1959-09-22</p> <p>A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an <span class="hlt">Index</span> pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an <span class="hlt">index</span> pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the <span class="hlt">index</span> pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.2622M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.2622M"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystallization of melilite from CMAS-liquids and the formation of the melilite mantle of Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Experimental simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Richter, Frank M.; Davis, Andrew M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are subdivided into B1s, with well-developed melilite mantles, and B2s, with randomly distributed melilite. Despite intensive study, the origin of the characteristic melilite mantle of the B1s remains unclear. Recently, we proposed that formation of the melilite mantle is caused by depletion of the droplet surface in volatile magnesium and silicon due to higher evaporation rates of volatile species compared to their slow diffusion rates in the melt, thus making possible crystallization of melilite at the edge of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> first, followed by its crystallization in the central parts at lower temperatures. Here, we present the results of an experimental study that aimed to reproduce the texture observed in natural Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. First, we experimentally determined crystallization temperatures of melilite for three melt compositions, which, combined with literature data, allowed us to find a simple relationship between the melt composition, crystallization temperature, and composition of first crystallizing melilite. Second, we conducted a series of evaporation and cooling experiments exposing <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts to gas mixtures with different oxygen fugacities (f). Cooling of the molten droplets in gases with logf⩾IW-4 resulted in crystallization of randomly distributed melilite, while under more reducing conditions, melilite mantles have been formed. Chemical profiles through samples quenched right before melilite started to crystallize showed no chemical gradients in samples exposed to relatively oxidizing gases (logf⩾IW-4), while the near-surface parts of the samples exposed to very reducing gases (logf⩽IW-7) were depleted in volatile MgO and SiO 2, and enriched in refractory Al 2O 3. Using these experimental results and the fact that the evaporation rate of magnesium and silicon from <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts is proportional to √{P}, we estimate that Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> could be formed by evaporation of a partially molten precursor in a gas of solar composition with P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C"><span id="translatedtitle">B and Mg isotopic variations in Leoville mrs-06 type B1 <span class="hlt">cai</span>:origin of 10Be and 26Al</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; Russel, S. S.; Gounelle, M.; Ash, R. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The finding [1-3] in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) of primitive chondrites of traces of the in situ decay of radioactive 10Be (half-life 1.5Myr) indicates that irradiation of the protosolar nebula by the young Sun in its T-Tauri phase has produced significant amounts of the Li-Be-B elements. This irradiation may have produced also some or all of the short-lived 26Al (half-life 0.7Myr) and 41Ca (half-life 0.1Myr) previously detected in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. To constrain the origin of 10Be and 10Al it is important to look for coupled variations in the 10Be/9Be and 26Al/27Al ratios in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and to understand the processes responsible for these variations (e.g. variations in the fluences of irradiation, secondary perturbations of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, ...) We have thus studied the Li and B isotopic compositions and the Be/Li and Be/B concentration ratios in one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (MRS-06) from the Leoville CV3 chondrite in which large variations of the Mg isotopic compositions showing both the in situ decay of 26Al and the secondary redistribution of Mg isotopes have been observed [4]. The results show large variations for the Li and B isotopic compositions (^7Li/^6Li ranging from 11.02±0.21 to 11.82±0.07, and 10B/11B ratios ranging from 0.2457±0.0053 to 0.2980±0.0085). The ^7Li/^6Li ratio tend to decrease towards the rim of the inclusion. The 10B/11B ratios are positively correlated with the ^9Be/11B ratios indicating the in situ decay of 10Be. However perturbations of the 10Be/B system are observed. They would correspond to an event which occurred approximately 2Myr after the formation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors which is responsible for the 10Be observed in the core of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These perturbations seem compatible with those observed for the 26Al/Mg system but they might be due to an irradiation of the already-formed, isolated <span class="hlt">CAI</span> which would have resulted in increased 10Be/^9Be ratios and low ^7Li/^6Li ratios in the margin of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. [1] McKeegan K. D. et al. (2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic Measurements in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sample of 7R19-1(a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1440B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1440B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mg and Si isotopic fractionation patterns in types B1 and B2 <fc><span class="hlt">CAI</span></fc>s: Implications for formation under different nebular conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bullock, Emma S.; Knight, Kim B.; Richter, Frank M.; Kita, Noriko T.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Magnesium and silicon isotopic profiles across melilite grains in two type B1 and two type B2 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) reveal differing but constant enrichments in heavy isotopes everywhere except ≤1000 μm from the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> margins. There is no close correlation in the B1s or the B2s between isotopic composition and åkermanite content of the melilite, a measure of progressive igneous crystallization, yet such a correlation might be expected in a type B2: without a melilite mantle (as in B1s) to seal the interior off and prevent further evaporation, the melt would have maintained communication with the external gas. These observations indicate a model in which B1s and B2s solidified under differing conditions. The B2s solidified under lower hydrogen pressures (PH2 ≤ 10-4 - 10-5 bars) than did B1s (PH2 > 10-4 bars), so surface volatilization was slower in the B2s and internal chemical and isotopic equilibrium was maintained over the interval of melilite crystallization. The outermost zones of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (≤1000 μm from the edge) are not consistently enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the interiors, as might be expected from diffusion-limited surface evaporation of the melt. In all cases, the magnesium in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> margins is lighter than in the interiors. In one case, silicon in the margin also is lighter, but locally in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, it is isotopically heavier near the surface. If melt evaporation played a role in the formation of these outer zones, a later event in many cases caused isotopic re-equilibration with an external and isotopically near-normal reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/880103','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/880103"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical <span class="hlt">Absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Klem, John F.</p> <p>2005-08-16</p> <p>A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-<span class="hlt">index</span> and low-<span class="hlt">index</span> quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-<span class="hlt">index</span> and low-<span class="hlt">index</span> quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184335"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-<span class="hlt">index</span> semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4518292','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4518292"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-<span class="hlt">index</span> semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E7591K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCo...6E7591K"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-<span class="hlt">index</span> semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232"><span id="translatedtitle">New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-7-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lotka&pg=4&id=ED032915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lotka&pg=4&id=ED032915"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Consistency and Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.</p> <p></p> <p>A measure of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if <span class="hlt">indexers</span> agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an <span class="hlt">indexer</span>'s work and exhaustivity of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also proposed. Experimental data on <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data that could…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cathode+AND+ray+AND+tube&pg=2&id=EJ020346','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cathode+AND+ray+AND+tube&pg=2&id=EJ020346"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Physics Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lindsay, Robert E.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Describes a novel instructional method for physics involving the use of a computer assisted instruction system equipped with cathode-ray-tube terminals, light pen, and keyboard input. Discusses exercises with regard to content, mediation, scoring and control. Several examples of exercises are given along with results from student evaluation. (LC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15644169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15644169"><span id="translatedtitle">[Journal selection and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> for <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus and Chinese periodicals <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals <span class="hlt">Indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are <span class="hlt">indexed</span> for <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus/MEDLINE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863004','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863004"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">absorption</span> surface panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Santala, Teuvo J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar <span class="hlt">absorption</span> surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high <span class="hlt">absorptance</span> and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED038269.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED038269.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Consistency and Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.</p> <p></p> <p>Proposed is a measure of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if <span class="hlt">indexers</span> agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an <span class="hlt">indexer</span>'s work and exhaustivity of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also proposed. Experimental data on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+american+AND+medical&pg=7&id=EJ399455','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+american+AND+medical&pg=7&id=EJ399455"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">Index</span> Terms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasheed, Muhammad Abdur</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Describes a study that compared <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms suggested by authors of articles in "The American Journal of the Medical Science" and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms assigned to the same articles in MEDLARS. Case studies are used to examine the differences between author and <span class="hlt">indexer</span> <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. (CLB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435402.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435402.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaker Resources Online <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beke-Harrigan, Heidi</p> <p></p> <p>The Quaker Resources Online <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a World Wide Web-based <span class="hlt">index</span>, including author, title, subject, and meeting <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this <span class="hlt">index</span> brings together information from a variety of sources and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872707','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872707"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleic acid <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A restriction site <span class="hlt">indexing</span> method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences complementary to fragment <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial <span class="hlt">indexing</span> facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873713"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleic acid <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A restriction site <span class="hlt">indexing</span> method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences complementary to fragment <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial <span class="hlt">indexing</span> facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457.2043B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457.2043B"><span id="translatedtitle">A new titanium oxide <span class="hlt">index</span> in the visual band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bidaran, Bahar; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi; Azizi, Fatemeh</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We introduce a new colour <span class="hlt">index</span> consisting of two spectral bandwidths to measure the titanium oxide (TiO) <span class="hlt">absorption</span> band strength centred at 567 nm. Based on the most up-to-date line list for TiO, we regenerate a grid of synthesized spectra and investigate the temperature sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">index</span>. The new <span class="hlt">index</span> behaves similarly to the older TiO <span class="hlt">index</span> of Wing, in that it decreases monotonically from the coolest atmosphere with Teff = 2800 up to Teff = 4000 where the TiO molecules disassociate. To further examine the feasibility of the new <span class="hlt">index</span>, we reproduce the calibration using a list of observed high-resolution spectra and we find similar results. This <span class="hlt">index</span> extends the TiO <span class="hlt">absorption</span> band capability to measure the effective temperatures of late K to M stars to the visual spectrum, where it is more accessible to small telescopes for long-term dedicated observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084821','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084821"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasar <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the proposal is to investigate the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. The evidences in favour of intrinsic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K"><span id="translatedtitle">A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225569"><span id="translatedtitle">Occupation and educational inequalities in laryngeal cancer: the use of a job <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies tried to assess the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco consumption explain already a large part of the social inequalities. Occupational exposures might explain a part of the remaining but the components and pathways of the socioeconomic contribution have yet to be fully disentangled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of occupation using different occupational indices, differentiating between physical, psycho-social and toxic exposures and trying to summarize the occupational burden into one variable. Methods A population-based case–control study conducted in Germany in 1998–2000 included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption and education was collected with face-to-face interviews. A recently developed job-classification <span class="hlt">index</span> was used to account for the occupational burden. A sub-<span class="hlt">index</span> focussed on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for the upper aero digestive tract. Results When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the physical and psycho-social job indices (OR = 3.2, 95%-CI: 1.5-6.8), similar to the OR using the sub-<span class="hlt">index</span> <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (OR = 3.0, 95%-CI: 1.4-6.5). Conclusions The use of an easily applicable control variable, simply constructed on standard occupational job classifications, provides the possibility to differentiate between educational and occupational contributions. Such an <span class="hlt">index</span> might indirectly reflect the effect of carcinogenic agents, which are not collected in many studies. PMID:24246148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16820730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16820730"><span id="translatedtitle">The glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span>: methodology and use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kendall, Cyril W C; Augustin, Livia S A; Emam, Azadeh; Josse, Andrea R; Saxena, Nishta; Jenkins, David J A</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> concept owes much to the dietary fiber hypothesis that fiber would reduce the rate of nutrient <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and increase the value of carbohydrate foods in the maintenance of health and treatment of disease. However, properties and components of food other than its fiber content contribute to the glycemic and endocrine responses postprandially. The aim of the glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> classification of foods was therefore to assist in the physiological classification of carbohydrate foods which, it was hoped, would be of relevance in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Over the past two decades low glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> diets have been reported to improve glycemic control in diabetic subjects, to reduce serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects and possibly to aid in weight control. In large cohort studies, low glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> or glycemic load diets (glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> multiplied by total carbohydrate) have also been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced C-reactive protein concentrations and with a decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. More recently, some case-control and cohort studies have also found positive associations between the dietary glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> and the risk of colon, breast and other cancers. While the glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> concept continues to be debated and there remain inconsistencies in the data, sufficient positive findings have emerged to suggest that the glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> is an aspect of diet of potential importance in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135356','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135356"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> heat pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grossman, G.</p> <p>1982-06-16</p> <p>The efficiency of an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865074','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865074"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> heat pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grossman, Gershon</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The efficiency of an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080005998','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080005998"><span id="translatedtitle">Compounds affecting cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/982795','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/982795"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar selective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward</p> <p>2004-08-31</p> <p>A new class of solar selective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coatings are also disclosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985342','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985342"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar selective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward</p> <p>2003-10-14</p> <p>A new class of solar selective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coatings are also disclosed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867114','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867114"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurement system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of the optical element from the temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005945"><span id="translatedtitle">CENDI <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The CENDI <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, <span class="hlt">indexing</span> quality, an <span class="hlt">indexing</span> pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information <span class="hlt">indexing</span> activities, high-tech coding structures, category <span class="hlt">indexing</span> schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7073841','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7073841"><span id="translatedtitle">Seven-effect <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigeration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.</p> <p>1989-05-09</p> <p>A seven-effect <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866945','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866945"><span id="translatedtitle">Seven-effect <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigeration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A seven-effect <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low <span class="hlt">absorption</span> circuit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521772"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental comparison between speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span>, rapid speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span>, and speech intelligibility <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span> (STI) and the speech intelligibility <span class="hlt">index</span> (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span> (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521772"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental comparison between speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span>, rapid speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span>, and speech intelligibility <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span> (STI) and the speech intelligibility <span class="hlt">index</span> (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission <span class="hlt">index</span> (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18305787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18305787"><span id="translatedtitle">Refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of air. 2. Group <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ciddor, P E; Hill, R J</p> <p>1999-03-20</p> <p>In a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)] one of us presented new equations for evaluation of the phase refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of air over a range of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. That paper also gave an incorrect, although sufficiently accurate, procedure for calculating the group refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. Here we describe the results of a more rigorous derivation of the group <span class="hlt">index</span> that takes proper account of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, and we demonstrate that deviations from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula are insignificant to within a foreseeable precision of dispersion measurements for atmospheric conditions. We also derive and evaluate a simplification of the resultant equation that is useful for exploratory calculations. We clarify the limits of validity of the standard equation for the group refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and correct some minor errors in the previous paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1+AND+fm&pg=4&id=EJ240893','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1+AND+fm&pg=4&id=EJ240893"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Keyword <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olsgaard, John N.; Evans, John Edward</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Examines some of the most frequently cited criticisms of keyword <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, including (1) the absence of general subject headings, (2) limited entry points, and (3) irrelevant <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Six references are cited. (FM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). You and your health care provider ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ178044','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ178044"><span id="translatedtitle">Audio <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> for Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>This article describes Zimdex, an audio <span class="hlt">indexing</span> system developed to solve the problem of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_tbl.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_tbl.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Table</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JBAA..111...28M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JBAA..111...28M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> to Volume 110</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marriott, R. A.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>The Subject <span class="hlt">Index</span> references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are <span class="hlt">indexed</span> as such, but their subjects are not further cross-<span class="hlt">indexed</span>. The Author <span class="hlt">Index</span> details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meulen&pg=3&id=EJ172210','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meulen&pg=3&id=EJ172210"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Versus Manual <span class="hlt">Indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> was found equivalent to manual <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. (Author/KP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hyphen&pg=3&id=ED075038','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hyphen&pg=3&id=ED075038"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine-Aided <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Charles R.</p> <p></p> <p>Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> text. A new <span class="hlt">indexing</span> subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monitor&pg=3&id=EJ997592','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monitor&pg=3&id=EJ997592"><span id="translatedtitle">The Europe 2020 <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pasimeni, Paolo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">index</span> to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the <span class="hlt">index</span> shows…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin+AND+language&pg=2&id=ED287161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin+AND+language&pg=2&id=ED287161"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS). 1986-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865075','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865075"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> heat pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An improvement in an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367560"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient manipulation of graphene <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by a simple dielectric cylinder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Ting-Hui; Gan, Lin; Li, Zhi-Yuan</p> <p>2015-07-27</p> <p>We theoretically study the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> property of graphene manipulated by a dielectric cylinder through an analytical method. The distinctive <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties of incident waves with different polarizations (TM and TE) are analyzed and they are strongly correlated with the structure resonance and material dispersion. Besides, the characteristics of graphene <span class="hlt">absorption</span> tuned by the cylinder radius and refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> as well as the chemical potential of graphene are systematically investigated. It is found that enhancement and continuous tunability of graphene <span class="hlt">absorption</span> can be achieved by utilizing the whispering gallery mode produced in the dielectric cylinder and harnessing the graphene optical conductivity via tuning its chemical potential by exterior electrical grating. The theoretical studies open up a simple while efficient means to manipulate the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of graphene in a broad frequency range via the geometric and physical configuration of hybrid graphene-microstructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010557','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780010557"><span id="translatedtitle">A plant canopy light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> model with application to wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chance, J. E.; Lemaster, E. W.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>From the light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> model the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light in the photosynthetically active region of the spectrum was calculated for a Penjamo wheat crop for several situations including: (1) the percent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of the incident radiation by a canopy having a four layer structure; (2) the percent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light by the individual layers within a four layer canopy and by the underlying soil; (3) the percent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light by each vegetative canopy layer for variable sun angle; and (4) the cumulative solar energy absorbed by the developing wheat canopy as it progresses from a single layer through its growth stages to a three layer canopy. This calculation was also presented as a function of the leaf area <span class="hlt">index</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013416','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013416"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of the furnace heat <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>In order to predict the furnace heat <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat <span class="hlt">absorption</span> rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat <span class="hlt">absorption</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new <span class="hlt">index</span> from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=203130','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=203130"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipids: <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> and transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to the hydrophobic nature of lipids, dietary fat is handled differently than protein or carbohydrate with respect with digestion and <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Dietary fats are broken down throughout the gastrointestinal system. A unique group of enzymes and cofactors allows this process to proceed in an eff...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9741E..0PH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9741E..0PH"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> driven focus shift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative <span class="hlt">absorption</span> level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between <span class="hlt">absorption</span> levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22acousto+optic%22&id=EJ829066','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22acousto+optic%22&id=EJ829066"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-Phonon <span class="hlt">Absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hamilton, M. W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150091"><span id="translatedtitle">Cholesterol <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> and Metabolism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howles, Philip N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Inhibitors of cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> have been sought for decades as a means to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with hypercholesterolemia. Ezetimibe is the one clear success story in this regard, and other compounds with similar efficacy continue to be sought. In the last decade, the laboratory mouse, with all its genetic power, has become the premier experimental model for discovering the mechanisms underlying cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and has become a critical tool for preclinical testing of potential pharmaceutical entities. This chapter briefly reviews the history of cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> research and the various gene candidates that have come under consideration as drug targets. The most common and versatile method of measuring cholesterol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is described in detail along with important considerations when interpreting results, and an alternative method is also presented. In recent years, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has become an area of intense new interest for drug discovery since this process is now considered another key to reducing CVD risk. The ultimate measure of RCT is sterol excretion and a detailed description is given for measuring neutral and acidic fecal sterols and interpreting the results. PMID:27150091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14306025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14306025"><span id="translatedtitle">NEW CONCEPTS IN <span class="hlt">INDEXING</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>SHANK, R</p> <p>1965-07-01</p> <p>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced <span class="hlt">indexes</span> in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These <span class="hlt">indexes</span> may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation <span class="hlt">indexing</span> seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of <span class="hlt">index</span> copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and abstracting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..685H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..685H"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in silicon metamaterials waveguide structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamouche, Houria; Shabat, Mohammed M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Metamaterial waveguide structures for silicon solar cells are a novel approach to antireflection coating structures that can be used for the achievement of high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in silicon solar cells. This paper investigates numerically the possibility of improving the performance of a planar waveguide silicon solar cell by incorporating a pair of silicon nitride/metamaterial layer between a semi-infinite glass cover layer and a semi-infinite silicon substrate layer. The optimized layer thicknesses of the pair are determined under the solar spectrum AM1.5 by the effective average reflectance method. The transmission and reflection coefficients are derived by the transfer matrix method for values of metamaterial's refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> in visible and near-infrared radiation. In addition, the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient is examined for several angles of incidence of the transverse electric polarized (TE), transverse magnetic polarized (TM) and the total (TE&TM) guided waves. Numerical results provide an extremely high <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. The <span class="hlt">absorptivity</span> of the structure achieves greater than 98 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1014802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1014802"><span id="translatedtitle">Refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of glass and its dipersion for visible light.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, D. Y.; Karstens, W.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The classification of optical glass and empirical relations between the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and its dispersion are discussed in terms of moments of the glass's IR and UV <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra. The observed linear dependence of <span class="hlt">index</span> on dispersion within glass families is shown to arise primarily from the approximately linear superposition of the electronic <span class="hlt">absorptions</span> of glass former and glass modifiers. The binary classification into crown and flint glasses is also based primarily on electronic spectra: Crown glasses are 'wide-gap' materials with excitation energies greater than {approx}12.4 eV, while flint glasses are their 'narrow-gap' counterpart.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1051.photos.046686p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1051.photos.046686p/"><span id="translatedtitle">69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> TOWER BUILDING, <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> TOWER ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> TOWER BUILDING, <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796160"><span id="translatedtitle">Vaginal <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> of Penicillin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rock, J; Barker, R H; Bacon, W B</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>Except during the last two months of pregnancy, penicillin is easily absorbed from cocoa butter suppositories in the vagina, ordinarily to give therapeutic blood levels for from 4 to 6 hours. Penicillin in the dosage used seems to have a good effect on vaginal infections. In nonpregnant women, during the ovulation phase, considered as including days 14 +/- 2 in the ordinary menstrual cycle of about 28 days, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> seemed to be somewhat diminished. Higher levels were found in patients who were near the end of their menstrual cycles and in two patients who were menopausal. Patients who were very near term absorbed little or no penicillin, whereas patients 10 days post partum showed excellent <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19236070"><span id="translatedtitle">Photothermal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> correlation spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Octeau, Vivien; Cognet, Laurent; Duchesne, Laurence; Lasne, David; Schaeffer, Nicolas; Fernig, David G; Lounis, Brahim</p> <p>2009-02-24</p> <p>Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a popular technique, complementary to cell imaging for the investigation of dynamic processes in living cells. Based on fluorescence, this single molecule method suffers from artifacts originating from the poor fluorophore photophysics: photobleaching, blinking, and saturation. To circumvent these limitations we present here a new correlation method called photothermal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> correlation spectroscopy (PhACS) which relies on the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties of tiny nano-objects. PhACS is based on the photothermal heterodyne detection technique and measures akin FCS, the time correlation function of the detected signals. Application of this technique to the precise determination of the hydrodynamic sizes of different functionalized gold nanoparticles are presented, highlighting the potential of this method. PMID:19236070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2128495','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2128495"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> OF ADRENALIN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lyon, D. Murray</p> <p>1923-01-01</p> <p>1. Adrenalin solution given subcutaneously is usually rapidly absorbed, probably by lymphatic channels. 2. The speed of this process may be influenced by the circulation rate. 3. The relative amounts of adrenalin at any moment unabsorbed at the site of inoculation, carried in the circulating fluids, and taken up by the reacting tissues can be calculated from figures extracted from the curve of the blood pressure changes. The relative rates of transference of adrenalin into the blood and from the circulation into the tissues can also be estimated. 4. When <span class="hlt">absorption</span> takes place rapidly a large quantity of the drug comes into action at once and the maximum occurs early, the curve of blood pressure reaches a considerable height, and subsides quickly. When <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is slow the apex appears later and does not reach so high a level. 5. The response to adrenalin bears a logarithmic relationship to the dose employed and a method of allowing for this is indicated. PMID:19868816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EJPh...34..449Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EJPh...34..449Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Refraction and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of microwaves in wood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychological+AND+abstracts&pg=3&id=EJ305638','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychological+AND+abstracts&pg=3&id=EJ305638"><span id="translatedtitle">Personnel Management <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Falcione, Carol</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Concentrates on four specialized <span class="hlt">indexes</span> that are devoted exclusively to personnel and human resources topics: "Personnel Literature,""Personnel Management Abstracts,""Human Resources Abstracts," and "Work Related Abstracts." A concluding section compares strengths and weaknesses of these publications to three broader <span class="hlt">indexes</span>: "The Business…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computer&pg=6&id=ED138296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computer&pg=6&id=ED138296"><span id="translatedtitle">EMMSE Media <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Sea+side%22+OR+coastline&pg=6&id=ED257512','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Sea+side%22+OR+coastline&pg=6&id=ED257512"><span id="translatedtitle">Transfer <span class="hlt">Index</span>: One Definition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heinselman, James L.</p> <p></p> <p>A transfer <span class="hlt">index</span> of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate <span class="hlt">index</span> of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ673994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ673994"><span id="translatedtitle">A Factor Simplicity <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Proposes an <span class="hlt">index</span> for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The <span class="hlt">index</span> does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Transportation+AND+affects+AND+air+AND+pollution&id=ED362285','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Transportation+AND+affects+AND+air+AND+pollution&id=ED362285"><span id="translatedtitle">Children's Stress <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sherman, Dianne, Ed.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress <span class="hlt">Index</span>", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the <span class="hlt">index</span> ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fog&pg=4&id=ED154337','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fog&pg=4&id=ED154337"><span id="translatedtitle">A Computer Calculated <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Francis J.</p> <p></p> <p>The Gunning Fog <span class="hlt">Index</span> of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog <span class="hlt">Index</span> of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866788','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866788"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient <span class="hlt">index</span> retroreflector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Layne, Clyde B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A retroreflector is formed of a graded <span class="hlt">index</span> lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded <span class="hlt">index</span> lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volume&pg=7&id=EJ915335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volume&pg=7&id=EJ915335"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Volumetrically <span class="hlt">Indexed</span> Cups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Dustin L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span>; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/826638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/826638"><span id="translatedtitle">Relic Neutrino <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eberle, b</p> <p>2004-01-28</p> <p>Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable <span class="hlt">absorption</span> dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these <span class="hlt">absorption</span> dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483930"><span id="translatedtitle">All-semiconductor negative-<span class="hlt">index</span> plasmonic absorbers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Law, S; Roberts, C; Kilpatrick, T; Yu, L; Ribaudo, T; Shaner, E A; Podolskiy, V; Wasserman, D</p> <p>2014-01-10</p> <p>We demonstrate epitaxially grown all-semiconductor thin-film midinfrared plasmonic absorbers and show that <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in these structures is linked to the excitation of highly confined negative-<span class="hlt">index</span> surface plasmon polaritons. Strong (>98%) <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is experimentally observed, and the spectral position and intensity of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> resonances are studied by reflection and transmission spectroscopy. Numerical models as well as an analytical description of the excited guided modes in our structures are presented, showing agreement with experiment. The structures investigated demonstrate a wavelength-flexible, all-semiconductor, plasmonic architecture with potential for both sensing applications and enhanced interaction of midinfrared radiation with integrated semiconductor optoelectronic elements. PMID:24483930</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corrosion&pg=3&id=EJ181472','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corrosion&pg=3&id=EJ181472"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion Problems in <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Chillers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stetson, Bruce</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sound+AND+vibrations&pg=3&id=ED026842','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sound+AND+vibrations&pg=3&id=ED026842"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Characteristics of People.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>The acoustic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> data, expressed as sabins per person or <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25189377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25189377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span>-assisted mode transformation in butterfly compound eyes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Jaeyoun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ommatidium of the butterfly's afocal apposition eye exhibits angular performance that can only be achieved by transforming the diffraction pattern of its corneal lens into the fundamental mode of its rhabdom waveguide. A graded <span class="hlt">index</span> model of the ommatidium has been proposed and verified but the efforts to extract the transformation's underlying physics from it have been hindered by its extreme complexity. Here we numerically investigate the ommatidium model and reveal that the current model, involving only the graded <span class="hlt">index</span> distribution, is insufficient for the transformation. We further find that adding spatially varying <span class="hlt">absorption</span> to the existing model dramatically improves its transformation performance, producing near-perfect mode matching with overlap integral exceeding 0.96. Such a combined action of spatially varying <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> for microscale mode transformation is new to researchers in optics and biology and will benefit both disciplines. PMID:25189377</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987STIN...8829218H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987STIN...8829218H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> heat pumps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21325834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21325834"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of multi-layered <span class="hlt">absorption</span> structure for high quantum efficiency photon detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fujii, Go; Fukuda, Daiji; Numata, Takayuki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Fujino, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Taro; Zama, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shuichiro</p> <p>2009-12-16</p> <p>We report on some efforts to improve a quantum efficiency of titanium-based optical superconducting transition edge sensors using the multi-layered <span class="hlt">absorption</span> structure for maximizing photon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in the Ti layer. Using complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> values of each film measured by a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, we designed and optimized by a simulation code. An <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurement of fabricated structure was in good agreement with the design and was higher than 99% at optimized wavelength of 1550 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866075','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866075"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">absorption</span> hygrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An ultraviolet <span class="hlt">absorption</span> hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7001490','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7001490"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">absorption</span> hygrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.</p> <p>1986-12-09</p> <p>An ultraviolet <span class="hlt">absorption</span> hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.836...83K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.836...83K"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular total <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The design and performance of the Modular Total <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024318"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA 1981 photography <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">index</span> of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ078907','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ078907"><span id="translatedtitle">Audio <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> for Individualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Article describes a new development in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2617...70C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2617...70C"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for video <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various <span class="hlt">indexing</span> techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically <span class="hlt">index</span> video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those <span class="hlt">indexing</span> techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004053','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160004053"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Voltages and Insulation Resistance in Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Teverovsky, Alexander</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Time dependence of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> voltages (Vabs) in different types of low-voltage X5R and X7R ceramic capacitors was monitored for a maximum duration of hundred hours after polarization. To evaluate the effect of mechanical defects on Vabs, cracks in the dielectric were introduced either mechanically or by thermal shock. The maximum <span class="hlt">absorption</span> voltage, time to roll-off, and the rate of voltage decrease are shown to depend on the crack-related leakage currents and insulation resistance in the parts. A simple model that is based on the Dow equivalent circuit for capacitors with <span class="hlt">absorption</span> has been developed to assess the insulation resistance of capacitors. Standard measurements of the insulation resistance, contrary to the measurements based on Vabs, are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects and fail to reveal capacitors with cracks. <span class="hlt">Index</span> Terms: Ceramic capacitor, insulation resistance, dielectric <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, cracking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24785964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24785964"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple scattering of polarized light: influence of <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hohmann, A; Voit, F; Schäfer, J; Kienle, A</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This work continues previous research about multiple scattering of polarized light propagation in turbid media, putting emphasis on the imaginary part of the scatterers' complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. The whole angle-dependent Müller matrix is evaluated by comparing results of a polarization sensitive radiative transfer solution to Maxwell theory. Turbid media of defined scatterer concentrations are modelled in three dimensions by sphere ensembles kept inside a cubic or spherical simulation volume. This study addresses the impact of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> on polarization characteristics for selected media from low to high <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Besides that, effects caused by multiple and dependent scattering are shown for increasing volume concentration. In this context some unique properties associated with multiple scattering and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> are pointed out. Further, scattering results in two dimensions are compared for examples of infinite parallel cylinders of high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and perpendicularly incident plane waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007273','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007273"><span id="translatedtitle">JSC document <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document <span class="hlt">index</span> is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The <span class="hlt">index</span> contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMES..42..272J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMES..42..272J"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Dustin L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span>; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331"><span id="translatedtitle">New generic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeston, Michael</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database <span class="hlt">indexing</span> has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> technology for the next generation of database systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16946780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16946780"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffuse light propagation in a turbid medium with varying refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>: Monte Carlo modeling in a spherically symmetrical geometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shendeleva, Margarita L; Molloy, John A</p> <p>2006-09-20</p> <p>We report on the development of Monte Carlo software that can model media with spatially varying scattering coefficient, <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, and refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. The varying refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is implemented by calculating curved photon paths in the medium. The results of the numerical simulations are compared with analytical solutions obtained using the diffusion approximation. The model under investigation is a scattering medium that contains a spherically symmetrical inclusion (inhomogeneity) created by variation in optical properties and having no sharp boundaries. The following steady-state cases are considered: (a) a nonabsorbing medium with a spherically symmetrical varying refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, (b) an inclusion with varying <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and scattering coefficients and constant refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, and (c) an inclusion with varying <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, scattering, and refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. In the latter case it is shown that the interplay between the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient and the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> may create the effect of a hidden inclusion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..115.8009B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..115.8009B"><span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> budget of Southeast Pacific waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bricaud, Annick; Babin, Marcel; Claustre, Hervé; Ras, JoséPhine; TièChe, Fanny</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles (NAPs), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and their relative contributions to total light <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, are essential variables for bio-optical and biogeochemical models. However, their actual variations in the open ocean remain poorly documented, particularly for clear waters because of the difficulty in measuring very low <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients. The Biogeochemistry and Optics South Pacific Experiment (BIOSOPE) cruise investigated a large range of oceanic regimes, from mesotrophic waters around the Marquesas Islands to hyperoligotrophic waters in the subtropical gyre and eutrophic waters in the upwelling area off Chile. The spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were determined using the filter technique, while the CDOM <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients were measured using a 2 m capillary waveguide. Over the whole transect, the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients of both dissolved and particulate components covered approximately two orders of magnitude; in the gyre, they were among the lowest ever reported for open ocean waters. In the oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were notably lower than those measured in other oceanic areas with similar chlorophyll contents, indicating some deviation from the standard chlorophyll-<span class="hlt">absorption</span> relationships. The contribution of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by NAPs to total particulate <span class="hlt">absorption</span> showed large vertical and horizontal variations. CDOM <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients covaried with algal biomass, albeit with a high scatter. The spectral slopes of both NAP and CDOM <span class="hlt">absorption</span> revealed structured spatial variability in relation with the trophic conditions. The relative contributions of each component to total nonwater <span class="hlt">absorption</span> were (at a given wavelength) weakly variable over the transect, at least within the euphotic layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015A%26A...575A..44G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015A%26A...575A..44G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The HI <span class="hlt">absorption</span> "Zoo"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1<FWHM< 570 km s-1, whereas the full width at 20% of the peak <span class="hlt">absorption</span> (FW20) lies in the range 63 km s-1<FW20< 825 km s-1. The width and asymmetry of the profiles allows us to identify three groups: narrow lines (FWHM< 100 km s-1), intermediate widths (100 km s-1<FWHM< 200 km s-1), and broad profiles (FWHM> 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=issues+AND+layout+AND+design&pg=4&id=EJ491442','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=issues+AND+layout+AND+design&pg=4&id=EJ491442"><span id="translatedtitle">Needs for Research in <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Milstead, Jessica L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Uncovers issues in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of <span class="hlt">indexers</span> and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human <span class="hlt">indexers</span>' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of <span class="hlt">indexes</span> on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. (Contains 21…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119040"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of atmospheric aerosol substances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Volz, F E</p> <p>1972-04-01</p> <p>The optical constants in the ir from lambda2.5 microm to 40 microm (4000-250 cm(-1)) of dry natural aerosol substances and of sea salt are presented. The aerosol substances were obtained from rain and snow water: dust and soot by sedimentation, and water soluble salts by evaporation. The spectra of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> n' were derived from our published transmittance measurements of potassium bromide disks. The real part n of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> was calculated from the specular reflectance at near normal incidence of disks of pure aerosol substance. The observed spectral features are being related to chemical constituents, notably sulfates and alcohol soluble organics. Optical constants of composite and wet aerosol are discussed. A simple model confirms the measured transmission of a coarse dry powder of water solubles and shows that the extinction by natural aerosol should have a minimum near 8 microm and a strong maximum near 9 microm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080175','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080175"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing Water's Optical <span class="hlt">Absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculate Your Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014426"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarantine document system <span class="hlt">indexing</span> procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> procedures and thesaurus of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-CM/Volume_24/24-4-571.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-CM/Volume_24/24-4-571.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span> or the illite "crystallinity' <span class="hlt">index</span>. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span> method alone. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3422856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3422856"><span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in preterm infants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>West, D P; Halket, J M; Harvey, D R; Hadgraft, J; Solomon, L M; Harper, J I</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>The skin of preterm infants varies considerably in its level of maturity. To understand skin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in premature infants better, we report a technique for the assessment of percutaneous <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at various gestational and postnatal ages using stable, isotope-labeled (13C6) benzoic acid. Our results indicate that in the preterm infant, this method detects enhanced skin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in the first postnatal days, which declines over three weeks to that expected of a full-term infant. This approach also indicates an inverse relationship between gestational age and skin <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, as well as postnatal age and skin <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. The reported technique is a safe and noninvasive method using a model skin penetrant for the study of percutaneous <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in preterm infants from which basic data may be derived to add to our understanding of skin barrier function. PMID:3422856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24513952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24513952"><span id="translatedtitle">All-optical switching in a symmetric three-waveguide coupler with phase-mismatched <span class="hlt">absorptive</span> central waveguide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yijing; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Krishnamurthy, Vivek</p> <p>2013-12-20</p> <p>All-optical switching operation based on manipulation of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in a three-waveguide directional coupler is theoretically investigated. The proposed structure consists of one <span class="hlt">absorptive</span> central waveguide and two identical passive side waveguides. Optically induced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> change in the central waveguide effectively controls the coupling of light between the two side waveguides, leading to optical switching action. The proposed architecture alleviates the fabrication challenges and waveguide <span class="hlt">index</span> matching conditions that limit previous demonstrations of similar switching schemes based on a two-waveguide directional coupler. The proposed device accommodates large modal <span class="hlt">index</span> difference between <span class="hlt">absorptive</span> and passive waveguides without compromising the switching extinction ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971436"><span id="translatedtitle">X-ray <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.</p> <p>2009-07-09</p> <p>This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy, both X-ray <span class="hlt">absorption</span> near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray <span class="hlt">absorption</span> fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5596335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5596335"><span id="translatedtitle">Fayalite-rich rims, veins, and halos around and in forsteritic olivines in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites: Types, compositional profiles and constraints of their formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hua, X.; Adam, J.; Palme, H.; Goresy, A. E. )</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Fayalite-rich rims, veins, and halos around and in forsteritic olivines are a wide-spread phenomenon in chondrules, Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and single grains in carbonaceous chondrites. The presence of fayalite rod-like crystals and laths in rims, veins, in wall of pores, and as fluffy network bridging neighboring olivines, pyroxenes, feldspars, etc. is strongly suggestive that the fayalitic olivine was formed by condensation presumably from the solar nebula gas. The formation of the fayalitic olivine was probably caused by an increase in the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} ratio (to a ratio between 0.1-1) subsequent to condensation of forsterite. At that stage, FeNi inclusions in olivine were also oxidized and fayalitic halos around the metal were then formed Fe diffusion along with addition of SiO{sub 2} from the solar gas or loss of M{sub g}O to the solar gas. The Fa-rich olivine rims and veins display a narrow compositional variation between Fa{sup 34} and Fa{sup 46}. Subsequent to condensation of Fa-rich olivine and oxidation of FeNi metal, Fe diffused in forsterite. This diffusion was probable enhanced due to the presence of point defects in olivine or the formation of a nonstoichiometric phase analogous to laihunite enriched in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3{minus}} rich discrete domains cannot by excluded. Cooling rates calculated by modeling of the diffusion profiles are indicative of rapid cooling subsequent to the condensation of fayalitic olivines. The authors obtain cooling rates ranging from 2000{degree}/day and 10{degree}C/day at an initial temperature of 1200C{degree} and 900C{degree}, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LTP....41..760D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LTP....41..760D"><span id="translatedtitle">Graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> magnonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (graded magnonic <span class="hlt">index</span>). By analogy to the fields of graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.2041G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.2041G"><span id="translatedtitle">A Social Capital <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We define an <span class="hlt">index</span> of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770013458','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770013458"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Photography 1977 <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">index</span> is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=REDD&pg=3&id=EJ749126','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=REDD&pg=3&id=EJ749126"><span id="translatedtitle">A Sociodemographic Risk <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an <span class="hlt">index</span> of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=optic+AND+lenses&pg=4&id=EJ300392','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=optic+AND+lenses&pg=4&id=EJ300392"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient Refractive <span class="hlt">Index</span> Lenses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morton, N.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes the nature of gradient refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=misery&pg=2&id=EJ603328','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=misery&pg=2&id=EJ603328"><span id="translatedtitle">The Misery <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bracey, Gerald W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery <span class="hlt">Index</span> than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914571.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914571.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Allister</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0471.pdf','DOE-RDACC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0471.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Subgap <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> in Conjugated Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fieldedsearch.html">DOE R&D Accomplishments Database</a></p> <p>Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in the transparent window below the principal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an <span class="hlt">absorptance</span> sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest <span class="hlt">absorption</span> edge. The minimum <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993InfPh..34..117H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993InfPh..34..117H"><span id="translatedtitle">Interband and intraband contributions to refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and dispersion in narrow-gap semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrmann, K. H.; Melzer, V.; Müller, U.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>This review covers experimental methods and results for the determination of refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. It discusses various empirical relations between refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and energy gap (Moss relation, Ravindra and Gopal formulae and the Wemple DiDomenico approach). Effects of free carriers and temperature are included. Finally, the Kramers-Kronig transformation of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> or reflection spectra is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stephen+AND+William&pg=3&id=EJ206779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stephen+AND+William&pg=3&id=EJ206779"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Theory and Retrieval Effectiveness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robertson, Stephen E.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Describes recent attempts to make explicit connections between the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> process and the use of the <span class="hlt">index</span> or information retrieval system, particularly the utility-theoretic and automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> models of William Cooper and Stephen Harter. Theory and performance, information storage and retrieval, search stage feedback, and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=3&id=EJ314051','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=3&id=EJ314051"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> of Full Texts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jonak, Zdenek</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Results obtained are compared with automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> results performed by traditional methods and results of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> done by human <span class="hlt">indexers</span>. Sample terms and codes are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874282','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874282"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Weiss, Jonathan David</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A sensor for measuring the change in refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the <span class="hlt">index</span> of the liquid is significantly less than the <span class="hlt">index</span> of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its <span class="hlt">index</span> is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089373"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We report on simulations and measurements of the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87b3904S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87b3904S"><span id="translatedtitle">Photothermal method for <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurements in anisotropic crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stubenvoll, M.; Schäfer, B.; Mann, K.; Novak, O.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A measurement system for quantitative determination of both surface and bulk contributions to the photo-thermal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> has been extended to anisotropic optical media. It bases upon a highly sensitive Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, accomplishing precise on-line monitoring of wavefront deformations of a collimated test beam transmitted perpendicularly through the laser-irradiated side of a cuboid sample. Caused by the temperature dependence of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> as well as thermal expansion, the initially plane wavefront of the test beam is distorted. Sign and magnitude depend on <span class="hlt">index</span> change and expansion. By comparison with thermal theory, a calibration of the measurement is possible, yielding a quantitative absolute measure of bulk and surface <span class="hlt">absorption</span> losses from the transient wavefront distortion. Results for KTP and BBO single crystals are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20935789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20935789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span>-coefficient-determination method for particulate materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindberg, J D; Douglass, R E; Garvey, D M</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>A method is presented for determining the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient, or the imaginary refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, of particulate material that has been collected from aerosols or hydrosols by means of filtration. The method, based on the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse reflectance, is nondestructive and requires no other knowledge of the sample than the amount present, the specific gravity, and an estimate of the real <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction. The theoretical development of the method is discussed along with an analysis of photometric and gravimetric errors. We test the method by comparing results obtained for powdered didymium glass with measurements made before the glass was crushed. An example of the method's application to the determination of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient of atmospheric dust at UV, visible, and near-IR wavelengths is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20935789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20935789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span>-coefficient-determination method for particulate materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindberg, J D; Douglass, R E; Garvey, D M</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>A method is presented for determining the optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient, or the imaginary refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, of particulate material that has been collected from aerosols or hydrosols by means of filtration. The method, based on the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse reflectance, is nondestructive and requires no other knowledge of the sample than the amount present, the specific gravity, and an estimate of the real <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction. The theoretical development of the method is discussed along with an analysis of photometric and gravimetric errors. We test the method by comparing results obtained for powdered didymium glass with measurements made before the glass was crushed. An example of the method's application to the determination of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient of atmospheric dust at UV, visible, and near-IR wavelengths is also presented. PMID:20935789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863235','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863235"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas-<span class="hlt">absorption</span> process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>This invention is an improved gas-<span class="hlt">absorption</span> process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=333014','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=333014"><span id="translatedtitle">Intestinal Folate <span class="hlt">Absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Olinger, Edward J.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Binder, Henry J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>These studies were designed to determine whether pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA) at physiologic concentrations is transported across the small intestine unaltered or is reduced and methylated to the circulating folate form (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-MeFH4]) during <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. [3H]PGA was incubated in vitro on the mucosal side of rat jejunum. Of the folate transferred to the serosal side, the percent identified as 5-MeFH4 by DEAE-Sephadex chromtography was inversely related to the initial mucosa PGA concentration: at 7, 20, and 2,000 nM, 44%, 34%, and 2%, respectively, was converted to 5-MeFH4. In contrast, less than 4% of the folate transferred across ileal mucosa was 5-MeFH4 when the initial mucosa concentration was 20 nM. Specific activity of dihydrofolate (DHF) reductase, the enzyme responsible for converting PGA to tetrahydrofolic acid, was measured in villus homogenates and was significantly greater in the jejunum than in the ileum. 1,000 nM methotrexate (MTX), a DHF reductase inhibitor, markedly inhibited PGA conversion to 5-MeFH4 by the jejunum. Studies of transmural flux, initial rate of mucosal entry (influx) and mucosal accumulation (uptake) of folate were also performed. Although MTX did not alter the influx of PGA, MTX decreased jejunal mucosal uptake but increased transmural movement. Transmural folate movement across ileal mucosa was greater than across jejunal mucosa although mucosal uptake was greater in the jejunum than in the ileum. These results could explain previous studies which have failed to identify conversion of PGA to 5-MeFH4 when intestinal preparations have been exposed to higher and less physiologic concentrations of PGA. Further, these studies suggest that 5-MeFH4 may be retained by the jejunal mucosa. PMID:4727453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435760"><span id="translatedtitle">The tree BVOC <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC <span class="hlt">index</span> based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the <span class="hlt">index</span> as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039048','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039048"><span id="translatedtitle">Abstracting and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and <span class="hlt">index</span> scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected <span class="hlt">index</span> terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937352','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937352"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable Lifting <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VLI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift <span class="hlt">Index</span> (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift <span class="hlt">Index</span> (CLI) equation is used with lifting <span class="hlt">index</span> (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6124..180H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6124..180H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Similar DNA Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.</p> <p></p> <p>To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an <span class="hlt">indexing</span> data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to <span class="hlt">index</span> highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our <span class="hlt">index</span> requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64R.122.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64R.122."><span id="translatedtitle">New weather <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress <span class="hlt">index</span>. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the <span class="hlt">index</span> adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress <span class="hlt">index</span> estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9119E..0EA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9119E..0EA"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of cyber integrity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Gustave</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the <span class="hlt">index</span> of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the <span class="hlt">index</span> of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric <span class="hlt">index</span> may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137717"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of lapatinib on oral digoxin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koch, Kevin M; Smith, Deborah A; Botbyl, Jeff; Arya, Nikita; Briley, Linda P; Cartee, Leanne; White, Jane Holshouser; Beyer, Jennifer; Dar, Mohammed M; Chung, Hyun Choel; Chu, Quincy; Bang, Yung-Jue</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The potential for an interaction between lapatinib and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of the P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) substrate digoxin at a therapeutic dose in breast cancer patients was characterized. Seventeen women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer received a single oral 0.5-mg dose of digoxin on days 1 and 9 and oral lapatinib 1500 mg once daily on days 2 through 9. Digoxin pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on day 1 (digoxin administration alone) and on day 9 (coadministration of lapatinib and digoxin), and parameters were compared to determine the effects of lapatinib on digoxin <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Concomitant medications that could affect ABCB1 were accounted for. Lapatinib 1500 mg/day increased digoxin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> approximately 80%, implicating lapatinib inhibition of intestinal ABCB1-mediated efflux. In summary, coadministration of lapatinib with narrow therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> drugs that are substrates of ABCB1 should be undertaken with caution and dose adjustment should be considered. PMID:27137717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000719&hterms=citric+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcitric%2Bacid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000719&hterms=citric+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcitric%2Bacid"><span id="translatedtitle">Gastrointestinal citrate <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in nephrolithiasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Gastrointestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate <span class="hlt">absorption</span> from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3345970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3345970"><span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of Octopirox.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Black, J G; Kamat, V B</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p> containing 1% Octopirox is 29,400, so that the possibility of systemic effects due to <span class="hlt">absorption</span> through the skin is remote. PMID:3345970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.RO113F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.RO113F"><span id="translatedtitle">Resonant <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> of Bessel Beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, J.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H. M.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>We report the first observation of enhanced laser-plasma optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in a subcritical density plasma resulting from spatial resonances, here in the laser breakdown of a gas with a Bessel beam. The enhancement in <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is directly correlated to enhancements both in confinement of laser radiation to the plasma and in its heating. Under certain conditions, azimuthal asymmetry in the laser beam is essential for efficient gas breakdown. Simulations of this <span class="hlt">absorption</span> consistently explain the experimental observations. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9515509) and the US Department of Energy (DEF G0297 ER 41039).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20372466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20372466"><span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurements: new techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hänel, G; Busen, R; Hillenbrand, C; Schloss, R</p> <p>1982-02-01</p> <p>A new radiometer is described which simplifies measurement of the radiation supply of solar wavelengths. Two methods of measuring the radiant energy absorbed by aerosol particles are described: A photometric technique is used for particles collected on filters, and a calorimetric technique is used for in situ measurements. Data collected with the radiometer and the light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> techniques yield the heating rate of the atmosphere due to light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by the particles. Sample measurements show substantial atmospheric temperature increases due to <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, especially in industrial regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0175.photos.168866p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0175.photos.168866p/"><span id="translatedtitle">29. TRACK LAYOUT, <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO DRAWINGS AND <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO MATERIALS, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>29. TRACK LAYOUT, <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO DRAWINGS AND <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagieński, Zbigniew</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/107313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/107313"><span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous nitroglycerin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horhota, S T; Fung, H L</p> <p>1979-05-01</p> <p>Percutaneous nitroglycerin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was studied in shaved rats by monitoring unchanged plasma drug concentrations for up to 4 hr. Drug <span class="hlt">absorption</span> from the neat liquid state or from an alcoholic solution was considerably poorer than that from a commercial ointment. This observation was unanticipated since the driving force for percutaneous drug <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was assumed to be drug thermodynamics. Potential artifacts such as drug volatilization from the skin, reduction of surface area through droplet formation, and vehicle occlusion were investigated, but they did not appear to be responsible for the observed results. Two experimental aqueous nitroglycerin gels were prepared with polyethylene glycol 400. One gel contained just sufficient polyethylene glycol to solubilize the nitroglycerin; the other had excess polyethylene glycol to solubilize nitroglycerin far below saturation. Both gels gave extremely low plasma nitroglycerin levels. The composite data suggested that percutaneous nitroglycerin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is highly vehicle dependent and that this dependency cannot be explained by simple consideration of drug thermodynamic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269217"><span id="translatedtitle">Circadian Regulation of Macronutrient <span class="hlt">Absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Various intestinal functions exhibit circadian rhythmicity. Disruptions in these rhythms as in shift workers and transcontinental travelers are associated with intestinal discomfort. Circadian rhythms are controlled at the molecular level by core clock and clock-controlled genes. These clock genes are expressed in intestinal cells, suggesting that they might participate in the circadian regulation of intestinal functions. A major function of the intestine is nutrient <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Here, we will review <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and circadian regulation of various transporters involved in their <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. A better understanding of circadian regulation of intestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> might help control several metabolic disorders and attenuate intestinal discomfort associated with disruptions in sleep-wake cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6476870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6476870"><span id="translatedtitle">Incomplete intestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of fructose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>Intestinal D-fructose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete <span class="hlt">absorption</span>: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited <span class="hlt">absorptive</span> capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1628620','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1628620"><span id="translatedtitle">Incomplete intestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of fructose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Intestinal D-fructose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete <span class="hlt">absorption</span>: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited <span class="hlt">absorptive</span> capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890841','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890841"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nuttall, Frank Q.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an <span class="hlt">index</span> of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046799"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> Sets and Vectorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keasler, J A</p> <p>2012-03-27</p> <p>Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid <span class="hlt">index</span> sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid <span class="hlt">index</span> sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317663','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317663"><span id="translatedtitle">A Major Controversy in Codon-Anticodon Adaptation Resolved by a New Codon Usage <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Xuhua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Two alternative hypotheses attribute different benefits to codon-anticodon adaptation. The first assumes that protein production is rate limited by both initiation and elongation and that codon-anticodon adaptation would result in higher elongation efficiency and more efficient and accurate protein production, especially for highly expressed genes. The second claims that protein production is rate limited only by initiation efficiency but that improved codon adaptation and, consequently, increased elongation efficiency have the benefit of increasing ribosomal availability for global translation. To test these hypotheses, a recent study engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes, all encoding the same protein but differing in degrees of codon adaptation, to quantify the effect of differential codon adaptation on protein production in Escherichia coli. The surprising conclusion that “codon bias did not correlate with gene expression” and that “translation initiation, not elongation, is rate-limiting for gene expression” contradicts the conclusion reached by many other empirical studies. In this paper, I resolve the contradiction by reanalyzing the data from the 154 sequences. I demonstrate that translation elongation accounts for about 17% of total variation in protein production and that the previous conclusion is due to the use of a codon adaptation <span class="hlt">index</span> (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) that does not account for the mutation bias in characterizing codon adaptation. The effect of translation elongation becomes undetectable only when translation initiation is unrealistically slow. A new <span class="hlt">index</span> of translation elongation ITE is formulated to facilitate studies on the efficiency and evolution of the translation machinery. PMID:25480780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316815','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316815"><span id="translatedtitle">Increase of Cisplatinum therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> through optical irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fumarel, R.; Murgoi, Gabriela; Albert, P.; Hurduc, Anca; Pascu, M. L.</p> <p>2009-06-19</p> <p>The increase/modification of the Cisplatinum therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> by neoplastic tissue exposure to optical radiation emitted between 400-2000 nm was studied; Cisplatinumum molecules do not absorb between 400 nm-2 {open_square}m. Doppler ultrasonography indicates that, following exposure, the living tissue local micro-vascularisation increases in a controlled and reversible way. The increase in the Cisplatinum therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> may be produced by accelerating the intracellular hydrolyze processes due to the water molecules <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in the near infrared. The irradiation makes possible the use of Cisplatinumum doses 10 times lower than in conventional chemotherapy; this generates lower secondary effects (kidney toxicity) while increasing the drug antineoplastic effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.144..249L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.144..249L"><span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (<span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Imaginary refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780063411&hterms=plant+light+spectrum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dplant%2Blight%2Bspectrum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780063411&hterms=plant+light+spectrum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dplant%2Blight%2Bspectrum"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant canopy light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> model with application to wheat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chance, J. E.; Lemaster, E. W.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> model (LAM) for vegetative plant canopies has been derived from the Suits reflectance model. From the LAM the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light in the photosynthetically active region of the spectrum (400-700 nm) has been calculated for a Penjamo wheat crop for several situations including (a) the percent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of the incident radiation by a canopy of LAI 3.1 having a four-layer structure, (b) the percent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light by the individual layers within a four-layer canopy and by the underlying soil, (c) the percent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light by each vegetative canopy layer for variable sun angle, and (d) the cumulative solar energy absorbed by the developing wheat canopy as it progresses from a single layer through its growth stages to a three-layer canopy. This calculation is also presented as a function of the leaf area <span class="hlt">index</span> and is shown to be in agreement with experimental data reported by Kanemasu on Plainsman V wheat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675155"><span id="translatedtitle">Empathic Features and <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> in Fantasy Role-Playing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the levels of empathy and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity <span class="hlt">Index</span> (empathy) and the Tellegen <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Scale (<span class="hlt">absorption</span>). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17680662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17680662"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of ganciclovir intestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in presence of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> enhancers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shah, Pranav; Jogani, Viral; Mishra, Pushpa; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Bagchi, Tamishraha; Misra, Ambikanandan</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this investigation was to study the influences of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> enhancers in increasing oral bioavailability of Ganciclovir (GAN) by assessing the transepithelial permeation across cell monolayers in vitro and bioavailability in rats in vivo. The permeation of GAN across Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers in the absence/presence of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD), chitosan hydrochloride (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), and their combinations was studied for a 2-h period. GAN was administered to rats in absence/presence of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> enhancers and drug contents in plasma were estimated. We found that the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of GAN in absence of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> enhancers (control) were 0.261 +/- 0.072 x 10(-6) and 0.486 +/- 0.063 x 10(-6) cm/s in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers, respectively, whereas in the presence of DMbetaCD, CH, SLS, and their combinations, Papp of GAN increased by 5- to 25-fold and 7- to 33-fold as compared to control in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers, respectively. However, in rats, the maximum enhancement in bioavailability of GAN during coadministration of these <span class="hlt">absorption</span> enhancers was only fivefold compared to GAN control. To conclude, the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> enhancers-DMbetaCD, CH, SLS, and their combinations demonstrated significant improvement in transepithelial permeation and bioavailability of GAN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23742349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23742349"><span id="translatedtitle">Converting Sabine <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients to random incidence <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Cheol-Ho</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients to random incidence <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500 Hz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25442537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25442537"><span id="translatedtitle">Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span>: <span class="hlt">absorption</span> sites in the intestine and interactions for <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV <span class="hlt">absorption</span> profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common <span class="hlt">absorption</span> pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=voice+AND+recorder&pg=2&id=EJ343915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=voice+AND+recorder&pg=2&id=EJ343915"><span id="translatedtitle">An Introduction to Voice <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chandler, James G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Uses and sources of voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966218','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966218"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001445&hterms=Temperate+Grassland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTemperate%2BGrassland','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001445&hterms=Temperate+Grassland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTemperate%2BGrassland"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Enhanced Vegetation <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation <span class="hlt">Index</span> (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27512505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27512505"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagieński, Zbigniew</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116199','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116199"><span id="translatedtitle">A Windshear Hazard <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional <span class="hlt">index</span> was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/341286','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/341286"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> contamination surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, R.L.</p> <p>1998-02-06</p> <p>The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. The <span class="hlt">indexing</span> process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility`s radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052132"><span id="translatedtitle">Interferometric atmospheric refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> environmental monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ludman, J E; Ludman, J J; Callahan, H; Caulfield, H J; Watt, D; Sampson, J L; Robinson, J; Davis, S; Hunt, A</p> <p>1995-06-20</p> <p>Long, open-path, outdoor interferometric measurement of the <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction as a function of wavelength (spectral refractivity) requires a number of innovations. These include active compensation for vibration and turbulence. The use of electronic compensation produces an electronic signal that is ideal for extracting data. This allows the appropriate interpretation of those data and the systematic and fast scanning of the spectrum by the use of bandwidths that are intermediate between lasers (narrow bandwidth) and white light (broad bandwidth). An Environmental Interferometer that incorporates these features should be extremely valuable in both pollutant detection and pollutant identification. Spectral refractivity measurements complement the information available from spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> instruments (e.g., a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer). The Environmental Interferometer currently uses an electronic compensating device with a 1-kHz response time, and therefore rapid spectral scans are feasibe so that it is possible to monitor the time evolution of pollutant events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9282221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9282221"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> events in memory: evidence for <span class="hlt">index</span> dominance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, H A; Tversky, B</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>Research on narrative comprehension and autobiographical memory converge on three hypotheses which make different predictions about event organisation. The availability of different event components as <span class="hlt">indexes</span> may explain the convergence on three hypotheses rather than one. In this paper, three experiments assessed event <span class="hlt">indexing</span> in narratives with different available <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. In Experiment 1, participants read event descriptions organised by character or time. In Experiment 2, event descriptions were organised by character or location. In Experiment 3, participants read event descriptions where events were grouped by activity. In each experiment, memory could be organised by any of the available components alone, by both components, or by using the organisation imposed by the discourse. Participants <span class="hlt">indexed</span> events by character in Experiment 1, re-<span class="hlt">indexing</span> information when necessary. Results of Experiment 2 indicated equal use of character and location <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. In this case, participants used the discourse organisation. In Experiment 3, participants <span class="hlt">indexed</span> events using activity groupings, again re-<span class="hlt">indexing</span> events when necessary. Results are interpreted as indicating reliance on a single organising <span class="hlt">index</span> with flexibility in the selection of different event components as <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. PMID:9282221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JAP....85.7528L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JAP....85.7528L"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in metallic foams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, T. J.; Hess, Audrey; Ashby, M. F.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>The sound <span class="hlt">absorption</span> capacity of one type of aluminum alloy foams—trade name Alporas—is studied experimentally. The foam in its as-received cast form contains closed porosities, and hence does not absorb sound well. To make the foam more transparent to air motion, techniques based on either rolling or hole drilling are used. Under rolling, the faces of some of the cells break to form small sharp-edged cracks as observed from a scanning electronic microscope. These cracks become passage ways for the in-and-out movement of air particles, resulting in sound <span class="hlt">absorption</span> improvement. The best performance is nevertheless achieved via hole drilling where nearly all of the sound can be absorbed at selected frequencies. Combining rolling with hole drilling does not appear to lend additional benefits for sound <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Image analysis is carried out to characterize the changes in cell morphologies due to rolling/compression, and the drop in elastic modulus due to the formation of cracks is recorded. The effects of varying the relative foam density and panel thickness on sound <span class="hlt">absorption</span> are measured, and optimal relative density and thickness of the panel are identified. Analytical models are used to explain the measured increase in sound <span class="hlt">absorption</span> due to rolling and/or drilling. Sound absorbed by viscous flow across small cracks appears to dominate over that dissipated via other mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5324766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5324766"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">index</span> generation and delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lantz, L.J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The Solar <span class="hlt">Index</span>, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar <span class="hlt">Index</span>, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar <span class="hlt">Index</span> represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The <span class="hlt">Index</span> is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The <span class="hlt">Index</span> is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the <span class="hlt">Index</span>, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the <span class="hlt">Index</span>, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9423793G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9423793G"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cycle computer model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered <span class="hlt">absorption</span> chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working <span class="hlt">absorption</span> systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6456056','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6456056"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span>-heat-pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.</p> <p>1983-06-16</p> <p>An improvement in an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6389062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6389062"><span id="translatedtitle">Diabetic lipohypertrophy delays insulin <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, R J; Hannan, W J; Frier, B M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The effect of lipohypertrophy at injection sites on insulin <span class="hlt">absorption</span> has been studied in 12 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The clearance of 125I-insulin from sites with lipohypertrophy was significantly slower than from complementary nonhypertrophied sites (% clearance in 3 h, 43.8 +/- 3.5 +/- SEM) control; 35.3 +/- 3.9 lipohypertrophy, P less than 0.05). The degree of the effect was variable but sufficient in several patients to be of clinical importance. Injection-site lipohypertrophy is another factor that modifies the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of subcutaneously injected insulin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980IJAmE...1..117V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980IJAmE...1..117V"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar powered <span class="hlt">absorption</span> air conditioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vardon, J. M.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Artificial means of providing or removing heat from the building are discussed along with the problem of the appropriate building design and construction for a suitable heat climate inside the building. The use of a lithium bromide-water <span class="hlt">absorption</span> chiller, powered by a hot water store heated by an array of stationary flat collectors, is analyzed. An iterative method of predicting the cooling output from a LiBr-water <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigeration plant having variable heat input is described and a model allowing investigation of the performance of a solar collector and thermal storage system is developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509661"><span id="translatedtitle">[ENDOMETRIOSIS FERTILITY <span class="hlt">INDEX</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ibrjam, I; Veleva, G; Karagjozova, G; Ivanov, S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In women suffering from endometriosis and infertility, the decision as to when and how to perform surgical excision and/or fertility treatment is mainly based on clinical guidelines and expert opinions. However, so far data from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses to answer the question whether surgical treatment of moderate to severe endometriosis can indeed enhance pregnancy rates compared with expectant management are lacking, as not all studies report fertility outcome or supply sufficiently detailed information. The most frequently used staging system for endometriosis is the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) score (ASRM, 1997). Unfortunately, this classification system has some serious limitations, including not effectively predicting clinical outcomes of treatment, especially pregnancy rates in infertile patients. For this reason, Adamson and Pasta (2010) developed the endometriosis fertility <span class="hlt">index</span> (EFI). EFI is a scoring system which includes assessment of historical factors at the time of surgery (age, duration of infertility and pregnancy history), of adnexal function at conclusion of surgery (functional score of Fallopian tubes, fimbriae and ovaries bilaterally), and of the extensiveness of endometriosis (rAFS endometriosis lesion score and total rAFS score). The EFI is intended as a clinical tool to counsel patients on the approach towards fertility after surgery. PMID:27509661</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19079901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19079901"><span id="translatedtitle">Glycaemic <span class="hlt">index</span> methodology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The glycaemic <span class="hlt">index</span> (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048692','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048692"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied Parallel Metadata <span class="hlt">Indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobi, Michael R</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then <span class="hlt">indexed</span> on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992231"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Bolome, Cindy A; Moore, D S</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Transient <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in <span class="hlt">absorption</span> with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. A broad visible <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra along with increased <span class="hlt">absorption</span> with time. The <span class="hlt">absorptions</span> in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542231"><span id="translatedtitle">Holographic volume <span class="hlt">absorption</span> grating in glass-like polymer recording material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matusevich, V; Matusevich, A; Kowarschik, R; Matusevich, Yu I; Krul, L P</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>We investigated the contribution of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and phase gratings to the total diffraction efficiency of volume holographic gratings written in glass-like polymer recording materials based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its thermostable derivative (copolymer with acrylic acid) with distributed phenanthrenequinone. The typical maximal diffraction efficiency was 0.5%-2.0% for the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> grating and 22-32% for the phase grating. The modulation of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient varied between 10 cm(-1) and 100 cm(-1) and the modulation of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> was about 10(-4)-10(-3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A32A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A32A..01G"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Measurements in MILAGRO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle <span class="hlt">absorption</span> photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The <span class="hlt">absorption</span> can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Indeed, enhanced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. This is likely due</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.379...13C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.379...13C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> property and nanosensing via double metal films with rectangle holes array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Fang; Zhang, Huafeng</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A theoretical investigation of plasmonic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and nanosensing based on a three dimensional nanostructure is presented. The structure consists of double metal films covered with rectangle nanoholes array. A dielectric layer is located between the double metal films with the function of confining electromagnetic fields. Optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties of the designed nanostructure are investigated by finite-difference time-domain method, obvious peaks appear in the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra is due to the Fabry-Perot resonance effect and localized surface plasmon resonance of the rectangle nanoholes. The <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectra dependence on the environmental and dielectric layer refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, which makes it an outstanding candidate for nanosensing. The results of this study may have potential application in <span class="hlt">absorption</span> switching and nanosensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TellB..61...79M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TellB..61...79M"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, T.; Schladitz, A.; Massling, A.; Kaaden, N.; Kandler, K.; Wiedensohler, A.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT During the SAMUM-1 experiment, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of mineral dust particles were investigated in southern Morocco. Main absorbing constituents of airborne samples were identified to be iron oxide and soot. Spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients were measured using a spectral optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> photometer (SOAP) in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm with a resolution of 50 nm. A new method that accounts for a loading-dependent correction of fibre filter based <span class="hlt">absorption</span> photometers, was developed. The imaginary part of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> was determined using Mie calculations from 350 to 800 nm. The spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient allowed a separation between dust and soot <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. A correlation analysis showed that the dust <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient is correlated (R2 up to 0.55) with the particle number concentration for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm, whereas the coefficient of determination R2 for smaller particles is below 0.1. Refractive indices were derived for both the total aerosol and a dust aerosol that was corrected for soot <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Average imaginary parts of refractive indices of the entire aerosol are 7.4 × 10-3, 3.4 × 10-3 and 2.0 × 10-3 at wavelengths of 450, 550 and 650 nm. After a correction for the soot <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, imaginary parts of refractive indices are 5.1 × 10-3, 1.6 × 10-3 and 4.5 × 10-4.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012065','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012065"><span id="translatedtitle">Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography is a cumulative <span class="hlt">index</span> to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative <span class="hlt">index</span> includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number <span class="hlt">indexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724436"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentration-modulated <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langley, A J; Beaman, R A; Baran, J; Davies, A N; Jones, W J</p> <p>1985-07-01</p> <p>Concentration modulation is demonstrated to be a technique capable of markedly extending sensitivity limits in <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy. The gain generated relates in such a manner to sample transmittance that for the first reported time direct spectroscopic concentration measurements become possible. When concentration modulation is used with picosecond lasers, state lifetimes can be determined to a limit of approximately 20 psec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+metals&pg=2&id=EJ300481','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+metals&pg=2&id=EJ300481"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet and Light <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hargis, L. G.; Howell, J. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Reviews developments in ultraviolet and light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrometry from December 1981 through November 1983, focusing on the chemistry involved in developing suitable reagents, absorbing systems, and methods of determination, and on physical aspects of the procedures. Includes lists of spectrophotometric methods for metals, non-metals, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285766"><span id="translatedtitle">Migrant labor <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nayagam, J</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285766"><span id="translatedtitle">Migrant labor <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nayagam, J</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process." PMID:12285766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6526955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6526955"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenoxyethanol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by polyvinyl chloride.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, M G</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Phenoxyethanol was found to be absorbed by polyvinyl chloride administration sets during continuous irrigation therapy. Depending upon the conditions of administration up to 20% loss of potency could occur. <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> of the drug by the rigid plastic luer-lock fitting of the set caused softening and decreased rigidity of the plastic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OptSp.106..881S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OptSp.106..881S"><span id="translatedtitle">Slow light and saturable <span class="hlt">absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selden, A. C.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of saturably absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as saturable <span class="hlt">absorption</span> phenomena. A basic two-level model of a saturable absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by saturable <span class="hlt">absorption</span> are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse saturable <span class="hlt">absorption</span> (RSA) may be similarly explained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22037129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22037129"><span id="translatedtitle">THE VIEWING ANGLES OF BROAD <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> LINE VERSUS UNABSORBED QUASARS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.</p> <p>2012-06-10</p> <p>It was recently shown that there is a significant difference in the radio spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> distributions of broad <span class="hlt">absorption</span> line (BAL) quasars and unabsorbed quasars, with an overabundance of BAL quasars with steeper radio spectra. This result suggests that source orientation does play into the presence or absence of BAL features. In this paper, we provide more quantitative analysis of this result based on Monte Carlo simulations. While the relationship between viewing angle and spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> does indeed contain a lot of scatter, the spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> distributions are different enough to overcome that intrinsic variation. Utilizing two different models of the relationship between spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> and viewing angle, the simulations indicate that the difference in spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> distributions can be explained by allowing BAL quasar viewing angles to extend about 10 Degree-Sign farther from the radio jet axis than non-BAL sources, though both can be seen at small angles. These results show that orientation cannot be the only factor determining whether BAL features are present, but it does play a role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12081850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12081850"><span id="translatedtitle">Glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span>: overview of implications in health and disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Augustin, Livia S A; Franceschi, Silvia; Hamidi, Maryam; Marchie, Augustine; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Axelsen, Mette</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>The glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> concept is an extension of the fiber hypothesis, suggesting that fiber consumption reduces the rate of nutrient influx from the gut. The glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> has particular relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with central obesity and insulin resistance. Early studies showed that starchy carbohydrate foods have very different effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in healthy and diabetic subjects, depending on the rate of digestion. A range of factors associated with food consumption was later shown to alter the rate of glucose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and subsequent glycemia and insulinemia. At this stage, systematic documentation of the differences that exist among carbohydrate foods was considered essential. The resulting glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> classification of foods provided a numeric physiologic classification of relevant carbohydrate foods in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as diabetes. Since then, low-glycemic-<span class="hlt">index</span> diets have been shown to lower urinary C-peptide excretion in healthy subjects, improve glycemic control in diabetic subjects, and reduce serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects. Furthermore, consumption of low-glycemicindex diets has been associated with higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations and, in large cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Case-control studies have also shown positive associations between dietary glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> and the risk of colon and breast cancers. Despite inconsistencies in the data, sufficient, positive findings have emerged to suggest that the dietary glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span> is of potential importance in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1084999.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1084999.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Malaysian Education <span class="hlt">Index</span> (MEI): An Online <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> and Repository System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education <span class="hlt">Index</span> (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991REDS..119..355S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991REDS..119..355S"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> difference caused by the birefringence of FA (II) centers in KCl:Li</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silfsten, Pertti; Ketolainen, Pertti</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>A method is described for determining the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> difference caused by the birefringence of oriented FA (II) centers in KCl:Li crystals. It is shown that the portion induced by the birefringence can be separated from an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrum measured through a polarizer-analyzer system. From this portion the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> difference can then be calculated with ease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9714277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9714277"><span id="translatedtitle">The HLD (CalMod) <span class="hlt">index</span> and the <span class="hlt">index</span> question.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parker, W S</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>The malocclusion <span class="hlt">index</span> problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann <span class="hlt">Index</span> in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any <span class="hlt">index</span>. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many <span class="hlt">indexes</span> have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this <span class="hlt">index</span>. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the <span class="hlt">index</span>. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The <span class="hlt">index</span> problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) <span class="hlt">Index</span> has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the <span class="hlt">index</span> question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5044909','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5044909"><span id="translatedtitle">The Pemberton Happiness <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The Pemberton Happiness <span class="hlt">Index</span> (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27P4003C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27P4003C"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong terahertz <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in all-dielectric Huygens’ metasurfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cole, Michael A.; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We propose an all dielectric metamaterial that acts as a perfect terahertz absorber without a ground plane. The unit cell consists of a dielectric cylinder embedded in a low <span class="hlt">index</span> material. In order to achieve near-perfect terahertz <span class="hlt">absorption</span> (99.5%) we employ impedance matching of the electric and magnetic resonances within the cylinders of the Huygens’ metasurface. The impedance matching is controlled by changing the aspect ratio between the height and diameter of the cylinder. We show that the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> resonance can be tuned to particular frequencies from 0.3 to 1.9 THz via changing the geometry of the structure while keeping a nearly constant aspect ratio of the cylinders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adobe&pg=5&id=EJ669414','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adobe&pg=5&id=EJ669414"><span id="translatedtitle">How To Create a Great <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Bradley</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Contends that the <span class="hlt">index</span> at the back of a book is an important reader service. Discusses how and why to <span class="hlt">index</span>, and how to make <span class="hlt">indexes</span> interesting. Outlines programs, such as Filemaker and Adobe, which help the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> process. (PM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Farkas%2c+D&id=EJ723775','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Farkas%2c+D&id=EJ723775"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of Refraction without Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the <span class="hlt">index</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=2&id=EJ415308','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=2&id=EJ415308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> by Latent Semantic Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deerwester, Scott; And Others</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Describes a new method for automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and retrieval called latent semantic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+resources&pg=4&id=EJ881947','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+resources&pg=4&id=EJ881947"><span id="translatedtitle">Simplifying the Water Poverty <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective <span class="hlt">indexes</span> of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty <span class="hlt">index</span> comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=binary+AND+tree&id=EJ474635','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=binary+AND+tree&id=EJ474635"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development of <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chang, Roy</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Provides an overview of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> in database management systems to provide librarians with more understanding of the possibilities and limitations of current information systems. Sequential, direct, <span class="hlt">indexed</span> sequential, and virtual sequential file accessing methods are explained, and various binary tree structures are described. (EAM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+indexing&pg=4&id=EJ478100','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+indexing&pg=4&id=EJ478100"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments in <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Picture Collections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cawkell, A. E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; <span class="hlt">indexing</span> languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Journal+of+Mathematical+Behavior%22&pg=7&id=EJ878326','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Journal+of+Mathematical+Behavior%22&pg=7&id=EJ878326"><span id="translatedtitle">Linguistic <span class="hlt">Indexicality</span> in Algebra Discussions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as <span class="hlt">indexicals</span> assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. <span class="hlt">Indexical</span> words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=compilers&pg=4&id=EJ541529','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=compilers&pg=4&id=EJ541529"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earliest Hebrew Citation <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weinberg, Bella Hass</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes early Hebrew citation <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of <span class="hlt">index</span> entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AtmEn..29..875H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AtmEn..29..875H"><span id="translatedtitle">Size segregated light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient of the atmospheric aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horvath, H.</p> <p></p> <p>The light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in the visible can be determined by depositing the particles on a filter and measuring its "transmission" in a special optical arrangement. With an impactor with rotating impaction plates producing a homogeneous deposit, it is possible to extend this technique to size segregated aerosol samples. A simultaneous determination of the mass size distribution is possible. Test measurements with black carbon aerosol have shown the feasibility of this method. Samples of the atmospheric aerosol have been taken in and near Vienna, in Naples and near Bologna. The light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of the aerosol is always highest for particle diameters between 0.1 and 0.2 μm. Only in the humid environment of the Po valley it had a slightly larger peak size, whereas the size of the nonabsorbing particles increased considerably. The light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of the atmospheric aerosol is always higher in an urban environment. 'The mass <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient of the aerosol at all four locations was very similar, and completely different from values which could be. expected using effective refractive indices which are frequently used in models. Using the data measured in this work two alternate models for the effective refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and black carbon content of the aerosol are suggested: (a) a size-dependent refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, where the imaginary part varies from -0.25 for particles smaller than 30 nm to - 0.003 for particles larger than 2 μm; this could especially be applied if an internal mixing of the aerosol is to be expected, or (2) a size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon in the case of external mixing with 43% of carbon particles for sizes below 30 nm decreasing to 10% for sizes up to 0.4 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144w4106N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144w4106N"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalized flexibility-rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Flexibility-rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span> (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span> and flexibility <span class="hlt">index</span>. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span>, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility <span class="hlt">index</span> based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129667"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical waves in a gradient negative-<span class="hlt">index</span> lens of a half-infinite length.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Yi S; Chan, C T; Wang, R P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Materials with negative permittivity and permeability can overcome the diffraction limit, thereby making the sub-wavelength imaging possible. In this study, we analyze the effects of gradient <span class="hlt">index</span> on a half-infinite perfect lens. We assume that the sharp interface between the vacuum and the negative-<span class="hlt">index</span> material is replaced by a smooth transition profile such that the <span class="hlt">index</span> gradually changing from positive to negative. Interestingly, we find that if the graded <span class="hlt">index</span> profile is modeled by a tanh function, we can have closed-form analytical solutions for this problem, which is a distinct advantage as numerical solutions are not accurate for evanescent waves with large transverse wave vectors. By analyzing the analytical formulas we confirm that a nonzero total <span class="hlt">absorption</span> can occur even for a near-zero <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient in the steady-state limit and the image plane contains multiple sub-wavelength images of an object. PMID:24129667</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047136"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> to NASA News Releases 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This issue of the <span class="hlt">index</span> to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is arranged in six sections: Subject <span class="hlt">index</span>, Personal name <span class="hlt">index</span>, News release number <span class="hlt">index</span>, Accession number <span class="hlt">index</span>, Speeches, and News releases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950008892','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950008892"><span id="translatedtitle">Landing gear energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20216896"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoacoustic determination of optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> to extinction ratio in aerosols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roessler, D M; Faxvog, F R</p> <p>1980-02-15</p> <p>The photoacoustic technique has been used in conjunction with an optical transmission measurement to determine the fraction of light absorbed in cigarette and acetylene smoke aerosols. At 0.5145-microm wavelength,the <span class="hlt">absorption</span>-to-extinction fraction is 0.01 +/- 0.003 for cigarette smoke and is in excellent agreement with predictions from Mie theory for smoke particles having a refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of 1.45-0.00133i and a median diameter in the 0.15-0.65-microm range. For acetylene smoke the absorbed fraction was 0.85 +/- 0.05. PMID:20216896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20490173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20490173"><span id="translatedtitle">Disk scattering and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by an improved computational method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willis, T M; Weil, H</p> <p>1987-09-15</p> <p>A computer method for determining the scattering, <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, and internal field structure of thin flat disks of arbitrary refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is described. The code is shown to be accurate for all angles of incidence for radii up to at least two free space wavelengths and for media ranging from pure dielectric to highly conductive ones. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparison with published experimental data and with results computed by other methods. The applicability of this technique for analyzing clouds of disk-shaped aerosols is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865537','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865537"><span id="translatedtitle">Photodetector with enhanced light <span class="hlt">absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kane, James</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=4&id=EJ212537','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=4&id=EJ212537"><span id="translatedtitle">L'<span class="hlt">index</span> significant (The Pointed <span class="hlt">Index</span> Finger).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Calbris, G.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>In the framework of a study of nonverbal communication, the various meanings attached to the pointed <span class="hlt">index</span> finger are analyzed. The question is raised as to what extent the findings hold for cultures other than French. (AMH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017258','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017258"><span id="translatedtitle">New analytical technique for carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">absorption</span> solvents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pouryousefi, F.; Idem, R.O.</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>The densities and refractive indices of two binary systems (water + MEA and water + MDEA) and three ternary systems (water + MEA + CO{sub 2}, water + MDEA + CO{sub 2}, and water + MEA + MDEA) used for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture were measured over the range of compositions of the aqueous alkanolamine(s) used for CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at temperatures from 295 to 338 K. Experimental densities were modeled empirically, while the experimental refractive indices were modeled using well-established models from the known values of their pure-component densities and refractive indices. The density and Gladstone-Dale refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> models were then used to obtain the compositions of unknown samples of the binary and ternary systems by simultaneous solution of the density and refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> equations. The results from this technique have been compared with HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) results, while a third independent technique (acid-base titration) was used to verify the results. The results show that the systems' compositions obtained from the simple and easy-to-use refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>/density technique were very comparable to the expensive and laborious HPLC/titration techniques, suggesting that the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>/density technique can be used to replace existing methods for analysis of fresh or nondegraded, CO{sub 2}-loaded, single and mixed alkanolamine solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=paranoia&pg=5&id=ED198471','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=paranoia&pg=5&id=ED198471"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span>, Creativity, Peak Experiences, Empathy, and Psychoticism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mathes, Eugene W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Tellegen and Atkinson suggested that the trait of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> may play a part in meditative skill, creativity, capacity for peak experiences, and empathy. Although the <span class="hlt">absorption</span>-meditative skill relationship has been confirmed, other predictions have not been tested. Tellegen and Atkinson's <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Scale was completed by undergraduates in four…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+water&pg=6&id=EJ503972','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+water&pg=6&id=EJ503972"><span id="translatedtitle">Choices and Preferences "Water <span class="hlt">Index</span>."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Science Activities, 1995</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Presents a Project WET water education activity. Students rank and compare different uses of water in order of their importance. The class develops a "Water <span class="hlt">Index</span>," an indication of the group's feelings and values about water and its uses. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=4&id=EJ102948','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=4&id=EJ102948"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> and Automatic Significance Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steinacker, Ivo</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of sequential <span class="hlt">indexing</span> which does not use any grammatical or semantic analysis, but follows the principle of emulating human judgement by evaluation of machine-recognizable attributes of structured word assemblies. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=2&id=ED192536','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=2&id=ED192536"><span id="translatedtitle">French Basic Course. Grammatical <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=316570&keyword=smith&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68430929&CFTOKEN=58847822','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=316570&keyword=smith&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68430929&CFTOKEN=58847822"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> - Overview Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality <span class="hlt">index</span> representing multiple domains of the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060049129','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060049129"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Index</span> For Aircraft Maneuvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison <span class="hlt">index</span> .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of <span class="hlt">index</span> values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy <span class="hlt">index</span> lies outside the normal <span class="hlt">index</span> range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=airnow.showmap&pollutant=OZONE','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=airnow.showmap&pollutant=OZONE"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone - Current Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-148.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-148.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Muskellunge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an <span class="hlt">index</span> between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-147.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-147.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Bobcat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an <span class="hlt">index</span> between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3390T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3390T"><span id="translatedtitle">PC <span class="hlt">index</span> and magnetic substorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly</p> <p></p> <p>PC <span class="hlt">index</span> is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-<span class="hlt">index</span>) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-<span class="hlt">index</span>) and magnetic storms (Dst-<span class="hlt">index</span>), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС <span class="hlt">index</span> growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC <span class="hlt">index</span> exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121022"><span id="translatedtitle">The heat rate <span class="hlt">index</span> indicator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lasasso, M.; Runyan, B.; Napoli, J.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>This paper describes a method of tracking unit performance through the use of a reference number called the Heat Rate <span class="hlt">Index</span> Indicator. The ABB Power Plant Controls OTIS performance monitor is used to determine when steady load conditions exist and then to collect controllable and equipment loss data which significantly impact thermal efficiency. By comparing these loss parameters to those found during the previous heat balance, it is possible to develop a new adjusted heat rate curve. These impacts on heat rate are used to changes the shape of the tested heat rate curve by the appropriate percentages over a specified load range. Mathcad is used to determine the Heat Rate <span class="hlt">Index</span> by integrating for the areas beneath the adjusted heat rate curve and a heat rate curve that represents the unit`s ideal heat rate curve is the Heat Rate <span class="hlt">Index</span>. An <span class="hlt">index</span> of 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at an ideal efficiency, while an <span class="hlt">index</span> of less than 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at less than ideal conditions. A one per cent change in the Heat Rate <span class="hlt">Index</span> is equivalent to a one percent change in heat rate. The new shape of the adjusted heat rate curve and the individual curves generated from the controllable and equipment loss parameters are useful for determining performance problems in specific load ranges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867358','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867358"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced regenerative <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigeration cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dao, Kim</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Multi-effect regenerative <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative <span class="hlt">absorption</span> cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020060117&hterms=heat+pump&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bpump*','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020060117&hterms=heat+pump&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bpump*"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Heat Pump</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4132852','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4132852"><span id="translatedtitle">NEUTRON <span class="hlt">ABSORPTION</span> AND SHIELDING DEVICE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Axelrad, I.R.</p> <p>1960-06-21</p> <p>A neutron <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and shielding device is described which is adapted for mounting in a radiation shielding wall surrounding a radioactive area through which instrumentation leads and the like may safely pass without permitting gamma or neutron radiation to pass to the exterior. The shielding device comprises a container having at least one nonrectilinear tube or passageway means extending therethrough, which is adapted to contain instrumentation leads or the like, a layer of a substance capable of absorbing gamma rays, and a solid resinous composition adapted to attenuate fast-moving neutrons and capture slow- moving or thermal neutrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7914E..1TZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7914E..1TZ"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in cladding-pumped fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zervas, Michalis N.; Marshall, Andy; Kim, Jaesun</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>We investigate experimentally and theoretically the wavelength dependence of the pump <span class="hlt">absorption</span> along Yb3+-doped fibers, for cladding-pumped single as well as coupled multimode (GTWaveTM) fibers. We show that significant spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> distortions occur along the length with the 976nm <span class="hlt">absorption</span> peak affected the most. We have developed a novel theoretical approach, based on coupled mode theory, to explain the observed effects. We have also investigated the mode mixing requirements in order to improve the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectral distribution along the increase the overall <span class="hlt">absorption</span> efficiency and discuss the implications on fiber laser performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9503E..0RT&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9503E..0RT&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of femtosecond pulse with self-similar shape in medium with nonlinear <span class="hlt">absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Zakharova, Irina G.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We investigate the propagation of laser pulse with self-similar shape in homogeneous medium with various mechanisms of nonlinear <span class="hlt">absorption</span>: multi-photon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> or resonant nonlinearity under detuning the frequency, corresponding to energy transition, from the current frequency of wave packet, or nonlinear <span class="hlt">absorption</span> with its saturation. Both types of sign for frequency detuning are considered. This results in appearance of a refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> grating which induced a laser pulse self-action. We analyze also the influence of the laser pulse self-modulation due to cubic nonlinearity on existence of the laser pulse propagation mode with self-similar shape. We develop an analytical solution of the corresponding nonlinear eigenfunction problem for laser pulse propagation in medium with nonlinear <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. This solution is confirmed by computer simulation of the eigenfunction problem for Schrödinger equation with considered nonlinearity. This mode of laser pulse propagation is very important for powerful TW laser pulse propagating in glass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117u5309K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117u5309K"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and superhydrophobicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded <span class="hlt">index</span> antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of ˜95% for λ = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of >95% for λ = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θCB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33D0204F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33D0204F"><span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of black and brown carbon aerosols: comparison of an inventory-based model estimate and observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Y.; Liu, X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Spectrally resolved <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurements have been used to attribute the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and radiative effects due to brown carbon (BrC), and suggest a significant contribution. Since black carbon (BC) and BrC are co-emitted from combustion and burning processes, BrC <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in global models has either been implicitly included in <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by BC or more recently, characterized by a global constant refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. An inventory-based optical treatment for the brown carbon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> has been developed for primary organic aerosol emissions. Results of a simple radiative transfer model with a global emission inventory show that the BrC <span class="hlt">absorptivity</span> leads to a ˜27% reduction in the cooling effect by organic aerosols compared to the non-absorbing assumption. Here we implement the wavelength-dependent <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties of brown carbon parameterized as a function of BC to organic carbon ratio into a global climate model (CAM5) for different fuel emission sectors and biomass burning. This version of CAM5 also simulates the aging of freshly emitted BC and BrC into the aged accumulation-mode aerosols due to condensation of sulfate and organics. The calculated aerosol light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties and spectral dependence will be compared with ground-based AERONET measurements and field observations available. Sensitivity studies of BrC radiative effects based on a global constant refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and the inventory-based method in this study will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEOS....8E3055F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEOS....8E3055F"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering and <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Properties of Biomaterials for Dental Restorative Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez-Oliveras, A.; Rubiño, M.; Pérez, M. M.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The physical understanding of the optical properties of dental biomaterials is mandatory for their final success in restorative applications.Light propagation in biological media is characterized by the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient, the scattering coefficient, the scattering phase function,the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>, and the surface conditions (roughness). We have employed the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method to combine transmittance and reflectance measurements performed using an integrating-sphere setup with the results of the previous scattering-anisotropygoniometric measurements. This has led to the determination of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and the scattering coefficients. The aim was to optically characterize two different dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and one type of zirconia ceramic, and comparatively study them. The experimental procedure was conducted under repeatability conditions of measurement in order to determine the uncertainty associated to the optical properties of the biomaterials. Spectral variations of the refraction <span class="hlt">index</span> and the scattering anisotropy factor were also considered. The whole experimental procedure fulfilled all the necessary requirements to provide optical-property values with lower associated uncertainties. The effective transport coefficient presented a similar spectral behavior for the two composites but completely different for the zirconia ceramic. The results demonstrated that the scattering anisotropy exerted a clearly distinct impact on the optical properties of the zirconia ceramic compared with those of the dental-resin composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.633S.172J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.633S.172J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> and phase X-ray imaging using reflected beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jakubek, Jan</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The X-ray structure imaging of the soft thin biological samples is particularly difficult as they are often attached to the solid carrier, which has much higher <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of X-rays. The highly absorbing carrier forces the use of higher energies of X-rays decreasing the achievable contrast of the sample structure. The proposed method uses a flat sample carrier (metallic, glass or even plastic) acting as a mirror. The carrier with the sample is irradiated at grazing angle and the X-ray beam is reflected from the interface between the sample and carrier. That way the beam penetrates through the sample only without entering into the carrier. The energy of the X-ray beam can be low (e.g. nanofocus X-ray tube with Cr, Fe or Cu cathode) providing good contrast for soft sample imaging. The beam path in the sample is prolonged giving more chance for <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in very thin samples. The reflectivity of X-ray depends on the beam properties and on the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the sample (for a given carrier material). Then, it is possible to make imaging of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> distribution across the sample. Sufficient spatial resolution and good sensitivity can be achieved using nanofocus X-ray tube together with a highly sensitive pixelated detector Timepix. Several experimental results obtained with such a system verifying the principles described above are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9284E..0SC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9284E..0SC"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared <span class="hlt">absorption</span> mechanisms of black silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Zhengxi; Chen, Yongping; Ma, Bin</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Black silicon has a wide spectrum of non-spectral characteristics high <span class="hlt">absorption</span> from visible to long wave infrared band .Based on semi-empirical impurity band model, free carrier <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, radiation transitions between the valence band and the impurity band, radiation transitions between the impurity band and the conduction band were calculated, and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficients for each process were got. The results showed that the transitions from valence band to the impurity band induced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in the near-infrared waveband, but it has a rapid decay with wavelength. In the shortwave mid-wave and long-wave IR bands, transitions from the impurity band to the conduction band caused a huge <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, and the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient was slowly decreased with increasing wavelength. The free carrier <span class="hlt">absorption</span> dominates in long-wave band. The calculation results agreed well with the test results of plant black silicon in magnitude and trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071651&hterms=lexicography&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlexicography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071651&hterms=lexicography&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlexicography"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with computer-aided lexicography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buchan, Ronald L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> with computers is a far cry from <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with the first <span class="hlt">indexing</span> tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> (RI), can be made to many <span class="hlt">indexing</span> systems. In addition to improving the quality of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830011545','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830011545"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of composite materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farley, G. L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Results of a study on the energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6721585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6721585"><span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of selenium sulfide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farley, J.; Skelly, E.M.; Weber, C.B.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine selenium levels in the urine of Tinea patients before and after overnight application of a 2.5% selenium sulfide lotion. Selenium was measured by atomic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy (AAS). Hydride generation and carbon rod atomization were studied. It was concluded from this study that selenium is absorbed through intact skin. Selenium is then excreted, at least partially, in urine, for at least a week following treatment. The data show that <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and excretion of selenium vary on an individual basis. Selenium levels in urine following a single application of selenium sulfide lotion do not indicate that toxic amounts of selenium are being absorbed. Repeated treatments with SeS/sub 2/ result in selenium concentrations in urine which are significantly higher than normal. Significant matrix effects are observed in the carbon rod atomization of urine samples for selenium determinations, even in the presence of a matrix modifier such as nickel. The method of standard additions is required to obtain accurate results in the direct determination of selenium in urine by carbon rod AAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708341"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> in Drosophila melanogaster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron <span class="hlt">absorption</span> being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927758"><span id="translatedtitle">Condition for unity <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in an ultrathin and highly lossy film in a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Junghyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Brongersma, Mark L</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We present a condition for unity <span class="hlt">absorption</span> for a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration constructed from an ultrathin and highly lossy film on top of metallic mirror. From the impedance matching condition in the transmission line theory, we identify a solution space for the required complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the lossy film in various film thickness and dielectric constants of the metallic mirror. It is shown that strong <span class="hlt">absorption</span> requires the imaginary part of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the ultrathin lossy film be larger than 0.64, and the physical origin of this condition is elucidated. The proposed method is useful in identifying candidate semiconductor materials that can be used as the lossy film in a unity-<span class="hlt">absorption</span> Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration and designing the thickness of this film to maximize <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OptCo.283..249J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OptCo.283..249J"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on an evanescent wave fiber-optic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> sensor based on fiber loop cavity ring-down spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Meng; Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yaping; Liu, Bo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An improved ring-down measurement principle for optical waveguides is presented. Fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy allows for measurement of minute optical losses in high-finesse fiber-optic cavities and immunity to the fluctuation of laser source. The evanescent wave <span class="hlt">absorption</span> losses dependent on the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of ambient solution have been theoretically analyzed. The complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is introduced into our model and extinction coefficient can be calculated accurately through finite element analysis by setting the boundaries of the fiber and the ambient conditions. Using this method, the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of environment can be taken into consideration. Our principle is validated by the highly-sensitive measurement of evanescent wave <span class="hlt">absorption</span> loss. By chemically processing the surface of sensing segment along an extending ring-down cavity, the concentration of small volume Diethyl Sulphoxide solution where the etched fiber immersed into has been successfully measured and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.643a2076S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.643a2076S"><span id="translatedtitle">Refraction <span class="hlt">index</span> modulation induced with transverse electric field in double tunnel-coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shumilov, A. A.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya; Balagula, R. M.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Kulagina, M. M.; Vasil'iev, A. P.; Duque, C. A.; Tiutiunnyk, A.; Akimov, V.; Restrepo, R. L.; Tulupenko, V. N.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Modulation of refraction <span class="hlt">index</span> under transverse electric field was studied in structures with multiple tunnel-coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells in the spectral range corresponding to intersubband light <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. The change of refraction <span class="hlt">index</span> in electric field was calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation and experimentally determined spectra of intersubband light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in equilibrium conditions and under transverse electric field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543351"><span id="translatedtitle">Directly photoinscribed refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> change and Bragg gratings in Ohara WMS-15 glass ceramic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krug, Peter A; Rogojan, Rodica Matei; Albert, Jacques</p> <p>2009-06-20</p> <p>We inscribed thick volume gratings in WMS-15 glass ceramic by ultraviolet light at 193 and 248 nm. Unlike earlier work in ceramic materials, the inscription process modified the optical properties of the material without the need for any additional chemical or thermal processing. Experimental evidence from measurements of grating growth, thermal annealing, and spectral <span class="hlt">absorption</span> indicates that two distinct physical mechanisms are responsible for the grating formation. Weak, easily thermally bleached gratings resulted from exposure fluences below 0.3 kJ/cm2. Optical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> measurements suggest that these low fluence gratings are predominantly <span class="hlt">absorption</span> gratings. More thermally stable gratings, found to be refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> gratings with unsaturated refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> modulation amplitude as large as 6 x 10(-5) were formed at cumulative fluences of 1 kJ/cm2 and above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptCo.323...54B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptCo.323...54B"><span id="translatedtitle">Near infrared light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in magnetic nanoemulsion under external magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brojabasi, Surajit; Mahendran, V.; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We study the magnetic field dependent near infrared photon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> behavior in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet radius ~110 nm. The <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of near infrared photons in magnetic nanoemulsion is found to be dependent on the volume fraction and applied magnetic field, which is attributed to the variation in the Mie <span class="hlt">absorption</span> efficiency during the structural transitions of nanoemulsion droplets in dispersion. Also, the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> linearly increases with incident near infrared photon energy up to certain external magnetic field. The imaginary part of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (k1) of magnetic nanoemulsion obtained from the near infrared <span class="hlt">absorption</span> profile in the Rayleigh regime is found to vary with external magnetic field and the sample volume fraction (ϕ). The measured k1 follows a power law increment with sample volume fraction (k1~ϕ, where p is the exponent). The exponent (p) decreases with external magnetic field implying that the structural transition of nanoemulsion droplets increases k1. After a critical magnetic field (beyond Rayleigh regime), field induced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of near infrared photons decreases because of the increase in the aspect ratio of the chain like aggregates and interchain spacing which in turn reduces the Mie <span class="hlt">absorption</span> efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036576','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036576"><span id="translatedtitle">Refractive <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Sodium Iodide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Ramey, Lucas A; Singh, David J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the <span class="hlt">index</span>-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n=1.839 0.002) and 633 nm (n=1.786 0.002). These 6 measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a 2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414605"><span id="translatedtitle">DIDA: Distributed <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Dispatched Alignment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohamadi, Hamid; Vandervalk, Benjamin P; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D; Chu, Justin; Breshears, Clay P; Birol, Inanc</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are <span class="hlt">indexed</span> for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> is amortized by reusing the generated <span class="hlt">index</span>. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new <span class="hlt">index</span> must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA), and is free for academic use. PMID:25923767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaSc...47.0L14J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaSc...47.0L14J"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing a disturbance ionosphere <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jakowski, N.; Borries, C.; Wilken, V.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Although ionospheric perturbations such as traveling ionospheric disturbances have a strong impact on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space-based radio systems, the description of individual perturbations is difficult. To overcome this problem, it is suggested to use a disturbance ionosphere <span class="hlt">index</span> (DIX) that describes the perturbation degree of the ionosphere in a less specific form as a proxy. Although such an <span class="hlt">index</span> does not describe the exact propagation conditions at the measurement site, the estimated <span class="hlt">index</span> number indicates the probability of a potential impact on radio systems used in communication, navigation, and remote sensing. The definition of such a DIX must take into account the following major requirements: relevance to practical needs, objective measure of ionospheric conditions, easy and reproducible computation, and availability of a reliable database. Since the total electron content has been shown in many publications to act as an outstanding parameter for quantifying the range error and also the strength of ionospheric perturbations, we propose a DIX that is based on GNSS measurements. To illustrate the use of the <span class="hlt">index</span>, recent storms monitored in 2011 and the Halloween storm are discussed. The proposed <span class="hlt">index</span> is a robust and objective measure of the ionospheric state, applicable to radio systems which are impacted by a highly variable perturbed ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858986"><span id="translatedtitle">Fraunhofer effect atomic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rust, Jennifer A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T</p> <p>2005-02-15</p> <p>The dark lines in the solar spectrum were discovered by Wollaston and cataloged by Fraunhofer in the early days of the 19th century. Some years later, Kirchhoff explained the appearance of the dark lines: the sun was acting as a continuum light source and metals in the ground state in its atmosphere were absorbing characteristic narrow regions of the spectrum. This discovery eventually spawned atomic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrometry, which became a routine technique for chemical analysis in the mid-20th century. Laboratory-based atomic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrometers differ from the original observation of the Fraunhofer lines because they have always employed a separate light source and atomizer. This article describes a novel atomic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> device that employs a single source, the tungsten coil, as both the generator of continuum radiation and the atomizer of the analytes. A 25-microL aliquot of sample is placed on the tungsten filament removed from a commercially available 150-W light bulb. The solution is dried and ashed by applying low currents to the coil in a three-step procedure. Full power is then applied to the coil for a brief period. During this time, the coil produces white light, which may be absorbed by any metals present in the atomization cloud produced by the sample. A high-resolution spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector monitors the emission spectrum of the coil, which includes the dark lines from the metals. Detection limits are reported for seven elements: 5 pg of Ca (422.7 nm); 2 ng of Co (352.7 nm); 200 pg of Cr (425.4 nm); 7 pg of Sr (460.7 nm); 100 pg of Yb (398.8 nm); 500 pg of Mn (403.1 nm); and 500 pg of K (404.4 nm). Simultaneous multielement analyses are possible within a 4-nm spectral window. The relative standard deviations for the seven metals are below 8% for all metals except for Ca (10.7%), which was present in the blank at measurable levels. Analysis of a standard reference material (drinking water) resulted in a mean percent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900057215&hterms=dielectric+material&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddielectric%2Bmaterial','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900057215&hterms=dielectric+material&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddielectric%2Bmaterial"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and complex dielectric permittivity of T.P.S. Space Shuttle tile materials at millimeter wavelengths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Afsar, Mohammed Nurul; Chi, Hua; Li, Xiaohui</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and dielectric permittivity studies of presently used Space Shuttle tile materials at millimeter wavelengths reveal these tiles to exhibit similar <span class="hlt">absorption</span> characteristics to those of fused silica materials. This <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is mainly related to the water content in the specimen. A strong birefringence is observed at least in one of these fibrous refractory composite materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7577E..0XN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7577E..0XN"><span id="translatedtitle">Extraction of complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> dispersion from SPR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakkach, Mohamed; Moreau, Julien; Canva, Michael</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Surface Plasmon Resonnance (SPR) techniques have been mostly set-up as angular reflectivity interrogation mode using quasi-monochromatic light or as spectral reflectivity interrogation mode at one given wavelength, providing information about variation of effective optical thickness ▵n.e above the metal surface. In this communication we present a dual mode sensor working both in angular and spectral interrogation modes. A white light illuminates the sensor surface and the reflectivity spectra in TE and TM polarization are measured with a spectrometer. By changing the angular coupling conditions, a complete reflectivity surface R(θ, λ) can be measured. The 2D reflectivity decrease valley is affected by both the real and imaginary part of the optical <span class="hlt">index</span> of the dielectric medium as well as their spectral dispersion. With such experimental data set, it is possible to back calculate the dispersion of the complex refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the dielectric layer. This is demonstrated using a turquoise dye doped solution. According to the Kramers-Kronig relations, the imaginary part of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> for an absorbing medium is proportional to the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> while the real part presents a large dispersion around the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> wavelength. The reflectivity surface R(θ, λ) was measured from 500 nm to 750 nm over about 8° angular range. The whole complex refractive optical <span class="hlt">index</span> of the doped solution, absorbing around 630 nm, was reconstructed from the SPR reflectivity experimental data, using a homemade program based on an extended Rouard method to fit the experimental angular plasmon data for each wavelength. These results show that the classical SPR technique can be extended to acquire precise spectral information about biomolecular interactions occurring on the metallic layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1326723','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1326723"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Wind Power Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Scharff, Richard; Milligan, Michael; Weir, David Edward</p> <p>2014-11-13</p> <p>Variability of large scale wind power generation is dependent on several factors: characteristics of installed wind power plants, size of the area where the plants are installed, geographic dispersion within that area and its weather regime(s). Variability can be described by ramps in power generation, i.e. changes from time period to time period. Given enough data points, it can be described with a probability density function. This approach focuses on two dimensions of variability: duration of the ramp and probability distribution. This paper proposes an <span class="hlt">index</span> based on these two dimensions to enable comparisons and characterizations of variability under different conditions. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is tested with real, large scale wind power generation data from several countries. Considerations while forming an <span class="hlt">index</span> are discussed, as well as the main results regarding what the drivers of variability experienced for different data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+random+AND+error&id=ED192799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+random+AND+error&id=ED192799"><span id="translatedtitle">Thesaurus-Based Automatic <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>: A Study of <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Failure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Caplan, Priscilla Louise</p> <p></p> <p>This study examines automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> performed with a manually constructed thesaurus on a document collection of titles and abstracts of library science master's papers. Errors are identified when the meaning of a posted descriptor, as identified by context in the thesaurus, does not match that of the passage of text which occasioned the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A33B1179S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A33B1179S"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct Measurement of Aerosol <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Using Photothermal Interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sedlacek, A. J.; Lee, J. A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Efforts to bound the contribution of light <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in aerosol radiative forcing is still very much an active area of research in large part because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering. In response to this and other technical issues, the aerosol community has actively pursued the development of new instruments to measure aerosol <span class="hlt">absorption</span> (e.g., photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and multi-angle <span class="hlt">absorption</span> photometer (MAAP)). In this poster, we introduce the technique of photothermal interferometry (PTI), which combines the direct measurement capabilities of photothermal spectroscopy (PTS) with high-sensitivity detection of the localized heating brought about by the PT process through interferometry. At its most fundamental level, the PTI technique measures the optical pathlength change that one arm of an interferometer (referred to as the 'probe' arm) experiences relative to the other arm of the interferometer (called the 'reference' arm). When the two arms are recombined at a beamsplitter, an interference pattern is created. If the optical pathlength in one arm of the interferometer changes, a commensurate shift in the interference pattern will take place. For the specific application of measuring light <span class="hlt">absorption</span>, the heating of air surrounding the light- absorbing aerosol following laser illumination induces the optical pathlength change. This localized heating creates a refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> gradient causing the probe arm of the interferometer to take a slightly different optical pathlength relative to the unperturbed reference arm. This effect is analogous to solar heating of a road causing mirages. As discussed above, this altered optical pathlength results in a shift in the interference pattern that is then detected as a change in the signal intensity by a single element detector. The current optical arrangement utilizes a folded Jamin interferometer design (Sedlacek, 2006) that provides a platform that is robust with respect to sensitivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016238','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016238"><span id="translatedtitle">HI <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> in Merger Remnants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI <span class="hlt">absorption</span> tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20072266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20072266"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer programs for <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrophotometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, R N</p> <p>1969-03-01</p> <p>Brief descriptions are given of twenty-two modular computer programs for performing the basic numerical computations of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectrophotometry. The programs, written in Fortran IV for card input and output, are available from the National Research Council of Canada. The input and output formats are standardized to permit easy interfacing to yield more complex data processing systems. Though these programs were developed for ir spectrophotometry, they are readily modified for use with digitized visual and uv spectrophotometers. The operations covered include ordinate and abscissal unit and scale interconversions, ordinate addition and subtraction, location of band maxima and minima, smoothing and differentiation, slit function convolution and deconvolution, band profile analysis and asymmetry quantification, Fourier transformation to time correlation curves, multiple overlapping band separation in terms of Cauchy (Lorentz), Gauss, Cauchy-Gauss product, and Cauchy-Gauss sum functions and cell path length determination from fringe spacing analysis. PMID:20072266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E3949C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E3949C"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum-enhanced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24827213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24827213"><span id="translatedtitle">Multistage quantum <span class="hlt">absorption</span> heat pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa, Luis A</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011143','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011143"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> in Porous Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic <span class="hlt">absorption</span> applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5406626','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5406626"><span id="translatedtitle">Backscatter <span class="hlt">absorption</span> gas imaging system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>McRae, T.G. Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865686','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865686"><span id="translatedtitle">Backscatter <span class="hlt">absorption</span> gas imaging system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>McRae, Jr., Thomas G.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an <span class="hlt">absorption</span> line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981asme.rept..239A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981asme.rept..239A"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient simulation of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> machines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anand, D. K.; Allen, R. W.; Kumar, B.</p> <p></p> <p>A model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water <span class="hlt">absorption</span> chiller is presented. Its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shut-off period is predicted. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492860"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum-enhanced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigerators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa, Luis A; Palao, José P; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum <span class="hlt">absorption</span> refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/623015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/623015"><span id="translatedtitle">Olefin recovery via chemical <span class="hlt">absorption</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barchas, R.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical <span class="hlt">absorption</span> technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106551','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106551"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutron scattering and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, N.E.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The Table in this report presents an evaluated set of values for the experimental quantities, which characterize the properties for scattering and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of neutrons. The neutron cross section is given for room temperature neutrons, 20.43{degree}C, corresponds to a thermal neutron energy of 0.0253 electron volts (eV) or a neutron velocity of 2200 meters/second. The neutron resonance integral is defined over the energy range from 0.5 eV to 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} eV, or 0.1 MeV. A list of the major references used is given below. The literature cutoff data is October 1993. Uncertainties are given in parentheses. Parentheses with two or more numbers indicate values to the excited states(s) and to the ground state of the product nucleus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhNan..21...60L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhNan..21...60L"><span id="translatedtitle">Graphene intracavity spaser <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lozovik, Yu. E.; Nechepurenko, I. A.; Dorofeenko, A. V.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We propose an intracavity plasmon <span class="hlt">absorption</span> spectroscopy method based on graphene active plasmonics. It is shown that the plasmonic cavity contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to the quality factor Q of the graphene plasmonic cavity and reaches two orders of magnitude. The addition of gain medium into the cavity increases the sensitivity of method. Maximum sensitivity is reached in the vicinity of the plasmon generation threshold. The gain contribution to the sensitivity is proportional to Q1/2. The giant amplification of sensitivity in the graphene plasmon generator is associated with a huge path length, limited only by the decoherence processes. An analytical estimation of the sensitivity to loss caused by analyzed particles (molecules, nanoparticles, etc.) normalized by the single pass plasmon scheme is derived. Usage of graphene nanoflakes as plasmonic cavity allows a high spatial resolution to be reached, in addition to high sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840008267','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840008267"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by polymer crazing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pang, S. S.; Zhang, Z. D.; Chern, S. S.; Hsiao, C. C.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>During the past thirty years, a tremendous amount of research was done on the development of crazing in polymers. The phenomenon of crazing was recognized as an unusual deformation behavior associated with a process of molecular orientation in a solid to resist failure. The craze absorbs a fairly large amount of energy during the crazing process. When a craze does occur the surrounding bulk material is usually stretched to several hundred percent of its original dimension and creates a new phase. The total energy absorbed by a craze during the crazing process in creep was calculated analytically with the help of some experimental measurements. A comparison of the energy <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by the new phase and that by the original bulk uncrazed medium is made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822141"><span id="translatedtitle">A naked eye refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> sensor with a visible multiple peak metamaterial absorber.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Heli; Song, Kun; Zhou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaopeng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We report a naked eye refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> sensor with a visible metamaterial absorber. The visible metamaterial absorber consisting of a silver dendritic/dielectric/metal structure shows multiple <span class="hlt">absorption</span> peaks. By incorporating a gain material (rhodamine B) into the dielectric layer, the maximal magnitude of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> peak can be improved by about 30%. As the metamaterial absorber is sensitive to the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of glucose solutions, it can function as a sensor that quickly responds to variations of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the liquid. Meanwhile, since the response is presented via color changes, it can be clearly observed by the naked eyes. Further experiments have confirmed that the sensor can be used repeatedly. PMID:25822141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573337"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain <40, even with intricately designed artificial media. Herein, we demonstrate a measured <span class="hlt">index</span> >1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental <span class="hlt">absorption</span> limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications. PMID:27573337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573337"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>The refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain <40, even with intricately designed artificial media. Herein, we demonstrate a measured <span class="hlt">index</span> >1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental <span class="hlt">absorption</span> limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431258','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431258"><span id="translatedtitle">A Naked Eye Refractive <span class="hlt">Index</span> Sensor with a Visible Multiple Peak Metamaterial Absorber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Heli; Song, Kun; Zhou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaopeng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We report a naked eye refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> sensor with a visible metamaterial absorber. The visible metamaterial absorber consisting of a silver dendritic/dielectric/metal structure shows multiple <span class="hlt">absorption</span> peaks. By incorporating a gain material (rhodamine B) into the dielectric layer, the maximal magnitude of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> peak can be improved by about 30%. As the metamaterial absorber is sensitive to the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of glucose solutions, it can function as a sensor that quickly responds to variations of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the liquid. Meanwhile, since the response is presented via color changes, it can be clearly observed by the naked eyes. Further experiments have confirmed that the sensor can be used repeatedly. PMID:25822141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...712661C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...712661C"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain <40, even with intricately designed artificial media. Herein, we demonstrate a measured <span class="hlt">index</span> >1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental <span class="hlt">absorption</span> limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013611"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> material based on mesoscopic space-filling curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chang, Taeyong; Kim, Jong Uk; Kang, Seung Kyu; Kim, Hyowook; Kim, Do Kyung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Shin, Jonghwa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> is the fundamental property of all optical materials and dictates Snell's law, propagation speed, wavelength, diffraction, energy density, <span class="hlt">absorption</span> and emission of light in materials. Experimentally realized broadband refractive indices remain <40, even with intricately designed artificial media. Herein, we demonstrate a measured <span class="hlt">index</span> >1,800 resulting from a mesoscopic crystal with a dielectric constant greater than three million. This gigantic enhancement effect originates from the space-filling curve concept from mathematics. The principle is inherently very broad band, the enhancement being nearly constant from zero up to the frequency of interest. This broadband giant-refractive-<span class="hlt">index</span> medium promises not only enhanced resolution in imaging and raised fundamental <span class="hlt">absorption</span> limits in solar energy devices, but also compact, power-efficient components for optical communication and increased performance in many other applications. PMID:27573337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-011.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Marten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allen, Arthur W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability <span class="hlt">index</span> graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-022.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-022.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Veery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sousa, Patrick J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the veery (Catharus fuscesens) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the habitat requirements of the veery. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic; word; and mathematical. Suitability <span class="hlt">index</span> graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are synthesized into a model designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1367501','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1367501"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> Changes in Bacterial Chromatophores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kuntz, Irwin D.; Loach, Paul A.; Calvin, Melvin</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>The magnitude and kinetics of photo-induced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> changes in bacterial chromatophores (R. rubrum, R. spheroides and Chromatium) have been studied as a function of potential, established by added redox couples. No photochanges can be observed above +0.55 v or below -0.15 v. The loss of signal at the higher potential is centered at +0.439 v and follows a one-electron change. The loss of signal at the lower potential is centered at -0.044 v and is also consistent with a one-electron change. Both losses are reversible. A quantitative relationship exists between light-minus-dark and oxidized-minus-reduced spectra in the near infrared from +0.30 to +0.55 v. Selective treatment of the chromatophores with strong oxidants irreversibly bleaches the bulk pigments but appears to leave intact those pigments responsible for the photo- and chemically-induced <span class="hlt">absorption</span> changes. Kinetic studies of the photochanges in deaerated samples of R. rubrum chromatophores revealed the same rise time for bands at 433, 792, and 865 mμ (t½ = 50 msec.). However, these bands had different decay rates (t½ = 1.5, 0.5, 0.15 sec., respectively), indicating that they belong to different pigments. Analysis of the data indicates, as the simplest interpretation, a first-order (or pseudo first-order) forward reaction and two parallel first-order (or pseudo first-order) decay reactions at each wavelength. These results imply that all pigments whose kinetics are given are photooxidized and the decay processes are dark reductions. These experiments are viewed as supporting and extending the concept of a bacterial photosynthetic unit, with energy migration within it to specific sites of electron transfer. PMID:14185583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3341259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3341259"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibitory effect of nuts on iron <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macfarlane, B J; Bezwoda, W R; Bothwell, T H; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, J E; MacPhail, A P; Lamparelli, R D; Mayet, F</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The effects on iron <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of nuts, an important source of dietary protein in many developing countries, were measured in 137 Indian women. When the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> from bread and nut meals (walnuts, almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts) was compared with that from bread meals, the overall geometric mean <span class="hlt">absorption</span> from the nut meals (1.8%) was significantly less than from the bread meals alone (6.6%, t = 9.8, p less than 0.0005). In contrast, coconut did not reduce <span class="hlt">absorption</span> significantly. All the nuts tested contained significant amounts of two known inhibitors of Fe <span class="hlt">absorption</span> (phytates and polyphenols) but the amounts in coconut were significantly less than in the other nuts. Fifty milligrams ascorbic acid overcame the inhibitory effects of two nuts that were tested (Brazil nuts and peanuts). This is different from that found previously for soy protein, another potent inhibitor of Fe <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025304.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025304.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> and Description of Tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.</p> <p></p> <p>The tests described in this <span class="hlt">index</span> are used by the Institute for Developmental Studies in its principal areas of research and do not include recently developed tests. The research at the Institute is concerned with (1) the relationship of differing environments to language development, (2) classroom communication between teachers and children of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10309052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10309052"><span id="translatedtitle">National hospital input price <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The national community hospital input price <span class="hlt">index</span> presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price <span class="hlt">index</span> increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the <span class="hlt">index</span> to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230685','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230685"><span id="translatedtitle">Lawrence Berkeley Lab <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Toolbox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sauter, Nicholas K.</p> <p>2003-09-08</p> <p>The Lawrence Berkeley Lab <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Toolbox is intended to be used in the context of X-ray crystallography experiments involving biological macromolecules. Macromolecules such as proteins form 3-dimensional periodic arrays (crystal) which in turn lead to lattice-like diffraction patterns when the crystal sample is irradiated with collimated X-rays from a synchrotron or other X-ray source. Once the diffraction pattern is captured on an imaging device the next step is to deduce the periodic nature of the crystal sample, along with its internal symmetry. this analysis, known as "<span class="hlt">indexing</span>" is a well-studied problem. However, there are no other implementations designed to operate in an automated setting, in which the human experimentalist is not prosent to manually verify the results of <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. In particular LABELIT uses three novel algorithms to facilitate automation: a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the image, a better way to verify that the deduced lattice is consistent with the observed crystal lattice, and new method to deduce the internal symmetry from measurements of the lattice. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented in a Python framework that permits <span class="hlt">indexing</span> to fail (in rare cases) without crashing the program, thus allowing the software to be incorporated in robotic systems where unattended operation is expected. It will be especially useful for high throughput operations at snychrotron beamlines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=building+AND+information+AND+modeling&pg=6&id=ED557816','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=building+AND+information+AND+modeling&pg=6&id=ED557816"><span id="translatedtitle">Mining and <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Graph Databases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yuan, Dayu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and <span class="hlt">index</span> those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036726','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036726"><span id="translatedtitle">USGS 1-min Dst <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance <span class="hlt">index</span>, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the <span class="hlt">index</span> uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst <span class="hlt">index</span>. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPU&pg=3&id=ED084772','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPU&pg=3&id=ED084772"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> to Computer Based Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoye, Robert E., Ed.; Wang, Anastasia C., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The computer-based programs and projects described in this <span class="hlt">index</span> are listed under 98 different subject matter fields. Descrptions of programs include information on: subject field, program name and number, author, source, the program's curriculum content, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student for which it is intended, total hours of…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alicia&id=EJ973141','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alicia&id=EJ973141"><span id="translatedtitle">Coming to Schools: Creativity <span class="hlt">Indexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robelen, Erik W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an <span class="hlt">index</span> that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immunology&pg=5&id=ED387695','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immunology&pg=5&id=ED387695"><span id="translatedtitle">Competency <span class="hlt">Index</span>. [Health Technology Cluster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.</p> <p></p> <p>This competency <span class="hlt">index</span> lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heating+AND+food&pg=4&id=ED345082','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heating+AND+food&pg=4&id=ED345082"><span id="translatedtitle">Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...06..089L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...06..089L"><span id="translatedtitle">Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> for noncompact dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21396209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21396209"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal deployment of solar <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Croucher, Matt</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>There is a growing trend, generally caused by state-specific renewable portfolio standards, to increase the importance of renewable electricity generation within generation portfolios. While RPS assist with determining the composition of generation they do not, for the most part, dictate the location of generation. Using data from various public sources, the authors create an optimal <span class="hlt">index</span> for solar deployment. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10309052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10309052"><span id="translatedtitle">National hospital input price <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The national community hospital input price <span class="hlt">index</span> presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price <span class="hlt">index</span> increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the <span class="hlt">index</span> to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/60658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/60658"><span id="translatedtitle">1988 Bulletin compilation and <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>This document is published to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1988 calendar year. A table of contents and one <span class="hlt">index</span> have been provided to assist in finding information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230685-lawrence-berkeley-lab-indexing-toolbox','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230685-lawrence-berkeley-lab-indexing-toolbox"><span id="translatedtitle">Lawrence Berkeley Lab <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Toolbox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-09-08</p> <p>The Lawrence Berkeley Lab <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Toolbox is intended to be used in the context of X-ray crystallography experiments involving biological macromolecules. Macromolecules such as proteins form 3-dimensional periodic arrays (crystal) which in turn lead to lattice-like diffraction patterns when the crystal sample is irradiated with collimated X-rays from a synchrotron or other X-ray source. Once the diffraction pattern is captured on an imaging device the next step is to deduce the periodic nature of themore » crystal sample, along with its internal symmetry. this analysis, known as "<span class="hlt">indexing</span>" is a well-studied problem. However, there are no other implementations designed to operate in an automated setting, in which the human experimentalist is not prosent to manually verify the results of <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. In particular LABELIT uses three novel algorithms to facilitate automation: a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the image, a better way to verify that the deduced lattice is consistent with the observed crystal lattice, and new method to deduce the internal symmetry from measurements of the lattice. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented in a Python framework that permits <span class="hlt">indexing</span> to fail (in rare cases) without crashing the program, thus allowing the software to be incorporated in robotic systems where unattended operation is expected. It will be especially useful for high throughput operations at snychrotron beamlines.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770039543&hterms=kronig&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkronig','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770039543&hterms=kronig&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkronig"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared. [stratospheric aerosol refractive and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Sethna, P. P.; Williams, D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The infrared spectral reflectance at near normal incidence has been measured for 3.2 M, 2.4 M, and 1.6 M solutions of ammonium sulfate, an aerosol abundant in the stratosphere and also present in the troposphere. Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to determine values of the refractive and <span class="hlt">absorption</span> indices from the measured spectral reflectance. A synthetic spectrum of crystalline ammonium sulfate was obtained by extrapolation of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> obtained for the solution to the absorber number densities of the NH4 and SO4 ions characteristic of the crystal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyB..269..403E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhyB..269..403E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> spectra and optical parameters of lithium-potassium sulphate single crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El-Fadl, A. Abu; Gaffar, M. A.; Omar, M. H.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>The optical transmittance and reflectance near the fundamental <span class="hlt">absorption</span> region along the c- and a-axes of lithium potassium sulphate single crystal (LKS) are measured at room temperature. From the data the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> coefficient ( α) and the optical band gap ( Eopt.g) were deduced. The type of transition was determined. The steepness parameter ( σ), the temperature dependence of the energy gap and the exciton energy ( E0) were also calculated. The extinction coefficient, the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity were calculated as functions of the photon energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790026730&hterms=Band+spectrum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBand%2Bspectrum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790026730&hterms=Band+spectrum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBand%2Bspectrum"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absorption</span> bands in the spectrum of Io</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cruikshank, D. P.; Jones, T. J.; Pilcher, C. B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Near-infrared spectra of Io in the region from 2.8 to 4.2 microns are reported which show distinct <span class="hlt">absorption</span> features, the most notable at 4.1 microns. Frozen volatiles or atmospheric gases cannot account for these <span class="hlt">absorptions</span>, nor do they resemble those seen in common silicate rocks. Several candidate substances, most notably nitrate and carbonate salts, show <span class="hlt">absorption</span> features in this spectral region; the deepest band in the spectrum may be a nitrate <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. The satellite surface is shown to be anhydrous, as indicated by the absence of the 3-micron bound water band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21854830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21854830"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient <span class="hlt">absorption</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then <span class="hlt">absorption</span> are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own <span class="hlt">absorption</span> through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose <span class="hlt">absorption</span> through α1 and β receptors and decreases <span class="hlt">absorption</span> through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own <span class="hlt">absorption</span> at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid <span class="hlt">absorption</span>. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of fat digestion products. Intestinal <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53l2504P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEn..53l2504P"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-ultraviolet <span class="hlt">absorption</span> annealing in hafnium oxide thin films subjected to continuous-wave laser radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papernov, Semyon; Kozlov, Alexei A.; Oliver, James B.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Shvydky, Alexander; Marozas, Brendan</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is the most frequently used high-<span class="hlt">index</span> material in multilayer thin-film coatings for high-power laser applications ranging from near-infrared to near-ultraviolet (UV). <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> in this high-<span class="hlt">index</span> material is also known to be responsible for nanosecond-pulse laser-damage initiation in multilayers. In this work, modification of the near-UV <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of HfO2 monolayer films subjected to irradiation by continuous-wave (cw), 355-nm or 351-nm laser light focused to produce power densities of the order of ˜100 kW/cm2 is studied. Up to a 70% reduction in <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is found in the areas subjected to irradiation. Temporal behavior of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is characterized by a rapid initial drop on the few-tens-of-seconds time scale, followed by a longer-term decline to a steady-state level. <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> maps generated by photothermal heterodyne imaging confirm the permanent character of the observed effect. Nanosecond-pulse, 351-nm and 600-fs, 1053-nm laser-damage tests performed on these cw laser-irradiated areas confirm a reduction of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> by measuring up to 25% higher damage thresholds. We discuss possible mechanisms responsible for near-UV <span class="hlt">absorption</span> annealing and damage-threshold improvement resulting from irradiation by near-UV cw laser light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817746"><span id="translatedtitle">A polymorphic variant of human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I with a widespread distribution in Australian aborigines, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Australia-9 (8 Asp leads to Gly): purification, properties, amino acid substitution, and possible physiological significance of the variant enzyme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, G L; Shaw, D C</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>Carbonic anhydrase I (EC 4.2.1.1) purified from the pooled packed red blood cells of 100 individuals typed as heterozygous for the common Australian Aboriginal carbonic anhydrase I variant <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Australia-9 had a slightly higher specific CO2 hydratase or esterase (toward p-nitrophenyl acetate) activity than the normal component and a higher Km and Vmax using the esterase substrate. The variant enzyme was slightly more resistant to heat inactivation. The extent of inhibition of both enzymes by the specific inhibitor acetazolamide was identical, as was their immunological behavior and the lability of the active-site zinc ion. The variant enzyme was more resistant to chloride inhibition. The physiological importance of this observation is discussed in the context of a proposed adaptive advantage of the variant gene in the arid western and central regions of Australia. The amino acid substitution in the Aboriginal variant of a glycine for an aspartic acid residue has been located at residue 8 from the N terminus (i.e., 8 Asp leads to Gly), by proteolytic and partial acid hydrolyses. The possible effects of this substitution on the structure and function of the molecule are discussed. PMID:6817746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4731109T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4731109T"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Ammonia <span class="hlt">Absorption</span> on Saturn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tejfel, Victor G.; Karimov, A. M.; Lyssenko, P. G.; Kharitonova, G. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The ammonia <span class="hlt">absorption</span> bands centered at wavelengths of 645 and 787 nm in the visible spectrum of Saturn are very weak and overlapped with more strong <span class="hlt">absorption</span> bands of methane. Therefore, the allocation of these bands is extremely difficult. In fact, the NH3 band 787 nm is completely masked by methane. The NH3 645 nm <span class="hlt">absorption</span> band is superimposed on a relatively weak shortwave wing of CH4 band, in which the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> maximum lies at the wavelength of 667 nm. In 2009, during the equinox on Saturn we have obtained the series of zonal spectrograms by scanning of the planet disk from the southern to the northern polar limb. Besides studies of latitudinal variation of the methane <span class="hlt">absorption</span> bands we have done an attempt to trace the behavior of the <span class="hlt">absorption</span> of ammonia in the band 645 nm. Simple selection of the pure NH3 profile of the band was not very reliable. Therefore, after normalizing to the ring spectrum and to the level of the continuous spectrum for entire band ranging from 630 to 680 nm in the equivalent widths were calculated for shortwave part of this band (630-652 nm), where the ammonia <span class="hlt">absorption</span> is present, and a portion of the band CH4 652-680 nm. In any method of eliminating the weak part of the methane uptake in the short wing show an increased ammonia <span class="hlt">absorption</span> in the northern hemisphere compared to the south. This same feature is observed also in the behavior of weak <span class="hlt">absorption</span> bands of methane in contrast to the more powerful, such as CH4 725 and 787 nm. This is due to the conditions of <span class="hlt">absorption</span> bands formation in the clouds at multiple scattering. Weak <span class="hlt">absorption</span> bands of methane and ammonia are formed on the large effective optical depths and their behavior reflects the differences in the degree of uniformity of the aerosol component of the atmosphere of Saturn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22search+engines%22&pg=7&id=EJ659665','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22search+engines%22&pg=7&id=EJ659665"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> and Retrieval for the Web.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Edie M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Explores current research on <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation <span class="hlt">indexing</span>; relevance; query evaluation;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPU&pg=3&id=EJ071999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPU&pg=3&id=EJ071999"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine-Aided <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> of Technical Literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Klingbiel, Paul H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>To <span class="hlt">index</span> at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's <span class="hlt">indexing</span> has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span> system is described that <span class="hlt">indexes</span> one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. Itemized <span class="hlt">index</span>, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The <span class="hlt">index</span> may contain such information as: date of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol5-sec58-50.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol5-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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