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Sample records for absorption lidar measurements

  1. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements from Air and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the measurement of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols from aircraft platforms for over 18 years, yielding new insights into atmospheric chemistry, composition, and dynamics in large-scale field experiments conducted all over the world. The successful deployment of the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE) in September 1994 demonstrated that space-based lidars can also collect valuable information on the global atmosphere. This paper reviews some of the contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne ozone and water vapor DIAL systems and space-based LITE system to the understanding of the atmosphere and discusses the feasibility and advantages of putting DIAL systems in space for routine atmospheric measurements of ozone and/or water vapor and aerosols and clouds. The technology and applications of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique have progressed significantly since the first DIAL measurements of Schotland, and airborne DIAL measurements of ozone and water vapor are frequently being made in a wide range of field experiments. In addition, plans are underway to develop DIAL systems for use on satellites for continuous global measurements. This paper will highlight the history of airborne lidar and DIAL systems, summarize the major accomplishments of the NASA Langley DIAL program, and discuss specifications and goals for DIAL systems in space.

  2. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of C02 Column Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Rodriquez, Michael; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column density for an approach being developed as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. It uses a pulsed dual-wavelength lidar measurement based on the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. We demonstrated the approach using the CO2 measurement from aircraft in July and August 2009 over four locations. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and the results show approx.1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and approx.30 sec averaging times. Airborne measurements were also made in 2010 with stronger signals and initial analysis shows approx. 0.3 ppm random errors for 80 sec averaging times for measurements at altitudes> 6 km.

  3. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and methodology of using differential absorption lidar techniques for the remote measurement of atmospheric pressure profiles, surface pressure, and temperature profiles from ground, air, and space-based platforms are presented. Pressure measurements are effected by means of high resolution measurement of absorption at the edges of the oxygen A band lines where absorption is pressure dependent due to collisional line broadening. Temperature is assessed using measurements of the absorption at the center of the oxygen A band line originating from a quantum state with high ground state energy. The population of the state is temperature dependent, allowing determination of the temperature through the Boltzmann term. The results of simulations of the techniques using Voigt profile and variational analysis are reported for ground-based, airborne, and Shuttle-based systems. Accuracies in the 0.5-1.0 K and 0.1-0.3% range are projected.

  4. Estimation of background gas concentration from differential absorption lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Peter; Smith, Nadia; Livina, Valerie; Gardiner, Tom; Robinson, Rod; Innocenti, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Approaches are considered to estimate the background concentration level of a target species in the atmosphere from an analysis of the measured data provided by the National Physical Laboratory's differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. The estimation of the background concentration level is necessary for an accurate quantification of the concentration level of the target species within a plume, which is the quantity of interest. The focus of the paper is on methodologies for estimating the background concentration level and, in particular, contrasting the assumptions about the functional and statistical models that underpin those methodologies. An approach is described to characterise the noise in the recorded signals, which is necessary for a reliable estimate of the background concentration level. Results for measured data provided by a field measurement are presented, and ideas for future work are discussed.

  5. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  6. A 2-Micron Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development For Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Reithmaier, Karl; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo C.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  7. Coherent differential absorption lidar for combined measurement of wind and trace atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Grady James

    A lidar system was developed for making combined range-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction, water vapor concentration, and carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. This lidar combines the coherent Doppler technique for wind detection and the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to provide a multifunctional capability. DIAL and coherent lidars have traditionally been thought of and implemented as separate instruments, but the research reported here has shown a demonstration of combining the coherent and DIAL techniques into a single instrument using solid-state lasers. The lasers used are of Ho:Tm:YLF, which operates at a wavelength of 2 mum. This wavelength is a further advantage to the lidar, as this wavelength offers a much higher level of eyesafety than shorter wavelengths conventionally used for DIAL. Two generations are lidars are described, with the first design making combined measurement of wind and water vapor. Wind speed measurements are shown of a precision better than 1 m/s, making it useful for many meteorological applications. Water vapor concentration measurements were of 86% accuracy, requiring improvement for scientific applications. This preliminary experiment revealed the largest source of error in concentration measurement to be a lack of stability in the wavelength of the laser. This problem was solved by implementing a means to precisely control the continuous-wave laser that injection seeds a pulsed laser. The finely tunable Ho:Tm:YLF laser was stabilized to absorption lines of both carbon dioxide and water vapor using a wavelength modulation technique. Long-term stabilization to within 13.5 MHz of absorption line center is shown, representing the first frequency-stabilized laser at or within 500 run of 2mum wavelength. Results are presented on injection seeding a pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser to impart the tunability and stabilization to the pulsed laser output. The stabilized laser system was incorporated into a

  8. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Subhourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephania

    2011-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar system, developed jointly by The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min 17 temporal integration.

  9. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Sub-Hourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, developed jointly by the University of Alabama at Huntsville and NASA, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min temporal integration

  10. Recent Pulsed Airborne Lidar measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption to 13 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Mao, J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Sun, X.; Rodriguez, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA’s ASCENDS mission. It uses pulsed laser transmitters to simultaneously measure a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers step in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line pair during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the time resolved backscatter of the laser echoes. Signal processing is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, estimate their range, and reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated via the IPDA technique. We developed a lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from aricraft. The lidar steps the pulsed laser’s wavelength across a selected CO2 line with 20 or 30 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz and laser pulse widths are 1 usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. During July and August 2009 we made 5 two hour long flights while installed on the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. We measured the atmospheric CO2 absorption and line shapes using the 1572.33 nm CO2 line. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3-13 km over a variety of surfaces in Nebraska, Illinois, the SGP ARM site, and near and over the Chesapeake Bay. Strong laser signals and clear line shapes were observed at all altitudes, and some measurements were made through thin clouds. The Oklahoma and east coast flights were coordinated with the NASA LaRC/ITT CO2 lidar on their UC-12 aircraft, a LaRC in-situ CO2 sensor, and the Oklahoma flights also included a JPL CO2 lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. Ed Browell

  11. Pressure Measurements Using an Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar. Part 1; Analysis of the Systematic Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, Cyrille N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Evans, Keith D.; Palm, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Remote airborne measurements of the vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere are made with an oxygen differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption fine parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, we analyze other possible sources of systematic errors including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering interference by rotational Raman scattering and interference by isotopic oxygen fines.

  12. Error Reduction Methods for Integrated-path Differential-absorption Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jeffrey R.; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    We report new modeling and error reduction methods for differential-absorption optical-depth (DAOD) measurements of atmospheric constituents using direct-detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidars. Errors from laser frequency noise are quantified in terms of the line center fluctuation and spectral line shape of the laser pulses, revealing relationships verified experimentally. A significant DAOD bias is removed by introducing a correction factor. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations can be reduced to tolerable levels by incorporating altimetry knowledge and "log after averaging", or by pointing the laser and receiver to a fixed surface spot during each wavelength cycle to shorten the time of "averaging before log".

  13. Development of a Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar for Range Resolved Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulgueta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo. C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffery J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-m coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument will measure atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) initially from a ground platform, and then be prepared for aircraft installation to measure the atmospheric CO2 column densities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere. The airborne prototype CO2 lidar can measure atmospheric CO2 column density in a range bin of 1km with better than 1.5% precision at horizontal resolution of less than 50km. It can provide the image of the pooling of CO2 in lowlying areas and performs nighttime mass balance measurements at landscape scale. This sensor is unique in its capability to study the vertical ABL-free troposphere exchange of CO2 directly. It will allow the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop.

  14. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  15. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  16. Airborne 2-micron double-pulsed integrated path differential absorption lidar for column CO2 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-10-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 mJ and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 µs and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-µm direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-μm IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  17. Data Analysis of a Pulsed 2-micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar For Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Yu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The study of climate change requires precise measurement of the production, migration, and sinking of greenhouse gases. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the principal greenhouse gases. NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) has developed a pulsed 2-micron coherent differential absorption lidar (DiAL) for CO2 measurement, operating on the R30 absorption line. On April 5, 2010, the lidar instrument transmitted alternating On-line and Off-line pulses from LARC into a residential area in Poquoson, Virginia; while a passive in-situ sensor measured the local CO2 concentration. This paper outlines a procedure to estimate CO2 concentration from atmospheric lidar return signal using the DiAL method; our calculation produced results in line with the in-situ measurement and matched the current state of DiAL instrument accuracy. Data from April 5 is part of a series of experiments validating the measurement accuracy and precision of this lidar. After a summative verification, a packaged lidar may be installed on research aircraft to perform CO2 studies at a great range of latitudes throughout the year, and to discover sources, sinks, and migration trends for this key greenhouse gas. The following procedure is used to estimate CO2 concentration from atmospheric lidar return using the DiAL method. First, MATLAB software developed at LARC sorts the lidar return into On-only and Off-only files containing pulses of only that type. The sorted pulses are reexamined for quality based on the center frequency, energy, and power - unsatisfactory pulses are removed. A 512-point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with 256-point shift is performed on each pulse to discretize the atmospheric return signal according to 63 distance 'bins'. Next, comparing decay rates of the On-line and Off-line atmospheric return intensity with distance yields the Differential Absorption Optical Slope (DAOD), which is proportional to the concentration of the desired gas. Then, in-situ meteorological data - pressure

  18. Error analysis of Raman differential absorption lidar ozone measurements in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, J

    2000-11-20

    A formalism for the error treatment of lidar ozone measurements with the Raman differential absorption lidar technique is presented. In the presence of clouds wavelength-dependent multiple scattering and cloud-particle extinction are the main sources of systematic errors in ozone measurements and necessitate a correction of the measured ozone profiles. Model calculations are performed to describe the influence of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds on the ozone. It is found that it is sufficient to account for cloud-particle scattering and Rayleigh scattering in and above the cloud; boundary-layer aerosols and the atmospheric column below the cloud can be neglected for the ozone correction. Furthermore, if the extinction coefficient of the cloud is ?0.1 km(-1), the effect in the cloud is proportional to the effective particle extinction and to a particle correction function determined in the limit of negligible molecular scattering. The particle correction function depends on the scattering behavior of the cloud particles, the cloud geometric structure, and the lidar system parameters. Because of the differential extinction of light that has undergone one or more small-angle scattering processes within the cloud, the cloud effect on ozone extends to altitudes above the cloud. The various influencing parameters imply that the particle-related ozone correction has to be calculated for each individual measurement. Examples of ozone measurements in cirrus clouds are discussed.

  19. Ground-based integrated path coherent differential absorption lidar measurement of CO2: foothill target return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, S.; Koyama, M.; Baron, P.; Iwai, H.; Mizutani, K.; Itabe, T.; Sato, A.; Asai, K.

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has made a great deal of effort to develop a coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) for measuring CO2 and wind speed. First, coherent Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar experiments were conducted using the Co2DiaWiL and a foothill target (tree and ground surface) located about 7.12 km south of NICT on 11, 27, and 28 December 2010. The detection sensitivity of a 2 μm IPDA lidar was examined in detail using the CO2 concentration measured by the foothill reflection. The precisions of CO2 measurements for the foothill target and 900, 4500 and 27 000 shot pairs were 6.5, 2.8, and 1.2%, respectively. The results indicated that a coherent IPDA lidar with a laser operating at a high pulse repetition frequency of a few tens of KHz is necessary for XCO2 (column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2) measurement with a precision of 1-2 ppm in order to observe temporal and spatial variations in the CO2. Statistical comparisons indicated that, although a small amount of in situ data and the fact that they were not co-located with the foothill target made comparison difficult, the CO2 volume mixing ratio obtained by the Co2DiaWiL measurements for the foothill target and atmospheric returns was about -5 ppm lower than the 5 min running averages of the in situ sensor. Not only actual difference of sensing volume or the natural variability of CO2 but also the fluctuations of temperature could cause this difference. The statistical results indicated that there were no biases between the foothill target and atmospheric return measurements. The 2 μm coherent IPDA lidar can detect the CO2 volume mixing ratio change of 3% in the 5 min signal integration. In order to detect the position of the foothill target, to measure a range with a high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), and to reduce uncertainty due to the presence of aerosols and clouds, it is important to make a

  20. Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

  1. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements Using an I2 Absorption Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.; Piironen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measures optical properties of the atmosphere by separating the Doppler-broadened molecular backscatter return from the unbroadened aerosol return. The HSRL was modified to use an I2 absorption cell The modified HSRL transmitter uses a continuously pumped, Q-switched, injection seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at a 4 kHz pulse repetition rate. This laser is tunable over a 124 GHz frequency range by temperature tuning the seed laser under computer control.

  2. Differential absorption lidar technique for measurement of the atmospheric pressure profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new two-wavelength lidar technique for remotely measuring the pressure profile using the trough absorption region between two strong lines in the oxygen A band is described. The theory of integrated vertical path, differential ranging, and horizontal-path pressure measurements is given, with methods to desensitize and correct for temperature effects. The properties of absorption troughs are described and shown to reduce errors due to laser frequency jitter by up to two orders of magnitude. A general analysis, including laser bandwidth effects, demonstrates that pressure measurements with an integrated-vertical-path technique are typically fifty times more accurate than with a differential ranging technique. Simulations show 0.1-0.3 percent accuracy for ground and Shuttle-based pressure-profile and surface-pressure experiments.

  3. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Ramanathan, A.; Hasselbrack, W.; Mao, J.; Weaver, C. J.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated an efficient pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Our team participated in the 2010 ASCENDS airborne campaigns we flew airborne version of the CO2 and O2 lidar on the NASA DC-8. The CO2 lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan and 300 scans per second. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to > 12 km, and clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Our post-flight analysis estimated the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak. We compared these to CO2 DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the conditions from airborne in-situ readings. Analysis of the 2010 measurements over the Pacific Ocean and Lamont OK shows the expected ~linear change of the peak DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes > 6 km the random errors were ~ 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. After the 2010 flights we improved the airborne lidar's scan uniformity, calibration and receiver sensitivity. Our team participated in the seven ASCENDS science flights during late July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, snow patches on mountain tops, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as well as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity

  4. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  5. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of differential absorption lidar measurements in the mid-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Ambrico, P F; Amodeo, A; Di Girolamo, P; Spinelli, N

    2000-12-20

    The availability of new laser sources that are tunable in the IR spectral region opens new perspectives for differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements. A region of particular interest is located in the near IR, where some of the atmospheric pollutants have absorption lines that permit monitoring of emissions from industrial plants and in urban areas. In DIAL measurements, the absorption lines for the species to be measured must be carefully chosen to prevent interference from other molecules, to minimize the dependence of the absorption cross section on temperature, and to optimize the measurements with respect to the optical depth. We analyze the influence of these factors and discuss a set of criteria for selecting the best pairs of wavelengths (lambda(on) and lambda(off)) to be used in DIAL measurements of several molecular species (HCl, CO, CO(2), NO(2), CH(4), H(2)O, and O(2)). Moreover, a sensitivity study has been carried out for selected lines in three different regimes: clean air, urban polluted air, and emission from an incinerator stack.

  7. Development of a Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Refaat, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. Active remote sensing of CO2 is important to address several limitations that contend with passive sensors. A 2-micron double-pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This active remote sensing instrument will provide an alternate approach of measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise ratio level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Commercial, on the shelf, components are implemented for the detection system. Instrument integration will be presented in this paper as well as a background for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley research Center

  8. Development of a pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. Active remote sensing of CO2 is important to address several limitations that contend with passive sensors. A 2-micron double-pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This active remote sensing instrument will provide an alternate approach of measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise ratio level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Commercial, on the shelf, components are implemented for the detection system. Instrument integration will be presented in this paper as well as a background for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley research Center.

  9. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Ramanathan, Anand; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Weaver, Clark; Browell, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an efficient pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Our team participated in the 2010 ASCENDS airborne campaigns we flew airborne version of the CO2 and O2 lidar on the NASA DC-8. The CO2 lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan and 300 scans per second. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to greater than 12 km, and clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Our post-flight analysis estimated the Iidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak. We compared these to CO2 DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the conditions from airborne in-situ readings. Analysis of the 2010 measurements over the Pacific Ocean and Lamont OK shows the expected -linear change of the peak DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes greater than 6 km the random errors were approximately 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. After the 2010 flights we improved the airborne lidar's scan uniformity, calibration and receiver sensitivity. Our team participated in the seven ASCENDS science flights during late July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, snow patches on mountain tops, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as wen as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly

  10. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  11. Error reduction in retrievals of atmospheric species from symmetrically measured lidar sounding absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeffrey R; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T

    2014-10-20

    We report new methods for retrieving atmospheric constituents from symmetrically-measured lidar-sounding absorption spectra. The forward model accounts for laser line-center frequency noise and broadened line-shape, and is essentially linearized by linking estimated optical-depths to the mixing ratios. Errors from the spectral distortion and laser frequency drift are substantially reduced by averaging optical-depths at each pair of symmetric wavelength channels. Retrieval errors from measurement noise and model bias are analyzed parametrically and numerically for multiple atmospheric layers, to provide deeper insight. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations are reduced to tolerable levels by "averaging before log" with pulse-by-pulse ranging knowledge incorporated.

  12. Development and Testing of a Differential Absorption LIDAR system for Greenhouse Gas Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, S. E.; Douglass, K.; Plusquellic, D.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to develop accurate and reliable methods for quantifying distributed carbon sources and sinks to support both mitigation efforts and climate change research. We will describe progress toward a field-deployable, eye-safe differential absorption LIDAR system. The current version of our system utilizes a high repetition rate (>200 kHz), 200 ns pulsed fiber amplifier driven by tunable DFB lasers around 1602 nm. Collection is performed using a small (3' diameter) telescope and an avalanche photodiode. We demonstrate a rapid hard target measurement of ambient levels of CO2 in our 100m test facility using low powers from the fiber laser and a highly-retro-reflecting target. We also discuss progress toward a range resolved measurement in the test facility, planned upgrades to the facility, and the development of a low-backscatter beam dump for range-limited applications.

  13. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of Mount Pinatubo aerosol on differential absorption lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbrecht, W.; Carswell, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Substantially increased aerosol backscattering and extinction after a major volcanic eruption can lead to errors in differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of stratospheric ozone. Mie calculations, performed for the wavelengths 308 and 353 nm and based on size distributions measured over Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg), were used to assess size and temporal evolution of these errors. In many situations, neglecting the different aerosol backscattering at the absorption and reference wavelengths can lead to relative errors in the ozone concentration larger than 100% for the 308-, 353-nm pair. The error due to neglecting the differential aerosol extinction, however, will rarely exceed 2%. A correction for this differential extinction should only be attempted when high concentrations (greater than 100/cu cm) of small aerosol particles with radii below 0.1 micrometers are present, e.g., shortly after an eruption. A correction for the differential backscatter can be made by using additional lidar measurements at a second reference wavelength or by having general size distribution information on the aerosol. Possible corrections were tested and will usually reduce the error in the ozone concentration considerably. For the 308-, 353-nm pair, both Mie calculations and a comparison with ozone profiles from electrochemical cell sondes show, however, that even after the correction the uncertainty in the ozone concentration within some regions of the strongly enhanced Mt. Pinatubo aerosol layer can still be substantial, of the order of 10-50%. Wavelength separation smaller than 40 nm or use of wavelengths shorter than 300 nm will reduce the error. The best solution seems to be the addition of Raman channels. It avoids the large error due to the differential backscatter term.

  15. Atmospheric absorption versus deep ultraviolet (pre-)resonance in Raman lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallen, Hans D.; Willitsford, Adam H.; Neely, Ryan R.; Chadwick, C. Todd; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2016-05-01

    The Raman scattering of several liquids and solid materials has been investigated near the deep ultraviolet absorption features corresponding to the electron energy states of the chemical species present. It is found to provide significant enhancement, but is always accompanied by absorption due to that or other species along the path. We investigate this trade-off for water vapor, although the results for liquid water and ice will be quantitatively very similar. An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was pumped by the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, and the output frequency doubled to generate a tunable excitation beam in the 215-600 nm range. We use the tunable laser excitation beam to investigate pre-resonance and resonance Raman spectroscopy near an absorption band of ice. A significant enhancement in the Raman signal was observed. The A-term of the Raman scattering tensor, which describes the pre-resonant enhancement of the spectra, is also used to find the primary observed intensities as a function of incident beam energy, although a wide resonance structure near the final-state-effect related absorption in ice is also found. The results suggest that use of pre-resonant or resonant Raman LIDAR could increase the sensitivity to improve spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric water vapor measurements. However, these shorter wavelengths also exhibit higher ozone absorption. These opposing effects are modeled using MODTRAN for several configurations relevant for studies of boundary layer water and in the vicinity of clouds. Such data could be used in studies of the measurement of energy flow at the water-air and cloud-air interface, and may help with understanding some of the major uncertainties in current global climate models.

  16. High-resolution atmospheric water vapor measurements with a scanning differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, F.; Behrendt, A.; Muppa, S. K.; Metzendorf, S.; Riede, A.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2014-11-01

    The scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) is presented. The UHOH DIAL is equipped with an injection-seeded frequency-stabilized high-power Ti:sapphire laser operated at 818 nm with a repetition rate of 250 Hz. A scanning transceiver unit with a 80 cm primary mirror receives the atmospheric backscatter signals. The system is capable of water vapor measurements with temporal resolutions of a few seconds and a range resolution between 30 and 300 m at daytime. It allows to investigate surface-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes with high resolution. In this paper, we present the design of the instrument and illustrate its performance with recent water vapor measurements taken in Stuttgart-Hohenheim and in the frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). HOPE was located near research center Jülich, in western Germany, in spring 2013 as part of the project "High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction" (HD(CP)2). Scanning measurements reveal the 3-dimensional structures of the water vapor field. The influence of uncertainties within the calculation of the absorption cross-section at wavelengths around 818 nm for the WV retrieval is discussed. Radiosonde intercomparisons show a very small bias between the instruments of only (-0.04 ± 0.11) g m-3 or (-1.0 ± 2.3) % in the height range of 0.5 to 3 km.

  17. Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements.

    PubMed

    Koch, Grady J; Beyon, Jeffrey Y; Gibert, Fabien; Barnes, Bruce W; Ismail, Syed; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J; Yu, Jirong; Modlin, Edward A; Davis, Kenneth J; Singh, Upendra N

    2008-03-01

    A 2 microm wavelength, 90 mJ, 5 Hz pulsed Ho laser is described with wavelength control to precisely tune and lock the wavelength at a desired offset up to 2.9 GHz from the center of a CO(2) absorption line. Once detuned from the line center the laser wavelength is actively locked to keep the wavelength within 1.9 MHz standard deviation about the setpoint. This wavelength control allows optimization of the optical depth for a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measuring atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The laser transmitter has been coupled with a coherent heterodyne receiver for measurements of CO(2) concentration using aerosol backscatter; wind and aerosols are also measured with the same lidar and provide useful additional information on atmospheric structure. Range-resolved CO(2) measurements were made with <2.4% standard deviation using 500 m range bins and 6.7 min? (1000 pulse pairs) integration time. Measurement of a horizontal column showed a precision of the CO(2) concentration to <0.7% standard deviation using a 30 min? (4500 pulse pairs) integration time, and comparison with a collocated in situ sensor showed the DIAL to measure the same trend of a diurnal variation and to detect shorter time scale CO(2) perturbations. For vertical column measurements the lidar was setup at the WLEF tall tower site in Wisconsin to provide meteorological profiles and to compare the DIAL measurements with the in situ sensors distributed on the tower up to 396 m height. Assuming the DIAL column measurement extending from 153 m altitude to 1353 m altitude should agree with the tower in situ sensor at 396 m altitude, there was a 7.9 ppm rms difference between the DIAL and the in situ sensor using a 30 min? rolling average on the DIAL measurement.

  18. Ultra Narrowband Optical Filters for Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Ingrid; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems are being deployed to make vertical profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor from ground and airborne platforms. One goal of this work is to improve the technology of such DIAL systems that they could be deployed on space-based platforms. Since background radiation reduces system performance, it is important to reduce it. One way to reduce it is to narrow the bandwidth of the optical receiver system. However, since the DIAL technique uses two or more wavelengths, in this case separated by 0.1 nm, a fixed-wavelength narrowband filter that would encompass both wavelengths would be broader than required for each line, approximately 0.02 nm. The approach employed in this project is to use a pair of tunable narrowband reflective fiber Bragg gratings. The Bragg gratings are germanium-doped silica core fiber that is exposed to ultraviolet radiation to produce index-of-refraction changes along the length of the fiber. The gratings can be tuned by stretching. The backscattered laser radiation is transmitted through an optical circulator to the gratings, reflected back to the optical circulator by one of the gratings, and then sent to a photodiode. The filter reflectivities were >90 percent, and the overall system efficiency was 30 percent.

  19. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar only on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear C02 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  20. Analysis of Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Weaver, Clark J.; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS space mission [1]. It uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1575 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver measures the energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with the range profile of scattering in the path. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off-line signals via the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. The time of flight of the laser pulses is used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate an early version of the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar stepped the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 wavelength steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a NIR photomultiplier and is recorded on every other reading by a photon counting system [2]. During August 2009 we made a series of 2.5 hour long flights and measured the atmospheric CO2 absorption and line shapes using the 1572.33 nm CO2 line. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3-13 km over locations in the US, including the SGP ARM site in Oklahoma, central Illinois, north-eastern North Carolina, and over the Chesapeake Bay and the eastern shore of Virginia. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes, and some measurements were made

  1. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs altitude. The

  2. Airborne Differential Absorption and High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements for Cirrus Cloud Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Schaefler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol and water vapor measurements were performed with the lidar system WALES of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) onboard the German research aircraft G550-HALO during the HALO Techno-Mission in October and November 2010 and during the ML-Cirrus mission in March and April 2014 over Central Europe and the North Atlantic region. Curtains composed of lidar profiles beneath the aircraft show the water vapor mixing ratio and the backscatter ratio. Temperature data from ECMWF model analysis are used to calculate the relative humidity above ice (RHi) in the 2-D field along the flight track to study the RHi distribution inside and outside of cirrus clouds at different stages of cloud evolution.

  3. Tropospheric O3 measurement by simultaneous differential absorption lidar and null profiling and comparison with sonde measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Takashi; Cao, Nianwen; Nemoto, Koshichi; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2001-09-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system consisting of two identical tunable laser systems and a single optical receiver is applied to measurement of O3 concentration profiles in the lower troposphere. Each laser is capable of emitting two wavelengths on alternate pulses, so the system is capable of simultaneous measurement of two species in the same wavelength region. We set the two lasers to emit at identical wavelength pairs consisting of on wavelength 285.0 nm and off wavelength 290.1 nm for simultaneous measurement of two null profiles, one at each wavelength, and two DIAL profiles, or O3 concentration profiles. Null profiles are useful in estimating instrumental error and checking the vertical range interval in which the DIAL profiles are accurate. Null and DIAL profiles are obtained for vertical range 1000 to 4000 m using neutral density filters of different transmissions to prevent the strong return signals from close range from saturating the photodetector. The obtained O3 concentration profiles agree with simultaneous O3 sonde measurements. An evaluation of the measurement error shows that the average O3 measurement error for vertical range 1000 to 4000 m was 3.4 ppb, or 8% relative to the average O3 concentration of 42.3 ppb, most of which is due to statistical error. The error due to differential Mie attenuation and differential backscatter gradient was found to be 0.5 ppb.

  4. Identification and correction of analog-to-digital-converter nonlinearities and their implications for differential absorption lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Langford, A O

    1995-12-20

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is a powerful remote-sensing technique widely used to probe the spatial and temporal distribution of ozone and other gaseous atmospheric trace constituents. Although conceptually simple, the DIAL technique presents many challenging and often subtle technical difficulties that can limit its useful range and accuracy. One potentially serious source of error for many DIAL experiments is nonlinearity in the analog-to-digital converters used to capture lidar return signals. The impact of digitizer nonlinearity on DIAL measurements is examined, and a simple and inexpensive low-frequency dithering technique that significantly reduces the effects of ADC nonlinearity in DIAL and other applications in which the signal is repetitively averaged is described.

  5. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS space mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are rapidly and precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The time of flight of the laser pulses are also used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to identify cases of mixed cloud and ground scattering. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during fall 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin clouds. The atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the

  6. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C.; Hasselbrack, W.; Sun, X.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric C02 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a C02 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, 02 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the C02 line and an 02 line region during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the C02 and 02 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the C02 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear 25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across a selected C02 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz and laser pulse widths are I usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during October and December 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin and broken clouds. Atmospheric C02 column measurements using the 1571.4, 1572.02 and 1572.33 nm C02 lines. Two flights were made above the DOE SGP ARM site at altitudes from 3-8 km. These nights were coordinated with DOE investigators who Hew an in-situ C02 sensor on a Cessna aircraft under the path. The increasing C02 line absorptions with

  7. Pulsed Airborne Lidar measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Sun, X.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA’s planned ASCENDS mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser’s wavelength across a selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, laser pulse energy is 25 uJ and laser pulse widths are 1 usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during October and December 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin and broken clouds. Atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1571.4, 1572.02 and 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the DOE SGP ARM site at altitudes from 3-8 km. These flights were coordinated with DOE investigators who flew an in-situ CO2 sensor on a Cessna aircraft under the path. The

  8. Development of a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurement by Direct Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Singh, U. N.; Petros, M.; Bai, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar instrument for ground and airborne measurements via direct detection method. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capbility by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. A key component of the CO2 DIAL system, transceiver, is an existing, airborne ready, robust hardware which can provide 250mJ at 10Hz with double pulse format specifically designed for DIAL instrument. The exact wavelengths of the transceiver are controlled by well defined CW seed laser source to provide the required injection source for generating on-and-off line wavelength pulses sequentially. The compact, rugged, highly reliable transceiver is based on the unique Ho:Tm:YLF high-energy 2-micron pulsed laser technology. All the optical mounts are custom designed and have space heritage. They are designed to be adjustable and lockable and hardened to withstand vibrations that can occur in airborne operation. For the direct detection lidar application, a large primary mirror size is preferred. A 14 inch diameter telescope will be developed for this program. The CO2 DIAL/IPDA system requires many electronic functions to operate. These include diode, RF, seed laser, and PZT drivers; injection seeding detection and control; detector power supplies; and analog inputs to sample various sensors. Under NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP), a control unit Compact Laser Electronics (CLE), is developed for the controlling the coherent wind lidar transceiver. Significant modifications and additions are needed to update it for CO2 lidar controls. The data acquisition system was built for ground CO2 measurement demonstration. The software will be updated for

  9. A Broad Bank Lidar for Precise Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Huang, W.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate global measurement of carbon dioxide column with the aim of discovering and quantifying unknown sources and sinks has been a high priority for the last decade. In order to uncover the "missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget the critical precision for a measurement from space needs to be on the order of 1 ppm. To better understand the CO2 budget and to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council (NRC) in its recent decadal survey report (NACP) to NASA recommended a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. That's the goal of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission - to significantly enhance the understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Our current goal is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive new lidar system for column measurements of CO2 changes in the lower atmosphere that uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer based system as the detector portion of the instrument and replaces the narrow band laser commonly used in lidars with a high power broadband source. This approach reduces the number of individual lasers used in the system and considerably reduces the risk of failure. It also tremendously reduces the requirement for wavelength stability in the source putting this responsibility instead on the Fabry- Perot subsystem.

  10. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 and 2013 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W.; Weaver, C. J.; Browell, E. V.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan with 300 scans per second. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak and the column average CO2 concentrations. We compared these to radiative transfer calculations based on the HITRAN 2008 database, the atmospheric conditions, and the CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. Our team participated in the ASCENDS science flights during July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to > 12 km, and clear CO2 absorption line shapes were recorded. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as well as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds and to stratus cloud tops. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption profile (averaged for 50 sec) matched the predicted profile to better than 1% RMS error for all flight altitudes. For 10 second averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by signal shot noise (i.e. the signal photon count). For flight

  11. Lidar reflectance from snow at 2.05  μm wavelength as measured by the JPL Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gary D; Menzies, Robert T; Jacob, Joseph C

    2016-03-10

    We report airborne measurements of lidar directional reflectance (backscatter) from land surfaces at a wavelength in the 2.05 μm CO₂ absorption band, with emphasis on snow-covered surfaces in various natural environments. Lidar backscatter measurements using this instrument provide insight into the capabilities of lidar for both airborne and future global-scale CO₂ measurements from low Earth orbit pertinent to the NASA Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission. Lidar measurement capability is particularly useful when the use of solar scattering spectroscopy is not feasible for high-accuracy atmospheric CO₂ measurements. Consequently, performance in high-latitude and winter season environments is an emphasis. Snow-covered surfaces are known to be dark in the CO₂ band spectral regions. The quantitative backscatter data from these field measurements help to elucidate the range of backscatter values that can be expected in natural environments.

  12. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  13. A Two Micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-micron coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument measures atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) from a ground platform. It allows the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop. Keywords: Differential Absorption Lidar, Near Infrared Laser,

  14. Development of a Ground-Based Differential Absorption Lidar for High Accurate Measurements of Vertical CO2 Concentration Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagai, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Masahisa; Sakai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Makoto; Sakaizawa, Daisuku

    2010-05-01

    High-accurate vertical carbon dioxide (CO2) profiles are highly desirable in the inverse method to improve quantification and understanding of the global sink and source of CO2, and also global climate change. We have developed a ground based 1.6μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to achieve high accurate measurements of vertical CO2 profiles in the atmosphere. The DIAL system is constructed from the optical parametric oscillation(OPO) transmitter and the direct detection receiving system that included a near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at photon counting mode. The primitive DIAL measurement was achieved successfully the vertical CO2 profile up to 7 km altitude with an error less than 1.0 % by integration time of 50 minutes and vertical resolution of 150m. We are developing the next generation 1.6 μm DIAL that can measure simultaneously the vertical CO2 concentration, temperature and pressure profiles in the atmosphere. The output laser of the OPO is 20mJ at a 500 Hz repetition rate and a 600mm diameter telescope is employed for this measurement. A very narrow interference filter (0.5nm FWHM) is used for daytime measurement. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere, it is important to measure them simultaneously so that the better accuracy of the DIAL measurement may be realized. Moreover, the value of the retrieved CO2 concentration will be improved remarkably by processing the iteration assignment of CO2 concentration, temperature and pressure, which measured by DIAL techniques. This work was financially supported by the Japan EOS Promotion Program by the MEXT Japan and System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis by the JST. Reference D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, H. Nagai, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, Development of a 1.6μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and

  15. Differential absorption lidar measurements of H2O and O2 using a coherent white light continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somekawa, T.; Manago, N.; Kuze, H.; Fujita, M.

    2016-10-01

    We applied a broadband and coherent white light continuum to differential absorption lidar (DIAL) detection of H2O and O2 profiles in the troposphere. The white light continuum can be generated by focusing high intensity femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm into a Kr gas cell covering a broad spectral range from UV to mid-IR. Thus, the use of white light continuum potentially enables the DIAL measurement of several greenhouse and/or pollutant gases simultaneously while minimizing the lead time for developing a tunable light source. In order to demonstrate such capability, here we report the lidar measurements of H2O and O2. These molecular species exhibit absorption lines in the near IR region where relatively high intensity of the white light continuum is available. The white light continuum was transmitted through the atmosphere collinearly to the axis of a receiver telescope. Backscattered light was passed through bandpass filters (H2O On: 725 and 730 nm, H2O Off: 750 nm, O2 On: 760 nm, O2 Off: 780 nm), and was detected by a photomultiplier tube. The detection wavelengths were selected consecutively by rotating the filter wheels that contain five bandpass filters with an interval of 1 minute. In addition, we propose a method for retrieving vertical profiles of H2O by considering wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficient α and backscatter coefficient β. These results show that for achieving precise retrieval of H2O distribution, one needs to reduce the effect of aerosol temporal variations by means of long-time accumulation or simultaneous detection of the On- and Off-wavelength signals.

  16. First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R A; Gardiner, T D; Innocenti, F; Finlayson, A; Woods, P T; Few, J F M

    2014-08-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources is one of the main anthropogenic contributors to the greenhouse effect. Direct remote sensing of CO2 emissions using optical methods offers the potential for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. We report the development and demonstration of a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) able to measure the mass emission rate of CO2 in the plume from a power station. To our knowledge DIAL has not previously been successfully applied to the measurement of emission plumes of CO2 from industrial sources. A significant challenge in observing industrial CO2 emission plumes is the ability to discriminate and observe localised concentrations of CO2 above the locally observed background level. The objectives of the study were to modify our existing mobile infrared DIAL system to enable CO2 measurements and to demonstrate the system at a power plant to assess the feasibility of the technique for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. The results of this preliminary study showed very good agreement with the expected emissions calculated by the site. The detection limit obtained from the measurements, however, requires further improvement to provide quantification of smaller emitters of CO2, for example for the detection of fugitive emissions. This study has shown that in principle, remote optical sensing technology will have the potential to provide useful direct data on CO2 mass emission rates.

  17. Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day or night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, M H; Langford, A O

    1997-04-20

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aeronomy Laboratory's rapid tunable daylight differential absorption lidar system for monitoring ozone throughout the free troposphere is described. The system components are optimized to provide continuously and rapidly profiles of ozone, day or night, with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an absolute accuracy of +/-10% to the tropopause under clear sky conditions. Routine observations of ozone with frequent error assessments are made by scanning wavelengths between 286 and 292 nm.

  18. Double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar airborne validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Ismail, Syed

    2016-05-20

    Field experiments were conducted to test and evaluate the initial atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement capability of airborne, high-energy, double-pulsed, 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. This IPDA was designed, integrated, and operated at the NASA Langley Research Center on-board the NASA B-200 aircraft. The IPDA was tuned to the CO2 strong absorption line at 2050.9670 nm, which is the optimum for lower tropospheric weighted column measurements. Flights were conducted over land and ocean under different conditions. The first validation experiments of the IPDA for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing, focusing on low surface reflectivity oceanic surface returns during full day background conditions, are presented. In these experiments, the IPDA measurements were validated by comparison to airborne flask air-sampling measurements conducted by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. IPDA performance modeling was conducted to evaluate measurement sensitivity and bias errors. The IPDA signals and their variation with altitude compare well with predicted model results. In addition, off-off-line testing was conducted, with fixed instrument settings, to evaluate the IPDA systematic and random errors. Analysis shows an altitude-independent differential optical depth offset of 0.0769. Optical depth measurement uncertainty of 0.0918 compares well with the predicted value of 0.0761. IPDA CO2 column measurement compares well with model-driven, near-simultaneous air-sampling measurements from the NOAA aircraft at different altitudes. With a 10-s shot average, CO2 differential optical depth measurement of 1.0054±0.0103 was retrieved from a 6-km altitude and a 4-GHz on-line operation. As compared to CO2 weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of 404.08 ppm, derived from air sampling, IPDA measurement resulted in a value of 405.22±4.15  ppm with 1.02% uncertainty and

  19. Investigation of PBL schemes combining the WRF model simulations with scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovac, Josipa; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Behrendt, Andreas; Späth, Florian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Six simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model differing in planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes and land surface models (LSMs) are investigated in a case study in western Germany during clear-sky weather conditions. The simulations were performed at 2 km resolution with two local and two nonlocal PBL schemes, combined with two LSMs (NOAH and NOAH-MP). Resulting convective boundary layer (CBL) features are investigated in combination with high-resolution water vapor differential absorption lidar measurements at an experimental area. Further, the simulated soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes are quantified applying a mixing diagram approach. The investigation shows that the nonlocal PBL schemes simulate a deeper and drier CBL than the local schemes. Furthermore, the application of different LSMs reveals that the entrainment of dry air depends on the energy partitioning at the land surface. The study demonstrates that the impact of processes occurring at the land surface is not constrained to the lower CBL but extends up to the interfacial layer and the lower troposphere. With respect to the choice of the LSM, the discrepancies in simulating a diurnal change of the humidity profiles are even more significant at the interfacial layer than close to the land surface. This indicates that the representation of land surface processes has a significant impact on the simulation of mixing properties within the CBL.

  20. A differential absorption lidar instrument for the measurment of carbon dioxide and methane in the lower troposphere (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinov, Daniel; Clements, Robert; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.; Jack, James W.

    2016-12-01

    Developments in the remote detection of trace gases in the atmosphere using Differential Absorption Lidar have been driven largely by improvements in two key technologies: lasers and detectors. We have designed and built a narrow linewidth pulsed laser source with a well-controlled output wavelength and sufficient pulse energy to measure the concentration profile of CO2 and CH4 to a range in excess of 4km. We describe here the initial measurements of concentration profiles recorded with this instrument. The system is built around a custom-designed Newtonian telescope with a 40cm diameter primary mirror. Laser sources and detectors attach directly to the side of the telescope allowing for flexible customization with a range of additional equipment. The instrument features an all-solid-state laser source based on an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an YLF based diode-laser pumped solid-state laser and seeded by a tuned DFB seed. This provides a range of available wavelengths suitable for DIAL within the 1.5-1.6 μm spectral region. The output of the OPO is beam expanded and transmitted coaxially from the receiver telescope. A gas cell within the laser source controls the seed wavelength and allows the wavelength to be tuned to match a specific absorption feature of the selected gas species. The source can be rapidly tuned between the on-line and off-line wavelengths to make a DIAL measurement of either CO2 or CH4 The receiver is based on an InGaAs avalanche photodetector. Whilst photodiode detectors are a low-cost solution their limited sensitivity restricts the maximum range over which a signal can be detected. The receiver signal is digitised for subsequent processing to produce a sightline concentration profile. The instrument is mounted on a robust gimballed mount providing full directional movement within the upper hemisphere. Both static pointing and angular scan modes are available. Accurate angular position is available giving the sightline

  1. Analysis of diffential absorption lidar technique for measurements of anhydrous hydrogen chloride from solid rocket motors using a deuterium fluoride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, C. H.; Allario, F.

    1977-01-01

    An active optical technique (differential absorption lidar (DIAL)) for detecting, ranging, and quantifying the concentration of anhydrous HCl contained in the ground cloud emitted by solid rocket motors (SRM) is evaluated. Results are presented of an experiment in which absorption coefficients of HCl were measured for several deuterium fluoride (DF) laser transitions demonstrating for the first time that a close overlap exists between the 2-1 P(3) vibrational transition of the DF laser and the 1-0 P(6) absorption line of HCl, with an absorption coefficient of 5.64 (atm-cm) to the -1 power. These measurements show that the DF laser can be an appropriate radiation source for detecting HCl in a DIAL technique. Development of a mathematical computer model to predict the sensitivity of DIAL for detecting anhydrous HCl in the ground cloud is outlined, and results that assume a commercially available DF laser as the radiation source are presented.

  2. Turbulent Humidity Fluctuations in the Convective Boundary Layer: Case Studies Using Water Vapour Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Behrendt, Andreas; Späth, Florian; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent humidity fluctuations in the convective boundary layer (CBL) under clear-sky conditions were investigated by deriving moments up to fourth-order. High-resolution humidity measurements were collected with a water vapour differential absorption lidar system during the HD(CP)}2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). Two cases, both representing a well-developed CBL around local noon, are discussed. While the first case (from the intensive observation period (IOP) 5 on 20 April 2013) compares well with what is considered typical CBL behaviour, the second case (from IOP 6 on 24 April 2013) shows a number of non-typical characteristics. Both cases show similar capping inversions and wind shear across the CBL top. However, a major difference between both cases is the advection of a humid layer above the CBL top during IOP 6. While the variance profile of IOP 5 shows a maximum at the interfacial layer, two variance peaks are observed near the CBL top for IOP 6. A marked difference can also be seen in the third-order moment and skewness profiles: while both are negative (positive) below (above) the CBL top for IOP 5, the structure is more complex for IOP 6. Kurtosis is about three for IOP 5, whereas for IOP 6, the distribution is slightly platykurtic. We believe that the entrainment of an elevated moist layer into the CBL is responsible for the unusual findings for IOP 6, which suggests that it is important to consider the structure of residual humidity layers entrained into the CBL.

  3. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor Utilizing Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Ngoc; DeYoung, Russell J.; Prasad, Coorg R.; Laufer, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    A new unpiloted air vehicle (UAV) based water vapor DIAL system will be described. This system is expected to offer lower operating costs, longer test duration and severe weather capabilities. A new high-efficiency, compact, light weight, diode-pumped, tunable Cr:LiSAF laser will be developed to meet the UAV payload weight and size limitations and its constraints in cooling capacity, physical size and payload. Similarly, a new receiver system using a single mirror telescope and an avalanche photo diode (APD) will be developed. Projected UAV parameters are expected to allow operation at altitudes up to 20 km, endurance of 24 hrs and speed of 400 km/hr. At these conditions measurements of water vapor at an uncertainty of 2-10% with a vertical resolution of 200 m and horizontal resolution of 10 km will be possible.

  4. First attempt to monitor atmospheric glyoxal using differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Lundin, Patrik; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Hu, Jiandong; Zhao, Guangyu; Svanberg, Sune; Bood, Joakim; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Papayannis, Alexandros

    2012-11-01

    Glyoxal (CHOCHO), as an indicator of photochemical "hot spots", was for the first time the subject of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) campaign. The strongest absorption line of glyoxal in the blue wavelength region - 455.1 nm - was chosen as the experimental absorption wavelength. In order to handle the effects of absorption cross-section variation of the interfering gas - nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - three-wavelength DIAL measurements simultaneously detecting glyoxal and NO2, were performed. The differential absorption curves, recorded in July 2012, indicate an extremely low glyoxal concentration in Lund, Sweden, although it is expected to be peaking at this time of the year.

  5. A new differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington DC region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.; Hoff, R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone profiles have been retrieved from the new ground based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) in Greenbelt, MD (38.99° N, 76.84° W, 57 m a.s.l.) from 400 m to 12 km a.g.l. Current atmospheric satellite instruments cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) has been developed, which currently consists of five stations across the US. The GSFC TROPOZ DIAL is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, which currently detects two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm. The DIAL technique exploits this difference between the returned backscatter signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman cells, filled with high pressure hydrogen and deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) within the focus generates a significant fraction of the pump energy at the first Stokes shift. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the range resolved number density can be derived. An interesting atmospheric case study involving the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange (STE) of ozone is shown to emphasize the regional importance of this instrument as well as assessing the validation and calibration of data. The retrieval yields an uncertainty of 16-19% from 0-1.5 km, 10-18% from 1.5-3 km, and 11-25% from 3 km to 12 km. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make routine tropospheric ozone profile measurements in the Baltimore-Washington DC area.

  6. A New Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Sub-Hourly Fluctuation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles in the Baltimore - Washington D.C. Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.; Hoff, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone profiles have been retrieved from the new ground based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) in Greenbelt, MD (38.99 N, 76.84 W, 57 meters ASL) from 400 m to 12 km AGL. Current atmospheric satellite instruments cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) has been developed, which currently consists of five stations across the US. The GSFC TROPOZ DIAL is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, which currently detects two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm. The DIAL technique exploits this difference between the returned backscatter signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman cells, filled with high pressure hydrogen and deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) within the focus generates a significant fraction of the pump energy at the first Stokes shift. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the range resolved number density can be derived. An interesting atmospheric case study involving the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange (STE) of ozone is shown to emphasize the regional importance of this instrument as well as assessing the validation and calibration of data. The retrieval yields an uncertainty of 16-19 percent from 0-1.5 km, 10-18 percent from 1.5-3 km, and 11-25 percent from 3 km to 12 km. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make routine tropospheric ozone profile measurements in the Baltimore

  7. New Results from Frequency and Energy Reference Measurements during the first Test Flight with the Airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar System CHARM-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Amediek, A.; Quatrevalet, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) technique is regarded as a suitable means for the measurement of methane and carbon dioxide columns from satellite or aircraft platforms with unprecedented accuracy. Currently, the German-French methane mission MERLIN (Methan Remote Lidar Mission) is prepared. At the same time CHARM-F, an aircraft installed system has been developed at DLR as an airborne demonstrator for a spaceborne greenhouse gas mission. Both use e.g. optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) in a double-pulse mode as the transmitter. Of particular importance for both instruments are the sub-modules required for the frequency stabilization of the transmitter wavelength and, since the IPDA technique, in contrast to DIAL, requires the exact knowledge of the energy ratio of outgoing on-line. The coherence of the lidar transmitter gives rise to speckle effects which have to be considered for the monitoring of the energy ratio of outgoing on- and off-line pulses. For the frequency reference of CHARM-F, a very successful stabilization scheme has been developed which will also serve as the reference for MERLIN. In Spring 2015, CHARM-F was flown aboard the German HALO aircraft for the first time which enables a detailed view on the performance of both the energy calibration and frequency reference subsystems under real flight conditions. As an initial quality check we will compared the airborne results to previous lab measurements which have been performed under stable environmental conditions.

  8. The use of lidar for stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.

    1977-01-01

    Stratospheric measurements possible with ground-based, airborne, and satellite-borne lidar systems are reviewed. The instruments, basic equations, and formats normally used for various scattering and absorption phenomena measurements are presented including a discussion of elastic, resonance, Raman, and fluorescence scattering techniques.

  9. Atmospheric Backscatter Profiles at 1572nm from Pulsed Lidar Measurments of CO2 Column Absorption from the 2011 ASCENDS Flight Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, G. R.; Riris, H.; Hasselbrack, W.; Sun, X.; Ramanathan, A.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    We present height-resolved backscatter profiles from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's CO2 sounder lidar, rich in detail, which shows clear evidence of multiple backscatter layers, clouds, and aerosols allowing for the identification of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). This data is recorded as a consequence of our pulsed lidar measurements of the CO2 column absorption. The CO2 Sounder is a pulsed lidar for active remote measurements of CO2 abundance from an airborne platform and is one candidate for the lidar on the NASA ASCENDS mission. The lidar uses a scanning, pulsed laser and fiber amplifier in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration to measure CO2 absorption at 1572.335 nm, lineshape, range to scattering surface and backscatter profiles. The laser is scanned across the absorption feature measuring at 30 discrete wavelengths/scan and ~300 scans/sec. The time-resolved return signal, with a temporal resolution of 8ns, is detected by a photon-counting PMT fiber coupled to a modified commercial, 2m focal length f10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The column density for CO2 is estimated from the differential optical depth (DOD) of the scanned absorption line using an integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) technique and the optical path from the time of flight. A backscatter profile of the measured column is recorded for every pulse of every scan and integrated for 1 second. The backscatter profiles we will show are determined from the receivers photon counting record using a cross-correaltion technique (sliding inner product) with a vertical resolution of better than 300m, set by the 1μs pulse width from the MOPA. The range to the surface can be determined to a few meters. Major benefits of a pulsed technique using time-resolved detection to measure lineshape, is the unambiguous detection of the ground return, intervening clouds, aerosols and information on the vertical distribution of CO2. This technique can uniquely identify the

  10. A High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on Absorption Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piironen, Paivi

    1996-01-01

    A High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) that uses an iodine absorption filter and a tunable, narrow bandwidth Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The iodine absorption filter provides better performance than the Fabry-Perot etalon that it replaces. This study presents an instrument design that can be used a the basis for a design of a simple and robust lidar for the measurement of the optical properties of the atmosphere. The HSRL provides calibrated measurements of the optical properties of the atmospheric aerosols. These observations include measurements of aerosol backscatter cross sections, optical depth, backscatter phase function depolarization, and multiple scattering. The errors in the HSRL data are discussed and the effects of different errors on the measured optical parameters are shown.

  11. Inter-comparison of 2 microm Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar, Laser Diode Spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Fabien; Joly, Lilian; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène; Schmidt, Martina; Royer, Adrien; Flamant, Pierre H; Ramonet, Michel; Parvitte, Bertrand; Durry, Georges; Zéninari, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing and in situ instruments are presented and compared in the same location for accurate CO(2) mixing ratio measurements in the atmosphere: (1) a 2.064 microm Heterodyne DIfferential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL), (2) a field deployable infrared Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) using new commercial diode laser technology at 2.68 microm, (3) LICOR NDIR analyzer and (4) flasks. LDS, LICOR and flasks measurements were made in the same location, LICOR and flasks being taken as reference. Horizontal HDIAL measurements of CO(2) absorption using aerosol backscatter signal are reported. Using new spectroscopic data in the 2 microm band and meteorological sensor measurements, a mean CO(2) mixing ratio is inferred by the HDIAL in a 1 km long path above the 15m height location of the CO(2) in situ sensors. We compare HDIAL and LDS measurements with the LICOR data for 30 min of time averaging. The mean standard deviation of the HDIAL and the LDS CO(2) mixing ratio results are 3.3 ppm and 0.89 ppm, respectively. The bias of the HDIAL and the LDS measurements are -0.54 ppm and -0.99 ppm, respectively.

  12. 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption lidar development for simultaneous airborne column measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-05-01

    For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has contributed in developing several 2-micron carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the DIAL technique. Currently, an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development at NASA LaRC. This paper focuses on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of wavelength control, packaging and lidar integration. In addition, receiver development updates will also be presented, including telescope integration, detection systems and data acquisition electronics. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will be presented.

  13. 2-Micron Triple-Pulse Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has contributed in developing several 2-micron carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the DIAL technique. Currently, an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development at NASA LaRC. This paper focuses on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of wavelength control, packaging and lidar integration. In addition, receiver development updates will also be presented, including telescope integration, detection systems and data acquisition electronics. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will be presented.

  14. A mobile differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington, D.C. region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.; Hoff, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Tropospheric ozone profiles have been retrieved from the new ground-based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) in Greenbelt, MD (38.99° N, 76.84° W, 57 m a.s.l.), from 400 m to 12 km a.g.l. Current atmospheric satellite instruments cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) has been developed, which currently consists of five stations across the US. The GSFC TROPOZ DIAL is based on the DIAL technique, which currently detects two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm, with multiple receivers. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman cells, filled with high-pressure hydrogen and deuterium, using helium as buffer gas. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the range-resolved number density can be derived. An interesting atmospheric case study involving the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange (STE) of ozone is shown, to emphasize the regional importance of this instrument as well as to assess the validation and calibration of data. There was a low amount of aerosol aloft, and an iterative aerosol correction has been performed on the retrieved data, which resulted in less than a 3 ppb correction to the final ozone concentration. The retrieval yields an uncertainty of 16-19% from 0 to 1.5 km, 10-18% from 1.5 to 3 km, and 11-25% from 3 to 12 km according to the relevant aerosol concentration aloft. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make routine tropospheric ozone profile measurements in the Baltimore-Washington, D.C. area.

  15. Exicimer lidar measurements of ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, T.; Uchino, O.; Maeda, M.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of the atmospheric ozone profile in an altitude range of 3 to 28 km by means of differential absorption lidar in combination with an XeCl laser (308 nm) and SRS pumped by a KrF laser (249 nm) is discussed.

  16. Airborne Double Pulsed 2-Micron IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Singh, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an airborne 2-micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements. The double pulsed, high pulse energy lidar instrument can provide high-precision CO2 column density measurements.

  17. Atmospheric Backscatter Profiles at 765nm and 1572nm from Pulsed Lidar Measurements of CO2 and O2 Column Absorption from the 2013 ASCENDS Flight Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, G. R.; Riris, H.; Hasselbrack, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramanathan, A.; Sun, X.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    We present height-resolved, range corrected, backscatter profiles from NASA GSFC's two-channel (CO2 & O2) sounder, an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar, which measures simultaneously both carbon dioxide & oxygen column absorptions. These backscatter profiles show clear evidence of multiple backscattering layers, clouds & aerosols, which allows for the identification of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The backscatter measurements enable sampling of the vertical distribution of CO2 in the atmosphere when broken & thin clouds are present & may help identify sources & sinks within the PBL as opposed to natural variations in the vertical distribution of CO2. The CO2 Sounder is an airborne pulsed lidar for active remote measurements of CO2 abundance & is a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days & Seasons). The O2 channel measures atmospheric pressure in the same air column to calculate the dry mixing ratio of CO2. The lidars use a scanning, pulsed laser & fiber amplifier in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier configuration to measure lineshape, range to scattering surface & backscatter profiles. The CO2 channel operates at 1572.335 nm. The O2 channel uses similar technology but frequency doubles the output from ~1530nm to the O2 A-band absorption around 765nm. Both lasers are scanned across the absorption feature of interest sampling the line at a fixed number of discrete wavelengths per scan around ~300 scans per second. The time-resolved return signal is detected by photon-counting detectors with a temporal resolution of a few nanoseconds. The CO2 channel uses a PMT while the O2 channel uses Single Photon Counting Modules. The detectors are fiber coupled to a 2m f10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The column density of the gas of interest is estimated from the differential optical depths of the scanned absorption using the IPDA technique & the optical path from the time of flight. A backscatter

  18. Development of an Airborne Triple-Pulse 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar being developed at NASA Langley Research Center with support from NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator Program. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver and detector upgrades, laser packaging and lidar integration. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  19. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  20. Towards quantitative atmospheric water vapor profiling with differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Dinovitser, Alex; Gunn, Lachlan J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-24

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a powerful laser-based technique for trace gas profiling of the atmosphere. However, this technique is still under active development requiring precise and accurate wavelength stabilization, as well as accurate spectroscopic parameters of the specific resonance line and the effective absorption cross-section of the system. In this paper we describe a novel master laser system that extends our previous work for robust stabilization to virtually any number of multiple side-line laser wavelengths for the future probing to greater altitudes. In this paper, we also highlight the significance of laser spectral purity on DIAL accuracy, and illustrate a simple re-arrangement of a system for measuring effective absorption cross-section. We present a calibration technique where the laser light is guided to an absorption cell with 33 m path length, and a quantitative number density measurement is then used to obtain the effective absorption cross-section. The same absorption cell is then used for on-line laser stabilization, while microwave beat-frequencies are used to stabilize any number of off-line lasers. We present preliminary results using ∼300 nJ, 1 μs pulses at 3 kHz, with the seed laser operating as a nanojoule transmitter at 822.922 nm, and a receiver consisting of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled to a 356 mm mirror.

  1. In situ correlative measurements for the ultraviolet differential absorption lidar and the high spectral resolution lidar air quality remote sensors: 1980 PEPE/NEROS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Beck, S. M.; Mathis, J. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In situ correlative measurements were obtained with a NASA aircraft in support of two NASA airborne remote sensors participating in the Environmental Protection Agency's 1980persistent elevated pollution episode (PEPE) and Northeast regional oxidant study (NEROS) field program in order to provide data for evaluating the capability of two remote sensors for measuring mixing layer height, and ozone and aerosol concentrations in the troposphere during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS program. The in situ aircraft was instrumented to measure temperature, dewpoint temperature, ozone concentrations, and light scattering coefficient. In situ measurements for ten correlative missions are given and discussed. Each data set is presented in graphical and tabular format aircraft flight plans are included.

  2. Tunable IR differential absorption lidar for remote sensing of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Coorg R.; Kabro, Pierre; Mathur, Savyasachee L.

    1999-10-01

    Standoff sensors for rapid remote detection of chemical emissions from either clandestine chemical production sites, chemical and biological warfare agents, concealed internal combustion engine emissions or rocket propellants from missiles are required for several DoD applications. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operating in the infrared wavelengths has established itself as a very effective tool for rapidly detecting many of the chemicals, with sufficient sensitivity with a range of several kilometers. The wavelengths required for this task lie within the atmospheric window regions 3 to 5 micrometers and 8 to 12 micrometers . We are currently developing a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) tunable in the 3 to 5 micrometers range for detecting low concentrations of chemical species with high sensitivity (5 ppb) and accuracy (error < 10%) measurements for greater than 5 km range. We have successfully established the feasibility of an innovative frequency agile laser source which is the crucial component of the infrared DIAL. A diode-pumped ytterbium YAG laser was built for pumping and rapidly tuning an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) over the mid-infra red region. Good performance (5 mJ/pulse) of the laser and low threshold wide infra red tuning of OPO (2.2 - 3.1 micrometers ) were demonstrated. The simulated performance of the topographical IR-DIAL showed that 5 ppb concentration can be measured at 5 km range with a 35 cm telescope.

  3. Lidar extinction measurement in the mid infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, Valentin; Babichenko, S.; Borelli, R.; Fiorani, L.; Grigorov, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, Ad.; Rebane, Ott; Santoro, S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a lidar measurement of atmospheric extinction coefficient. The measurement is performed by inversion of the backscatter lidar signal at wavelengths 3'000nm and 3'500nm. The inversion of the backscatter lidar signal was performed with constant extinction-to-backscatter ration values of 104 and exponential factor 0.1.

  4. Alexandrite laser source for atmospheric lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelon, J.; Loth, C.; Flamant, P.; Megie, G.

    1986-01-01

    During the past years, there has been a marked increase in interest in the applications of vibronic solid state lasers to meteorology and atmospheric physics. Two airborne lidar programs are now under development in France. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method with vibronic solid state lasers is very attractive for water vapor, temperature and pressure measurements. Alexandrite laser and titanium-sapphire are both suitable for these applications. However, only alexandrite rods are commercially available. The requirements on the laser source for airborne dial applications are two fold: (1) a restriction on laser linewidth and a requirement on stability and tunability with a good spectral purity; and (2) a requirement on the time separation between the two pulses. These constraints are summarized.

  5. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  6. Lidar Measurements of Ozone in the Upper Troposphere - Lower Stratosphere at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Dolgii, S. I.; Burlakov, V. D.; Nevzorov, A. A.; Nevzorov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution at the Siberian lidar station. Sensing is performed according to the method of differential absorption and scattering at wavelength pair of 299/341 nm, which are, respectively, the first and second Stokes components of SRS conversion of 4th harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) in hydrogen. Lidar with receiving mirror 0.5 m in diameter is used to implement sensing of vertical ozone distribution in altitude range of 6-16 km. The temperature correction of zone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors.

  7. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  8. [A new retrieval method for ozone concentration at the troposphere based on differential absorption lidar].

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang-Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Lu, Yi-Huai; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Dong, Yun-Sheng; Zhao, Xue-Song

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols interfere with differential absorption lidar ozone concentration measurement and can introduce significant errors. A new retrieval method was introduced, and ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient were gained simultaneously based on the retrieval method. The variables were analyzed by experiment including aerosol lidar ratio, aerosol wavelength exponent, and aerosol-molecular ratio at the reference point. The results show that these parameters introduce error less than 8% below 1 km. The measurement error derives chiefly from signal noise and the parameters introduce error less than 3% above 1 km. Finally the vertical profile of tropospheric ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient were derived by using this algorithm. The retrieval results of the algorithm and traditional dual-wavelength difference algorithm are compared and analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm is feasible, and the algorithm can reduce differential absorption lidar measurement error introduced by aerosol.

  9. Laser speckle effects on hard target differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    MacKerrow, E.P.; Tiee, J.J.; Fite, C.B.

    1996-04-01

    Reflection of laser light from a diffuse surface exhibits a complex interference pattern known as laser speckle. Measurement of the reflected intensity from remote targets, common to ``hard-target`` differential absorption lidar (DIAL) requires consideration of the statistical properties of the reflected light. The authors have explored the effects of laser speckle on the noise statistics for CO{sub 2} DIAL. For an ensemble of independent speckle patterns it is predicted that the variance for the measured intensity is inversely proportional to the number of speckle measured. They have used a rotating drum target to obtain a large number of independent speckle and have measured the predicted decrease in the variance after correlations due to system drifts were accounted for. Measurements have been made using both circular and linear polarized light. These measurements show a slight improvement in return signal statistics when circular polarization is used. The authors have conducted experiments at close range to isolate speckle phenomena from other phenomena, such as atmospheric turbulence and platform motion thus allowing them to gain a full understanding of speckle. They have also studied how to remove correlation in the data due to albedo inhomogeneities producing a more statistically independent ensemble of speckle patterns. They find that some types of correlation are difficult to remove from the data.

  10. The concentration-estimation problem for multiple-wavelength differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, A. N.

    1994-07-01

    We are seeking to develop a reliable methodology for multi-chemical detection and discrimination based upon multi-wavelength differential absorption lidar measurements. In this paper, we summarize some preliminary results of our efforts to devise suitable concentration-estimation algorithms for use in detection and discrimination schemes.

  11. Ground-based, integrated path differential absorption LIDAR measurement of CO2, CH4, and H2O near 1.6  μm.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd A; Plusquellic, David F

    2016-08-10

    A ground-based, integrated path, differential absorption light detection and ranging (IPDA LIDAR) system is described and characterized for a series of nighttime studies of CO2, CH4, and H2O. The transmitter is based on an actively stabilized, continuous-wave, single-frequency external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) operating from 1.60 to 1.65 μm. The fixed frequency output of the ECDL is microwave sideband tuned using an electro-optical phase modulator driven by an arbitrary waveform generator and filtered using a confocal cavity to generate a sequence of 123 frequencies separated by 300 MHz. The scan sequence of single sideband frequencies of 600 ns duration covers a 37 GHz region at a spectral scan rate of 10 kHz (100 μs per scan). Simultaneously, an eye-safe backscatter LIDAR system at 1.064 μm is used to monitor the atmospheric boundary layer. IPDA LIDAR measurements of the CO2 and CH4 dry air mixing ratios are presented in comparison with those from a commercial cavity ring-down (CRD) instrument. Differences between the IPDA LIDAR and CRD concentrations in several cases appear to be well correlated with the atmospheric aerosol structure from the backscatter LIDAR measurements. IPDA LIDAR dry air mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 are determined with fit uncertainties of 2.8 μmol/mol (ppm) for CO2 and 22 nmol/mol (ppb) for CH4 over 30 s measurement periods. For longer averaging times (up to 1200 s), improvements in these detection limits by up to 3-fold are estimated from Allan variance analyses. Two sources of systematic error are identified and methods to remove them are discussed, including speckle interference from wavelength decorrelation and the seed power dependence of amplified spontaneous emission. Accuracies in the dry air retrievals of CO2 and CH4 in a 30 s measurement period are estimated at 4 μmol/mol (1% of ambient levels) and 50

  12. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2015-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new 2-miron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of 2014 for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  13. Advances in Diode-Laser-Based Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, Scott; Repasky, Kevin; Morley, Bruce; Moen, Drew; Weckwerth, Tammy; Hayman, Matt; Nehrir, Amin

    2016-06-01

    An advanced diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV-DIAL) has been developed. The next generation design was built on the success of previous diode-laser-based prototypes and enables accurate measurement of water vapor closer to the ground surface, in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, and in daytime cloudy conditions up to cloud base. The lidar provides up to 1 min resolution, 150 m range resolved measurements of water vapor in a broad range of atmospheric conditions. A description of the instrument and results from its initial field test in 2014 are discussed.

  14. Lidar and Occultation Remote Sensing Applied to Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.

    2008-05-01

    The use of lidar began in the early 1960s soon after a laboratory laser was shown to Q-switch and emit short pulses of light. The lidar technique makes measurements typically through backscattering, fluorescence, attenuation and absorption, and has become more and more sophisticated over the years, being used at ground stations and aboard airplanes and spacecraft. Routine measurements of aerosols, clouds, ozone, and atmospheric constituents like wind speeds and direction are being made. The passive technique of solar, lunar and stellar occultation has been used aboard balloons, aircraft and spacecraft also beginning in the 1960s, and since 1975, aboard spacecraft. It is a technique that, like lidar, is capable of vertical profiling, and has produced global measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone on a routine basis since about 1978. This talk will present a walk through the history of the author's involvement in the development of and measurements using these two techniques. Record-setting data sets on stratospheric aerosols from a ground-based lidar and satellite measurements of global aerosols and ozone (SAM~II and SAGE series) will be presented. The naming and characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds will be described in the context of the ozone hole. Aircraft lidar campaigns to study the impact of volcanic aerosols will be described, as well as the use of airborne lidar to validate satellite occultation measurements. Finally, the proof-of-principle LITE Space Shuttle lidar experiment and the long duration unmanned CALIPSO lidar mission presently in orbit will be discussed along with example results. A look-back at these contributions will be followed by a look into the future.

  15. Rayleigh-backscattering doppler broadening correction for differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lanlan; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan; Chen, He

    2015-11-01

    The spectral broadening by Rayleigh backscattering can cause large changes in water vapor echo signals, causing errors when the water vapor concentration is inversed by differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A correction algorithm is proposed to revise the errors due to the effect of laser spectral broadening. The relative errors of water vapor are calculated in cases of different aerosol distribution and temperature changes before and after correction. The results show that measurement errors due to the Doppler broadening are more than 5% before correction and a 2% measurement error after corrected for the case of a smooth, background aerosol distribution. However, due to the high aerosol gradients and strong temperature inversion, errors can be up to 40% and 10% with no corrections for this effect, respectively. The relative errors can reduce to less than 2% after correction. Hence, the correction algorithm for Rayleigh Doppler broadening can improve detection accuracy in H2O DIAL measurements especially when it is applied to high aerosol concentration or strong temperature inversion.

  16. Reexamination of depolarization in lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Gimmestad, Gary G

    2008-07-20

    Almost all of the depolarization papers in the lidar literature employ a physically inappropriate notation and they use a definition of the depolarization ratio that is not linear in the quantity of interest. This depolarization lidar legacy is misleading and confusing. In particular, subscripts meaning parallel and perpendicular do not apply to atmospheric parameters, such as the volume backscatter coefficient, because (for linear polarization) the two components of the backscattered light are polarized in the transmitted sense and completely unpolarized; the unpolarized component is not "perpendicular." An analysis of lidar depolarization measurements with a particle scattering matrix recently provided in the literature yields algorithms for retrieving the depolarization parameter from either linear or circular depolarization lidar measurements. The analysis, notation, and definitions recommended here harmonize lidar depolarization analysis with radiative transfer theory, particle scattering theory, and standard polarization measurement techniques.

  17. An overtone CO laser application for lidar measurements of profiles of atmospheric meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    Possibilities of using an overtone CO laser in the mid-IR range for lidar measurements of air humidity and temperature profiles by the differential absorption method have been studied. Wavelengths for lidar measurements of meteorological parameters are selected. Spatial and spectrally resolved lidar signals, as well as random errors of retrieval of profiles of the atmospheric meteorological parameters, have been calculated using the wavelengths.

  18. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2016-06-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new instrument has been flown in spring of 2014 for a total of ten flights with 27 flight hours. This IPDA lidar provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the results.

  19. Operating range of a differential-absorption lidar based on a CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ivashchenko, M V; Sherstov, I V

    2000-08-31

    The echolocation range and the remote sensing of ethylene in the atmosphere are simulated for a differential-absorption lidar based on TEA CO{sub 2} lasers. The dependence of the lidar echolocation range on the energy and the peak power of probe pulses is shown to be close to logarithmic. It is demonstrated that the use of narrow-band spectral filters is justified only for low-noise detectors and viewing angles of the receiver exceeding 5 mrad. The relative measurement error of the ethylene concentration in the atmosphere is estimated for various detection modes. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  1. Aerosol Measurements by the Globally Distributed Micro Pulse Lidar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Berkoff, Tim; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide full time profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently eight sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sited there are also passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The network operation includes instrument operation and calibration and the processing of aerosol measurements with standard retrievals and data products from the network sites. Data products include optical thickness and extinction cross section profiles. Application of data is to supplement satellite aerosol measurements and to provide a climatology of the height distribution of aerosol. The height distribution of aerosol is important for aerosol transport and the direct scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution, but no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched in early 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The MP lidar network will provide ground truth and analysis support for GLAS and other NASA Earth Observing System data. The instruments, sites, calibration procedures and standard data product algorithms for the MPL network will be described.

  2. Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design and performance.

    PubMed

    Nehrir, Amin R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

    2012-10-22

    An all diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter for tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiling is presented. The micropulse DIAL (MPD) transmitter utilizes two continuous wave (cw) external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) to seed an actively pulsed, overdriven tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA). The MPD laser produces up to 7 watts of peak power over a 1 µs pulse duration (7 µJ) and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Spectral switching between the online and offline seed lasers is achieved on a 1Hz basis using a fiber optic switch to allow for more accurate sampling of the atmospheric volume between the online and offline laser shots. The high laser spectral purity of greater than 0.9996 coupled with the broad tunability of the laser transmitter will allow for accurate measurements of tropospheric water vapor in a wide range of geographic locations under varying atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of a third generation MPD laser transmitter with enhanced laser performance over the previous generation DIAL system.

  3. Wavelength-locking-free 1.57µm differential absorption lidar for CO₂ sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Tao; Shu, Rong; Hong, Guanglie; Zheng, Long; Ge, Ye; Hu, Yihua

    2014-11-03

    We propose a novel wavelength-locking-free differential absorption lidar system for CO₂ sensing. The ON-line wavelength laser was wavelength modulated around a specific CO₂ absorption line to ensure that the emission from the ON-line laser hit the atmospheric CO₂ absorption line peak twice a cycle. In the meantime, the intensity of the ON-line and OFF-line wavelength lasers were sinusoidally intensity modulated to enhance the SNR of the back-scattered signal. As a consequence, the system configuration was simplified and the measurement error caused by the deviation of CO₂ absorption coefficient from the long-time ON-line wavelength drifting was completely eliminated. Furthermore, a more precise calibration method was developed which could simultaneously calibrate the offset and precision of the lidar detector. This method could be applied to other differential-absorption-based lidar systems. The result showed that a measurement precision of 0.525% for the column concentration was achieved in 1 s time interval through a path of 780m. We recorded the CO₂ concentration variation for 12 hours starting from mid-night, the result showed that the course of the concentration derived from the DIAL was in good agreement with that of the in situ CO₂ sensor only when the status of atmosphere was stable.

  4. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  5. Differential absorption lidars for remote sensing of atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. Laurence; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Famiglietti, Joseph; Walden, Harvey; Prasad, Coorg

    1995-01-01

    A near infrared differential absorption lidar technique is developed using atmospheric oxygen as a tracer for high resolution vertical profiles of pressure and temperature with high accuracy. Solid-state tunable lasers and high-resolution spectrum analyzers are developed to carry out ground-based and airborne measurement demonstrations and results of the measurements presented. Numerical error analysis of high-altitude airborne and spaceborne experiments is carried out, and system concepts developed for their implementation.

  6. Airborne Lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile with tunable Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Milrod, J.; Walden, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first remote measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile made from an airborne platform are described. The measurements utilize a differential absorption lidar and tunable solid state Alexandrite lasers. The pressure measurement technique uses a high resolution oxygen A band where the absorption is highly pressure sensitive due to collision broadening. Absorption troughs and regions of minimum absorption were used between pairs of stongly absorption lines for these measurements. The trough technique allows the measurement to be greatly desensitized to the effects of laser frequency instabilities. The lidar system was set up to measure pressure with the on-line laser tuned to the absorption trough at 13147.3/cm and with the reference laser tuned to a nonabsorbing frequency near 13170.0/cm. The lidar signal returns were sampled with a 200 range gate (30 vertical resoltion) and averaged over 100 shots.

  7. Improved calibration method for depolarization lidar measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Zhien

    2013-06-17

    An improved calibration method for lidar depolarization measurement is described. With this method the system constants including the electronic gain ratio of the parallel and perpendicular channels, the optical reflectance and transmission parameters of the polarizing beam splitter, and the linear polarization ratio of the emitting laser beam can be determined conveniently by using lidar measurements with a half-wave plate oriented at selected angles.

  8. Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, George D.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Mary-land, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other sensors will be presented. A simulation and data product for wind measurement at Venus will be presented.

  9. Atmospheric Temperature Profile Measurements Using Mobile High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razenkov, Ilya I.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-06-01

    The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison discriminates between Mie and Rayleigh backscattering [1]. It exploits the Doppler effect caused by thermal motion of molecules, which broadens the spectrum of the transmitted laser light. That allows for absolute calibration of the lidar and measurements of the aerosol volume backscatter coefficient. Two iodine absorption filters with different absorption line widths (a regular iodine vapor filter and Argon buffered iodine filter) allow for atmospheric temperature profile measurements. The sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio is around 0.14%/K. The instrument uses a shared telescope transmitter-receiver design and operates in eyesafe mode (the product of laser average power and telescope aperture equals 0.1 Wm2 at 532 nm).

  10. Vapor Measurements from the GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, T.

    2003-01-01

    Water vapor measurements from the GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar were made for the first time during a campaign at NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory. Comparisons were made among the GSFC lidar, the NOAA Lidar and water vapor sondes which were flown from the observatory at times coincident with the lidar measurements.

  11. Use of LIDAR for Measuring Snowpack Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; Elder, K.; Cline, D.; Davis, R. E.; Ochs, E.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne LIDAR measurements were made near the date of peak snow accumulation in Colorado as part of the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) overflights were repeated in the late summer following the experiment to obtain a baseline on the terrain in the areas where wintertime LIDAR data were collected. These areas were also measured for many snowpack parameters, including snow depth, by field crews near the winter overflight date. The surfaces generated by differencing the two LIDAR images produced a high-resolution spatial map of snow depth. The results were compared to point measurements of snow depth collected by the field teams. Results were also compared to modeled continuous distributions of snow cover to obtain differences in volume of snow predicted over the study sites. Absolute accuracy of the LIDAR data was evaluated using portions of the LIDAR imagery that was snow free during both overflights. The CLPX field campaign made on-site measurements at nine 1-km square study sites. Site characteristics varied greatly from subalpine to alpine, from thick forest to grassland, and from complex to flat terrain. The observed snowpacks varied between the deepest found in Colorado to shallow, discontinuous snow cover.

  12. Challenges and Solutions for Frequency and Energy References for Spaceborne and Airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, Andreas; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Witschas, Benjamin; Wirth, Martin; Büdenbender, Christian; Amediek, Axel; Ehret, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The stringent requirements for both the frequency stability and power reference represent a challenging task for Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidars (IPDA) to measure greenhouse gas columns from satellite or aircraft. Currently, the German-French methane mission MERLIN (Methan Remote Lidar Mission) is prepared. At the same time CHARM-F, an aircraft installed system has been developed at DLR as an airborne demonstrator for a spaceborne greenhouse gas mission. The concepts and realization of these important sub-systems are discussed.

  13. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2006-04-10

    The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique.

  14. Stabilized master laser system for differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Dinovitser, Alex; Hamilton, Murray W; Vincent, Robert A

    2010-06-10

    Wavelength accuracy and stability are key requirements for differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We present a control and timing design for the dual-stabilized cw master lasers in a pulsed master-oscillator power-amplifier configuration, which forms a robust low-cost water-vapor DIAL transmitter system. This design operates at 823 nm for water-vapor spectroscopy using Fabry-Perot-type laser diodes. However, the techniques described could be applied to other laser technologies at other wavelengths. The system can be extended with additional off-line or side-line wavelengths. The on-line master laser is locked to the center of a water absorption line, while the beat frequency between the on-line and the off-line is locked to 16 GHz using only a bandpass microwave filter and low-frequency electronics. Optical frequency stabilities of the order of 1 MHz are achieved.

  15. Lidar Measurements of Industrial Benzene Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhout, A. J. C.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Gast, L. F. L.

    2016-06-01

    The ability to measure benzene concentrations was added to the RIVM mobile DIAL system. In a ten-days campaign, it was used to measure benzene emissions in the Rijnmond, a heavily industrialised area in the South-west of the Netherlands with petrochemical industry, petrochemical products storage and the port of Rotterdam. On two of the ten days, benzene emissions were found. Combined with measurements of wind speed and wind direction, the Lidar measurements indicated the possible origins of these emissions. This makes the Lidar a valuable tool, augmenting the data collected at fixed monitoring stations.

  16. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  17. Requirements For Lidar Aerosol and Ozone Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Woeste, L.

    Laser remote sensing is the preferable method, when spatial-temporal resolved data is required. Data from stationary laser remote sensing devices at the earth surface give a very good impression about daily, annual and in general time trends of a measurand and can be compared sometimes to airborne instruments to get a direct link between optical and other methods. Space borne measurements on the other hand are the only possibility for obtaining as much data, as modeller wish to have to initialise, compare or validate there computation. But in this case it is very difficult to get the input in- formation, which is necessary for good quantitative analysis as well as to find points for comparison. In outer space and other harsh field environments only the simplest and most robust equipment for the respective purpose should be applied, to ensure a long-term stable operation. The first question is: what do we have to know about the properties of the atmosphere to get reliable data from instruments, which are just simple enough?, and secondly: how to set-up the instruments? Even for the evaluation of backscatter coefficients a density profile and the so-called Lidar-ratio, the ratio of backscatter to total volume scatter intensity, is necessary. Raman Lidar is a possibility to handle this problem by measuring aerosol extinction profiles. But again a density profile and in addition a guess about the wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinc- tion between the Raman and laser wavelength are required. Unfortunately the tech- nique for Raman measurements is much more sensible and less suited for space borne measurements, because of the much smaller back scatter cross sections and the result- ing weak signals. It becomes worth, when we will have to maintain special laser with colours at molecular absorption bands in outer space, to measure gas concentration. I want to present simulation of optical systems for laser remote sensing, experimental experiences and compare air

  18. Detailed signal model of coherent wind measurement lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuechao; Li, Sining; Lu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Lidar is short for light detection and ranging, which is a tool to help measuring some useful information of atmosphere. In the recent years, more and more attention was paid to the research of wind measurement by lidar. Because the accurate wind information can be used not only in weather report, but also the safety guarantee of the airplanes. In this paper, a more detailed signal model of wind measurement lidar is proposed. It includes the laser transmitting part which describes the broadening of the spectral, the laser attenuation in the atmosphere, the backscattering signal and the detected signal. A Voigt profile is used to describe the broadening of the transmitting laser spectral, which is the most common situation that is the convolution of different broadening line shapes. The laser attenuation includes scattering and absorption. We use a Rayleigh scattering model and partially-Correlated quadratic-Velocity-Dependent Hard-Collision (pCqSDHC) model to describe the molecule scattering and absorption. When calculate the particles scattering and absorption, the Gaussian particles model is used to describe the shape of particles. Because of the Doppler Effect occurred between the laser and atmosphere, the wind velocity can be calculated by the backscattering signal. Then, a two parameter Weibull distribution is used to describe the wind filed, so that we can use it to do the future work. After all the description, the signal model of coherent wind measurement lidar is decided. And some of the simulation is given by MATLAB. This signal model can describe the system more accurate and more detailed, so that the following work will be easier and more efficient.

  19. An overview of NASA's ASCENDS Mission's Lidar Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Menzies, R. T.; Lin, B.; Spiers, G. D.; Ismail, S.

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of NASA's ASCENDS mission are to improve the knowledge of global CO2 sources and sinks by precisely measuring the tropospheric column abundance of atmospheric CO2 and O2. The mission will use a continuously operating nadir-pointed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar in a polar orbit. The lidar offers a number of important new capabilities and will measure atmospheric CO2 globally over a wide range of challenging conditions, including at night, at high latitudes, through hazy and thin cloud conditions, and to cloud tops. The laser source enables a measurement of range, so that the absorption path length to the scattering surface will be always accurately known. The lidar approach also measures consistently in a nadir-zenith path and the narrow laser linewidth allows weighting the measurement to the lower troposphere. Using these measurements with atmospheric and flux models will allow improved estimates of CO2 fluxes and hence better understanding of the processes that exchange CO2 between the surface and atmosphere. The ASCENDS formulation team has developed a preliminary set of requirements for the lidar measurements. These were developed based on experience gained from the numerous ASCENDS airborne campaigns that have used different candidate lidar measurement techniques. They also take into account the complexity of making precise measurement of atmospheric gas columns when viewing the Earth from space. Some of the complicating factors are the widely varying reflectance and topographic heights of the Earth's land and ocean surfaces, the variety of cloud types, and the degree of cloud and aerosol absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. The requirements address the precision and bias in the measured column mixing ratio, the dynamic range of the expected surface reflected signal, the along-track sampling resolution, measurements made through thin clouds, measurements to forested and slope surfaces, range precision, measurements

  20. Broadband Lidar Technique for Precision CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.

    2008-01-01

    Presented are preliminary experimental results, sensitivity measurements and discuss our new CO2 lidar system under development. The system is employing an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), superluminescent light emitting diode (SLED) as a source and our previously developed Fabry-Perot interferometer subsystem as a detector part. Global measurement of carbon dioxide column with the aim of discovering and quantifying unknown sources and sinks has been a high priority for the last decade. The goal of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission is to significantly enhance the understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The National Academy of Sciences recommended in its decadal survey that NASA put in orbit a CO2 lidar to satisfy this long standing need. Existing passive sensors suffer from two shortcomings. Their measurement precision can be compromised by the path length uncertainties arising from scattering within the atmosphere. Also passive sensors using sunlight cannot observe the column at night. Both of these difficulties can be ameliorated by lidar techniques. Lidar systems present their own set of problems however. Temperature changes in the atmosphere alter the cross section for individual CO2 absorption features while the different atmospheric pressures encountered passing through the atmosphere broaden the absorption lines. Currently proposed lidars require multiple lasers operating at multiple wavelengths simultaneously in order to untangle these effects. The current goal is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive new lidar system for precise column measurements of CO2 changes in the lower atmosphere that uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer based system as the detector portion of the instrument and replaces the narrow band laser commonly used in lidars with the newly available high power SLED as the source. This approach reduces the number of individual lasers used in the system from three or more

  1. Lidar Measurements of Methane and Applications for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Abshire, James; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade around 1.78 parts per million (ppm) but observations since 2007 show that levels may be increasing. This trend may be caused by increased fossil fuel production, rice farming, livestock and landfills, but the underlying causes are quite uncertain. One hypothesis is that reservoirs of carbon trapped in the permafrost regions of northern Canada, Europe, and Siberia thaw as global temperatures rise and are releasing increasing amounts of methane. Another hypothesis points to increased production of methane by microbes as the permafrost warms. Currently most observations of greenhouse gases are limited to in-situ (surface and tower sites) and limited airborne in-situ measurements. Space column density measurements are starting to become available from the GOSAT mission. Although methane survives for a shorter time in the atmosphere than CO2, its impact on climate change per molecule is about 23 times than that of CO2. Accurate global observations of several greenhouse gases, including methane, are urgently needed in order to better understand climate change processes and to reduce the uncertainty in the carbon budget. Differential absorption lidar is a well-established technique to measure atmospheric gases, and methane has optical absorption bands near 1.65,2.2,3.4 and 7.8 micron. The near infrared overtones lines of CH4 near 1650 nm are relatively free of interference from other species. There are absorption lines near 1651 nm which are both temperature insensitive and have line strengths well suited for lidar measurements. We have developed a laser and demonstrated lidar measurements of CH4 using lines in this band. Our laser uses a narrow linewidth 1064 nm laser pulse passing through a nonlinear crystal. We generate the tunable laser signals near 1651 nm by using the optical parametric amplification (OPA) process. Inside the crystal the 1064 nm beam overlaps with an injection seed

  2. 2-Micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2014-01-01

    A 2-micron high energy, pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Development of this lidar heavily leverages the 2-micron laser technologies developed in LaRC over the last decade. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations. This new 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of this year for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It is able to make measurements of the total amount of atmospheric CO2 from the aircraft to the ground or cloud. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  3. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure using a fiber-laser based lidar operating in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm and the integrated path differential absorption measurement technique. Our lidar uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate tunable laser radiation at 765 nm, which overlaps an absorption line pair in the Oxygen A-band. We use a pulsed time resolved technique, which rapidly steps the laser wavelength across the absorption line pair, a 20 cm telescope and photon counting detector to measure Oxygen concentrations.

  4. Atmospheric effects on CO{sub 2} differential absorption lidar sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Petrin, R.R.; Nelson, D.H.; Schmitt, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    The ambient atmosphere between the laser transmitter and the target can affect CO{sub 2} differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurement sensitivity through a number of different processes. In this work, we will address two of the sources of atmospheric interference with CO{sub 2} DIAL measurements: effects due to beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and extinction due to absorption by atmospheric gases. Measurements of atmospheric extinction under different atmospheric conditions are presented and compared to a standard atmospheric transmission model (FASCODE). We have also investigated the effects of atmospheric turbulence on system performance. Measurements of the effective beam size after propagation are compared to model predictions using simultaneous measurements of atmospheric turbulence as input to the model. These results are also discussed in the context of the overall effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on the sensitivity of DIAL measurements.

  5. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) in Alberta: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Wide Area Measurement of Particulates, CO2, and CH4 Emissions from Energy Extraction and Production Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Crowther, B. G.; Valupadas, P.; Fu, L.; Yang, Z.; Huda, Q.; Leung, B.; Chambers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency (AEMERA) in cooperation with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) of Utah State University, have developed a mobile DIAL sensor designed specifically for particle, CO2 and CH4 emissions measurement. Rapid expansion of the oil and gas industry in Alberta, including the oil sands, has challenged the Alberta Government to keep pace in its efforts to monitor and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. The limitations of current monitoring systems has pushed the provincial government to seek out advanced sensing technologies such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to help assess the impact of energy development and industrial operations. This instrument is housed inside a 36' trailer and can be quickly staged and used to characterize source emissions and to locate fugitive leaks. DIAL is capable of measuring concentrations for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at ranges of up to 3 km with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m. DIAL can map both CO2 and CH4, as well as particulate matter (PM) in a linear fashion; by scanning the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation, DIAL can create images of emissions concentrations and ultimately can be used to determine emission factors, locate fugitive leaks, assess plume dispersion and confirm air dispersion modeling. The DIAL system has been deployed at a landfill, a coal-fired power plant, and an oil sands production area. A system overview of the DIAL instrument and recent results will be discussed.

  6. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  7. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  8. Chamber LIDAR measurements of aerosolized biological simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Thrush, Evan P.; Thomas, Michael E.; Siegrist, Karen M.; Baldwin, Kevin; Quizon, Jason; Carter, Christopher C.

    2009-05-01

    A chamber aerosol LIDAR is being developed to perform well-controlled tests of optical scattering characteristics of biological aerosols, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), for validation of optical scattering models. The 1.064 μm, sub-nanosecond pulse LIDAR allows sub-meter measurement resolution of particle depolarization ratio or backscattering cross-section at a 1 kHz repetition rate. Automated data acquisition provides the capability for real-time analysis or recording. Tests administered within the refereed 1 cubic meter chamber can provide high quality near-field backscatter measurements devoid of interference from entrance and exit window reflections. Initial chamber measurements of BG depolarization ratio are presented.

  9. Investigation of potential of differential absorption Lidar techniques for remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. F.; Shipley, S. T.; Allen, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system uses two high conversion efficiency dye lasers which are optically pumped by two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers mounted rigidly on a supporting structure that also contains the transmitter, receiver, and data system. The DIAL system hardware design and data acquisition system are described. Timing diagrams, logic diagrams, and schematics, and the theory of operation of the control electronics are presented. Success in obtaining remote measurements of ozone profiles with an airborne systems is reported and results are analyzed.

  10. Atmospheric effects on CO{sub 2} differential absorption lidar performance

    SciTech Connect

    Petrin, R.R.; Quagliano, J.R.; Nelson, D.H.; Schmitt, M.J.; Quick, C.R.; Sander, R.K.; Tiee, J.J.; Whitehead, M.

    1996-05-01

    CO{sub 2} differential absorption lidar (DIAL) performance can be adversely affected by the ambient atmosphere between the laser transmitter and the target through a number of different processes. This work addresses two sources of atmospheric interference with multispectral CO{sub 2} DIAL measurements: effects due to beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and extinction due to absorption by atmospheric gases. The authors compare measurements of the effective beam size after propagation to predictions from a beam propagation model that includes turbulence effects such as beam steering and beam spreading. They also compare the experimental measurements of atmospheric extinction to those predicted by both a standard atmospheric transmission model (FASCODE) and a chemometric analysis.

  11. Limits to the information gain from lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Aniceto

    2015-04-15

    Measurements over the return signal are an integral part of lidar remote sensing by which we gather information about the characteristics of specific targets. But how much information is gained by performing a given lidar measurement? By defining Shannon's mutual information of a lidar observation, here we consider the bits of information content on the measurement and describe mathematically the capacity of lidar estimates to represent a corresponding property in the target. For heterodyne Doppler lidars in particular, we have found simple analytical formulas that consider the information gain in mean-frequency estimates.

  12. Transmittance ratio constrained retrieval technique for lidar cirrus measurements.

    PubMed

    Su, Jia; McCormick, M Patrick; Liu, Zhaoyan; Lee, Robert B; Leavor, Kevin R; Lei, Liqiao

    2012-05-01

    This letter describes a lidar retrieval technique that uses the transmittance ratio as a constraint to determine an average lidar ratio as well as extinction and backscatter coefficients of transparent cirrus clouds. The cloud transmittance ratio is directly obtained from two adjacent elastic lidar backscatter signals. The technique can be applied to cirrus measurements where neither the molecular scattering dominant signals above and below the cloud layer are found nor cloudfree reference profiles are available. The technique has been tested with simulated lidar signals and applied to backscatter lidar measurements at Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia.

  13. Progress Report on Frequency - Modulated Differential Absorption Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Bret D.; Harper, Warren W.; Myers, Tanya L.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2001-12-15

    Modeling done at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in FY2000 predicted improved sensitivity for remote chemical detection by differential absorption lidar (DIAL) if frequency-modulated (FM) lasers were used. This improved sensitivity results from faster averaging away of speckle noise and the recently developed quantum cascade (QC) lasers offer the first practical method for implementing this approach in the molecular fingerprint region of the infrared. To validate this model prediction, a simple laboratory bench FM-DIAL system was designed, assembled, tested, and laboratory-scale experiments were carried out during FY2001. Preliminary results of the FM DIAL experiments confirm the speckle averaging advantages predicted by the models. In addition, experiments were performed to explore the use of hybrid QC - CO2 lasers for achieving sufficient frequency-modulated laser power to enable field experiments at longer ranges (up to one kilometer or so). This approach will allow model validation at realistic ranges much sooner than would be possible if one had to first develop master oscillator - power amplifier systems utilizing only QC devices. Amplification of a QC laser with a CO2 laser was observed in the first hybrid laser experiments, but the low gain and narrow linewidth of the CO2 laser available for these experiments prevented production of a high-power FM laser beam.

  14. High-resolution measurements of humidity and temperature with lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Spaeth, Florian; Hammann, Eva; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    3-dimensional thermodynamic fields of temperature and moisture including their turbulent fluctuations have been observed with the two scanning lidar systems of University of Hohenheim in three field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. In this contribution, we will introduce these two self-developed instruments and illustrate their performance with measurement examples. Finally, an outlook to envisioned future research activities with the new data sets of the instruments is given. Our temperature lidar is based on the rotational Raman technique. The scanning rotational Raman lidar (RRL) uses a seeded frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. A two-mirror scanner with a 40-cm telescope collects the atmospheric backscatter signals. Humidity measurements are made with a scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which uses a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm as transmitter. This laser is pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded for switching between the online and offline wavelengths. The DIAL receiver consists of a scanning 80-cm telescope. The measured temperature and humidity profiles of both instruments have typical resolutions of only a few seconds and 100 m in the atmospheric boundary layer both in day- and night-time. Recent field experiments with the RRL and the DIAL of University of Hohenheim were (1) the HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013 in western Germany - this activity is embedded in the project HD(CP)2 (High-definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction); (2) a measurement campaign in Hohenheim in autumn 2013; (3) the campaign SABLE (Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange) in south-western Germany in summer 2014. The collected moisture and temperature data will serve as initial thermodynamic fields for forecast experiments related to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Due to their high resolution and high precision, the systems are capable of resolving

  15. A robust optical parametric oscillator and receiver telescope for differential absorption lidar of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Iain; Jack, James W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.

    2015-10-01

    We report the development of a differential absorption lidar instrument (DIAL) designed and built specifically for the measurement of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The DIAL is integrated into a commercial astronomical telescope to provide high-quality receiver optics and enable automated scanning for three-dimensional lidar acquisition. The instrument is portable and can be set up within a few hours in the field. The laser source is a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which outputs light at a wavelength tunable near 1.6 μm. This wavelength region, which is also used in telecommunications devices, provides access to absorption lines in both carbon dioxide at 1573 nm and methane at 1646 nm. To achieve the critical temperature stability required for a laserbased field instrument the four-mirror OPO cavity is machined from a single aluminium block. A piezoactuator adjusts the cavity length to achieve resonance and this is maintained over temperature changes through the use of a feedback loop. The laser output is continuously monitored with pyroelectric detectors and a custom-built wavemeter. The OPO is injection seeded by a temperature-stabilized distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with a wavelength locked to the absorption line centre (on-line) using a gas cell containing pure carbon dioxide. A second DFB-LD is tuned to a nearby wavelength (off-line) to provide the reference required for differential absorption measurements. A similar system has been designed and built to provide the injection seeding wavelengths for methane. The system integrates the DFB-LDs, drivers, locking electronics, gas cell and balanced photodetectors. The results of test measurements of carbon dioxide are presented and the development of the system is discussed, including the adaptation required for the measurement of methane.

  16. Development of a differential absorption lidar for identification of carbon sequestration site leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William Eric

    This thesis describes the development and deployment of a near-infrared scanning micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for monitoring carbon dioxide sequestration site integrity. The DIAL utilizes a custom-built lidar (light detection and ranging) transmitter system based on two commercial tunable diode lasers operating at 1.571 microm, an acousto-optic modulator, fiber optic switches, and an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier to generate 65 microJ 200 ns pulses at a 15 kHz repetition rate. Backscattered laser transmitter light is collected with an 11 inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope where it is optically filtered to reduce background noise. A fiber-coupled photomultiplier tube operating in the photon counting mode is then used to monitor the collected return signal. Averaging over periods typically of one hour permit range-resolved measurements of carbon dioxide from 1 to 2.5 km with a typical error of 40 ppm. For monitoring a field site, the system scans over a field area by pointing the transmitter and receiver with a computer controlled motorized commercial telescope base. The system has made autonomous field measurements in an agricultural field adjacent to Montana State University and at the Kevin Dome carbon sequestration site in rural northern Montana. Comparisons have been made with an in situ sensor showing agreement between the two measurements to within the 40 error of the DIAL. In addition to the work on the 1.57 micron DIAL, this thesis also presents work done at NASA Langley Research Center on the development and deployment of a 2 micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The 2 micron system utilizes a low repetition rate 140 mJ double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser developed at NASA Langley.

  17. Wavelength Locking to CO2 Absorption Line-Center for 2-Micron Pulsed IPDA Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-micron CW (Continuous Wave) laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nanometers, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  18. Development of a 2-micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Singh, U. N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Langley is developing a 2-micron pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. The objective of this development is to integrate an existing high energy double-pulsed 2-micron laser transmitter with a direct detection receiver and telescope to enable a first proof of principle demonstration of airborne direct detection CO2 measurements at 2-micron wavelength. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. The system is scheduled to fly on NASA UC12 or B200 research aircrafts before the end of 2013. This paper will describe the design of the airborne 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar system; the lidar operation parameters; the wavelength pair selection; laser transmitter energy, pulse rate, beam divergence, double pulse generation and accurate frequency control; detector characterization; telescope design; lidar structure design; and lidar signal to noise ratio estimation.

  19. Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone at Table Mountain, California, since 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, I. Stuart; Schmoe, Martha; Walsh, T. Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Regular measurements of stratospheric ozone concentration profiles have been made at Table Mountain, California, since January 1988. During the period to December 1991, 435 independent profiles were measured by the differential absorption lidar technique. These long-term results, and an evaluation of their quality, is presented in this paper.

  20. DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution at the Siberian lidar station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Burlakov, V. D.; Dolgii, S. I.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Nevzorov, A. A.; Nevzorov, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution at the Siberian lidar station. Sensing is performed according to the method of differential absorption and scattering at wavelength pair of 299/341 nm, which are, respectively, the first and second Stokes components of SRS conversion of 4th harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) in hydrogen. Lidar with receiving mirror 0.5 m in diameter is used to implement sensing of vertical ozone distribution in altitude range of 6-16 km. The temperature correction of zone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors.

  1. Polarization Lidar for Shallow Water Depth Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S.; Thayer, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532 nanometers is developed for applications of shallow water depth measurement. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction detection schemes to determine depth. The minimum resolvable water depth is no longer dictated by the system's laser or detector pulse width and can achieve better than an order of magnitude improvement over current water depth determination techniques. In laboratory tests, a Nd:YAG microchip laser coupled with polarization optics, a single photomultiplier tube, a constant fraction discriminator and a time to digital converter are used to target various water depths. Measurement of 1 centimeter water depths with an uncertainty of ±3 millimeters are demonstrated using the technique. Additionally, a dual detection channel version of the lidar system is in development, permitting simultaneous measurement of co- and cross-polarized signals scattered from the target water body. This novel approach enables new approaches to designing laser bathymetry systems for shallow depth determination from remote platforms while not compromising deep water depth measurement, supporting comprehensive hydrodynamic studies.

  2. Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

  3. Advanced IMCW Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel; lin, bing; nehrir, amin; harrison, fenton; obland, michael

    2015-04-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation.

  4. Lidar Wind Measurements with the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Chen, Hualilin; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of GLOW (Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds), a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. The system employs a Nd:YAG laser transmitter to measure winds using either aerosol backscatter at a wavelength of 1064 run or molecular backscatter at 355 nm. The system is modular in design to allow the incorporation of new technologies as they become available. GLOW is intended to be used as a deployable field system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. Finally it can be used for calibration/validation activities following launch of spaceborne wind lidar systems. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the first validated lidar wind profiles obtained with the system using a new molecular 'double edge' receiver.

  5. Development and testing of a frequency-agile optical parametric oscillator system for differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibring, P.; Smith, J. N.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.

    2003-10-01

    An all-solid-state fast-tuning lidar transmitter for range- and temporally resolved atmospheric gas concentration measurements has been developed and thoroughly tested. The instrument is based on a commercial optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system, which has been redesigned with piezoelectric transducers mounted on the wavelength-tuning mirror and on the crystal angle tuning element in the OPO. Piezoelectric transducers similarly control a frequency-mixing stage and doubling stage, which have been incorporated to extend system capabilities to the mid-IR and UV regions. The construction allows the system to be tuned to any wavelength, in any order, in the range of the piezoelectric transducers on a shot-to-shot basis. This extends the measurement capabilities far beyond the two-wavelength differential absorption lidar method and enables simultaneous measurements of several gases. The system performance in terms of wavelength, linewidth, and power stability is monitored in real time by an étalon-based wave meter and gas cells. The tests showed that the system was able to produce radiation in the 220-4300-nm-wavelength region, with an average linewidth better than 0.2 cm-1 and a shot-to-shot tunability up to 160 cm-1 within 20 ms. The utility of real-time linewidth and wavelength measurements is demonstrated by the ability to identify occasional poor quality laser shots and disregard these measurements. Also, absorption cell measurements of methane and mercury demonstrate the performance in obtaining stable wavelength and linewidth during rapid scans in the mid-IR and UV regions.

  6. Polarization lidar measurements of honeybees for locating buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Seldomridge, Nathan L.; Dunkle, Dustin L.; Nugent, Paul W.; Spangler, Lee H.; Churnside, James H.; Wilson, James W.; Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.

    2005-08-01

    A polarization-sensitive lidar was used to detect honeybees trained to locate buried landmines by smell. Lidar measurements of bee location agree reasonably well with maps of chemical plume strength and bee density determined by visual and video counts, indicating that the bees are preferentially located near the explosives and that the lidar identifies the locations of higher bee concentration. The co-polarized lidar backscatter signal is more effective than the cross-polarized signal for bee detection. Laboratory measurements show that the depolarization ratio of scattered light is near zero for bee wings and up to approximately thirty percent for bee bodies.

  7. Lidar measurements using large liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sica, R. J.; Sargoytchev, S.; Flatt, S.; Borra, E.; Girard, L.

    1992-01-01

    It is a well accepted practice in the discussion of lidars to compare systems by a performance factor given by the product of the transmitter power and receiver aperture. This form of the performance factor reflects the two key parameters that determine the amount of photons recorded from a given range bin; the amount of transmitted photons and the probability of collecting a scattered photon. We are interested in studying the propagation and breaking of gravity waves typically generated in the lower atmosphere. To study these waves requires high temporal and spatial resolution, as they have frequencies as high as 500 mHz and generate turbulent structures with vertical scales of less than 25 m. In the 80 - 100 km region of the atmosphere these measurements are most efficiently obtained by using resonance scattering from sodium atoms deposited by meteors. However, in the 30 - 80 km region, the most efficient scattering arises from molecules (Rayleigh scattering). Since the atmospheric scale height is nominally 7 km, this scattering becomes extremely weak above 60 km. Furthermore, present laser technology limits the power available for Rayleigh-scattering experiments to about 0.5 - 50 W. The transmitter for the lidar system under development at the University of Western Ontario uses a two-beam transmitter to simultaneously measure density perturbations and temperature from both Rayleigh and resonance scattering.

  8. Triple-Pulsed Two-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar: A New Active Remote Sensing Capability with Path to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    The two-micron wavelength is suitable for monitoring atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide, the two most dominant greenhouse gases. Recent advances in 2-micron laser technology paved the way for constructing state-of-the-art lidar transmitters for active remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new triple-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar is presented. This lidar is capable of measuring either two species or single specie with two different weighting functions, simultaneously and independently. Development of this instrument is conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. Instrument scaling for projected future space missions will be discussed.

  9. Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) Flight Testing of the Lidar Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soreide, David C.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Bowdle, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the ACLAIM program is ultimately to establish the viability of light detection and ranging (lidar) as a forward-looking sensor for turbulence. The goals of this flight test are to: 1) demonstrate that the ACLAIM lidar system operates reliably in a flight test environment, 2) measure the performance of the lidar as a function of the aerosol backscatter coefficient (beta), 3) use the lidar system to measure atmospheric turbulence and compare these measurements to onboard gust measurements, and 4) make measurements of the aerosol backscatter coefficient, its probability distribution and spatial distribution. The scope of this paper is to briefly describe the ACLAIM system and present examples of ACLAIM operation in flight, including comparisons with independent measurements of wind gusts, gust-induced normal acceleration, and the derived eddy dissipation rate.

  10. Characterizing Wake Turbulence with Staring Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastine, D.; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.; Trabucchi, D.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Lidar measurements in the German offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus were performed to investigate the turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes. In particular, we compare measurements of the free flow in the surroundings of the wind turbines with measurements in the inner region of a wake flow behind one turbine. Our results indicate that wind turbines modulate the turbulent structures of the flow on a wide range of scales. For the data of the wake flow, the power spectrum as well as the multifractal intermittency coefficient reveal features of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Thus, we conjecture that on scales of the rotor a new turbulent cascade is initiated, which determines the features of the turbulent wake flow quite independently from the more complex wind flow in the surroundings of the turbine.

  11. Alexandrite laser characterization and airborne lidar developments for water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, P.; Higdon, N. S.; Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.

    1991-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of an Alexandrite laser used for making water vapor DIAL measurements have been evaluated. The optical servo-system used to lock the laser wavelength on a water vapor absorption line is described. A brief description of the DIAL system is given and the data obtained with this lidar during flight tests in March 1990 are also presented.

  12. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of tropospheric ozone in the Canadian Arctic during springtime. Measurements at Eureka Weather Station revealed that mountains have a significant effect on the vertical structure of ozone above Ellesmere Island. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when the flow of air from over the sea ice was blocked by mountains. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be shown in the presentation, while one is described in this paper.

  13. Lidar Measurements for Desert Dust Characterization: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mona, L.; Liu, Z.; Mueller, D.; Omar, A.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Sugimoto, N.; Vaughan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We provide an overview of light detection and ranging (lidar) capability for describing and characterizing desert dust. This paper summarizes lidar techniques, observations, and fallouts of desert dust lidar measurements. The main objective is to provide the scientific community, including non-practitioners of lidar observations with a reference paper on dust lidar measurements. In particular, it will fill the current gap of communication between research-oriented lidar community and potential desert dust data users, such as air quality monitoring agencies and aviation advisory centers. The current capability of the different lidar techniques for the characterization of aerosol in general and desert dust in particular is presented. Technical aspects and required assumptions of these techniques are discussed, providing readers with the pros and cons of each technique. Information about desert dust collected up to date using lidar techniques is reviewed. Lidar techniques for aerosol characterization have a maturity level appropriate for addressing air quality and transportation issues, as demonstrated by some first results reported in this paper

  14. Improved speckle statistics in coherent differential absorption lidar with in-fiber wavelength multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Ridley, K D; Pearson, G N; Harris, M

    2001-04-20

    Remote detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents can be achieved with differential absorption lidar (DIAL) methods. The technique relies on the transmission of two or more laser wavelengths and exploits absorption features in the target gas by measuring the ratio of their detected powers to determine gas concentration. A common mode of operation is when the transmitter and receiver are collocated, and the absorption is measured over a return trip by a randomly scattering topographic target. Hence, in coherent DIAL, speckle fluctuation leads to a large uncertainty in the detected powers unless the signal is averaged over multiple correlation times, i.e., over many independent speckles. We examine a continuous-wave coherent DIAL system in which the laser wavelengths are transmitted and received by the same single-mode optical fibers. This ensures that the two wavelengths share a common spatial mode, which, for certain transmitter and target parameters, enables highly correlated speckle fluctuations to be readily achieved in practice. For a DIAL system, this gives the potential for improved accuracy in a given observation time. A theoretical analysis quantifies this benefit as a function of the degree of correlation between the two time series (which depends on wavelength separation and target depth). The results are compared with both a numerical simulation and a laboratory-based experiment.

  15. Optimization of A 2-Micron Laser Frequency Stabilization System for a Double-Pulse CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingsin; Koch, Grady; Petros, Mulugeta; Trieu, Bo; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for accurate CO2 concentration measurement requires a frequency locking system to achieve high frequency locking precision and stability. We describe the frequency locking system utilizing Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD), and Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) feedback servo loop, and report the optimization of the sensitivity of the system for the feed back loop based on the characteristics of a variable path-length CO2 gas cell. The CO2 gas cell is characterized with HITRAN database (2004). The method can be applied for any other frequency locking systems referring to gas absorption line.

  16. Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

  17. Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode detector performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenimer, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance analyses are presented which establish that over most of the range of signals expected for a down-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operated at 16 km the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) is the preferred detector for DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the 730 nm spectral region. The higher quantum efficiency of the APD's, (0.8-0.9) compared to a photomultiplier's (0.04-0.18) more than offsets the higher noise of an APD receiver. In addition to offering lower noise and hence lower random error the APD's excellent linearity and impulse recovery minimize DIAL systematic errors attributable to the detector. Estimates of the effect of detector system parameters on overall random and systematic DIAL errors are presented, and performance predictions are supported by laboratory characterization data for an APD receiver system.

  18. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  19. A Comparison of Co-located Ozonesonde and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Thomas J.; Twigg, L.; Sumnicht, G.; Gross, M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the NDSC, the GSFC mobile Ozone Lidar instrument has participated in numerous validation campaigns around the world. During all of these campaigns, ozonesondes were flown as part of the intercomparisons. This poster summarizes the results of these campaigns, and indicates that there are some biases between the sonde and lidar measurements.

  20. Lidar Based Particulate Flux Measurements of Agricultural Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system was developed to derive information on particulate spatial aerosol distribution over remote distances. The lidar system and retrieval approach has been tested during several field campaigns measuring agricultural emissions from a swine feeding operat...

  1. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  2. Temperature measurement error simulation of the pure rotational Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jingyu; Huang, Yong; Wang, Zhirui; Yi, Fan; Shen, Jianglin; Jia, Xiaoxing; Chen, Huabin; Yang, Chuan; Zhang, Mingyang

    2015-11-01

    Temperature represents the atmospheric thermodynamic state. Measure the atmospheric temperature accurately and precisely is very important to understand the physics of the atmospheric process. Lidar has some advantages in the atmospheric temperature measurement. Based on the lidar equation and the theory of pure rotational Raman (PRR), we've simulated the temperature measurement errors of the double-grating-polychromator (DGP) based PRR lidar. First of all, without considering the attenuation terms of the atmospheric transmittance and the range in the lidar equation, we've simulated the temperature measurement errors which are influenced by the beam splitting system parameters, such as the center wavelength, the receiving bandwidth and the atmospheric temperature. We analyzed three types of the temperature measurement errors in theory. We've proposed several design methods for the beam splitting system to reduce the temperature measurement errors. Secondly, we simulated the temperature measurement error profiles by the lidar equation. As the lidar power-aperture product is determined, the main target of our lidar system is to reduce the statistical and the leakage errors.

  3. Boundary Layer CO2 mixing ratio measurements by an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the primary signature of CO2 fluxes at the surface occurs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), remote sensing measurements of CO2 that can resolve the CO2 absorption in the PBL separate from the total column are more sensitive to fluxes than those that can only measure a total column. The NASA Goddard CO2 sounder is a pulsed, range-resolved lidar that samples multiple (presently 30) wavelengths across the 1572.335 nm CO2 absorption line. The range resolution and line shape measurement enable CO2 mixing ratio measurements to be made in two or more altitude layers including the PBL via lidar cloud-slicing and multi-layer retrievals techniques. The pulsed lidar approach allows range-resolved backscatter of scattering from ground and cloud tops. Post flight data analysis can be used split the vertical CO2 column into layers (lidar cloud-slicing) and solve for the CO2 mixing ratio in each layer. We have demonstrated lidar cloud slicing with lidar measurements from a flight over Iowa, USA in August 2011 during the corn-growing season, remotely measuring a ≈15 ppm drawdown in the PBL CO2. We will present results using an improved lidar cloud slicing retrieval algorithm as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign. The CO2 absorption line is also more pressure broadened at lower altitudes. Analyzing the line shape also allows solving for some vertical resolution in the CO2 distribution. By allowing the retrieval process to independently vary the column concentrations in two or more altitude layers, one can perform a best-fit retrieval to obtain the CO2 mixing ratios in each of the layers. Analysis of airborne lidar measurements (in 2011) over Iowa, USA and Four Corners, New Mexico, USA show that for altitudes above 8 km, the CO2 sounder can detect and measure enhanced or diminished CO2 mixing ratios in the PBL even in the absence of clouds. We will present these results as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming

  4. Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jérôme; Durand, Yannig

    2009-10-01

    The Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth (A-SCOPE) mission, a candidate for the next generation of European Space Agency Earth Explorer Core Missions, aims at measuring CO(2) concentration from space with an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. We report the optimization of the lidar instrument operating wavelengths, building on two performance models developed to assess measurement random errors from the instrument, as well as knowledge errors on geophysical and spectral parameters required for the measurement processing. A promising approach to decrease sensitivity to water vapor errors by 1 order of magnitude is reported and illustrated. The presented methods are applicable for any airborne or spaceborne IPDA lidar.

  5. Frequency-doubled CO2 lidar measurement and diode laser spectroscopy of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.; Itabe, T.; Strow, L. L.; Korb, C. L.; Gentry, B. M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A lidar instrument based on pulsed frequency-doubled carbon-dioxide lasers has been used at 4.88 microns for remote sensing of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A tunable-diode laser spectrometer provided the high-resolution spectroscopic data on carbon-dioxide line strength and line broadening needed for an accurate differential absorption measurement. Initial field measurements are presented, and instrument improvements necessary for accurate carbon dioxide measurement are discussed.

  6. Laser amplifier development for IPDA Lidar measurements of CO2 from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Storm, Mark; Betin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Accurate global measurements of tropospheric CO2 mixing ratios are needed to better understand the global carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange between land, oceans and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a pulsed lidar approach for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as a candidate for the NASA's planned ASCENDS mission to allow global measurements of atmospheric CO2 column densities from space. Our group has developed and demonstrated an airborne IPDA lidar for this purpose. It uses two tunable pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, absorption of an O2 line pair in the oxygen A-band (765 nm), and atmospheric backscatter profiles in the same path. In the airborne lidar, both lasers are pulsed at 10 kHz, and the two absorption line regions are sampled at typically a 300 Hz rate. A space version of this lidar must have a much larger laser power-telescope area product to compensate for the signal losses in the ~40x longer range. An analysis of signal to noise ratios indicated that for a 400 km orbit, a 1.5 m diameter telescope and a 10 second integration time, that 1.5 to 2 mJ laser energy is required to attain the needed measurement precision. To meet the laser energy requirements we have pursued two parallel power-scaling approaches for the space laser. These include a single-amplifier approach consists of a multi-pass Er:Yb:Phosphate glass based planar waveguide amplifier (PWA) and a parallel amplifier approach using multiple (typically 8) large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifiers. In this paper we summarize the laser amplifier design approaches and preliminary results.

  7. Microphysical Interpretation of Cirrus Measurements With Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, Jens; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Reichardt, Susanne; McGee, Thomas J.; Starr, David OC.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Cirrus measurements obtained with a ground-based polarization Raman lidar at 67.9 N in January 1997 reveal a strong correlation between the particle optical properties, specifically depolarization ratio delta and extinct ion-to-backscatter ratio S, for ambient cloud temperatures above approximately -45 C (delta less than approximately 40%), and an anti-correlation for colder temperatures (delta greater than approximately 40%). Over the length of the measurements (4-7.5 hours) the particle properties vary systematically: Initially, delta approximately equal to 60% and S approximately equal to 10sr are observed. Then, with decreasing delta, S first increases to approximately 27 sr(delta approximately equal to 40%) before decreasing to values around 10 sr again (delta approximately equal to 20%). The particle optical properties distinctly depend on the ambient temperature. For the microphysical analysis of the lidar observations. ray-tracing computations of particle scattering properties and a size-distribution resolving cirrus model with explicit microphysics have been used. The theoretical studies show that the optical properties and their temporal evolution can be interpreted in terms of size, shape, and growth of the cirrus particles: Near the cloud top in the early stage of the cirrus development, light scattering by small hexagonal columns with aspect ratios close to one is dominant. Over time the cloud base height extends to lower altitudes with warmer temperatures, the ice particles grow and get morphologically diverse (the scattering contributions of hexagonal columns and plates are roughly the same for large S and depolarization values of approximately 40%). In the lower ranges of the cirrus clouds, light scattering is predominantly by plate-like or complex ice particles. Mid-latitude cirrus data measured with the same instrument at 53.4 N between 1994 and 1996 follow closely the correlation between delta and S found in the warmer regions of the Arctic

  8. Can CO2 Turbulent Flux Be Measured by Lidar? A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Flamant, Pierre H.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical profiling ofCO2 turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated using a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) operated nearby a tall tower in Wisconsin during June 2007. A CDIAL can perform simultaneous range-resolved CO2 DIAL and velocity measurements. The lidar eddy covariance technique is presented. The aims of the study are (i) an assessment of performance and current limitation of available CDIAL for CO2 turbulent fluxes and (ii) the derivation of instrument specifications to build a future CDIAL to perform accurate range-resolved CO2 fluxes. Experimental lidar CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity profiles are successfully compared with in situ sensors measurements. Time and space integral scales of turbulence in the ABL are addressed that result in limitation for time averaging and range accumulation. A first attempt to infer CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance technique with currently available 2-mm CDIAL dataset is reported.

  9. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  10. Remote sensing measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio in the planetary boundary layer using cloud slicing with airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand K.; Mao, Jianping; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.

    2015-03-01

    We have measured the CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using cloud slicing with an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar from flight altitudes of up to 13 km. During a flight over Iowa in summer 2011, simultaneous measurement of the optical range and CO2 absorption to clouds and the ground were made using time-resolved detection of pulse echoes from each scattering surface. We determined the CO2 absorption in the PBL by differencing the two lidar-measured absorption line shapes, one to a broken shallow cumulus cloud layer located at the top of the PBL and the other to the ground. Solving for the CO2 VMR in the PBL and that of the free troposphere, we measured a ≈15 ppm (4%) drawdown in the PBL. Both CO2 VMRs were within ≈3 ppm of in situ CO2 profile measurements. We have also demonstrated cloud slicing using scatter from thin, diffuse cirrus clouds and cumulus clouds, which allowed solving for the CO2 VMR for three vertical layers. The technique and retrieval algorithm are applicable to a space-based lidar instrument as well as to lidar IPDA measurements of other trace gases. Thus, lidar cloud slicing also offers promise toward space-based remote sensing of vertical trace gas profiles in the atmosphere using a variety of clouds.

  11. Exploratory Meeting on Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, G. H. (Editor); Kaufman, J. W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific interests and applications of the Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurement System to severe storms and local weather are discussed. The main areas include convective phenomena, local circulation, atmospheric boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion, and industrial aerodynamics.

  12. Impact of broadened laser line-shape on retrievals of atmospheric species from lidar sounding absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeffrey R; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T

    2015-02-09

    We examine the impact of broadened laser line-shape on retrievals of atmospheric species from lidar-sounding absorption spectra. The laser is assumed to be deterministically modulated into a stable, nearly top-hat frequency comb to suppress the stimulated Brillouin scattering, allowing over 10-fold pulse energy increase without adding measurement noise. Our model remains accurate by incorporating the laser line-shape factor into the effective optical depth. Retrieval errors arising from measurement noise and model bias are analyzed parametrically and numerically to provide deeper insight. The stable laser line-shape broadening minimally degrades the column-averaged retrieval, but can significantly degrade the multiple-layer retrievals.

  13. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1985-01-01

    Computer hardware and software of the NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sysatem were improved. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment for remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentration from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed with the capability of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights were successfully performed on board the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1984. Improvements on the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) are described.

  14. Improved solution of the lidar equation utilizing particle counter measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, H.; Hofmann, D. J.; Jaeger, H.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The extraction of particle backscattering from incoherent lidar measurements poses some problems. In the case of measurements of the stratospheric aerosol layer the solution of the lidar equation is based on two assumptions which are necessary to normalize the measured signal and to correct it with the two-way transmission of the laser pulse. Normalization and transmission are tackled by adding the information contained in aerosol particle counter measurements of the University of Wyoming to the ruby lidar measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Calculated backscattering from height levels above 25 km for the El Chichon period will be compared with lidar measurements and necessary corrections. The calculated backscatter-to-extinction ratios are compared to those, which were derived from a comparison of published extinction values to measured lidar backscattering at Garmisch. These ratios were used to calculate the Garmisch lidar returns. For the period 4 to 12 months after the El Chichon eruption a backscater-to-extinction ratio of 0.026 1/sr was applied with smaller values before and after that time.

  15. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentration in the ASCENDS 2014 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Chen, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report progress in demonstrating a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line by using 30 wavelength samples distributed across the lube. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength 10 times per second. The retrievals solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape and the column average CO2 concentrations using radiative transfer calculations based on HITRAN, the aircraft altitude, range to the scattering surface, and the atmospheric conditions. We compare these to CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. The number of wavelength samples can be reduced in the retrievals. During the ASCENDS airborne campaign in 2013 two flights were made in February over snow in the Rocky Mountains and the Central Plains allowing measurement of snow-covered surface reflectivity. Several improvements were made to the lidar for the 2014 campaign. These included using a new step-locked laser diode source, and incorporating a new HgCdTe APD detector and analog digitizer into the lidar receiver. Testing showed this detector had higher sensitivity, analog response, and a more linear dynamic range than the PMT detector used previously. In 2014 flights were made in late August and early September over the California Central Valley, the redwood forests along the California coast, two desert areas in Nevada and California, and two flights above growing agriculture in Iowa. Two flights were also made under OCO-2 satellite ground tracks. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, and mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, and through thin clouds and aerosol scattering. The lidar measurements clearly

  16. 2-micron Double Pulsed IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke; Scola, Tory

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a high energy pulsed 2-micron IPDA lidar instrument to measure the atmospheric CO2 column density. The IPDA lidar is operated on the long wavelength wing of R(30) CO2 line at 2050.967 nm (4875.749 cm-1) in the side-line operation mode. The R(30) line is an excellent absorption line for the measurements of CO2 in 2µm wavelength region with regard to the strength of the absorption lines, low susceptibility to atmospheric temperature variability, and freedom from problematic interference with other absorption lines. The Ho:Tm:YLF laser transmitter is designed to be operated in a unique double pulse format that can produce two-pulse pair in 10 Hz operation. Typically, the output energies of the laser transmitter are 100mJ and 45mJ for the first pulse and the second pulse, respectively. We injection seed the first pulse with on-line frequency and the second pulse with off-line frequency. The IPDA lidar instrument size, weight and power consumption were restricted to small research aircraft payload requirements. The airborne IPDA lidar instrument measures the total integrated column content of CO2 from the instrument to the ground but with weighting that can be tuned by controlling the transmitted wavelengths. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. The 2-μm CO2 IPDA lidar airborne demonstration was conducted during March 20, 2014 through April 10, 2014. IPDA lidar airborne flights included various operating and environmental conditions. Environmental conditions included different flight altitude up to 8.3 km, different ground target conditions such as vegetation, soil, ocean, snow and sand and different cloud conditions. Besides, some flights targeted power plant incinerators for investigating the IPDA sensitivity to CO2 plums. The lidar instrument is robust during all of the flights. This paper describes

  17. OPO DIAL lidar for remote measurements of atmospheric gases in the IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Shumskii, V. K.; Sadovnikov, S. A.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The new technique uses broadband radiation and a CCD detector, which ensures measurement of backscattering signals with simultaneous altitude and wavelength resolution. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. The laser system design provides a possibility of narrowing the laser line within the 0.01-5 cm-1 limits. This possible improvement along with a small step of laser line tuning and the presence of absorption lines of other atmospheric gases, including atmospheric pollutants, in the spectral range under study make this laser a unique instrument for atmospheric sounding.

  18. First Airborne Lidar Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Applying the MERLIN Demonstrator CHARM-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, Axel; Büdenbender, Christian; Ehret, Gerhard; Fix, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Kiemle, Chritstoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    2016-04-01

    CHARM-F is the new airborne four-wavelengths lidar for simultaneous soundings of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Due to its high technological conformity it is also a demonstrator for MERLIN, the French-German satellite mission providing a methane lidar. MERLIN's Preliminary Design Review was successfully passed recently. The launch is planned for 2020. First CHARM-F measurements were performed in Spring 2015 onboard the German research aircraft HALO. The aircraft's maximum flight altitude of 15 km and special features of the lidar, such as a relatively large laser ground spot, result in data similar to those obtained by a spaceborne system. The CHARM-F and MERLIN lidars are designed in the IPDA (integrated path differential absorption) configuration using short double pulses, which gives column averaged gas mixing ratios between the system and ground. The successfully completed CHARM-F flight measurements provide a valuable dataset, which supports the retrieval algorithm development for MERLIN notably. Furthermore, the dataset allows detailed analyses of measurement sensitivities, general studies on the IPDA principle and on system design questions. These activities are supported by another instrument onboard the aircraft during the flight campaign: a cavity ring down spectrometer, providing in-situ data of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor with high accuracy and precision, which is ideal for validation purposes of the aircraft lidar. For the near future, detailed characterizations of CHARM-F are planned, further support of the MERLIN design, as well as the scientific aircraft campaign CoMet.

  19. Airborne IPDA Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Methane in Support of MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiemle, C.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Ehret, G.

    2015-12-01

    Space-based lidar missions targeting greenhouse gases are expected to close observational gaps, e.g., over subarctic permafrost and tropical wetlands, where in-situ and passive remote sensing techniques have difficulties. Consequently, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" (MERLIN) was proposed by the German and French space agencies DLR and CNES. MERLIN is now in Phase B, in which all mission components are planned in detail; launch is foreseen in 2020. An integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar will measure weighted columns of atmospheric methane (XCH4) along the satellite track. Primary objective is to provide accurate global observations of methane concentration gradients for inverse numerical models in order to better quantify regional fluxes. DLR has developed an airborne demonstrator, CHARM-F, for technology demonstration and validation purposes. First successful flights on-board the German HALO research aircraft have been performed in May 2015 over Central Europe. The measurements are expected to help solve general retrieval issues for future space-borne IPDA lidars. For example, the CHARM-F flights over ocean and lakes help assess the strength and variability of backscatter from water surfaces. The IPDA weighting function, or measurement sensitivity, is dependent on atmospheric pressure and temperature, in particular close to the surface. We use ECMWF analyses interpolated in space and time to the aircraft track that provide these auxiliary data at 14 km horizontal resolution. Due to the coarse representation of orography the model's pressure and temperature profiles have to be extrapolated down to the true lidar's scattering surface elevation, which generates uncertainties that we assess. We also assess biases by spectroscopic uncertainties in the methane absorption lines' parameters. Overall, the airborne results will support the development of advanced processing algorithms for future space lidar missions such as MERLIN.

  20. Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution.

    PubMed

    Korb, C L; Gentry, B M; Li, S X

    1997-08-20

    We have developed a Doppler lidar system using the edge technique and have made atmospheric lidar wind measurements. Line-of-sight wind profiles with a vertical resolution of 22 m have a standard deviation of 0.40 m /s for a ten-shot average. Day and night lidar measurements of the vector wind have been made for altitudes from 200 to 2000 m. We validated the lidar measurements by comparing them with independent rawinsonde and pilot balloon measurements of wind speed and direction. Good agreement was obtained. The instrumental noise for these data is 0.11 m /s for a 500-shot average, which is in good agreement with the observed minimum value of the standard deviation for the atmospheric measurements. The average standard deviation over 30 mins varied from 1.16 to 0.25 m /s for day and night, respectively. High spatial and temporal resolution lidar profiles of line-of-sight winds clearly show wind shear and turbulent features at the 1 -2-m /s level with a high signal-to-noise ratio and demonstrate the potential of the edge-technique lidar for studying turbulent processes and atmospheric dynamics.

  1. Fiber-Optic Gratings for Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Leila B.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band filters in the form of phase-shifted Fabry-Perot Bragg gratings incorporated into optical fibers are being developed for differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments used to measure concentrations of atmospheric water vapor. The basic idea is to measure the relative amounts of pulsed laser light scattered from the atmosphere at two nearly equal wavelengths, one of which coincides with an absorption spectral peak of water molecules and the other corresponding to no water vapor absorption. As part of the DIAL measurement process, the scattered light is made to pass through a filter on the way to a photodetector. Omitting other details of DIAL for the sake of brevity, what is required of the filter is to provide a stop band that: Surrounds the water-vapor spectral absorption peaks at a wavelength of 946 nm, Has a spectral width of at least a couple of nanometers, Contains a pass band preferably no wider than necessary to accommodate the 946.0003-nm-wavelength water vapor absorption peak [which has 8.47 pm full width at half maximum (FWHM)], and Contains another pass band at the slightly shorter wavelength of 945.9 nm, where there is scattering of light from aerosol particles but no absorption by water molecules. Whereas filters used heretofore in DIAL have had bandwidths of =300 pm, recent progress in the art of fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters has made it feasible to reduce bandwidths to less than or equal to 20 pm and thereby to reduce background noise. Another benefit of substituting fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters for those now in use would be significant reductions in the weights of DIAL instruments. Yet another advantage of fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters is that their transmission spectra can be shifted to longer wavelengths by heating or stretching: hence, it is envisioned that future DIAL instruments would contain devices for fine adjustment of transmission wavelengths through stretching or heating of fiber-optic Bragg-grating filters

  2. Analysis of measurements for solid state laser remote lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1995-01-01

    The merits of using lidar systems for remote measurements of various atmospheric processes such as wind, turbulence, moisture, and aerosol concentration are widely recognized. Although the lidar technology has progressed considerably over the past two decades, significant research particularly in the area of solid state lidars remains to be conducted in order to fully exploit this technology. The work performed by the UAH (University of Alabama in Huntsville) personnel under this Delivery Order concentrated on analyses of measurements required in support of solid state laser remote sensing lidar systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. UAH personnel has studied and recommended to NASA/MSFC the requirements of the optical systems needed to characterize the detection devices suitable for solid state wavelengths and to evaluate various heterodyne detection schemes. The 2-micron solid state laser technology was investigated and several preliminary laser designs were developed and their performance for remote sensing of atmospheric winds and clouds from a spaceborne platform were specified. In addition to the laser source and the detector, the other critical technologies necessary for global wind measurements by a spaceborne solid state coherent lidar systems were identified to be developed and demonstrated. As part of this work, an analysis was performed to determine the atmospheric wind velocity estimation accuracy using the line-of-sight measurements of a scanning coherent lidar. Under this delivery order, a computer database of materials related to the theory, development, testing, and operation of lidar systems was developed to serve as a source of information for lidar research and development.

  3. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.; Rye, B.J.

    1995-04-03

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution, acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost, are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. Application of profiles acquired with current techniques, have, to date, been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness of solution [e.g. high resolution infrared (IR) Fourier transform radiometry], poor spatial and temporal coverage and high operating cost (e.g. radiosondes), or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost (e.g. Raman lidar). Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the study reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of to solve some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameterizations representative of current technologies. These models are also applied to diagnose and evaluate other strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application. This work is to continue in the direction of evaluating yet smaller and lower-cost laser diode-based systems for routine monitoring of the lower altitudes using photon counting detection methods. We regard the present report as interim in nature and will update and extend it as a final report at the end of the term of the contract.

  4. Laser Remote Sensing and Lidar Measurements for Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    Laser Remote Sensing and lidar have been used for earth remote sensing for a number of years however the inefficiency of laser devices has limited their application to planetary sensing where power is at a premium. The potential availability of a large amount of power for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) opens up the potential to implement laser remote sensing for planetary bodies. Lidars have been and can be used to map terrain, measure atmospheric and surface parameters including velocity and composition. In this paper we will provide an overview of the lidar capabilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and address the types of lidar measurements that could be relevant to JIMO science investigations.

  5. Wind turbine wake properties from Doppler lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichugina, Y.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Wake properties were estimated from the High-Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) measurements during the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS) in the spring of 2011. Velocity deficit, wake downwind extent, and wake meandering were obtained by detailed analysis of both lidar vertical-slice scans, performed straddling along the lidar-turbine centerline, and lidar conical scans, performed in narrow, nearly horizontal sectors that include the wind turbine inflow, and its wake at four levels. Simultaneous measurements of inflow and turbine outflow were corrected by terrain and wind direction to obtain mean wake properties. It has been found out that an operating wind turbine generates a wake with the maximum velocity deficit varying from 20% to 70% extending up to 10 rotor diameters downstream of the turbine, depending on the wind strength and atmospheric turbulence. Details including images and animations of the wake behavior will be presented.

  6. Raman lidar for the remote measurement of subsurface ocean parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.; Caputo, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Raman lidar technique was developed for the remote measurement of temperature and salinity profiles. A temperature accuracy of 0.5 degrees Centigrade is attainable in a practical field system for depths of up to 3 diffuse attentuation lengths, which can be 100 meters or more in the open ocean. In this paper field test results are reviewed and performance specifications for typical Raman lidar systems are presented.

  7. WIND MEASUREMENTS WITH HIGH-ENERGY DOPPLER LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petros, Mulugeta; Jirong, Yu; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Slingh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    Coherent lidars at 2-micron wavelengths from holmium or thulium solid-state lasers have been in use to measure wind for applications in meteorology, aircraft wake vortex tracking, and turbulence detection [1,2,3] These field-deployed lidars, however, have generally been of a pulse energy of a few millijoules, limiting their range capability or restricting operation to regions of high aerosol concentration such as the atmospheric boundary layer. Technology improvements in the form of high-energy pulsed lasers, low noise detectors, and high optical quality telescopes are being evaluated to make wind measurements to long ranges or low aerosol concentrations. This research is aimed at developing lidar technology for satellite-based observation of wind on a global scale. The VALIDAR project was initiated to demonstrate a high pulse energy coherent Doppler lidar. VALIDAR gets its name from the concept of validation lidar, in that it can serve as a calibration and validation source for future airborne and spaceborne lidar missions. VALIDAR is housed within a mobile trailer for field measurements.

  8. Evaluation of three lidar scanning strategies for turbulence measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Wharton, Sonia; ...

    2016-05-03

    Several errors occur when a traditional Doppler beam swinging (DBS) or velocity–azimuth display (VAD) strategy is used to measure turbulence with a lidar. To mitigate some of these errors, a scanning strategy was recently developed which employs six beam positions to independently estimate the u, v, and w velocity variances and covariances. In order to assess the ability of these different scanning techniques to measure turbulence, a Halo scanning lidar, WindCube v2 pulsed lidar, and ZephIR continuous wave lidar were deployed at field sites in Oklahoma and Colorado with collocated sonic anemometers.Results indicate that the six-beam strategy mitigates some of the errors caused bymore » VAD and DBS scans, but the strategy is strongly affected by errors in the variance measured at the different beam positions. The ZephIR and WindCube lidars overestimated horizontal variance values by over 60 % under unstable conditions as a result of variance contamination, where additional variance components contaminate the true value of the variance. A correction method was developed for the WindCube lidar that uses variance calculated from the vertical beam position to reduce variance contamination in the u and v variance components. The correction method reduced WindCube variance estimates by over 20 % at both the Oklahoma and Colorado sites under unstable conditions, when variance contamination is largest. This correction method can be easily applied to other lidars that contain a vertical beam position and is a promising method for accurately estimating turbulence with commercially available lidars.« less

  9. Identification of aerosol composition from multi-wavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop the potential of lidar for the identification of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. Available numerical computations suggest that aerosols can be identified by the wavelength dependence of aerosol optical properties. Since lidar can derive the volume backscatter coefficient as a function of wavelength, a multi-wavelength lidar system may be able to provide valuable information on the composition of aerosols. This research theoretically investigates the volume backscatter coefficients for the aerosol classes, sea-salts, and sulfates, as a function of wavelength. The results show that these aerosol compositions can be characterized and identified by their backscatter wavelength dependence. A method to utilize multi-wavelength lidar measurements to discriminate between compositionally different thin aerosol layers is discussed.

  10. Airborne sodium lidar measurements of gravity wave intrinsic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kang H.; Gardner, Chester S.

    1990-11-01

    A data analysis technique for determining gravity wave intrinsic parameters including wave propagation direction is described. The technique involves measuring the altitude variations of the wave-induced density perturbations of the atmospheric Na layer. This technique can be used with airborne lidars, multiple ground-based lidars, and steerable lidars. In this paper the technique is applied to airborne Na lidar data obtained during a round-trip flight from Denver, Colorado, to the Pacific Coast in November 1986. During the flight, strong wave perturbations were observed in the Na layer near the Pacific coast over a horizontal distance of nearly 700 km. The intrinsic horizontal wavelength of this wave was estimated to be about 85 km, and the vertical wavelength was 4.1 km. The intrinsic period was about 102 min, and the propagation direction was almost due south.

  11. CO2 LIDAR measurements over a 20-km slant path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Dowling, James A.; Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Phillips Laboratory conducted a series of measurements in February, May and August 1995 at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility on Maui, Hawaii, to determine system requirements for an airborne long path CO(subscript 2) DIAL system. The lidar incorporates a cavity-matched mode-locked 3-J laser with the 60 cm diameter AMOS Beam Director Telescope. The one-way beam propagation path length was 21.3 km, originating at the AMOS facility on Haleakala at an altitude of 3.050 km ASL, and terminating at a target site near sea level. Both heterodyne and direct detection techniques are compared with respect to radiometric performance and signal statistics. Minimum detectable absorption levels for DIAL systems using both detection techniques and a variety of targets are estimated from long- range measurements with controlled absorbers. The signal correlation as a function of interpulse temporal separation was determined for long-range direct detection measurements. Radiometric models including system optical characteristics, beam propagation considerations, target reflectivity characteristics,a nd atmospheric effects have been developed and validated experimentally. A new receiver system is currently being fabricated and the laser transmitter is being upgraded for pulse-to-pulse wavelength agility, prior to incorporation into a C-135E airborne platform for future flight experiments.

  12. NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

  13. A Geosynchronous Lidar System for Atmospheric Winds, Temperature, and Moisture Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, Dave; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A geosynchronous Lidar would enable synoptic measurement of atmospheric winds; temperature; and moisture, which are key first-order variables of the Earth's weather equation. Simultaneous measurement of these parameters at fast revisit rates promises large advancements in our weather predictive skills. Such capabilities would: a) yield greatly improved initial conditions for models, b) make obsolete existing (discrete) measurement approaches which are both costly and cumbersome, and c) obviate the use of numerical techniques needed to correct data obtained using present methods. Additionally, simultaneous synoptic Lidar observations would lead to improvements in model parameters, and in our knowledge of small-scale weather processes. A Dial Lidar system could simultaneously measure winds, temperatures, and humidity through a combination of Doppler and Differential Absorption techniques. Also, such a system would provide basic aerosol (dry dust) measurement capabilities that could have an impact on Earth radiation budget measurements. On the technical side, a geosynchronous Lidar DAR system would require transmit optics of a few meters in diameter, a hundred meter diameter receive telescope, fineness of both optical systems scaled to the wavelength, and scanning for the transmit system. Potential technology issues include optical quality of large transmit and receive telescope optics, the large detector area needed, the transmit scanning system, signal detection (S/N ratio of detector system) for the extremely weak return signal at GEO, and power demands in the KW range.

  14. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol by Globally Distributed MP Lidar Network Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Judd; Campbell, James; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global distribution of aerosol has an important influence on climate through the scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation and through modification of cloud optical properties. Current satellite and other data already provide a great amount of information on aerosol distribution. However there are critical parameters that can only be obtained by active optical profiling. For aerosol, no passive technique can adequately resolve the height profile of aerosol. The aerosol height distribution is required for any model for aerosol transport and the height resolved radiative heating/cooling effect of aerosol. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is an orbital lidar to be launched by 2002. GLAS will provide global measurements of the height distribution of aerosol. The sampling will be limited by nadir only coverage. There is a need for local sites to address sampling, and accuracy factors. Full time measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol are now being acquired at a number of globally distributed MP (micro pulse) lidar sites. The MP lidar systems provide profiling of all significant cloud and aerosol to the limit of signal attenuation from compact, eye safe instruments. There are currently six sites in operation and over a dozen planned. At all sites there are a complement of passive aerosol and radiation measurements supporting the lidar data. Four of the installations are at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites. The aerosol measurements, retrievals and data products from the network sites will be discussed. The current and planned application of data to supplement satellite aerosol measurements is covered.

  15. Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties from Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Yang, P.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A retrieval algorithm has been developed for the microphysical analysis of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) optical data obtained using lidar instrumentation. The parameterization scheme of the PSC microphysical properties allows for coexistence of up to three different particle types with size-dependent shapes. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to calculate optical properties of particles with maximum dimensions equal to or less than 2 mu m and with shapes that can be considered more representative of PSCs on the scale of individual crystals than the commonly assumed spheroids. Specifically. these are irregular and hexagonal crystals. Selection of the optical parameters that are input to the inversion algorithm is based on a potential data set such as that gathered by two of the lidars on board the NASA DC-8 during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 0 p (SAGE) Ozone Loss Validation experiment (SOLVE) campaign in winter 1999/2000: the Airborne Raman Ozone and Temperature Lidar (AROTEL) and the NASA Langley Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). The 0 microphysical retrieval algorithm has been applied to study how particle shape assumptions affect the inversion of lidar data measured in leewave PSCs. The model simulations show that under the assumption of spheroidal particle shapes, PSC surface and volume density are systematically smaller than the FDTD-based values by, respectively, approximately 10-30% and approximately 5-23%.

  16. A comparison of Doppler lidar wind sensors for Earth-orbit global measurement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Now, there are four Doppler lidar configurations which are being promoted for the measurement of tropospheric winds: (1) the coherent CO2 Lidar, operating in the 9 micrometer region using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure CO2 gas discharge laser transmitter, and heterodyne detection; (2) the coherent Neodymium doped YAG or Glass Lidar, operating at 1.06 micrometers, using flashlamp or diode laser optical pumping of the solid state laser medium, and heterodyne detection; (3) the Neodymium doped YAG/Glass Lidar, operating at the doubled frequency (at 530 nm wavelength), again using flashlamp or diode laser pumping of the laser transmitter, and using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection; and (4) the Raman shifted Xenon Chloride Lidar, operating at 350 nm wavelength, using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure XeCl gas discharge laser transmitter at 308 nm, Raman shifted in a high pressure hydrogen cell to 350 nm in order to avoid strong stratospheric ozone absorption, also using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection. Comparisons of these four systems can include many factors and tradeoffs. The major portion of this comparison is devoted to efficiency. Efficiency comparisons are made by estimating the number of transmitted photons required for a single pulse wind velocity estimate of + or - 1 m/s accuracy in the middle troposphere, from an altitude of 800 km, which is assured to be reasonable for a polar orbiting platform.

  17. Monostatic Doppler lidar using an Nd:YAG laser for wind-velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersenev, V. I.; Kaptsov, L. N.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    1987-10-01

    A monostatic Doppler lidar using a CW Nd:YAG laser has been developed for measurements of wind velocity. A series of atmospheric measurements using this lidar was carried out. At medium turbulence levels, the limiting lidar range is 200 m. As compared with a CO2 Doppler lidar, the Nd:YAG lidar has a better spatial resolution, is more convenient to use, and does not require a cooled photodetector.

  18. Dynamic analysis of sea wave data measured by LED lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yasukuni; Shimada, Shohei; Shiina, Tatsuo; Baji, Hiroyuki; Takemoto, Sae

    2016-10-01

    Form of sea wave is greatly affected by not just flow and depth of sea water, but also wind blowing on the sea surface. Therefore, measurement and analysis of sea wave motion is of assistance for control and operational safety of boats and ships. Generally, oceanic information is gauged by acoustic and electric wave. But these methods have not provided enough spatial and temporal resolution, and are completely out of touch with the on-site needs. Thus, the LED liar for sea wave measurement has been developed. The dynamic analysis of sea wave image measured by the LED lidar was conducted and the relationship with wind speed was evaluated. In this report, we first present the specifications and measurement methodologies of the LED lidar. Then we describe the actual measurements of sea wave with shallow angle by using this lidar and the results of their analysis.

  19. Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, Michael D.; Meng, Lei S.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Carlsten, John L.

    2005-08-01

    Water vapor is one of the most significant constituents of the atmosphere because of its role in cloud formation, precipitation, and interactions with electromagnetic radiation, especially its absorption of longwave infrared radiation. Some details of the role of water vapor and related feedback mechanisms in the Earth system need to be characterized better if local weather, global climate, and the water cycle are to be understood. A Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) with a compact laser diode source may be able to provide boundary-layer water vapor profiles with improved vertical resolution relative to passive remote sensors. While the tradeoff with small DIAL systems is lower vertical resolution relative to large LIDARs, the advantage is that DIAL systems can be built much smaller and more robust at less cost, and consequently are the more ideal choice for creating a multi-point array or satellite-borne system. This paper highlights the progress made at Montana State University towards a water vapor DIAL using a widely tunable amplified external cavity diode laser (ECDL) transmitter. The ECDL is configured in a Littman-Metcalf configuration and was built at Montana State University. It has a continuous wave (cw) output power of 20 mW, a center wavelength of 832 nm, a coarse tuning range of 17 nm, and a continuous tuning range greater than 20 GHz. The ECDL is used to injection seed a tapered amplifier with a cw output power of 500 mW. The spectral characteristics of the ECDL are transferred to the output of the tapered amplifier. The rest of the LIDAR uses commercially available telescopes, filter optics, and detectors. Initial cw and pulsed absorption measurements are presented.

  20. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  1. Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Dynamics over High Mountainous Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshev, Zahary Y.; Deleva, Atanaska D.; Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2010-01-01

    Results of lidar observations on the dynamics of atmospheric layers over the ridge and northeast slope of Vitosha Mountain situated close to Sofia, Bulgaria, are reported and compared with results for layers over surrounding plain and urban zones. Measurements are carried out at 1064 nm wavelength with a lidar range resolution of 15 m, by using one of the aerosol channels of a combined Raman-aerosol lidar based on a powerful Nd:YAG laser. Two cases of distinctly different weather conditions are studied. The mountainous area, situated from 6 km to 12 km away from the lidar station, is scanned reiteratively within 7°-9° slope-angle range. Multiple series of lidar profiles are registered with average time of 2-5 s. Lidar signals are then range corrected and processed statistically. Normalized standard deviation is used as a characteristic of the atmospheric dynamics. The spatial-temporal evolution of atmospheric density fluctuations is shown on colormap plots. Intensive air dynamics over the mountain is revealed, exceeding considerably the one over the plain zone. Peculiarities of the dynamics in the investigated atmospheric domains are discussed. Results obtained show that Vitosha Mountain strongly affects variations of the atmospheric density and stability over large areas.

  2. Effect of multiple scattering on depolarization measurements with spaceborne lidars.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Susanne; Reichardt, Jens

    2003-06-20

    An analytical model based on the integration of the scattering-angle and light-path manifold has been developed to quantify the effect of multiple scattering on cirrus measurements obtained with elastic polarization lidars from space. Light scattering by molecules and by a horizontally homogeneous cloud is taken into account. Lidar parameter, including laser beam divergence, can be freely chosen. Up to 3 orders of scattering are calculated. Furthermore, an inversion technique for the retrieval of cloud extinction profiles from measurements with elastic-backscatter lidars is proposed that explicitly takes multiple scattering into account. It is found that for typical lidar system parameters such as those of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) instrument multiple scattering does not significantly affect depolarization-ratio measurements in cirrus clouds with small to moderate optical depths. For all simulated clouds, the absolute value of the difference between measured and single-scattering volume depolarization ratio is < 0.006. The particle depolarization ratio can be calculated from the measured volume depolarization ratio and the retrieved backscatter ratio without degradation of accuracy; thus characterization of the various cirrus categories in terms of the particle depolarization ratio and retrieval of cloud microphysical properties is feasible from space. The results of this study apply to polar stratospheric clouds as well.

  3. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  4. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  5. Design of Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The lidar atmospheric sensing experiment (LASE) is an instrument designed and operated by the Langley Research Center for high precision water vapor measurements. The design details of a new water vapor lidar detection system that improves the measurement sensitivity of the LASE instrument by a factor of 10 are discussed. The new system consists of an advanced, very low noise, avalanche photodiode (APD) and a state-of-the-art signal processing circuit. The new low-power system is also compact and lightweight so that it would be suitable for space flight and unpiloted atmospheric vehicles (UAV) applications. The whole system is contained on one small printed circuit board (9 x 15 sq cm). The detection system is mounted at the focal plane of a lidar receiver telescope, and the digital output is read by a personal computer with a digital data acquisition card.

  6. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  7. Compact high-pulse-energy ultraviolet laser source for ozone lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Khaled A; DeYoung, Russell J; Petway, Larry B; Edwards, William C; Barnes, James C; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E

    2003-11-20

    An all solid-state Ti:sapphire laser differential absorption lidar transmitter was developed. This all-solid-state laser provides a compact, robust, and highly reliable laser transmitter for potential application in differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric ozone. Two compact, high-energy-pulsed, and injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers operating at a pulse repetition frequency of 30 Hz and wavelengths of 867 and 900 nm, with M2 of 1.3, have been experimentally demonstrated and their properties compared with model results. The output pulse energy was 115 mJ at 867 nm and 105 mJ at 900 nm, with a slope efficiency of 40% and 32%, respectively. At these energies, the beam quality was good enough so that we were able to achieve 30 mJ of ultraviolet laser output at 289 and 300 nm after frequency tripling with two lithium triborate nonlinear crystals.

  8. Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.

  9. LIDAR wind speed measurements at a Taiwan onshore wind park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fei; Tai, Tzy-Hwan; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wind speed and wind direction were carried out using a Leosphere Windcube LIDAR system at a Taiwan onshore wind park. The Lidar shot a total of five laser beams to the atmosphere to collect the light-of-sight (LOS) velocity. Four beams were sent successively in four cardinal directions along a 28° scanning cone angle, followed by a fifth, vertical beam. An unchangeable sampling rate of approximately 1.2 Hz was set in the LIDAR system to collect the LOS velocity. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data from two GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near the LIDAR deployment site were acquired for the whole measuring period from February 4 to February 16 of 2015. The SCADA data include the blade angular velocity, the wind velocity measured at hub height from an anemometer mounted on the nacelle, the wind turbine yaw angle, and power production; each parameter was recorded as averages over 1-min periods. The data analysis involving the LIDAR measurements and the SCADA data were performed to obtain the turbulent flow statistics. The results show that the turbine power production has significant dependence to the wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity and wind shear.

  10. Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, B.J. |; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1996-05-14

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

  11. Lidar Measurements of Aerosol and Ozone Distributions During the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.; Grant, W. B.; Carter, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The LaRC airborne lidar system was operated from the ARC DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (ASEE-2) to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and O3 across the Arctic vortex from Jan. to Mar. 1992. Monthly flights were made across the Arctic vortex from Anchorage, Alaska, to Stavanger, Norway, and then back to Bangor, Maine, and additional round-trip flights north into the vortex were made each month from either Stavanger or Bangor depending on the location of the vortex that month. The airborne lidar system uses the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique at laser wavelengths of 301.5 and 310.8 nm to measure O3 profiles above the DC-8 over the 12-25 km altitude range. Lidar measurements of aerosol backscatter and depolarization profiles over the 12-30 km altitude range are made simultaneously with the O3 measurements using infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) laser wavelengths of 603 and 1064 nm, respectively. The measurements of Pinatubo aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds, and O3 made with the airborne DIAL system during the AASE-2 expedition and to chemical and dynamical process that contribute to O3 depletion in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere.

  12. Space-Based Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    An overview of space-based lidar systems is presented. from the first laser altimeter on APOLLO 15 mission in 1971 to the Mercury Laser Altimeter on MESSENGER mission currently in orbit, and those currently under development. Lidar, which stands for Light Detection And Ranging, is a powerful tool in remote sensing from space. Compared to radars, lidars operate at a much shorter wavelength with a much narrower beam and much smaller transmitter and receiver. Compared to passive remote sensing instruments. lidars carry their own light sources and can continue measuring day and night. and over polar regions. There are mainly two types of lidars depending on the types of measurements. lidars that are designed to measure the distance and properties of hard targets are often called laser rangers or laser altimeters. They are used to obtain the surface elevation and global shape of a planet from the laser pulse time-of-night and the spacecraft orbit position. lidars that are designed to measure the backscattering and absorption of a volume scatter, such as clouds and aerosols, are often just called lidars and categorized by their measurements. such as cloud and aerosol lidar, wind lidar, CO2 lidar, and so on. The advantages of space-based lidar systems over ground based lidars are the abilities of global coverage and continuous measurements.

  13. Wavelength locking to CO2 absorption line-center for 2-μm pulsed IPDA lidar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-05-01

    An airborne 2-m triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-μm CW laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nm, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  14. Lidar remote measurements of Space Shuttle ground cloud emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caputo, B.; Dow, R. E.; Johnson, R. L.; Leonard, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of lidar remote sensing techniques to the measurement of spacecraft-booster-exhaust-cloud parameters is illustrated, using data obtained from the launch of STS-3. Mie-scatter measurements of plume and cloud particulates were made by a mobile unit with computer controlled elevation and azimuth coverage. Scattergraphs of typical STS-3 lidar data are presented and discussed. The potential use of DIAL techniques to measure the concentrations of HCl, N2H4, and NO2 is evaluated in terms of EPA overall-standard-deviation guidelines. It is shown that currently operational lidar systems can be modified to determine contamination or air pollution by these molecular species resulting from spacecraft launches.

  15. Improvements in Raman Lidar Measurements Using New Interference Filter Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Potter, John R.; Tola, Rebecca; Veselovskii, Igor; Cadirola, Martin; Rush, Kurt; Comer, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band interference filters with improved transmission in the ultra-violet have been developed under NASA-funded research and used in the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) in ground-based, upward-looking tests. Measurements were made of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus cloud optical properties and carbon dioxide that improve upon any previously demonstrated using Raman lidar. Daytime boundary and mixed layer profiling of water vapor mixing ratio up to an altitude of approximately 4 h is performed with less than 5% random error using temporal and spatial resolution of 2-minutes and 60 - 210, respectively. Daytime cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction-to-backscatter ratio measurements are made using 1 -minute average. Sufficient signal strength is demonstrated to permit the simultaneous profiling of carbon dioxide and water vapor mixing ratio into the free troposphere during the nighttime. A description of the filter technology developments is provided followed by examples of the improved Raman lidar measurements.

  16. Airborne Validation of Spatial Properties Measured by the CALIPSO Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Trepte, Charles Reginald; Hart, William D.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Winker, David M.; Keuhn, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    The primary payload onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite is a dual-wavelength backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiling of clouds and aerosols. Launched in April 2006, the first data from this new satellite was obtained in June 2006. As with any new satellite measurement capability, an immediate post-launch requirement is to verify that the data being acquired is correct lest scientific conclusions begin to be drawn based on flawed data. A standard approach to verifying satellite data is to take a similar, or validation, instrument and fly it onboard a research aircraft. Using an aircraft allows the validation instrument to get directly under the satellite so that both the satellite instrument and the aircraft instrument are sensing the same region of the atmosphere. Although there are almost always some differences in the sampling capabilities of the two instruments, it is nevertheless possible to directly compare the measurements. To validate the measurements from the CALIPSO lidar, a similar instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar, was flown onboard the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft during July- August 2006. This paper presents results to demonstrate that the CALIPSO lidar is properly calibrated and the CALIPSO Level 1 data products are correct. The importance of the results is to demonstrate to the research community that CALIPSO Level 1 data can be confidently used for scientific research.

  17. Lidar measurements of the post-fuego stratospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hake, R. D., Jr.; Viezee, W.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol were made between February and November 1975. All observations revealed the greatly increased particulate backscattering that followed the eruption of the volcano Fuego in October 1974. Vertical structure consisted initially of multiple layers, which later merged to form a single, broader peak. Essentially all of the increased scattering was confined to altitudes below 20 km. Hence, aerosol layer centroids in 1975 were typically several km below their altitude prior to the eruption. Radiative and thermal consequences of the measured post-Fuego layer were computed using several recently published models. The models predict a temperature increase of several K at the altitude of the layer, caused by the infrared absorption bands of the sulfuric acid particles. The surface temperature decrease predicted by the models is considerably smaller than 1 K, partly because of the small optical thickness of the volcanic layer, and partly because of its short residence time relative to the earth-ocean thermal response time.

  18. Measurements of upper tropospheric moisture with a Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Bisson, S.E.; Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Del Genio, A.D.

    1994-08-01

    We describe water vapor profile measurements made with the Sandia Raman lidar. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of convection on the upper tropospheric moisture budget. At present, considerable controversy exists over the nature of the vertical redistribution of water vapor in a changing climate, and particularly the distribution of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Although upper tropospheric moisture concentrations are several orders of magnitude lower than those near the surface, upper tropospheric moisture exerts an important influence on climate. On a per-molecule basis, greenhouse absorption due to water vapor is about one hundred times more effective at high altitudes than at low altitudes. Several one-dimensional radiative convective models have been used to demonstrate the importance of upper tropospheric moisture on climate. What these models show is that for a given fractional increase in water vapor at a given altitude the response or change in surface temperature is qualitatively the same. Understanding upper tropospheric moistening processes are therefore of prime importance in addressing the water vapor feedback question. The goal of this study is to determine the upper tropospheric moisture budget associated with convective events, and in particular to extend process models to higher altitudes than have been achieved previously.

  19. Aerosol Classification from High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kahnert, M.; Vaughan, M. A.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Berkoff, T.; Seaman, S. T.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Fenn, M. A.; Rogers, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, have acquired large datasets of vertically resolved aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization during >30 airborne field missions since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters like lidar ratio and color ratio embed information about intrinsic aerosol properties, and are combined to qualitatively classify HSRL aerosol measurements into aerosol types. Knowledge of aerosol type is important for assessing aerosol radiative forcing, and can provide useful information for source attribution studies. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead is a mixture, which affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. We show that aerosol intensive parameters measured by lidar can be understood using mixing rules for cases of external mixing. Beyond coarse classification and mixing between classes, variations in the lidar aerosol intensive parameters provide additional insight into aerosol processes and composition. This is illustrated by depolarization measurements at three wavelengths, 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, made by HSRL-2. Particle depolarization ratio is an indicator of non-spherical particles. Three cases each have a significantly different spectral dependence of the depolarization ratio, related to the size of the depolarizing particles. For two dust cases, large non-spherical particles account for the depolarization of the lidar light. The spectral dependence reflects the size distribution of these particles and reveals differences in the transport histories of the two plumes. For a smoke case, the depolarization is inferred to be due to the presence of small coated soot aggregates. Interestingly, the depolarization at 355 nm is similar for this smoke case compared to the dust cases, having potential implications for the upcoming EarthCARE satellite, which will measure particle depolarization ratio only at 355 nm.

  20. Energy Measurement Studies for CO2 Measurement with a Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measurement of energy in the application of lidar system for CO2 measurement is critical. Different techniques of energy estimation in the online and offline pulses are investigated for post processing of lidar returns. The cornerstone of the techniques is the accurate estimation of the spectrum of lidar signal and background noise. Since the background noise is not the ideal white Gaussian noise, simple average level estimation of noise level is not well fit in the energy estimation of lidar signal and noise. A brief review of the methods is presented in this paper.

  1. Lidar measurements of slant visual range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balin, Y. S.; Kavkyanov, S. I.; Krekov, G. M.; Razenkov, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    When converting the lidar equation relative to the extinction coefficient and, correspondingly, the visual range, the instability of the solution at the increase of the optical density of the sounding path is encountered. The search for a stable solution has resulted in the appearance of a set of inversion algorithms differing mainly in the manner of assigning the a priori information on the profile sought. A stable algorithm of inversion is suggested and a comparative analysis and experimental verification of some methods of processing the signals at sounding the optically dense atmospheric formations are given.

  2. First lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols from a high-altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed

    1995-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in many atmospheric processes related to radiation, climate change, atmospheric dynamics, meteorology, the global hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry, and yet our knowledge of the global distribution of water vapor is very limited. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique has the potential of providing needed high resolution water vapor measurements from aircraft and from space, and the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is a key step in the development of this capability. The LASE instrument is the first fully engineered, autonomous DIAL system, and it is designed to operate from a high-altitude aircraft (ER-2) and to make water vapor and aerosol profile measurements across the troposphere. The LASE system was flown from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in a series of engineering flights during September 1994. This paper discusses the characteristics of the LASE system and presents the first LASE measurements of water vapor and aerosol profiles.

  3. A lidar system for remote measurement of oil film thickness on sea surface

    SciTech Connect

    Piskozub, J.; Drozdowska, V.; Varlamov, V.

    1997-06-01

    A new lidar system FLS-UV designed for measurement of oil film thickness is described. The system consisting of solid state 299 nm laser and a multichannel spectral receiver was produced by LDI Ltd, Tallinn Estonia in close collaboration with Laser Laboratory of Institute of Oceanology, Sopot, Poland. The system is able to measure oil film thickness in the range of 0.5 - 10 micrometers. It utilizes two methods: light absorption of Raman band in UV and measurement of fluorescence band intensity. The system is designed for continuous measurement from ship or low altitude aircraft. Technical description of the system as well as first experimental results are presented.

  4. Combined High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Radar Measurement of Drizzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Marine stratus clouds are an important feature of the global climate system. Cloud lifetime is sensitive to drizzle rates. Drizzle not only removes water from the cloud but it's evaporation cools the sub-cloud layer acting to suppress convection. Accurate measurements of drizzle rates will improve our understanding of cloud maintenance. Simultaneous lidar measurements of extinction and radar backscatter allow determination of drizzle droplet particle size, liquid water content, fall velocity and water flux. However, drizzle measurements with conventional lidar are hampered by: 1)changes in the transmission of the output window caused by water accumulation on the lidar output window, 2)the difficulty of correcting the backscatter signal for atmospheric extinction and, 3)the effects of multiple scattering. High spectral resolution lidar avoids problems with window transmission and atmospheric attenuation because the backscatter is referenced to the known molecular scattering cross section at each point in the profile. Although multiple scattering degrades the direct measurement of extinction with the HSRL, it has little effect the HSRL measurement of backscatter cross section. We have developed an iterative solution that begins by estimating the extinction cross in drizzle using an assumed lidar ratio and the backscatter measurement. This is combined with the radar backscatter to make a first estimate of the particle size distribution. Mie scattering theory is then used to compute an improved lidar ratio for this particle size distribution and the new lidar ratio provides an improved extinction cross section. The calculation assumes a modified gamma distribution of sizes. The mode diameter of the distribution is fixed by the lidar-radar cross section ratio, while the width of the distribution is determined by matching the computed fall velocity of the drizzle with the observed radar Doppler velocity. The strengths and limitations of the this approach are examined

  5. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm.

    PubMed

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham R; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark; Abshire, James

    2013-09-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen optical depth measurements with an IPDA lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric temperature and pressure is required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, and climate modeling studies. The lidar uses a doubled erbium-doped fiber amplifier and single photon-counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at 765 nm. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km.

  6. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  7. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  8. Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) - Understanding Sampling Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, W. A.; Banta, R. M.; Hardesty, M.; Pichugina, Y.; Senff, Christoph; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Carroll, B.; Delgado, R.; Muschinski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Coherent Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been widely used to provide measurements of several boundary layer parameters such as profiles of wind speed, wind direction, vertical velocity statistics, mixing layer heights and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). An important aspect of providing this wide range of meteorological data is to properly characterize the uncertainty associated with these measurements. With the above intent in mind, the Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) was conducted at Erie, Colorado during the period June 23rd to July 13th, 2014. The major goals of this experiment were the following: Characterize sampling error for vertical velocity statistics Analyze sensitivities of different Doppler lidar systems Compare various single and dual Doppler retrieval techniques Characterize error of spatial representativeness for separation distances up to 3 km Validate turbulence analysis techniques and retrievals from Doppler lidars This experiment brought together 5 Doppler lidars, both commercial and research grade, for a period of three weeks for a comprehensive intercomparison study. The Doppler lidars were deployed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) site in Erie, site of a 300 m meteorological tower. This tower was instrumented with six sonic anemometers at levels from 50 m to 300 m with 50 m vertical spacing. A brief overview of the experiment outline and deployment will be presented. Results from the sampling error analysis and its implications on scanning strategy will be discussed.

  9. Lidar beams in opposite directions for quality assessment of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization spaceborne measurements.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Juan; Flamant, Pierre H

    2010-04-20

    We present the "lidar beams in opposite directions" (LIBOD) technique and applications for quality assessment of spaceborne observations made by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite. LIBOD is applicable to standard total backscatter lidar because it does not require a priori knowledge of the particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio. In this paper, we present (i) an objective assessment of the lidar signal quality and representativity of correlative ground-based lidar and CALIOP measurements only using normalized range-corrected lidar signals and (ii) a numerical filtering and optimization technique for reducing the spurious oscillations induced by noisy signal differentiation as needed for retrieval of particle extinction coefficients and extinction-to-backscatter ratio profiles. Numerical simulations and Monte Carlo tests are conducted for assessing the performance of the LIBOD technique. The applications are illustrated with examples of actual correlative 532 nm lidar profiles from CALIOP and a ground-based lidar deployed in Tamanrasset in the heart of Sahara in 2006 and near Strasbourg, France, in 2007.

  10. Comparison of 2 micron Ho and 10 micron CO2 lidar for atmospheric backscatter and Doppler windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killinger, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The development of eye-safe, solid-state Lidar systems is discussed, with an emphasis on Coherent Doppler Lidar for Atmospheric Wind Measurements. The following subject areas are covered: tunable Ho DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar)/lidar atmospheric measurements; atmospheric turbulence measurements and detector arrays; diurnal measurements of C(sub n)(sup 2) for KSC lidar measurements; and development of single-frequency Ho laser/lidar.

  11. Diode - Pumped Nd:YAG Lidar for Airborne Cloud Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehnert, A.; Halldorsson, TH.; Herrmann, H.; Haering, R.; Krichbaumer, W.; Streicher, J.; Werner, CH.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the experimental method used to separate scattering and to use it for the determination of cloud microphysical parameters. It is also the first airborne test of a lidar version related to the ATLID Program - ESA's scheduled spaceborne lidar. The already tested DLR microlidar was modified with the new diode-pumped laser and a faster data recording system was added. The system was used during the CLEOPATRA campaign in the DLR research aircraft Falcon 20 to measure cloud parameters. The diode pumped Nd:YAG laser we developed for the microlidar is a modification of the laser we introduced at the Lidar Congress at 'Laser 1991' in Munich. Various aspects of this work are discussed.

  12. Airborne backscatter lidar measurements at three wavelengths during ELITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, H. G.; Wirth, Martin; Moerl, P.; Renger, Wolfgang

    1995-09-01

    The German Aerospace Establishment (DLR) operates an airborne backscatter lidar based on a Nh:YAG laser which is flashlamp-pumped at 10 Hz. It works on the wavelengths 1064, 532, and 354 nm. It is mounted downward-looking on the research aircraft Falcon 20, flying at about 12 km altitude at speeds of 200 m/s. We present airborne measurements correlated with the orbit tracks of the shuttle-borne LITE-instrument (lidar in-space technology experiment). The emphasis in data evalution is on the comparison between the airborne and the shuttle- borne lidars. First results show excellent agreement between the two instruments even on details of cirrus clouds. The results comprise cloud geometrical and optical depths, as well as profiles of aerosol backscattering coefficients at three wavelengths.

  13. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  14. Target reflectance measurements for calibration of lidar atmospheric backscatter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.; Haner, D. A.; Oppenheim, U. P.; Flamant, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Wavelength and angular dependence of reflectances and depolarization in the 9-11 micron region are reported for four standard targets: flowers of sulfur, flame-sprayed aluminum, 20-grit sandblasted aluminum, and 400-grit silicon carbon sandpaper. Measurements are presented and compared using a CW CO2 grating-tunable laser in a laboratory backscatter apparatus, an integrating sphere, and a coherent pulsed TEA-CO2 lidar system operating in the 9-11 micron region. Reflectance theory related to the use of hard targets to calibrate lidar atmospheric backscatter data is discussed.

  15. Bistatic lidar measurements of clouds in the Nordic Arctic region.

    PubMed

    Olofson, K Frans G; Witt, Georg; Pettersson, Jan B C

    2008-09-10

    Cloud studies were carried out with a polarimetric bistatic lidar setup at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Andenes (69 degrees N, 16 degrees E), Norway. Measurements were performed at altitudes between 1.5 and 10.5 km, corresponding to scattering angles between 130 degrees and 170 degrees. The geometry, not restricted to the parallel or perpendicular laser polarization directions, gave a well-defined scattering angle, which together with polarization characterization, was used to investigate the scattering particles. The principles of the technique and the first results are presented together with an evaluation of the capabilities.

  16. Evaluation of Daytime Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor made by an Operational Raman Lidar over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David; Clayton, Marian; Schmid, Beat; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Orgren, John; Andrews, Elisabeth; Goldsmith, John E. M.; Jonsson, Hafidi

    2006-01-01

    Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles acquired during the daytime over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma (36.606 N, 97.50 W, 315 m) are evaluated using profiles measured by in situ and remote sensing instruments deployed during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operations Period (IOP). The automated algorithms used to derive these profiles from the Raman lidar data were first modified to reduce the adverse effects associated with a general loss of sensitivity of the Raman lidar since early 2002. The Raman lidar water vapor measurements, which are calibrated to match precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from coincident microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements were, on average, 5-10% (0.3-0.6 g/m(exp 3) higher than the other measurements. Some of this difference is due to out-of-date line parameters that were subsequently updated in the MWR PWV retrievals. The Raman lidar aerosol extinction measurements were, on average, about 0.03 km(exp -1) higher than aerosol measurements derived from airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical thickness and in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption. This bias, which was about 50% of the mean aerosol extinction measured during this IOP, decreased to about 10% when aerosol extinction comparisons were restricted to aerosol extinction values larger than 0.15 km(exp -1). The lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio and airborne Sun photometer measurements of the aerosol optical thickness were used along with in situ measurements of the aerosol size distribution to retrieve estimates of the aerosol single scattering albedo (omega(sub o)) and the effective complex refractive index. Retrieved values of omega(sub o) ranged from (0.91-0.98) and were in generally good agreement with omega(sub o) derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering and absorption. Elevated aerosol

  17. Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Churnside, James H; Thorne, Richard E

    2005-09-10

    Airborne lidar has the potential to survey large areas quickly and at a low cost per kilometer along a survey line. For this reason, we investigated the performance of an airborne lidar for surveys of zooplankton. In particular, we compared the lidar returns with echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Data from eight regions of the Sound were compared, and the correlation between the two methods was 0.78. To obtain this level of agreement, a threshold was applied to the lidar return to remove the effects of scattering from phytoplankton.

  18. Comparison of PSC classification schemes from lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Khosrawi, F.; Gumbel, J.

    2012-04-01

    During late winter and early spring polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provide the surface for heterogeneous reactions which transform stable chlorine and bromine species into their highly reactive ozone-destroying states. Therefore, PSCs are important for severe depletion of ozone during polar winter at high latitudes. The formation of PSCs depends strongly on temperature. PSCs are classified into three types (PSC Ia: nitric acid di- or trihydrate crystals, NAD or NAT; PSC Ib: supercooled liquid ternary solutions, STS; PSC II: ice) according to particle composition and physical phase. This classification into different types is based on lidar measurements at high latitudes which have been conducted regularly since several decades. Lidar measurements can provide continuous observations with high temporal and vertical resolution. If such an instrument is sensitive to the state of polarization of the backscattered light, it is possible to characterize the type of a PSC depending on the intensity of the backscattered light and the amount of depolarization of the returned signals. However, even though various lidar systems measure similar optical properties, different characterization schemes were derived and applied for PSC classifications. For a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of the different PSC types and of previous reports in the literature it is of importance to use a homogenized PSC classification scheme. In this study, we utilize measurements from the lidar at Esrange and aboard the CALIPSO satellite. Both systems are capable of measuring the backscatter ratio and to derive the linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm. Knowledge of these properties allows for discerning the three different types of PSC. We use the measurements to compare the different classification schemes that are published in the literature and currently applied to characterize PSC observations. To our knowledge, such a comparison of the findings of different

  19. Tunable lasers for water vapor measurements and other lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. W.; Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    A tunable dye laser suitable for differential absorption (DIAL) measurements of water vapor in the troposphere was constructed. A multi-pass absorption cell for calibration was also constructed for use in atmospheric DIAL measurements of water vapor.

  20. Recent lidar technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the influences of recent technology developments in the areas of lasers, detectors, andoptical filters of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system on the measurenent of tropospheric water vapor (H2O) profiles are discussed. The lidar parameters selected are based upon a diode-seeded Ti:sapphire laser that is locked to an H2O line in the 820- or 930-nm band of H2O. To assess the influence of the mode of deployment on the measurement of tropospheric H2O, DIAL performance is evaluated for operation from a medium-altitude (12 km) aircraft, the ground, and space-based systems. It is found that incorporation of these developments could greatly enhance DIAL measurement capability.

  1. Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, R. T. H.

    1969-01-01

    Lidar is an optical radar technique employing laser energy. Variations in signal intensity as a function of range provide information on atmospheric constituents, even when these are too tenuous to be normally visible. The theoretical and technical basis of the technique is described and typical values of the atmospheric optical parameters given. The significance of these parameters to atmospheric and meteorological problems is discussed. While the basic technique can provide valuable information about clouds and other material in the atmosphere, it is not possible to determine particle size and number concentrations precisely. There are also inherent difficulties in evaluating lidar observations. Nevertheless, lidar can provide much useful information as is shown by illustrations. These include lidar observations of: cirrus cloud, showing mountain wave motions; stratification in clear air due to the thermal profile near the ground; determinations of low cloud and visibility along an air-field approach path; and finally the motion and internal structure of clouds of tracer materials (insecticide spray and explosion-caused dust) which demonstrate the use of lidar for studying transport and diffusion processes.

  2. Double-Pulse Two-Micron IPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2015-01-01

    An advanced double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-micron laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation from up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  3. Airborne lidar for simultaneous measurement of column CO2 and water vapor in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2016-10-01

    The 2-micron wavelength region is suitable for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements due to the existence of distinct absorption feathers for the gas at this particular wavelength. For more than 20 years, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several high-energy and high repetition rate 2-micron pulsed lasers. This paper will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both CO2 and water vapor (H2O) in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver telescope, detection system and data acquisition. Future plans for the IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  4. Airborne Lidar for Simultaneous Measurement of Column CO2 and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    The 2-micron wavelength region is suitable for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements due to the existence of distinct absorption feathers for the gas at this particular wavelength. For more than 20 years, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several high-energy and high repetition rate 2-micron pulsed lasers. This paper will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both CO2 and water vapor (H2O) in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver telescope, detection system and data acquisition. Future plans for the IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  5. Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, J.-P.; Aubry, Y.

    1981-09-01

    It is noted that a photodetector at the telescope focal plane of a lidar produces a signal which is processed, giving information on the concentration of the species being monitored. The delay between the emitted and return signals indicates the distance to the interacting volume. Because of the poor efficiency of the interaction processes, the main difficulty in developing a good lidar has to do with the availability of sufficiently efficient lasers. Certain laser characteristics are discussed, and a CNES program for the development of lasers for lidar techniques is presented, future space applications being considered as mid-term objectives. The various components of the laser system developed by CNES are described. These are a dual frequency tunable oscillator, the amplifier chain, the beam control unit and wavelength servo-system, and the harmonic conversion subsystem.

  6. DESDynI Lidar Measurements of Forest Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, J.; Cook, B. D.; Blair, B.; Dubayah, R.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, NASA received directions from the National Academy of Science through its report “Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond” report to launch a mission to study the Earth’s forested ecosystems, ice sheets and glaciers and areas prone to volcanoes and earthquakes. Two complementary technologies were recommended: 1) Multi-Beam LiDAR, and 2) L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to be flown as the Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics ( DESDynI) mission. The emphasis of the SAR is solid earth and cryosphere, whereas the lidar will focus on ecosystem structure and also make ice sheet and glacier elevation measurements. The mission will launch the lidar and radar as separate platforms beginning as early as October 2017. The horizontal and vertical structure of ecosystems are a key features that enable quantification of carbon storage, the effects of such disturbances as fire, and species habitats. Above-ground woody biomass and its associated below-ground biomass store a large pool of terrestrial carbon. Quantifying changes in the size of the pool, its horizontal distribution, and its vertical structure resulting from natural and human-induced perturbations, such as deforestation and fire, and the recovery processes is critical for measuring ecosystem change. The DESDynI LiDAR data will accurately above ground sample vegetation 3-D parameters (including canopy height, vertical profile and high levels of biomass) over all the Earth;s forests. The LiDAR measurements include vegetation height, the vertical profile of canopy elements (i.e., leaves, stems, branches), and/or the volume scattering of canopy elements. This set of measurements is critical for reducing uncertainties in the global carbon budget. A complete set of ecosystem structure measurements requires LiDAR waveforms and polarimetric SAR. The fusion of these types of data will be important to provide accurate and higher resolution data

  7. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  8. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-02-04

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  9. Improving lidar-based mixing height measurements with radon-222

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, A.; Chambers, S.; Parkes, S.; Williams, A. G.; McCabe, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have found that near-surface hourly atmospheric radon-222 measurements can be combined with elastic backscatter lidar data to obtain a higher quality time-series of mixing height than is currently possible with lidar data alone. The standard method of determining mixing heights from lidar observations relies on algorithms which detect the contrast between relatively turbid aerosol-laden air within the boundary layer and clear air above. However, this approach can be confounded by meteorological conditions that lead to the formation of multiple aerosol layers within or above the boundary layer, or when the contrast between boundary layer air and the overlying air is weak. In such ambiguous circumstances, extra information would be helpful to choose the appropriate mixing height. Radon-222 has the properties-almost-of an ideal passive tracer emitted at a constant rate from the surface. Assuming horizontal homogeneity, the near-surface concentration time-series can be inverted to determine an effective mixing height, which is equal to the true mixing height if the tracer is mixed uniformly throughout the boundary layer. A time-series of effective mixing heights derived in this manner can then be used to choose between lidar-derived candidates for mixing height in ambiguous meteorological conditions. This approach has the potential to extend the usefulness of lidar observations to conditions where, at present, it is only marginally applicable, and to improve the performance of automatic PBL height detection procedures. A time-series of mixing heights derived from a combination of lidar and radon observations would have fewer gaps, and therefore be more useful for applications such as model validation or pollution studies under a wider range of meteorological conditions.

  10. Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. Laurence; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Weng, Chi Y.

    1989-01-01

    The first high accuracy remote measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile have been made. The measurements were made with a differential absorption lidar system that utilizes tunable alexandrite lasers. The absorption in the trough between two lines in the oxygen A-band near 760 nm was used for probing the atmosphere. Measurements of the two-dimensional structure of the pressure field were made in the troposphere from an aircraft looking down. Also, measurements of the one-dimensional structure were made from the ground looking up. Typical pressure accuracies for the aircraft measurements were 1.5-2 mbar with a 30-m vertical resolution and a 100-shot average (20 s), which corresponds to a 2-km horizontal resolution. Typical accuracies for the upward viewing ground based measurements were 2.0 mbar for a 30-m resolution and a 100-shot average.

  11. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Veselovskii, Igor; Forno, Ricardo; Mielke, Bernd; Stein, Bernhard; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart; Voemel, Holger

    2010-01-01

    -II measurements, along with numerical simulation, were used to determine that the likely reason for the suboptimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during theWAVES_2007 campaign was amisaligned interference filter. With full laser power and a properly tuned interference filter,RASL is shown to be capable ofmeasuring themain water vapor and aerosol parameters with temporal resolutions of between 2 and 45 s and spatial resolutions ranging from 30 to 330 m from a flight altitude of 8 km with precision of generally less than 10%, providing performance that is competitive with some airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) water vapor and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) aerosol instruments. The use of diode-pumped laser technology would improve the performance of an airborne Raman lidar and permit additional instrumentation to be carried on board a small research aircraft. The combined airborne and ground-based measurements presented here demonstrate a level of versatility in Raman lidar that may be impossible to duplicate with any other single lidar technique.

  12. Mesopheric Temparature Inversions Observed in Long-Term Lidar Measurements at Mid- and Low-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of an investigation of mesospheric temperature inversion layers using long-term lidar measurements at mid- and low-latitudes are reported. In this paper, new results from different lidar observations of the invasion layers will be presented.

  13. An Ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Receiver System for Use on Unpiloted Atmospheric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Goldschmidt, Soenke

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of global atmosphere ozone concentrations call for flexible lidar systems that can be operated from an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) to reduce the cost of measurement missions. A lidar receiver system consisting of a fiber-optic-coupled telescope has been designed and tested for this purpose. The system weight is 13 kg and its volume of 0.06 m 3 would fit into the payload compartment of a Perseus B UAV. The optical efficiency of the telescope is 37 percent at 288 nm and 64 percent at 300 nm. Atmospheric measurements with a DIAL laser system have been performed, and the measured ozone density has matched the data from ozonesondes to an altitude of 7 km.

  14. Design of a Non-scanning Lidar for Wind Velocity and Direction Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Peng, Zhangxian

    2016-06-01

    A Doppler lidar system for wind velocity and direction measurement is presented. The lidar use a wide field of view (FOV) objective lens as an optical antenna for both beam transmitting and signal receiving. By four fibers coupled on different position on the focal plane, the lidar can implement wind vector measurement without any scanning movement.

  15. Compact Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcia, Joel; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    A small compact ozone differential absorption lidar capable of being deployed on a small aircraft or unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) has been tested. The Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser is pumped by a quadrupled Nd:YLF laser. Test results on the laser transmitter demonstrated 1.4 W in the IR and 240 mW in the green at 1000 Hz. The receiver consists of three photon-counting channels, which are a far field PMT, a near field UV PMT, and a green PMT. Each channel was tested for their saturation characteristics.

  16. Remote Measurement of Shallow Media Depth Using Polarization Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Steven E.

    Active noncontact range measurement sensors transmit electromagnetic radiation onto a remote target and process the received scattered signals to resolve the separation distance, or range, between the sensor and target. For lidar sensors, range is resolved by halving the roundtrip transit time multiplied by the speed of light, accounting for the refractive indices of the transit media. The ranging technique enables remote measurement of depth by resolving the range to sequential surfaces. Depth measurement in the shallow regime has conventionally been limited by the presence of ambiguous, overlapping optical pulses scattered from sequential surfaces. Enhanced performance in the shallow regime has conventionally come at the expense of the increased cost and complexity associated with high performance componentry. The issue of remote shallow depth measurement presents an opportunity for a novel approach to lidar sensor development. In this work, I discuss how the issue of ambiguity in the shallow depth measurement may be addressed by exploiting the polarization orientation of the transmitted and received optical signals, the components of which are modified during the range observation by naturally-occurring phenomena. Conventional pulsed time of flight laser ranging sensors are unable to resolve the shallow depth between overlapping pulses received from sequential surfaces due to operation in the scalar lidar regime, where the intensity of the received scattered signal is measured with no regard for polarization information. Enhanced performance by scalar lidar sensors in the shallow media regime has been conventionally enabled through incorporation of picosecond pulse width lasers and fast photodetectors, along with their associated increase in cost and complexity. The polarization lidar approach to shallow depth measurement developed in the dissertation facilitates the use of common lasers, optics, and detection componentry, making it comparatively less complex

  17. Tunable 2.1-micron Ho lidar for simultaneous range-resolved measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Sungdo; Chan, Kin P.; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1991-01-01

    An eye-safe tunable differential-absorption lidar system has been developed for the range-resolved measurement of aerosol backscatter and water vapor in the atmosphere. The lidar uses a flash-lamp-pumped, Q-switched, 10-mJ solid-state Ho:YSGG laser that is continuously tunable over a 20/cm wavelength range near 2.084 microns. Both path-averaged and range-resolved measurements were performed with the Ho differential-absorption lidar system. Preliminary measurements have been made of the temporal variation of atmospheric aerosol backscatter and water-vapor profiles at ranges out to 1 km. These results indicate that the Ho lidar has the potential for the eye-safe remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor and backscatter profiles at longer ranges if suitably enhanced in laser power and laser linewidth.

  18. Diode-Laser-Based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Long Term Autonomous Field Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, D.; Repasky, K. S.; Spuler, S.; Nehrir, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly changing spatial and temporal distribution of water vapor in the planetary boundary layer influences dynamical and physical processes that drive weather phenomena, general circulation patterns, radiative transfer, and the global water cycle. The ability to measure the water vapor distribution continuously within the lower troposphere has been identified as a high priority measurement capability needed by both the weather forecasting and climate science communities. This presentation provides an update on an economical and compact diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which has demonstrated the capability of meeting these high priority measurement needs. The DIAL instrument utilizes two continuous wave distributed feedback diode lasers to injection seed a current modulated tapered semiconductor optical amplifier. An improved switching time between the on-line and off-line wavelength, on the order of 16.7 ms, allows the instrument to retrieve water vapor profiles in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. A shared telescope design based on a 40.64 cm diameter Dobsonian telescope allows the outgoing beam to be eye-safe at the exit of the telescope. The DIAL receiver utilizes the Dobsonian telescope to collect the scattered light and direct it through an optical narrow bandpass filter (NBF) and a Fabry-Perot etalon with a free spectral range of 0.1 nm which is equal to the wavelength difference between the on-line and off-line DIAL wavelengths. A beam splitter directs 90% of the scattered light through a second NBF, and couples it onto a fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD), providing a far field measurement. The remaining 10% of the light passing through the beam splitter is incident on a free space coupled APD, providing a wider field of view for water vapor measurements at lower altitudes. The two channel receiver allows water vapor measurement between 500 m and 4 km/6km during daytime/nighttime operation, respectively. The DIAL

  19. Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer Lidar Validation for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    A double-pulsed, 2-micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements is successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Based on direct detection technique, the instrument can be operated on ground or onboard a small aircraft. Key features of this compact, rugged and reliable IPDA lidar includes high transmitted laser energy, wavelength tuning, switching and locking, and sensitive detection. As a proof of concept, the IPDA ground and airborne CO2 measurement and validation will be presented. IPDA lidar CO2 measurements ground validation were conducted at NASA LaRC using hard targets and a calibrated in-situ sensor. Airborne validation, conducted onboard the NASA B-200 aircraft, included CO2 plum detection from power stations incinerators, comparison to in-flight CO2 in-situ sensor and comparison to air sampling at different altitude conducted by NOAA at the same site. Airborne measurements, spanning for 20 hours, were obtained from different target conditions. Ground targets included soil, vegetation, sand, snow and ocean. In addition, cloud slicing was examined over the ocean. These flight validations were conducted at different altitudes, up to 7 km, with different wavelength controlled weighing functions. CO2 measurement results agree with modeling conducted through the different sensors, as will be discussed.

  20. Stable Calibration of Raman Lidar Water-Vapor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been devised to ensure stable, long-term calibration of Raman lidar measurements that are used to determine the altitude-dependent mixing ratio of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Because the lidar measurements yield a quantity proportional to the mixing ratio, rather than the mixing ratio itself, calibration is necessary to obtain the factor of proportionality. The present method involves the use of calibration data from two sources: (1) absolute calibration data from in situ radiosonde measurements made during occasional campaigns and (2) partial calibration data obtained by use, on a regular schedule, of a lamp that emits in a known spectrum determined in laboratory calibration measurements. In this method, data from the first radiosonde campaign are used to calculate a campaign-averaged absolute lidar calibration factor (t(sub 1)) and the corresponding campaign-averaged ration (L(sub 1)) between lamp irradiances at the water-vapor and nitrogen wavelengths. Depending on the scenario considered, this ratio can be assumed to be either constant over a long time (L=L(sub 1)) or drifting slowly with time. The absolutely calibrated water-vapor mixing ratio (q) obtained from the ith routine off-campaign lidar measurement is given by q(sub 1)=P(sub 1)/t(sub 1)=LP(sub 1)/P(sup prime)(sub 1) where P(sub 1) is water-vapor/nitrogen measurement signal ration, t(sub 1) is the unknown and unneeded overall efficiency ratio of the lidar receiver during the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, and P(sup prime)(sub 1) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the ith routine off-campaign measurement run. If L is assumed constant, then the lidar calibration is routinely obtained without the need for new radiosonde data. In this case, one uses L=L(sub 1) = P(sup prime)(sub 1)/t(sub 1), where P(sub 1)(sup prime) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated

  1. PROBING NEAR-SURFACE ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE WITH LIDAR MEASUREMENTS AND HIGH-RESOLUTION HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    J. KAO; D. COOPER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    As lidar technology is able to provide fast data collection at a resolution of meters in an atmospheric volume, it is imperative to promote a modeling counterpart of the lidar capability. This paper describes an integrated capability based on data from a scanning water vapor lidar and a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (HIGRAD) equipped with a visualization routine (VIEWER) that simulates the lidar scanning. The purpose is to better understand the spatial and temporal representativeness of the lidar measurements and, in turn, to extend their utility in studying turbulence fields in the atmospheric boundary layer. Raman lidar water vapor data collected over the Pacific warm pool and the simulations with the HIGRAD code are used for identifying the underlying physics and potential aliasing effects of spatially resolved lidar measurements. This capability also helps improve the trade-off between spatial-temporal resolution and coverage of the lidar measurements.

  2. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Hair, J.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Kleinman, L.; Clarke, A.; Russell, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Szykman, J.; Al-Saadi, J.

    2007-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to measure aerosol distributions and optical properties. The HSRL technique takes advantage of the spectral distribution of the lidar return signal to discriminate aerosol and molecular signals and thereby measure aerosol extinction and backscatter independently. The LaRC instrument employs the HSRL technique to measure aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles at 532 nm and the standard backscatter lidar technique to measure aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm. Depolarization profiles are measured at both wavelengths. Since March 2006, the airborne HSRL has acquired over 215 flight hours of data deployed on the NASA King Air B200 aircraft during several field experiments. Most of the flights were conducted during two major field experiments. The first major experiment was the joint Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX B) experiment that was conducted during March 2006 to investigate the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The second major experiment was the Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) that was conducted during August and September 2006 to investigate climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. Several flights were also conducted to help validate the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO) satellite. In February 2007, several flights were carried out as part of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) experiment to assess air quality in central California. Airborne HSRL data acquired during these missions were used to quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types

  3. Self-Calibration and Laser Energy Monitor Validations for a Double-Pulsed 2-Micron CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  4. Climate sensitivity characteristics of tropical cirrus clouds using lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motty, Gopinathan Nair S.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Jayeshlal, Glory Selvan; Pillai, Vellara P. Mahadevan

    2016-10-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget due to their high frequency of occurrence, nonspherical ice crystal formations, and variability in scattering/absorption characteristics. Mostly, tropical cirrus clouds are considered greenhouse modulators. Thus, the parameterization of tropical cirrus clouds in terms of their microphysical properties and the corresponding radiative effects are highly important for climate studies. For characterizing the radiative properties of cirrus clouds, which depend on the size, shape, and number of ice crystals, knowledge of the extinction coefficient (σ) and optical depth (τ) is necessary. σ provides information needed for understanding the influence of the scatterers on the radiative budget, whereas τ gives an indication of the composition and thickness of the cloud. Extensive research on tropical cirrus clouds has been carried out by using ground-based lidar (GBL) and satellite-based lidar systems. The characteristics of tropical cirrus clouds derived by using the data from the GBL system over the tropical site Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, during 2010 are presented. Some of the results are compared with those obtained by us from satellite-based cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization observations of the cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observation mission. It is observed that there is a strong dependence on some of the physical properties, such as occurrence height, cloud temperature, and geometrical thickness, and on the microphysical parameters in terms of extinction coefficient and optical depth. The correlation of both σ and τ with temperature is also observed.

  5. Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Pelon, Jacques; Trepte, Charles; Liu, Katie; Rodier, Sharon; Zeng, Shan; Lucker, Patricia; Verhappen, Ron; Wilson, Jamie; Audouy, Claude; Ferrier, Christophe; Haouchine, Said; Hunt, Bill; Getzewich, Brian

    2016-12-12

    A new approach has been proposed to determine ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient bbp from CALIOP 30° off-nadir lidar measurements. The new method also provides estimates of the particle volume scattering function at the 180° scattering angle. The CALIOP based layer-integrated lidar backscatter and particulate backscattering coefficients are compared with the results obtained from MODIS ocean color measurements. The comparison analysis shows that ocean subsurface lidar backscatter and particulate backscattering coefficient bbp can be accurately obtained from CALIOP lidar measurements, thereby supporting the use of space-borne lidar measurements for ocean subsurface studies.

  6. Compact Efficient Lidar Receiver for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gili, Christopher; De Young, Russell

    2006-01-01

    A small, light weight, and efficient aerosol lidar receiver was constructed and tested. Weight and space savings were realized by using rigid optic tubes and mounting cubes to package the steering optics and detectors in a compact assembly. The receiver had a 1064nm channel using an APD detector. The 532nm channel was split (90/10) into an analog channel (90%) and a photon counting channel (10%). The efficiency of the 1064nm channel with optical filter was 44.0%. The efficiency of the analog 532nm channel was 61.4% with the optical filter, and the efficiency of the 532nm photon counting channel was 7.6% with the optical filter. The results of the atmospheric tests show that the detectors were able to consistently return accurate results. The lidar receiver was able to detect distinct cloud layers, and the lidar returns also agreed across the different detectors. The use of a light weight fiber-coupled telescope reduced weight and allowed great latitude in detector assembly positioning due to the flexibility enabled by the use of fiber optics. The receiver is now ready to be deployed for aircraft or ground based aerosol lidar measurements.

  7. Lidar system for atmospheric turbulence measurement with Mersen telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu.; Konyaev, M. A.; Trilis, A. V.

    2006-02-01

    In this work the lidar system for measurements of atmospheric turbulence structural function C n2 are presented. Method of such measurements is based on increasing of focal spot on the receiver after beam pass through turbulent atmosphere. In this work the receiving-transmission system on the base of Mersen telescope with main mirror diameter 0.5m is used. Features connected with optical system aberrations are considered. The results of experimental investigation are presented.

  8. Wind Measurements with High Energy 2 Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Ji-Rong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar based on an injection seeded Ho:Tm:YLF pulsed laser was developed for wind measurements. A transmitted pulse energy over 75 mJ at 5 Hz repetition rate has been demonstrated. Designs are presented on the laser, injection seeding, receiver, and signal processing subsystems. Sample data of atmospheric measurements are presented including a wind profile extending from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the free troposphere.

  9. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.; Kelley, N.; Jonkman, B.; Frehlich, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems that are designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed the validity of physicist G.I. Taylor's 1938 frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) 5-megawatt turbine model to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution was applied to a frozen wind field that was used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements were also evaluated using a large eddy simulation (LES) of a stable boundary layer that was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The LIDAR measurement scenario investigated consists of a hub-mounted LIDAR that scans a circle of points upwind of the turbine in order to estimate the wind speed component in the mean wind direction. Different combinations of the preview distance that is located upwind of the rotor and the radius of the scan circle were analyzed. It was found that the dominant source of measurement error for short preview distances is the detection of transverse and vertical wind speeds from the line-of-sight LIDAR measurement. It was discovered in previous studies that, in the absence of wind evolution, the dominant source of error for large preview distances

  10. Atmospheric aerosol characterization combining multi-wavelength Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements in Gwanjgu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Kwang Chul; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Shin, Sungkyun; Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Young J.

    2011-11-01

    Integrated approach has been adopted at the ADvanced Environmental Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. Various active and passive optical remote sensing techniques such as multi-wavelength (3β+2α+1δ) Raman LIDAR, sun-photometry, MAX-DOAS, and satellite retrieval have been utilized. This integrated monitoring system approach combined with in-situ surface measurement is to allow better characterization of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Information on the vertical distribution and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol is important for understanding its transport characteristics as well as radiative effect. The GIST multi-wavelength (3β + 2α+1δ) Raman lidar system can measure vertical profiles of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols such as extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization ratio at 532nm. The incomplete overlap between the telescope field-of-view and beam divergence of the transmitting laser significantly affects lidar measurement, resulting in higher uncertainty near the surface where atmospheric aerosols of interest are concentrated. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is applied as a complementary tool for the detection of atmospheric aerosols near the surface. The passive Multi-Axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS) technique uses scattered sunlight as a light source from several viewing directions. Recently developed aerosol retrieval algorithm based on O4 slant column densities (SCDs) measured at UV and visible wavelengths has been utilized to derive aerosol information (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol extinction coefficients (AECs)) in the lower troposphere. The aerosol extinction coefficient at 356 nm was retrieved for the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers based on the MAX-DOAS measurements using the retrieval algorithm

  11. Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements During the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Evans, K. D.; Berkoff, T. B.; Demoz, B. D.; DiGirolamo, P.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the Water Vapor IOP 2000 (WVIOP2000) and ARM FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) at the DOE SGP CART site in northern Oklahoma. These experiments occurred during the period of September and December, 2000. The goals of both the WVIOP2000 and AFWEX were to better characterize the water vapor measurement capability of numerous sensors in the lower atmosphere and upper troposphere, respectively. The SRL received several hardware upgrades in anticipation of these experiments that permitted improved measurements of water vapor during the daytime and in the upper troposphere (UT). The daytime SRL water vapor error statistics were demonstrated a factor of 2-3 improvement compared to the permanently stationed CART Raman lidar (CARL). The performance of the SRL in the UT showed improvements as well. The technological upgrades that permitted these improved SRL measurements could also be implemented in the CARL system. Data examples demonstrating the new daytime and upper tropospheric measurement capability of the SRL will be shown at the meeting. In addition, preliminary analysis will be presented on several topics: 1) inter comparison of the water vapor measurements for several water vapor sensors including SRL, CARL, the NASA/Langley Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) flown onboard the NASA DC-8, in-situ sensors flown on the DC-8, and the Max Planck Institute Differential Absorption Lidar 2) comparison of cirrus cloud measurements using SRL and CARL and 3) case studies of meteorological events that occurred during the IOPs such as a cold frontal passage on the night of September 23.

  12. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.; Rye, B.J.

    1996-04-01

    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  13. A theoretical study of a two-wavelength lidar technique for the measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Weng, C. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of differential absorption lidar measurements for lines with a Voigt profile is given and applied to a two-wavelength technique for measuring the atmospheric temperature profile using a high J line in the oxygen A band. Explicit expressions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption coefficient are developed for lines with a Voigt profile. An iteration procedure for calculating the temperature for narrow laser bandwidths is described which has an accuracy better than 0.2 K for bandwidths less than 0.01/cm. To reduce the errors in lidar measurements due to uncertainties in pressure, a method for estimating the pressure from the temperature profile is described. A procedure for extending the differential absorption technique to the case of finite laser bandwidth with good accuracy is also described. Simulation results show that a knowledge of the laser frequency is needed to 0.005/cm for accurate temperature measurements. Evaluation of the sensitivity for both ground- and Shuttle-based measurements shows accuracies generally better than 1 K. This technique allows up to an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared to other differential absorption lidar techniques.

  14. Comparison of vertical aerosol extinction coefficients from in-situ and LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Herrmann, E.; Bucci, S.; Fierli, F.; Cairo, F.; Gysel, M.; Tillmann, R.; Größ, J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Di Liberto, L.; Di Donfrancesco, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weingartner, E.; Virtanen, A.; Mentel, T. F.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ~ 50-800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a LIDAR system provided aerosol extinction coefficients for a vertically resolved comparison between in-situ and remote sensing results. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20% was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 to 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ~ 10 local time) before the mixed layer (ML) was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ~ 12 local time) the ML was fully developed, resulting in constant extinction coefficients at all altitudes measured on the Zeppelin NT. LIDAR results captured these dynamic features well and good agreement was found for the extinction coefficients compared to the in-situ results, using fixed LIDAR ratios (LR) between 30 and 70 sr for the altitudes probed with the Zeppelin. These LR are

  15. Comparison of Long Term Tropospheric Ozone Trends Measured by Lidar and ECC Ozonesondes from 1991 to 2010 in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, G.; Gaudel, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.

    2016-06-01

    ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) ozonesondes and UV DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) measurements have been carried out simultaneously at OHP (Observatoire de Haute Provence, 44°N, 6.7°E, 690 m) since 1991. A unique long-term trend assessment by two different instruments operated routinely at the same location is possible. Air mass trajectories have been calculated for all the ozone observations available at OHP. The bias between the seasonal mean calculated with lidar and ECC ozone vertical profiles for 4 timeperiods of 5 years is 0.6 ppbv in the free troposphere (4-8 km). Larger differences (> 10 ppbv) are explained by the need for clear sky conditions during lidar observations. The measurements of both instruments have been combined to decrease the impact of short-term atmospheric variability on the trend estimate.

  16. Wind Measurements with a 355 nm Molecular Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Chen, Huailin; Li, Steven X.

    2000-01-01

    A Doppler lidar system based on the molecular double edge technique is described. The system is mounted in a modified van to allow deployment in field operations. The lidar operates with a tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm, a 45cm aperture telescope and a matching azimuth-over-elevation scanner to allow full sky access. Validated atmospheric wind profiles have been measured from 1.8 km to 35 km with a 178 m vertical resolution. The range dependent rms deviation of the horizontal wind speed is 0.4 - 6 m/s. The results of wind speed and direction are in good agreement with balloon sonde wind measurements made simultaneously at the same location.

  17. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  18. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  19. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael; Remus, Ruben

    2015-04-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2 µm lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2 µm lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250-mJ in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2 μm Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hrs of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meter to 8000 meter. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and NOAA airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a triple-pulsed 2 μm Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA

  20. Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns. [for atmospheric pollution detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menyuk, N.; Killinger, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed dual-laser direct-detection differential-absorption lidar DIAL system, operating near 10.6 microns, is used to measure the temporal correlation and statistical properties of backscattered returns from specular and diffuse topographic targets. Results show that atmospheric-turbulence fluctuations can effectively be frozen for pulse separation times on the order of 1-3 msec or less. The diffuse target returns, however, yielded a much lower correlation than that obtained with the specular targets; this being due to uncorrelated system noise effects and different statistics for the two types of target returns.

  1. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  2. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure made Using an IPDA Lidar Operating in the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    We report airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure made using an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar that operates in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are needed for NASA s Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission to measure atmospheric CO2. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve our predictions of climate change. The goal of ASCENDS is to determine the CO2 dry mixing ratio with lidar measurements from space at a level of 1 ppm. Analysis to date shows that with current weather models, measurements of both the CO2 column density and the column density of dry air are needed. Since O2 is a stable molecule that uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, measuring O2 absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density. We have developed an airborne (IPDA) lidar for Oxygen, with support from the NASA ESTO IIP program. Our lidar uses DFB-based seed laser diodes, a pulsed modulator, a fiber laser amplifier, and a non-linear crystal to generate wavelength tunable 765 nm laser pulses with a few uJ/pulse energy. The laser pulse rate is 10 KHz, and average transmitted laser power is 20 mW. Our lidar steps laser pulses across a selected line O2 doublet near 764.7 nm in the Oxygen A-band. The direct detection lidar receiver uses a 20 cm diameter telescope, a Si APD detector in Geiger mode, and a multi-channel scalar to detect and record the time resolved laser backscatter in 40 separate wavelength channels. Subsequent analysis is used to estimate the transmission line shape of the doublet for the laser pulses reflected from the ground. Ground based data analysis allows averaging from 1 to 60 seconds to increase SNR in the transmission line shape of the doublet. Our retrieval algorithm fits the expected O2 lineshapes against the measurements and

  3. 3-D water vapor field in the atmospheric boundary layer observed with scanning differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, Florian; Behrendt, Andreas; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) water vapor data of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are required to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere exchange processes. For this purpose, the scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) was developed as well as new analysis tools and visualization methods. The instrument determines 3-D fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and a spatial resolution of up to a few tens of meters. We present three case studies from two field campaigns. In spring 2013, the UHOH DIAL was operated within the scope of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in western Germany. HD(CP)2 stands for High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction and is a German research initiative. Range-height indicator (RHI) scans of the UHOH DIAL show the water vapor heterogeneity within a range of a few kilometers up to an altitude of 2 km and its impact on the formation of clouds at the top of the ABL. The uncertainty of the measured data was assessed for the first time by extending a technique to scanning data, which was formerly applied to vertical time series. Typically, the accuracy of the DIAL measurements is between 0.5 and 0.8 g m-3 (or < 6 %) within the ABL even during daytime. This allows for performing a RHI scan from the surface to an elevation angle of 90° within 10 min. In summer 2014, the UHOH DIAL participated in the Surface Atmosphere Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in southwestern Germany. Conical volume scans were made which reveal multiple water vapor layers in three dimensions. Differences in their heights in different directions can be attributed to different surface elevation. With low-elevation scans in the surface layer, the humidity profiles and gradients can be related to different land cover such as maize, grassland, and forest as well as different surface layer

  4. Analysis of Measurements for Solid State Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1996-01-01

    A Detector Characterization Facility (DCF), capable of measuring 2-micron detection devices and evaluating heterodyne receivers, was developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The DCF is capable of providing all the necessary detection parameters for design, development, and calibration of coherent and incoherent solid state laser radar (lidar) systems. The coherent lidars in particular require an accurate knowledge of detector heterodyne quantum efficient, nonlinearity properties, and voltage-current relationship as a function of applied optical power. At present, no detector manufacturer provides these qualities or adequately characterizes their detectors for heterodyne detection operation. In addition, the detector characterization facility measures the detectors DC and AC quantum efficiencies noise equivalent power and frequency response up to several GHz. The DCF is also capable of evaluating various heterodyne detection schemes such as balanced detectors and fiber optic interferometers. The design and analyses of measurements for the DCF were preformed over the previous year and a detailed description of its design and capabilities was provided in the NASA report NAS8-38609/DO77. It should also be noted that the DCF design was further improved to allow for the characterization of diffractive andholographical optical elements and other critical components of coherent lidar systems.

  5. Aerosol Classification using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Froyd, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft has acquired extensive datasets of aerosol extinction (532 nm), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during 18 field missions that have been conducted over North America since 2006. The lidar measurements of aerosol intensive parameters (lidar ratio, depolarization, backscatter color ratio, spectral depolarization ratio) are shown to vary with location and aerosol type. A methodology based on observations of known aerosol types is used to qualitatively classify the extensive set of HSRL aerosol measurements into eight separate types. Several examples are presented showing how the aerosol intensive parameters vary with aerosol type and how these aerosols are classified according to this new methodology. The HSRL-based classification reveals vertical variability of aerosol types during the NASA ARCTAS field experiment conducted over Alaska and northwest Canada during 2008. In two examples derived from flights conducted during ARCTAS, the HSRL classification of biomass burning smoke is shown to be consistent with aerosol types derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of particle size and composition. The HSRL retrievals of aerosol optical thickness and inferences of aerosol types are used to apportion aerosol optical thickness to aerosol type; results of this analysis are shown for several experiments.

  6. Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; Hostetler, Chris A.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Rodier, Sharon D.; Hair, John W.; Trepte, Charles R.

    2013-08-01

    Global ocean phytoplankton biomass (Cphyto) and total particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks have largely been characterized from space using passive ocean color measurements. A space-based light detection and ranging (lidar) system can provide valuable complementary observations for Cphyto and POC assessments, with benefits including day-night sampling, observations through absorbing aerosols and thin cloud layers, and capabilities for vertical profiling through the water column. Here we use measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) to quantify global Cphyto and POC from retrievals of subsurface particulate backscatter coefficients (bbp). CALIOP bbp data compare favorably with airborne, ship-based, and passive ocean data and yield global average mixed-layer standing stocks of 0.44 Pg C for Cphyto and 1.9 Pg for POC. CALIOP-based Cphyto and POC data exhibit global distributions and seasonal variations consistent with ocean plankton ecology. Our findings support the use of spaceborne lidar measurements for advancing understanding of global plankton systems.

  7. Cirrus cloud transmittance and backscatter in the infrared measured with a CO(2) lidar.

    PubMed

    Hall, F F; Cupp, R E; Troxel, S W

    1988-06-15

    Two independent methods of measuring the transmittance of cirrus clouds are compared. Both used a CO(2) pulsed Doppler lidar at a wavelength of 10.59 microm. The first method used backscatter from the calibration target El Chichon stratospheric cloud that was present over Boulder in 1982 and 1983. The second method used conical lidar scans at different zenith angles when uniform cirrus decks were present. Extinction coefficients measured from both methods average 0.1 km(-1) for tenuous cirrus 1.0 km thick to 0.78 km(-1) for cirrus several kilometers thick. There is a wide standard deviation in extinction values. Extinction-tobackscatter ratios S vary from <1000 sr for tenuous clouds to 2600 sr for dense clouds. Mie scattering and extinction calculations for spherical ice particles of 10-50 microm in radius lead to ratios S > 2000 sr, so long as the ice absorption is entered into the calculations. The backscattering ratio for ice cylinders is 1 order of magnitude lower than for spheres. Backscatter in the IR may, therefore, be reasonably well modeled by some combination of spheres and cylinders. Cloud thickness statistics from lidar returns show that cirrus decks average ~500 m thick. Clouds thinner than 300 m were often overlooked by the unaided surface-based observer. These preliminary results are in rather close agreement with the LOWTRAN 6 cirrus cloud model predictions.

  8. NONLINEAR-APPROXIMATION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING VERTICAL OZONE-CONCENTRATION PROFILES WITH A DIFFERENTIAL-ABSORPTION LIDAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new technique is presented for the retrieval of ozone concentration profiles from backscattered signals obtained by a multi-wavelength differential-absorption lidar (DIAL). The technique makes it possible to reduce erroneous local fluctuations induced in the ozone-concentration...

  9. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  10. Long Term Stratospheric Aerosol Lidar Measurements in Kyushu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Motowo

    1992-01-01

    Lidar soundings of the stratospheric aerosols have been made since 1972 at Fukuoka, Kyushu Island of Japan. Volcanic clouds from eruptions of La Soufriere, Sierra Negra, St. Helens, Uluwan, Alaid, unknown volcano, and El Chichon were detected one after another in only three years from 1979 to 1982. In july 1991 strong scattering layers which were originated from the serious eruptions of Pinatubo in June and were almost comparable to the El Chichon clouds were detected. Volcanic clouds from pinatubo and other volcanos mentioned are examined and carefully compared to each other and to the wind and temperature which was measured by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory almost at the same time as the lidar observation was made.

  11. Direct Detection Doppler Lidar for Spaceborne Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. Laurence; Flesia, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    The theory of double edge lidar techniques for measuring the atmospheric wind using aerosol and molecular backscatter is described. Two high spectral resolution filters with opposite slopes are located about the laser frequency for the aerosol based measurement or in the wings of the Rayleigh - Brillouin profile for the molecular measurement. This doubles the signal change per unit Doppler shift and improves the measurement accuracy by nearly a factor of 2 relative to the single edge technique. For the aerosol based measurement, the use of two high resolution edge filters reduces the effects of background, Rayleigh scattering, by as much as an order of magnitude and substantially improves the measurement accuracy. Also, we describe a method that allows the Rayleigh and aerosol components of the signal to be independently determined. A measurement accuracy of 1.2 m/s can be obtained for a signal level of 1000 detected photons which corresponds to signal levels in the boundary layer. For the molecular based measurement, we describe the use of a crossover region where the sensitivity of a molecular and aerosol-based measurement are equal. This desensitizes the molecular measurement to the effects of aerosol scattering and greatly simplifies the measurement. Simulations using a conical scanning spaceborne lidar at 355 nm give an accuracy of 2-3 m/s for altitudes of 2-15 km for a 1 km vertical resolution, a satellite altitude of 400 km, and a 200 km x 200 km spatial.

  12. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  13. Analysis of Vertical Weighting Functions for Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, S.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Weaver, C. J.; Kawa, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Several NASA groups have developed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approaches to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidates for NASA's ASCENDS space mission. For example, the Goddard CO2 Sounder approach uses two pulsed lasers to simultaneously measure both CO2 and O2 absorption in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line near 1572 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764 nm. The measurements of CO2 and O2 absorption allow computing their vertically weighted number densities and then their ratios for estimating CO2 concentration relative to dry air. Since both the CO2 and O2 densities and their absorption line-width decrease with altitude, the absorption response (or weighting function) varies with both altitude and absorption wavelength. We have used some standard atmospheres and HITRAN 2008 spectroscopy to calculate the vertical weighting functions for two CO2 lines near 1571 nm and the O2 lines near 764.7 and 1260 nm for candidate online wavelength selections for ASCENDS. For CO2, the primary candidate on-line wavelengths are 10-12 pm away from line center with the weighting function peaking in the atmospheric boundary layer to measure CO2 sources and sinks at the surface. Using another on-line wavelength 3-5 pm away from line center allows the weighting function to peak in the mid- to upper troposphere, which is sensitive to CO2 transport in the free atmosphere. The Goddard CO2 sounder team developed an airborne precursor version of a space instrument. During the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011 it has participated in airborne measurement campaigns over a variety of different sites in the US, flying with other NASA ASCENDS lidar candidates along with accurate in-situ atmospheric sensors. All flights used altitude patterns with measurements at steps in altitudes between 3 and 13 km, along with spirals from 13 km altitude to near the surface. Measurements from in-situ sensors allowed an

  14. Remote measurement of atmospheric temperatures by Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.; Salzman, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Raman shifted return of a lidar system has been utilized to make atmospheric temperature measurements. The measurements were made along a horizontal path at temperatures ranging from -30 C to +30 C and at ranges of about 100 meters. The temperature data were acquired by recording the intensity ratio of two portions of the rotational Raman spectrum which were simultaneously sampled from a preset range. A temperature measurement accuracy of plus or minus 4 C and a temporal resolution of one minute were realized with this system. The combined results of the theoretical analysis and the experimentation indicate that system improvements will significantly increase both accuracy and range.

  15. Pulsed Lidar for Measurement of C02 Concentrations for the ASCENDS Mission - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Sun, Xiaoli; Mao, Jianping; Weaver, Clark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Rodriquez, Michael; Kawa, S. Randy

    2011-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-based sounding technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit for NASA is ASCENDS mission. The mission's goals are to provide measurements of tropospheric CO2 abundance with global-coverage, a few hundred km spatial and monthly temporal resolution. These are needed to better understand CO2 fluxes and the processes that regulate CO2 storage by the land and oceans. For the lIP, we are developing and demonstrating the lidar techniques and key lidar technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft. Our final goal is to demonstrate the key capabilities needed for a space lidar and mission approach for the ASCENDS mission. We use a pulsed lidar technique, which is much less sensitive to errors from cloud and atmospheric scattering and to noise from solar background. It allows continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio in the lower troposphere during day and night. Our approach uses the 1570nm CO2 band and a two-wavelength laser absorption spectrometer, which continuously measures at nadir from a circular polar orbit. It directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser echoes reflected from land and water surfaces. It uses a pair of tunable laser transmitters, which allowing measurement of the extinction from a single selected CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band and from a line pair in the Oxygen A-band near 765 nm. These regions have temperature insensitive absorption lines are free from interference from other gases. The lasers pulse at 10KHz, use tunable diode seed lasers followed by laser amplifiers, and have MHz spectral widths. During the measurement the lasers are stepped across the selected lines at a kHz rate. The receiver uses a 1-m class telescope and photon sensitive detectors and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the

  16. Lidar method of measurement of atmospheric extinction and ozone profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooney, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a method of measurement of atmospheric extinction and of ozone profiles by use of the backscatter signal from a monostatic lidar is given. The central feature of the procedure involves a measurement of the ratio of the Raman backscatter returns of both the oxygen and nitrogen atmospheric content. Because the ratio of the number density of both species is known to high accuracy, the measurement itself becomes a measure of the ratio of two transmissions to altitude along with a ratio of the two system constants. The calibration measurement for determining the value of the ratio of the two system constants or electro-optical conversion constants is accomplished by a lidar measurement of identical atmospheric targets while at the same time interchanging the two optical filters in the two optical channels of the receiver. More details of the procedure are discussed. Factoring this calibrated value into the measured O2/N2 profile ratio provides a measured value of the ratio of the two transmissions. Or equivalently, it provides a measurement of the difference of the two extinction coefficients at the O2 and N2 Raman wavelengths as a function of the height.

  17. Wavemeter measurements of frequency stability of an injection seeded alexandrite laser for pressure and temperature lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. R.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Korb, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The GSFC pressure-temperature lidar is a differential absorption lidar operating in the oxygen A band absorption region (760 to 770 nm), and utilizes two tunable pulsed alexandrite lasers. For obtaining temperature measurements with an accuracy of less than or = 1 K, it has been determined that the stability of the online laser frequency over a period of time corresponding to a set of measurements, 0.1 to 30 min, has to be better than +/- 0.002/cm. In addition, the requirements on laser spectral bandwidth and spectral purity are less than or = 0.02/cm and greater than or = 99.9 percent, respectively. Injection seeding with a stabilized AlGaAs diode laser was used to achieve the required frequency stability and spectral bandwidth. A high resolution Fizeau wavemeter was employed to determine the frequency stability of the pulsed alexandrite laser and determine its bandwidth, mode structure. We present the results of measurements of the frequency stability and the spectrum of the injection seeded alexandrite laser.

  18. Lidar measurements of the column CO2 mixing ratio made by NASA Goddard's CO2 Sounder during the NASA ASCENDS 2014 Airborne campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing measurements of CO2 from space can help improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and help constrain the global carbon budget. However, such measurements need to be sufficiently accurate to detect small (1 ppm) changes in the CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) against a large background (~ 400 ppm). Satellite measurements of XCO2 using passive spectrometers, such as those from the Japanese GOSAT (Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite) and the NASA OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) are limited to daytime sunlit portions of the Earth and are susceptible to biases from clouds and aerosols. For this reason, NASA commissioned the formulation study of ASCENDS a space-based lidar mission. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's CO2 Sounder lidar is one candidate approach for the ASCENDS mission. The NASA GSFC CO2 Sounder measures the CO2 mixing ratio using a pulsed multi-wavelength integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) approach. The CO2 Sounder has flown in the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ASCENDS airborne campaigns over the continental US, and has produced measurements in close agreement with in situ measurements of the CO2 column. In 2014, the CO2 Sounder upgraded its laser with a precision step-locked diode laser source to improve the lidar wavelength position accuracy. It also improved its optical receiver with a low-noise, high efficiency, HgCdTe avalanche photo diode detector. The combination of these two technologies enabled lidar XCO2 measurements with unprecedented accuracy. In this presentation, we show analysis from the ASCENDS 2014 field campaign, exploring: (1) Horizontal XCO2 gradients measured by the lidar, (2) Comparisons of lidar XCO2 measurements against the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM), and (3) Lidar column water vapor measurements using a HDO absorption line that occurs next to the CO2 absorption line. This can reduce the uncertainty in the dry air column used in XCO2 retrievals.

  19. XeF lidar measurements of density and temperature in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, T.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, it has been widely recognized that vertically propagating internal gravity waves in the middle atmosphere play an important role in determining the large scale wind field by their momentum transport and deposition. However, very little is known about them in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere because of the lack of adequate techinques to observe small scale motions. A XeF excimer laser was used for the Rayleigh lidar observation. The characteristics of the XeF lidar system are given. The wavelength of the XeF laser is in the region that is ozone absorption free, and the Rayleigh scattering cross section is 5 times larger than in 532 nm. The advantages of using the XeF laser as against the YAG laser have been discussed in detail. The density and temperature profiles between the altitude range of 30 and 70 km measured with this lidar system are illustrated. The accuracy is less than + or - 3% and 10k at 60 km for an observation time of 15 min. The results on the gravity waves by the observation through about one year since Apr. 1985 is presented.

  20. Optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds over oceans from CALIPSO infrared radiometer and lidar measurements, and an evaluation of the lidar multiple scattering factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed evaluation of cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm and comparisons to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on-board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. The blackbody radiance taken in the IIR Version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are then compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent 2-way transmittance through the cloud. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40% as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. This behavior is explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT to be applied to correct the measured transmittance, which is taken equal to 0.6 in the CALIOP Version 3 algorithm, and which is found here to vary with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP depolarization ratios and particle habits derived from IIR measurements.

  1. Aerosol optical properties from multiwavelength lidar measurements in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Doina; Talianu, Camelia; Carstea, Emil; Nemuc, Anca

    2009-09-01

    Vertically resolved profiles of optical properties of aerosols were measured using a multi-wavelength lidar system-RALI, set up at the scientific research center in Magurele, Bucharest area (44.35 N latitude, 26.03 E longitude) during 2008. The use of multiple laser wavelengths has enabled us to observe significant variations in backscatter profiles depending on the particle origins. An air mass backward trajectory analysis, using Hysplit-4, was carried out to track the aerosol plumes. Aerosols can serve as valuable tracers of air motion in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The height of layers in the lower troposphere from lidar signal was calculated using the gradient method- minima of the first derivative. The Richardson number method was used to estimate PBL height from the radio-soundings. We have used pressure, temperature and dew point profiles as well as the wind direction profiles from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) data base. The results were consistent with the ones obtained from LIDAR.

  2. Airborne lidar measurements of El Chichon stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1985-01-01

    A NASA Electra airplane, outfitted with a lidar system, was flown in January to February 1983 between the latitudes of 27 deg N and 76 deg N. One of the primary purposes of this mission was to determine the spatial distribution and aerosol characteristics of the El Chichon-produced stratospheric material. This report presents the lidar data from that flight mission. Representative profiles of lidar backscatter ratio, plots of the integrated backscattering function versus latitude, and contours of backscatter mixing ratio versus altitude and latitude are given. It addition, tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude are supplied for each profile. The largest amount of material produced by the El Chichon eruptions of late March to early April 1982, which was measured by this flight, resided between 35 deg N and 52 deg N. Peak backscatter ratios at a wavelength of 0.6943 micro m decreased from 8 to 10 at the lower latitudes to 3 at the higher latitudes. Backscatter ratio profiles taken while crossing the polar vortex show that the high-altitude material from El Chichon arrived at the north polar region sometime after the winter polar vortex was established. This report presents the results of this mission in a ready-to-use format for atmospheric and climatic studies.

  3. Seasonal characteristics of lidar ratios measured with a Raman lidar at Gwangju, Korea in spring and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young M.; Kim, Young J.; Müller, Detlef

    Vertical profiles of aerosol lidar ratios at wavelengths of 355 and 532 nm were measured with the GIST/ADEMRC (Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology/ADvanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center) multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Gwangju, Korea (35.10°N, 126.53°E) during several observation periods between February 2004 and May 2005. The total number of observed aerosol layers was 63, of which 38 and 25 were observed in spring and autumn, respectively. Average values of the lidar ratio, Sa, were 55±10 sr and 56±9 sr at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, in spring and 61.4±7.5 sr and 63.1±12.8 sr at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, in autumn. Cases of high lidar ratio values (>65 sr) were observed more frequently in autumn than in spring for 28% and 46% of the time at 355 and 532 nm, respectively. Mean lidar ratio value of 51±6 sr at 532 nm was obtained for Asian dust particles in spring which was lower than those for non-dust (60±10 sr) and smoke (65±8 sr) particles. Very high lidar ratios of 75.3±15.8 sr at 532 nm were observed above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in autumn. These high values are believed to have largely resulted from an increased amount of light-absorbing particles mostly in the fine mode of the particle size distribution, generated by coal combustion and agricultural biomass burning. Lidar ratios, Ångström exponents and effective radii values retrieved from collocated sunphotometer data were similar to those obtained from Raman lidar measurements.

  4. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m−1 to 1.6e-4 m−1) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m−1sr−1 and 1.7e-06 m−1sr−1) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind. PMID:27213414

  5. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-05-18

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m(-1) to 1.6e-4 m(-1)) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m(-1)sr(-1) and 1.7e-06 m(-1)sr(-1)) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  6. Atmospheric correlation time measurements using coherent CO2 lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A pulsed TEA-CO2 lidar with coherent detection was used to measure the correlation time of backscatter from an ensemble of atmospheric aerosol particles which are illuminated by the pulsed radiation. The correlation time of the backscatter return signal is important in studies of atmospheric turbulence and its effects on optical propagation and backscatter. If the temporal coherence of the pulse is large enough, then the temporal coherence of the return signal is dominated by the turbulence and shear for a variety of interesting atmospheric conditions. Various techniques for correlation time measurement are discussed and evaluated.

  7. The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  8. Cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results.

    PubMed

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

    2002-06-20

    The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

  9. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Column CO2 Concentration to Cloud Tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Globally distributed atmospheric CO2 measurements with high precision, low bias and full seasonal sampling are crucial to advance carbon cycle sciences. However, two thirds of the Earth's surface is typically covered by clouds, and passive remote sensing approaches from space, e.g., OCO-2 and GOSAT, are limited to cloud-free scenes. They are unable to provide useful retrievals in cloudy areas where the photon path-length can't be well characterized. Thus, passive approaches have limited global coverage and poor sampling in cloudy regions, even though some cloudy regions have active carbon surface fluxes. NASA Goddard is developing a pulsed integrated-path, differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere also allow this technique to estimate column CO2 and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground with precise knowledge of the photon path-length. This allows retrievals of column CO2 concentrations to cloud tops, providing much higher spatial coverage and some information about vertical structure of CO2. This is expected to benefit atmospheric transport process studies, carbon data assimilation in models, and global and regional carbon flux estimation. We show some preliminary results of the all-sky retrieval capability using airborne lidar measurements from the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ASCENDS airborne campaigns on the NASA DC-8. These show retrievals of atmospheric CO2 over low-level marine stratus clouds, cumulus clouds at the top of planetary boundary layer, some mid-level clouds and visually thin high-level cirrus clouds. The CO2 retrievals from the lidar are validated against in-situ measurements and compared to Goddard PCTM model simulations. Lidar cloud slicing to derive CO2 abundance in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere also has been demonstrated. The

  10. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  11. Global observations of atmospheric CH4 by Integrated Path Differential-Absorption Lidar: the French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Amediek, Axel; Kiemle, Christoph; Fix, Andreas; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas, which has a Greenhouse Warming Potential (GWP) of 25 relative to CO2 on a time scale of 100 years. Despite the fact that the imbalance between the sources and sinks has decreased in the early 1990's to an insignificant value, a significant renewal of the CH4 growth is reported in recent years. Questions arise whether an increase of atmospheric CH4 might be fostered through melting of permafrost soil in the Arctic region or arise from changes of the tropical wetlands which comprise the biggest natural methane source. Another reason could be the change in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative, which has recently been selected to undergo Phase0/A studies in a joint project by the space agencies CNES (France)and DLR (Germany), targets on satellite observations of atmospheric CH4 for the improvement of our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale CH4 sources on a global basis. As a novel feature, the observational instrument of this mission will be an Integrated Path Differential-Absorption (IPDA) Lidar system embarked on board of the French Myriade platform for the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4 in a nadir viewing configuration. This data will be provided by the lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path and can directly be used as input for flux inversion models. In our presentation we will discuss the observational principle and the sampling strategy of the envisaged mission in connection to the needs for CH4 flux inversion experiments. In addition, we report on supporting campaign activities on airborne measurements of Lidar reflectivity data in the respective spectral region. The airborne data is of prime interest for the generation of pseudo CH4 data examples using the satellite

  12. Comparison of lidar water vapor measurements using Raman scatter at 266 nm and 532 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Balsiger, F.; Philbrick, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of the Lidar Atmospheric Profile Sensor (LAPS) instrument for measurements of water vapor in the lower troposphere has been investigated. LAPS is an automated lidar system that measures water vapor from the vibrational Raman backscatter in the visible and in the ultraviolet wavelength range. The authors present a comparison of water vapor profiles measured with the lidar and balloon sondes as well as measured with the two lidar channels. With the UV channels it is possible to infer ozone profiles in the boundary layer. Data are presented that reveal the high variability of the water vapor in the boundary layer.

  13. Ascent guidance algorithm using lidar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation of a general nonlinear programming guidance algorithm that incorporates wind measurements in the computation of ascent guidance steering commands is discussed. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm that is designed to solve a very general problem has the potential to address the diversity demanded by future launch systems. Using B-splines for the command functional form allows the NLP algorithm to adjust the shape of the command profile to achieve optimal performance. The algorithm flexibility is demonstrated by simulation of ascent with dynamic loading constraints through a set of random wind profiles with and without wind sensing capability.

  14. Lidar Measurements of the Thermic Structure in the Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Ch.

    1973-01-01

    Lidar measurements by UTHE (1972) and similar measurements with acoustic radar by HALL (1972) have shown, that short time variations in the troposphere can be determined. Aerosol backscatter measurements give the vertical structure. A series of such results shows the time variation of the tropospheric structure. The Figure is an example for a measuring period during half an hour in summer 1972 (1 pulse per minute). These variations were produced by humidity variations. For example, at humidity variations from 75% to 77% aerosol particles with 1 micron radius change their radii during 50 to 100 milliseconds. By lidar technique it is possible to determine this effect qualitatively. With a pulse repetition rate of 1 per second we plan to investigate the thermic structure at different weather conditions. By simultaneous measurements of the nitrogen Raman component it would be possible to compare the short time variations by temperature and humidity. The influence of wind can be determined by scanning a defined region (region or space). The meteorologist is interested in results of short time variations in the troposphere (microscale). By this remote sensing method he can get these values continuously.

  15. A New Stratospheric Aerosol Product from CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Vernier, J. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Young, S. A.; Liu, Z.; Lucker, P.; Tackett, J. L.; Omar, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are derived from precursor SO2 and OCS gases transported from the lower troposphere. Volcanic injections can also enhance aerosol loadings far above background levels. The latter can exert a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget for major and even minor eruptions. Careful measurements are needed, therefore, to monitor the distribution and evolution of stratospheric aerosols for climate related studies. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission has been acquiring profile measurements of clouds and aerosols since 2006, leading to major advances in our understanding of tropospheric aerosol and cloud properties and the processes that control them. The CALIPSO products have also enabled new insights into polar stratospheric clouds and stratospheric aerosols. Vernier et al (2009,JGR,114,D00H10) reported on the construction of a modified CALIPSO lidar product that corrected minor artifacts with the original lidar calibration that affected stratospheric aerosol investigations. A significantly improved CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Level 1 product has been recently released addressing these calibration issues and has resulted in enhanced signal levels and a highly stable record over the span of the mission. Based on this product, a new 3D gridded stratospheric CALIPSO data product is under development and being targeted for release in 2015. A key emphasis of this new product is to bridge the measurement gap between the SAGE II and SAGE III data record (1984-2005) and the start of measurements from the new SAGE III instrument to be deployed on the International Space Station in 2016. The primary parameters delivered in the CALIPSO stratospheric data products will be attenuated scattering ratio and aerosol extinction profiles, both averaged over one month intervals and binned into an equal angle grid of constant latitude and longitude with a vertical resolution of 900m. We will present the overall

  16. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  17. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  18. First Airborne IPDA Lidar Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Applying the DLR Greenhouse Gas Sounder CHARM-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Büdenbender, C.; Kiemle, C.; Loehring, J.; Gerbig, C.

    2015-12-01

    First airborne measurement using CHARM-F, the four-wavelengths lidar for simultaneous soundings of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, were performed in Spring 2015 onboard the German research aircraft HALO. The lidar is designed in the IPDA (integrated path differential absorption) configuration using short double pulses, which gives column averaged gas mixing ratios between aircraft and ground. HALO's maximum flight altitude of 15 km and special features of the lidar, such as a relatively large laser ground spot, enable the CHARM-F system to be an airborne demonstrator for future spaceborne greenhouse gas lidars. Due to a high technological conformity this applies in particular to the French-German satellite mission MERLIN, the spaceborne methane IPDA lidar. The successfully completed flight measurements provide a valuable dataset, which supports the retrieval algorithm development for MERLIN notably. The flights covered different ground cover types, different orography types as well as the sea. Additionally, we captured different cloud conditions, at which the broken cloud case is a matter of particular interest. This dataset allows detailed analyses of measurement sensitivities, general studies on the IPDA principle and on technical details of the system. These activities are supported by another instrument onboard: a cavity ring down spectrometer, providing in-situ data of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor with high accuracy and precision, which is ideal for validation purposes of the lidar. Additionally the onboard instrumentation of HALO gives information about pressure and temperature for cross-checking the ECMWF data, which are intended to be used for calculating the weighting function, the key quantity for the retrieval of gas column mixing ratios from the measured gas optical depths. In combination with dedicated descents into the boundary layer and subsequent ascents, a self-contained dataset for characterizations of CHARM-F is available.

  19. Tropospheric Wind Profile Measurements with a Direct Detection Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Korb, C. Laurence; Chen, Huailin; Mathur, Savyasachee

    1998-01-01

    Research has established the importance of global tropospheric wind measurements for large scale improvements in numerical weather prediction. In addition, global wind measurements provide data that are fundamental to the understanding and prediction of global climate change. These tasks are closely linked with the goals of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise and Global Climate Change programs. NASA Goddard has been actively involved in the development of direct detection Doppler lidar methods and technologies to meet the wind observing needs of the atmospheric science community. In this paper we describe a recently developed prototype wind lidar system using a direct detection Doppler technique for measuring wind profiles from the surface through the troposphere. This system uses a pulsed ND:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm as the transmitter. The laser pulse is directed to the atmosphere using a 40 cm diameter scan mirror. The portion of the laser energy backscattered from aerosols and molecules is collected by a 40 cm diameter telescope and coupled via fiber optics into the Doppler receiver. Single photon counting APD's are used to detect the atmospheric backscattered signal. The principle element of the receiver is a dual bandpass tunable Fabry Perot etalon which analyzes the Doppler shift of the incoming laser signal using the double edge technique. The double edge technique uses two high resolution optical filters having bandpasses offset relative to one another such that the 'edge' of the first filter's transmission function crosses that of the second at the half power point. The outgoing laser frequency is located approximately at the crossover point. Due to the opposite going slopes of the edges, a Doppler shift in the atmospheric backscattered laser frequency produces a positive change in signal for one filter and a negative change in the second filter. Taking the ratio of the two edge channel signals yields a result which is directly proportional to the

  20. Development of 3.0-3.45 μm OPO laser based range resolved and hard-target differential absorption lidar for sensing of atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerabuthiran, S.; Razdan, A. K.; Jindal, M. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Sagar, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a tripod mounted 3.0-3.45 μm OPO laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for sensing of atmospheric methane. The system operates with Nd: YAG laser pumped OPO laser, a 20 cm aperture telescope and a pan-tilt system to scan the atmosphere. Atmospheric transmission spectra over the entire spectral region are measured and indentified the absorption region of the various molecules in comparison with HITRAN. The backscattered signal for range resolved and hard target configuration up to a range of 400 m are measured with range resolution of 15 m. The stable daytime measurements of methane concentration varied from 1.9 ppm to 2.4 ppm with rms deviation of 0.2 ppm have been achieved. The measured concentration is in good agreement with reported values.

  1. Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column in Cloudy Weather Conditions using An IM-CW Lidar at 1.57 Micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Dobler, Jeremy; Meadows, Bryon; Fan, Tai-Fang; Kooi, Susan; Ismail, Syed

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements under cloudy conditions using an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave integrated-path-differential-absorption lidar operating in the 1.57-m CO2 absorption band. The atmospheric CO2 column amounts from the aircraft to the tops of optically thick cumulus clouds and to the surface in the presence of optically thin clouds are retrieved from lidar data obtained during the summer 2011 and spring 2013 flight campaigns, respectively.

  2. Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Connor J; Mendoza, Albert; Zheng, Yunhui; Mathur, Savyasachee

    2007-03-19

    Polarization-sensitive detection of elastic backscattered light is useful for detection of cloud phase and depolarizing aerosols. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program has deployed micropulse lidar (MPL) for over a decade, but without polarized detection. Adding an actively-controlled liquid crystal retarder provides the capability to identify depolarizing particles by alternately transmitting linearly and circularly polarized light. This represents a departure from established techniques, which transmit exclusively linear polarization or exclusively circular polarization. Mueller matrix calculations yield simple relationships between the well-known linear depolarization ratio delta(linear), the circular depolarization ratio delta(circ), and this MPL depolarization ratio delta(MPL).

  3. Long path CO{sub 2} lidar measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.C.; Fox, M.J.; Gonglewski, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    The Air Force Phillips Laboratory conducted a series of measurements in February, May and August 1995 at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility on Maui, Hawaii, to determine system requirements for an airborne long path CO{sub 2} DIAL system. The lidar incorporates a cavity-matched mode-locked 3-J laser with the 60 cm diameter AMOS Beam Director Telescope. The one-way beam propagation path length was 21.3 km, originating at the AMOS facility on Haleakala at an altitude of 3.050 km ASL, and terminating at a target site enar sea level. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Estimating drizzle drop size and precipitation rate using two-colour lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, C. D.; Hogan, R. J.; O'Connor, E. J.; Illingworth, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    A method to estimate the size and liquid water content of drizzle drops using lidar measurements at two wavelengths is described. The method exploits the differential absorption of infrared light by liquid water at 905 nm and 1.5 µm, which leads to a different backscatter cross section for water drops larger than ≍50 µm. The ratio of backscatter measured from drizzle samples below cloud base at these two wavelengths (the colour ratio) provides a measure of the median volume drop diameter D0. This is a strong effect: for D0=200 µm, a colour ratio of ≍6 dB is predicted. Once D0 is known, the measured backscatter at 905 nm can be used to calculate the liquid water content (LWC) and other moments of the drizzle drop distribution. The method is applied to observations of drizzle falling from stratocumulus and stratus clouds. High resolution (32 s, 36 m) profiles of D0, LWC and precipitation rate R are derived. The main sources of error in the technique are the need to assume a value for the dispersion parameter μ in the drop size spectrum (leading to at most a 35% error in R) and the influence of aerosol returns on the retrieval (≍10% error in R for the cases considered here). Radar reflectivities are also computed from the lidar data, and compared to independent measurements from a colocated cloud radar, offering independent validation of the derived drop size distributions.

  5. Estimating drizzle drop size and precipitation rate using two-colour lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, C. D.; Hogan, R. J.; O'Connor, E. J.; Illingworth, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    A method to estimate the size and liquid water content of drizzle drops using lidar measurements at two wavelengths is described. The method exploits the differential absorption of infrared light by liquid water at 905 nm and 1.5 μm, which leads to a different backscatter cross section for water drops larger than ≈50 μm. The ratio of backscatter measured from drizzle samples below cloud base at these two wavelengths (the colour ratio) provides a measure of the median volume drop diameter D0. This is a strong effect: for D0=200 μm, a colour ratio of ≈6 dB is predicted. Once D0 is known, the measured backscatter at 905 nm can be used to calculate the liquid water content (LWC) and other moments of the drizzle drop distribution. The method is applied to observations of drizzle falling from stratocumulus and stratus clouds. High resolution (32 s, 36 m) profiles of D0, LWC and precipitation rate R are derived. The main sources of error in the technique are the need to assume a value for the dispersion parameter μ in the drop size spectrum (leading to at most a 35% error in R) and the influence of aerosol returns on the retrieval (≈10% error in R for the cases considered here). Radar reflectivities are also computed from the lidar data, and compared to independent measurements from a colocated cloud radar, offering independent validation of the derived drop size distributions.

  6. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper.

  7. Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Radiative and Backscattering Properties Using Combined Lidar and Infrared Radiometer (LIRAD) Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sassen, Kenneth

    2001-10-01

    A method for retrieval of cirrus macrophysical and radiative properties using combined ruby lidar and infrared radiometer measurements is explained in detail. The retrieval algorithm includes estimation of a variable backscatter-to-extinction ratio for each lidar profile, which accounts for changes in cloud microphysical properties with time. The technique also utilizes a correlated K distribution radiative transfer model,where absorption coefficients K have been tabulated specifically for the bandwidth and filter function of the infrared radiometer. The radiative transfer model allows for estimation of infrared emission due to atmospheric water vapor,ozone,and carbon dioxide, which is essential for deriving cirrus radiative properties. Also described is an improved technique for estimation of upwelling IR radiation that is emitted by the surface of the earth and reflected by the cloud into the radiometer field-of-view. Derived cirrus cloud properties include base and top height and temperature, visible optical depth, emittance, backscatter-to-extinction ratio, and extinction-to-absorption ratio. The purpose of this algorithm is to facilitate the analysis of the extensive high-cloud dataset obtained at the University of Utah, Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing in Salt Lake City, UT. To illustrate the method, a cirrus case study is presented.

  8. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  9. Lidar Measurements of On-Shore Wind Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Michael, P.; Raynor, G.

    1973-01-01

    The concept to place electric power generating stations on the oceans off the coast of the United States has instilled new efforts in research for improved understanding of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere in the ocean-air interface. The Atomic Energy Commission has instigated a program by the Meteorology Group at Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the low level, on-shore wind systems that dominate many of the coastal regions. Analytical techniques and specialized instrumentation from previous studies at Brookhaven are being used in this new program. The Brookhaven Lidar system is used to measure some of the physical properties of the oil-fog plume originating from a portable smoke generator on a boat off the coast. The oil-fog plume is used as a tracer which can be observed, photographed and measured to determine the diffusive power of the atmosphere associated with the ocean-air interface and the discontinuities found in the ocean-land boundary. This paper will describe the program rather briefly and the oil-fog scattering measurements that have been made with the Lidar system.

  10. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; ...

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of itsmore » high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.« less

  11. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; Pryor, S. C.

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of its high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.

  12. Lower atmospheric temperature profile measurements using a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman lidar system was used to measure the temperature profile of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The system consists of a tripled Nd-YAG laser and a 1.5 meter diameter telescope. Two photomultipliers are used at the output of the telescope to allow for measurements at both the laser wavelength and at the Raman shifted wavelength due to atmospheric nitrogen. The signal from the photomultipliers is recorded as photon counts in 1 microsec bins. The results of a number of laser shots are summed together to provide atmospheric returns which have acceptable signal to noise characteristics. Measurements of the Raman nitrogen return were acquired up to an altitude in excess of 20 km. Temperature profiles were retrieved from the attenuation corrected Raman nitrogen return assuming the atmosphere to be in hydrostatic equilibrium and using the ideal gas law. Retrieved temperature profiles are shown compared with independent temperature measurements.

  13. Spatiotemporal Path-Matching for Comparisons Between Ground- Based and Satellite Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Valencia, Sandra; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2005-01-01

    The spatiotemporal sampling differences between ground-based and satellite lidar data can contribute to significant errors for direct measurement comparisons. Improvement in sample correspondence is examined by the use of radiosonde wind velocity to vary the time average in ground-based lidar data to spatially match coincident satellite lidar measurements. Results are shown for the 26 February 2004 GLAS/ICESat overflight of a ground-based lidar stationed at NASA GSFC. Statistical analysis indicates that improvement in signal correlation is expected under certain conditions, even when a ground-based observation is mismatched in directional orientation to the satellite track.

  14. Self-calibration and laser energy monitor validations for a double-pulsed 2-μm CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar application.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-08-20

    Double-pulsed 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-μm double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photoelectromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-μm IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  15. Double-Pulse Two-micron LPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2016-06-01

    An advanced double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-μm laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting function for adaptive targeting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  16. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  17. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, F. A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon M.; Vercherin, B.

    2014-02-01

    Integrating Lidar to improve wind turbine controls is a potential breakthrough for reducing the cost of wind energy. By providing undisturbed wind measurements up to 400m in front of the rotor, Lidar may provide an accurate update of the turbine inflow with a preview time of several seconds. Focusing on loads, several studies have evaluated potential reductions using integrated Lidar, either by simulation or full scale field testing.

  18. Lidar measurements of cloud extinction coefficient distribution and its forward scattering phase function according to multiply scattered lidar returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Huang, Qirong

    1992-01-01

    The study of the inversion algorithm for the single scatter lidar equation, for quantitative determination of cloud (or aerosol) optical properties, has received much attention over the last thirty years. Some of the difficulties associated with the solution of this equation are not yet solved. One problem is that a single scatter lidar equation has two unknowns. Because of this, the determination of the far-end boundary value, in the case of Klett's algorithm, is a problem if the atmosphere is optically inhomogeneous. Another difficulty concerns multiple scattering. There is a large error in the extinction distribution solution, in many cases, if only the single scattering component is considered, while neglecting the multiple scattering component. However, the use of multiple scattering in the remote sensing of aerosol or cloud optical properties is promising. In our early study, an inversion method for simultaneous determination of the cloud (or aerosol) Extinction Coefficient Distribution (ECD) and its Forward Scattering Phase Function (FSPF) was proposed according to multiply scattered lidar returns with two fields of view for the receiver. The method is based on a parameterized multiple scatter lidar equation. This paper is devoted to further numerical tests and an experimental study of lidar measurements of cloud ECD and FSPF using this method.

  19. Development of a pulsed 9.5 micron lidar for regional scale O3 measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed infrared lidar system designed for application to the remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases from an airborne platform is described. The system is also capable of measuring the infrared backscatter characteristics of the ocean surface, terrain, cloud, and aerosol targets. The lidar employed is based on dual wavelength pulse energy measurements in the 9-11 micrometer wavelength region.

  20. A Geosynchronous Lidar System for Atmospheric Winds and Moisture Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    An observing system comprised of two lidars in geosychronous orbit would enable the synoptic and meso-scale measurement of atmospheric winds and moisture both of which are key first-order variables of the Earth's weather equation. Simultaneous measurement of these parameters at fast revisit rates promises large advancements in our weather prediction skills. Such capabilities would be unprecedented and a) yield greatly improved and finer resolution initial conditions for models, b) make existing costly and cumbersome measurement approaches obsolete, and c) obviate the use of numerical techniques needed to correct data obtained using present observing systems. Additionally, simultaneous synoptic wind and moisture observations would lead to improvements in model parameterizations, and in our knowledge of small-scale weather processes. Technology and science data product assessments are ongoing. Results will be presented during the conference.

  1. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements.

    PubMed

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-09-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2-the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption-has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (<30%). The ability of this lidar to remotely sense volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest.

  2. New ground-based lidar enables volcanic CO2 flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Nuvoli, Marcello; Chiodini, Giovanni; Minopoli, Carmine; Tamburello, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    There have been substantial advances in the ability to monitor the activity of hazardous volcanoes in recent decades. However, obtaining early warning of eruptions remains challenging, because the patterns and consequences of volcanic unrests are both complex and nonlinear. Measuring volcanic gases has long been a key aspect of volcano monitoring since these mobile fluids should reach the surface long before the magma. There has been considerable progress in methods for remote and in-situ gas sensing, but measuring the flux of volcanic CO2—the most reliable gas precursor to an eruption—has remained a challenge. Here we report on the first direct quantitative measurements of the volcanic CO2 flux using a newly designed differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which were performed at the restless Campi Flegrei volcano. We show that DIAL makes it possible to remotely obtain volcanic CO2 flux time series with a high temporal resolution (tens of minutes) and accuracy (<30%). The ability of this lidar to remotely sense volcanic CO2 represents a major step forward in volcano monitoring, and will contribute improved volcanic CO2 flux inventories. Our results also demonstrate the unusually strong degassing behavior of Campi Flegrei fumaroles in the current ongoing state of unrest. PMID:26324399

  3. Quantitative gas sensing by backscatter-absorption measurements of a pseudorandom code modulated lambda ~ 8-microm quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Gittins, C M; Wetjen, E T; Gmachl, C; Capasso, F; Hutchinson, A L; Sivco, D L; Baillargeon, J N; Cho, A Y

    2000-08-15

    We have demonstrated quantitative chemical vapor detection with a multimode quantum cascade (QC) laser. Experiments incorporated pseudorandom code (PRC) modulation of the laser intensity to permit sensitive absorption measurements of isopropanol vapor at 8.0micro . The demonstration shows the practicality of one technical approach for implementing low-peak-power QC lasers in the transmitter portion of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system. With a 31-chip, 300-ns/chip PRC sequence, the measured isopropanol detection limit was 12 parts in 10(6) by volume times meters (~3x10(-3) absorption) for a simple backscatter-absorption measurement configuration.

  4. Measurement of vehicles speed with full waveform lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzal, Michał; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Wojtanowski, Jacek; Piotrowski, Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of vehicles speed by means of displacement measurement with "time of flight" lidar requires gathering of accurate information about distance to the vehicle in a set time interval. As with any pulsed laser lidar, its maximum range is limited by available incoming signal to noise ratio. That ratio determines not only maximum range, but also accuracy of measurement. For fast and precise measurements of speed of the vehicles their displacement should bee measured with centimeter accuracy. However that demand is hard to reach on long distances and poor quality of the echo signal. Improving accuracy beyond given by a single pulse probing requires emission of several probing pulses. Total displacement error will than fall with the square root of the number of executed measurements. Yet this method will not extend available distance beyond the limit set by threshold detection systems. Acquisition of the full waveform of received signals is a method that allows extension of maximum range through synchronic addition of subsequent waveforms. Doing so improves SNR by a well-known factor of square root of the number of carried additions. Disadvantage of this method is that it requires use of fast analog to digital converters for data acquisition, and simple distance calculation algorithms may not give the adequate accuracy due to relatively long sampling period of reasonable priced ADC's. In this article more advanced algorithms of distance calculations that base on ADC raw data are presented and analyzed. Practical implementation of algorithm in prototype design of laser speed gun is shown along with real life test results.

  5. Using airborne LIDAR to measure tides and river slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talke, S. A.; Hudson, A.; Chickadel, C. C.; Farquharson, G.; Jessup, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial variability of tides and the tidally-averaged water-level is often poorly resolved in shallow waters, despite its importance in validating models and interpreting dynamics. In this contribution we explore using airborne LIDAR to remotely observe tides and along-river slope in the Columbia River estuary (CRE). Using an airplane equipped with LIDAR, differential GPS, and an infra-red camera, we flew 8 longitudinal transects over a 50km stretch of the CRE over a 14 hour period in June 2013. After correcting for airplane elevation, pitch and roll and median filtering over 1km blocks, a spatially-resolved data set of relative water level was generated. Results show the tide (amplitude 2m) propagating upstream at the expected phase velocity. A sinusoid with 2 periods (12.4 and 24 hours) was next fit to data to produce a smooth tide and extract the mean slope. Comparison with 4 tide gauges indicates first order agreement with measured tides (rms error 0.1m), and confirms that a substantial sub-tidal gradient exists in the CRE. This proof-of-concept experiment indicates that remote sensing of tides in coastal areas is feasible, with possible applications such as improving bathymetric surveys or inferring water depths.

  6. Forest Canopy Height Estimation from Calipso Lidar Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Lucker, Patricia L.; Trepte, Charles

    2016-06-01

    The canopy height is an important parameter in aboveground biomass estimation. Lidar remote sensing from airborne or satellite platforms, has a unique capability for forestry applications. This study introduces an innovative concept to estimate canopy height using CALIOP two wavelengths lidar measurements. One main advantage is that the concept proposed here is dependent on the penetration depths at two wavelengths without making assumption about the last peak of waveform as the ground location, and it does not require the ancillary Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data in order to obtain the slope information of terrain. Canopy penetration depths at two wavelengths indicate moderately strong relationships for estimating the canopy height. Results show that the CALIOP-derived canopy heights were highly correlated with the ICESat/GLAS-derived values with a mean RMSE of 3.4 m and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.89. Our findings present a relationship between the penetration difference and canopy height, which can be used as another metrics for canopy height estimation, except the full waveforms.

  7. Performance characterization and ground testing of an airborne CO2 differential absorption LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Bousek, Ronald R.; Dowling, James A.; Richter, Dale A.; Kelly, Brian T.

    1998-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Remote Optical Sensors (ROS) program is developing the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing (LARS) system for chemical detection using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. The system is based upon a high-power CO(subscript 2) laser which can use either the standard (superscript 12)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) or the (superscript 13)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) carbon dioxide isotopes as the lasing medium, and has output energies in excess of 4 J on the stronger laser transitions. The laser, transmitter optics, receiver telescope and optics, and monitoring equipment are mounted on a flight-qualified optical breadboard designed to mount in the Argus C-135E optical testbed aircraft operated by Phillips Laboratory. The LARS system is being prepared for initial flight experiments at Kirtland AFB, NM, in August 1997, and for chemical detection flight experiments at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in September 1997. This paper briefly describes the system characterization, and presents some results from the pre- flight ground testing.

  8. A Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Mead, Patricia F.

    2004-01-01

    This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as compared to other commercial UAV's. This study has generated a preliminary design for an Altair based water vapor DIAL system. The design includes a proposed DIAL schematic, a review of mechanical challenges such as temperature and humidity stresses on UAV deployed DIAL systems, an assessment of the available capacity for additional instrumentation (based on the proposed design), and an overview of possible weight and volume improvements associated with the use of customized electronic and computer hardware, and through the integration of advanced fiber-optic and laser products. The results of the study show that less than 17% of the available weight, less than 19% of the volume capacity, and approximately 11% of the electrical capacity is utilized by the proposed water vapor DIAL system on the Altair UAV.

  9. Heterodyne Doppler 1-micron lidar measurement of reduced effective telescope aperture due to atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kin Pui; Killinger, Dennis K.; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG bistatic focused-beam lidar allowing simultaneous heterodyne and direct detection of the same lidar returns has been experimentally employed to ascertain the effect of atmospheric turbulence on heterodyne and direct-detection lidar at 1 micron, by measuring the average carrier-to-noise ratio and statistical fluctuation level in the return signals under various experimental and atmospheric conditions. Atmospheric turbulence is found capable of reducing the lidar receiver's effective telescope aperture and heterodyne detection efficiency. This observed effective-aperture limitation functionally resembles predictions based on the Clifford and Wandzura (1981) heterodyne wavefront detection theory.

  10. Tropospheric ozone differential-absorption lidar using stimulated Raman scattering in carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Masahisa; Nagai, Tomohiro; Sakai, Tetsu; Hirose, Yasuo

    2007-04-20

    A UV ozone differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) utilizing a Nd:YAG laser and a single Raman cell filled with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is designed, developed, and evaluated. The generated wavelengths are 276, 287, and 299 nm, comprising the first to third Stokes lines of the stimulated Raman scattering technique. The correction terms originated from the aerosol extinction, the backscatter, and the absorption by other gases are estimated using a model atmosphere. The experimental results demonstrate that the emitted output energies were 13 mJ/pulse at 276 nm and 287 nm and 5 mJ/pulse at 299 nm, with pump energy of 91 mJ/pulse and a CO(2) pressure of 0.7 MPa. The three Stokes lines account for 44.0% of the available energy. The use of argon or helium as a buffer gas in the Raman cell was also investigated, but this leads to a dramatic decrease in the third Stokes line, which makes this wavelength practically unusable. Our observations confirmed that 30 min of integration were sufficient to observe ozone concentration profiles up to 10 km. Aerosol extinction and backscatter correction are estimated and applied. The aerosol backscatter correction profile using 287 and 299 nm as reference wavelengths is compared with that using 355 nm. The estimated statistical error is less than 5% at 1.5 km and 10% at 2.6 km. Comparisons with the operational carbon-iodine type chemical ozonesondes demonstrate 20% overestimation of the ozone profiles by the DIAL technique.

  11. Lidar measurements from space for tropospheric chemistry investigations: Summary of workshop overview presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA has played a lead role in defining the scientific objectives and technology requirements for spaceborne lidar investigations of the atmosphere. An assessment of the potential for conducting lidar measurements from space for investigations that pertain specifically to tropospheric chemistry is presented. A description of potential lidar measurement techniques is given, and the scientific requirements for tropospheric chemistry are reviewed. The current status of airborne lidar measurements of aerosols, O3, and H2O is discussed, and a brief description of the evolution of lidar technology to space is given. Also, the measurement of tropospheric gases with a spaceborne lidar system is evaluated for a wide range of gas species. From this general assessment, it appears feasible to measure aerosols, H2O, O3, NH3, CO, CH4, NO2, atmospheric pressure and temperature, and wind with a lidar from space provided that the appropriate laser and receiver technology is available. For the mid-1990's, it is expected that lidar technology will be available for the measurement of aerosols, H2O, and O3 from a space platform.

  12. Airborne compact rotational Raman lidar for temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Decheng; Wang, Zhien; Wechsler, Perry; Mahon, Nick; Deng, Min; Glover, Brent; Burkhart, Matthew; Kuestner, William; Heesen, Ben

    2016-09-05

    We developed an airborne compact rotational Raman lidar (CRL) for use on the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft to obtain two-dimensional (2D) temperature disman tributions. It obtained fine-scale 2D temperature distributions within 3 km below the aircraft for the first time during the PECAN (Plains Elevated Convection At Night) campaign in 2015. The CRL provided nighttime temperature measurements with a random error of <0.5 K within 800 m below aircraft at 45 m vertical and 1000 m horizontal resolution. The temperatures obtained by the CRL and a radiosonde agreed. Along with water vapor and aerosol measurements, the CRL provides critical parameters on the state of the lower atmosphere for a wide range of atmospheric research.

  13. Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Connor J.; Mendoza, Albert; Zheng, Yunhui; Mathur, Savyasachee

    2007-03-19

    Polarization-sensitive detection of elastic backscatter is useful for detection of cloud phase and depolarizing aerosols. The U.S. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program has deployed micropulse lidar (MPL) for over a decade, but without polarized detection. Adding an actively-controlled liquid crystal retarder provides the capability to identify depolarizing particles by alternately transmitting linearly and circularly polarized light. This represents a departure from established techniques which transmit exclusively linear polarization or exclusively circular polarization. Mueller matrix calculations yield simple relationships between the well-known linear depolarization ratio δlinear, the circular depolarization ratio δcirc, and the hybrid MPL depolarization ratio δMPL. This research was supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program.

  14. Optimizing three-frequency Na, Fe, and He lidars for measurements of wind, temperature, and species density and the vertical fluxes of heat and constituents.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Chester S; Vargas, Fabio A

    2014-07-01

    The measurement accuracies of three-frequency resonance fluorescence Doppler lidars are limited by photon noise and uncertainties in the laser frequency and line width. We analyze the performance of Na, Fe, and He lidars using a new technique, which incorporates precise information about the absorption spectrum of the species and the pulse spectrum of the lasers. We derive the measurement errors associated with photon noise, laser frequency errors, and laser line width errors. Optimizing the lidar design, based upon the measurement requirements, can improve system performance by reducing the required integration times, enabling measurements to be made in less time or at higher altitudes where the densities and signal levels are smaller. The optimum frequency shift for observing heat and constituent transport velocities is 689 MHz (580 MHz) at night (day) for Na lidars and 774 MHz (597 MHz) for Fe lidars. The optimum frequency shift for observing winds, temperature, and He densities is 3.66 GHz (3.16 GHz) at night (day) for He lidars.

  15. a Compact Dial LIDAR for Ground-Based Ozone Atmospheric Profiling Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R.; Carrion, W.; Pliutau, D.; Ganoe, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    A compact differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone campaigns. This lidar will be integrated into the Air Quality lidar Network (AQLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver box with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consist of a Coherent Evolution 30 TEM00 1-kHz diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. A custom-designed Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser has a wavelength range of 282 to 300-nm that is selectable between two or more wavelengths. The current wavelengths are online 286.4 nm and offline 293.1 nm. The 527-nm visible beam is transmitted into the atmosphere for aerosol measurements. The fourth harmonic 262 nm beam is split by a beamsplitter into two pump beams that pump each face of the Ce:LiCAF crystal. A short laser cavity consisting of a 60% reflective (1m radius of curvature) output mirror, a dispersive prism and a flat HR mirror is used to produce the UV wavelengths. In order to produce different wavelengths, the high-reflectivity rear mirror is mounted on a servo controlled galvanometer motor to allow rapid tuning between the on and offline ozone wavelengths. Typical laser results are 6.8-W at 527-nm, 800-mW at 262-nm and 130-mW at the UV transmitted wavelengths. The lidar receiver system consists of a receiver telescope with a 40-cm diameter parabolic mirror. A fiber optic cable transmits the received signal from the telescope to the receiver box, which houses the detectors. A separate one inch diameter telescope with PMT and filter is used to sample the very near field to allow

  16. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were <1.4 ppm for flight measurement altitudes >6 km.

  17. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael D.; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios on a global scale are currently needed to gain a better understanding of climate change and its possible impact on our planet. In order to remotely measure greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with regard to dry air, the air number density in the atmosphere is also needed in deriving the greenhouse gas concentrations. Since oxygen is stable and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere at 20.95%, the measurement of an oxygen absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density and used to calculate the dry air mixing ratio of a greenhouse gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane. OUT technique of measuring Oxygen uses integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) with an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDF A) laser system and single photon counting module (SPCM). It measures the absorbance of several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to an O2 absorption line in the A-band at 764.7 nm. The choice of wavelengths allows us to maximize the pressure sensitivity using the trough between two absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm uses ancillary meteorological and aircraft altitude information to fit the experimentally obtained lidar O2 line shapes to a model atmosphere and derives the pressure from the profiles of the two lines. We have demonstrated O2 measurements from the ground and from an airborne platform. In this paper we will report on our airborne measurements during our 2011 campaign for the ASCENDS program.

  18. Wave optics simulation of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle effects in CO{sub 2} differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.H.; Petrin, R.R.; MacKerrow, E.P.; Schmitt, M.J.; Quick, C.R.; Zardecki, A.; Porch, W.M.; Whitehead, M.; Walters, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    The measurement sensitivity of CO{sub 2} differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) can be affected by a number of different processes. The authors address the interaction of two of these processes: effects due to beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and effects due to reflective speckle. Atmospheric turbulence affects the beam distribution of energy and phase on target. These effects include beam spreading, beam wander and scintillation which can result in increased shot-to-shot signal noise. In addition, reflective speckle alone has a major impact on the sensitivity of CO{sub 2} DIAL. The interaction of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle is of great importance in the performance of a DIAL system. A Huygens-Fresnel wave optics propagation code has previously been developed at the Naval Postgraduate School that models the effects of atmospheric turbulence as propagation through a series of phase screens with appropriate atmospheric statistical characteristics. This code has been modified to include the effects of reflective speckle. The performance of this modified code with respect to the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle is examined. Results are compared with a combination of experimental data and analytical models.

  19. Wind Profiling from a New Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection Doppler Lidar Transceiver during Wind Measurement Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Demoz, B.; Veneable, D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Maryland, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other lidars and other sensors will be presented.

  20. Recent modifications, enhancements, and measurements with an airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, Robert J.; Osborn, Mary T.; Winker, David M.; Woods, David C.

    1996-06-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's 14-inch airborne aerosol lidar system, which is routinely flown on several NASA aircraft including the DC-8 and the P-3, has been upgraded with several modifications to enhance its measurement capabilities. A new 900 mJ, 10 pps Nd:YAG laser was added with the capability of producing 5 watts of power at 1064 nm, 2.5 watts at 532 nm and 1.5 watts at 355 nm. The existing detector package has been modified to accommodate the three wavelengths and to permit cross-polarization measurements at 532 nm. New software was developed for on- line data visualization and analysis, and computer- controlled laser alignment is being incorporated. The system is now capable of producing real-time color modulated backscatter plots. Other additions include a Pentium/90 processor, GPS (Global Positioning System) and ARINC (Aeronautical Radio Inc.) receivers for acquiring accurate aircraft position data. In 1992 and 1993 this system was flown on several airborne missions to map and characterize the stratospheric aerosol cloud produced by the 1991 eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano. Efforts to map the global distribution of Pinatubo were made on both daytime as well as nighttime flights from Moffett Field in California to the South Pacific, to Central and South America, to Australia and to Alaska. In September 1994, the system (aboard NASA's P-3) made correlative measurements along shuttle orbit ground tracks in support of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment flown on the Space Shuttle. In this paper the system upgrades will be discussed and selected data obtained during these recent airborne campaigns will be presented.

  1. Water vapor variance measurements using a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R.; Whiteman, D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the importance of atmospheric water vapor variance, we have analyzed data from the NASA/Goddard Raman lidar to obtain temporal scales of water vapor mixing ratio as a function of altitude over observation periods extending to 12 hours. The ground-based lidar measures water vapor mixing ration from near the earth's surface to an altitude of 9-10 km. Moisture profiles are acquired once every minute with 75 m vertical resolution. Data at each 75 meter altitude level can be displayed as a function of time from the beginning to the end of an observation period. These time sequences have been spectrally analyzed using a fast Fourier transform technique. An example of such a temporal spectrum obtained between 00:22 and 10:29 UT on December 6, 1991 is shown in the figure. The curve shown on the figure represents the spectral average of data from 11 height levels centered on an altitude of 1 km (1 plus or minus .375 km). The spectra shows a decrease in energy density with frequency which generally follows a -5/3 power law over the spectral interval 3x10 (exp -5) to 4x10 (exp -3) Hz. The flattening of the spectrum for frequencies greater than 6x10 (exp -3) Hz is most likely a measure of instrumental noise. Spectra like that shown in the figure are calculated for other altitudes and show changes in spectral features with height. Spectral analysis versus height have been performed for several observation periods which demonstrate changes in water vapor mixing ratio spectral character from one observation period to the next. The combination of these temporal spectra with independent measurements of winds aloft provide an opportunity to infer spatial scales of moisture variance.

  2. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  3. Expected Characteristics of Global Wind Profile Measurements with a Scanning, Hybrid, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Over 20 years of investigation by NASA and NOAA scientists and Doppler lidar technologists into a global wind profiling mission from earth orbit have led to the current favored concept of an instrument with both coherent- and direct-detection pulsed Doppler lidars (i.e., a hybrid Doppler lidar) and a stepstare beam scanning approach covering several azimuth angles with a fixed nadir angle. The nominal lidar wavelengths are 2 microns for coherent detection, and 0.355 microns for direct detection. The two agencies have also generated two sets of sophisticated wind measurement requirements for a space mission: science demonstration requirements and operational requirements. The requirements contain the necessary details to permit mission design and optimization by lidar technologists. Simulations have been developed that connect the science requirements to the wind measurement requirements, and that connect the wind measurement requirements to the Doppler lidar parameters. The simulations also permit trade studies within the multi-parameter space. These tools, combined with knowledge of the state of the Doppler lidar technology, have been used to conduct space instrument and mission design activities to validate the feasibility of the chosen mission and lidar parameters. Recently, the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey recommended the wind mission to NASA as one of 15 recommended missions. A full description of the wind measurement product from these notional missions and the possible trades available are presented in this paper.

  4. Measurement of the lidar signal fluctuation with a shot-per-shot instrument.

    PubMed

    Durieux, E; Fiorani, L

    1998-10-20

    A measurement of the signal noise was carried out with a shot-per-shot lidar. This system was operated in the UV spectral region for ozone profiling in the low troposphere. We report on important discrepancies between our results and the estimations based on the assumptions commonly supporting the numerical modeling of lidar experiments.

  5. Raman lidar profiling of atmospheric water vapor: Simultaneous measurements with two collocated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Bisson, Scott E.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith D.; Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Raman lidar is a leading candidate for providing the detailed space- and time-resolved measurements of water vapor needed by a variety of atmospheric studies. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor are described using two collocated Raman lidar systems. These lidar systems, developed at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Sandia National Laboratories, acquired approximately 12 hours of simultaneous water vapor data during three nights in November 1992 while the systems were collocated at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Although these lidar systems differ substantially in their design, measured water vapor profiles agreeed within 0.15 g/kg between altitudes of 1 and 5 km. Comparisons with coincident radiosondes showed all instruments agreed within 0.2 g/kg in this same altitude range. Both lidars also clearly showed the advection of water vapor in the middle troposphere and the pronounced increase in water vapor in the nocturnal boundary layer that occurred during one night.

  6. Characteristics of wave structures derived from lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Höffner, Josef; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-04-01

    A daylight capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar is in operation since summer 2010 at the mid-latitude station at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E). The RMR lidar system is used for measuring wave structures at day and night to investigate short and long periodic atmospheric waves, like gravity waves (GW) and thermal tides (with diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal components). About 6150 h of data have been acquired so far, with each sounding lasting for at least 6 h. For such long lasting data sets the general problem is the separation of the different wave contributions from the observed superposition of GW, tides or even longer periodic waves in the time series of temperature profiles. For extracting wave induced temperature deviations the most common method is to calculate these from the daily mean. Using this method the daylight capability allows the characterization of tides for a long lasting measurement. We will present the variability of tidal amplitudes on scales of days that are not represented in monthly averages. Because short periodic GW can at least partly hide behind those temperature deviations induced by tides, we use spectral filter methods for extracting GW induced temperature deviations. We will show a comparison of different methods with regard to gravity waves. GW activity and characteristics are derived in an altitude range between ~30 and ~70 km. The results demonstrate that the gravity wave potential energy density (GWPED) strongly depends on the used filter method. The contribution of different spectral ranges to the total GWPED will be presented.

  7. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  8. Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems.

    PubMed

    McDermid, I S; Godin, S M; Lindqvist, L O; Walsh, T D; Burris, J; Butler, J; Ferrare, R; Whiteman, D; McGee, T J

    1990-11-01

    For approximately one month during October and November 1988 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center mobile lidar system was brought to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility, to make side-byside measurements with the JPL lidar of stratospheric ozone concentration profiles. Measurements were made by both excimer laser DIAL systems on fifteen nights during this period. The results showed good agreement of the ozone profiles measured between 20- and 40-km altitude. This is the first (to the best of our knowledge) reported side-by-side measurement intercomparison of two stratospheric ozone lidar systems.

  9. High-Energy 2-Micrometers Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy 2-micrometer wavelength lasers have been incorporated in a prototype coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Calibration tests and sample atmospheric data are presented on wind and aerosol profiling.

  10. Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li-fang; Yang, Guo-tao; Wang, Ji-hong; Yue, Chuan; Chen, Lin-xiang

    2017-02-01

    A wind measurement Doppler Lidar system was developed, in which injection seeded laser was used to generate narrow linewidth laser pulse. Frequency stabilization was achieved through absorption of iodine molecules. Commands that control the instrumental system were based on the PID algorithm and coded using VB language. The frequency of the seed laser was locked to iodine molecular absorption line 1109 which is close to the upper edge of the absorption range,with long-time (>4 h) frequency-locking accuracy being ≤0.5 MHz and long-time frequency stability being 3.55×10-9. Design the continuous light velocity measuring system, which concluded the cure about doppler frequency shift and actual speed of chopped wave plate, the velocity error is less than 0.4 m/s. The experiment showed that the stabilized frequency of the seed laser was different from the transmission frequency of the Lidar. And such frequency deviation is known as Chirp of the laser pulse. The real-time measured frequency difference of the continuous and pulsed lights was about 10 MHz, long-time stability deviation was around 5 MHz. When the temporal and spatial resolutions were respectively set to 100 s and 96 m, the wind velocity measurement error of the horizontal wind field at the attitude of 15-35 km was within ±5 m/s, the results showed that the wind measurement Doppler Lidar implemented in Yanqing, Beijing was capable of continuously detecting in the middle and low atmospheric wind field at nighttime. With further development of this technique, system measurement error could be lowered, and long-run routine observations are promising.

  11. Joint elastic side-scattering LIDAR and Raman LIDAR measurements of aerosol optical properties in south east Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, L.; Rizi, V.; Will, M.; Allen, C.; Botts, A.; Calhoun, M.; Carande, B.; Claus, J.; Coco, M.; Emmert, L.; Esquibel, S.; Grillo, A. F.; Hamilton, L.; Heid, T. J.; Iarlori, M.; Klages, H.-O.; Kleifges, M.; Knoll, B.; Koop, J.; Mathes, H.-J.; Menshikov, A.; Morgan, S.; Patterson, L.; Petrera, S.; Robinson, S.; Runyan, C.; Sherman, J.; Starbuck, D.; Wakin, M.; Wolf, O.

    2017-03-01

    We describe an experiment, located in south-east Colorado, U.S.A., that measured aerosol optical depth profiles using two LIDAR techniques. Two independent detectors measured scattered light from a vertical UV laser beam. One detector, located at the laser site, measured light via the inelastic Raman backscattering process. This is a common method used in atmospheric science for measuring aerosol optical depth profiles. The other detector, located approximately 40 km distant, viewed the laser beam from the side. This detector featured a 3.5 m2 mirror and measured elastically scattered light in a bistatic LIDAR configuration following the method used at the Pierre Auger cosmic ray observatory. The goal of this experiment was to assess and improve methods to measure atmospheric clarity, specifically aerosol optical depth profiles, for cosmic ray UV fluorescence detectors that use the atmosphere as a giant calorimeter. The experiment collected data from September 2010 to July 2011 under varying conditions of aerosol loading. We describe the instruments and techniques and compare the aerosol optical depth profiles measured by the Raman and bistatic LIDAR detectors.

  12. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  13. Comparison of CO2 Doppler lidar and GPS rawinsonde wind velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadcap, John R.; McNicholl, Patrick J.; Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Laird, Mitchell H.

    2001-09-01

    A comparison of CO2 Doppler lidar and GPS rawinsonde measurements of horizontal wind velocity was conducted during May 2000 at Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts. Seven days of side-by-side measurements using both lidar and GPS sondes were achieved comparing wind velocity as a function of altitude up to 6 km. The horizontal wind velocity was determined by the CO2 Doppler lidar using the Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) method. Horizontal winds were also determined simultaneously using a differential GPS-tracked rawinsonde which provides GPS position coordinates once per second. Both lidar VAD wind speed Root Mean Squared Difference (RMS) and lidar vs. GPS sonde RMS were calculated and compared as a function of altitude, time, and stability regime. On average, significant increases in both the lidar VAD RMS and lidar vs. GPS RMS were observed during unstable conditions compared to stable conditions. Analyses of lidar VAD RMS show the smallest typical values average near 0.5 m/s over a single profile.

  14. Water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, R.; Mcilrath, T.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of measuring atmospheric water vapor by means of a tunable lidar operated from the space shuttle. The specific method evaluated was differential absorption, a two-color method in which the atmospheric path of interest is traversed by two laser pulses. Results are reported.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Source Attribution in Southern California during Summer 2014 Based on Lidar Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granados Munoz, Maria Jose; Johnson, Matthew S.; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, significant efforts have been made to increase tropospheric ozone long-term monitoring. A large number of ground-based, airborne and space-borne instruments are currently providing valuable data to contribute to better understand tropospheric ozone budget and variability. Nonetheless, most of these instruments provide in-situ surface and column-integrated data, whereas vertically resolved measurements are still scarce. Besides ozonesondes and aircraft, lidar measurements have proven to be valuable tropospheric ozone profilers. Using the measurements from the tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California, and the GEOS-Chem and GEOS-5 model outputs, the impact of the North American monsoon on tropospheric ozone during summer 2014 is investigated. The influence of the Monsoon lightning-induced NOx will be evaluated against other sources (e.g. local anthropogenic emissions and the stratosphere) using also complementary data such as backward-trajectories analysis, coincident water vapor lidar measurements, and surface ozone in-situ measurements.

  16. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  17. Evaluation of LIDAR/Polarimeter Aerosol Measurements by In Situ Instrumentation during DEVOTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Dolgos, G.; Ottaviani, M.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Yang, M. M.; Hair, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Combined measurements from LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and polarimeter instruments provide the opportunity for enhanced satellite observations of aerosol properties including retrievals of aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, effective radius, and refractive index. However, these retrievals (specifically for refractive index) have not been fully vetted and require additional intercomparisons with in situ measurements to improve accuracy. Proper validation of these combined LIDAR/polarimeter retrievals requires evaluation in varying atmospheric conditions and of varying aerosol composition. As part of this effort, two NASA Langley King Air aircraft have been outfitted to provide coordinated measurements of aerosol properties. One will be used as a remote sensing platform with the NASA Langley high-spectral resolution LIDAR (HSRL) and NASA GISS research scanning polarimeter (RSP). The second aircraft has been modified for use as an in situ platform and will house a suite of aerosol microphysical instrumentation, a pair of diode laser hygrometers (DLHs) for water vapor and cloud extinction measurements, and a polarized imaging nephelometer (PI-Neph). The remote sensing package has flown in a variety of campaigns, however only rarely has been able to coordinate with in situ measurements. The use of two collocated aircraft will allow for future coordinated flights to provide a more complete dataset for evaluation of aerosol retrievals and allow for fast-response capability. Results from the first coordinated King Air flights as part of DEVOTE (Development and Evaulation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters) will be presented. Flights are planned out of Hampton, VA during September and October 2011 including underflights of the CALIPSO satellite and overflights of ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites. These will provide a comparison of aerosol properties between in situ and remote instruments (ground, aircraft, and satellite

  18. Lidar measurements of solid rocket propellant fire particle plumes.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Brown, Andrea M; Willitsford, Adam H; Dinello-Fass, Ryan; Airola, Marc B; Siegrist, Karen M; Thomas, Michael E; Chang, Yale

    2016-06-10

    This paper presents the first, to our knowledge, direct measurement of aerosol produced by an aluminized solid rocket propellant (SRP) fire on the ground. Such fires produce aluminum oxide particles small enough to loft high into the atmosphere and disperse over a wide area. These results can be applied to spacecraft launchpad accidents that expose spacecraft to such fires; during these fires, there is concern that some of the plutonium from the spacecraft power system will be carried with the aerosols. Accident-related lofting of this material would be the net result of many contributing processes that are currently being evaluated. To resolve the complexity of fire processes, a self-consistent model of the ground-level and upper-level parts of the plume was determined by merging ground-level optical measurements of the fire with lidar measurements of the aerosol plume at height during a series of SRP fire tests that simulated propellant fire accident scenarios. On the basis of the measurements and model results, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) team was able to estimate the amount of aluminum oxide (alumina) lofted into the atmosphere above the fire. The quantification of this ratio is critical for a complete understanding of accident scenarios, because contaminants are transported through the plume. This paper provides an estimate for the mass of alumina lofted into the air.

  19. Comparison of wind and turbulence measurements from Doppler lidar and instrumented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. H.; Frost, W.; Ringnes, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Wind fields were measured with the ground based lidar, NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory and with the NASA B-57B instrumented aircraft. The remotely sensed winds are compared with the in situ aircraft measurements. Three flight plans were carried out during the two different field programs. At NASA/MSFC the aircraft circled while the lidar scanned conically and the aircraft flew 6 deg approach path along the fixed lidar beam. The aircraft flew an approach along the lidar beam directed south-north (parallel to the mountain range) and a climbout along the lidar beam which alternately shifted east-west (perpendicular to the mountain range). Turbulence intensities and spectra were calculated from the temporal fluctuations in the lidar-measured radial wind speed component. These field tests provided unique sets of data to examine the mean wind and turbulence measurements made by remote sensing instruments. The comparison of aircraft measured turbulence intensities and spectra with lidar time histories of radial wind speed were in good agreement.

  20. Towards a Greenhouse Gas Lidar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Amediek, Axel; Quatrevalet, Mathieu

    Highly accurate measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by a space-borne lidar will help to substantially improve knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes. The method of integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for total column measurements has proven to be a suitable means for CH4 detection in natural gas leak surveillance and active remote sensing of CO2. This pioneering work facilitated the instrument development of an advanced greenhouse gas lidar on HALO and set the stage for the development of a CH4-lidar in space instrument foreseen in the Franco-German climate mission MERLIN.

  1. Tropospheric Wind Measurements Obtained with the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW): Validation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. GLOW is intended to be used as a field deployable system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. In September of 2000 GLOW participated in a three week intercomparison experiment at the GroundWinds facility in North Glen, NE. More than 50 hours of line-of-sight wind profile data was obtained in a wide variety of conditions including both day and night operation. Typical clear air lidar wind profiles extended to altitudes of 20 km with a 1 Ian vertical resolution and I minute averaging. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the examples of lidar wind profiles obtained with the Goddard system during the New Hampshire experiment.

  2. Tropospheric Wind Measurements Obtained with the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW): Validation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Chen, Huai-Lin; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system which uses direct detection Doppler lidar techniques to measure wind profiles from the surface into the lower stratosphere. GLOW is intended to be used as a field deployable system for studying atmospheric dynamics and transport and can also serve as a testbed to evaluate candidate technologies developed for use in future spaceborne systems. In September of 2000 GLOW participated in a three week intercomparison experiment at the GroundWinds facility in North Glen, NH. More than 50 hours of line-of-sight wind profile data were obtained in a wide variety of conditions including both day and night operation. Typical clear air lidar wind profiles extended to altitudes of 20 kin with a 1 km vertical resolution and 1 minute averaging. A description of the mobile system is presented along with the examples of lidar wind profiles obtained with the Goddard system during the New Hampshire experiment.

  3. Slope characterization in combining analog and photon count data from atmospheric lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Yi, Fan; Kong, Wei; Yi, Yang

    2014-11-01

    A transient digitizer (Licel) connecting to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) can obtain lidar backscatter profiles in both photon count and analog signal. A lidar can detect higher atmospheric regions by combining (gluing) simultaneous analog and photon count data via the slope coefficient. In this work, the output of a PMT has been measured with a transient digitizer based on an intensity-stable light source. The slope value and dynamic range of the lidar profile have been characterized. The slope value is determined only by the gain of the PMT as it works in a linear range with a fixed pulse height discrimination threshold. The dynamic range of a glued lidar profile is settled by the slope value. The fitted slope has a more exact value when the selection criterion is given in terms of the independent variable for fitting. For practical lidar data, the fitted slope is more stable and reliable when the lower limit of the data range for fitting rises.

  4. Investigation the optical and radiative properties of aerosol vertical profile of boundary layer by lidar and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Chou, C.; Lin, P.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is the air layer near the ground directly affected by diurnal heat, moisture, aerosol, and cloud transfer to or from the surface. In the daytime solar radiation heats the surface, initiating thermal instability or convection. Whereas, the scattering and absorption of aerosols or clouds might decrease the surface radiation or heat atmosphere which induce feedbacks such as the enhanced stratification and change in relative humidity in the boundary layer. This study is aimed to understand the possible radiative effect of aerosols basing on ground based aerosol measurements and lidar installed in National Taiwan University in Taipei. The optical and radiative properties of aerosols are dominated by aerosol composition, particle size, hygroscopicity property, and shape. In this study, aerosol instruments including integrating nephelometer, open air nephelometer, aethalometer are applied to investigate the relationship between aerosol hygroscopicity properties and aerosol types. The aerosol hygroscopicity properties are further applied to investigate the effect of relative humidity on aerosol vertical profiles measured by a dual-wavelength and depolarization lidar. The possible radiative effect of aerosols are approached by vertical atmospheric extinction profiles measured by lidar. Calculated atmospheric and aerosol heating effects was compared with vertical meteorological parameters measured by radiosonde. The result shows light-absorbing aerosol has the potential to affect the stability of planetary boundary layer.

  5. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America airborne investigation are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are being investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the mission science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of intervening optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the Earth's surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture to support the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and ACT-America programs.

  6. Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Ferrare, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field program using a ground-based Raman lidar system to observe changes in moisture profiles as a cold and a warm front passed over the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The lidar operating only during darkness is capable of providing continuous high vertical resolution profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol scattering ratio from near the surface to about 7 km altitude. The lidar data acquired on three consecutive nights from shortly after sunset to shortly before sunrise, along with upper air data from specially launched rawinsondes, have provided a unique visualization of the detailed structure of the two fronts.

  7. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. I - Lidar intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Brown, Derek W.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients, the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.

  8. Estimation of aircraft wake vortex parameters from data measured with a 1.5-μm coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Smalikho, I N; Banakh, V A

    2015-07-15

    A strategy of measurement by a 1.5-μm pulsed coherent Doppler lidar "Stream Line" has been developed, and a method for estimation of aircraft wake vortices from the lidar data has been proposed. The principal possibility of obtaining the information about the vortex situation over an airport airfield with the Stream-Line lidar has been demonstrated.

  9. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measuring Velocity and Altitude of Space and Arial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar has been developed to support future NASA missions to planetary bodies. The lidar transmits three laser beams and measures line-of-sight range and velocity along each beam using a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique. Accurate altitude and velocity vector data, derived from the line-of-sight measurements, enables the landing vehicle to precisely navigate from several kilometers above the ground to the designated location and execute a gentle touchdown. The same lidar sensor can also benefit terrestrial applications that cannot rely on GPS or require surface-relative altitude and velocity data.

  10. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, Rob

    2016-03-01

    In March and April of 2015, the ARM Doppler lidar that was formerly operated at the Tropical Western Pacific site in Darwin, Australia (S/N 0710-08) was deployed to the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) for the eXperimental Planetary boundary-layer Instrument Assessment (XPIA) field campaign. The goal of the XPIA field campaign was to investigate methods of using multiple Doppler lidars to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional measurements of winds and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, and to characterize the uncertainties in these measurements. The ARM Doppler lidar was one of many Doppler lidar systems that participated in this study. During XPIA the 300-m tower at the BAO site was instrumented with well-calibrated sonic anemometers at six levels. These sonic anemometers provided highly accurate reference measurements against which the lidars could be compared. Thus, the deployment of the ARM Doppler lidar during XPIA offered a rare opportunity for the ARM program to characterize the uncertainties in their lidar wind measurements. Results of the lidar-tower comparison indicate that the lidar wind speed measurements are essentially unbiased (~1cm s-1), with a random error of approximately 50 cm s-1. Two methods of uncertainty estimation were tested. The first method was found to produce uncertainties that were too low. The second method produced estimates that were more accurate and better indicators of data quality. As of December 2015, the first method is being used by the ARM Doppler lidar wind value-added product (VAP). One outcome of this work will be to update this VAP to use the second method for uncertainty estimation.

  11. OH measurement by laser light absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perner, D.

    1986-01-01

    Since the first attempt to measure atmospheric hydroxyl radicals by optical absorption in 1975 (Perner et al., 1976) this method has been continuously developed further and its major obstacles and limitations are known today. The laser beam needs to be expanded in order to reduce the beam divergence. At the same time the energy density of the laser beam which produces OH via ozone photolysis is reduced to such an extent that the self-produced OH concentration ranges well below the atmospheric value. Atmospheric absorptions should be observed over a wide spectral range so that not only the OH radicals are properly identified by several rotational lines but their absorption can be corrected for interfering absorptions from other air constituents as SO2, CH2O, CS2, etc., which can be identified in a wide spectral range with more confidence. Air turbulence demands fast spectral scanning or probing on and off the absorption line. Energy requirements should be kept small in field operations. In the experiment frequency doubled dye laser pulses at 308 nm are produced. The picosecond light pulses are expected to show a smooth profile (light intensity against wavelength) which will be broadened to the required spectral width according to the uncertainty principle. The pump laser will be an optoacoustically modulated Nd:YAG laser.

  12. Acousto-optically tuned isotopic CO{sub 2} lasers for long-range differential absorption LIDAR

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Busch, G.E.; Hewitt, C.J.; Remelius, D.K.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Strauss, C.E.M.; Wilson, C.W.

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing 2--100 kHz repetition rate CO{sub 2} lasers with milliJoule pulse energies, rapid acousto-optic tuning and isotopic gas mixes, for Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) applications. The authors explain the tuning method, which uses a pair of acousto-optic modulators and is capable of random access to CO{sub 2} laser lines at rates of 100 kHz or more. The laser system is also described, and they report on performance with both normal and isotopic gas mixes.

  13. Development of lidar sensor for cloud-based measurements during convective conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu, R.; Bhavani Kumar, Y.; Rao, T. Narayana; Nair, Anish Kumar M.; Jayaraman, A.

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric convection is a natural phenomena associated with heat transport. Convection is strong during daylight periods and rigorous in summer months. Severe ground heating associated with strong winds experienced during these periods. Tropics are considered as the source regions for strong convection. Formation of thunder storm clouds is common during this period. Location of cloud base and its associated dynamics is important to understand the influence of convection on the atmosphere. Lidars are sensitive to Mie scattering and are the suitable instruments for locating clouds in the atmosphere than instruments utilizing the radio frequency spectrum. Thunder storm clouds are composed of hydrometers and strongly scatter the laser light. Recently, a lidar technique was developed at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a Department of Space (DOS) unit, located at Gadanki near Tirupati. The lidar technique employs slant path operation and provides high resolution measurements on cloud base location in real-time. The laser based remote sensing technique allows measurement of atmosphere for every second at 7.5 m range resolution. The high resolution data permits assessment of updrafts at the cloud base. The lidar also provides real-time convective boundary layer height using aerosols as the tracers of atmospheric dynamics. The developed lidar sensor is planned for up-gradation with scanning facility to understand the cloud dynamics in the spatial direction. In this presentation, we present the lidar sensor technology and utilization of its technology for high resolution cloud base measurements during convective conditions over lidar site, Gadanki.

  14. Airborne validation of cirrus cloud properties derived from CALIPSO lidar measurements: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Yorks, John E.; Young, Stuart A.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Kuehn, Ralph E.; McGill, Matthew J.; Rodier, Sharon D.

    2012-05-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite was successfully launched in April 2006 to study cloud and aerosol layers using range-resolved laser remote sensing. Dedicated flights were conducted from July 26 to August 14, 2006 using the airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) to validate the CALIPSO lidar (CALIOP) data products. This paper presents results from coincident ice cloud measurements of lidar ratio, extinction coefficient, and optical depth. Flight segment case studies are shown as well as statistics for all coincident measurements during this CALIPSO-CloudSat Validation Experiment (CC-VEX). For the penetrated portion of opaque layers, CALIOP estimates of lidar ratio and extinction are substantially lower than the corresponding CPL values. Significant differences were also found for measurements of horizontally aligned ice, where different instrument viewing geometries precluded meaningful comparisons. After filtering the data set to exclude these discrepancies, overall CALIOP lidar ratio and extinction averages compared favorably to within 1% of overall CPL averages. When restricting the data further to exact coincident in-cloud point-pairs, CALIOP lidar ratios remained close to CPL values, averaging 2.1% below CPL, and the retrieved extinction and optical depth averaged 14.7% above CPL values, a result partially of higher average CALIOP attenuated backscatter but still a respectably close match.

  15. Wind shear at turbine rotor heights from Doppler lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichugina, Y.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N.; Brewer, A.; Sandberg, S.

    2009-12-01

    As the capacity and size of modern wind turbines increase to take advantage of stronger winds at higher elevations, the confidence in wind resource assessment by “extrapolation method”, routinely used in the wind energy industry, decreases. Error in wind resource approximation at elevated heights can lead to substantial uncertainty in power production and wind farm economics. Remote sensing measurements of wind and turbulence profiles through the entire layer of turbine rotor heights, can provide accurate information on wind flow, thereby improving preliminary evaluation of turbine performance and power production. This paper presents lidar measurements of wind profiles during two experiments in the south-eastern part of the Great Plains and shows mean wind shear at turbine rotor heights as being greater than predicted by the assumption of logarithmic wind profile or power law relation. In addition to the regional climatology over relatively flat terrain, frequent development of the nocturnal Low-Level Jet can lead to significant deviations of wind profile from theoretical extrapolations. Analysis of wind and turbulence characteristics over a wide range of heights, variations of wind shear in time during strong and calm wind nights, along with examples of error in the actual and predicted wind resources will be given.

  16. Progress in Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Using a Broadband LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Georgieva, Elena; Huang, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Innovative active system using advanced source technology development will enable precise daytime or nighttime measurements of column CO2. Directly responds to NRC DS ASCENDS mission. Number of lasers is reduced compared to competing technologies which reduces the complexity of sensor and thus the cost and risk of failure. Knowledge gained from previously developed passive sensor decreases the risk and cost of the present lidar system development. The instrument can play a significant role as an intercomparison instrument for OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) if it is rebuilt and launched as well as other laser based instruments under development for participation in ASCENDS. It can play a role as an airborne instrument in its own right in addressing the problems of scale arising from differences between point observations by the existing ground based CO2 network and wider area measurements obtained by satellites. Developed 2.0 micron broadband system as well and will compare performance of both systems to choose optimal approach for ASCENDS. Have begun development of approach that uses array detectors instead of APD. This approach will have lower noise than APD and may simplify design of the detector optical train.

  17. Signal to Noise Ratios of Pulsed and Sinewave Modulated Direct Detection Lidar for IPDA Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratios have been derived for IPDA lidar using a direct detection receiver for both pulsed and sinewave laser modulation techniques, and the results and laboratory measurements are presented

  18. Lidar measurement of wind velocity turbulence spectra encountered by a rotating turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, R.M.; Korrell, J.A.; Hall, F.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A homodyne CO/sub 2/ lidar system beam was conically scanned around a horizontal axis to measure the wind speed and turbulence characteristics encountered by a rotating turbine blade. Turbulence spectra obtained from the scanning lidar differed considerably from those calculated from fixed-point anemometer measurements, showing a redistribution of energy from lower to higher frequencies. The differences appeared more pronounced during periods when the atmosphere was stable.

  19. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1986-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights of the DIAL system were successfully performed onboard the NASA Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1985. The DIAL Data Acquisition System has undergone a number of improvements over the past few years. These improvements have now been field tested. The theory behind a real time computer system as it applies to the needs of the DIAL system is discussed. This report is designed to be used as an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  20. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Carolyn; Spencer, Randall

    1988-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system has undergone development and experimental deployment at NASA/Langley Res. Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. The DIAL Data Acquisition System (DAS) has undergone a number of improvements also. Due to the participation of the DIAL in the Global Tropospheric Experiment, modifications and improvements of the system were tested and used both in the lab and in air. Therefore, this is an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  1. Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, M.; Demoz, B. B.; Whiteman, D. N.; Venable, D. D.; Joseph E.; Gambacorta, A.; Wei, J.; Shephard, M. W.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Barnet, C. D.; Herman, R. L.; Fitzgibbon, J.; Connell, R.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio using the Howard University Raman Lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: i) performance of the lidar against collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, ii) investigation of the atmospheric state variables when poor agreement between lidar and radiosondes values occurred and iii) a comparison with satellite-based measurements. The measurements were acquired during the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Sondes/Satellites 2006 field campaign. Ensemble averaging of water vapor mixing ratio data from ten night-time comparisons with Vaisala RS92 radiosondes shows on average an agreement within 10 % up to approx. 8 km. A similar analysis of lidar-to-lidar data of over 700 profiles revealed an agreement to within 20 % over the first 7 km (10 % below 4 km). A grid analysis, defined in the temperature - relative humidity space, was developed to characterize the lidar - radiosonde agreement and quantitatively localizes regions of strong and weak correlations as a function of altitude, temperature or relative humidity. Three main regions of weak correlation emerge: i) regions of low relative humidity and low temperature, ii) moderate relative humidity at low temperatures and iii) low relative humidity at moderate temperatures. Comparison of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder and Tropospheric Emission Sounder satellites retrievals of moisture with that of Howard University Raman Lidar showed a general agreement in the trend but the formers miss a lot of the details in atmospheric structure due to their low resolution. A relative difference of about 20 % is usually found between lidar and satellites measurements.

  2. Lidar measurement of stratospheric dust from St. Augustine Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Browell, E. V.; Northam, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    The detection of a stratospheric dust layer of probable volcanic origin over Hampton, Va., on the evening of Jan. 28, 1976, with a 20-inch lidar system is reported. A digitized cathode-ray-tube trace of a return signal from altitudes of 12 to 24 km on January 28 is provided, and it is shown that 38% of the return was due to stratospheric aerosol. Noting that measurements on January 22 and February 2 showed no traces of this stratospheric dust layer, trajectories of dust-laden air parcels are followed from initiation at 0000 GMT on January 24 at the St. Augustine Volcano on Augustine Island, Alaska (59 deg N, 153 deg W). Analysis of the trajectories indicates that dust injected into the stratosphere at 59 deg N, 153 deg W could have been transported to Virginia in about 4 days. It is concluded that if the St. Augustine Volcano was the source of the dust, at least 23 deg of meridional transport from polar latitudes was observed.

  3. One Year of Rayleigh Lidar Measurements at Toronto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteway, James A.; Carswell, Allan I.

    1992-01-01

    The Rayleigh lidar technique is being used at York University to study middle atmospheric thermal structure with particular emphasis on the properties and influence of internal gravity waves. These measurements are now carried out on a routine basis (every clear night) in order to determine seasonal variability and, eventually, long term trends. The transmitter consists of a doubled Nd:YAG laser with an output of 0.4 Joules per pulse at 20Hz (8 Watts) which is expanded to obtain a divergence of 0.4 milliradians. Backscattered photons are collected by a half meter cassegrain telescope, filtered to a bandwidth of 1nm, detected by a PMT, and counted with a multi-channel scaling averager. Strong backscatter from lower altitudes is blocked using a rotating chopper (25000rpm) which triggers the laser. The range gate and hardware averaging interval are variable but typically 300m and 5 minutes. Relative density profiles are obtained by simply normalizing to a model (eg. CIRA) at some altitude. Absolute temperature is derived using the hydrostatic equation, ideal gas law, and a model pressure value at the altitude where the photocount statistical uncertainty is about 15 percent - typically 90km for the entire night's average. The lower limit is currently about 30-35km due the presence aerosol from the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  4. Turbulent CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar: Length Scales, Results and Comparison with In-Situ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2009-01-01

    The vertical CO2 flux in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated with a Doppler differential absorption lidar (DIAL). The instrument was operated next to the WLEF instrumented tall tower in Park Falls, Wisconsin during three days and nights in June 2007. Profiles of turbulent CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity fluctuations are measured by in-situ sensors and Doppler DIAL. Time and space scales of turbulence are precisely defined in the ABL. The eddy-covariance method is applied to calculate turbulent CO2 flux both by lidar and in-situ sensors. We show preliminary mean lidar CO2 flux measurements in the ABL with a time and space resolution of 6 h and 1500 m respectively. The flux instrumental errors decrease linearly with the standard deviation of the CO2 data, as expected. Although turbulent fluctuations of CO2 are negligible with respect to the mean (0.1 %), we show that the eddy-covariance method can provide 2-h, 150-m range resolved CO2 flux estimates as long as the CO2 mixing ratio instrumental error is no greater than 10 ppm and the vertical velocity error is lower than the natural fluctuations over a time resolution of 10 s.

  5. 2-D tomography of volcanic CO2 from scanning hard-target differential absorption lidar: the case of Solfatara, Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queißer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Solfatara is part of the active volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy), a densely populated urban area where ground uplift and increasing ground temperature are observed, connected with rising rates of CO2 emission. A major pathway of CO2 release at Campi Flegrei is diffuse soil degassing, and therefore quantifying diffuse CO2 emission rates is of vital interest. Conventional in situ probing of soil gas emissions with accumulation chambers is accurate over a small footprint but requires significant time and effort to cover large areas. An alternative approach is differential absorption lidar, which allows for a fast and spatially integrated measurement. Here, a portable hard-target differential absorption lidar has been used to acquire horizontal 1-D profiles of column-integrated CO2 concentration at the Solfatara crater. To capture heterogenic features in the CO2 distribution, a 2-D tomographic map of the CO2 distribution has been inverted from the 1-D profiles. The scan was performed one-sided, which is unfavorable for the inverse problem. Nonetheless, the result is in agreement with independent measurements and furthermore confirms an area of anomalous CO2 degassing along the eastern edge as well as the center of the Solfatara crater. The method may have important implications for measurements of degassing features that can only be accessed from limited angles, such as airborne sensing of volcanic plumes. CO2 fluxes retrieved from the 2-D map are comparable, but modestly higher than emission rates from previous studies, perhaps reflecting an increase in CO2 flux or a more integrated measurement or both.

  6. Polarization lidar measurements of honey bees in flight for locating land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Seldomridge, Nathan L.; Dunkle, Dustin L.; Nugent, Paul W.; Spangler, Lee H.; Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Churnside, James H.; Wilson, James J.

    2005-07-01

    A scanning polarized lidar was used to detect flying honey bees trained to locate buried land mines through odor detection. A lidar map of bee density shows good correlation with maps of chemical plume strength and bee density determined by visual and video counts. The co-polarized lidar backscatter signal was found to be more effective than the crosspolarized signal for detecting honey bees in flight. Laboratory measurements show that the depolarization ratio of scattered light is near zero for bee wings and up to 30% for bee bodies.

  7. Structure Measurements of Leaf and Woody Components of Forests with Dual-Wavelength Lidar Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Wang, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest structure plays a critical role in the exchange of energy, carbon and water between land and atmosphere and nutrient cycle. We can provide detailed forest structure measurements of leaf and woody components with the Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), which acquires full-waveform scans at both near-infrared (NIR, 1064 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1548 nm) wavelengths from simultaneous laser pulses. We collected DWEL scans at a broadleaf forest stand and a conifer forest stand at Harvard Forest in June 2014. Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. We threshold a normalized difference index (NDI), defined as the difference between returned power at the two wavelengths divided by their sum, to classify each return pulse as a leaf or trunk/branch hit. We obtain leaf area index (LAI), woody area index (WAI) and vertical profiles of leaf and woody components directly from classified lidar hits without empirical wood-to-total ratios as are commonly used in optical methods of LAI estimation. Tree heights, diameter at breast height (DBH), and stem count density are the other forest structure parameters estimated from our DWEL scans. The separation of leaf and woody components in tandem with fine-scale forest structure measurements will benefit studies on carbon allocation of forest ecosystems and improve our understanding of the effects of forest structure on ecosystem functions. This research is supported by NSF grant, MRI-0923389

  8. Development of Double and Triple-Pulsed 2-micron IPDA Lidars for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and globalradiation budget on Earth. CO2 role on Earth’s climate is complicated due to different interactions with various climatecomponents that include the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere. Although extensive worldwide efforts formonitoring atmospheric CO2 through various techniques, including in-situ and passive sensors, are taking place highuncertainties exist in quantifying CO2 sources and sinks. These uncertainties are mainly due to insufficient spatial andtemporal mapping of the gas. Therefore it is required to have more rapid and accurate CO2 monitoring with higheruniform coverage and higher resolution. CO2 DIAL operating in the 2-µm band offer better near-surface CO2measurement sensitivity due to the intrinsically stronger absorption lines. For more than 15 years, NASA LangleyResearch Center (LaRC) contributed in developing several 2-?m CO2 DIAL systems and technologies. This paperfocuses on the current development of the airborne double-pulsed and triple-pulsed 2-?m CO2 integrated pathdifferential absorption (IPDA) lidar system at NASA LaRC. This includes the IPDA system development andintegration. Results from ground and airborne CO2 IPDA testing will be presented. The potential of scaling suchtechnology to a space mission will be addressed.

  9. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  10. Mobile Multiwavelength Polarization Raman Lidar for Water Vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songhua; Song, Xiaoquan; Liu, Bingyi; Dai, Guangyao; Zhang, Kailin; Qin, Shengguang; Gao, Fei; Hua, Dengxin

    2016-06-01

    Aiming at the detection of water vapor mixing ratio, particle linear depolarization ratio, extinction coefficient and cloud information, the Water vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WVCAL) was developed by the lidar group at Ocean University of China. The Lidar consists of transmitting subsystem, receiving subsystem, data acquisition and controlling subsystem and auxiliary subsystem. These parts were presented and described in this paper. For the measurement of various physical properties, three channels including Raman channel, polarization channel and infrared channel are integrated in this Lidar system. In this paper, the integration and working principle of these channels is introduced in details. Finally, a measurement example which was operated in coastal area-Qingdao, Shandong province, during 2014 is provided.

  11. Measurements of density, pressure and temperature in the middle atmosphere with Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Pan; Zhang, Tianshu; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Ground-based observations of the middle atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles can be obtained by lidar. A single-wavelength Rayleigh lidar system based at Hefei (31°N,117°E) has been used to measure the atmospheric density, pressure and temperature in the middle atmosphere in night in the altitude range from about 25 to 40 km. The structure of Rayleigh lidar system, principles of middle atmospheric density, pressure and temperature measurement which is based on the Rayleigh scattering theory and method to retrieve atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles were described respectively. This instrument combined a 500mW Nd:YAG laser transmitter with a 0.4 m receiver mirror to observe returns from altitudes between 25km and 40km.The lidar observed atmosphere density, pressure and temperature profiles are validated through comparison with the measure data provided by sounding balloon. According to the data from actual measurement, the inversion of the vertical distribution of middle atmosphere density, pressure and temperature are in good agreement with the result of sounding balloon. Generally, in the altitude range 25 to 40 km, the density ratio profile of Rayleigh lidar to the sounding balloon density fluctuates between 0.98 and 1.10, the pressure ratio profile of Rayleigh lidar to the sounding balloon is between 0.99 and 1.06 and the deviation of the temperature is less than 6 k.

  12. Multi-wavelength Raman Lidar Measurements For CALIPSO Validation At CNR-IMAA EARLINET Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2006-12-01

    A Raman/elastic lidar for tropospheric aerosol study is operational at CNR-IMAA (40° 36'N, 15° 44'E, 760 m above sea level) since May 2000 in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork), the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol study on continental scale. This system provides aerosol backscatter coefficient profiles at 1064 nm, and independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient profiles at 355 and 532 nm. In this way, lidar ratio (i.e. extinction to backscatter ratio) profiles at 355 and 532 nm are also obtained. In addition, the detection of components of backscattered light polarized perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the linearly polarized transmitted laser beam at 532 nm allows the measurements of the aerosol depolarization ratio vertical profiles. High quality multi-wavelength measurements (3 backscatter + 2 extinction) allow the determination of microphysical aerosol properties (refractive index, single-scattering albedo and effective particles radii), while depolarization ratio measurements give information about shape and orientation of aerosolic particles and lidar ratio measurements are important for aerosol characterization. This multi-wavelength system is optimal for the validation of CALIPSO data products: it provides a reference point for depolarization ratio and aerosol backscatter at 532 and 1064 nm measurements with the direct comparison of measurements derived from CALIPSO and our lidar system, furthermore aerosol extinction measurements at 532 nm and 355 nm and backscatter measurements at 355 nm add useful information about microphysical aerosol properties that can be used to improve the retrieval of aerosol backscatter coefficient from pure backscatter lidar. Since 14 June 2006, devoted measurements are performed at CNR-IMAA in coincidence of CALIPSO overpasses (maximum 80 km and 2 hours of spatial and temporal distance). First results of the CNR-IMAA observations for

  13. Terrestrial and Airborne LIDAR: Comparison of Coincident Datasets for Measuring Ground Deformation and Topographic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R. E.; Stewart, J. P.; Lembo, A. J.; Hu, J.; Davis, C. A.; Hogue, T.; Collins, B. D.; Minasian, D.; Louis-Kayen, N. M.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from a controlled study on the use of pulse-based terrestrial lidar and phase-based airborne lidar to detect topographic change and ground deformation in areas of earthquake- and storm- induced landslides. Terrestrial and airborne lidar scans were performed at three sites in Los Angeles County and their accuracy was gauged using coincident total station survey measurements as the control. The study was supported by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP). Horizontal accuracy was evaluated through the measurement of Northing and Easting residuals, standardized to WGS84. Assessment of accuracy was made on lengths and heights of well-defined objects in the lidar scans, such as LADWP buildings and water tanks. The bias and dispersion of lidar height measurements, standardized to NGVD88, were assessed at the Mulholland Tank adjacent to Hollywood Reservoir, the Owens Aqueduct Penstock at Power Plant 2 (PP2) in San Francisquito Canyon, and a flat un-vegetated site near the Los Angeles Reservoir before and after carefully measured trenching. At the vegetated slopes near PP2 and the Hollywood Reservoir site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 50 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar demonstrated large bias and dispersion (on order of meters) due to the inability of ground-based lidar to penetrate heavy vegetation. Both systems were able to assess heights and lengths on unobstructed man made structures at the sub-decimeter scale. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed decimeter scale bias of -23.6 cm for flat ground to -8.7 cm for trenched ground, and dispersion of 5.6 for flat ground to 20 cm for trenched ground. Terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased (~0 cm for flat or trenched ground) and with very low dispersion of 4.1 and 6.5 cm for flat and trenched ground, respectively

  14. Three-Signal Method for Accurate Measurements of Depolarization Ratio with Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, Jens; Baumgart, Rudolf; McGee, Thomsa J.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the determination of atmospheric depolarization-ratio profiles from three elastic-backscatter lidar signals with different sensitivity to the state of polarization of the backscattered light. The three-signal method is insensitive to experimental errors and does not require calibration of the measurement, which could cause large systematic uncertainties of the results, as is the case in the lidar technique conventionally used for the observation of depolarization ratios.

  15. Feasibility of using multiwavelength lidar measurements to measure cloud condensation nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, G.; Grund, C.J. |

    1994-12-01

    This paper addresses the feasibility of using multiwavelength lidar measurements to differentiate both qualitatively and quantitatively between the relative concentrations of hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic aerosol particles. The proposed technique utilizes the fact that hygroscopic particles undergo a size increase and refractive-index change with increasing relative humidity and that different wavelengths respond to these changes in different ways. The lidar wavelengths considered are 0.289, 0.355, 0.532, 0.694, 1.064, and 2.02 micrometer and the 9-11.5-micrometer range. It is shown that under certain conditions, a judicious choice of lidar wavelengths can provide a differential backscatter, sufficient to provide information on the size and percentage number concentration of the hygroscopic aerosol and, consequently, cloud condensation nuclei concentration. The presence of a mode of coarse particles (median radius greater than 0.3 micrometer) produces ambiguous results and limits application of the technique to regions sufficiently distant from coarse mode sources (e.g., in the free troposphere). The authors have identified a pair of wavelengths in the infrared region that provides a clear indication of the existence of these particles. The potential benefits of distinguishing hygroscopic particle concentration from nonhygroscopic particle concentration are great since remote measurement can provide good temporal and spatial coverage of these properties and valuable information for climate monitoring.

  16. Spectral Ratio Biospheric Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Knox, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    A new active vegetation index measurement technique has been developed and demonstrated using low-power laser diodes to make horizontal-path lidar measurements of nearby deciduous foliage. The two wavelength laser transmitter operates within and adjacent to the 680 nm absorption feature exhibited by all chlorophyll containing vegetation. Measurements from early October through late November 2003 are presented and the results are discussed.

  17. Ultrafast transient absorption measurements of heme proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiong; Demidov, Andrey; Wang, Wei; Christian, James; Champion, Paul

    1998-03-01

    Transient absorption spectra reveal the dynamics and intermediate states of the heme active site after ligand photodissociation, which helps clarify the physical process of ligand dissociation and geminate recombination. To measure the transient absorption spectra, we apply a femtosecond pump-probe technique with frequency resolved detection using a multichannel diode array. The femtosecond pulse output from a regenerative laser amplifier system is split in two; one beam pumps the optical parametric amplifier to produce a tunable wavelength pump pulse, the other beam generates a white light continuum that is varied in time with respect to pump pulse and probe the transient absorbance of the sample. We make a comparative study of myoglobin with different ligands, mutants and pH conditions.

  18. Fine-measuring technique and application for sea surface wind by mobile Doppler wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhishen; Wang, Zhangjun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi; Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Xin; Bi, Decang; Chen, Yubao; Li, Rongzhong; Yang, Yuqiang

    2009-06-01

    The Key Laboratory of Ocean Remote Sensing of the Ministry of Education of China, Ocean University of China, has developed the first mobile Doppler wind lidar in China. As an important component of meteorological services for the Good Luck Beijing 2007 Qingdao International Regatta, the mobile Doppler wind lidar was used to measure the sea surface wind (SSW) with 100 m*100 m spatial and 10-min temporal resolution in Qingdao from 15 to 23 August 2007. We present the results from two aspects of this campaign. First, the lidar was operated in the fixed-direction mode and compared to SSW simultaneously measured by a collocated buoy. Second, we present lidar wind measurements throughout the regatta and show good agreement with the match situation of the International Regatta. In addition, we present a case study, accounting for the observation of sailboats stopped by the headwind. With considerable data accumulated, we have shown that the mobile Doppler wind lidar can indeed provide near real-time SSW in support of the sailing games. The lidar has also provided meteorological services for the 2008 Olympic sailing games from 8 to 22 August and Paralympics Sailing Games from 8 to 13 September 2008 in Qingdao.

  19. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 1; Methods and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Leifer, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured at night by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site in April 1994. These lidar data are used to derive aerosol profiles for altitudes between 0.0 1 5 and 5 km. Since this lidar detects Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen molecules as well as the elastic scattering from molecules and aerosols, it measures both aerosol backscattering and extinction simultaneously. The aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio varied between approximately 30 sr and 75 sr at 351 nm. Aerosol optical thicknesses derived by integrating the lidar profiles of aerosol extinction measured at night between 0. I and 5 km are found to be about 10-40% lower than those measured by a Sun photometer during the day. This difference is attributed to the contribution by stratospheric aerosols not included in the lidar estimates as well as to diurnal differences in aerosol properties and concentrations. Aerosol profiles close to the surface were acquired by pointing the lidar nearly horizontally. Measurements of aerosol scattering from a tower-mounted nephelometer are found to be 40% lower than lidar measurements of aerosol extinction over a wide range of relative humidities even after accounting for the difference in wavelengths. The reasons for this difference are not clear but may be due to the inability of the nephelometer to accurately measure scattering by large particles.

  20. ESTIMATION OF TROPICAL FOREST STRUCTURE AND BIOMASS FROM FUSION OF RADAR AND LIDAR MEASUREMENTS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Dubayah, R.; Clark, D. B.; Chazdon, R.

    2009-12-01

    Radar and Lidar instruments are active remote sensing sensors with the potential of measuring forest vertical and horizontal structure and the aboveground biomass (AGB). In this paper, we present the analysis of radar and lidar data acquired over the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Radar polarimetry at L-band (25 cm wavelength), P-band (70 cm wavelength) and interferometry at C-band (6 cm wavelength) and VV polarization were acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) system. Lidar images were provided by a large footprint airborne scanning Lidar known as the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). By including field measurements of structure and biomass over a variety of forest types, we examined: 1) sensitivity of radar and lidar measurements to forest structure and biomass, 2) accuracy of individual sensors for AGB estimation, and 3) synergism of radar imaging measurements with lidar imaging and sampling measurements for improving the estimation of 3-dimensional forest structure and AGB. The results showed that P-band radar combined with any interformteric measurement of forest height can capture approximately 85% of the variation of biomass in La Selva at spatial scales larger than 1 hectare. Similar analysis at L-band frequency captured only 70% of the variation. However, combination of lidar and radar measurements improved estimates of forest three-dimensional structure and biomass to above 90% for all forest types. We present a novel data fusion approach based on a Baysian estimation model with the capability of incorporating lidar samples and radar imagery. The model was used to simulate the potential of data fusion in future satellite mission scenarios as in BIOMASS (planned by ESA) at P-band and DESDynl (planned by NASA) at L-band. The estimation model was also able to quantify errors and uncertainties associated with the scale of measurements, spatial variability of forest structure, and differences in radar and lidar

  1. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  2. Doppler Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Wind Profiles Using the Aerosol Double Edge Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Mathur, Savyasachee; Korb, C. Laurence; Chen, Huailin

    2000-01-01

    The development of a ground based direct detection Doppler lidar based on the recently described aerosol double edge technique is reported. A pulsed, injection seeded Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm is used to make range resolved measurements of atmospheric winds in the free troposphere. The wind measurements are determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the laser signal backscattered from atmospheric aerosols. The lidar instrument and double edge method are described and initial tropospheric wind profile measurements are presented. Wind profiles are reported for both day and night operation. The measurements extend to altitudes as high as 14 km and are compared to rawinsonde wind profile data from Dulles airport in Virginia. Vertical resolution of the lidar measurements is 330 m and the rms precision of the measurements is a low as 0.6 m/s.

  3. Daytime lidar measurements of tidal winds in the mesospheric sodium layer at Urbana, Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, K. H.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Voelz, D. G.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.; Roesler, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    For more than 15 years lidar systems have been used to study the chemistry and dynamics of the mesospheric sodium layer. Because the layer is an excellent tracer of atmospheric wave motions, sodium lidar has proven to be particularly useful for studying the influence of gravity waves and tides on mesospheric dynamics. These waves, which originate in the troposphere and stratosphere, propagate through the mesosphere and dissipate their energy near the mesopause making important contributions to the momentum and turbulence budget in this region of the atmosphere. Recently, the sodium lidar was modified for daytime operation so that wave phenomena and chemical effects could be monitored throughout the complete diurnal cycle. The results of continuous 24 hour lidar observations of the sodium layer structure are presented alond with measurement of the semidiurnal tidal winds.

  4. Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements Obtained During the 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; Li, Steven; Chen, Huai-Lin; Comer, Joseph; Mathur, Savyasachee; Bobler, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system that uses direct detection techniques for profiling winds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In May and June of 2002 GLOW was deployed to the Southern Great Plains of the US to participate in the International H2O Project (IHOP). GLOW was located at the Homestead profiling site in the Oklahoma panhandle about 15 km east of the SPOL radar. Several other Goddard lidars, the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and HARLIE, as well as radars and passive instruments were permanently operated from the Homestead site during the IHOP campaign providing a unique cluster of observations. During the IHOP observation period (May 14, 2002 to June 25, 2002) over 240 hours of wind profile measurements were obtained with GLOW. In this paper we will describe the GLOW instrument as it was configured for the IHOP campaign and we will present examples of wind profiles obtained.

  5. Modeling optical absorption for thermoreflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia; Ziade, Elbara; Schmidt, Aaron J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical pump-probe techniques based on thermoreflectance, such as time domain thermoreflectance and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), have been widely used to characterize the thermal conductivity of thin films and the thermal conductance across interfaces. These techniques typically use a transducer layer to absorb the pump light and improve the thermoreflectance signal. The transducer, however, complicates the interpretation of the measured signal because the approximation that all the energy from the pump beam is deposited at the transducer surface is not always accurate. In this paper, we consider the effect of laser absorption in the top layer of a multilayer sample, and derive an analytical solution for the thermoreflectance signal in the diffusion regime based on volumetric heating. We analyze the measurement sensitivity to the pump absorption depth for transducers with different thermal conductivities, and investigate the additional effect of probe laser penetration depth on the measured signal. We validate our model using FDTR measurements on 490 nm thick amorphous silicon films deposited on fused silica and silicon substrates.

  6. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency

  7. Lidar measurements of tropical cirrus during monsoon period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subhajit; Bhavani Kumar, Y.; Murti, M. V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The clouds occur at high altitude have a significant impact on climate system. Much of the high altitude clouds generally occur in the tropical latitudes due to significant convective phenomena occurring in this region. These clouds occur in different forms such as anvil and stratus trails and sometimes not visible to satellite based instruments. The only means to detect this type of cloud in the atmosphere is using the Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Technique. At National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a Department of space unit located at Gadanki near Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh a portable LIDAR was developed and has been made operational since 2005. The LIDAR system employs 532nm wavelength Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) and used for monitoring the high altitude clouds during Nocturnal Periods. In this paper, the occurrence of high altitude clouds during the monsoon period has been detected using Ground based LIDAR. Using this synergical instrumentation data the occurrence, transport phenomena, optical properties and dynamism of high altitude clouds have been explained over tropical site Gadanki.

  8. Measurements of Stratospheric Pinatubo Aerosol Extinction Profiles by a Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. We estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here we used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. We think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored.

  9. Lidar measurement campaign at CNR-IMAA in the framework of the EAQUATE Italian phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; Boselli, A.; Cornacchia, C.; D'Amico, G.; Madonna, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Cuomo, V.

    2005-10-01

    The European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment was devoted to study atmosphere, ocean and land with high resolution measurements. It consisted of two phases: the first one took place in Italy in the 6-10 September period and the second one in England on 13-22 September. In the framework of the EAQUATE Italian phase, an intensive lidar measurement campaign was performed at CNR-IMAA, sited in Tito Scalo (40°36'N 15°44'E, 760 m a.s.l.). Independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient at 355nm, and aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm were obtained by means of an elastic\\Raman lidar. Another Raman lidar allowed the vertical profiling of the water vapour mixing ratio. Both the lidar systems have high vertical and temporal resolution (15 m - 1 minute), allowing a characterization of the Planetary Boundary Layer as well as of the Free Troposphere also in terms of dynamical behaviour. Ancillary instruments were utilized contemporaneously with lidar measurements. In particular 17 Vaisala radiosondes for PTU measurements were launched during the campaign, 10 of these equipped with RS90 sensors, while 7 utilized RS92 sondes equipped with GSP sensors for wind velocity and direction measurement. Furthermore a 12 channels microwave radiometer providing all around the clock measurements of temperature, relative humidity and water vapour content, was used during the campaign together with a ceilometer for continuous indication of the cloud cover.

  10. Atmospheric CO(2) column measurements in cloudy conditions using intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar at 1.57 micron.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R; Harrison, F Wallace; Browell, Edward V; Ismail, Syed; Obland, Michael D; Campbell, Joel; Dobler, Jeremy; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; Kooi, Susan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements under cloudy conditions using an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave integrated-path-differential-absorption lidar operating in the 1.57-μm CO2 absorption band. The atmospheric CO2 column amounts from the aircraft to the tops of optically thick cumulus clouds and to the surface in the presence of optically thin clouds are retrieved from lidar data obtained during the summer 2011 and spring 2013 flight campaigns, respectively. For the case of intervening thin cirrus clouds with an average cloud optical depth of about 0.16 over an arid/semi-arid area, the CO2 column measurements from 12.2 km altitude were found to be consistent with the cloud free conditions with a lower precision due to the additional optical attenuation of the thin clouds. The clear sky precision for this flight campaign case was about 0.72% for a 0.1-s integration, which was close to previously reported flight campaign results. For a vegetated area and lidar path lengths of 8 to 12 km, the precision of the measured differential absorption optical depths to the surface was 1.3 - 2.2% for 0.1-s integration. The precision of the CO2 column measurements to thick clouds with reflectance about 1/10 of that of the surface was about a factor of 2 to 3 lower than that to the surface owing to weaker lidar returns from clouds and a smaller CO2 differential absorption optical depth compared to that for the entire column.

  11. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  12. Calibration of a Three Wavelength Lidar for Size Discriminated Ambient Particulate Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Zavyalov, V.; Bingham, G. E.; Marchant, C.; Herron, J.; Jones, D.; Bowman, J.; Moore, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    A three wavelength Lidar has been developed at Utah State University's Space Dynamics Laboratory for the measurement of size segregated ambient particulate matter concentrations as part of the AgLite program. The AgLite program, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service, was developed to quantify particulate emissions from diffuse area sources, such as those typically found around confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and tillage operations. The Lidar system is capable of scanning horizontally and vertically across a suspected source area and can identify both spatial and temporal concentration fields which, when combined with locally measured wind field data, can be used to derive source emission estimates. The Lidar measures the relative magnitude of optical scattering by the atmosphere, which is a function of aerosol concentration. A Lidar scan around a source area gives a map of relative aerosol concentration. During an operational experiment, a scan is calibrated by point-sensors collocated with one or more points of the Lidar scan. In order to minimize potential systematic errors, a detailed calibration experiment was designed to compare Lidar return signals with Met One Instruments 8-channel Optical Particle Counters (Model 9722) and Airmetrics MiniVol filter-based samplers configured for collection of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. The Lidar calibration experiment was performed in July 2007 at a farm owned and operated by Utah State University near Cache Junction, Utah. Multiple datasets were collected during which the Lidar moved between three stares, each a minute in duration, that were collocated with a cluster of MiniVols sampling the four size fractionations and an OPC. Sampler duration was between three and eight hours, depending upon background particulate concentrations. Prior to comparison of these instruments with the Lidar, the MiniVols and OPCs were compared against collocated PM2.5 and PM10 Federal

  13. Comparison of Remote Spectrophotometric and Lidar Measurements of O3, NO2, and Temperature with Data of Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, O. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Grishaev, M. V.; Gridnev, Yu. V.; Dolgii, S. I.; Makeev, A. P.; Nevzorov, A. V.; Salnikova, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of remote spectrophotometric and lidar measurements of the total ozone and nitrogen dioxide contents and temperature, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (Tomsk: 56.5°N; 85.0°E) in comparison with the results of analogous satellite measurements. The ground-based measurements of the total ozone (TO) content are performed with the help of M-124 ozonometer; and the measurements of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) content are carried out with automatic spectrophotometer. The groundbased lidar measurements of temperature are conducted on the basis of SLS measurement complex. These measurements are compared with data of balloon-sonde and satellite measurements. The satellite measurements are performed by the TOMS and IASI instrumentation.

  14. Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettenmeier, A.; Kühn, M.; Wächter, M.; Rahm, S.; Mellinghoff, H.; Siegmeier, B.; Reeder, L.

    2008-05-01

    The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR technology useable for offshore measurement campaigns and data analysis. The work is organized in four work packages. The work package LiDAR technology deals with the specification, acquisition and calibration of a commercial LiDAR system for the measurement campaigns. Power curve measurements are dedicated to power curve assessment with ground-based LiDAR using standard statistical methods. Additionally, it deals with the development of new methods for the measurement of non-steady short-term power curves. Wind field research aims at the development of wake loading simulation methods of wind turbines and the exploration of loading control strategies and nacelle-based wind field measurement techniques. Finally, dissemination of results to the industry takes place in work package Technology transfer.

  15. Comparison of Summer and Winter California Central Valley Aerosol Distributions from Lidar and MODIS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jasper R., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Chu, D. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol distributions from two aircraft lidar campaigns conducted in the California Central Valley are compared in order to identify seasonal variations. Aircraft lidar flights were conducted in June 2003 and February 2008. While the PM2.5 concentration is highest in the winter, the aerosol optical depth measured from MODIS is highest in the summer. A seasonal comparison shows that PM2.5 in the winter can exceed summer PM2.5 by 55%, while summer AOD exceeds winter AOD by 43%. Higher temperatures wildfires in the summer produce elevated aerosol layers that are detected by satellite measurements, but not surface particulate matter monitors. Measurements of the boundary layer height from lidar instruments are necessary to incorporate satellite measurements with air quality measurements.

  16. Microwave absorption measurements of melting spherical and nonspherical hydrometeors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the absorption behavior of melting and freezing hydrometeors using resonant cavity perturbation techniques at a wavelength of 2.82 cm. Melting ice spheres with equivalent melted diameters between 1.15 and 2.00 mm exhibit a period of strong absorption during melting as predicted by prior theoretical calculations. However, the measured magnitude of the absorption peak exceeds the predicted value. Absorption measuremets of melting oblate and prolate ice ellipsoids also exhibit enhanced absorption during melting.

  17. On the impact of a refined stochastic model for airborne LiDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Glennie, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Accurate topographic information is critical for a number of applications in science and engineering. In recent years, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has become a standard tool for acquiring high quality topographic information. The assessment of airborne LiDAR derived DEMs is typically based on (i) independent ground control points and (ii) forward error propagation utilizing the LiDAR geo-referencing equation. The latter approach is dependent on the stochastic model information of the LiDAR observation components. In this paper, the well-known statistical tool of variance component estimation (VCE) is implemented for a dataset in Houston, Texas, in order to refine the initial stochastic information. Simulations demonstrate the impact of stochastic-model refinement for two practical applications, namely coastal inundation mapping and surface displacement estimation. Results highlight scenarios where erroneous stochastic information is detrimental. Furthermore, the refined stochastic information provides insights on the effect of each LiDAR measurement in the airborne LiDAR error budget. The latter is important for targeting future advancements in order to improve point cloud accuracy.

  18. Optical coherency of sunphotometry, sky radiometry and lidar measurements during the early phase of Pacific 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, N. T.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Thulasiraman, S.; Zhang, J.; Royer, A.; Freemantle, J.

    2004-11-01

    Passive sunphotometry and sky radiometry data at sites in the Lower Fraser Valley (Langley-Lochiel) and Saturna Island were synchronously acquired with ground-based scanning lidar (Rapid Acquisition Scanning Aerosol Lidar, RASCAL) and airborne lidar (AERosol Imaging Airborne Lidar, AERIAL) during the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study. The temporal and spatial behavior of these optical measurements is investigated during a pollution event which occurred from 13 to 16 August 2001. A mid-day minimum in lidar-derived extinction to backscatter ratios (Sa) values, was attributed, at least in part, to the relative humidity (RH) induced optical influence of the column integrated fine mode and/or coarse mode particles in the PBL. Systematically larger Sa values predicted by the sunphotometer and sky radiance inversions were hypothesized to be due to differences between the retrieved refractive index and the actual refractive index of the coarse mode. Aerosol optical depth differences were within maximum error bounds (0.02) when comparing the sunphotometry with spatial maps derived from AERIAL transects. Daily temporal trends of optical and microphysical parameters derived from sunphotometry and sky radiance data at this site were consistent with information deduced from the lidar and meteorological data; while the daily aerosol optical depth decrease was clearly associated with particle removal induced by daytime sea-breeze advection, a significant-to-dominant part of this decrease was associated with decreasing RH growth effects on at least one day.

  19. Recent lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature within the network for the detection of stratospheric change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Thomas J.; Ferrare, Richard; Butler, James J.; Frost, Robert L.; Gross, Michael; Margitan, James

    1991-01-01

    The Goddard mobile lidar was deployed at Cannon Air Force Base near Clovis, New Mexico during the Spring of 1990. Measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature were made over a period of six weeks. Data from the lidar system is compared with data from a balloon-borne, ultraviolet instrument launched from nearby Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. Along with several improvements to this instrument which are now underway, a second lidar dedicated to temperature and aerosol measurements is now being developed.

  20. Airborne lidar measurements of ozone during the 1989 airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) was conducted during the winter to study the conditions leading to possible ozone (O3) destruction in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere. As part of this experiment, the NASA-Langley airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system was configured for operation on the NASA-Ames DS-8 aircraft to make measurements of O3 profiles from about 1 km above the aircraft to altitudes of 22 to 26 km. The airborne DIAL system remotely sensed O3 above the DC-8 by transmitting two laser beams at 10 Hz using wavelengths of 301.5 and 311 nm. Large scale distributions of O3 were obtained on 15 long range flights into the polar vortex during the AASE. Selected data samples are presented of O3 observed during these flights, general trends observed in O3 distributions, and correlations between these measurements and meteorological and chemical parameters. The O3 distribution observed on the first flight of the DC-8 into the polar vortex on Jan. 6 reflected the result of diabatic cooling of the air inside the vortex during the winter compared to the warmer air outside the vortex. On a potential temperature surface, the O3 mixing ratio generally increases when going from outside to inside the vortex.

  1. A nonlinear merging method of analog and photon signals for CO2 detection in lower altitudes using differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhong; Zhang, Teng; Han, Ge; Li, Dongcang; Ma, Xin; Gong, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The current acquisition system of a lidar detects return signals in two modes (i.e., analog and photon counting); resulting in the lower (below 1500 m) and upper (higher than 1100 m) atmospheric parameters need analog and photon counting signal to retrieve, respectively. Hence, a lidar cannot obtain a continuous column of the concentrations of atmospheric components. For carbon cycle studies, the range-resolved concentration of atmospheric CO2 in the lower troposphere (below 1500 m) is one of the most significant parameters that should be determined. This study proposes a novel gluing method that merges the CO2 signal detected by ground-based DIAL in the lower troposphere. Through simulation experiments, the best uniform approximation polynomial theorem is utilized to determine the transformation coefficient to correlate signals from the different modes perfectly. The experimental results (both simulation experiments and actual measurement of signals) show that the proposed method is suitable and feasible for merging data in the region below 1500 m. Hence, the photon-counting signals whose SNRs are higher than those of the analog signals can be used to retrieve atmospheric parameters at an increased near range, facilitating atmospheric soundings using ground-based lidar in various fields.

  2. Potential Pitfalls Related to Space-Based Lidar Remote Sensing of the Earth with an Emphasis on Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Spiers, Gary D.; Frehlich, Rod G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A collection of issues is discussed that are potential pitfalls, if handled incorrectly, for earth-orbiting lidar remote sensing instruments. These issues arise due to the long target ranges, high lidar-to-target relative velocities, low signal levels, use of laser scanners, and other unique aspects of using lasers in earth orbit. Consequences of misunderstanding these topics range from minor inconvenience to improper calibration to total failure. We will focus on wind measurement using coherent detection Doppler lidar, but many of the potential pitfalls apply also to noncoherent lidar wind measurement, and to measurement of parameters other than wind. Each area will be identified as to its applicability.

  3. In vivo absorption spectroscopy for absolute measurement.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    In in vivo spectroscopy, there are differences between individual subjects in parameters such as tissue scattering and sample concentration. We propose a method that can provide the absolute value of a particular substance concentration, independent of these individual differences. Thus, it is not necessary to use the typical statistical calibration curve, which assumes an average level of scattering and an averaged concentration over individual subjects. This method is expected to greatly reduce the difficulties encountered during in vivo measurements. As an example, for in vivo absorption spectroscopy, the method was applied to the reflectance measurement in retinal vessels to monitor their oxygen saturation levels. This method was then validated by applying it to the tissue phantom under a variety of absorbance values and scattering efficiencies.

  4. Adaptation of the University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Polarization and Multiple Scattering Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.; Piironen, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative lidar measurements of aerosol scattering are hampered by the need for calibrations and the problem of correcting observed backscatter profiles for the effects of attenuation. The University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) addresses these problems by separating molecular scattering contributions from the aerosol scattering; the molecular scattering is then used as a calibration target that is available at each point in the observed profiles. While the HSRl approach has intrinsic advantages over competing techniques, realization of these advantages requires implementation of a technically demanding system which is potentially very sensitive to changes in temperature and mechanical alignments. This paper describes a new implementation of the HSRL in an instrumented van which allows measurements during field experiments. The HSRL was modified to measure depolarization. In addition, both the signal amplitude and depolarization variations with receiver field of view are simultaneously measured. This allows for discrimination of ice clouds from water clouds and observation of multiple scattering contributions to the lidar return.

  5. Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 From Regional to Global Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate and the knowledge on its distributions and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions persist due to limited observations. This study uses the airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IMCW) lidar developed at NASA Langley Research Center to measure regional atmospheric CO2 spatio-temporal variations. Further lidar development and demonstration will provide the capability of global atmospheric CO2 estimations from space, which will significantly advances our knowledge on atmospheric CO2 and reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of future climate. In this presentation, atmospheric CO2 column measurements from airborne flight campaigns and lidar system simulations for space missions will be discussed. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved. Data analysis also shows that airborne lidar CO2 column measurements over these surfaces agree well with in-situ measurements. Even when thin cirrus clouds present, consistent CO2 column measurements between clear and thin cirrus cloudy skies are obtained. Airborne flight campaigns have demonstrated that precise atmospheric column CO2 values can be measured from current IM-CW lidar systems, which will lead to use this airborne technique in monitoring CO2 sinks and sources in regional and continental scales as proposed by the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America project. Furthermore, analyses of space CO2 measurements shows that applying the current IM-CW lidar technology and approach to space, the CO2 science goals of space missions will be achieved, and uncertainties in CO2 distributions and variations will be reduced.

  6. Mixing-height measurement by lidar, particle counter, and rawinsonde in the Williamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Melfi, S. H.; Olsson, L. E.; Tuft, W. L.; Elliott, W. P.; Egami, R.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of using laser radar (lidar) to measure the spatial distribution of aerosols and water vapor in the earth's mixing or boundary layer is shown. From these data the important parameter of actual mixing height was determined, that is, the maximum height to which particulate pollutants actually mix. Data are shown for simultaneous lidar, rawinsonde, and aircraft-mounted condensation nuclei counter and temperature measurements. The synoptic meteorology is also presented. The Williamette Valley, Oregon, was chosen for the measurements because of its unique combination of meteorology, terrain, and pollutant source, along with an ongoing Oregon State University study of the natural ventilation of this valley.

  7. Intercomparisons of Lidar Backscatter Measurements and In-situ Data from GLOBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudamani, S.; Spinhirne, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) took place during Nov. 1989 and May - Jun. 1990 and involved flight surveys of the Pacific region by the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The experimental instruments were lidars operating at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the thermal infrared and various optical particle counters for in-situ measurements. The primary motivation for GLOBE was the development of spaceborne wind sensing lidar. This paper will concern a comparison of direct backscatter measurements and backscatter calculated from particle counter data. Of special interest is that the particle measurements provided data on composition, and thus refractive index variation may be included in the analysis.

  8. Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

    1998-01-01

    Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

  9. Airborne lidar measurements of El Chichon stratospheric aerosols, January 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick; Osborn, M. T.

    1987-01-01

    A lidar-equipped NASA Electra aircraft was flown in January 1984 between the latitude of 38 and 90 deg N. One of the primary purposes of this mission was to determine the spatial distribution and aerosol characteristics of El Chichon produced stratospheric material. Lidar data from that portion of the flight mission between 38 deg N and 77 deg N is presented. Representative profiles of lidar backscatter ratio, a plot of the integral backscattering function versus latitude, and contours of backscatter mixing ratio versus altitude and latitude are given. In addition, tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude are applied for each profile. These data clearly show that material produced by the El Chichon eruptions of late March-early April 1982 had spread throughout the latitudes covered by this mission, and that the most massive portion of the material resided north of 55 deg N and was concentrated below 17 km in a layer that peaked at 13 to 15 km. In this latitude region, peak backscatter ratios at a wavelength of 0.6943 microns were approximately 3 and the peak integrated backscattering function was about 15 X 10 to the -4/sr corresponding to a peak optical depth of approximately 0.07. This report presents the results of this mission in a ready-to-use format for atmospheric and climatic studies.

  10. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  11. An assessment of a software simulation tool for lidar atmosphere and ocean measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. A.; Vaughan, M.; Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kowch, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    A high-fidelity lidar simulation tool is used to generate synthetic lidar backscatter data that closely matches the expected performance of various lidars, including the noise characteristics inherent to analog detection and uncertainties related to the measurement environment. This tool supports performance trade studies and scientific investigations for both the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which flies aboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). CALIOP measures profiles of attenuated backscatter coefficients (532 and 1064 nm) and volume depolarization ratios at 532 nm. HSRL measures the same profiles plus volume depolarization at 1064 nm and a molecular-only profile which allows for the direct retrieval of aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles at 532 nm. The simulation tool models both the fundamental physics of the lidar instruments and the signals generated from aerosols, clouds, and the ocean surface and subsurface. This work presents the results of a study conducted to verify the accuracy of the simulated data using data from both HSRL and CALIOP. The tool was tuned to CALIOP instrument settings and the model atmosphere was defined using profiles of attenuated backscatter and depolarization obtained by HSRL during underflights of CALIPSO. The validated HSRL data provide highly accurate measurements of the particulate intensive and extensive optical properties and thus were considered as the truth atmosphere. The resulting simulated data were processed through the CALIPSO data analysis system. Comparisons showed good agreement between the simulated and CALIOP data. This verifies the accuracy of the tool to support studies involving the characterization of instrument components and advanced data analysis techniques. The capability of the tool to simulate ocean surface scattering and subsurface

  12. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Allan, G. R.; Mao, J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Abshire, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen (O2) optical depth measurements with an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements are required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission. Since O2 in uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, its absorption spectra can be used to estimate atmospheric pressure. In its airborne configuration, the IPDA lidar uses a doubled Erbium Doped Fiber amplifier and single photon counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at multiple discrete wavelengths in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. This instrument has been deployed three times aboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory as part of campaigns to measure CO2 mixing ratios over a wide range of topography and weather conditions from altitudes between 3 km and 13 km. The O2 IPDA lidar flew seven flights in 2011 and six flights in 2013 in the continental United States and British Columbia, Canada. Our results from 2011 showed good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km after a systematic bias correction of approximately 8% was applied. The random noise component was 2.5-3.0 %. The most recent data recorded in 2013 show better agreement between experimental optical depth measurements and theoretical predictions and much smaller systematic errors. The random error remained comparable with 2011 at 2-3%. The main source of random error is primarily the low energy (power) of the laser transmitter and the high solar background. We are in the process of addressing this issue with a new, higher energy amplifier that we anticipate will reduce the random noise component by a factor of 3-5 to less than 0.5%. The results from these flights show that the IPDA technique is a viable method

  13. Fundamental measurement by in-line typed high-precision polarization lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Umaki, Dai; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2008-12-01

    An in-line typed new concept lidar system for high precision polarization measurement was developed. A specially designed polarization-independent optical circulator, which was composed by Gran laser prisms and highly transparent Faraday rotators, was developed. Its isolation between the orthogonal polarizations was improved up to more than 30 dB. It is sufficient to detect small rotation of the polarization plane of the propagating beam caused by lightning discharges due to the Faraday effect. The rotation angle of the polarization plane is estimated by the differential detection between the orthogonal polarization components of the lidar echoes. The in-line optics enables near range measurement from the near range of >30 m with the narrow field of view of 0.17 mrad. The fundamental measurements of lidar echoes in near and far fields, and low cloud activities were examined.

  14. Arctic polar stratospheric cloud measurements by means of a four wavelength depolarization lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanutti, L.; Castagnoli, F.; Delguasta, M.; Flesia, C.; Godin, S.; Kolenda, J.; Kneipp, H.; Kyro, Esko; Matthey, R.; Morandi, M.

    1994-01-01

    A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar has been operated during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) in Sodankyl, in the Finnish Arctic. The lidar performed measurements during the months of December 1991, January, February and March 1992. The Finnish Meteorological Institute during the same period launched regularly three Radiosondes per day, and three Ozone sondes per week. Both Mt. Pinatubo aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Clouds were measured. The use of four wavelengths, respectively at 355 nm, 532 nm , 750 nm, and 850 nm permits an inversion of the lidar data to determine aerosol particle size. The depolarization technique permits the identification of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Frequent correlation between Ozone minima and peaks in the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol maxima were detected. Measurements were carried out both within and outside the Polar Vortex.

  15. Aerosol Properties over Southeastern China from Multi-Wavelength Raman and Depolarization Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Deng, Ruru

    2016-06-01

    A dataset of particle optical properties of highly polluted urban aerosol over the Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou, China is presented. The data were derived from multi-wavelengths Raman and depolarization lidar PollyXT and AERONET sun photometer measurements. The measurement campaign was conducted from Nov 2011 to June 2012. High aerosol optical depth was observed in the polluted atmosphere over this megacity, with a mean value of 0.54 ± 0.33 and a peak value of even 1.9. For the particle characterization the lidar ratio and the linear particle depolarization ratio, both at 532 nm, were used. The mean values of these properties are 48.0 sr ± 10.7 sr for the lidar ratio and 4%+-4% for the particle depolarization ratio, which means most depolarization measurements stayed below 10%. So far, most of these results indicate urban pollution particles mixed with particles arisen from biomass and industrial burning.

  16. Edge technique - Theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Weng, Chi Y.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the theory of the edge technique, a powerful method for the detection and measurement of small frequency shifts. It can be employed with a lidar to obtain range-resolved measurements of wind with high accuracy and high vertical resolution. The technique can be applied to measure wind with a lidar by using either the aerosol or molecular backscattered signal. Simulations for a ground-based lidar at 1.06 micron using reasonable instrumental parameters show an accuracy of the vector components of the wind which is better than 0.5 m/s from the ground to an altitude of 20 km for a 100-m vertical resolution and a 100-shot average.

  17. Orientation correction of wind direction measurements by means of staring lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; José Trujillo, Juan; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In spite of the efforts made at the time of installation of wind vanes or ultrasonic anemometers (Sonic), there is always a remaining uncertainty of several degrees in the absolute north of such sensors. In this research a method is presented to reduce the azimuthal orientation error of wind direction sensors by means of Doppler Lidar measurements. The method is based on the comparison between the conventional sensor and a distant long range lidar pointing to it in staring mode. By comparing their line-of-sight wind speeds any misalignment between both systems can be estimated more accurately. This method was applied in an measurement campaign in the offshore wind farm alpha ventus next to the meteorological mast FINO 1. The maximum alignment error of a Sonic was reduced to below ±1°. This accurate alignment has asserted, that no bias exists between Lidar and Sonic wind speed measurements.

  18. Estimates of the potential temperature profile from lidar measurements of boundary layer evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, H. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2006-10-01

    The Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in the Walnut Creek Watershed near Ames, Iowa, over the period from 15 June to 11 July 2002. A main focus of SMACEX is the investigation of the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer, surface moisture, and canopy. A vertically staring elastic lidar was used to provide a high time resolution, continuous record of the mixed layer height at the edge between a soybean and a corn field. The height and thickness of the entrainment zone are used to estimate the vertical potential temperature profile in the boundary layer using surface energy measurements in the Batchvarova-Gryning mixed layer model. Calculated values of potential temperature compared well to radiosonde measurements taken simultaneously with the lidar measurements. The root-mean-square difference between the lidar-derived values and the balloon-based values is 1.20°C.

  19. PBL dynamic measurements with new compact long range wind Lidar WINDCUBE WLS70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariou, J.; Sauvage, L.; Lolli, S.; Parmentier, R.; Boquet, M.; Loaec, S.

    2008-12-01

    The WindCube WLS70 is a new generation wind Lidar developed by LEOSPHERE for meteorological applications. The Lidar is derived from the commercial WindCube widely used for autonomous and very accurate short range measurements by the wind industry. It has been modified increasing the range up to 4 km and can even detect cirrus at 8km. First results of the measurement campaign which took place in Orsay, France in August 2008 put in evidence both vertical wind speed and atmosphere structure (PBL height , clouds top and base) derived from Lidar data with good time resolution (30s per profile), good range resolution (50m from 100m to 4000m), and good velocity resolution (0.2m/s). These measurement data play a key role in many meteorological applications, and can be used as input for forecast mathematical models.

  20. Lidar Applications in Atmospheric Dynamics: Measurements of Wind, Moisture and Boundary Layer Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoz, Belay; Whiteman, David; Gentry, Bruce; Schwemmer, Geary; Evans, Keith; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Comer, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A large array of state-of-the-art ground-based and airborne remote and in-situ sensors were deployed during the International H2O Project (THOP), a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States from 13 May to 30 June 2002. These instruments provided extensive measurements of water vapor mixing ratio in order to better understand the influence of its variability on convection and on the skill of quantitative precipitation prediction (Weckwerth et all, 2004). Among the instrument deployed were ground based lidars from NASA/GSFC that included the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the Goddard Laboratory for Observing Winds (GLOW), and the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE). A brief description of the three lidars is given below. This study presents ground-based measurements of wind, boundary layer structure and water vapor mixing ratio measurements observed by three co-located lidars during MOP at the MOP ground profiling site in the Oklahoma Panhandle (hereafter referred as Homestead). This presentation will focus on the evolution and variability of moisture and wind in the boundary layer when frontal and/or convergence boundaries (e.g. bores, dry lines, thunderstorm outflows etc) were observed.

  1. UV lidar measurements of the stratospheric aerosol layer and comparison with other optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, O.

    1985-12-01

    After the violent volcanic eruptions of El Chichon in Mexico (17.33 deg. N, 93.20 deg. W) in late March and early April 1982, enhanced stratospheric aerosols have been monitored by ruby (lasing wavelength lambda=694.3 nm) or Nd:YAG lidars (lambda=1064 or 532 nm). By these lidars, visible or near-infrared optical informations of stratospheric aerosols and their space-time variations can be obtained. It is usually difficult to measure the background level of stratospheric aerosols by an ultraviolet (UV) lidar, since Rayleigh scattering prevails over Mie scattering in the stratosphere. However, after the large volcanic eruptions, UV lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols are possible. In order to obtain UV optical properties of stratospheric aerosols, measurements have been made at Fukuoka (33.65 deg. N, 130.35 deg. E) by a p-terphenyl dye laser at a wavelength of 340.5 nm. Observational results during October 1982, through May 1983, are shown and are compared with the results obtained by a ruby lidar at Tsukuba (36.05 deg. N, 140.13 deg. E).

  2. Using Raman-lidar-based regularized microphysical retrievals and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements for the characterization of biomass burning aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Stefanos; Nicolae, Doina; Böckmann, Christine; Vasilescu, Jeni; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Labzovskii, Lev; Toanca, Florica; Papayannis, Alexandros

    2015-10-01

    In this work we extract the microphysical properties of aerosols for a collection of measurement cases with low volume depolarization ratio originating from fire sources captured by the Raman lidar located at the National Institute of Optoelectronics (INOE) in Bucharest. Our algorithm was tested not only for pure smoke but also for mixed smoke and urban aerosols of variable age and growth. Applying a sensitivity analysis on initial parameter settings of our retrieval code was proved vital for producing semi-automatized retrievals with a hybrid regularization method developed at the Institute of Mathematics of Potsdam University. A direct quantitative comparison of the retrieved microphysical properties with measurements from a Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (CToF-AMS) is used to validate our algorithm. Microphysical retrievals performed with sun photometer data are also used to explore our results. Focusing on the fine mode we observed remarkable similarities between the retrieved size distribution and the one measured by the AMS. More complicated atmospheric structures and the factor of absorption appear to depend more on particle radius being subject to variation. A good correlation was found between the aerosol effective radius and particle age, using the ratio of lidar ratios (LR: aerosol extinction to backscatter ratios) as an indicator for the latter. Finally, the dependence on relative humidity of aerosol effective radii measured on the ground and within the layers aloft show similar patterns.

  3. Measuring forest structure along productivity gradients in the Canadian boreal with small-footprint Lidar.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Douglas K; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The structure and productivity of boreal forests are key components of the global carbon cycle and impact the resources and habitats available for species. With this research, we characterized the relationship between measurements of forest structure and satellite-derived estimates of gross primary production (GPP) over the Canadian boreal. We acquired stand level indicators of canopy cover, canopy height, and structural complexity from nearly 25,000 km of small-footprint discrete return Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data and compared these attributes to GPP estimates derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While limited in our capacity to control for stand age, we removed recently disturbed and managed forests using information on fire history, roads, and anthropogenic change. We found that MODIS GPP was strongly linked to Lidar-derived canopy cover (r = 0.74, p < 0.01), however was only weakly related to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity as these attributes are largely a function of stand age. A relationship was apparent between MODIS GPP and the maximum sampled heights derived from Lidar as growth rates and resource availability likely limit tree height in the prolonged absence of disturbance. The most structurally complex stands, as measured by the coefficient of variation of Lidar return heights, occurred where MODIS GPP was highest as productive boreal stands are expected to contain a wider range of tree heights and transition to uneven-aged structures faster than less productive stands. While MODIS GPP related near-linearly to Lidar-derived canopy cover, the weaker relationships to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity highlight the importance of stand age in determining the structure of boreal forests. We conclude that an improved quantification of how both productivity and disturbance shape stand structure is needed to better understand the current state of boreal forests in

  4. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Wind Profiles with the Double Edge Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce M.; Li, Steven X.; Korb, C. Laurence; Mathur, Savyasachee; Chen, Huailin

    1998-01-01

    Research has established the importance of global tropospheric wind measurements for large scale improvements in numerical weather prediction. In addition, global wind measurements provide data that are fundamental to the understanding and prediction of global climate change. These tasks are closely linked with the goals of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise and Global Climate Change programs. NASA Goddard has been actively involved in the development of direct detection Doppler lidar methods and technologies to meet the wind observing needs of the atmospheric science community. A variety of direct detection Doppler wind lidar measurements have recently been reported indicating the growing interest in this area. Our program at Goddard has concentrated on the development of the edge technique for lidar wind measurements. Implementations of the edge technique using either the aerosol or molecular backscatter for the Doppler wind measurement have been described. The basic principles have been verified in lab and atmospheric lidar wind experiments. The lidar measurements were obtained with an aerosol edge technique lidar operating at 1064 nm. These measurements demonstrated high spatial resolution (22 m) and high velocity sensitivity (rms variances of 0.1 m/s) in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The aerosol backscatter is typically high in the PBL and the effects of the molecular backscatter can often be neglected. However, as was discussed in the original edge technique paper, the molecular contribution to the signal is significant above the boundary layer and a correction for the effects of molecular backscatter is required to make wind measurements. In addition, the molecular signal is a dominant source of noise in regions where the molecular to aerosol ratio is large since the energy monitor channel used in the single edge technique measures the sum of the aerosol and molecular signals. To extend the operation of the edge technique into the free troposphere we

  5. Stratocumulus Drizzle Measurements Using High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Radar Data During the MAGIC Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloranta, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Marine stratus clouds are an important feature of the global climate system. Drizzle plays an important role in the determining cloud lifetime. Drizzle not only removes water from the cloud but evaporation of the falling droplets cools the sub-cloud layer acting to suppress convection. Drizzle rates are often very small and difficult to measure.The ratio of millimeter radar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) backscatter is used to determine drizzle rates and these are compared to conventional ground based measurements. The robustly calibrated HSRL backscatter cross section provides advantages over measurements made with traditional lidars.Several investigators have used simultaneous lidar and radar observations to determine particle size. However, measurements made with conventional lidar are hampered by: 1) changes in the transmission of the output window caused by water accumulation, 2) the difficulty of correcting the backscatter signal for atmospheric extinction, 3) the effects of multiple scattering, and 4) the need to convert backscatter measurements to extinction. The use of High Spectral Resolution Lidar(HSRL) data avoids many of these problems. HSRL backscatter measurements are referenced to the known molecular scattering cross-section at each point in the profile and are thus independent of changes in window and atmospheric transmission. This study uses data collected during the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Sciences program MAGIC campaign. Instruments including a suite of conventional precipitation gages, a High Spectral Resolution Lidar, along with 3.2 mm wavelength WACR and a 8.6 mm wavelength KAZR radars, were installed on the container ship Horizon Spirit as it made repeated trips between Long Beach, CA and Honolulu, HI.

  6. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  7. Column CO2 Measurements with Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar System During the ASCENDS 2014 Summer Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S. A.; Campbell, J. F.; Obland, M. D.; Browell, E. V.; Yang, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign results of an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar system operating at 1.57 µm for measurements of column CO2 over a wide variety of geographic regions. The 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, space mission to address global sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2. As part of the development of a capability for the NASA ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Exelis, Inc. have been collaborating to develop, demonstrate and mature the IM-CW lidar approach for measuring atmospheric column CO2 mixing ratios from a space platform using the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar technique with preferential weighting of the CO2 measurements to the mid to lower troposphere. The Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a system developed as a technology demonstrator for the ASCENDS mission, has been used to demonstrate high precision column CO2 retrievals from various aircraft platforms. The MFLL operates using a novel IM-CW IPDA approach to make simultaneous CO2 and O2 column measurements in the 1.57-micron and 1.26-micron spectral regions, respectively, to derive the column-average CO2 dry-air mixing ratios. Measurements from the 2014 summer field experiment focused on advancing CO2 & O2 measurement technologies under day and night conditions in realistic environments, assessing CO2 emissions over large metropolitan areas, observing and evaluating CO2 drawdown and diurnal trends over large agricultural regions, obtaining reflectance data and CO2 & O2 measurements over rough ocean surfaces with high surface wind speeds (~10 m/s), and carrying out CO2 & O2 intercomparisons with OCO-2 and GOSAT over the western United States. Initial results from MFLL for the aforementioned flight campaign

  8. Correction function in the Lidar equation and the solution techniques for CO2 Lidar date reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lea, T. K.; Schotland, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    For lidar systems with long laser pulses the unusual behavior of the near-range signals causes serious difficulties and large errors in reduction. The commonly used lidar equation is no longer applicable since the convolution of the laser pulse with the atmospheric parameter distributions should be taken into account. It is important to give more insight into this problem and find the solution techniques. Starting from the original equation, a general form is suggested for the single scattering lidar equation where a correction function Cr is introduced. The correction Function Cr(R) derived from the original equation indicates the departure from the normal lidar equation. Examples of Cr(R) for a coaxial CO2 lidar system are presented. The Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) errors caused by the differences of Cr(R) for H2O measurements are plotted against height.

  9. Comparison of Coincident Rayleigh-Scatter and Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Measurements from the Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Yuan, T.; Criddle, N.

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively few instruments that have the capabilities to make near continuous measurements of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Rayleigh scatter and resonance lidars, particularly sodium resonance lidar, have been the two dominant ground-based techniques for acquiring mesosphere and MLT vertical temperature profiles, respectively, for more than two decades. With these measurements, the dynamics (gravity waves, tides) and long-term temperature trends (upper atmosphere cooling) of the MLT region can be studied. The Utah State University (USU; 41.7º N, 111.8º W) campus hosts a unique upper atmospheric observatory which houses both a high-power, large-aperture Rayleigh lidar and a sodium resonance Doppler lidar. For the first time, we will present coordinated, night-time averaged temperatures, overlapping in observational range (80-110 km), from the two lidars. This overlap has been achieved through the relocation of the sodium lidar from Colorado State University to USU's campus and through upgrades to the existing USU Rayleigh lidar which elevated its observational range from 45-90 km to 70-115 km. The comparison of the two sets of temperature measurements is important because the two lidar techniques derive temperature profiles using different scattering processes and analysis methods. Furthermore, previous climatological comparisons, between Rayleigh and sodium lidar, [Argall and Sica, 2007] have suggested that significant temperature differences can occur. This comparison aims to explore possible temperature effects from the differences in the two measurement techniques.

  10. Atmospheric Measurements by Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Wu, Tao; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Fertein, Eric; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Weixiong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Since the last decade, atmospheric environmental monitoring has benefited from the development of novel spectroscopic measurement techniques owing to the significant breakthroughs in photonic technology from the UV to the infrared spectral domain [1